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Sample records for prevalence odds ratios

  1. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

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    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  2. The odds ratio: Principles and applications

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    Aakshi Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The odds ratio (OR is a simple tool, widely utilized in clinical research. As a simple statistic, it can be hand calculated to determine the odds of a particular event or a disease, and the information provided can be useful for understanding the results of a treatment/intervention. This article discusses the application of OR with examples and shows a simple way of performing the test using an online calculator.

  3. Racial odds for amputation ratio in traumatic lower extremity fractures.

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    Weber, Daniel J; Shoham, David A; Luke, Amy; Reed, R Lawrence; Luchette, Fred A

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that black patients receive substandard care compared with white patients across healthcare settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of race on the management (salvage vs. amputation) of traumatic lower extremity open fractures. Data analysis was conducted using the American College of Surgeon's National Trauma Data Bank. Open tibial and fibular (OTFF) and open femoral (OFF) fractures among adults above the age of 18 were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. Injuries were identified as amputated based on the presence of one of three types of knee amputations. Statistical analysis included logistic regression stratified for sex, age, race, mechanism of injury, severity, and insurance type. From the National Trauma Data Bank, 10,082 OFF and 22,479 OTFF were identified. Amputation rates were 3.1% for OFF and 4.2% for OTFF. With age stratification, the ratio of amputation odds for blacks to amputation odds for whites (i.e., the Racial Odds for Amputation Ratio [ROAR]) demonstrated a significant interaction between black and age in both the OFF (p = 0.028) and OTFF (p = 0.008) groups. In younger patients, a lower ROAR (p = 0.016) favored salvage in blacks, while the ROAR in older patients favored amputation in blacks (p = 0.013). The higher prevalence of penetrating injuries in blacks only accounted for 12.7% of the lower ROAR among younger adults. There exists a racial disparity in the management of lower extremity open fractures. Older blacks have greater odds of amputation that is not explained by mechanism. In contrast, younger blacks have lower odds for amputation that is only partially explained by mechanism of injury.

  4. Inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation for causal mediation analysis.

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    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2013-11-20

    An important scientific goal of studies in the health and social sciences is increasingly to determine to what extent the total effect of a point exposure is mediated by an intermediate variable on the causal pathway between the exposure and the outcome. A causal framework has recently been proposed for mediation analysis, which gives rise to new definitions, formal identification results and novel estimators of direct and indirect effects. In the present paper, the author describes a new inverse odds ratio-weighted approach to estimate so-called natural direct and indirect effects. The approach, which uses as a weight the inverse of an estimate of the odds ratio function relating the exposure and the mediator, is universal in that it can be used to decompose total effects in a number of regression models commonly used in practice. Specifically, the approach may be used for effect decomposition in generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function, and in a number of other commonly used models such as the Cox proportional hazards regression for a survival outcome. The approach is simple and can be implemented in standard software provided a weight can be specified for each observation. An additional advantage of the method is that it easily incorporates multiple mediators of a categorical, discrete or continuous nature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer.

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    Plagens-Rotman, Katarzyna; Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-03-01

    Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated.

  6. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

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    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study: The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods: The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results: The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions : A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated.

  7. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

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    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  8. Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies.

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    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-08-01

    Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio (RR) and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.

  9. Clinical trials: odds ratios and multiple regression models--why and how to assess them

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    Sobh, Mohamad; Cleophas, Ton J.; Hadj-Chaib, Amel; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2008-01-01

    Odds ratios (ORs), unlike chi2 tests, provide direct insight into the strength of the relationship between treatment modalities and treatment effects. Multiple regression models can reduce the data spread due to certain patient characteristics and thus improve the precision of the treatment

  10. Odds ratio based multifactor-dimensionality reduction method for detecting gene-gene interactions.

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    Chung, Yujin; Lee, Seung Yeoun; Elston, Robert C; Park, Taesung

    2007-01-01

    The identification and characterization of genes that increase the susceptibility to common complex multifactorial diseases is a challenging task in genetic association studies. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method has been proposed and implemented by Ritchie et al. (2001) to identify the combinations of multilocus genotypes and discrete environmental factors that are associated with a particular disease. However, the original MDR method classifies the combination of multilocus genotypes into high-risk and low-risk groups in an ad hoc manner based on a simple comparison of the ratios of the number of cases and controls. Hence, the MDR approach is prone to false positive and negative errors when the ratio of the number of cases and controls in a combination of genotypes is similar to that in the entire data, or when both the number of cases and controls is small. Hence, we propose the odds ratio based multifactor dimensionality reduction (OR MDR) method that uses the odds ratio as a new quantitative measure of disease risk. While the original MDR method provides a simple binary measure of risk, the OR MDR method provides not only the odds ratio as a quantitative measure of risk but also the ordering of the multilocus combinations from the highest risk to lowest risk groups. Furthermore, the OR MDR method provides a confidence interval for the odds ratio for each multilocus combination, which is extremely informative in judging its importance as a risk factor. The proposed OR MDR method is illustrated using the dataset obtained from the CDC Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Group. The program written in R is available.

  11. Practical guidance for conducting mediation analysis with multiple mediators using inverse odds ratio weighting.

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    Nguyen, Quynh C; Osypuk, Theresa L; Schmidt, Nicole M; Glymour, M Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994-2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.

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    Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state.

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    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Research laboratory. 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). None. Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0-2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Likelihood ratio and posterior odds in forensic genetics: Two sides of the same coin.

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    Caliebe, Amke; Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Krawczak, Michael

    2017-05-01

    It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR). This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds (PO) would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. A completely different situation holds for Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), which is aimed at predicting externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of a trace donor from DNA left behind at the crime scene. FDP is intended to provide leads to the police investigation helping them to find unknown trace donors that are unidentifiable by DNA profiling. The statistical models underlying FDP typically yield posterior odds (PO) for an individual possessing a certain EVC. This apparent discrepancy has led to confusion as to when LR or PO is the appropriate outcome of forensic DNA analysis to be communicated to the investigating authorities. We thus set out to clarify the distinction between LR and PO in the context of forensic DNA profiling and FDP from a statistical point of view. In so doing, we also addressed the influence of population affiliation on LR and PO. In contrast to the well-known population dependency of the LR in DNA profiling, the PO as obtained in FDP may be widely population-independent. The actual degree of independence, however, is a matter of (i) how much of the causality of the respective EVC is captured by the genetic markers used for FDP and (ii) by the extent to which non-genetic such as environmental causal factors of the same EVC are distributed equally throughout populations. The fact that an LR should be communicated in cases of DNA profiling whereas the PO are suitable for FDP does not conflict with theory, but rather reflects the immanent differences between these two forensic applications of DNA information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding to evaluate oral cancer risk using odds ratio-based genetic algorithms

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    Cheng-Hong Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancers often involve the synergistic effects of gene–gene interactions, but identifying these interactions remains challenging. Here, we present an odds ratio-based genetic algorithm (OR-GA that is able to solve the problems associated with the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with oral cancer. The SNP interactions between four SNPs—namely rs1799782, rs2040639, rs861539, rs2075685, and belonging to four genes (XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC4—were tested in this study, respectively. The GA decomposes the SNPs sets into different SNP combinations with their corresponding genotypes (called SNP barcodes. The GA can effectively identify a specific SNP barcode that has an optimized fitness value and uses this to calculate the difference between the case and control groups. The SNP barcodes with a low fitness value are naturally removed from the population. Using two to four SNPs, the best SNP barcodes with maximum differences in occurrence between the case and control groups were generated by GA algorithm. Subsequently, the OR provides a quantitative measure of the multiple SNP synergies between the oral cancer and control groups by calculating the risk related to the best SNP barcodes and others. When these were compared to their corresponding non-SNP barcodes, the estimated ORs for oral cancer were found to be great than 1 [approx. 1.72–2.23; confidence intervals (CIs: 0.94–5.30, p < 0.03–0.07] for various specific SNP barcodes with two to four SNPs. In conclusion, the proposed OR-GA method successfully generates SNP barcodes, which allow oral cancer risk to be evaluated and in the process the OR-GA method identifies possible SNP–SNP interactions.

  16. Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios.

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    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-05-20

    In meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model (REM). An alternative, multiplicative REM for ORs uses overdispersion. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model (ODM) can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation (ICC) parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study are themselves beta-distributed, resulting in beta-binomial distributions. We propose two new estimators of the ICC for meta-analysis in this setting. One is based on the inverted Breslow-Day test, and the other on the improved gamma approximation by Kulinskaya and Dollinger (2015, p. 26) to the distribution of Cochran's Q. The performance of these and several other estimators of ICC on bias and coverage is studied by simulation. Additionally, the Mantel-Haenszel approach to estimation of ORs is extended to the beta-binomial model, and we study performance of various ICC estimators when used in the Mantel-Haenszel or the inverse-variance method to combine ORs in meta-analysis. The results of the simulations show that the improved gamma-based estimator of ICC is superior for small sample sizes, and the Breslow-Day-based estimator is the best for n⩾100. The Mantel-Haenszel-based estimator of OR is very biased and is not recommended. The inverse-variance approach is also somewhat biased for ORs≠1, but this bias is not very large in practical settings. Developed methods and R programs, provided in the Web Appendix, make the beta-binomial model a feasible alternative to the standard REM for meta-analysis of ORs. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Transformation of Summary Statistics from Linear Mixed Model Association on All-or-None Traits to Odds Ratio.

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    Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model (LMM) methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power. The odds ratio (OR) is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure ( e.g. , a genetic variant) and is readably available from logistic regression. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed 0-1 scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult. In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from 108,042 individuals in the UK Biobank. In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood-ratio' and 'odds' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' (RCV)

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    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre; Iglesias, Natàlia

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: Interpretation of serial data in monitoring of patients is usually performed by use of the 'reference change value' (RCV). While this tool for interpretation of measured differences is simple and clear, there are a number of drawbacks attached to the uncritical use...... and odds used for diagnostic test evaluations is applied to monitoring by substituting measured concentrations with measured differences. Thus, two frequency distributions of differences are assumed, one for a stable, steady-state, situation and one for a certain change. Values exceeding a measured......-test odds depending on time. Conclusions: The concept presented here expands the earlier concept of RCVs by making it possible to have an estimate of the post-test odds for a certain difference to occur based on likelihood ratios and pre-test odds. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46....

  19. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

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    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  20. Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio

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    Edén Lena

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners (DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Two questionnaire surveys were performed among 352 DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio. Results Positive health was associated with age ≥ 55 years, not being an immigrant, not having fibromyalgia as the main diagnosis for granting an early retirement, no regular use of analgesics, a high ADL capacity, a positive subjective health preceding the study period, and good quality of life. Conclusion Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1 to avoid a disability pension for individuals

  1. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

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    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured at the lumbar spine and particularly at the hip remain the gold-standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. However, devices for assessing the peripheral skeleton present several advantages in terms of lower price and portability. A major......: Peripheral densitometry can discriminate between hip- and lower forearm fracture patients and age-matched controls. Significantly elevated odds ratios for incurring these fractures can be calculated using device- and site specific t-score cutoff values. The results from this case-control study need...

  2. Adequate vitamin D status is associated with the reduced odds of prevalent diabetic retinopathy in African Americans and Caucasians.

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    Millen, Amy E; Sahli, Michelle W; Nie, Jing; LaMonte, Michael J; Lutsey, Pamela L; Klein, Barbara E K; Mares, Julie A; Meyers, Kirstin J; Andrews, Christopher A; Klein, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of diabetic retinopathy via its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest vitamin D favorably influences blood pressure and blood glucose control, strong risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. We examined the association between vitamin D status and prevalent diabetic retinopathy in participants with diabetes from a population-based cohort. Among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with diabetes at visit 3 (1993-1995), 1339 (906 Caucasians, 433 African Americans) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25[OH]D) concentrations assessed at visit 2 (1989-1992) and nonmydriatic retinal photographs taken at visit 3. Dietary intake of vitamin D was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetic retinopathy by categories of season-adjusted 25(OH)D (diabetes. We further adjusted for HBA1c and hypertension to examine if 25(OH)D influenced diabetic retinopathy via its effects on either glycemic control or blood pressure. ORs (95 % CIs) for retinopathy, adjusted for race and duration, were 0.77 (0.45-1.32), 0.64 (0.37-1.10), and 0.39 (0.20-0.75), p for trend = 0.001, for participants with 25(OH)D of 30-retinopathy. 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L were associated with lower odds of any retinopathy assessed 3 years later. We speculate this may be due in part to vitamin D's influence on blood glucose control.

  3. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination.

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    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Wilson, David C

    2008-03-01

    Because research is needed to identify the conditions that facilitate or impede the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination, the authors examined the effects of demographics and demographic similarity on the prevalence of sex- and race/ethnicity-based perceived workplace discrimination. Results from a national survey of 763 full-time, United States employees show perceived sex-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among female than male employees, and perceived race-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among Black and Hispanic than White employees. Additionally, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was less prevalent among those with same-race/ethnicity supervisors. The effect of employee-coworker sex similarity on perceived sex discrimination was significant only for women, and the effects of supervisor-subordinate racial similarity on the prevalence of perceived racial discrimination varied between Black and White respondents, depending on employee-residential-community racial similarity. Copyright 2008 APA

  4. Obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios from logistic regression models in cross-sectional studies.

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    Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de; Velasque, Luciane de Souza

    2015-03-01

    In the last decades, the use of the epidemiological prevalence ratio (PR) instead of the odds ratio has been debated as a measure of association in cross-sectional studies. This article addresses the main difficulties in the use of statistical models for the calculation of PR: convergence problems, availability of tools and inappropriate assumptions. We implement the direct approach to estimate the PR from binary regression models based on two methods proposed by Wilcosky & Chambless and compare with different methods. We used three examples and compared the crude and adjusted estimate of PR, with the estimates obtained by use of log-binomial, Poisson regression and the prevalence odds ratio (POR). PRs obtained from the direct approach resulted in values close enough to those obtained by log-binomial and Poisson, while the POR overestimated the PR. The model implemented here showed the following advantages: no numerical instability; assumes adequate probability distribution and, is available through the R statistical package.

  5. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  6. Odd Structures Are Odd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 1567-1580 ISSN 0188-7009 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : graded vector space * monoidal structure * Odd endomorphism operad Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00006-016-0720-8

  7. Potential misinterpretation of treatment effects due to use of odds ratios and logistic regression in randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J Knol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, the odds ratio (OR can substantially overestimate the risk ratio (RR if the incidence of the outcome is over 10%. This study determined the frequency of use of ORs, the frequency of overestimation of the OR as compared with its accompanying RR in published RCTs, and we assessed how often regression models that calculate RRs were used. METHODS: We included 288 RCTs published in 2008 in five major general medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine. If an OR was reported, we calculated the corresponding RR, and we calculated the percentage of overestimation by using the formula . RESULTS: Of 193 RCTs with a dichotomous primary outcome, 24 (12.4% presented a crude and/or adjusted OR for the primary outcome. In five RCTs (2.6%, the OR differed more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Forty-one of all included RCTs (n = 288; 14.2% presented ORs for other outcomes, or for subgroup analyses. Nineteen of these RCTs (6.6% had at least one OR that deviated more than 100% from its accompanying RR on the log scale. Of 53 RCTs that adjusted for baseline variables, 15 used logistic regression. Alternative methods to estimate RRs were only used in four RCTs. CONCLUSION: ORs and logistic regression are often used in RCTs and in many articles the OR did not approximate the RR. Although the authors did not explicitly misinterpret these ORs as RRs, misinterpretation by readers can seriously affect treatment decisions and policy making.

  8. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  9. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter region are related to peripheral measures of bone mass and fracture odds ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik L; Kusk, Philip; Madsen, Bente Elmfelt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter with peripheral measures of bone mass and with odds ratios for wrist and hip fracture in a case-control study of postmenopausal Danish women. The study included...

  10. A limitation of the diagnostic-odds ratio in determining an optimal cut-off value for a continuous diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhning, Dankmar; Holling, Heinz; Patilea, Valentin

    2011-10-01

    The article considers the diagnostic odds ratio, a special summarising function of specificity and sensitivity for a given diagnostic test, which has been suggested as a measure of diagnostic discriminatory power. In the situation of a continuous diagnostic test a cut-off value has to be chosen and it is a common practice to choose the cut-off value on the basis of the maximised diagnostic odds ratio. We show that this strategy is not to be recommended since it might easily lead to cut-off values on the boundary of the parameter range. This is illustrated by means of some examples. The source of the deficient behaviour of the diagnostic odds ratio lies in the convexity of the log-diagnostic odds ratio as a function of the cut-off value. This can easily be seen in practice by plotting a non-parametric estimate of the log-DOR against the cut-off value. In fact, it is shown for the case of a normal distributed diseased and a normal distributed non-diseased population with equal variances that the log-DOR is a convex function of the cut-off value. It is also shown that these problems are not present for the Youden index, which appears to be a better choice.

  11. Odd Viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    When time reversal is broken the viscosity tensor can have a non vanishing odd part. In two dimensions, and only then, such odd viscosity is compatible with isotropy. Elementary and basic features of odd viscosity are examined by considering solutions of the wave and Navier-Stokes equations for hypothetical fluids where the stress is dominated by odd viscosity.

  12. A cross-validation procedure for general pedigrees and matched odds ratio fitness metric implemented for the multifactor dimensionality reduction pedigree disequilibrium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L.; Torstensen, Eric; Dudek, Scott; Martin, Eden R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    As genetic epidemiology looks beyond mapping single disease susceptibility loci, interest in detecting epistatic interactions between genes has grown. The dimensionality and comparisons required to search the epistatic space and the inference for a significant result pose challenges for testing epistatic disease models. The Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was developed to test for multilocus models in pedigree data. In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDT with new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. Power was evaluated using 100, 500, and 1000 families, with minor allele frequencies 0.2 and 0.4 and broad-sense heritabilities of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 for 2 and 3-locus purely epistatic penetrance models. We also compared the prediction error measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio for final model selection and testing. We report that the CV procedure is valid with the permutation test, MDR-PDT performs similarly with 5 and 10- fold CV, and that the matched odds ratio is more powerful than prediction error as the fitness metric for MDR-PDT. PMID:19697353

  13. Breed related odds ratio and anatomic distribution of canine mast cell tumours in Austria. Retrospective study of cases in the years 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, E F; Freeman, K; Kirtz, G; Hooijberg, E H; Sick, K

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk of mast cell tumours (MCT) in certain breeds has been described repeatedly in the literature. The incidence of MCTs for registered breeds in Austria, an estimate of the risk by means of the odds ratios based on breed as well as the anatomic localisation of MCTs were examined. In the first part of the study, the ranking of breeds in Austria based on 147,802 dogs with known breed (including mixed breed) was determined, based on those dogs included in the laboratory data base from 2000 to 2010. In the second part of the study, 476 dogs were identified with MCTs and analysed by age, sex, Patnaik grade of MCT and breed distribution. The odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated for all breeds with skin tumours. The age distribution showed a peak in the age group from 6.1 to 8.0 years; 70% of MCTs were localised to the head and trunk. No significant difference was found based on gender. The evaluation of the odds ratios showed that only four of the 20 of the most popular in Austria breeds (Boxer, Bernese Mountain Dog, Golden Retriever, Spaniel) had an increased risk; on the other hand, some breeds which have not been previously identified in the literature were indicated to have a significantly increased risk for MCT (e.g., Dogo Argentino, Tibetan Spaniel, Pyrenean Mountain Dog, Beauceron, and Austrian Smooth-haired Hound). Because disease risk may influence the popularity of some currently rare breeds, consultation with breeders and owners regarding the identification of the breeds newly identified in this study as an increased risk for development of mast cell tumours is indicated.

  14. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Mahdi; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar. After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3. We included 17 primary studies (11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional) in the final meta-analysis. The total odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing bladder cancer by opium use alone, and concurrent use of opium and cigarettes were estimated as 3.85 (3.05-4.87) and 5.7 (1.9-16.3) respectively. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for opium use with or without cigarette smoking was estimated as 5.3 (3.6-7.7). This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. It is therefore expected to be a risk factor

  15. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Odd, Watson – Very Odd!" S Mahadevan. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 114-117. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/01/0114-0117. Author Affiliations.

  16. A cross-validation procedure for general pedigrees and matched odds ratio fitness metric implemented for the multifactor dimensionality reduction pedigree disequilibrium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L; Torstensen, Eric; Dudek, Scott; Martin, Eden R; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2010-02-01

    As genetic epidemiology looks beyond mapping single disease susceptibility loci, interest in detecting epistatic interactions between genes has grown. The dimensionality and comparisons required to search the epistatic space and the inference for a significant result pose challenges for testing epistatic disease models. The multifactor dimensionality reduction-pedigree disequilibrium test (MDR-PDT) was developed to test for multilocus models in pedigree data. In the present study we rigorously tested MDR-PDT with new cross-validation (CV) (both 5- and 10-fold) and omnibus model selection algorithms by simulating a range of heritabilities, odds ratios, minor allele frequencies, sample sizes, and numbers of interacting loci. Power was evaluated using 100, 500, and 1,000 families, with minor allele frequencies 0.2 and 0.4 and broad-sense heritabilities of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 for 2- and 3-locus purely epistatic penetrance models. We also compared the prediction error (PE) measure of effect with a predicted matched odds ratio (MOR) for final model selection and testing. We report that the CV procedure is valid with the permutation test, MDR-PDT performs similarly with 5- and 10-fold CV, and that the MOR is more powerful than PE as the fitness metric for MDR-PDT. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Talking on a Wireless Cellular Device While Driving: Improving the Validity of Crash Odds Ratio Estimates in the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Young

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dingus and colleagues (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2016, 113, 2636–2641 reported a crash odds ratio (OR estimate of 2.2 with a 95% confidence interval (CI from 1.6 to 3.1 for hand-held cell phone conversation (hereafter, “Talk” in the SHRP 2 naturalistic driving database. This estimate is substantially higher than the effect sizes near one in prior real-world and naturalistic driving studies of conversation on wireless cellular devices (whether hand-held, hands-free portable, or hands-free integrated. Two upward biases were discovered in the Dingus study. First, it selected many Talk-exposed drivers who simultaneously performed additional secondary tasks besides Talk but selected Talk-unexposed drivers with no secondary tasks. This “selection bias” was removed by: (1 filtering out records with additional tasks from the Talk-exposed group; or (2 adding records with other tasks to the Talk-unexposed group. Second, it included records with driver behavior errors, a confounding bias that was also removed by filtering out such records. After removing both biases, the Talk OR point estimates declined to below 1, now consistent with prior studies. Pooling the adjusted SHRP 2 Talk OR estimates with prior study effect size estimates to improve precision, the population effect size for wireless cellular conversation while driving is estimated as 0.72 (CI 0.60–0.88.

  18. Applied Prevalence Ratio estimation with different Regression models: An example from a cross-national study on substance use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelt, Albert; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Penelo, Eva; Bosque-Prous, Marina

    2016-06-14

    To examine the differences between Prevalence Ratio (PR) and Odds Ratio (OR) in a cross-sectional study and to provide tools to calculate PR using two statistical packages widely used in substance use research (STATA and R). We used cross-sectional data from 41,263 participants of 16 European countries participating in the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The dependent variable, hazardous drinking, was calculated using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C). The main independent variable was gender. Other variables used were: age, educational level and country of residence. PR of hazardous drinking in men with relation to women was estimated using Mantel-Haenszel method, log-binomial regression models and poisson regression models with robust variance. These estimations were compared to the OR calculated using logistic regression models. Prevalence of hazardous drinkers varied among countries. Generally, men have higher prevalence of hazardous drinking than women [PR=1.43 (1.38-1.47)]. Estimated PR was identical independently of the method and the statistical package used. However, OR overestimated PR, depending on the prevalence of hazardous drinking in the country. In cross-sectional studies, where comparisons between countries with differences in the prevalence of the disease or condition are made, it is advisable to use PR instead of OR.

  19. Distributional justice in Swedish wind power development – An odds ratio analysis of windmill localization and local residents’ socio-economic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenfeldt, Johanna; Pettersson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting. Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites. The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which geo-referenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people. This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power. - Highlights: • The distributional justice of windmill siting in Sweden is statistically evaluated. • Windmill siting decisions are related to people's socio-economic characteristics. • The results indicate some distributional skewness for wind power development. • The study gives statistical rigour and generalisability to energy justice findings. • The results warrant follow-ups and policy guides for how to handle benefit-sharing.

  20. Gastritis May Boost Odds of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-08-01

    Given the high prevalence of dementia and its devastating consequences, identifying risk factors for dementia is a public health priority. The present study aims to assess whether gastritis increases the odds of dementia. The data for this study, consisting of 2926 community-dwelling older adults, were obtained from the National survey entitled "Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians." Dementia was diagnosed using the Geriatric Mental State-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy. Prevalence of dementia was considerably higher among older adults with gastritis (29.5%) compared to those without gastritis (13.2%). After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes, gastritis was significantly associated with more than twice odds of dementia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.42, P gastritis may increase the risk of dementia provide avenue for further inquiries into dementia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, J.K.; Okkes, I.; Oskam, S.; Boven, K. van; Zivotic, P.; Jevtic, M.; Dobbs, F.; Lamberts, H.; Transition, P.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in

  2. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, Jean K.; Okkes, Inge; Oskam, Sibo; van Boven, Kees; Zivotic, Predrag; Jevtic, Milan; Dobbs, Frank; Lamberts, Henk; van Boven, C.; Dijksterhuis, P. H.; Groen, A.; de Haan, J.; Honselaar-de Groot, A. M.; Janssen, D.; Polman, T. A. L.; Polderman, G. O.; Stolp, K. E. I.; Valken, N.; Veltman, M. T. M.; Woerdeman, M.; Calleja, Francis Paul; Sammut, Carmen; Sammut, Mario R.; Sammut, Daniel; Sammut, David; Bonnici, Jason; Buhagiar, John; Baldacchino, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in international FM and

  3. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer--Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Galas

    Full Text Available There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon.The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer.A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006, stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007 and total aberrations (p = 0.009. There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50-80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations.The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy.

  4. Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  5. Impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and quit ratios in 27 European Union countries from 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Ariadna; Filippidis, Filippos T; Joossens, Luk; Fong, Geoffrey T; Vardavas, Constantine I; Baena, Antoni; Castellano, Yolanda; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve

    2018-02-22

    Tobacco use is still highly prevalent in Europe, despite the tobacco control efforts made by the governments. The development of tobacco control policies varies substantially across countries. The Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies across European countries OBJECTIVE: To assess the midterm association of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and quit ratios among 27 European Union (EU) Member States (EU27). Ecological study. We used the TCS in EU27 in 2007 and the prevalence of tobacco and quit ratios data from the Eurobarometer survey (2006 (n=27 585) and 2014 (n=26 793)). We analysed the relationship between the TCS scores and smoking prevalence and quit ratios and their relative changes (between 2006 and 2014) by means of scatter plots and multiple linear regression models. In EU27, countries with higher scores in the TCS, which indicates higher tobacco control efforts, have lower prevalence of smokers, higher quit ratios and higher relative decreases in their prevalence rates of smokers over the last decade. The correlation between TCS scores and smoking prevalence (r sp =-0.444; P=0.02) and between the relative changes in smoking prevalence (r sp =-0.415; P=0.03) was negative. A positive correlation was observed between TCS scores and quit ratios (r sp =0.373; P=0.06). The percentage of smoking prevalence explained by all TCS components was 28.9%. EU27 should continue implementing comprehensive tobacco control policies as they are key for reducing the prevalence of smoking and an increase tobacco cessation rates in their population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. [Evaluation of estimation of prevalence ratio using bayesian log-binomial regression model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W L; Lin, H; Liu, X N; Ren, X W; Li, J S; Shen, X P; Zhu, S L

    2017-03-10

    To evaluate the estimation of prevalence ratio ( PR ) by using bayesian log-binomial regression model and its application, we estimated the PR of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea in their infants by using bayesian log-binomial regression model in Openbugs software. The results showed that caregivers' recognition of infant' s risk signs of diarrhea was associated significantly with a 13% increase of medical care-seeking. Meanwhile, we compared the differences in PR 's point estimation and its interval estimation of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea and convergence of three models (model 1: not adjusting for the covariates; model 2: adjusting for duration of caregivers' education, model 3: adjusting for distance between village and township and child month-age based on model 2) between bayesian log-binomial regression model and conventional log-binomial regression model. The results showed that all three bayesian log-binomial regression models were convergence and the estimated PRs were 1.130(95 %CI : 1.005-1.265), 1.128(95 %CI : 1.001-1.264) and 1.132(95 %CI : 1.004-1.267), respectively. Conventional log-binomial regression model 1 and model 2 were convergence and their PRs were 1.130(95 % CI : 1.055-1.206) and 1.126(95 % CI : 1.051-1.203), respectively, but the model 3 was misconvergence, so COPY method was used to estimate PR , which was 1.125 (95 %CI : 1.051-1.200). In addition, the point estimation and interval estimation of PRs from three bayesian log-binomial regression models differed slightly from those of PRs from conventional log-binomial regression model, but they had a good consistency in estimating PR . Therefore, bayesian log-binomial regression model can effectively estimate PR with less misconvergence and have more advantages in application compared with conventional log-binomial regression model.

  7. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating ...

  8. Prevalence of Oral Manifestations and Their Association with CD4/CD8 Ratio and HIV Viral Load in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations in an HIV infected population from south India and evaluate their association with HIV viral load and CD4/CD8 ratio. Intraoral examination of 103 patients, whose CD4/CD8 ratio was available, were conducted. HIV viral loads were available for thirty patients only. The prevalence of oral manifestations was 80.6% (83/103. The most common oromucosal lesion was erythematous candidiasis (EC (38.8% followed by melanotic hyperpigmentation (35.9%. Patients having any oral manifestation had a mean CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.24. EC had positive predictive value of 85.0% for CD4/CD8 ratio 20,000 copies/mL (20,000 copies/mL.

  9. Evaluation of Goiter Prevalence and Iodine to Creatinine Ratio among School-aged Girls in Urmia County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J nourooz-zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical evaluation of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs is often accomplished by assessment of urinary iodine excretion (UIE in random samples; however, the utilization of 24 hour urine samples is a more reliable biomarker of nutritional iodine status. This study was designed to evaluate total goiter prevalence (TGP and iodine/creatinine ratio among school-aged children in Urmia County. Methods: Schoolchildren (n=500 were recruited by cluster sampling from different educational areas in Urmia County. Goiter prevalence was assessed by thyroid palpation, UIE was determined by Sandell-Koltoff reaction, and Urinary creatinine was measured by the Jaffe-method. Results: In general, TGP was 12.2%. Among these, there were 48 individuals (9.6% with grade I goiter and 13 subjects (2.6% with grade II goiter. Mean urinary creatinine, median UIE and median I/Cr ratio were respectively 1.36±0.76 mg/dL, 14.3µg/dL, and 11.5µg/mg. Prevalence of iodine deficiency according to UIE criteria was 22.8% and that of I/Cr ratio was 41.2%. There was a correlation between age and UIE (P=001; r=0.163. UIE and urinary creatinine were correlated as well (P<0.003; r= 0.133. A correlation was also detected between I/Cr ratios and UIE (P=0.003; r=0.133 whilst a negative association was seen between age and I/Cr ratios (P=0.001; and r=–0.263. Conclusion: This investigation reconfirms that there is slight-to-mild iodine deficiency in Urmia County. The utilization of I/Cr ratio in conjugation with UIE and palpation may provide a better assessment in investigating nutritional iodine status.

  10. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods: To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II. The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results: For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF.

  11. Prevalence, Incidence, and Sex Ratio of Transsexualism in the Autonomous Region of Madrid (Spain) According to Healthcare Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Fernández, Antonio; Rodríguez-Molina, José Miguel; Asenjo-Araque, Nuria; Lucio-Pérez, María Jesús; Cuchí-Alfaro, Miguel; García-Camba, Eduardo; Pérez-López, Gilberto; Menacho-Román, Miriam; Berrocal-Sertucha, María Carmen; Ly-Pen, Domingo; Aguilar-Vilas, María Victorina

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, different studies have provided estimates of the prevalence of transsexualism with very diverse results. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence, incidence, and sex ratio of transsexualism in the autonomous region of Madrid (Spain). A total of 1234 patients who attended from 2007 to the end of 2015 in the only Gender Identity Unit (GIU) in Madrid were analyzed. Sixty-three patients were excluded for various reasons; thus, 1171 could be included: 803 male-to-female (MtF) and 368 female-to-male (FtM) transsexual patients. Transsexualism was diagnosed based on the ICD-10, World Health Organization, 1992, and/or gender identity disorder based on the DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000. The demographic statistics were calculated on the basis of the population over 15 years old of Madrid. Based on healthcare demand, the prevalence of transsexualism was 22.1 in 100,000 inhabitants: 31.2 for MtF and 12.9 for FtM, making the MtF/FtM ratio approximately 2.2:1. The incidence rate was 2.5 in 100,000 inhabitants, representing an annual average of 130 demands. Although transsexualism occurs in all countries with different rates of prevalence, in our area, this prevalence was higher than reported from other European countries. We believe that two main circumstances might influence this high prevalence: the easy accessibility and the absence of a waiting list to the GIU, and the permissive social and legal climate and openness of Spain, especially in Madrid.

  12. Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.A.; Levon, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i.e. energy spectra of collective bands in odd-odd nuclei are similar to the spectra of collective bands in heighbouring odd nuclei, which are based on the state of a strongly bound nucleon is included in the conflicting configuration

  13. Odd things, in odd places, in odd races | Ferndale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odd things, in odd places, in odd races. L Ferndale, R Wise, S R Thomson. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Vol. 5 (3) 2007: pp. 9-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v5i3.30737 · AJOL African Journals ...

  14. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  15. Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.D.; Gandhi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides. Collective model of odd-odd nuclei is applied to predict the magnetic dipole moments, (μ) of odd-odd lanthanides. A simplified version of expression for μ based on diagonalisation of Hamiltonian (subsequent use of eigenvectors to compute μ) is developed for cases of ground state as well as excited states using no configuration mixing and is applied to the cases of odd-odd lanthanides. The formulae applied to the eleven (11) cases of ground states show significant improvement over the results obtained using shell model. Configuration mixing and coriolis coupling is expected to cause further improvement in the results. On comparing the earlier work in this direction the present analysis has clarified that in the expression μ the projection factors have different signs for the case I=Ωp - Ωn and I=Ωn - Ωp, and sign of μ is negative in general in the second case while it is positive in all others of spin projection alignments. Although the general expression holds for excited states as well but in lanthanide region, the experimental reports of magnetic dipole moments of excite states (band heads of higher rational sequences) are not available except in case of five (5) neutron resonance states which cannot be handled on the basis of the present approach with no configuration mixing. Although in the present discussion, the model could not be applied to excited states but the systematics of change in its magnitude with increasing spin at higher rational states is very well understood. The particle part supressed under faster rotation of the nuclear core and thus finally at higher spin I, the value μ is given by μ=g c I (same as in case of even-even nuclei). These systematics are to be verified whenever enough data for higher excited states are available. (author). 11 refs

  16. Deformed shapes in odd-odd nuclei near Z = 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, G.; Pai, H.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Basu, S.K.; Kundu, S.; Ghosh, T.K.; Bannerjee, K.; Rana, T.K.; Meena, J.K.; Chanda, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Garg, R.

    2009-01-01

    The neutron deficient nuclei in the vicinity of the Z = 82 region are known for interesting structural phenomena arising due to different shape driving effects of the proton and neutron orbitals near the Fermi surface. It has been found that the heavier bismuth and thallium nuclei with A > 200 are spherical and the lighter nuclei with A < 194 have rotational bands indicating deformation. We report here our recent experimental investigation of γ-ray spectroscopy of odd-odd Bi and Tl nuclei in mass region A = 190

  17. Structure and symmetries of odd-odd triaxial nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Colaba, Mumbai (India); Bhat, G.H. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Govt. Degree College Kulgam, Department of Physics, Kulgam (India); Sheikh, J.A. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Cluster University of Srinagar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2017-05-15

    Rotational spectra of odd-odd Rh and Ag isotopes are investigated with the primary motivation to search for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon in these nuclei. The experimental results obtained on the degenerate dipole bands of some of these isotopes using a large array of gamma detectors are discussed and studied using the triaxial projected shell (TPSM) approach. It is shown that, first of all, to reproduce the odd-even staggering of the known yrast bands of these nuclei, large triaxial deformation is needed. This large triaxial deformation also gives rise to doublet band structures in many of these studied nuclei. The observed doublet bands in these isotopes are shown to be reproduced reasonably well by the TPSM calculations. Further, the TPSM calculations for neutron-rich nuclei indicate that the ideal manifestation of the chirality can be realised in {sup 106}Rh and {sup 112}Ag, where the doublet bands have similar electromagnetic properties along with small differences in excitation energies. (orig.)

  18. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  19. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  20. Prenatal food allergen exposures and odds of childhood peanut, tree nut, or sesame seed sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joyce T; Missmer, Stacey A; Young, Michael C; Correia, Katharine F; Twarog, Frank J; Coughlin, Irene B; Hornstein, Mark D; Schneider, Lynda C

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of peanut (PN) and tree nut (TN) allergy in children has tripled in the past decade. Prenatal exposures, including maternal diet and medications, may account for some of this increase. In the United States, progesterone for luteal support in assisted reproduction is commonly formulated in PN or sesame seed (SS) oil. To determine whether prenatal exposure to PN or SS oil as progesterone in oil increases the child's odds of PN, TN, or SS allergy. Parents of 1,272 children evaluated by allergists from May 2005 through October 2009 completed questionnaires on conception, prenatal exposures, dietary history, and allergic history, with review of the child's medical record and skin prick and specific IgE test results. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable adjusted logistic regression models. Children of mothers with a history of infertility, in vitro fertilization, or use of progesterone in oil did not have increased odds of PN, TN, and/or SS sensitization. Maternal consumption of TNs during first 2 trimesters was associated with 60% higher odds of having a PN/TN/SS-sensitized child (95% confidence interval 1.01-2.51), with similarly increased odds with maternal SS ingestion. Odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization were doubled in children with asthma or environmental allergies. Neither maternal infertility nor exposure to PN or SS oils through progesterone support during assisted reproduction treatment was associated with increased odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization in the child. However, maternal ingestion of TNs and SS during pregnancy was associated with increased odds of PN/TN/SS sensitization in the child. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease

  2. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  3. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  4. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  5. High spin states in odd-odd {sup 132}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Takehito [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Lu, J.; Furuno, K. [and others

    1998-03-01

    Excited states with spin larger than 5 {Dirac_h} were newly established in the {sup 132}Cs nucleus via the {sup 124}Sn({sup 11}B,3n) reaction. Rotational bands built on the {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}d{sub 5/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} configurations were observed up to spin I {approx} 16 {Dirac_h}. The {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} band shows inverted signature splitting below I < 14 {Dirac_h}. A dipole band was firstly observed in doubly odd Cs nuclei. (author)

  6. Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following intake of alcoholic drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A.; Berg, N.D.; Gonzalez-Quintela, A.

    2008-01-01

    symptoms from the upper and lower airways were significantly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma (odds ratios between 3.0 and 8.1, P-value self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following the intake...

  7. Lifetimes and magnetic moments in odd-odd 70 As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Stanoiu, M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive experimental and theoretical work on the structure of N∼Z, A = 60-80 nuclei revealed many interesting features: large prolate deformations (β = 0.4), strong shape variations as a function of particle number, excitation energy, spin and shape coexistence effects. They are related with drastic changes of properties observed in nuclei with Z≥33 when going from spherical nuclei with N = 50 to neutron deficient nuclei with N = 38 or 40. Both the rapid changes in structure and the shape coexistence appear to reflect the competition between the shell gaps which occur at large oblate and prolate deformations near nucleon numbers 36 and 38 for both protons and neutrons. For N∼Z nuclei the same shell gaps appear simultaneously for both protons and neutrons and reinforce each other. The microscopic structure of the nuclei in the mass region A = 60-80 is essentially determined by the 1g 9/2 , 2p 1/2 , 1f 5/2 and 2p 3/2 orbitals. Because no unique interpretation of the unusual features discovered in these nuclei exists, the systematic experimental study of structure of these nuclei is still an interesting subject. As part of a systematic experimental study undertaken to investigate the structure of neutron deficient, odd-odd As nuclei, 68,70,72 As, the level scheme of 70 As was investigated using heavy ion induced reactions and in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy techniques. At energies between 500 and 900 keV a multiplet of negative parity levels has been observed. At higher energies a high-spin positive parity sequence of levels starting with a E x = 1676 keV, J π 8 + level is strongly populated. Additional information is required in order to establish the structure of low and high-spin levels of both parities. The magnetic moments of the 8 + and 9 + levels have been measured using the time-integral perturbed angular distribution technique and the lifetimes of four levels have been determined using the recoil-distance method. From the measured lifetime for the 9

  8. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  9. Temperature-dependent sex determination in fish revisited: prevalence, a single sex ratio response pattern, and possible effects of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ospina-Alvarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In gonochoristic vertebrates, sex determination mechanisms can be classified as genotypic (GSD or temperature-dependent (TSD. Some cases of TSD in fish have been questioned, but the prevalent view is that TSD is very common in this group of animals, with three different response patterns to temperature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed field and laboratory data for the 59 fish species where TSD has been explicitly or implicitly claimed so far. For each species, we compiled data on the presence or absence of sex chromosomes and determined if the sex ratio response was obtained within temperatures that the species experiences in the wild. If so, we studied whether this response was statistically significant. We found evidence that many cases of observed sex ratio shifts in response to temperature reveal thermal alterations of an otherwise predominately GSD mechanism rather than the presence of TSD. We also show that in those fish species that actually have TSD, sex ratio response to increasing temperatures invariably results in highly male-biased sex ratios, and that even small changes of just 1-2 degrees C can significantly alter the sex ratio from 1:1 (males:females up to 3:1 in both freshwater and marine species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that TSD in fish is far less widespread than currently believed, suggesting that TSD is clearly the exception in fish sex determination. Further, species with TSD exhibit only one general sex ratio response pattern to temperature. However, the viability of some fish populations with TSD can be compromised through alterations in their sex ratios as a response to temperature fluctuations of the magnitude predicted by climate change.

  10. Conflicting Coupling of Unpaired Nucleons and the Structure of Collective Bands in Odd-Odd Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levon, A.I.; Pasternak, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei is discussed. A very simple explanation is suggested for the damping of the energy spacing of the lowest levels in the rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei with the 'conflicting' coupling of an odd proton and an odd neutron comparative to those of the bands based on the state of a strongly coupled particle in the neighboring odd nucleus entering the 'conflicting' configuration.

  11. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age.

  12. Métodos para estimar razão de prevalência em estudos de corte transversal Métodos para estimar razón de prevalencia en estudios de cohorte transversal Methods for estimating prevalence ratios in cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M S Coutinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar empiricamente as regressões de Cox, log-binomial, Poisson e logística para estimar razões de prevalência em estudos de corte transversal. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados de um estudo epidemiológico transversal (n=2.072, de base populacional, realizado com idosos na cidade de São Paulo (SP, entre maio de 2003 e abril de 2005. Diagnósticos de demência, possíveis casos de transtorno mental comum e autopercepção de saúde ruim foram escolhidos como desfechos com prevalência baixa, intermediária e alta, respectivamente. Foram utilizadas variáveis de confusão com duas ou mais categorias ou valores contínuos. Valores de referência para estimativas por ponto e por intervalo para as razões de prevalência (RP foram obtidos pelo método de estratificação de Mantel-Haenszel. Estimativas ajustadas foram calculadas utilizando regressões de Cox e Poisson com variância robusta, e regressão log-binomial. Odds ratios (OR brutos e ajustados foram obtidos pela regressão logística. RESULTADOS: As estimativas por ponto e por intervalo obtidas pelas regressões de Cox e Poisson foram semelhantes à obtida pela estratificação de Mantel-Haenszel, independentemente da prevalência do desfecho e das covariáveis do modelo. O modelo log-binomial apresentou dificuldade de convergência quando o desfecho tinha prevalência alta e havia covariável contínua no modelo. A regressão logística produziu estimativas por ponto e por intervalo maiores do que as obtidas pelos outros métodos, principalmente para os desfechos com maiores prevalências iniciais. Se interpretados como estimativas de RP, os OR superestimariam as associações para os desfechos com prevalência inicial baixa, intermediária e alta em 13%, quase 100% e quatro vezes mais, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Em análise de dados de estudos de corte transversal, os modelos de Cox e Poisson com variância robusta são melhores alternativas que a regressão log

  13. Coulomb Excitation of Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Cu Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE and Miniball

    CERN Multimedia

    Lauer, M; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the properties of the odd-mass and the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu nuclei applying the Coulomb excitation technique and using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled to the Miniball array. The results from the Coulex experiments accomplished at REX-ISOLDE after its upgrade to 3 MeV/u during the last year have shown the power of this method and its importance in order to obtain information on the collective properties of even-even nuclei. Performing an experiment on the odd-mass and on the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu isotopes in the vicinity of N=40 should allow us to determine and interpret the effective proton and neutron charges in the region and to unravel the lowest proton-neutron multiplets in $^{68,70}$Cu. This experiment can take the advantage of the unique opportunity to accelerate isomerically separated beams using the RILIS ion source at ISOLDE.

  14. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, Bruce; Ge, Jianye; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Gill-King, Harrell

    2011-06-27

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds.

  15. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  16. The odd side of torsion geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of Kähler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is sho...

  17. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-17

    We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.

  19. Lipodystrophy defined by Fat Mass Ratio in HIV-infected patients is associated with a high prevalence of glucose disturbances and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Paula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART in the treatment of HIV-1 infection has been associated with complications, including lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance (IR and diabetes. Aims To compare the prevalence of glucose homeostasis disturbances and IR in HIV patients on cART according to the presence of lipodystrophy (defined clinically and by Fat Mass Ratio and different patterns of fat distribution and to establish their associations. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods We evaluated body composition and IR and insulin sensitivity indexes in 345 HIV-infected adults. Results Patients with clinical lipodystrophy (CL had higher plasma glucose levels than patients without CL, without significant differences in plasma insulin levels, A1c, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, QUICKI, or MATSUDA index. Patients with lipodystrophy defined by FMR had higher plasma glucose and insulin levels, A1c, HOMA-IR, QUICKI and MATSUDA than patients without lipodystrophy, without differences in HOMA-B. Higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥ 4 was present in patients with FMR-defined lipodystrophy. Patients with FMR-defined lipodystrophy had a higher prevalence of IFG, IGT and DM than patients without lipodystrophy. Significant associations between HOMA-IR and total, central and central/peripheral fat evaluated by CT at abdominal level were found and no association between HOMA-IR and peripheral fat. Association between HOMA-IR and total and trunk fat but no association with leg and arm fat (evaluated by DXA was found. Conclusions IR and glucose disturbances were significantly increased in patients with FMR-defined lipodystrophy. FMR lipodystrophy definition seems to be a more sensitive determinant of insulin resistance and glucose disturbances than clinical definition.

  20. Odd Behaviour of the Even Integer 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    article/fulltext/reso/012/10/0057-0066. Keywords. Arithmetic progression; odd and even; partial sum; square number; Pythagorean triple. Author Affiliations. Shailesh A Shirali1. Rishi Valley School, Rishi Valley 517 352, Madanapalle, AP, India.

  1. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  2. Odd invariant semidensity and divergence-like operators on an odd symplectic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    The divergence-like operator on an odd symplectic superspace which acts invariantly on a specially chosen odd vector field is considered. This operator is used to construct an odd invariant semidensity in a geometrically clear way. The formula for this semidensity is similar to the formula of the mean curvature of hypersurfaces in Euclidean space

  3. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  4. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  5. Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we used the sodium chloride floatation technique and well structured close ended questionnaires to determine the prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with these infections in trade dogs in Dawaki, Plateau State. Data were analysed using chi-square (x2) test, odds ratio and logistic regression at ...

  6. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  7. Prevalence of and Predictors of Substance Use Among Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the school adolescents, more males than females reported being alcohol drinkers (16.7% versus 9.2%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95%CI, 1.17 - 3.29). The prevalence proportions of cigarette smoking were 26.2% for men and 15.5% for women while prevalence proportions of marijuana smoking were 4.1% for men and 3.0% ...

  8. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  9. Odd Degree Polynomials on Real Banach Spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aron, R. M.; Hájek, Petr Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2007), s. 143-153 ISSN 1385-1292 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA ČR GA201/04/0090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : odd degree polynomials * zero sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.356, year: 2007

  10. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  11. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  12. Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patial Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+ of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the Iπ = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.

  13. Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis in Women during Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Higher Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2007-01-01

    Results: Offspring whose mothers had any AR symptoms during early pregnancy showed a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the onset of AR in offspring than those whose mothers had no symptoms during pregnancy (adjusted Odds Ratio: 6.26, p=0.036. However, the symptoms of AR during late pregnancy showed no effects on the odds ratio. In contrast, the presence or absence of AR symptoms during early or late pregnancy showed no association with the prevalence of food allergy, atopic dermatitis or asthma in offspring. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of possible epigenetic mechanisms regulating the onset of AR in humans presumably through increased organ-specific hypersensitivity.

  14. Revisiting the concept of ‘chronic disease’ from the perspective of the episode of care model. Does the ratio of incidence to prevalence rate help us to define a problem as chronic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K Soler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a study of the epidemiology of acute and chronic episodes of care (EoCs in the Transition Project in three countries. We studied the duration of EoCs for acute and chronic health problems and the relationship of incidence to prevalence rates for these EoCs.Method The Transition Project databases collect data on all elements of the doctor–patient encounter in family medicine. Family doctors code these elements using the International Classification of Primary Care.We used the data from three practice populations to study the duration of EoCs and the ratio of incidence to prevalence for common health problems.Results We found that chronic health problems tended to have proportionately longer duration EoCs, as expected, but also a lower incidence to prevalence rate ratio than acute health problems. Thus, the incidence to prevalence index could be used to define a chronic condition as one with a low ratio, below a defined threshold.Conclusions Chronic health problems tend to have longer duration EoCs, proportionately, across populations. This result is expected, but we found important similarities and differences which make defining a problem as chronic on the basis of time rather difficult. The ratio of incidence to prevalence rates has potential to categorise health problems into acute or chronic categories, at different ratio thresholds (such as 20, 30 or 50%. It seems to perform well in this study of three family practice populations, and is proposed to the scientific community for further evaluation.

  15. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  16. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-odd nuclei up to 2p-1f shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.P.; Verma, A.K.; Gandhi, R.; Sharma, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The expression for magnetic moments for the states comprising ground state configurations of odd-odd nuclei has been simplified by excluding mixing of other nucleonic configurations. This is contrary to Sharma's and Davidson's results which had been obtained by diagonalizing state matrices for a set of parameters using Davidov and Filippov's non-axial rotor model. According to the relative directions of spins of unpaired odd nucleons, the nuclei have been classified under four categories-an exercise not attempted till now. The calculations have been done with various quenching factors depending upon the relative spin orientations of odd nucleons. For most of the nuclei, the results show considerable improvement over those of Gallagher and Moszkowski and of Sharma. (author)

  17. Proton-neutron interactions in the odd-odd nucleus 214Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Fabricius, B.; Kibedi, T.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Baxter, A.M.; Schiffer, K.

    1993-01-01

    High spin states have been observed to excitation energies over 8 MeV in the odd-odd nucleus 214 Fr using in-beam γ-ray and electron spectroscopic techniques and heavy-ion induced reactions. Semi-empirical shell model calculations appear to provide a good description of the states observed, although some states expected within this model heave yet to be identified. (orig.)

  18. High-Spin States in Odd-Odd N=Z {sup 46}V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, C.D.; Bentley, M.A.; Appelbe, D.E.; Bark, R.A.; Cullen, D.M.; Erturk, S.; Maj. A.; Sheikh, J.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1999-12-31

    High-spin states up to the F{sub 7/2}-shell band termination at J{pi}=15+ have been observed for the first time in the odd-odd N=Z=23 nucleous {sup 46}V. The new level scheme has two separate structures corresponding to spherical and prolate shapes. A rotational band has very similar energies to the yrast sequence in {sup 46}Ti and is therefore assumed to be a T=1 configuration.

  19. Isovector and isoscalar pairing in odd-odd N = Z nuclei within a quartet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, D.; Sandulescu, N.; Gambacurta, D.

    2017-07-01

    The quartet condensation model (QCM) is extended to the treatment of isovector and isoscalar pairing in odd-odd N=Z nuclei. In the extended QCM approach the lowest states of isospin T=1 and T=0 in odd-odd nuclei are described variationally by trial functions composed of a proton-neutron pair appended to a condensate of 4-body operators. The latter are taken as a linear superposition of an isovector quartet, built by two isovector pairs coupled to the total isospin T=0, and two collective isoscalar pairs. In all pairs the nucleons are distributed in time-reversed single-particle states of axial symmetry. The accuracy of the trial functions is tested for realistic pairing Hamiltonians and odd-odd N=Z nuclei with the valence nucleons moving above the ^{16}O, ^{40}Ca, and ^{100}Sn cores. It is shown that the extended QCM approach is able to predict with high accuracy the energies of the lowest T=0 and T=1 states. The present calculations indicate that in these states the isovector and isoscalar pairing correlations coexist, with the former playing a dominant role.

  20. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

    2016-04-04

    In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  1. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. A low arm and leg muscle mass to total body weight ratio is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hwan; So, Wi-Young

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and arm and leg muscle mass to total weight ratios in Korean adults. This was a randomized, controlled, cross-sectional study. Data from 2,383 adults (1,030 men and 1,353 women) were collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011. Blood lipid profiles, blood pressure, and anthropometric characteristics, including weight, height, waist circumference, and muscle mass on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were evaluated in the participants. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The average mass of both arms and legs was determined using regional muscle analysis by DXA. Afterwards, the arm and leg muscle mass to total body weight ratio was determined and classified into 4 quartiles (i.e., quartile 1 [highest muscle ratio] to quartile 4 [lowest muscle ratio]). According to the arm muscle and leg muscle ratios, there was a higher prevalence of MetS in quartile 4 than in quartile 1 in both men and women. A low arm and leg muscle mass to body weight ratio was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS after adjusting for age, physical activity, frequency of smoking, and frequency of alcohol consumption. In conclusion, MetS patients demonstrated a lower arm and leg muscle mass to body weight ratio. Strength training for the lower and upper extremities is recommended because it can have a positive effect on MetS prevention.

  3. K-mixing effects on the magnetic dipole transition probabilities of odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.P.; Mahesh, P.S.; Sharma, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    It has been found that asymmetric core collective model extended to odd-odd nuclei by Sharma and Davidson predicts very good results for magnetic moments of these nuclei even without configuration. These results are further improved when Coriolis perturbation effects are taken into account. The influence of Coriolis coupling on gamma-ray transition probabilities has been studied by Reich et al. In the frame-work of the Coriolis coupling model, M-1 transition probabilities are computed and compared with the results of earlier workers. The asymmetry of the core is expected to influence these results. (author)

  4. Odd-Paired: The Drosophila Zic Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Deborah A; Stultz, Brian G

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain. opa was initially identified as a pair-rule gene, part of the hierarchy of genes that establish the segmental body plan of the early Drosophila embryo. However, its wide expression pattern during embryogenesis indicates it plays additional roles. Embryos deficient in opa die before hatching with aberrant segmentation but also with defects in larval midgut formation. Post-embryonically, opa plays important roles in adult head development and circadian rhythm. Based on extensive neural expression, opa is predicted to be involved in many aspects of neural development and behavior, like other proteins of the Zic family. Consensus DNA binding sites have been identified for Opa and have been shown to activate transcription in vivo. However, there is evidence Opa may serve as a transcriptional regulator in the absence of direct DNA binding, as has been seen for other Zic proteins.

  5. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  6. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-11-18

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.197, p obesity were 0.508 (0.265-0.972) and 0.389 (0.193-0.783), respectively (all p obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145-0.845) and 0.376 (0.161-0.876), respectively (all p obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults.

  7. Effective neutron-proton interaction in rare earth odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, Jean-Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The effective neutron-proton interaction V(np) in the rare earth odd-odd deformed nuclei is studied. The parameters of the effective interaction are determined from least square fits of calculated matrix elements compared to the ones extracted from experiment. These fits show the existence of a long range repulsive component as well the importance of the even term of the tensor part of V(np). Some informations are obtained concerning the influence of the choice of the sample of experimental data, of the average field and finally, of the radial shape of the effective interaction. Some predictions are made concerning as yet unconfirmed V(np) matrix elements [fr

  8. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  9. Energy of the 4(+) isomer and new bands in the odd-odd nucleus 74Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, J.; Holcomb, J.W.; Johnson, T.D.; Riley, M.A.; Tabor, S.L.; Womble, P.C.; Winter, G.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 74 Br were investigated via the reactions 58 Ni ( 19 F,2pn) 74 Br and 65 Cu( 12 C,3n) 74 Br at beam energies of 62 and 50 MeV, respectively. On the basis of coincidence data new levels have been introduced and partly grouped into rotational bands. Some of these new states decay to known levels of negative-parity bands built on both the ground state and the long-lived 4 (+) isomer. Thus, an excitation energy of 13.8 keV has been deduced for the long-lived isomer in 74 Br. The level sequences observed are interpreted in terms of Nilsson configurations in conjunction with collective excitations

  10. Scavenging ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Toonkel, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total 90 Sr fallout is adjusted for dry deposition, and scavenging ratios are calculated at Seattle, New York, and Fayetteville, Ark. Stable-lead scavenging ratios are also presented for New York. These ratios show large scatter, but average values are generally inversely proportional to precipitation. Stable-lead ratios decrease more rapidly with precipitation than do those of 90 Sr, a decrease reflecting a lesser availability of lead to the scavenging processes

  11. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  12. Highly-distorted and doubly-decoupled rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarris, W.C.; Olivier, W.A.; Rios, A.; Hampton, C.; Chou, Wentsae; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1991-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induce large amounts of angular momentum; hence, they selectively populate rotationally-aligned particle states in compound nuclei. Such states tend to deexcite through similar states connected by large coriolis matrix elements, resulting in relatively few - but highly distorted - bands in the lower-energy portions of odd-odd spectra. The extreme cases of this are doubly-decoupled, K ∼ 1 (π 1/2 x ν 1/2) bands, whose γ transitions are the most intense in spectra from many light Re and Ir nuclei. The authors made a two-pronged assault on such bands, studying them via different HI reactions at different laboratories and using interacting-boson (IBFFA) calculations to aid in sorting them out. The authors are beginning to understand the types of (primarily coriolis) distortions involved and hope to grasp a handle on aspects of the p-n residual interaction, although the coriolis distortions are large enough to mask much of the latter. They also discuss similar but complementary effects in the light Pr region

  13. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes $^{106, 108}$In

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, A; Blazhev, A; Van de Walle, J; Weisshaar, D; Zielinska, M; Tveten, G M; Marsh, B A; Siem, S; Gorska, M; Engeland, T; Hurst, A M; Cederkall, J; Finke, F; Iwanicki, J; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Sletten, G; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Butler, P A; Fahlander, C; Stefanescu, I; Koester, U; Ivanov, O; Wenander, F; Voulot, D

    2010-01-01

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes In-106,In-108 have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu d(5/2) and pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu g7/2 multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed gamma-ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6(+) ground state in In-106. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in In-108 is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) val...

  14. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes {sup 106,108}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, A.; Fahlander, C. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Cederkaell, J. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Engeland, T. [University of Oslo, Physics Department and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.; Finke, F.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D. [University of Cologne, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Butler, P.A.; Hurst, A.M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Goergen, A. [Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ivanov, O.; Stefanescu, I. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Iwanicki, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Koester, U. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Marsh, B.A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mierzejewski, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Siem, S. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Sletten, G. [University of Copenhagen, Physics Department, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tveten, G.M. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Van de Walle, J. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Voulot, D.; Wenander, F. [CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes {sup 106,108}In have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu}d{sub 5/2} and {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu} g{sub 7/2} multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed {gamma} -ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6{sup +} ground state in {sup 106}In. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in {sup 108}In is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) values have been extracted where possible. A previously unknown low-lying state at 367keV in {sup 106}In is also reported. (orig.)

  15. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acne inversa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sabat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56, and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09 in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001. AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend

  16. Odds of Getting Adequate Physical Activity by Dog Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jesus; Epping, Jacqueline N; Owens, Chantelle J; Brown, David R; Lankford, Tina J; Simoes, Eduardo J; Caspersen, Carl J

    2015-06-16

    We aimed to determine the likelihood that adult dog owners who walk their dogs will achieve a healthy level of moderate-intensity (MI) physical activity (PA), defined as at least 150 mins/wk. We conducted a systematic search of 6 databases with data from 1990-2012 on dog owners' PA, to identify those who achieved MIPA. To compare dog-walkers' performance with non-dog walkers, we used a random effects model to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). We retrieved 9 studies that met our inclusion criterion and allowed OR calculations. These yielded data on 6980 dog owners aged 18 to 81 years (41% men). Among them, 4463 (63.9%) walked their dogs. Based on total weekly PA, 2710 (60.7%) dog walkers, and 950 (37.7%) non-dog walkers achieved at least MIPA. The estimated OR was 2.74 (95% CI 2.09-3.60). Across 9 published studies, almost 2 in 3 dog owners reported walking their dogs, and the walkers are more than 2.5 times more likely to achieve at least MIPA. These findings suggest that dog walking may be a viable strategy for dog owners to help achieve levels of PA that may enhance their health.

  17. The prevalence and determinants of hypothyroidism in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Bao, Cuiping; Deng, Meiyu; Xu, Hui; Fan, Meijuan; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Xu, Weili; Qi, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related factors, and to assess the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. A total of 1662 type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients hospitalized at the Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2013 were included in this study. Information on demographic and anthropometric factors and additional variables related to hypothyroidism were collected from medical records. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using direct method based on the age-specific and sex-specific structure of all participants. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and 77.0 % of the patients with hypothyroidism had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age, and was higher in women (10.8 %) than in men (3.4 %). Older age (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 % confidence interval, 1. 05 to 2.89), female gender (odds ratio, 2.02; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.87), and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (odds ratio, 4.99; 95 % confidence interval, 2.83 to 8.79) were associated with higher odds of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients. The type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than those with euthyroidism after adjustment for age and gender. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and most patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Older age, female gender, and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody could be indicators for detecting hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients.

  18. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue 10 Years After Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litleskare, Sverre; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Hanevik, Kurt; Langeland, Nina; Wensaas, Knut-Arne

    2018-03-06

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complication that can follow gastrointestinal infection, but it is not clear if patients also develop chronic fatigue. We investigated the prevalence and odds ratio of IBS and chronic fatigue 10 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia, compared with a control cohort, and changes in prevalence over time. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 1252 laboratory-confirmed cases of giardiasis (exposed), which developed in Bergen, Norway in 2004. Statistics Norway provided us with information from 2504 unexposed individuals from Bergen, matched by age and sex (controls). Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3, 6, and 10 years after the outbreak. Results from the 3- and 6-year follow-up analyses have been published previously. We report the 10-year data and changes in prevalence among time points, determined by logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. The prevalence of IBS 10 years after the outbreak was 43% (n = 248) among 576 exposed individuals and 14% (n = 94) among 685 controls (adjusted odds ratio for development of IBS in exposed individuals, 4.74; 95% CI, 3.61-6.23). At this time point, the prevalence of chronic fatigue was 26% (n = 153) among 587 exposed individuals and 11% (n = 73) among 692 controls (adjusted odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.22-4.08). The prevalence of IBS among exposed persons did not change significantly from 6 years after infection (40%) to 10 years after infection (43%; adjusted odds ratio for the change 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22). However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased from 31% at 6 years after infection to 26% at 10 years after infection (adjusted odds ratio for the change 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90). The prevalence of IBS did not change significantly from 6 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia infection in Norway to 10 years after. However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased significantly from 6 to 10 years afterward. IBS and chronic fatigue were

  19. Even and odd symplectic and Kaehlerian structures on projective superspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersessyan, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Supergeneralization of CP(N) provided by even and odd Kaehlerian structures from Hamiltonian reduction are construct. Operator Δ which used in Batalin - Vilkovsky quantization formalism and mechanics which are bi-Hamiltonian under corresponding even and odd Poisson brackets are considered. 21 refs

  20. Regression Tests and the Efficiency of Fixed Odds Betting Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    The informational content of odds posted in sports betting market has been an ongoing topic of research. In this paper, I test whether fixed odds betting markets in soccer are informationally efficient. The contributions of the paper are threefold: first, I propose a simple yet flexible statistical

  1. Formulation of Hamiltonian mechanics with even and odd Poisson brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersesyan, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility is studied as to constrict the odd Poisson bracket and odd Hamiltonian by the given dynamics in phase superspace - the even Poisson bracket and even Hamiltonian so the transition to the new structure does not change the equations of motion. 9 refs

  2. Melham's conjecture on odd power sums of fibonacci numbers | Sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozeki and Prodinger showed that the odd power sum of the first several consecutive Fibonacci numbers of even order is equal to a polynomial evaluated at a certain Fibonacci number of odd order. We prove that this polynomial and its derivative both vanish at 1, and will be an integer polynomial after multiplying it by a ...

  3. Diabetes mellitus and oral mucosa alterations: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Alliny de Souza; Leite, Andressa Rosa Perin; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Nassar, Patrícia Oehlmeyer; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Orrico, Silvana Regina Perez

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of oral mucosa alterations in patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify possible risk factors related to oral mucosa alterations. 146 patients with type 2 diabetes and 111 age- and gender-matched healthy controls subjects were consecutively recruited from Araraquara School of Dentistry to answer a structured questionnaire designed to collect demographic data as well as current and former history of diabetes. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out by a stomatologist. A higher prevalence of oral mucosa alterations was found in patients with diabetes than in patients without diabetes (pdiabetes (odds ratio 9.9 IC 5.11-19.16) and smoking habit (odds ratio 3.17 IC 1.42-7.12) increased the odds of oral mucosa alterations significantly. Patients with diabetes mellitus not only showed an increased prevalence of oral mucosa alterations but also a significant percentage of potentially malignant disorders. These findings elucidate the necessity of regular clinical examination to ensure early diagnosis and prompt management of oral mucosa lesions in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary intake related to prevalent functional limitations in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Kristin M; Sowers, Maryfran R; Crandall, Carolyn; Johnston, Janet; Jannausch, Mary; Yosef, Matheos

    2008-04-15

    Physical functioning measures are considered integrated markers of the aging process. This prospective investigation examined relations between dietary intake of women at midlife in 1996-1997 and prevalence of physical functioning limitations 4 years later, defined by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36. The sample included 2,160 multiethnic women, aged 42-52 years, from six geographic areas participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Associations between measures of diet quality and number of fruit and vegetable servings and prevalent physical functional limitations (no, moderate, or substantial limitations) were tested by logistic regression. The prevalence of moderate and substantial functional limitations was 31% and 10%, respectively. Women in the highest quartile of cholesterol intake had 40% greater odds (odds ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.8) of being more limited versus those in the lowest quartile. Women in the highest quartile of fat and saturated fat intakes were 50% and 60% more likely to be more limited, with respective odds ratios of 1.5 and 1.6 (95% confidence intervals: 1.2, 2.0 and 1.2, 2.1) versus those in the lowest quartiles. Lower fruit, vegetable, and fiber intakes were related to reporting greater functional limitations. Modifying dietary practices could be important in minimizing physical limitations.

  5. GEEORD: A SAS macro for analyzing ordinal response variables with repeated measures through proportional odds, partial proportional odds, or non-proportional odds models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Schwartz, Todd A; Preisser, John S; Perin, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    A SAS macro, GEEORD, has been developed for the analysis of ordinal responses with repeated measures through a regression model that flexibly allows the proportional odds assumption to apply (or not) separately for each explanatory variable. Previously utilized in an analysis of a longitudinal orthognathic surgery clinical trial by Preisser et al. [1,2], the basis of GEEORD is the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method for cumulative logits models described by Lipsitz et al. [3]. The macro extends the capabilities for modeling correlated ordinal data of GEECAT, a SAS macro that allows the user to model correlated categorical response data [4]. The macro applies to independent ordinal responses as a special case. Examples are provided to demonstrate the convenient application of GEEORD to two different datasets. The macro's features are illustrated in fitting models to ordinal response variables in univariate and repeated measures settings; this includes the capacity to fit the non-proportional odds model, the partial proportional odds model, and the proportional odds model. The macro additionally provides relevant tests of the proportional odds assumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of mathematical biology. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- ... his practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery, and he developed a mask using the concept of golden ratio. The mask is called the. Marquardt beauty mask (Figure 1) [1]. Keywords.

  7. ADHD in Tunisian Adolescents: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalla, Ahmed; Guedria, Asma; Brahem, Takoua; Amamou, Badii; Sboui, Wiem; Gaddour, Naoufel; Gaha, Lotfi

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of ADHD in a population of high school students and to explore the factors associated with this disorder. This was a cross-sectional study that had included 447 high school students. The diagnosis of ADHD was made by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale translated in Arabic language. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by a preestablished questionnaire. The self-esteem was assessed by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The prevalence of ADHD was 18.1%. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between the diagnosis of ADHD and the bad relationships with parents (odds ratio [OR] = 16.43; p antecedents (OR = 12.16; p antecedents (OR = 3.16; p = .009). The prevalence of ADHD in this study was one of the highest prevalence reported. The factors associated with ADHD may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  8. Prevalence of orofacial clefts and risks for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in newborns at a university hospital from West Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Peña-Padilla, Christian; Olvera-Molina, Sandra; Orozco-Martín, Miriam A; García-Cruz, Diana; Ríos-Flores, Izabel M; Gómez-Rodríguez, Brian Gabriel; Rivas-Soto, Gemma; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús

    2018-02-19

    We determined the overall prevalence of typical orofacial clefts and the potential risks for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a university hospital from West México. For the prevalence, 227 liveborn infants with typical orofacial clefts were included from a total of 81,193 births occurred during the period 2009-2016 at the "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" Civil Hospital of Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico). To evaluate potential risks, a case-control study was conducted among 420 newborns, including only those 105 patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (cases), and 315 infants without birth defects (controls). Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis expressed as adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals . The overall prevalence for typical orofacial clefts was 28 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval: 24.3-31.6), or 1 per 358 live births. The mean values for the prepregnancy weight, antepartum weight, and pre-pregnancy body mass index were statistically higher among the mothers of cases. Infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate had a significantly higher risk for previous history of any type of congenital anomaly (adjusted odds ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.1), history of a relative with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (adjusted odds ratio: 19.6; 95% confidence interval: 8.2-47.1), and first-trimester exposures to progestogens (adjusted odds ratio: 6.8; 95% CI 1.8-25.3), hyperthermia (adjusted odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-10.6), and common cold (adjusted odds ratio: 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-11.9). These risks could have contributed to explain the high prevalence of orofacial clefts in our region of Mexico, emphasizing that except for history of relatives with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, most are susceptible of modification. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. BKP and CKP revisited: the odd KP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2009-01-01

    By restricting a linear system for the KP hierarchy to those independent variables t n with odd n, its compatibility (Zakharov-Shabat conditions) leads to the 'odd KP hierarchy'. The latter consists of pairs of equations for two dependent variables, taking values in an (typically noncommutative) associative algebra. If the algebra is commutative, the odd KP hierarchy is known to admit reductions to the BKP and the CKP hierarchy. We approach the odd KP hierarchy and its relation to BKP and CKP in different ways, and address the question of whether noncommutative versions of the BKP and the CKP equation (and some of their reductions) exist. In particular, we derive a functional representation of a linear system for the odd KP hierarchy, which in the commutative case produces functional representations of the BKP and CKP hierarchies in terms of a tau function. Furthermore, we consider a functional representation of the KP hierarchy that involves a second (auxiliary) dependent variable and features the odd KP hierarchy directly as a subhierarchy. A method to generate large classes of exact solutions to the KP hierarchy from solutions to a linear matrix ODE system, via a hierarchy of matrix Riccati equations, then also applies to the odd KP hierarchy, and this in turn can be exploited, in particular, to obtain solutions to the BKP and CKP hierarchies

  10. Efficient estimation for high similarities using odd sketches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang

    2014-01-01

    . This means that Odd Sketches provide a highly space-efficient estimator for sets of high similarity, which is relevant in applications such as web duplicate detection, collaborative filtering, and association rule learning. The method extends to weighted Jaccard similarity, relevant e.g. for TF-IDF vector...... comparison. We present a theoretical analysis of the quality of estimation to guarantee the reliability of Odd Sketch-based estimators. Our experiments confirm this efficiency, and demonstrate the efficiency of Odd Sketches in comparison with $b$-bit minwise hashing schemes on association rule learning...

  11. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  12. LOFT advanced control room operator diagnostic and display system (ODDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.G.; Robb, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor Facility in Idaho includes a highly instrumented nuclear reactor operated by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing nuclear safety requirements. The results of the development and installation into LOFT of an Operator Diagnostic and Display System (ODDS) are presented. The ODDS is a computer-based graphics display system centered around a PRIME 550 computer with several RAMTEK color graphic display units located within the control room and available to the reactor operators. Use of computer-based color graphics to aid the reactor operator is discussed. A detailed hardware description of the LOFT data system and the ODDS is presented. Methods and problems of backfitting the ODDS equipment into the LOFT plant are discussed

  13. Quality of Vitamin K Antagonist Anticoagulation in Spain: Prevalence of Poor Control and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita Sánchez, Manuel; Bertomeu Martínez, Vicente; Cequier Fillat, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    To study the prevalence of poorly controlled vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation in Spain in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and to identify associated factors. We studied 1056 consecutive patients seen at 120 cardiology clinics in Spain between November 2013 and March 2014. We analyzed the international normalized ratio from the 6 months prior to the patient's visit, calculating the prevalence of poorly controlled anticoagulation, defined as < 65% time in therapeutic range using the Rosendaal method. Mean age was 73.6 years (standard deviation, 9.8 years); women accounted for 42% of patients. The prevalence of poorly controlled anticoagulation was 47.3%. Mean time in therapeutic range was 63.8% (25.9%). The following factors were independently associated with poorly controlled anticoagulation: kidney disease (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.18; P = .018), routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.79; P = .004), antiplatelet therapy (odds ratio = 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.12; P < .0001) and absence of angiotensin receptor blockers (odds ratio = 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.79; P = .011). There is a high prevalence of poorly controlled vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation in Spain. Factors associated with poor control are kidney disease, routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet use, and absence of angiotensin receptor blockers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Constraints on a parity-even/time-reversal-odd interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2000-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement, one of the results of the CPLEAR experiment. What is the situation then with regard to time-reversal-invariance non-conservation in systems other than the neutral kaon system? Two classes of tests of time-reversal-invariance need to be distinguished: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance non-conserving (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. This in turn provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. The better constraint stems also from the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. Of all the other tests, measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering provide the next better constraint. The latter experiments were performed at TRIUMF (at 477 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (at 183 MeV). Weak decay experiments (the transverse polarization of the muon in K + →π 0 μ + ν μ and the transverse polarization of the positrons in polarized muon decay) have the potential to provide comparable or possibly better constraints

  15. The odd-proton effects on the potential energy surfaces of odd mass Tl, Au, Ir and Re isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    De Wieclawik, W; Larsson, S E; Leander, G; Vieu, C; Dionisio, J S

    1976-01-01

    The total potential energy surfaces of thallium, gold, iridium and rhenium odd mass isotopes are calculated microscopically as functions of the quadrupole deformation, epsilon /sub 2/, when the odd protons occupy definite orbitals. The nuclear shapes and the static equilibrium deformations of these nuclei are deduced from the results of these calculations for the proton orbitals nearest to the Fermi level. The influence of the hexadecapole deformation, epsilon /sub 4/, on these results is investigated too. Finally, a few experimental data available for these odd mass nuclei are correlated to the corresponding theoretical results. (16 refs).

  16. Comparison between urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and urine protein dipstick testing for prevalence and ability to predict the risk for chronic kidney disease in the general population (Iwate-KENCO study): a prospective community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Yorihiko; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Segawa, Toshie; Ohta, Mutsuko; Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanno, Kozo; Makita, Shinji; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Omama, Shin-Ichi; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Okayama, Akira; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2016-05-12

    This study compared the combination of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) vs. eGFR and urine protein reagent strip testing to determine chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence, and each method's ability to predict the risk for cardiovascular events in the general Japanese population. Baseline data including eGFR, UACR, and urine dipstick tests were obtained from the general population (n = 22 975). Dipstick test results (negative, trace, positive) were allocated to three levels of UACR (300), respectively. In accordance with Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes CKD prognosis heat mapping, the cohort was classified into four risk grades (green: grade 1; yellow: grade 2; orange: grade 3, red: grade 4) based on baseline eGFR and UACR levels or dipstick tests. During the mean follow-up period of 5.6 years, 708 new onset cardiovascular events were recorded. For CKD identified by eGFR and dipstick testing (dipstick test ≥ trace and eGFR urine dipstick testing, the predictive ability for cardiovascular events from UACR-based risk grading was superior to that of dipstick-based risk grading in the general population.

  17. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with frozen shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Marcio; Teixeira, Patricia F Santos; Fontenelle, Cesar; Carminatti, Tiago; Santos, Daniel A; Righi, Lucas D; Conceição, Flavia Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism and frozen shoulder (FS) have been associated, although this relationship remains uncertain. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with FS. A case-control study was performed to compare FS patients (cases) with patients who visited an orthopedic service for other clinical conditions (controls). FS was diagnosed according to specific criteria based on anamnesis, physical examination, and shoulder radiographs. A specific questionnaire was applied, and measurements of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free tetraiodothyronine were performed in all subjects. We evaluated 401 shoulders from 93 FS patients and 151 controls. The prevalence of hypothyroidism diagnosis was significantly higher in the FS group (27.2% vs. 10.7%; P = .001). There was also a tendency for higher prevalence of bilateral FS among patients with elevated TSH levels (P = .09). Mean serum TSH levels were higher in patients with bilateral FS compared with those with unilateral compromise (3.39 vs. 2.28; P = .05) and were higher in patients with severe FS compared with those with mild and moderate FS together (3.15 vs. 2.21; P = .03). Multivariate analysis showed that FS was independently related to a diagnosis of hypothyroidism (odds ratio, 3.1 [1.5-6.4]; P = .002). There was a trend toward independent association between high serum TSH levels and both severe (odds ratio, 3.5 [0.8-14.9]; P = .09) and bilateral (odds ratio, 11.7 [0.9-144.8]; P = .05) compromise. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in FS patients than in controls. The results suggest that higher serum TSH levels are associated with bilateral and severe cases of FS. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Socio-economic gradients in prevalent tuberculosis in Zambia and the Western Cape of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tom A; Ayles, Helen; Leacy, Finbarr P; Schaap, A; Boccia, Delia; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Floyd, Sian

    2018-04-01

    To describe the associations between socio-economic position and prevalent tuberculosis in the 2010 ZAMSTAR Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey, one of the first large tuberculosis prevalence surveys in Southern Africa in the HIV era. The main analyses used data on 34 446 individuals in Zambia and 30 017 individuals in South Africa with evaluable tuberculosis culture results. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent TB by two measures of socio-economic position: household wealth, derived from data on assets using principal components analysis, and individual educational attainment. Mediation analysis was used to evaluate potential mechanisms for the observed social gradients. The quartile with highest household wealth index in Zambia and South Africa had, respectively, 0.55 (95% CI 0.33-0.92) times and 0.70 (95% CI 0.54-0.93) times the adjusted odds of prevalent TB of the bottom quartile. College or university-educated individuals in Zambia and South Africa had, respectively, 0.25 (95% CI 0.12-0.54) and 0.42 (95% CI 0.25-0.70) times the adjusted odds of prevalent TB of individuals who had received only primary education. We found little evidence that these associations were mediated via several key proximal risk factors for TB, including HIV status. These data suggest that social determinants of TB remain important even in the context of generalised HIV epidemics. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Lowest Spin and Parity Levels on Two Particle System for Odd-oddNuclei 60Co and 46K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardhani, VIS; Siagian, Toga

    2000-01-01

    For obtaining the lowest spin and parity levels of odd-odd nuclei, theanalyzing of the nuclei 60 Co and 46 K has been done using delta forcemodel. The calculation is done by theoretically and compared with experiment.To get a result optimally, the data analyzed using least square method. It isshown that the lowest spin and parity level from calculation result and theexperiment result are similar. (author)

  20. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its association with tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuramalu, B G; Huliraj, N; Prashanth Kumar, S P; Ramesh Masthi, N R; Srinivasa Babu, C R

    2014-01-01

    A field survey was conducted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) epidemiology in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India, which covers a population of 44,387 to find out the prevalence of COPD in adult subjects of 35 years and above using cluster sampling technique and to determine the association of tobacco smoking, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) exposure and type of cooking fuel used with COPD. The overall prevalence of COPD was 4.36%. The prevalence among males and females were 5.32% and 3.41% respectively. The prevalence was found to be increasing with an increase in age. The tobacco smoke and exposure to ETS was significantly associated with higher odds of COPD with adjusted odds ratio 2.97 and 2.67 respectively. Thus, there was a significant association between tobacco smoking and ETS exposure with COPD.

  1. Gamow-Teller transitions and proton-neutron pair correlation in N =Z odd-odd p -shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions from N =Z +2 neighbors to N =Z odd-odd nuclei in the p -shell region by using isospin-projected and β γ -constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics combined with the generator coordinate method. The calculated GT transition strengths from 0+1 states to 1+0 states such as 6He(01+1 ) →6Li(11+0 ) , 10Be(01+1 ) →10B(11+0 ) , and 14C(01+1 ) →14N(12+0 ) exhaust more than 50% of the sum rule. These N =Z +2 initial states and N =Z odd-odd final states are found to dominantly have S =0 ,T =1 n n pairs and S =1 ,T =0 p n pairs, respectively. Based on the two-nucleon (N N ) pair picture, we can understand the concentration of the GT strengths as the spin-isospin-flip transition n n (S =0 ,T =1 )→p n (S =1 ,T =0 ) in L S coupling. The GT transition can be a good probe to identify the spin-isospin partner states with n n pairs and p n pairs of N =Z +2 and N =Z odd-odd nuclei, respectively.

  2. The Association of Team-Specific Workload and Staffing with Odds of Burnout Among VA Primary Care Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christian D; Simonetti, Joseph A; Clinton, Walter L; Wood, Gordon B; Taylor, Leslie; Schectman, Gordon; Stark, Richard; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Fihn, Stephan D; Nelson, Karin M

    2017-07-01

    Work-related burnout is common in primary care and is associated with worse patient safety, patient satisfaction, and employee mental health. Workload, staffing stability, and team completeness may be drivers of burnout. However, few studies have assessed these associations at the team level, and fewer still include members of the team beyond physicians. To study the associations of burnout among primary care providers (PCPs), nurse care managers, clinical associates (MAs, LPNs), and administrative clerks with the staffing and workload on their teams. We conducted an individual-level cross-sectional analysis of survey and administrative data in 2014. Primary care personnel at VA clinics responding to a national survey. Burnout was measured with a validated single-item survey measure dichotomized to indicate the presence of burnout. The independent variables were survey measures of team staffing (having a fully staffed team, serving on multiple teams, and turnover on the team), and workload both from survey items (working extended hours), and administrative data (patient panel overcapacity and average panel comorbidity). There were 4610 respondents (estimated response rate of 20.9%). The overall prevalence of burnout was 41%. In adjusted analyses, the strongest associations with burnout were having a fully staffed team (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 95% CI 0.47-0.65), having turnover on the team (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.43-1.94), and having patient panel overcapacity (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40). The observed burnout prevalence was 30.1% lower (28.5% vs. 58.6%) for respondents working on fully staffed teams with no turnover and caring for a panel within capacity, relative to respondents in the inverse condition. Complete team staffing, turnover among team members, and panel overcapacity had strong, cumulative associations with burnout. Further research is needed to understand whether improvements in these factors would lower burnout.

  3. Memory effect for particle scattering in odd spacetime dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishchandran, Gautam; Wald, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational memory effect for linearized perturbations off of Minkowski space in odd spacetime dimensions d by examining the effects of gravitational radiation from classical point particle scattering. We also investigate analogous memory effects for electromagnetic and scalar radiation. We find that there is no gravitational memory effect in all odd dimensions. For scalar and electromagnetic fields, there is no memory effect for d ≥7 ; for d =3 there is an infinite momentum memory effect, whereas for d =5 there is no momentum memory effect but the displacement of a test particle will grow unboundedly with time. Our results are further elucidated by analyzing the memory effect for any slowly moving source of compact spatial support in odd dimensions.

  4. Iron-Based Superconductors as Odd-Parity Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

  5. High preoperative prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, M T; Nielsen, T S H; Frøkjaer, J B

    2007-01-01

    , with a prevalence of 16 per cent in women (12 of 76) versus 2.6 per cent in men (three of 117 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 5.8 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 1.4 to 23.2)). The risk of DVT was strongly correlated with increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) risk score: adjusted OR 6.8 (95 per...

  6. Tricomplex Dynamical Systems Generated by Polynomials of Odd Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Pierre-Olivier; Rochon, Dominic

    In this paper, we give the exact interval of the cross section of the Multibrot sets generated by the polynomial zp + c where z and c are complex numbers and p > 2 is an odd integer. Furthermore, we show that the same Multibrots defined on the hyperbolic numbers are always squares. Moreover, we give a generalized 3D version of the hyperbolic Multibrot set and prove that our generalization is an octahedron for a specific 3D slice of the dynamical system generated by the tricomplex polynomial ηp + c where p > 2 is an odd integer.

  7. Odd-flavor Simulations by the Hybrid Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Takaishi, Tetsuya; Takaishi, Tetsuya; De Forcrand, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The standard hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm is known to simulate even flavors QCD only. Simulations of odd flavors QCD, however, can be also performed in the framework of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm where the inverse of the fermion matrix is approximated by a polynomial. In this exploratory study we perform three flavors QCD simulations. We make a comparison of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm and the R-algorithm which also simulates odd flavors systems but has step-size errors. We find that results from our hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm are in agreement with those from the R-algorithm obtained at very small step-size.

  8. Energy spectra of odd nuclei in the generalized model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Korzh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the generalized nuclear model, energy spectra of the odd nuclei of such elements as 25Mg, 41K, and 65Cu are determined, and the structure of wave functions of these nuclei in the excited and normal states is studied. High quality in determining the energy spectra is possible due to the accurate calculations of all elements of the energy matrix. It is demonstrated that the structure of the wave functions so determined provides the possibility to more accurately select the nuclear model and the method for calculating the nucleon cross-sections of the inelastic scattering of nucleons by odd nuclei.

  9. [Prevalence of mobbing in workers and factor risk associates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico there is little research to know the magnitude of mobbing. To identify the prevalence of mobbing and characteristics associated in workers. A cross-sectional study of 499 workers who use medical unit. A questionnaire was used to determine the presence of mobbing and various instruments to know the personality, vulnerability to stress, self-esteem and depression. Prevalence odds ratio, dispersion, chi-square and Poisson regression were calculated. A prevalence of 36% was found; no significant differences between sex or school level in mobbing presence, 20.2%, were found. Sixty per cent women are perceived as victims of harassment high relative to men (p = 0.04). Workers with low self-esteem have a greater association with high mobbing (p mobbing and personality and emotional disorders were identified.

  10. Totally odd K-4-subdivisions in 4-chromatic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by Bjarne Toft in 1975 that every 4-chromatic graph contains a subdivision of K-4 in which each edge of K-4 corresponds to a path of odd length. As an auxiliary result we characterize completely the subspace of the cycle space generated by all cycles through two fixed...

  11. Global phenomenological descriptions of nuclear odd-even mass staggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm; Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined ...... into a global phenomenological expression, ready to use in a binding energy formula. The results deviate from previous parametrizations, and in particular found to be significantly superior to a recent two term, A−1 dependence.......We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined...... by the main nuclear shells, and a clear change in this dependency is found at Z=50 for both neutrons and protons. A further separation into odd and even neutron (proton) number produces very accurate local descriptions of the mass differences for each type of nucleons. These odd-even effects are combined...

  12. Odd Couples : A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rydström, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Odd Couples. A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia is het eerste omvangrijke boek over de geschiedenis van het geregistreerd partnerschap en het homohuwelijk in Scandinavië. Dit boek presenteert een grondig onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen het homoactivisme en traditionele partijpolitiek.

  13. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  14. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, θ A , induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tanβ, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by θ A . We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development

  15. RENORMALIZATION FACTOR AND ODD-OMEGA GAP SINGLET SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLGOV, OV; LOSYAKOV, VV

    1994-01-01

    Abrahams et al. [Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 513] have considered the possibility of a nonzero critical temperature of the superconductor transition to the state with odd-omega pp function and shown that the condition for it is the following inequality for the renormalization factor. Z (k, omega(n)) <1.

  16. Partial dynamical symmetry in odd-mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral features of the odd-mass nucleus 195 Pt are analyzed by means of an interacting boson-fermion Hamiltonian with SO(6) partial dynamical symmetry. For the latter, selected eigenstates are solvable and preserve the symmetry exactly, while other states are mixed. The analysis constitutes a first example of this novel symmetry construction in a mixed Bose-Fermi system

  17. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the…

  18. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  19. Do Puerto Rican youth with asthma and obesity have higher odds for mental health disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Prelip, Michael; Martin, Molly; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-01-01

    Island Puerto Rican (PR) youth experience disproportionately high asthma and obesity rates compared with other racial/ethnic groups on the U.S. mainland. Previous research has demonstrated associations of chronic disease with psychiatric disorders. We examined the relationship among anxiety/depressive disorders, asthma, and obesity in an epidemiologic community sample of youth. The sample (n = 656) was derived from the second wave of an island-wide probabilistic representative household sample of PR youth stratified and based on whether or not they had a diagnosis of asthma and/or depressive/anxiety disorder. For this study, we used the subpopulation ages 10-19 years. Asthma and obesity were significantly related to higher odds of depressive/anxiety disorders in youth. Obesity moderated the relationship between asthma attacks and depressive/anxiety disorders. The relationship between asthma attack and higher odds for depressive/anxiety disorders was only present in the non-obese group. Among the obese, females show a significant increase from 11% to 36% in the prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders. Asthma and obesity were highly prevalent and a significant association was found between asthma attack and depressive/anxiety disorders. The effects of asthma and obesity were not additive; the prevalence for psychiatric disorder for those having both conditions did not increase above the prevalence associated having only one of the conditions. Future studies should consider including longitudinal designs and examine the extent to which important variables not included in this study, such as body image dissatisfaction (particularly among females), teasing, and discrimination may moderate the relationship among obesity and depressive and anxiety disorders in youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder During Middle Childhood: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, David H; Hooley, Merrilyn; Sheen, Jade; McGillivray, Jane A; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-02-01

    This review provides a meta-analysed male:female prevalence ratio of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during middle childhood in non-referred children. It also analyses sex differences in prevalence across cultures and over time. A systematic search for studies via the following sources was conducted: PsycInfo, Web of Knowledge, Medline Complete, Scopus, EMBASE, InfoRMIT, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Cochrane Library, PubMed and ProQuest Health. The studies presented in two previous systematic reviews were also added to the search results. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were then applied and final studies were appraised for their methodological quality. Nineteen independent effect sizes met full inclusion criteria (aggregated sample N = 44,107). Overall, the prevalence of ODD was significantly higher in boys than girls (RR = 1.59, 95 % CI [1.36, 1.86], p  0.05). Sex differences in prevalence were significant in studies published prior to and post the year 2000 (RR = 1.57, 95 % CI [1.22, 2.02], p  0.05). The sex differences in ODD prevalence are discussed within the context of (i) predominant theories of sex differences in externalising behaviours, and (ii) departure from the sex-differences pattern found for other disruptive behavioural disorders.

  1. Log odds of positive lymph nodes are superior to other measures for evaluating the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Peng

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of the log odds of positive lymph nodes to predict prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Correlations between the log odds of positive lymph nodes, numbers of dissected lymph nodes, dissected lymph node stations, positive lymph nodes, positive lymph node ratio, and positive lymph node stations were retrospectively evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients (r), survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard ratio model, and log-rank tests. The numbers of dissected lymph nodes, positive lymph nodes, dissected lymph node stations and positive lymph node stations significantly correlated with the log odds of positive lymph nodes (P log odds of positive lymph nodes -1.412 were 63.9% and 32.5%, respectively (P log odds of positive lymph nodes are independent risk factors for overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.660, 95% confidence interval 2.114-3.346, P log odds of positive lymph nodes and a tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system was established for predicting survival. The log odds of positive lymph nodes are superior to the positive lymph node ratio and p-N-stage for predicting prognosis of NSCLC. A new staging system that combines log odds of positive lymph nodes and the current TNM staging system predicts prognosis more accurately than the TNM system alone.

  2. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yang Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS. However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR: 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04-2.66. In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88. The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  3. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  4. Prevalence of corporal punishment among students in Washington State schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, D C; Rauh, M J; Rivara, F P

    1995-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment in Washington State and the factors associated with its use in Washington elementary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional mail survey performed during the summer of 1992. All elementary and secondary schools in the state of Washington. One thousand eighteen schools (47%) responded to the survey, of which 80% were publicly funded and 63% were located in urban areas. The study sample closely resembled the profile of all schools in the state. Almost 11% of participating schools permitted corporal punishment at the time of the survey and 3.2% reported its actual use during the 1991-1992 school year, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 7.2 incidents per 1000 students per year. Sixteen percent of corporal punishment actions occurred in schools not permitting its use. Ninety percent of public schools relied on district policy regarding corporal punishment. School characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment included rural location (crude odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4), enrollment of less than 500 students (crude odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7), and kindergarten to eighth-grade or kindergarten to 12th-grade enrollment (crude odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). The lack of a statewide ban on school corporal punishment at the time of this survey was associated with the continued use of corporal punishment against children in districts that continued to permit it. School policies against corporal punishment were associated with much lower prevalence. Continued efforts are needed to enact and enforce laws in the remaining states that have not yet banned corporal punishment.

  5. [Prevalence of asthma and determination of symptoms as risk indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease whose prevalence has increased, especially in developed countries; the results of studies of asthma prevalence vary in different populations and even within the same country; in Mexico we observed fluctuations in prevalence of asthma from 7% to 33%. To determine the prevalence of asthma and severity of symptoms as risk indicators in school population in cities in various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of detection of asthma prevalence and analytical-comparative observational study of determination of symptoms of asthma. The surveys were applied to preschool, elementary, middle and high school population, in the cities of Puebla, Puebla; Tulancingo, Hidalgo; Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, and Cancún, Quintana Roo; new validated questionnaire was used as instrument: Asthma Diagnostic Questionnaire for Epidemiologic Studies, consisting of eight questions with summation value for diagnosis. 8,754 surveys showed a 14% prevalence in Puebla, 17% in Tulancingo, 7% in Tlaxcala, and 14% in Cancún; average in four cities surveyed was 13%; the strength of association with asthma symptoms in descending order with significant odds ratio were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent cough, cough cold, recurrent cold symptoms, predominantly nocturnal cough, cough that increases with exercise. The average prevalence of asthma in the surveyed cities was 13% and the main symptoms indicators of risk of asthma in school children were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and recurrent cough.

  6. Sex-specific increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently encountered cardiac arrhythmia. It is a risk factor for stroke and premature death. We studied the temporal changes in the prevalence of AF from 1976 to 1994 in a random population aged 50 to 89 years. The prevalence of AF, diagnosed from electrocar.......4% in 1976 to 1978 (odds ratio [OR] 1.0, reference) to 1.9% in 1981 to 1983 (OR 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.1), and to 3.3% in 1991 to 1994 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.4, p...

  7. The classification of p-compact groups for p odd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Grodal, J.; Møller, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A p-compact group, as defined by Dwyer and Wilkerson, is a purely homotopically defined p-local analog of a compact Lie group. It has long been the hope, and later the conjecture, that these objects should have a classification similar to the classification of compact Lie groups. In this paper we...... finish the proof of this conjecture, for p an odd prime, proving that there is a one-to-one correspondence between connected p-compact groups and finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. We do this by providing the last, and rather intricate, piece, namely that the exceptional compact Lie...... groups are uniquely determined as p-compact groups by their Weyl groups seen as finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. Our approach in fact gives a largely self-contained proof of the entire classification theorem for p odd....

  8. MODELLING OF ORDINAL TIME SERIES BY PROPORTIONAL ODDS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil AKTAŞ ALTUNAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Categorical time series data with random time dependent covariates often arise when the variable categories are assigned as categorical. There are several other models that have been proposed in the literature for the analysis of categorical time series. For example, Markov chain models, integer autoregressive processes, discrete ARMA models can be utilized for modeling of categorical time series. In general, the choice of model depends on the measurement of study variables: nominal, ordinal and interval. However, regression theory is successful approach for categorical time series which is based on generalized linear models and partial likelihood inference. One of the models for ordinal time series in regression theory is proportional odds model. In this study, proportional odds model approach to ordinal categorical time series is investigated based on a real air pollution data set and the results are discussed.

  9. Fermions in odd space-time dimensions: back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguiano Jesus de, Ma.; Bashir, A.

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known feature of odd space-time dimensions d that there exist two inequivalent fundamental representations A and B of the Dirac gamma matrices. Moreover, the parity transformation swaps the fermion fields living in A and B. As a consequence, a parity-invariant Lagrangian can only be constructed by incorporating both the representation. Based upon these ideas and contrary to long-held belief, we show that in addition to a discrete exchange symmetry for the massless case, we can also define chiral symmetry provided the Lagrangian contains fields corresponding to both the inequivalent representations. We also study the transformation properties of the corresponding chiral currents under parity and charge-conjugation operations. We work explicitly in 2 + 1 dimensions and later show how some of these ideas generalize to an arbitrary number of odd dimensions. (author)

  10. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part

  11. J/ψ dissociation in parity-odd bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the quarkonium dissociation rate in the P and CP-odd domains (bubbles) that were possibly created in heavy-ion collisions. In the presence of the magnetic field produced by the valence quarks of colliding ions, parity-odd domains generate electric field. Quarkonium dissociation is the result of quantum tunneling of quark or antiquark through the potential barrier in this electric field. The strength of the electric field in the quarkonium comoving frame depends on the quarkonium velocity with respect to the background magnetic field. We investigate momentum, electric field strength and azimuthal dependence of the dissociation rate. Azimuthal distribution of quarkonia surviving in the electromagnetic field is strongly anisotropic; the form of anisotropy depends on the relation between the electric and magnetic fields and quarkonium momentum P ⊥ . These features can be used to explore the properties of the electromagnetic field created in heavy ion collisions.

  12. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  13. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  14. gamma -transition rates in transitional odd gold nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, V; Oms, J

    1981-01-01

    The results of two half-life measurements of excited states in /sup 185/Au are presented. One supports the proposed interpretation of the ground state configuration, the other one calls attention to the h 9/2 to h 11/2 M1 transitions in odd mass gold nuclei, which, in spite of considerable deformation changes of the h 9/2 state, all show the same retardation. (5 refs).

  15. Magnetic Dipole Sum Rules for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), I-38050 Villazano, Trento (Italy)

    1997-08-01

    Sum rules for the total- and scissors-mode M1 strength in odd-A nuclei are derived within the single-j interacting boson-fermion model. We discuss the physical content and geometric interpretation of these sum rules and apply them to {sup 167}Er and {sup 161}Dy. We find consistency with the former measurements but not with the latter. {copyright} {ital 1997 } {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Magnetic Dipole Sum Rules for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A.; Leviatan, A.; Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Sum rules for the total- and scissors-mode M1 strength in odd-A nuclei are derived within the single-j interacting boson-fermion model. We discuss the physical content and geometric interpretation of these sum rules and apply them to 167 Er and 161 Dy. We find consistency with the former measurements but not with the latter. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  18. Signatures of shape phase transitions in odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum phase transitions between competing ground-state shapes of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons are investigated in a microscopic framework based on nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-plus-boson-core coupling scheme. The boson-core Hamiltonian, as well as the single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the unpaired nucleon, are completely determined by constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations for a specific choice of the energy density functional and paring interaction, and only the strength parameters of the particle-core coupling are adjusted to reproduce selected spectroscopic properties of the odd-mass system. We apply this method to odd-A Eu and Sm isotopes with neutron number N ≈90 , and explore the influence of the single unpaired fermion on the occurrence of a shape phase transition. Collective wave functions of low-energy states are used to compute quantities that can be related to quantum order parameters: deformations, excitation energies, E 2 transition rates, and separation energies, and their evolution with the control parameter (neutron number) is analyzed.

  19. Regulation and function of odd-paired in Tribolium segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Chong Pyo; Stellabotte, Frank; Brown, Susan J

    2017-09-01

    The pair-rule gene odd-paired (opa) is required for the patterning of alternate segment boundaries in the early Drosophila embryo. Mutant phenotypes of opa display a typical pair-rule phenotype in which most of each odd-numbered denticle belt is eliminated. However, among the nine Drosophila pair-rule genes, opa is the only gene that is not expressed in stripes with double segmental periodicity; its transcript and protein are expressed in a broad domain within segmenting embryos. While expression patterns of orthologs of opa have been analyzed in several arthropod species, their regulation and function in segmentation were largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the expression patterns, regulation, and function of the Tribolium ortholog of opa (Tc-opa). Tc-opa is expressed in segmental stripes in the early stages of segmentation and then is expressed in a broad domain at the growth zone of elongating germbands where new segments form. This broad expression of Tc-opa is processed into segmental stripes once the trunk has become segmented. Tc-opa expression is regulated positively and negatively by even-skipped and odd-skipped, respectively. However, knock-down of Tc-opa does not affect embryonic segmentation. Our findings suggest that Tc-opa expression is regulated by the pair-rule gene network even though its requirement for segmentation is uncertain in Tribolium.

  20. Association between triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Huerín, Melina

    2016-01-01

    The triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio, as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, may be associated to presence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to explore this association. Women (last menstrual period≥2 years) in primary prevention up to 65 years of age were recruited. Association between the triglyceride/HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and presence of carotid plaque, assessed by ultrasonography, was analyzed. ROC analysis was performed, determining the precision of this ratio to detect carotid plaque. A total of 332 women (age 57±5 years) were recruited. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio was 2.35±1.6. Prevalence of carotid plaque was 29%. Women with carotid plaque had higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios (3.33±1.96 vs. 2.1±1.2, P<.001) than women with no carotid plaque. A positive relationship was seen between quintiles of this ratio and prevalence of carotid plaque (p<.001). Regardless of other risk factors, women with higher triglyceride/HDL-C ratios were more likely to have carotid plaque (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.20-1.79, P<.001). The area under the curve of the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio to detect carotid plaque was .71 (95% confidence interval .65 to .76), and the optimal cut-off point was 2.04. In postmenopausal women in primary prevention, insulin resistance, estimated from the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio, was independently associated to a greater probability of carotid plaque. A value of such ratio greater than 2 may be used for assessing cardiovascular risk in this particular group of women. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism in the adult population of the Basque Country, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, A; Urrutia, I; González-Frutos, T; Martínez, R; Martínez-Indart, L; Castaño, L; Gaztambide, S

    2017-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism in the Basque Country and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. A population-based, cross-sectional, cluster sampling design study was carried out in an adult (≥18 years) Basque population. A total of 847 participants completed a questionnaire on personal and family medical history and lifestyle. Anthropometric variables and blood pressure were measured and biochemical analysis and an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) were also performed. The total prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% (95% CI 8.65-12.95). Among them 6.3% (95% CI 4.79-8.22) had previously been diagnosed and 4.3% (95% CI 3.04-5.92) were not aware that they had diabetes. Impaired glucose tolerance was present in 7.2% (95% CI 5.53-9.15) and impaired fasting glucose in 3.8% (95% CI 2.64-5.37) of the population. In total, 21.6% of the population had some type of glucose metabolism disturbance, with a higher rate among men (28.3 vs 16.3%; Pdiabetes were: male sex [odds ratio 4.58 (95% CI 2.34-8.97)]; abdominal obesity [odds ratio 2.80 (95% CI 1.47-5.36)]; high triglyceride levels [odds ratio 2.46 (95% CI 1.26-4.81)]; hypertension [odds ratio 2.40 (95% CI 1.16-4.96)]; family history of diabetes [odds ratio 2.30 (95% CI 1.25-4.24)]; high LDL cholesterol levels [odds ratio 1.83 (95% CI 1.01-3.31)] and older age [odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.10)]. The prevalence of diabetes in the Basque Country was lower than in Spain and was independently associated with family history of diabetes and with cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, high LDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, which were also observed in those with prediabetes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  3. Pseudo-spin band in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu

    CERN Document Server

    Venkova, T; Gast, W; Podsvirova, E O; Jäger, H M; Mihailescu, L; Bazzacco, D; Menegazzo, R; Lunardi, S; Alvarez, C R; Ur, C; Martínez, T; Angelis, G D; Axiotis, M; Napoli, D; Urban, W; Rzaca-Urban, T; Frauendorf, S

    2003-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu have been populated in a sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 Er( sup 7 Li,5n) reaction and the emitted gamma-radiation was detected with the GASP array. Two sequences of a new identical band have been observed with the transition energies in the favoured and unfavoured sequences being identical within approx 3 keV at low spins and approx 1 keV at high spins over the whole observed spin range. An interpretation as a pseudo-spin singlet band of pi 1/2 sup - [541] x nu 1/2 sup - [420] configuration is proposed. It represents the best example of a pseudo-spin singlet band in normal deformed nuclei known until now.

  4. Breed prevalence of canine lymphoma in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesl J. Van Rooyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma is a common haematopoietic neoplasm in dogs. Several breeds have been shown to have a predisposition to lymphoma; however, very little information exists regarding the South African dog population. This study assessed whether any breed had increased odds of developing lymphoma compared with others, and also investigated the effects of age, sex and neutering status on disease prevalence. Two study populations and their corresponding reference populations were studied retrospectively. Odds ratios (ORs for lymphoma in 49 dog breeds, together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI, were calculated. Age effect was assessed by calculating ORs for different age categories in one of the populations. The chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in the prevalence of the various sex and neutering categories in one lymphoma population compared with its reference population. Fourteen breeds had significantly increased odds of developing lymphoma, and one breed had significantly decreased odds (p < 0.050. The median ages of the two lymphoma populations were 6.5 and 8.0 years, with the 6.1–9.0 year category having significantly increased odds of developing lymphoma (OR 1.61, CI 1.2–2.16, p = 0.002. In one of the lymphoma populations, higher proportions of males (p = 0.033 and neutered females (p = 0.006 were found when compared with the reference population. These findings suggest that certain breeds in South Africa have a higher risk of developing lymphoma, and that sex hormones may play a role in lymphoma pathogenesis. The findings may provide useful information for pet owners and veterinarians.

  5. History of postpartum depression and the odds of maternal corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Rosenberger, Ryan; Sarwar, Sajjad; Mangewala, Vikas; Klag, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    Corporal punishment is closely related to physical abuse of children and is associated with several negative characteristics and experiences in children and youths. This study examined the relative unique contribution of 6 variables (social support, socioeconomic status, depression, self-efficacy, knowledge of child development, and history of postpartum depression) to maternal corporal punishment of children. A sample of 76 mothers was dichotomized into those who never spanked or hit with an object and those who have spanked or hit with an object. The mothers were recruited from a community mental health agency, an urban community center, and a court of common pleas. The measures in the present study were administered prior to mothers' participation in a parent training program. Mothers referred by the court of common pleas were mandated to participate in the parent training program, and the mothers from the community mental health agency and the urban community center volunteered to participate in the parent training program. However, all participants voluntarily completed the research measures. Binary logistic regression identified postpartum depression as the only variable to significantly increase the odds of corporal punishment (odds ratio = 6.307, 95% confidence interval = 1.098-36.214, p = .039). The findings demonstrate increased odds of corporal punishment among a high-risk sample of women with postpartum depression. The generalizability of these findings may be limited to low socioeconomic class and White and African American mothers enrolled in parent-training programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Chlamydia prevalence among women and men entering the National Job Training Program: United States, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Tian, Lin H; Braxton, Jimmy; Weinstock, Hillard

    2010-02-01

    To analyze 5-year prevalence trends in Chlamydia trachomatis infections among high-risk young men and women aged 16 to 24 years entering the National Job Training Program, where universal screening is required. Entrance exams conducted in over 100 National Job Training Program centers from 2003 to 2007 were considered. Women provided cervical specimens tested using either a DNA hybridization probe (PACE 2, Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA) or a strand displacement amplification test (SDA, BD ProbeTec ET, Becton-Dickinson, Sparks, MD). In the absence of a pelvic exam, urine specimens were tested using SDA. PACE 2 testing was performed predominately from 2002 to 2005; from 2005 to 2007, SDA was used. All male testing was conducted using SDA on urine specimens. Chlamydia prevalence trends were assessed for women and men, using logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and P-values were calculated. Approximately 15,000 women and 30,000 men were screened annually for chlamydia. Among both sexes, adjusted prevalence declined significantly from 2003 to 2007. In 2003, crude prevalence among women was 9.9%; in 2007, prevalence was 13.7%. However, after controlling for covariates, including increasingly sensitive tests, the model indicated a significant declining prevalence trend (AOR: 0.95, CI: 0.93-0.97, 4.6% decrease in odds per year). Among men, crude prevalence in 2003 was 8.4%; in 2007, prevalence was 8.3%; after controlling for possible confounding, a significant decline in prevalence was also detected (AOR: 0.98, CI: 0.96-0.99, 1.9% decrease in odds per year). In a relatively stable, high-risk population of young women and men, adjusted chlamydia prevalence declined from 2003 to 2007. Test technology plays a critical role in interpreting rates and should be considered whenever chlamydia rates are examined.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence against HIV-seropositive pregnant women in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanochie, Michael C; Olagbuji, Biodun N; Ande, Adedapo B; Kubeyinje, Weyinmi E; Okonofua, Friday E

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among HIV-positive pregnant Nigerian women. Cross-sectional study using an anonymous semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The antenatal clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, from June 2008 to December 2009. 305 HIV-positive women receiving antenatal care. An anonymous semi-structured World Health Organization modified questionnaire that elicited information on the experiences of intimate partner violence, was administered to the women by trained female interviewers. Prevalence, pattern and risk factors associated with experiencing intimate partner violence. The prevalence of intimate partner violence among the women was 32.5%, with psychological violence being the most common form of violence reported (27.5%) and physical violence the least reported (5.9%). Identified risk factors for experiencing violence were multiparity (Odds ratio 9.4; CI 1.23-71.33), respondents with an HIV-positive child (Odds ratio 9.2; CI 4.53-18.84), experience of violence before they were diagnosed HIV-positive (Odds ratio 44.4; 10.33-190.42) and women with partners without post-secondary education (Odds ratio 2.3; CI 1.40-3.91). Intimate partner violence is a prevalent public health problem among HIV-infected pregnant women in our community and it may hinder efforts to scale up prevention of mother-child transmission programs, especially in developing countries. Screening for intimate partner violence to identify abused women should be incorporated into these programs to offer these women optimal care. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Christiansen filter realized by an odd smooth cylindrical lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Goddard, N; Xie, Kang

    2010-01-01

    The Christiansen filter that is realized by odd smooth cylindrical lenses is analyzed in detail. Several popular filtering functions are discussed. The corresponding lens profile functions are obtained by an inverse scattering theory, which enables the filter to synthesize a desired prescribed response function. This kind of Christiansen filter has a passband narrower than that of the traditional Christiansen filter. Three Christiansen filters centered at 545 nm with full width at half-maximum of 2 nm are synthesized, and the approach to a better suppression of halos from the main transmission peak of the filters is presented in a systematic way.

  9. Oddness of least energy nodal solutions on radial domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Grumiau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the Lane-Emden problem $$displaylines{ Delta u(x + |{u(x}mathclose|^{p-2}u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinOmega,cr u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinpartialOmega, }$$ where $2 < p < 2^{*}$ and $Omega$ is a ball or an annulus in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $Ngeq 2$. We show that, for p close to 2, least energy nodal solutions are odd with respect to an hyperplane -- which is their nodal surface. The proof ingredients are a constrained implicit function theorem and the fact that the second eigenvalue is simple up to rotations.

  10. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.K.; Clarke, S.M.; Bhinde, T.; Castro, M.A.; Millan, C.; Medina, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C 7 , C 9 and C 11 ) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C 11 homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C 7 homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  11. Low-spin states of odd-mass xenon isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The result of an IBFM-1 multilevel calculation with the 2d5/2, 1g7/2, 3s1/2, 2d3/2 and 1h11/2, single particle orbits is reported for the positive parity states of the odd-mass nucleus 125-129Xe. Also, an IBM- 1 calculation is ... Harun R Yazar1. Faculty of Arts and Science, Nev»sehir University, 50300 Nev»sehir, Turkey ...

  12. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on odd nitrogen in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Herman, J. R.; Maier, E. J. R.; McQuillan, C. J.

    1983-09-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbon breakdown in the atmosphere produces aldehydes of which a fraction are transferred into peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) in the presence of NO and NO 2. Since ethane is destroyed photochemically primarily above 1 km, PAN can be introduced into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere without the need to be transported from the boundary layer where most hydrocarbons are destroyed and where PAN may be lost due to thermal decomposition and heterogeneous loss. Mixing ratios of ethane in the lower troposphere increase by a factor of 4-8 from equatorial to northern mid-latitudes. This difference is directly translatable into a PAN latitude gradient. At mid-latitudes the concentration of PAN below 20 km is 0.1 ppb comparable to and in some instances larger than predicted HO 2NO 2 mixing ratios. Like HO 2NO 2 and HNO 3, PAN serves as a reservoir for odd nitrogen.

  14. 50/50 Expressional Odds of Retention Signifies the Distinction between Retained Introns and Constitutively Spliced Introns in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intron retention, one of the most prevalent alternative splicing events in plants, can lead to introns retained in mature mRNAs. However, in comparison with constitutively spliced introns (CSIs, the relevantly distinguishable features for retained introns (RIs are still poorly understood. This work proposes a computational pipeline to discover novel RIs from multiple next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq datasets of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this pipeline, we detected 3,472 novel RIs from 18 RNA-Seq datasets and re-confirmed 1,384 RIs which are currently annotated in the TAIR10 database. We also use the expression of intron-containing isoforms as a new feature in addition to the conventional features. Based on these features, RIs are highly distinguishable from CSIs by machine learning methods, especially when the expressional odds of retention (i.e., the expression ratio of the RI-containing isoforms relative to the isoforms without RIs for the same gene reaches to or larger than 50/50. In this case, the RIs and CSIs can be clearly separated by the Random Forest with an outstanding performance of 0.95 on AUC (the area under a receiver operating characteristics curve. The closely related characteristics to the RIs include the low strength of splice sites, high similarity with the flanking exon sequences, low occurrence percentage of YTRAY near the acceptor site, existence of putative intronic splicing silencers (ISSs, i.e., AG/GA-rich motifs and intronic splicing enhancers (ISEs, i.e., TTTT-containing motifs, and enrichment of Serine/Arginine-Rich (SR proteins and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle proteins (hnRNPs.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of internalizing mental health symptoms among CSHCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Kogan, Michael D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Perry, Deborah F

    2010-02-01

    This study provides nationally representative prevalence estimates of internalizing mental health symptoms among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and identifies significant covariates of these symptoms by using multivariate regression. Internalizing symptoms include feeling anxious and depressed. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a nationally representative, parent-reported, cross-sectional survey of 40 465 CSHCN. The presence of internalizing mental health symptoms was assessed by using 2 binary items capturing whether a child had or experienced difficulty with depression, anxiety, disordered eating, or other emotional problems. The odds of experiencing internalizing symptoms were assessed by using multivariate regression, controlling for sociodemographic, health-related, and burden-related covariates. A total of 31.9% of CSHCN 3 to 17 years of age experienced internalizing mental health symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression showed internalizing symptoms to be strongly associated with female gender, older age, and frequent activity limitations, as well as externalizing mental health symptoms and conditions with behavioral components. Children with behavior problems had 6 times the odds of internalizing symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.95 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.30-6.69]), whereas children with autism spectrum disorder had 3 times the odds (aOR: 3.00 [95% CI: 2.39-3.77]). Increased odds of symptoms also were associated with frequent headaches (aOR: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.45-2.13]) and chronic pain (aOR: 1.46 [95% CI: 1.22-1.75]). Odds of symptoms were greater for children living in households that experienced employment changes or financial burdens resulting from the children's needs. Internalizing mental health symptoms are common among CSHCN. Findings may help caregivers focus screening and prevention efforts for high-risk groups in this heterogeneous population.

  16. Quadruple symmetric real signals spectral even and odd decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivkov Venelin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectral properties of quadruple symmetric real signals are analyzed in the study. Six number theorems are formulated and proofed analytically in a capacity of central results of the research. Lasted theorem could be used to construct complex Fourier spectrum for arbitrary real function by even - odd decomposition. The theorem is illustrated numerically. The initial signal with length N (analogous values length interval or number of discrete samples in the time domain is Fourier transformed through two spectral - real and imaginary parts with length N in the frequency domain. The real and imaginary parts of the complex Fourier spectrum of the initial signal, could be obtained by procedure, described in the paper. Spectral parts could be calculated by equivalent functions-signals. Even left and odd right equivalent functions-signals contain N/2 nonzero analogous values or discrete samples. This strategy allows constructing complex Fourier spectrum of the initial signal with length N in the time domain based on equivalent real and imaginary spectral parts with the length N/2 in the frequency domain. The study is an extension and resume of AMC 221(2013 pp. 344-350.

  17. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions.

  18. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  19. The odds of duplicate gene persistence after polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chain Frédéric JJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication is an important biological phenomenon associated with genomic redundancy, degeneration, specialization, innovation, and speciation. After duplication, both copies continue functioning when natural selection favors duplicated protein function or expression, or when mutations make them functionally distinct before one copy is silenced. Results Here we quantify the degree to which genetic parameters related to gene expression, molecular evolution, and gene structure in a diploid frog - Silurana tropicalis - influence the odds of functional persistence of orthologous duplicate genes in a closely related tetraploid species - Xenopus laevis. Using public databases and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained genetic and expression data from S. tropicalis orthologs of 3,387 X. laevis paralogs and 4,746 X. laevis singletons - the most comprehensive dataset for African clawed frogs yet analyzed. Using logistic regression, we demonstrate that the most important predictors of the odds of duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid species are the total gene expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and development in the diploid species. Slow protein evolution and information density (fewer exons, shorter introns in the diploid are also positively correlated with duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a combination of factors contribute to duplicate gene persistence following whole genome duplication, but that the total expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and through development before duplication are most important. We speculate that these parameters are useful predictors of duplicate gene longevity after whole genome duplication in other taxa.

  20. The Beam Spin Asymmetry and T-odd Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Daniel; Gamberg, Leonard

    2013-10-01

    The focus of this research is to model the internal structure of the nucleon based on its momentum and spin-polarization properties. We focus on the beam-spin asymmetry (BSA) in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. When the produced pion's transverse momentum is on the order of quark intrinsic transverse momentum, TMD factorization suggest that the structure function for the BSA is a momentum convolution integral of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution and fragmentation functions. Theoretically there are four possible structure functions. We focus on the naive time reversal odd (T-odd) contribution. Namely, the g⊥ TMD PDF which relates the transverse spin polarization and transverse momentum of quarks for the case of an unpolarized nucleon and longitudinally polarized electron beam. We model the BSA in the spectator model framework (L. Gamberg et al., Phys. Rev. D 77, 094016 (2008)) and calculate g⊥ and extend our earlier numerical work on the BSA for π+ to results for π-, π0, production. We present these new results for the BSA and compare them with the recent results from CLAS, Hall B collaboration at JLAB (M. Aghasyan, H. Avakian et al., Phys. Lett. B 704, 397 (2011)).

  1. Social disparities in the prevalence of multimorbidity - A register-based population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiøtz, Michaela L; Stockmarr, Anders; Høst, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte; Frølich, Anne

    2017-05-10

    Prevalences of multimorbidity vary between European studies and several methods and definitions are used. In this study we examine the prevalence of multimorbidity in relation to age, gender and educational attainment and the association between physical and mental health conditions and educational attainment in a Danish population. A cross-sectional design was used to study the prevalence of multimorbidity, defined as two or more chronic conditions, and of comorbid physical and mental health conditions across age groups and educational attainment levels among 1,397,173 individuals aged 16 years and older who lived in the Capital Region of Denmark on January 1st, 2012. After calculating prevalence, odds ratios for multimorbidity and mental health conditions were derived from logistic regression on gender, age, age squared, education and number of physical conditions (only for odds ratios for mental health conditions). Odds ratios for having multimorbidity and mental health conditions for each variable were adjusted for all other variables. Multimorbidity prevalence was 21.6%. Half of the population aged 65 and above had multimorbidity, and prevalence was inversely related to educational attainment: 26.9% (95% CI, 26.8-26.9) among those with lower secondary education versus 13.5% (95% CI, 13.5-13.6) among people with postgraduate education. Adjusted odds ratios for multimorbidity were 0.50 (95% CI, 0.49-0.51) for people with postgraduate education, compared to people with lower secondary education. Among all population members, 4.9% (95% CI, 4.9-4.9) had both a physical and a mental health condition, a proportion that increased to 22.6% of people with multimorbidity. Physical and mental health comorbidity was more prevalent in women (6.33%; 95% CI, 6.3-6.4) than men (3.34%; 95% CI, 3.3-3.4) and approximately 50 times more prevalent among older persons than younger ones. Physical and mental health comorbidity was also twice as prevalent among people with lower

  2. 17 CFR 240.16a-5 - Odd-lot dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odd-lot dealers. 240.16a-5....16a-5 Odd-lot dealers. Transactions by an odd-lot dealer (a) in odd-lots as reasonably necessary to carry on odd-lot transactions, or (b) in round lots to offset odd-lot transactions previously or...

  3. The association between smoking prevalence and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, Marco; Veronese, Nicola; Sergi, Giuseppe; Luchini, Claudio; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Vancampfort, Davy; Correll, Christoph U; Ussher, Michael; Thapa-Chhetri, Nita; Fornaro, Michele; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with severe mental illness, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and with morbidity and mortality, but the association with anorexia (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) is unclear. This meta-analysis compared the odds of smoking in eating disorders (ED) (ED = AN or BN or BED) versus healthy controls (HC) and calculated the prevalence of smokers in people with ED. Three independent authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE and Scopus from database inception until 31 December 2015 for studies reporting data on life-time or current smoking prevalence in BED, BN and AN with or without control group. Meta-analyses were undertaken, calculating odds ratios (ORs) of life-time smoking in BED, BN, AN versus healthy controls (HCs) or prevalence of smoking in BED, BN and AN with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Thirty-one studies (ED = 8517, controls = 68 335) were meta-analysed. Compared with HCs, there were significantly more smokers among people with BN (life-time OR = 2.165) and BED (life-time OR = 1.792) but not AN (life-time OR = 0.927). BED was associated with smoking the most (life-time prevalence = 47.73%) followed by BN (life-time prevalence = 39.4%) and AN (life-time prevalence = 30.8%). In BN, life-time smoking prevalence was highest in Europe. In AN, higher age moderated both life-time and current smoking prevalence, and body mass index moderated higher life-time smoking prevalence. In BN, female sex moderated higher life-time smoking prevalence. People with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa are significantly more likely to be life-time smokers than healthy controls, which is not the case for anorexia nervosa. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. On the assessment of adverse drug reactions from spontaneous reporting systems: The influence of under-reporting on odds ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Puijenbroek, E.P. van; Buuren, S. van; Hofstede, J.W. van der

    2002-01-01

    A well-known problem in spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is under-reporting, that is, the problem that not all occurrences of ADRs are reported to the SRS. We look at the question of how to draw statistical conclusions from analyses of SRS data using reporting

  5. Possible association of high urinary magnesium and taurine to creatinine ratios with metabolic syndrome risk reduction in Australian aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Atsumi; Taguchi, Takashi; Mori, Hideki; Thorpe, Marjorie; Yamori, Yukio; Mori, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16-79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%). After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre) (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.57; P creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  6. Possible Odd Parity State in {sup 128}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, L. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Malmskog, S.G. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-07-15

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 {+-} 0.05, 526.5 {+-} 0.5, 742.4 {+-}1.0, 969.0 {+-} 1.0, and 1136.5 {+-}2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in {sup 128}Xe at 1579 {+-} 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 {+-} 0.3 of the ({beta}{sup -} feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0{sup +} level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration.

  7. Global systematics of nuclear observables in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, D.

    1996-01-01

    Different correlations between observables related to the unique parity orbital structures in the odd-A nuclei are studied. It is shown that the correlations between excitation energies within the unique parity orbital quasibands allow a tripartite classification of the evolution of the nuclear structure, similar to that observed in the adjacent even-even nuclei: all nuclei can be assigned to three different regimes, the precollective, anharmonic vibrator and strong coupling, respectively, interconnected by fast, critical phase-like transitions. It is shown that both an index which characterizes the signature splitting, and the B(E2) values within the quasibands can be organized in terms of a valence correlation scheme. (author)

  8. Subcoulomb fusion of 16O in odd Sm isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections for the formation of evaporation residues were measured for the reaction of 16 O with the odd 147 Sm and 149 Sm nuclei at near barrier energies. The results are well described by statistical model calculations. Fusion cross sections as a function of energy do not show any unusual behaviour that could be attributed to the presence of unpaired nucleons. An analysis based on a one-dimensional penetration model that includes the effect of permanent quadrupolar deformations shows that the extracted values of the parameter β 2 follow the systematics established by the rest of the even samarium isotopes. The dependence of β 2 on the mass of the target nucleus indicates that the influence exerted by collective aspects upon the subbarrier fusion process increases rapidly as a function of the number of neutrons added to the spherical semimagic 144 Sm nucleus. (Author) [es

  9. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  10. Hepatitis C antibody prevalence among Mexico City prisoners injecting legal and illegal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Serván-Mori, Edson; McCoy, Sandra I; Larney, Sarah; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among prisoners and this prevalence estimates reach 64% among prisoners who inject illicit drugs. Prisons are important sites for HCV transmission in the absence of access to sterile injecting equipment; hence, it can be transmitted between prisoners who share contaminated needles and syringes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of risk factors for anti-HCV prevalence, with particular interest on injecting behavior, and to assess correlates of anti-HCV positivity among Mexico City prisoners. Cross-sectional study based on information -collected in three male and two female prisons in Mexico City during 2010-2011- about sexually transmitted infections, socio-demographics, criminal history, substance use, vitamin injection, tattooing, among others (n=3,910). Weighted multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were estimated to assess the overall and differential odds for anti-HCV due to injecting behavior. Overall prevalence of anti-HCV was 3.3%. This figure rose to 43.1% among prisoners with a history of illicit drug injection. Prisoners with history of vitamin injection showed a similar prevalence of anti-HCV (43.8%). After stratifying by substance injected, the adjusted odds ratio was 9.8 (95% CI: 4.0, 23.8) for illicit drug injection and 11.9 (95% CI: 5.8, 23.8) for illicit drug and vitamin injection. Based on data from the most populous prisons in Mexico City, this study showed that anti-HCV is highly prevalent among prisoners with history of injecting behavior. In this sense, injecting behavior per-se, independent of the substance used, is associated with increased odds of anti-HCV positivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of vestibular and balance disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Robert C; Morlet, Thierry; Nicholas, Brian D; Josephson, Gary; Horlbeck, Drew; Lundy, Larry; Mercado, Arnel

    2010-12-01

    Determine the prevalence of vestibular and balance disorders in children, rate of complaints of imbalance, and odds ratio of related diagnoses. Retrospective review of pediatric health system during a 4-year period for International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes related to balance disorders. Identified records were searched for chief complaints related to balance and for codes of related otologic and neuro-otologic diagnoses. A total of 561,151 distinct patient encounters were found. Unspecified dizziness was diagnosed in 2,283 patients (0.4%). Also, 22% presented with balance complaints. Peripheral disorders were diagnosed in 159, and central disturbances were diagnosed in 109 (prevalence balance was 0.45% (2,546/561,151). Of all patients, 5,793 (1.03%) had chief complaint related to balance, and 2,076 (35.84%) were also diagnosed with vestibular disorder. Moreover, 38% with peripheral disturbances and 21% with central disturbances had balance complaints. Odds ratio of syncope was 21× higher than the general pediatric population in patients with unspecified dizziness, and sensorineural hearing loss was 43 times higher in those with peripheral vestibular disorders. In patients with central disorders headache was 16× higher (p balance disorders in children is low. Children diagnosed with these disorders typically do not present with chief complaint related to balance. Significant associations exist between sensorineural hearing loss, syncope, and headache in children diagnosed with balance disorders.

  12. The prevalence of skin-test-positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Jørgensen, T; Nielsen, N H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test (SPT)-positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen...... (participation rate 74.6%) and 482 (participation rate 53.4%) subjects were examined in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Diagnoses of SPT-positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT......-positive allergic rhinitis increased from 12.9% to 22.5% (adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.30-2.90), whereas the prevalence of a positive SPT (allergen histamine wheal ratio > or = 0.5) to one or more of 10 allergens increased from 27.7% to 33.9% (adjusted odds ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.05). CONCLUSIONS...

  13. Variation in the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in a multiethnic population: a nationwide population study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Sanjay; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rahmat, Ramlee; Zain, Azhar Md; Yap, Yee Guan; Mohamed, Mafauzy; Taha, Mohamad

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between different ethnic groups and the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in Malaysia. A population-based cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted in Malaysia. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting blood glucose > or =7 mmol/L or a self-reported diabetic on treatment. Among the 7683 respondents aged > or =30 years, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 15.2% (95% CI = 14.1, 16.4). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with Malays, Chinese had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.71; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.91) and Indians had higher odds of having diabetes (aOR 1.54; 95% CI = 1.20, 1.98). The odds of diabetes increased with age, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and lower education levels. Among those with diabetes mellitus, 45.0% were aware and 42.7% were under treatment. Among treated diabetics, 25.1% had their fasting blood sugar under control. There is a significant association between prevalence of diabetes and different ethnic groups.

  14. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Josephine, E-mail: jkang3@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  15. Prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrusquieta, Brenda Jaime; Núñez, Victor Manuel Mendoza; López, María Lilia Adriana Juárez

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. This study included 1156 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years, living in Mexico City. A previously standardised examiner (k = 0.79) applied the diagnostic criteria for MIH from the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Children's parents completed a questionnaire about medical conditions in the perinatal period and the first 3 years of their children's lives. Descriptive measures were examined, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. The subjects were 582 (50.4%) females and 574 (49.6%) males, with an average age of 8.4 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of MIH was 15.8%, and this condition was more prevalent in children aged 9-12 years than in those aged 6-8 years (18% vs. 13.7%, p prevalence of MIH in a group of Mexican schoolchildren was 15.8%. Medical conditions in the first years of life were more prevalent in children affected by MIH.

  16. Investigating the within-herd prevalence and risk factors for ketosis in dairy cattle in Ontario as diagnosed by the test-day concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatone, Elise H; Duffield, Todd F; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Gordon, Jessica L

    2017-02-01

    An observational study of 790 to over 3,000 herds was conducted to estimate the within-herd prevalence and cow-level risk factors for ketosis in dairy cattle in herds that participate in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) program. Ketosis or hyperketolactia (KET) was diagnosed as milk β-hydroxybutyrate ≥0.15 mmol/L at first DHIA test when tested within the first 30 d in milk. Seven hundred ninety-five herds providing at least 61 first milk tests from June 2014 to December 2015 were used to estimate the provincial within-herd prevalence of KET. All herds on DHIA in Ontario (n = 3,042) were used to construct cow-level multilevel logistic regression models to investigate the association of DHIA collected variables with the odds of KET at first DHIA milk test. Primiparous and multiparous animals were modeled independently. The cow-level KET prevalence in Ontario was 21%, with an average within-herd prevalence of 21% (standard deviation = 10.6) for dairy herds enrolled in a DHIA program. The prevalence of KET had a distinct seasonality with the lowest prevalence occurring from July to November. Automatic milking systems (AMS) were associated with increased within-herd prevalence, as well as increased odds of KET in multiparous animals at first test (odds ratio: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 1.63). Jersey cattle had over 1.46 times higher odds of KET than Holstein cattle. Milk fat yield ≥1.12 kg/d at the last test of the previous lactation was associated with decreased odds of KET in the current lactation (odds ratio: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 0.59). Increased days dry and longer calving intervals, for multiparous animals, and older age at first calving for primiparous animals increased the odds of KET at first test. This study confirms previous findings that increased days dry, longer calving intervals, and increased age at first calving are associated with increased odds of KET and is the first report of increased KET in herds with

  17. Higher-spin Chern-Simons theories in odd dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engquist, Johan [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.engquist@phys.uu.nl; Hohm, Olaf [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: o.hohm@phys.uu.nl

    2007-12-10

    We construct consistent bosonic higher-spin gauge theories in odd dimensions D>3 based on Chern-Simons forms. The gauge groups are infinite-dimensional higher-spin extensions of the anti-de Sitter groups SO(D-1,2). We propose an invariant tensor on these algebras, which is required for the definition of the Chern-Simons action. The latter contains the purely gravitational Chern-Simons theories constructed by Chamseddine, and so the entire theory describes a consistent coupling of higher-spin fields to a particular form of Lovelock gravity. It contains topological as well as non-topological phases. Focusing on D=5 we consider as an example for the latter an AdS{sub 4}xS{sup 1} Kaluza-Klein background. By solving the higher-spin torsion constraints in the case of a spin-3 field, we verify explicitly that the equations of motion reduce in the linearization to the compensator form of the Fronsdal equations on AdS{sub 4}.

  18. Srs2: the "Odd-Job Man" in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Victoria; Krejci, Lumir

    2010-03-02

    Homologous recombination plays a key role in the maintenance of genome integrity, especially during DNA replication and the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Just a single un-repaired break can lead to aneuploidy, genetic aberrations or cell death. DSBs are caused by a vast number of both endogenous and exogenous agents including genotoxic chemicals or ionizing radiation, as well as through replication of a damaged template DNA or the replication fork collapse. It is essential for cell survival to recognise and process DSBs as well as other toxic intermediates and launch most appropriate repair mechanism. Many helicases have been implicated to play role in these processes, however their detail roles, specificities and co-operativity in the complex protein-protein interaction networks remain unclear. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about Saccharomyces cerevisiae helicase Srs2 and its effect on multiple DNA metabolic processes that generally affect genome stability. It would appear that Srs2 functions as an "Odd-Job Man" in these processes to make sure that the jobs proceed when and where they are needed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos R; García-Morales, Claudia; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escobar, Ingrid; Mendizabal, Ricardo; Girón, Amalia; García, Leticia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Guatemala. One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145), and a 2.8% (4/145) prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145) prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145) with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15) and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (83.3%, 10/12); a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (E138K showed higher frequencies than expected in ART-naïve populations. Higher literacy was associated with a greater risk of TDR (odds ratio 4.14, P = 0.0264). This study represents one of the first efforts to describe HIV diversity and TDR prevalence and trends in Guatemala. TDR prevalence in Guatemala was at the intermediate level. Most TDR cases were associated with NNRTIs. Further and continuous TDR surveillance is necessary to gain more indepth knowledge about TDR spread and trends in Guatemala and to optimize treatment outcomes in the country.

  20. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Four Resource-Limited Settings in Peru: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Association with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Noah G; Rattner, Adi; Schwartz, Alan R; Mokhlesi, Babak; Gilman, Robert H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-09-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition in high-income countries, with major consequences for cardiopulmonary health, public safety, healthcare utilization, and mortality. However, its prevalence and effect in low- and middle-income countries are less well known. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of SDB symptoms in four resource-limited settings. Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort, a population-based age- and sex-stratified sample. Four resource-limited settings in Peru varying in altitude, urbanization, and air pollution. There were 2,682 adults aged 35 to 92 y. Self-reported SDB symptoms (habitual snoring, observed apneas, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), sociodemographics, medical history, anthropometrics, spirometry, blood biomarkers were reported. We found a high prevalence of habitual snoring (30.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5-32.0%), observed apneas (20.9%, 95% CI 19.4-22.5%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (18.6%, 95% CI 17.1-20.1%). SDB symptoms varied across sites; prevalence and adjusted odds for habitual snoring were greatest at sea level, whereas those for observed apneas were greatest at high altitude. In multivariable analysis, habitual snoring was associated with older age, male sex, body mass index (BMI), and higher socioeconomic status; observed apneas were associated with BMI; and excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with older age, female sex, and medium socioeconomic status. Adjusted odds of cardiovascular disease, depression, and hypertension and total chronic disease burden increased progressively with the number of SDB symptoms. A threefold increase in the odds of having an additional chronic comorbid disease (adjusted odds ratio 3.57, 95% CI 2.18-5.84) was observed in those with all three versus no SDB symptoms. Sleep disordered breathing symptoms were highly prevalent, varied widely across four resource-limited settings in Peru, and exhibited strong

  1. Electromagnetic properties of some odd-odd nuclei in the A≈ 100 region and IBFFM description of 106Ag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejtscheff, W.; Kostov, L. K.; Petkov, P.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Lopac, V.; Boehm, G.; Eberth, J.; Wirowski, R.; Zell, K. O.

    1990-09-01

    Electromagnetic properties of odd-odd transitional nuclei with A≈ 100 are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Nanosecond isomers are studied in-beam by means of delayed γγ-coincidences and the generalized centroid-shift method. The reactions 98Mo+30MeV 7Li and 92,94Mo+ 50 MeV 12C are utilized. Following half-lives are determined: T {1}/{2} (547.2 keV in 102Rh) = 0.25±0.07ns, T {1}/{2} (243.1 keV in 102Rh) = 0.30±0.10ns, T {1}/{2}(181.1 keV in 99Tc) = 3.8 ± 0.3ns, T {1}/{2} (2902.0keV in 104Cd) = 0.6±0.1 ns, T {1}/{2} (118.7keV in 103Pd) =0.8±0.2 ns, T {1}/{2} (131.1 keV in 105Cd) = 1.5 ±0.3 ns, T {1}/{2} (211.8 keV in 104Ag) = 1.4±0.1 ns, T {1}/{2} (181.0 keV in 102Ag) = 3.5±0.2 ns. Additionally, several upper limits of level lifetimes are derived. The systematics of E1, M1 and E2 transition rates in 100,102,104Rh and 102,104,106Ag is presented and discussed. Fast M1 transitions within the 2qp π g˜{9}/{2}ν h˜{1}/{2} band appear to be associated with the strong coupling of the π g˜{9}/{2} proton and the rotational alignment of the h˜{11}/{2} neutron. Extensive IBFFM calculations of level energies and electromagnetic properties of 106Ag as a typical case demonstrate that this model could account for the complex structural pattern of this type of nuclei. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 98Mo( 7Li, 3n), ( 7Li2nα), E=30 MeV; 92,94Mo( 12C, pn), 94Mo( 12C, 2n), ( 12C, 2pn), E = 50 MeV; measured Eγ, Iγ, γγ( t). 102Rh, 99Tc, 102,104Ag, 104Cd,

  2. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in People Clinically Diagnosed with Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziukaite, Laura; Slot, Dagmar E; Van der Weijden, Fridus A

    2017-11-10

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis are complex chronic diseases with an established bidirectional relationship. This systematic review evaluated in subjects with professionally diagnosed periodontitis the prevalence and odds of having diabetes. The MEDLINE-PubMed, CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with periodontitis were extracted or if possible calculated. From the 803 titles and abstracts that came out of the search, 29papers met the initial criteria. Prevalence of diabetes was 9.4% among subjects with periodontitis and 12.8%among subjects without periodontitis. Based on sub-analysis, for subjects with periodontitis, the prevalence of diabetes was 6.5%when diabetes was self-reported, compared to 17.3%when diabetes was clinically assessed. The highest prevalence of diabetes among subjects with periodontitis was observed in studies originating from Asian countries(17.2%,n=16647) and the lowest in studies describing populations from Europe(4.3%(n=7858). The overall odds ratio for diabetes patients to be among subjects with periodontitis as compared to those without periodontitis was 2.59(95%CI[2.12;3.15]). A substantial variability in the definitions of periodontitis, combination of self-reported and clinically assessed diabetes, lack of confounding for diabetes control in included studies introduces estimation bias. The overall prevalence and odds of having diabetes is higher within periodontitis populations compared to people without periodontitis. Self-reported diabetes underestimates the prevalence when compared to this condition assessed clinically. Geographical differences were observed: the highest diabetes prevalence among subjects with periodontitis was observed in studies conducted in Asia and the lowest in studies originating from Europe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Abdominal adiposity and family income-to-poverty ratio in American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, Ike S; Annor, Francis B; Seale, J Paul; Eriksen, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    We examined (a) secular changes in abdominal fat accumulation (AFA) and family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR) across race/ethnicity, education and age in Mexican (MA), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and (b) association between PIR and AFA among American women. Data (n = 9787) from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010 NHANES were used. Rates of AFA and poverty by race/ethnic, age and education categories were determined across study time points. Subjects with low and medium PIR values were classified as poor. Linear trends in AFA and PIR were evaluated. Study time-specific odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models were used to estimate risk of AFA due to low to medium PIR. Statistical adjustments were made for race/ethnicity, education, age, and marital status. Increased trends in low to medium PIR and AFA in MA, NHW, and NHB American women were observed between 2001 and 2010. Poor women had much higher prevalence of AFA compared to richer women. For each of the studied periods, medium and low PIR were each associated with increased odds of AFA. The association between poverty and AFA was weakest in 2001-2002 (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05-2.11) compared to 2009-2010 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.21-2.22). Compared to NHW, being of MA and NHB race/ethnicity was also each associated with increased odds of AFA, controlling for other independent variables. Increase in poverty and AFA, and positive association between decreased PIR and increased odds of AFA were observed in the period between 2001 and 2010 in MA, NHW, and NHB American women. A robust economic policy designed to alleviate poverty may be an important means of reducing the trajectory of AFA in American women. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Research-active clinical nurses: against all odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Albert, Nancy M

    2017-03-01

    To develop a theoretical understanding of factors that impact decisions of clinical nurses to conduct a research study. Only a small percentage of all nurses are research-active and even fewer clinical nurses are research-active. Several researchers have explored barriers to research activity by clinical nurses, but few have examined why, in spite of all odds, some clinical nurses are research-active. As the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical understanding of the research-active nurse, a grounded theory approach was used. The sample interviewed for this study consisted of registered nurses (n = 26) who worked in a hospital or ambulatory setting, had daily direct patient contact and had participated as principal investigator on at least one completed clinical nursing research study that was not in fulfilment of an educational requirement. The interviews were digitally recorded and analysed by two researchers using the constant comparative method. The findings from this study suggest that the conduct of research by clinical nurses was the direct result of a clinical trigger, characteristics and beliefs of the nurse about research and their role in generating knowledge, and the presence of support conditions, such as a research mentor. Clinical nurses can and do conduct research, in spite of constraints due to a lack of time, money and/or knowledge, if they have access to research mentors and are practising in a research-supportive environment. Nurses at the bedside are in a unique position to identify problems most in need of solutions. Findings from this study provide a foundation upon which to develop and test various programmes that seek to increase the number of clinical nurses who are research-active. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among esophageal cancer patients prior to surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstadius, Y; Lagergren, J; Zylstra, J; Gossage, J; Davies, A; Hultman, C M; Lagergren, P; Wikman, A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among esophageal cancer patients, post-diagnosis but prior to curatively intended surgery. This was a cross-sectional study using data from a hospital-based prospective cohort study, carried out at St Thomas' Hospital, London. Potential predictor variables were retrieved from medical charts and self-report questionnaires. Anxiety and depression were measured prior to esophageal cancer surgery, using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Prevalence of anxiety and depression was calculated using the established cutoff (scores ≥8 on each subscale) indicating cases of 'possible-probable' anxiety or depression, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of emotional distress. Among the 106 included patients, 36 (34%) scored above the cutoff (≥8) for anxiety and 24 (23%) for depression. Women were more likely to report anxiety than men (odds ratio 4.04, 95% confidence interval 1.45-11.16), and patients reporting limitations in their activity status had more than five times greater odds of reporting depression (odds ratio 6.07, 95% confidence interval 1.53-24.10). A substantial proportion of esophageal cancer patients report anxiety and/or depression prior to surgery, particularly women and those with limited activity status, which highlights a need for qualified emotional support. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  7. Prevalence and Factors Associated to Hypertension Among Older Adults in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Gutierrez, Carlos; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Gélvez-Rueda, Juan Sebastián; Borda, Miguel German

    2015-09-01

    To characterize older adults in Bogotá with high blood pressure and identify factors associated to this condition within this population. Using data from the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) (Health, Well-being and Aging) Bogotá Study, we analyzed community-dwelling adults 60 years and older with hypertension. We estimated the prevalence and used logistic regression models to identify factors associated to hypertension. The overall prevalence for hypertension was 56.9%. Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.07, 1.97]), having health insurance (OR = 4.15, CI = [1.95, 8.85]), cardiovascular diseases (ORs between 1.70 and 3.65), and poor self-rated health (OR = 1.57, CI = [1.20,2.06]) significantly increased the odds of hypertension. Most individuals received pharmacologic treatment (93.5%); however, 28.4% of individuals had uncontrolled hypertension. We found a high prevalence of hypertension in our cohort and found that comorbidities and poor self-rated health increase the odds of hypertension. Future studies need to tailor interventions for hypertension management in old age. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of lifestyle factors and bowel habits in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Joung; Ban, D J

    2005-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is considered to be prevalent in the general population, but there are little data on bowel habits and IBS in Korea. Because nurses are frequently called on to help this patient population with IBS and help manage their symptoms, it is very necessary to get some practical information about patients' experiences and to outline a multifaceted approach to the practical management of patient with IBS. So this study aims to describe the bowel habits and the prevalence of IBS in young university students in Korea and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors, including dietary habits, on IBS prevalence. Finally, we discuss the nursing needs for an holistic approach. A cross-sectional study, using the self-reported questionnaire based on previous studies done abroad and the Rome alpha criteria was applied with 1717 young university students. The answers of 747 men and 970 women were included in the study. The prevalence of IBS, as defined by the Rome alpha criteria, was 5.7% of the subjects. The proportion of women (70.7%) was significantly higher than the proportion of men in the IBS group as compared to that in the non-IBS group (odds ratio 2.07, 95% CI 1.2-3.7). Residential type (odds ratio 1.27, 95% 1.06-1.5) and frequency of meals (odds ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.2-2.5) significantly differed between the IBS group and non-IBS group. There was a trend towards the higher prevalence of IBS with fewer hours of exercise (odds ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.04). 90.6% of respondents reported stool frequencies between three times per day and three times per week. Characteristics of defecation differed significantly between men and women (pstudy shows that proportionately more women suffered from IBS than men and dietary factors and lifestyle were significantly related to IBS. From our study results, we found that there are multifaceted nursing aspects required to reduce symptoms, such as dietary education and encouragement to change lifestyle

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for depressive reaction among resident survivors after the tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Matsubara

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a gigantic tsunami which devastated coastal areas of northern Japan on 11 March 2011. Despite the large number of 'resident survivors' who continued to reside in their damaged houses on the second or upper floors, research on the mental health of these individuals has been limited. This study explored the prevalence of depressive reaction and risk factors for depressive reaction among these resident survivors.A cross-sectional household health support needs screening was conducted for resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi prefecture, two to four months after the tsunami. The health interview that was conducted including mental status, assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2.Of 5,454 respondents, 8.1% had depressive reaction. After adjustment by the number of weeks from the tsunami and the mortality rate at each respondent's place of residence, depressive reaction was significantly associated with house flooding below or above the ground floor (odds ratios of 1.92, 2.36, respectively, the unavailability of gas supply (odds ratio, 1.67, being female (odds ratio, 1.47, middle aged or elderly (odds ratios of 2.41, 2.42, respectively, regular intake of psychotropic medicine(s since before the tsunami (odds ratio, 2.53 and the presence of one to five or more than six cohabiters (odds ratios of 0.61, 0.52, respectively.The results suggest a considerable psychological burden (depressive reaction following the tsunami among resident survivors. Special supports for families with psychiatric problems need to be considered among resident survivors. Restoration of lifeline utilities and the strengthening of social ties of persons living alone may help prevent depressive reaction among resident survivors after a tsunami.

  10. Migraine, fibromyalgia, and depression among people with IBS: a prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Howard J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case descriptions suggest IBS patients are more likely to have other disorders, including migraine, fibromyalgia, and depression. We sought to examine the prevalence of these conditions in cohorts of people with and without IBS. Methods The source of data was a large U.S. health plan from January 1, 1996 though June 30, 2002. We identified all people with a medical claim associated with an ICD-9 code for IBS. A non-IBS cohort was a random sample of people with an ICD-9 code for routine medical care. In the cohorts, we identified all claims for migraine, depression, and fibromyalgia. We estimated the prevalence odds ratios (PORs of each of the three conditions using the Mantel-Haenszel method. We conducted quantitative sensitivity analyses to quantify the impact of residual confounding and in differential outcome identification. Results We identified 97,593 people in the IBS cohort, and a random sample of 27,402 people to compose the non-IBS comparison cohort. With adjustment, there was a 60% higher odds in the IBS cohort of having any one of the three disorders relative to the comparison cohort (POR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 – 1.7. There was a 40% higher odds of depression in the IBS cohort (POR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3 – 1.4. The PORs for fibromyalgia and migraine were similar (POR for fibromyalgia 1.8, 95% CI 1.7 – 1.9; POR for migraine 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 – 1.7. Differential prevalence of an unmeasured confounder, or imperfect sensitivity or specificity of outcome detection would have impacted the observed results. Conclusion People in the IBS cohort had a 40% to 80% higher prevalence odds of migraine, fibromyalgia, and depression.

  11. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  12. Active epilepsy prevalence, the treatment gap, and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yang; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Feng; Yan, Shengqiang; Ding, Meiping

    2018-01-01

    We measured the prevalence of active epilepsy and investigated the treatment gap and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China. This was a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Zhejiang, China, from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 54,976 people were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A two-stage questionnaire-based process was used to identify patients with active epilepsy and to record their demographic, socioeconomic, and epilepsy-related features. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors of the treatment gap in eastern China, as adjusted for age and sex. We interviewed 50,035 people; 118 had active epilepsy (2.4‰), among which the treatment gap was 58.5%. In multivariate analysis, failure to receive appropriate antiepileptic treatment was associated with higher seizure frequency of 12-23 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=6.874; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.372-19.918), >24 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=19.623; 95% CI=4.999-77.024), and a lack of health insurance (adjusted odds ratio=7.284; 95% CI=1.321-40.154). Eastern China has relatively lower prevalence of active epilepsy and smaller treatment gap. Interventions aimed at reducing seizure frequency, improving the health insurance system should be investigated as potential targets to further bridge the treatment gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Hypertension in Member Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Sharma, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a leading attributable risk factor for mortality in South Asia. However, a systematic review on prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has not carried out before.The study was conducted according...... that the prevalence was higher among women than men. Meta-analyses showed that sex (men: odds ratio [OR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.37), obesity (OR 2.33; 95% CI: 1.87, 2.78), and central obesity (OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.95) were associated with hypertension.Our study found a variable prevalence...

  14. Obesity and prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Health Interview Survey and an 8-item screen, RiBED-8, for risk behaviour for eating disorders. To analyze how the prevalence of risk behaviour depends on age, BMI, and year of survey, logistic regression analyses were applied. On acceptance of no interaction, the effect of each variable was tested......AIMS: Danish women aged 16-29 from two nationwide, representative, cross-sectional interview/questionnaire surveys from 2000 and 2005 are analyzed for trends in prevalence of risk behaviour for developing eating disorders and associations to BMI and age. METHODS: Participants completed the Danish...... and described using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Women aged 16-19 or with a BMI of>25 had the greatest chance of reporting risk behaviour for eating disorders. However, many women in their 20s also had risk behaviour. Prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders did not change from...

  15. Q fever: prevalence of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in the Basque country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzo, J M; Garcia-Calabuig, M A; Audicana, A; Dehesa, V

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in the Basque population. To this end a stratified sampling was carried out taking as a criterion the size of the population in a given area of residence. Residents in sparsely populated areas were found to have a prevalence of 38.5%, significantly greater than in highly populated areas (odds ratio [OR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.27 and OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09-2.30). The prevalence was significantly higher in males (36.3%) than in females (29%), and was found to increase significantly with age. Current or previous participation in activities relating to agriculture and/or livestock farming or even having contact with cattle, goats or sheep were also found to be risk factors for the infection. A fuller study of the determinants of chronic Q fever should be initiated.

  16. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Farah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74 and carbohydrates (r = 0.22, those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34. After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97. Conclusions The

  17. Comparison of prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis in Japan, China, Tanzania, and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazuo; Kihaile, Paul E; Wenyuan, Zhao; Xianghang, Zhang; Castro, Mercedes; Disla, Mildre; Nyambo, Thomas B; Misumi, Junichi

    2005-09-01

    To compare the prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in Japan, China, Tanzania, and the Dominican Republic and to assess the usefulness of Helicobacter pylori infection and serum gastrin level as markers of CAG. The subjects were volunteers from local communities in Japan (n=859), China (n=1741), Tanzania (n=573), and the Dominican Republic (n=1215). Each individual underwent a health checkup and blood sampling for measurement of serum pepsinogen I and II, pepsinogen I /II ratio, serum gastrin, and H. pylori antibodies, and responded to a questionnaire on upper digestive tract diseases. The prevalences of H. pylori infection (23.5-96.1%), CAG (5.6-60.4%), and serum gastrin (62.0-136.5 pg/ml) varied by age, sex, and country. Serum gastrin level for men differed in each country according to age. In Tanzanian men, the median gastrin level (101.0 pg/ml) was the highest in the 40 to 49 years age group (p or = 70 years was higher than in other age groups in both sexes in the Dominican Republic (males, 92.5, females, 136.5 pg/ml). The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased (p < 0.01) with advancing age in Japan (only for women) and the Dominican Republic but was high in all age groups of both sexes in China and Tanzania. The prevalence of CAG increased (p < 0.01) with age in both sexes in Japan, China (women only), and the Dominican Republic, but not in Tanzania. The odds ratio of CAG in H. pylori infected subjects was 5.3 times that in H. pylori-negative subjects. The odds ratio of CAG increased by 0.6%/1 pg/ml increase in serum gastrin. Our results indicated that H. pylori infection, serum gastrin, and advancing age are good markers of CAG and that the prevalence of CAG is the highest in Japan.

  18. The prevalence of diagnosed tourette syndrome in Canada: A national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeun; Hirsch, Lauren; Martino, Davide; Jette, Nathalie; Roberts, Jodie; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine: (1) the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in Canada by sex in youth (aged 12-17) and adults and (2) socioeconomic factors in this population. The majority of epidemiological studies of tics have focused on children and youth, with few studies describing the prevalence of tics in adult populations. Canadian data on Tourette syndrome prevalence were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2010 and 2011 cycles, a Statistics Canada population-based cross-sectional survey that collects information related to health status. We determined the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome and examined sociodemographic factors, including age, sex, education, income, employment, and birthplace. Overall, 122,884 Canadians participated in the surveys, with 122 participants diagnosed with Tourette syndrome. The prevalence of Tourette syndrome was higher in males in youth: 6.03 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 3.24-8.81) in males versus 0.48 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.91) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 5.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.38-11.81). In adults, the prevalence of Tourette syndrome was 0.89 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-1.29) in males versus 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.16.0-0.71) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.08). After adjusting for age and sex, adults with Tourette syndrome had lower odds of receiving postsecondary education or being employed and higher odds of having income lower than the median and receiving governmental support. Data on the prevalence of Tourette syndrome in adults are scarce because most studies focus on children. Our data demonstrate a decreasing prevalence risk ratio for sex in adults compared to children. A diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is associated with lower education, income, and employment in adulthood. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016

  19. Prevalence, determinants and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension among hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence, determinants and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension among long-term hemodialysis patients in the USA are poorly understood. Methods A cross-sectional survey of prevalence and determinants of pulmonary hypertension was performed, followed by longitudinal follow-up for all-cause mortality. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure of >35 mmHg using echocardiograms performed within an hour after the end of dialysis. Results Prevalent in 110/288 patients (38%), the independent determinants of pulmonary hypertension were the following: left atrial diameter (odds ratio 10.1 per cm/m2, P pulmonary hypertension (53%, CMR 168.9/1000 patient-years) and 39 among 178 without pulmonary hypertension (22%, CMR 52.5/1000 patient-years) [unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.41–3.19), P pulmonary hypertension remained an independent predictor for all-cause mortality [HR 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.31–3.61), P pulmonary hypertension is common and is strongly associated with an enlarged left atrium and poor long-term survival. Reducing left atrial size such as through volume control may be an attractive target to improve pulmonary hypertension. Improving pulmonary hypertension in this group of patients may improve the dismal outcomes. PMID:22290987

  20. Prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in young Italian sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingordo, V; Naldi, L; Colecchia, B; Licci, N

    2003-12-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal disease with a world-wide distribution, but there are few available studies on its prevalence in the general population. To assess the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in a representative sample of young Italian sailors, evaluating the influence of habits and risk factors in the affected individuals. Young cadets (n = 1024: 975 men and 49 women, mean age 22 years) of the Italian Navy Petty Officers' School in Taranto were consecutively examined by the same observer. The diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor was based on clinical picture and/or Wood's lamp examination. All the subjects filled in a questionnaire about sport practice, swimming pool attendance, marching, presence of hyperhidrosis and a positive clinical history of pityriasis versicolor in the past. The affected individuals were also asked if they were aware of their skin lesions. Differences between answers of affected and unaffected subjects were tested by Fisher's exact P-value test, and odds ratios were calculated. Pityriasis versicolor was diagnosed in 22 subjects (2.1%), all men, of whom 15 (68%) were not aware of their condition. No statistical association was found between active pityriasis versicolor and sport practice, swimming pool attendance, marching or presence of hyperhidrosis. A significant association [odds ratio 8.7 (95% confidence interval 3.3-21.5); Fisher's exact P-value test P pityriasis versicolor and a previous clinical history of pityriasis versicolor. The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in this sample of young Italian sailors was not high, in agreement with the available surveys performed in the general population in temperate climates. Many affected subjects were not aware of their condition. The only important factor associated with pityriasis versicolor was a previous history of pityriasis versicolor. This observation could confirm the hypothesis that constitutional factors, e.g. seborrhoea and chemical constitution of sebum

  1. Body mass index and the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C D; Higgins, M; Donato, K A; Rohde, F C; Garrison, R; Obarzanek, E; Ernst, N D; Horan, M

    2000-12-01

    To describe and evaluate relationships between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension and dyslipidemia. A national survey of adults in the United States that included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, and lipids (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III 1988-1994). Crude age-adjusted, age-specific means and proportions, and multivariate odds ratios that quantify the association between hypertension or dyslipidemia and BMI, controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and smoking habits are presented. More than one-half of the adult population is overweight (BMI of 25 to 29.9) or obese (BMI of > or =30). The prevalence of high blood pressure and mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased as BMI increased at ages younger than 60 years. The prevalence of high blood cholesterol and mean levels of cholesterol were higher at BMI levels over 25 rather than below 25 but did not increase consistently with increasing BMI above 25. Rates of low HDL-C increased and mean levels of HDL-C decreased as levels of BMI increased. The associations of BMI with high blood pressure and abnormal lipids were statistically significant after controlling for age, race or ethnicity, education, and smoking; odds ratios were highest at ages 20 to 39 but most trends were apparent at older ages. Within BMI categories, hypertension was more prevalent and HDL-C levels were higher in black than white or Mexican American men and women. These data quantify the strong associations of BMI with hypertension and abnormal lipids. They are consistent with the national emphasis on prevention and control of overweight and obesity and indicate that blood pressure and cholesterol measurement and control are especially important for overweight and obese people.

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with depression in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttajit S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit, Sutrak PilakantaDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: To identify the point prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Metabolic syndrome was assessed based on an updated definition derived from the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17 was used to measure depressive symptoms in 80 patients with schizophrenia. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression for the association between each depressive symptom and metabolic syndrome.Results: The point prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the modified NCEP-ATP III and International Diabetes Federation criteria were 37% and 35%, respectively. The risk of having metabolic syndrome significantly increased in those who were widowed or separated, or had longer duration of illness. Central obesity was the metabolic feature with the highest odds ratios for metabolic syndrome at 19.3. Three out of 17 items of HDRS subscales were found to be significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, including depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation with the odds ratios of 3.0, 3.4, and 3.6, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia was higher than the overall rate but was slightly lower than in the general population in the USA. Central obesity, measured by waist circumference, was found to be highly correlated with metabolic syndrome. Depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Waist circumference and screening

  3. Smokeless tobacco consumption in the South Asian population of Sydney, Australia: prevalence, correlates and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shakhawat; Kypri, Kypros; Rahman, Bayzidur; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    AIM.: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among the South Asian residents of Sydney, Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pretested, self-administered mailed questionnaire among members of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi community associations in Sydney. Of 1600 individuals invited to participate, 419 responded (26%). Prevalence rates of ever consumption, more than 100 times consumption and current consumption were 72.1%, 65.9% and 17.1%, respectively. Men (74.3%) were more likely to ever consume than women (67.6%). Over 96% of consumers reported buying smokeless tobacco products from ethnic shops in Sydney. Current consumption of smokeless tobacco products was associated with country of birth: Indians (odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 2.3-14.5) and Pakistanis (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5-6.5) were more likely to be current consumers than Bangladeshis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. For ever consumption, there was a positive association with age (P for trend=0.013) and male gender (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.1). Given the availability of smokeless tobacco and the high prevalence and potential adverse health consequences of consumption, smokeless tobacco consumption may produce a considerable burden of non-communicable disease in Australia. Effective control measures are needed, in particular enforcement of existing laws prohibiting the sale of these products. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. High HIV infection prevalence in a group of men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Cardoso Torres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is characterized by a concentrated AIDS epidemic, it has a prevalence of less than 1% in the general population. However, there are higher rates in specific populations, especially in men who have sex with men. The study's aim was to analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics, sexual practices, sexual behaviors and the HIV infection in a group of men who have sex with men. Secondary data was collected between June 2014 and September 2015 in a research of cross-sectional design in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Volunteers answered an online computerized questionnaire and took HIV test. Chi-squared distribution and multiple logistic regression was used. There were 341 participants. Most of them were racially mixed, single, average age of 30.6 years and with a higher education level. The HIV prevalence was 13.9%. Two logistic models were fit (insertive or receptive anal intercourse. Both models showed an association with HIV among those who had a HIV positive sexual partner (Odds Ratio ≈ 2.5 and a high self-perception of acquiring HIV (Model 1: Odds Ratio ≈ 7/Model 2: Odds Ratio ≈ 10. Low condom usage in receptive anal intercourse with casual partners had a direct association with HIV seropositivity, whereas insertive anal intercourse with casual partners with or without condoms were inversely related. The study identified a high prevalence of HIV infections among a group of men who sex with men with a high self-perception risk of acquiring HIV. The findings also showed a relation with sociodemographic and sexual behavior variables.

  5. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  6. Relationships between dietary habits and the prevalence of fatigue in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Fukuda, Sanae; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Fatigue, which is a common complaint among medical students, is related to poor academic outcomes. Because impaired dietary habits, such as skipping breakfast and taking meals irregularly, are correlated with poor school performances, whether those dietary habits were associated with the prevalence of fatigue was determined in medical students. The study group consisted of 127 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. They completed a questionnaire dealing with fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale), lifestyle, and academic performance. On multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and nocturnal sleeping hours, skipping breakfast (completely skipping breakfast everyday versus having breakfast everyday; odds ratio 7.81, 95% confidence interval 2.00-30.52, P = 0.003) and taking meals irregularly (completely irregular versus always regular; odds ratio 6.89, 95% confidence interval 1.20-39.55, P = 0.030) were positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue. Skipping breakfast and taking meals irregularly are associated with the prevalence of fatigue in medical students.

  7. prevalência e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo medir la prevalencia de la hipertensión arterial referida e identificar los factores asociados. La muestra consistió de 1.265 mujeres ancianas, residentes en la ciudad de São Paulo, que fueron entrevistadas en el proyecto Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento, realizado en 2000 y 2001. La hipertensión fue considerada como variable dependiente para analizar los posibles factores asociados. La prevalencia de la hipertensión arterial fue 55,3% en mujeres de 60 a 74 años, y de 60,7% en aquellas mujeres con 75 años o más. Al final de la regresión múltiple, las variables que permanecieron en el modelo como factores asociados a la hipertensión referida fueron: diabetes (odds ratio=3,43, enfermedad cardiaca (odds ratio=3,32, edad (odds ratio=1,57, número de hijos (odds ratio=1,51, índice de masa corporal (odds ratio=1,04, y condiciones de salud (odds ratio=2,00. Se concluye que la prevalencia de la hipertensión referida es similar a los datos de otros estudios.

  8. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Mapuche individuals living in urban and rural environment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Salas, Carlos; Navarrete, Claudia; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Rainqueo, Angélica; Jara, Tamara; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Miquel, Juan F; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk of diabetes and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of MS could differ by ethnicity and lifestyle factors. To determine the prevalence of MS in Mapuche individuals living in urban and rural environments in Chile and to investigate whether the prevalence and risk of MS in urban and rural environments differs by sex, age and nutritional status. A total of 1077 Mapuche participants were recruited from urban (MU = 288) and rural (MR = 789) settings. Body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure serum glucose, HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The prevalence of MS was determined using the unified IDF and ATP-III criteria. An environment and sex interaction was found for the prevalence of MS (p = 0.042). The prevalence was significantly lower in male MR (13%) compared to other groups (22, 23 and 25% among female MR, female MU and male MU respectively). Also, the prevalence of central obesity and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in male MR. MU are at an increased risk of developing MS compared to MR, with an odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence intervals 1.1 to 2.2). This risk increases along with age or body mass index of the population. The adoption of an urbanized lifestyle increases the risk of developing MS in Mapuche individuals. This risk is enhanced by age and nutritional status.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of habitual snoring in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Joo, SoonJae; Kim, JinKwan; Kim, Tak

    2003-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of habitual snoring in senior high school students in Korea. A cross-sectional survey. Ten high schools in the southern part of Seoul, Korea. A total of 3,871 high school students (2,703 male students and 1,168 female students; age range, 15 to 18 years; mean age: male students, 16.8 years; female students, 16.9 years) who were attending the 11th grade. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, school performance, and patterns of sleep and sleep-related disturbances. The overall prevalence of habitual snoring was 11.2% (boys, 12.4%; girls, 8.5%). The mean total sleep time was similar in habitual snorers vs nonsnorers (6.4 and 6.3 h per day, respectively). Frequency of snoring increased significantly with body mass index (BMI) [p performance (p performance was low, there was a 35% excess in the odds of habitual snoring vs those whose school performance was high (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.78). These findings suggest that chronic habitual snoring is associated with multiple factors in adolescents. Whether interventions to modify BMI and smoking can alter snoring habits and related clinical problems warrants further study, particularly as it also may improve academic performance in high school students.

  10. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced diagnosis of symptomatic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Corbett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Directly observed treatment short course (DOTS, the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We investigated the epidemiology of prevalent and incident TB in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced primary health care.Twenty-two businesses in Harare, Zimbabwe, were provided with free smear- and culture-based investigation of TB symptoms through occupational clinics. Anonymised HIV tests were requested from all employees. After 2 y of follow-up for incident TB, a culture-based survey for undiagnosed prevalent TB was conducted. A total of 6,440 of 7,478 eligible employees participated. HIV prevalence was 19%. For HIV-positive and -negative participants, the incidence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 25.3 and 1.3 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 18.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.3 to 34.5: population attributable fraction = 78%, and point prevalence after 2 y was 5.7 and 2.6 per 1,000 population (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.5 to 6.8: population attributable fraction = 14%. Most patients with prevalent culture-positive TB had subclinical disease when first detected.Strategies based on prompt investigation of TB symptoms, such as DOTS, may be an effective way of controlling prevalent TB in high HIV prevalence populations. This may translate into effective control of TB transmission despite high TB incidence rates and a period of subclinical infectiousness in some patients.

  11. High prevalence of overweight and obesity among a representative sample of Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Boneta, Augusto R; Toro, Milagros J; Garcia, Omar; Torres, Roxana; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-03-05

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health problem worldwide. The objectives of the study were: 1) to establish the BMI prevalence in 12-year olds residing in Puerto Rico, and 2) to determine BMI differences by sex, public-private school type, and geographic regions. Data was obtained from an island-wide probabilistic stratified sample of 1,582 twelve-year-olds (53% girls and 47% boys). The BMI was determined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey procedures. Children were categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's age and gender specific growth charts. A logistic regression model was used to estimate BMI category prevalence. Odds ratios were calculated using a multinomial regression. In this study, 18.8% of the children were overweight and 24.3% were obese. A higher prevalence of obesity was observed in boys as compared to girls, 28.2% vs. 20.2%, respectively. The estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from public schools was lower than for those from private schools. After adjusting for type of school and region, boys had a significantly higher risk of being obese (64%) as compared to girls. In public schools, boys had a lower prevalence of being overweight while girls had a higher prevalence compared to children attending private schools. Girls attending private schools had a higher obesity prevalence (27.8%) compared to girls from public schools (19.8%). The prevalence of underweight (2.7%) is slightly lower than in the United States. The prevalence of overweight and obesity of 12-year-olds residing in PR was 18.8% and 24.3%, respectively; higher than in the U.S. (by groups). Boys were at higher risk of obesity than girls. There is an urgent need to implement public health policies/programs to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in PR.

  12. The heart of Africa: succeeding against the odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen

    2016-12-17

    South Africa and other areas of sub-Saharan Africa have in the past 20 years undergone rapid demographical changes, largely due to urbanisation and changes in lifestyle. This rapid change has led to a marked increase in specific cardiac conditions, such as hypertensive heart disease and coronary artery disease (with the highest prevalence in the middle-aged population), in conjunction with a range of other heart diseases, which are historically common in Africa-eg, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and unoperated congenital heart disease. The short supply of well-equipped screening facilities, late diagnosis, and inadequate care at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels have led to a large burden of patients with poorly treated heart failure. Excellent progress has been made in the understanding of the epidemiology, sociodemographical factors, effect of urbanisation, and pathophysiology of cardiac conditions, such as peripartum cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, and tuberculous pericarditis, which are common in sub-Saharan Africa. This progress has been achieved largely through several studies, such as the Heart of Soweto, THESUS, REMEDY, BA-HEF, Abeokuta-HF, and the PAPUCO studies. Studies on the suitable therapeutic management of several heart conditions have also been done or are underway. In this Lecture, I provide a personal perspective on the evolving burden of cardiac disease, as witnessed since my appointment at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, in Soweto, South Africa, in 1992, which was also the year that the referendum to end apartheid in South Africa was held. Subsequently, a network of cardiologists was formed under the umbrella of the Heart of Africa Studies and the Pan African Cardiac Society. Furthermore, I summarise the major gaps in the health-care system dealing with the colliding epidemic of communicable and non-communicable heart diseases, including cardiac diseases common in peripartum women. I also touch on the fantastic

  13. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Wood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA particulate matter (PM concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2] and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA, which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h and not well correlated when their formation timescales or location differed greatly. When correlated, the ratio of these two species ranged from 30 μg m−3/ppm (STP in Houston during time periods affected by large petrochemical plant emissions to as high as 160 μg m−3/ppm in Mexico City, where typical values were near 120 μg m−3/ppm. On several days in Mexico City, the [OOA]/[Ox] ratio decreased by a factor of ~2 between 08:00 and 13:00 local time. This decrease is only partially attributable to evaporation of the least oxidized and most volatile components of OOA; differences in the diurnal emission trends and timescales for photochemical processing of SOA precursors compared to ozone precursors also likely contribute to the observed decrease. The extent of OOA oxidation increased with photochemical aging. Calculations of the ratio of the SOA formation rate to the Ox production rate using ambient VOC measurements and traditional laboratory SOA yields are lower than the observed [OOA]/[Ox] ratios by factors of 5 to 15, consistent with several other models' underestimates of SOA. Calculations of this ratio using emission factors for organic compounds from gasoline and diesel exhaust do not reproduce the observed

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in the Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2017-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of LBW was 9.4% in the present study. Preterm labor (odds ratio [OR]: 22.06; P 35 years (OR: 1.21; P = 0.001, delivery by cesarean section (OR: 1.17; P = 0.002, pregnancy risk factors (OR: 1.67; P 35 years old, and maternal medical risk factors are some critical interventions to reduce its burden. Increasing the access to high-quality health-care services in rural and deprived areas is another effective strategy for the prevention of LBW.

  15. Prevalence and Social Risk Factors for Hearing Impairment in Chinese Children—A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chunfeng Yun; Zhenjie Wang; Jiamin Gao; Ping He; Chao Guo; Gong Chen; Xiaoying Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Hearing impairment may affect children’s communication skills, social development, and educational achievement. Little is known about the prevalence of hearing impairment among Chinese children. Data were taken from the 2006 second China National Survey on Disability (CNSD). Hearing impairment was defined as moderate (41–60 dB HL), severe (61–80 dB HL), profound (81–90 dB HL), or complete (>91 dB HL). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals...

  16. Difference in prevalence of congenital cryptorchidism in infants between two Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Kaleva, M; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    cryptorchidism. METHODS: 1068 Danish (1997-2001) and 1494 Finnish boys (1997-99) were consecutively recruited prenatally. We also established prevalence data for all newborns at Turku University Central Hospital, Finland (1997-99, n=5798). Testicular position was assessed by a standardised technique. All....... Significant geographic differences were still present after adjustment for confounding factors (birthweight, gestational age, being small for gestational age, maternal age, parity, mode of delivery); odds ratio (Denmark vs Finland) was 4.4 (2.9-6.7, p

  17. Disparities in current cigarette smoking prevalence by type of disability, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S

    2014-05-01

    Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. We used data from the 2009-2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18-49 years. Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, p<0.001). Among adults with disabilities, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 32.4% (self-care difficulty) to 43.8% (cognitive limitation). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, having a disability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur.

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors of necrotic enteritis on broiler farms in the United Kingdom; a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, P G; Morgan, K L

    2007-02-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and risk factors for necrotic enteritis in broilers, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 857 farms, rearing broilers for nine UK poultry companies. The main data collection tool was a postal questionnaire directed at farm managers. Additional information on disease occurrence on the farm was collected from veterinary postmortem reports. The response rate to the questionnaire was 75%, ranging from 54% to 90% within companies. During 2001, 32.8% of the respondents indicated that they had observed a case of necrotic enteritis (95% confidence interval, 29.1 to 36.8) in at least one flock. The disease was most often reported during the months October to February. The point prevalence (necrotic enteritis occurrence in the most recently reared flock) reported by farm managers was 12.3% (95% confidence interval, 9.8 to 15.2). Multilevel logistic regression was performed with the poultry company as the random effect, using the occurrence of necrotic enteritis in the farm's most recently reared flock as the dependent variable. Strong associations were found between the outcome variable and the occurrence of wet litter (odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 4.52; P = 0.007) and coccidiosis (odds ratio, 4.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.74 to 12.55; P = 0.002). In addition, the use of ammonia as a disinfectant for coccidial oocysts appeared to be an independent risk factor (odds ratio, 3.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.53 to 7.71; P = 0.003). Finally, the positive association between the use of plasterboard walls in poultry houses and the occurrence of necrotic enteritis might point to an important role of cleaning and disinfection in the epidemiology of this disease (odds ratio, 3.72; 1.38 to 10.00; P = 0.009).

  19. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: 20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between female Marines and greater odds of larger magnitude strength differences after returning from an injury.

  20. Prevalence of Albuminuria in a General Population Cohort of Patients With Established Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between albuminuria and adverse outcomes in adults with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the prevalence of albuminuria in adults with established CHF remains unclear. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2012. Adults aged ≥18 years were included, and diagnosis of CHF was based on participant self-report. The primary outcome was the prevalence of microalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30-300 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio >300 mg/g) in adults with CHF. The secondary outcome was the adjusted odds ratio of any albuminuria in adults with and without CHF. During the study period, 37,961 adults did not have CHF and 1,214 adults had CHF. In adults with CHF, 22.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.6%-24.7%) had microalbuminuria and 10.4% (95% CI 8.1%-12.7%) macroalbuminuria. In adjusted analyses, the odds of albuminuria in adults with CHF was 1.89-fold higher (95% CI 1.59-2.26; P albuminuria is more common in adults with CHF than in those without CHF, even after adjustment for important demographic and clinical confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Local and global even-odd effects in prompt emission in fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giubega Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the proton even-odd effects in prompt emission in fission for even-Z actinides revealed basic features of the global even-odd effect in prompt emission similar with those in fission fragment yields and some particular aspects, such as: (1 the even-odd effects in prompt emission are the result of two contributions: a dominant intrinsic even-odd effect due to the even-odd nuclear character of fragments reflected in their properties and a weak even-odd effect caused by the fragment distributions (over which the multi-parametric matrices are averaged; (2 oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units are present in different prompt emission quantities corresponding to even-Z and odd-Z fragmentations independent on the size of the even-odd effect in the charge yield Y(Z. These oscillations are due to the periodicity of nuclear properties of fragments; (3 a local even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities has been recently investigated. Similarities between prompt emission quantities and fragment yields were found in the case of the local even-odd effect, too. The local even-odd effect in both fragment charge yields and prompt emission quantities exhibit a pronounced increase at asymmetry values corresponding to fragmentations in which the heavy fragment (Z = 50 and/or N = 82 or the light one (Z = 28 is magic.

  2. Low Back Pain Prevalence and Associated Factors in Iranian Population: Findings from the National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Biglarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents (n=25307 from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella in raw animal products in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Getachew; Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu

    2015-04-21

    The contributions of animal products to human salmonellosis differ across countries, and source attribution is a major step in prioritizing control measures. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in raw animal products in Ethiopia by using meta-analytical methods. The odds of Salmonella contaminated meat was more than twice higher in markets than in slaughter houses [Odds ratio (OR) = 2.25 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.75, 2.89)]. The source species significantly affected meat contamination in slaughter houses (P  0.05). The pooled estimates of Salmonella contaminated goat carcasses, beef carcasses, minced beef and milk were 3.86%, 4.53%, 8.34% and 10.76% respectively. The estimates demonstrate the extent of contamination, and imply the need for safety intervention measures to reduce the risks of contamination of animal products and human illnesses.

  4. Life course persistent and adolescence limited conduct disorder in a nationally representative US sample: prevalence, predictors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashlee A; Silberg, Judy L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Mezuk, Briana

    2017-04-01

    The course of conduct disorder (CD) is heterogeneous. Moffitt proposed the heuristic of life course persistent (LCP) and adolescence limited (AL) to differentiate etiologically distinct forms of antisocial behavior (AB), each with distinct predictors and consequences, although a few studies have assessed this demarcation within the context of CD. The objective of this study was to apply Moffitt's taxonomy in a nationally representative US sample to investigate the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of LCP and AL CD. Data come from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies, a set of population-based nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (N = 20,130). Predictors included harsh discipline, maternal and paternal closeness, poverty in childhood, history of learning disability, parental deviance, and nativity. Outcomes included substance use, employment status, education attainment, marital status, income level, and self-rated mental and physical health. The prevalence of LCP and AL CD was 0.5 and 4.6%, respectively, for females, and 1.9 and 5.1%, respectively, for males. Low childhood SES [Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.49], lack of maternal closeness (OR = 2.50), and history of harsh discipline (OR = 2.17) increased odds of LCP group membership. The LCP group had higher odds of developing substance use disorders (OR = 2.00) relative to AL. LCP CD is more strongly influenced by childhood environment and confers increased odds for substance use problems in adulthood relative to AL CD.

  5. Prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies and risk factors in dairy goats from the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available t The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies in dairy goats from the semiarid region of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors associated with the flock-level prevalence. A total of 1,092 dairy goats from 110 flocks randomly selected in the county of Monteiro, Paraíba state, during March 2009 to March 2010, were used. In each selected flock a epidemiological questionnaire was applied to verify the occurrence of possible factors that could be associated with the flock-level prevalence. For the serological diagnosis of Pestivirus infection the serum neutralization test, using the BVDV-1 NADL strain, was carried out. Flock-level prevalence was 6.36% (95% CI = 2.60% – 12.67% and animal-level prevalence was 0.82% (95% CI = 0.38% – 1.56%. Not to perform vermifugation (odds ratio = 10.49; p = 0.035 and to perform navel cut and disinfection (odds ratio = 12.73; p = 0.034 were identified as risk factors. These results indicate viral circulation in dairy goats in the semiarid region of the Paraíba state.

  6. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dybdahl Jakobsen

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH, the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005.The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97. The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70. Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37 than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56. The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93.We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  7. Prevalence of visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error - report from a Canadian urban population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Barbara; Feng, Yunwei; Woods, Craig A; Fonn, Desmond; Gold, Deborah; Gordon, Keith

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error has not been previously studied in Canada. A population-based study was conducted in Brantford, Ontario. The target population included all people 40 years of age and older. Study participants were selected using a randomized sampling strategy based on postal codes. Presenting distance and near visual acuities were measured with habitual spectacle correction, if any, in place. Best corrected visual acuities were determined for all participants who had a presenting distance visual acuity of less than 20/25. Population weighted prevalence of distance visual impairment (visual acuity refraction. Population weighted prevalence of near visual impairment (visual acuity refraction. Multivariable adjusted analysis showed that the odds of having distance visual impairment was independently associated with increased age (odds ratio, OR, 3.56, 95% CI 1.22-10.35; ≥65 years compared to those 39-64 years), and time since last eye examination (OR 4.93, 95% CI 1.19-20.32; ≥5 years compared to ≤2 years). The same factors appear to be associated with increased prevalence of near visual impairment but were not statistically significant. The majority of visual impairment found in Brantford was due to uncorrected refractive error. Factors that increased the prevalence of visual impairment were the same for distance and near visual acuity measurements.

  8. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  9. Analysis of reactor-neutrino spectra fully based on gross theory of beta-decay emphasizing the special role of odd-odd FP nuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor antineutrino (νe spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu samples under neutron irradiation by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs. Considering the special role of the odd(Z-odd(N FPs in spectrum-shaping, we utilized the experimentally-known spin-parity of each odd-odd FP through the treatment proposed by Nakata, Tachibana and Yamada. Owing to this treatment, the consistency between calculated and experimental spectra was remarkably improved in a way expected from the nature of the gross theory of β-decay.

  10. Analysis of reactor-neutrino spectra fully based on gross theory of beta-decay emphasizing the special role of odd-odd FP nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Takahiro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor antineutrino (νe) spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu samples under neutron irradiation by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs). Considering the special role of the odd(Z)-odd(N) FPs in spectrum-shaping, we utilized the experimentally-known spin-parity of each odd-odd FP through the treatment proposed by Nakata, Tachibana and Yamada. Owing to this treatment, the consistency between calculated and experimental spectra was remarkably improved in a way expected from the nature of the gross theory of β-decay.

  11. The prevalence, age distribution and comorbidity of personality disorders in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid

  12. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder phenomenology in genetic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Caroline; Jones, Christopher; Groves, Laura; Moss, Jo; Oliver, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenomenology is reported to be more common in individuals with some genetic syndromes than in the general population; however, no meta-analysis has provided prevalence data within and between syndromes. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to synthesise data from a wide range of papers to provide accurate estimates about ASD phenomenology in genetic and metabolic syndromes. We identified syndromes reported as most likely to be associated with ASD. We searched Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and PubMed Central for English-language papers published from database creation up to early 2014 with use of syndrome-specific keywords and a set of ASD keywords. We screened and extracted papers that had ASD prevalence data for ten or more people within a genetic syndrome. With use of a prespecified set of reliable criteria, we applied quality weighting to papers and estimated a quality-effects prevalence of ASD phenomenology for each syndrome. We then calculated relative risks to compare ASD between all syndromes and also calculated odds ratios to compare prevalence with the general population taking the current estimate of one in 68 people. We identified 168 papers reporting the prevalence of ASD phenomenology and found widely varying methods and quality of data. Quality-weighted effect prevalence estimates of ASD phenomenology were established for Rett's syndrome (female individuals only 61%), Cohen's syndrome (54%), Cornelia de Lange syndrome (43%), tuberous sclerosis complex (36%), Angelman's syndrome (34%), CHARGE syndrome (30%), fragile X syndrome (male individuals only 30%; mixed sex 22%), neurofibromatosis type 1 (18%), Down's syndrome (16%), Noonan's syndrome (15%), Williams' syndrome (12%), and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (11%). Relative risks and the odds ratio compared with the general population were highest for Rett's syndrome and Cohen's syndrome. In all syndromes, odds ratios showed ASD phenomenology to

  13. Prevalence of Os Trigonum on CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, Ruben; Baltes, Thomas P A; Opdam, Kim T M; Wiegerinck, Johannes I; van Dijk, C Niek

    2018-03-01

    The os trigonum is known as one of the main causes of posterior ankle impingement. In the literature, a wide variation of occurrence has been reported. All foot and/or ankle computed tomography (CT) scans made between January 2012 and December 2013 were reviewed. CT images were assessed, blinded for patient characteristics, for the presence of an os trigonum, size of the os trigonum, and type of os trigonum. In addition, the shape of the lateral tubercle of the posterior talar process was assessed. A total of 628 patients (1256 ankles) were included. In 32.5% of the patients of the cohort, an os trigonum was present. In 14.3% of these patients, it was present bilaterally. In a subgroup of patients without posterior ankle impingement the prevalence was 30.3%. Of the nonaffected ankles, an os trigonum was present in 23.7%. Patients with posterior ankle impingement were more likely to have an os trigonum (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.86). Afro-Caribbean/Surinamese/Central African origin was associated with a lower rate of occurrence of os trigonum (adjusted OR 0.43). In the ankles without an os trigonum, an enlarged lateral tubercle of the posterior talar process was found in 34.9% and 36.5% of the ankles. This study showed that os trigonum is a common accessory bone. With a prevalence of 30.3% in a population of patients with CT imaging of both ankles and 23.7% of the nonaffected ankles, the os trigonum is more common than previously reported. Patients with posterior ankle impingement complaints had a higher prevalence of an os trigonum. In one-third of the patients without an os trigonum, there was an enlarged lateral tubercle of the posterior talar process. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  14. Prevalence of insomnia and related impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjavong, Manchumad; Limpawattana, Panita; Mairiang, Pisaln; Anutrakulchai, Sirirat

    2016-08-01

    Background Sleep problem is a common geriatric condition that can result in various outcomes, both physical and mental, that reduce quality of life. The studies regarding the prevalence and impact of insomnia on daily activities in Thailand in pre-elderly and elderly adults are few. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of insomnia among pre-elderly and elderly populations and the secondary objective was to study the impact of insomnia on their daily lives. Methods This study included the participants from the urban middle class in the pre-retirement age of 50 years or older adults who worked for Khon Kaen University (KKU), Khon Kaen, Thailand, and their elderly relatives. Information on baseline characteristics, sleep problems, and outcomes were collected. Descriptive analytical statistics were used to analyze baseline data. Multivariate analysis was used to analyze associated factors of the impact of insomnia. Results A total of 491 participants were recruited. The prevalence of insomnia was 60%. The significant consequences related to insomnia were feeling unrefreshed (adjusted odds ratio (AOD) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-3.04), daytime sleepiness (AOD 2.04, 95% CI 1.29-3.22), need for a sedative drug (AOD 4.23, 95% CI 2.09-8.55), depression (AOD 4.74, 95% CI 1.73-13), and impaired attention (AOD 2.29, 95% CI 1.52-3.45). Conclusions Insomnia was found in the majority of pre-elderly and elderly participants and resulted in several poor outcomes. Early detection of insomnia may prevent some inevitable outcomes.

  15. [Prevalence of anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Conde-Sala, Josep Lluís; Reñé-Ramírez, Ramón; López-Pousa, Secundino; Gascón-Bayarri, Jordi; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2014-07-07

    Anosognosia is a disorder that affects the clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), increasing in frequency with the evolution of AD. The objective was to determine the prevalence of anosognosia and analyze the associated factors and predictors. Multicenter transversal and observational study of 345 AD patients. Anosognosia was assessed by Anosognosia Questionnaire-Dementia and the evolutionary stage with the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Tests used were Mini-Mental State Examination, Disability Assessment for Dementia and Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess cognition, functional status and neuropsychiatric symptoms, respectively. We adjusted linear regression models to determine the associated variables and binary logistic regression (RLog) to identify predictors of anosognosia. The overall prevalence of anosognosia was 46.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 41.3 to 52.1). The prevalence in stages was 28.4% (GDS 4), 64.6% (GDS 5) and 91.4% (GDS 6). The RLog identified as predictors older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.09), lower functional capacity (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.98), lower cognitive level (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.88-0.99), and greater apathy (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.03-1.18), disinhibition (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.09-1.50), irritability (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.09-1.50) and motor disorders (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.09-1.50). Anosognosia increases with further deterioration. In patients with a mild impairment, predictor variables were apathy, disinhibition and motor disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of pressure ulcers in three university teaching hospitals in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul

    2012-02-03

    AIM: Pressure ulceration is a significant, but preventable, cause of morbidity and resource utilisation in hospital populations. Data on pressure ulcer prevalence in Ireland are limited. This study aims to determine (i) the point-prevalence of pressure ulcers in three teaching hospitals in Ireland and (ii) risk factors for their development. METHODS: Eight teams of one doctor and one nurse visited 672 adult patients over a 2-day period in three teaching hospitals. Each patient was examined and pressure ulcers graded with the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel system. Mental test score, Barthel index, type of support surface, length of stay, documentation of risk assessment and serum albumin were recorded. RESULTS: Point-prevalence of pressure ulceration was 18.5%. Seventy-seven percent of pressure ulcers were hospital-acquired, 49% grade 1, 37% grade 2, 11% grade 3 and 3% grade 4. Reduced mobility, urinary incontinence, cognitive impairment, low serum albumin and length of stay were significantly associated with pressure ulcers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found reduced mobility (odds ratio 8.84; 95% CI 5.04-15.48, p<0.0001) and length of stay (odds ratio 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.02, p<0.0001) to be predictive of the presence of pressure ulcers. Age, gender and risk assessment documentation were not associated with pressure ulcers. Sixty-five percent of patients with pressure ulcers were positioned on appropriate support surfaces. DISCUSSION: Point-prevalence of pressure ulceration was 18.5%, similar to international data. Regular audit of prevalence, prevention and management strategies may raise awareness, influence resource allocation and ultimately improve patient care.

  17. Cannabis use in first episode psychosis: Meta-analysis of prevalence, and the time course of initiation and continued use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Hannah; Myles, Nicholas; Large, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis use is prevalent among people with first episode psychosis and the epidemiology of its use in early psychosis is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to determine; (1) the interval between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of first episode psychosis, (2) the prevalence of cannabis use at time of first episode psychosis, and (3) the odds of continuing cannabis following treatment for first episode psychosis. Search of electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL for English-language papers using search terms (psychosis OR schizophrenia) AND (cannabis OR marijuana) IN (title OR keyword OR abstract), current to October 2014. Studies were included if they reported on prevalence of current cannabis use in first episode psychosis cohorts. A total of 37 samples were included for meta-analysis. Rates of cannabis use in each sample were extracted to determine prevalence estimates. The age at initiation of regular cannabis and age at onset of psychosis were used to determine the length of cannabis use preceding psychosis. Prevalence estimates at first episode psychosis and various time points of follow-up following first episode psychosis were analysed to determine odds ratio of continuing cannabis use. Data synthesis was performed using random-effects meta-analyses. The pooled estimate for the interval between initiation of regular cannabis use and age at onset of psychosis was 6.3 years (10 samples, standardised mean difference = 1.56, 95% confidence interval = [1.40, 1.72]). The estimated prevalence of cannabis use at first episode psychosis was 33.7% (35 samples, 95% confidence interval = [31%, 39%]). Odds of continued cannabis use between 6 months and 10 years following first episode psychosis was 0.56 (19 samples, 95% confidence interval = [0.40, 0.79]). © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Peer Victimization (Bullying among Grades 7 and 8 Middle School Students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad J. Abdulsalam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peer victimization (bullying is a universal phenomenon with detrimental effects. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors of bullying among grades 7 and 8 middle school students in Kuwait. Methods. The study is a cross-sectional study that includes a sample of 989 7th and 8th grade middle school students randomly selected from schools. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure different forms of bullying. After adjusting for confounding, logistic regression identified the significant associated factors related to bullying. Results. Prevalence of bullying was 30.2 with 95% CI 27.4 to 33.2% (3.5% bullies, 18.9% victims, 7.8% bully victims. Children with physical disabilities and one or both non-Kuwaiti parents or children with divorced/widowed parents were more prone to be victims. Most victims and bullies were found to be current smokers. Bullies were mostly in the fail/fair final school grade category, whereas victims performed better. The logistic regression showed that male gender (adjusted odds ration = 1.671, p=0.004, grade 8 student (adjusted odds ratio = 1.650, p=0.004, and student with physical disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.675, p=0.003, were independently associated with bullying behavior. Conclusions. There is a need for a school-wide professional intervention program and improvement in the students’ adjustment to school environment to control bullying behavior.

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Peer Victimization (Bullying) among Grades 7 and 8 Middle School Students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, Ahmad J; Al Daihani, Abdullah E; Francis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Background . Peer victimization (bullying) is a universal phenomenon with detrimental effects. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors of bullying among grades 7 and 8 middle school students in Kuwait. Methods . The study is a cross-sectional study that includes a sample of 989 7th and 8th grade middle school students randomly selected from schools. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure different forms of bullying. After adjusting for confounding, logistic regression identified the significant associated factors related to bullying. Results . Prevalence of bullying was 30.2 with 95% CI 27.4 to 33.2% (3.5% bullies, 18.9% victims, 7.8% bully victims). Children with physical disabilities and one or both non-Kuwaiti parents or children with divorced/widowed parents were more prone to be victims. Most victims and bullies were found to be current smokers. Bullies were mostly in the fail/fair final school grade category, whereas victims performed better. The logistic regression showed that male gender (adjusted odds ration = 1.671, p = 0.004), grade 8 student (adjusted odds ratio = 1.650, p = 0.004), and student with physical disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.675, p = 0.003), were independently associated with bullying behavior. Conclusions . There is a need for a school-wide professional intervention program and improvement in the students' adjustment to school environment to control bullying behavior.

  20. [Association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension by gender and different body mass index classification in an urban elderly population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shanshan; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Yiyan; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Di

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between waist circumference and the prevalence/control of hypertension in an urban elderly population. From September 2009 to June 2010, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wanshoulu area of Beijing, China. A total of 2 035 elderly (828 male, 1 207 females) participants aged ≥60 years from a community were included in this study for data analysis. We found that the increased waist circumference could significantly increase the risk of prevalence and poor control of hypertension, with the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) as 1.04 (1.01-1.08) and 0.96 (0.92-1.00) , respectively. Among those identified pure central obesity females (64.7%) , the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher than those females with normal body mass index (BMI) or with normal waist circumference (52.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) between the above said groups appeared as 1.58 (1.07-2.32). The control rate of hypertension among females (32.9%) with pure central obesity, was lower than that of the females with normal BMI and waist circumference (43.5%) , with an adjusted odds ratio (95%CI) as 0.62 (0.37-1.04, P=0.071). There appeared significant association between people with pure central obesity and the increased risk of prevalence or with poor control of hypertension. More attention should be paid to both the prevalence and control of hypertension programs among females with pure central obesity.

  1. Secular trends of obesity prevalence in Chinese children from 1985 to 2010: Urban-rural disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing; Agard, Anette

    2015-02-01

    To examine the trend of urban-rural disparity in obesity prevalence among Chinese children from 1985 to 2010. The data were from five cross-sectional surveys (1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) of urban-rural areas for obesity prevalence in different surveys. The standardized prevalence of obesity in Chinese children increased rapidly from 0.1% in 1985 to 5.0% in 2010, and significant differences were found between two adjacent surveys in most of the age subgroups (Pobesity prevalence was significantly higher in urban than in rural children of all age subgroups at different survey points, the changing pace was faster in rural than in urban areas from 1995 to 2010. The PORs had increased in 1995 in most age subgroups and then began to decline in all age subgroups after 1995. The gradually decreasing urban-rural disparity suggests that the obesity prevalence in rural areas would contribute to a growing proportion of obese children. Therefore, rural children should be included in obesity prevention efforts even though obesity rates are still lower in rural than in urban areas. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  3. Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Z. Braunstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PC remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT. BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83% received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70% were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P=0.04, whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P=0.04. Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.

  4. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Ramady, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (81(217)Tl, Bismuth (83(217)Bi), Astatine (85(217)At), Francium (87(217)Fr), Actinium (89(217)Ac) and Protactinium (91(217)Pa) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory's website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for (221)Fr-, (221)Ac- and (221)Pa-α-decays.

  5. Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL® marginally effects student achievement measures but substantially increases the odds of passing a course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Walker

    Full Text Available While the inquiry approach to science teaching has been widely recommended as an epistemic mechanism to promote deep content understanding, there is also increased expectation that process and other transferable skills should be integral part of science pedagogy. To test the hypothesis that coupling process skills to content teaching impacts academic success measures, we meta-analyzed twenty-one studies (n = 21 involving 7876 students that compared Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL, a pedagogy that provides opportunities for improving process skills during content learning through guided-inquiry activities, to standard lecture conditions. Based on conventional measures of class performance, POGIL had a small effect on achievement outcomes (effect size = 0.29, [95% CI = 0.15-0.43] but substantially improved the odds of passing a class (odds ratio = 2.02, [95% CI: 1.45-2.83]. That is, participants in the POGIL pedagogy had higher odds of passing a course and roughly performed 0.3 standard deviations higher on achievement measures than participants in standard lectures. In relative risk terms, POGIL reduced the risk of failing a course by 38%. These findings suggest providing opportunities to improve process skills during class instruction does not inhibit content learning but enhances conventional success measures. We compare these findings with those of recent large meta-analysis that examined the effects of global active learning methods on achievement outcomes and course failure rates in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields.

  6. Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL®) marginally effects student achievement measures but substantially increases the odds of passing a course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lindsey; Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M

    2017-01-01

    While the inquiry approach to science teaching has been widely recommended as an epistemic mechanism to promote deep content understanding, there is also increased expectation that process and other transferable skills should be integral part of science pedagogy. To test the hypothesis that coupling process skills to content teaching impacts academic success measures, we meta-analyzed twenty-one studies (n = 21) involving 7876 students that compared Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL), a pedagogy that provides opportunities for improving process skills during content learning through guided-inquiry activities, to standard lecture conditions. Based on conventional measures of class performance, POGIL had a small effect on achievement outcomes (effect size = 0.29, [95% CI = 0.15-0.43]) but substantially improved the odds of passing a class (odds ratio = 2.02, [95% CI: 1.45-2.83]). That is, participants in the POGIL pedagogy had higher odds of passing a course and roughly performed 0.3 standard deviations higher on achievement measures than participants in standard lectures. In relative risk terms, POGIL reduced the risk of failing a course by 38%. These findings suggest providing opportunities to improve process skills during class instruction does not inhibit content learning but enhances conventional success measures. We compare these findings with those of recent large meta-analysis that examined the effects of global active learning methods on achievement outcomes and course failure rates in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

  7. The Prevalence of ADHD, ODD, Depression, and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the epidemiology of preschoolers' psychopathology. This study included 796 4-year-old children recruited from schools and pediatric practices in a diverse, urban area. Psychiatric disorder was assessed by a structured interview adapted for preschool children and by questionnaire. The most common disorders were…

  8. The Log Odds of Positive Lymph Nodes Stratifies and Predicts Survival of High-Risk Individuals Among Stage III Rectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina W; Wilkinson, Katheryn H; Sheka, Adam C; Leverson, Glen E; Kennedy, Gregory D

    2016-04-01

    The log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) is an empiric transform formula that incorporates positive and negative lymph node data into a single ratio for prognostic utility. We sought to determine the value of the log odds ratio as a prognostic indicator compared with established lymph node indices in advanced-stage rectal cancer patients who have undergone curative resection. Retrospective analysis of rectal cancer operations from 1995 to 2013 identified all stage III cancer patients who underwent curative resection. Patients were stratified into three groups according to calculated lymph node ratios (LNRs) and log odds ratios (LODDS). The relationship between LNR, LODDS, and 5-year overall survival (OS) were assessed. OS for all patients was 81.4%. Both LNR and LODDS stratifications identified differences in 5-year OS. LODDS stratification was significantly associated with OS (p = .04). Additional significant clinicopathologic demographic variables included sex (p = .02), venous invasion (p = .02), tumor location (p log odds ratio is a suitable predictor of 5-year overall survival in stage III rectal cancer. LODDS may be applied to stratify high-risk patients in the management of adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, clinicians have relied solely on the total number of positive lymph nodes affected when determining patient prognosis in rectal cancer. However, the current staging strategy does not account for "high-risk," biologically aggressive tumors that fall into the same risk categories as less clinically aggressive tumors. The log odds of positive lymph nodes is a logistic transform formula that uses pathologic lymph node data to stratify survival differences among patients within a single stage of disease. This formula allows clinicians to identify whether patients with clinically aggressive tumors fall into higher-risk groups, providing additional insight into how to better counsel patients and manage postoperative therapies. ©AlphaMed Press.

  9. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia in Brazilian public school system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Bastos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8% children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD, 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.

  10. Point prevalence of surgical checklist use in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammer, I; Ahmad, T; Aldecoa, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of use of the World Health Organization surgical checklist is unknown. The clinical effectiveness of this intervention in improving postoperative outcomes is debated. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective analysis of data describing surgical checklist use from a 7 day...... models were constructed to explore the relationship between surgical checklist use and hospital mortality. Findings are presented as crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 45 591 patients from 426 hospitals were included in the analysis. A surgical...... checklist was used in 67.5% patients, with marked variation across countries (0-99.6% of patients). Surgical checklist exposure was associated with lower crude hospital mortality (OR 0.84, CI 0.75-0.94; P=0.002). This effect remained after adjustment for baseline risk factors in a multivariate model...

  11. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle ...

  12. Teacher ratings of ODD symptoms: measurement equivalence across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2014-04-01

    The study examined the measurement equivalence for teacher ratings across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children. Malaysian teachers completed ratings of the ODD symptoms for 574 Malay, 247 Chinese and 98 Indian children. The results supported the equivalences for the configural, metric, and error variances models, and the equivalences for ODD latent variances and mean scores. Together, these findings suggest good support for measurement and structural equivalences of the ODD symptoms across these ethnic groups. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings for cross-cultural equivalence of the ODD symptoms are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Socio-economic and ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    To trial the collection of measurements to provide population-based prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in western Sydney and examine the association between healthy weight and ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) in a socio-economically and culturally diverse population. A cross-sectional population-based survey of 2341 children in Years 4 and 7 (mean ages 9 and 12 years, respectively) in 2007.   Nineteen percent of children were overweight and a further 6% were obese. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was similar for boys and girls (26% vs. 24%, P= 0.35). SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight: the odds of being overweight or obese were 1.79 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 2.36) higher for children from the lowest quartile than for children from the highest quartile. Compared to children from an English speaking background, children from a non-English speaking background were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese (21% vs. 31%, P overweight and obesity was significantly higher for children from a Pacific Island (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.33), Middle Eastern (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.17) or European (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) background than for English speaking background children. Large jumps in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children observed from the 1980s appear to be diminishing, with comparable prevalence reports in 2004 and 2007. Ethnicity and SES are each independently associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight in children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Restless legs syndrome in migraine patients: prevalence and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterhout, W P J; van Someren, E J W; Louter, M A; Schoonman, G G; Lammers, G J; Rijsman, R M; Ferrari, M D; Terwindt, G M

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to study not only the prevalence but more importantly the severity and the correlation between sleep quality and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a large population of well-defined migraine patients as poor sleep presumably triggers migraine attacks. In a large cross-sectional and observational study, data on migraine and RLS were collected from 2385 migraine patients (according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-IIIb) and 332 non-headache controls. RLS severity (International RLS Study Group severity scale) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed. Risk factors for RLS and RLS severity were calculated using multivariable-adjusted regression models. Restless legs syndrome prevalence in migraine was higher than in controls (16.9% vs. 8.7%; multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.86; P = 0.008) and more severe (adjusted severity score 14.5 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 1.1; P = 0.036). Poor sleepers were overrepresented amongst migraineurs (50.1% vs. 25.6%; P Restless legs syndrome is not only twice as prevalent but also more severe in migraine patients, and associated with decreased sleep quality. © 2016 EAN.

  15. Early sex work initiation independently elevates odds of HIV infection and police arrest among adult sex workers in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Chettiar, Jill; Simo, Annick; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Baseline data (2010-2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian born [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.42 to 19.02], inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2). Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug, and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs.

  16. Motor Impairments in Transient Ischemic Attack Increase the Odds of a Subsequent Stroke: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Lodha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeTransient ischemic attack (TIA increases the risk for a subsequent stroke. Typical symptoms include motor weakness, gait disturbance, and loss of coordination. The association between the presence of motor impairments during a TIA and the chances of a subsequent stroke has not been examined. In the current meta-analysis, we examine whether the odds of a stroke are greater in TIA individuals who experience motor impairments as compared with those who do not experience motor impairments.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search of electronic databases as well as manual searches of the reference lists of retrieved articles. The meta-analysis included studies that reported an odds ratio relating motor impairments to a subsequent stroke, or the number of individuals with or without motor impairments who experienced a subsequent stroke. We examined these studies using rigorous meta-analysis techniques including random effects model, forest and funnel plots, I2, publication bias, and fail-safe analysis.ResultsTwenty-four studies with 15,129 participants from North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe qualified for inclusion. An odds ratio of 2.11 (95% CI, 1.67–2.65, p = 0.000 suggested that the chances of a subsequent stroke are increased by twofolds in individuals who experience motor impairments during a TIA compared with those individuals who have no motor impairments.ConclusionThe presence of motor impairments during TIA is a significantly high-risk clinical characteristic for a subsequent stroke. The current evidence for motor impairments following TIA relies exclusively on the clinical reports of unilateral motor weakness. A comprehensive examination of motor impairments in TIA will enhance TIA prognosis and restoration of residual motor impairments.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus strains in primiparous and multiparous cows in six herds with a high prevalence of Staph. aureus intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Scheibe, Nicole; Zucker, Bert-Andree; Köster, Gudrun; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    The proportion of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus was tested in four groups of lactating dairy cows in six herds with a high overall prevalence of Staph. aureus using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. Group 1 included primiparous cows in early lactation (250 days in milk). Groups 3 and 4 were multiparous cows in the respective stages of lactation. Eight cows from each group on each farm were tested. Overall quarter prevalence of Staph. aureus ranged from 23.4 to 32.0% in the herds. Of the 130 isolates included in the analysis 86.9% were high prevalence strains (more than three isolates per herd), while 13.1% were strains that were only identified in one or two samples. Low prevalence strains were found in all six herds. The proportion of low prevalence strains was higher in multiparous than in primiparous cows (odds ratio, OR 4.4, 1.2-16.6). It is concluded that low prevalence Staph. aureus strains are common even in herds with a high prevalence of Staph. aureus and that their frequency is lower in primiparous cows than in older cows.

  18. Prevalence of intravenous medication administration errors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Tezeta; Teweldemedhin, Mebrahtu; Esrael, Eyerusalem; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs) may be accompanied by avoidable undesirable effects, which might result in clinical complications. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of MAEs and to identify the factors associated with such errors. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2015. Data were collected by direct observation using a pretested data collection tool. Simple random sampling was used, and bivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with MAEs. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 134 patients were found to be eligible for the study. More than half of the study participants were males (76 [56.7%]). The rate of MAE was 46.1%, with the missed dose (n=162, 95.8%) being reported as the most common error. The age groups of 60-79 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.166, confidence interval = 1.532-8.799) and 80-101 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.52, confidence interval = 1.198-5.584) were the determinants of MAEs. A high prevalence of MAEs was found. Enhancing the knowledge and practical skills of clinical nurses might minimize such errors.

  19. Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Type of Disability, 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. Methods We used data from the 2009–2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18–49 years. Results Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, pdisability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). Conclusions The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur. PMID:24791023

  20. Satisfaction of diabetes patients in public outpatient department: prevalance and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalil, A.; Zakar, R.; Zakar, M.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and determinants of satisfaction among diabetes mellitus patients about the doctors in a major public diabetes clinic in Lahore. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,128 adult patients of diabetes mellitus. The questionnaire was based on the Urdu translation of an internationally validated tool: Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire 3. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0. The results are shown by Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results: The overall prevalence of patient satisfaction with the doctors was 86%. Patient's gender male (AOR=.41; 95%CI=.26-.63) and higher education (AOR=.33; 95%CI=.17-.63) were found to be associated with lower likelihood of satisfaction. Patient's perception of low technical expertise, poor interpersonal aspects and inappropriate time provision was associated with lower odds of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: Despite the prevalence of patient satisfaction was found to be high, the patients' perception of doctor's skills determines their satisfaction. Patient satisfaction studies should be conducted on regular basis to assess and improve the nature of patient experiences in public out-patient departments. (author)

  1. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Gimhae-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jin-Hee; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2011-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Gimhae-si, Korea. A total of 6,921 preschool children in 76 kindergartens were examined using the cellotape perianal swab method. The overall egg positive rate (EPR) was 10.5%. The EPR in boys was higher than that in girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.5, P<0.001), and it was higher in rural than in urban children (AOR: 1.2, P=0.022). The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection is fairly high among preschool children in Gimhae-si. Therefore, systematic control and preventive measures should be adopted to reduce morbidity associated with this nematode infection.

  2. Prevalent urinary incontinence as a correlate of pregnancy, vaginal childbirth and obstetric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between pregnancy, vaginal childbirth and obstetric techniques, and the prevalence of urinary incontinence among adult women aged 20 to 59 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey enrolled a random sample of 6240 women aged 20 to 59 years who were...... mailed a self-administered questionnaire focusing on urinary incontinence and other health variables. More than 75% of the women responded. The present analysis includes 4345 women who were not pregnant and did not experience a vaginal childbirth during 1994. RESULTS: Multivariate prevalence odds ratios...... showed increases in relation to urinary incontinence during pregnancy, urinary incontinence immediately after a vaginal childbirth, and age of 30 years or more at the second vaginal childbirth. No multivariate associations were found for forceps delivery or vacuum extraction delivery, episiotomy...

  3. Prevalence of depression in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or undiagnosed diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nouwen, Arie; Nefs, Giesje; Caramlau, Isabela

    2011-01-01

    diagnosed type 2 diabetes (PDD) has not been the subject of a systematic review/meta-analysis. This study examined the prevalence of depression in IGM and UDD subjects relative to each other and to NGM and PDD subjects by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of studies on this topic......OBJECTIVE: Meta-analyses have shown that the risk for depression is elevated in type 2 diabetes. Whether this risk in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or undiagnosed diabetes (UDD) is elevated relative to normal glucose metabolism (NGM) or decreased relative to previously....... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for articles published up to May 2010. All studies that compared the prevalence of depression in subjects with IGM and UDD were included. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed and random-effects models. RESULTS: The meta...

  4. Prevalence of and factors associated with persistent pain following breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006. A study questionnaire was sent to the women between January and April 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, location, and severity of persistent pain and sensory disturbances in 12 well-defined treatment groups assessed an average of 26 months after surgery......, and adjusted odds ratio (OR) of reported pain and sensory disturbances with respect to age, surgical technique, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. RESULTS: By June 2008, 3253 of 3754 eligible women (87%) returned the questionnaire. A total of 1543 patients (47%) reported pain, of whom 201 (13%) had severe pain......CONTEXT: Persistent pain and sensory disturbances following surgical treatment for breast cancer is a significant clinical problem. The pathogenic mechanisms are complex and may be related to patient characteristics, surgical technique, and adjuvant therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine prevalence...

  5. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  6. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  7. The odd-even effect in Sudoku puzzles: effects of working memory, aging, and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hye-Sang; Gibson, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    The odd-even effect in numerical processing has been explained as the easier processing of even numbers compared with odd numbers. We investigated this effect in Sudoku puzzles, a reasoning problem that uses numbers but does not require arithmetic operations. Specifically, we asked whether the odd-even effect occurred with Sudoku puzzles and whether individual differences in working memory (WM), aging, and experience with Sudoku modulated this effect. We manipulated the presence of odd and even numbers in Sudoku puzzles, measured WM with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and backward digit span task, tested older and younger adults, and collected Sudoku experience frequency. Performance on Sudoku was more accurate for even puzzles than odd ones. Younger, experienced, and higher-WM participants were more accurate on Sudoku, but these individual difference variables did not interact with the odd-even effect. Odd numbers may impose more cognitive load than even numbers, but future research is needed to examine how age, experience, or WM may influence the odd-even effect.

  8. Quantum information with even and odd states of orbital angular momentum of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu, E-mail: chithrabhanu@prl.res.in [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Lal, Nijil [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); IIT Gandhinagar, Palaj, Ahmedabad, 382355 (India); Anwar, Ali [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Gangi Reddy, Salla [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 1828585 (Japan); Singh, R.P. [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India)

    2017-06-15

    We address the possibility of using even/odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons for the quantum information tasks. Single photon qubit states and two photon entangled states in even/odd basis of OAM are considered. We present a method for the tomography and general projective measurement in even/odd basis. With the general projective measurement, we show the Bell violation and quantum cryptography with Bell's inequality. We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization, which can be applied in the implementation of quantum protocols like super dense coding. - Highlights: • We propose to use even and odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light for quantum information tasks. • We describe the OAM qubits and entangled states in even/odd basis and the corresponding projective operators. • We present a method for the tomography and the Bell's inequality violation for photons entangled in even/odd OAM states. • We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization and their applications.

  9. Technology diffusion in hospitals : A log odds random effects regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, J.L.T.; Valdmanis, V.G.

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to describe the

  10. Technology diffusion in hospitals: A log odds random effects regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank (Jos); V.G. Valdmanis (Vivian G.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study identifies the factors that affect the diffusion of hospital innovations. We apply a log odds random effects regression model on hospital micro data. We introduce the concept of clustering innovations and the application of a log odds random effects regression model to

  11. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  12. Odd A nuclei description in terms of boson and fermion interacting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.

    1986-01-01

    The odd-A nuclei are considered in the IBFM model to consist of an even-even core (described by the interacting boson model) and of a few fermions. In the general case the Hamiltonian is numerically diagonalized after a number of approximations. The results of a typical calculation are compared to experiment. In special cases it is possible to obtain analytical expressions for experimentally measurable quantities. These limiting cases are the Bose-Fermi symmetries for odd-A nuclei and the supersymmetries describing simultaneously both even-even and odd-A nuclei. The Bose-Fermi Spin (6) and the U(6/4) supersymmetry models are described in details and compared to experiments. The more recent ''multi-j'' U(6/12) supersymmetry models, the extension of supersymmetry to the odd-odd nuclei and the generalized supersymmetry, are only briefly discussed [fr

  13. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Strangely, ropes found at the scene of crime gave valuable clues to Sherlock Holmes also. At least in two cases, they helped him in the identification of the criminal.) But then where is the scaffolding? Where are the catalysts? Where are the secluded cham- bers where the primitive information mol- ecules that were evolving ...

  14. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a few instances of the remarkable clarity of focus on the real issues, sometimes bordering on prescience ... believed role attributed to chemical evolu- tion. As the title suggests, the arguments are presented in the ... of interlocking components that can function only in a mutually dependent manner. Armed with our current ...

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha S Al Dhaheri

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17-25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity.In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013-2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria.Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%, as compared with normal-weight (1.7% and overweight (10.1% participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15-12.52 and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1-40.9, as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10-8.44 was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37-79.42 compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%-6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4-23.5.The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction.

  16. Prevalence and independent risk factors for erectile dysfunction in Spain: results of the Epidemiologia de la Disfuncion Erectil Masculina Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Morales, A; Sanchez-Cruz, J J; Saenz de Tejada, I; Rodriguez-Vela, L; Jimenez-Cruz, J F; Burgos-Rodriguez, R

    2001-08-01

    We determined the prevalence of and risks factors for erectile dysfunction in Spain in a cross-sectional study. A total of 2,476 noninstitutionalized Spanish men 25 to 70 years old were interviewed at home and answered a self-administered questionnaire of 71 items, including 2 instruments to define erectile dysfunction, a simple self-assessment question to estimate erectile function and the International Index of Erectile Function. Data on disease, medication and toxic habits were also obtained. With an overall participation rate of 75% the prevalence of erectile dysfunction according to the simple question was 12.1%. According to the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function the overall prevalence was 18.9%. Several independent risk factors were significantly associated with the probability of erectile dysfunction. Some differences arose according to the tool used to define the condition. However, there was a strong relationship of patient age with frequency or severity no matter which instrument was used to define erectile dysfunction. Diabetes (age adjusted odds ratio 4), high blood pressure (odds ratio 1.58), high cholesterol (1.63), peripheral vascular disorder (2.63), lung disease (3.11), prostate disease (2.93), cardiac problems (1.79), rheumatism (2.37) and allergy (3.08) were significantly associated with erectile dysfunction. Drug intake, which respondents called medication for nerves and sleeping pills, correlated strongly (odds ratio 2.78 and 4.27, respectively), as did tobacco use (2.5) and alcohol consumption (1.53). This study provides data on the prevalence of and risks factors for erectile dysfunction in Spain. The relationship of erectile dysfunction with certain risk factors, such as cardiovascular risk factors and drugs intake, are well known and our study corroborates these associations. Other associations with erectile dysfunction, such as prostate disease, allergy and rheumatism, support findings in previous

  17. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A.; Ellison, Curtis R.; Pankow, James S.; North, Kari E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Arnett, Donna K.; Djoussé, Luc

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Previous studies have suggested that cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, may lower blood pressure, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and improve endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether consumption of cocoa products including chocolate influences the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional design, we sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and the prevalence of MetS. Methods We studied 4098 participants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study aged 25–93 years. Chocolate consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the NCEP III criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios of MetS according to frequency of chocolate intake. Results Of the 4098 participants (mean age 51.7 y) included in the analyses, 2206 (53.8%) were female. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 30.2%. Compared with those who did not consume any chocolate, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.26 (0.94, 1.69), 1.15 (0.85, 1.55), and 0.99 (0.66, 1.51) among women who reported chocolate consumption of 1–3 times/ month, 1–4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively. Corresponding values for men were: 1.13 (0.82, 1.57), 1.02 (0.74, 1.39), and 1.21 (0.79, 1.85). Conclusion These data do not support an association between chocolate intake and the prevalence of MetS in US adult men and women. PMID:25126517

  18. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle; Schei, Berit; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Tabor, Ann

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Routine antenatal care in six European countries. In total 6923 pregnant women. Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Abuse in healthcare, fear of childbirth and preference for birth by cesarean section. One in five pregnant women attending routine antenatal care reported some lifetime abuse in healthcare. Prevalence varied significantly between the countries. Characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare included a significantly higher prevalence of other forms of abuse, economic hardship and negative life events as well as a lack of social support, symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. Among nulliparous women, abuse in healthcare was associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.12) for severe abuse in healthcare. For multiparous women only severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 4.04 (95% CI 2.08-7.83). Current severe suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with the wish for cesarean section, and counselling for fear of childbirth for both nulli- and multiparous women. Abuse in healthcare among women attending routine antenatal care is common and for women with severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare, this is associated with fear of childbirth and a wish for cesarean section. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Migraine in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Prevalence, potential mechanisms, and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakib eRayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of headache subtypes in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome compared to controls. Background: Migraines are reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Approximately, 25% of the military personnel who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War have developed Gulf War Illness (GWI. Symptoms in GWI share considerable overlap with CFS, including headache complaints. The type and prevalence of headaches in GWI have not been adequately assessed.Methods: 50 GWI, 39 CFS and 45 controls were examined. Participants had structured headache evaluations based on the 2004 International Headache Society criteria. All subjects had history and physical examinations, measurements of systemic hyperalgesia (dolorimetry, assessments for exclusionary indicators, fatigue and symptom related questionnaires. Results: Migraines were detected in 64% of GWI (odds ratio, 11.6, [±95% CI, 4.1 to 32.5] and 82% of CFS subjects (odds ratio, 22.5, [±95% CI, 7.8 to 64.8] compared to only 13% of controls. There was a predominance of females in the CFS compared to GWI and controls. However, gender did not influence migraine status (x2= 2.7; P = 0.101. Measures of fatigue, pain, and other ancillary criteria were comparable between GWI and CFS subjects with and without headache. Conclusion: Results validate previous findings of migraine in CFS and confirms similar increased prevalence in GWI compared to controls. This suggests GWI and CFS subjects share pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie migraine attacks and contribute to the extensive overlap of symptom constructs and disease pathophysiology. The high migraine prevalence warrants the inclusion of a structured headache evaluation that coincides with clinical assessments of GWI and CFS diagnosis.

  20. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A; Ellison, Curtis R; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Hunt, Steven C; Kraja, Aldi T; Arnett, Donna K; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, may lower blood pressure, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and improve endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether consumption of cocoa products including chocolate influences the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional design, we sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and the prevalence of MetS. We studied 4098 participants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study aged 25-93 years. Chocolate consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the NCEP III criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios of MetS according to frequency of chocolate intake. Of the 4098 participants (mean age 51.7 y) included in the analyses, 2206 (53.8%) were female. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 30.2%. Compared with those who did not consume any chocolate, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.26 (0.94, 1.69), 1.15 (0.85, 1.55), and 0.99 (0.66, 1.51) among women who reported chocolate consumption of 1-3 times/ month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively. Corresponding values for men were: 1.13 (0.82, 1.57), 1.02 (0.74, 1.39), and 1.21 (0.79, 1.85). These data do not support an association between chocolate intake and the prevalence of MetS in US adult men and women.

  1. Sleep disturbance in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Prevalence, predictors and impact on health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibović, M; Mudde, L; Pedersen, S S; Schoormans, D; Widdershoven, J; Denollet, J

    2017-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with cardiac diseases and associated with poor health outcomes. However, little is known about sleep disturbance in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. We examined the prevalence and predictors of sleep disturbance and the impact on perceived health status in a Dutch cohort of implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients. Patients ( n=195) enrolled in the Web-based distress program for implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients (WEBCARE) trial completed questionnaires at the time of implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation, three, six and 12 months afterwards. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the corresponding item #3 of the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. At baseline, 67% ( n=130) reported sleep disturbance (cut off ≥1). One year later, the prevalence was 57% ( n=112). Younger age (odds ratio=0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.92-0.99; p=0.012) and high negative affectivity/low social inhibition (odds ratio=4.47, 95% confidence interval 1.52-13.17; p=0.007) were associated with sleep disturbance at 12 months in adjusted analyses. Sleep disturbance was not associated with health status at 12 months. Charlson Comorbidity Index, anxiety, Type D personality and high negative affectivity/low social inhibition were associated with impaired health status at follow-up. Sleep disturbance was highly prevalent in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Younger age and high negative affectivity predicted sleep disturbance 12 months post-implantation independent of other demographic, clinical, intervention and psychological covariates. Sleep disturbance was not associated with impaired health status at the 12-month follow-up.

  2. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  3. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among newly detected pulmonary tuberculosis patients in China: a community based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (DM have a higher risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB; moreover, DM co-morbidity in PTB is associated with poor PTB treatment outcomes. Community based prevalence data on DM and prediabetes (pre-DM among TB patients is lacking, particularly from the developing world. Therefore we conducted a prospective study to investigate the prevalence of DM and pre-DM and evaluated the risk factors for the presence of DM among newly detected PTB patients in rural areas of China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a prospective community based study carried out from 2010 to 2012, a representative sample of 6382 newly detected PTB patients from 7 TB clinics in Linyi were tested for DM. A population of 6674 non-TB controls from the same community was similarly tested as well. The prevalence of DM in TB patients (6.3% was higher than that in non-TB controls (4.7%, p<0.05. PTB patients had a higher odds of DM than non-TB controls (adjusted OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.14-8.84. The prevalence of DM increased with age and was significantly higher in TB patients in the age categories above 30 years (p<0.05. Among TB patients, those with normal weight (BMI 18.5-23.9 had the lowest prevalence of DM (5.8%. Increasing age, family history of DM, positive sputum smear, cavity on chest X-ray and higher yearly income (≥10000 RMB yuan were positively associated and frequent outdoor activity was negatively associated with DM in PTB patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DM in PTB patients was higher than in non-TB controls with a 3 fold higher adjusted odds ratio of having DM. Given the increasing DM prevalence and still high burden of TB in China, this association may represent a new public health challenge concerning the prevention and treatment of both diseases.

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers from urban and rural areas in Chuquisaca, Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Soto, María Teresa; Schön, Anabel; Solis-Soto, Angel; Parra, Manuel; Radon, Katja

    2017-10-27

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are important health problems in working populations. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSD among school teachers from urban and rural areas in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 60 randomly selected schools. In total, 1062 teachers were invited to participate (response 58%). The Spanish version of the Standardized Nordic questionnaire was used assessing the 12-months and 7-days prevalence of MSD as well as the 12-months prevalence of work limiting pain. Prevalence were calculated for the different parts of the body; as summary measures, MSD in any part of the body and in ≥3 parts of the body were assessed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, teaching level and school type. Prevalence of MSD in any part of the body was 86% during the last 12 months, 63% during the last 7 days and 15% for work limiting pain. MSD was most common in the neck (12-months prevalence 47%) and least common in the wrist/hands (26%). In the adjusted model, teachers working in rural areas presented significantly higher odds than teachers from urban schools for work-limiting pain during the last 12-months considering any part of the body (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.1), and for ≥3 parts of the body (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.3-10.6). The prevalence of MSD is high in School teachers, even more in teachers working in rural areas. It is needed to identify risk factors for MSD in teachers in order to propose appropriate strategies to control and reduce it.

  5. Against all odds: genocidal trauma is associated with longer life-expectancy of the survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Sagi-Schwartz

    Full Text Available Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220, 4-20 years old when the World War II started (1939, immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust. Hazard of death - a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma - was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95% = 0.910-0.960, suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10-15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95% = 0.842-0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months or 16-20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95% = 0.782-0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months. We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and "Posttraumatic Growth" associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II.

  6. Diet soft drink is associated with increased odds of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K; Gan, Alfred Tl; Man, Ryan Ek; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Khoo, Krystal; Aravindhan, Amudha; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2018-01-23

    While consumption of soft drink may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, the relationship between soft drink consumption and diabetes complications is unknown. To explore the association between regular and diet soft drink consumption, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular oedema (DME). Clinical, cross-sectional study. Adult patients with diabetes recruited from a tertiary eye hospital (Melbourne, Australia) answered a Food Frequency Questionnaire. None, moderate and high soft drink consumption was defined as 4 cans/bottles (375 mL) per week, respectively. Due to missing data, data were imputed using the multiple imputation chained equation procedure. Multivariable logistic regression models determined the associations between soft drink consumption, and presence and severity of DR/DME. Presence and severity of DR/DME. Of the 609 participants (mean age ± standard deviation: 64.6 ± 11.6 years; males = 210), 285 (46.8%) and 190 (31.2%) consumed diet and regular soft drink, respectively. A total of 230 (37.8%), 36 (5.9%), 154 (25.3%), 28 (4.6%) and 146 (24.0%) had no DR, mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR and proliferative DR (PDR), respectively. High diet soft drink consumption was independently associated with increased likelihood of having PDR (odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-5.98), compared to no consumption. In contrast, regular soft drink was not associated with DR or DME. Consuming >4 cans (1.5 L)/week of diet soft drink is associated with a more than twofold risk of having PDR in patients with diabetes. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the association and its underpinning mechanisms. © 2018 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  8. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465

  9. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba J. Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.

  10. The prevalence of recurrent abdominal pain in 11- to 16-year-old Malaysian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, C; Yap, S; Goh, K L

    2000-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) among Malaysian school children aged from 11 to 16 years. A preliminary cross-sectional survey in which three urban schools and three rural schools were selected randomly. Two classes were selected randomly from each year. A questionnaire was given to each child asking him or her about whether they had experienced abdominal pain occurring at least three times over a period of at least 3 months, interfering with normal daily activity. 1 Interfering with normal daily activity was defined as missing school and/or having to stop doing a routine daily activity on account of the pain. Girls whose pains were related to periods were excluded. After the forms had been completed, each child was again interviewed to ensure that Apley's criteria1 was fulfilled in cases of RAP. The overall prevalence of RAP among 1549 schoolchildren (764 boys; 785 girls) was 10.2% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.8-11.8). There appeared to be a higher prevalence in rural schoolchildren (P = 0.008; odds ratio (OR) 1.58), in those with a lower family income (P family size. : In spite of differences in time and culture, the overall prevalence of 10.2% found in this study is similar to that determined by Apley.1 There are significant differences in the prevalence of RAP between children from rural and urban schools, among children with different family incomes and among children whose parents have different educational backgrounds.

  11. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudora Anabella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A, of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in (TKE is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f, the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  12. ODD irritability is associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and not ADHD in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Lespérance, Paul; Achim, André; Tellier, Geneviève; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois

    2014-12-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low serum uric acid concentration augments insulin effects on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porchia, Leonardo M; Gonzalez-Mejia, M Elba; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2017-12-22

    Insulin and uric acid were shown affect the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), but no studies examine their interaction. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine their biological interaction in subjects from central Mexico. 433 subjects were enrolled for a cross-sectional study. MetS was defined according to the Harmonizing Definition. Hyperuricemia was defined as ≥7.0 mg/dL in males and ≥5.8 mg/dL in females. Hyperinsulinemia was defined as ≥11.0 μU/mL. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to determine the association between uric acid or insulin and MetS. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk (odds ratio) of developing MetS. Biological interactions were determined by the PROCESS Macro and Anderson's method. Insulin and uric acid levels were elevated in MetS positive group (p 7.0 mg/dL. When the cohort was separated by hyperinsulinemia and hyperuricemia, there was a significant risk of developing MetS for subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.1-4.8, p < .05), hyperinsulinemia (odds ratio = 3.1; 95%CI: 1.9-4.9, p < .05), or both (odds ratio = 7.4; 95%CI: 3.2-17.2, p < .05); however, there was no multiplicative or additive interaction. Here, we show that uric acid and insulin augments the prevalence of MetS; however, no biological interaction was determined for hyperuricemia and hyperinsulinemia. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanti Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders.

  15. Prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy among school children in Gharbia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahawy, Azza Kamal; Darwish, Amira Hamed; Elsaid Shalaby, Safynaz; Mawlana, Wegdan

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders among children. Data about its prevalence in Egypt is limited. Our aim was to study the prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy among school children in Gharbia governorate, Egypt. A Cross-sectional school-based survey study was conducted; a validated screening questionnaire was distributed among urban and rural primary and preparatory school children. Students with suspected epilepsy were subjected to clinical evaluation, Electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging. 9545 students completed the questionnaire, of whom 69 children proved to have idiopathic epilepsy. The lifetime prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy among school students aged 6-14 years was 7.2/1000. Higher prevalence was reported in males (7.7/1000) and in children from urban areas (8.25/1000). Generalized seizures were observed in 56.5% of the children with epilepsy, whereas focal seizures were present in 43.5%. Thirty-four (49.27%) children were diagnosed with specific childhood epileptic syndrome: 25 children had benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and nine children had typical childhood absence epilepsy. Treatment gap is around 12.5% in the studied children. Family history of epilepsy and parental consanguinity were evident in 73.9% and 21.7% of the epileptic children, respectively. The odds ratio for idiopathic epilepsy in children with family history of epilepsy was 23.9. The prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy among school students aged 6-14 years in Gharbia Governorate was 7.2/1000. The reported prevalence is similar to the prevalence of epilepsy in other Arab countries, but lower than the prevalence in Upper Egypt and in most developing countries. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence, correlates of major depression: A mental health survey among undergraduates at a mainland Chinese university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Meng, Xiangfei; Xu, Ziqi; Yu, Qiong; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Yaqin; D'Arcy, Carl; Huang, Yueqin; Kou, Changgui

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional survey among Chinese university students aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD) among undergraduates, in order to provide basic information for the prevention and treatment of depression among the college-aged population. A total of 2,046 undergraduates were interviewed face to face using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI, version 3.0). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria were used to diagnose MDD. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between MDD and selected correlates. The survey response rate was 90.1% (N = 1,843). The prevalence rates of MDD were 3.9% (lifetime), 2.4% (12 months) and 0.4% (30 days). No significant gender or age differences were found in prevalence rates. No sociodemographic characteristics were related to the lifetime prevalence of MDD. In contrast, family structure and environment factors specifically being from a single-parent family (odds ratio [OR] = 2.513, confidence interval [CI] = 1.404-2.500), parents having mental problems (OR = 1.809, CI = 1.104-2.964), and physical punishment (OR = 1.789, CI = 1.077-3.001) were associated with higher lifetime prevalence of MDD. These findings showed a relatively lower prevalence of DSM-IV/CIDI MDD in this sample of Chinese undergraduates than that reported for students in other countries. However, the prevalence rate for university students was higher than that reported for general Chinese population. Family structure and socio-environmental factors in the student's family of origin significantly correlated with the lifetime prevalence of MDD. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Rising Prevalence in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Victoria Ping-Yi; Wong, Benjamin ChunYu; Wong, Wai Man; Leung, Wai Keung; Tong, Daniel; Yuen, Man Fung; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is consistently lower in the Chinese than in white populations. Population-based data tracking the time trend of GERD prevalence in Chinese subjects is conflicting. This study examines the population prevalence, risk factors, and time trend associated with GERD in a Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study utilizing a validated GERD questionnaire administered by a telephone survey was performed on 3360 Chinese subjects from Hong Kong. GERD prevalence rates in 2011 were compared with prevalence rates in 2002 and 2006. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the risk factors associated with weekly GERD. A total of 2074 subjects (mean age, 48.1±18.2 y; range 18 to 94; 63.1% female) completed the survey (response rate 61.7%). The prevalence of GERD as defined by the Montreal definition was 3.8%. The prevalence of weekly GERD had increased by 1.3% between 2002 and 2011, which represents an at least 50% relative increase (PGERD was associated with noncardiac chest pain [odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.034-2.9; P=0.037], dyspepsia (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 3.0-8.8; PGERD rates in the ethnic Chinese have risen over the last decade. Despite this, variables associated with a survey diagnosis of GERD remain ostensibly unchanged. GERD research in East Asia should focus on the factors driving the rapid rise in prevalence rates and the association with more atypical symptoms of GERD.

  18. Low numeracy is associated with increased odds of 30-day emergency department or hospital recidivism for patients with acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Candace D; Collins, Sean P; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell; Self, Wesley H; Jenkins, Cathy; Miller, Karen; Arbogast, Patrick; Naftilan, Allen; Dittus, Robert S; Storrow, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    More than 25% of Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days. The contributions of numeracy and health literacy to recidivism for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are not known. A cohort of patients with acute heart failure who presented to 4 emergency departments between January 2008 and September 2011. Research assistants administered subjective measures of numeracy and health literacy; 30-day follow-up was performed by phone interview. Recidivism was defined as any unplanned return to the emergency department or hospital within 30 days of the index emergency department visit for AHF. Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient age, sex, race, insurance status, hospital site, days eligible for recidivism, chronic kidney disease, abnormal hemoglobin, and low ejection fraction evaluated the relation between numeracy and health literacy with 30-day recidivism. Of the 709 patients included in the analysis, 390 (55%) had low numeracy skills and 258 (37%) had low literacy skills. Low numeracy was associated with increased odds of recidivism within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.98; P=0.048). For low health literacy, adjusted odds ratio of recidivism was 1.17 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.65; P=0.37). Low numeracy was associated with greater odds of 30-day recidivism. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether addressing numeracy and health literacy may reduce 30-day recidivism for patients with acute heart failure.

  19. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in broiler chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Quessy, Sylvain; Normand, Valérie; Boulianne, Martine

    2007-10-16

    We conducted an observational study to estimate prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in poultry. Eighty-one broiler chicken and 59 turkey flocks selected among flocks slaughtered in the province of Quebec, Canada, were included in the study. Flock status was evaluated by culturing pooled caecal contents from about 30 birds per flock. Exposure to potential risk factors was evaluated with a questionnaire. Odds ratios were computed using multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive flocks was 50% (95% CI: 37, 64) for chickens and 54% (95% CI: 39, 70) for turkeys, respectively. Odds of Salmonella colonization were 2.6 times greater for chicken flocks which failed to lock the chicken house permanently. In turkeys, odds of Salmonella colonization were 4.8-7.7 times greater for flocks which failed to be raised by hatchery. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive flocks was 35% (95% CI: 22, 49) for chickens and 46% (95% CI: 30, 62) for turkeys. Odds of colonization were 4.1 times higher for chicken flocks raised on farms with professional rodent control and 5.2 times higher for flocks with manure heap >200m from the poultry house, and also increased with the number of birds raised per year on the farm and with the age at slaughter. For turkeys, odds of Campylobacter flock colonization were 3.2 times greater in flocks having a manure heap at

  1. Association between dietary pattern scores and the prevalence of colorectal adenoma considering population subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Wagner Robb, Sara; Hébert, James R; Huang, Hanwen; Ebell, Mark H

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the dietary patterns in a diverse cohort of individuals and to see if the identified dietary patterns predict the prevalence of adenoma in a cross-sectional study. Factor analysis was used to derive both sex- and population subgroup-specific dietary patterns among participants in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between identified factor scores and colorectal adenoma (CRA) in sex-specific subgroups. Three diet patterns were observed in this cohort: 'Fruits and vegetables', 'Western' and 'Sweet and salty'. Foods that loaded on each factor were similar between the racial subgroups. In men, being in the highest quintile of 'Western' dietary scores was associated with higher odds of any (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.42), advanced (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.07-1.63) or multiple (>1; aOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.17-1.94) adenoma, compared to those in the lowest quintile. These results were most notably seen in Caucasian men. In women, having a 'Fruits and vegetable' score in the highest quintile was associated with lower odds of multiple adenoma (>1; aOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.28-1.00). Of the three dietary factors, the 'Western' diet pattern was most strongly associated with prevalent CRA in Caucasian men. Further research is needed to examine the association between dietary factor scores and adenomas in the proximal colon, where there are larger racial disparities in prevalence. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of resistant hypertension in a primary care setting: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Yook Chin; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2014-07-05

    Patients with resistant hypertension are subjected to a higher risk of getting stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and renal failure. However, the exact prevalence of resistant hypertension in treated hypertensive patients in Malaysia is not known. This paper examines the prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension in a sample of hypertensive patients. We examined the control of blood pressure in a randomly selected sample of patients with hypertension in a primary care clinic. Demographic data, blood pressure and anti-hypertensive drug use were captured from patient records at the end of 2007. Resistant hypertension is defined as failure to achieve target blood pressure of hypertension were entered into the analysis. Mean age of the patients was 66.8 ± 9.7 years and 64.4% were female. More than half of the subjects (56.9%) had diabetes mellitus. Median BP was 130/80 mmHg. Overall prevalence of resistant hypertension was 8.8% (N = 107/1217). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of chronic kidney disease is more likely to be associated with resistant hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-5.35). On the other hand, increase per year of age is associated with lower odds of resistant hypertension in this population (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). Resistant hypertension is present in nearly one in ten hypertensive patients on treatment. Hypertensive patients who have underlying chronic kidney disease are associated with higher odds of having resistant hypertension. Hence, in managing patients with hypertension, primary care physicians should be more alert and identify patients with chronic kidney disease as such patients are more likely to develop resistant hypertension. By doing that, these patients can be treated more aggressively earlier in order to achieve blood pressure target and thus reduce cardiovascular events.

  3. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  4. Odd-even effect dependence on the excitation energy in low energy fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirea, M.

    2017-09-01

    An inversion of the odd-even effect was observed experimentally in cold fission: the odd-odd fragmentation yields are favored over the even-even ones for excitations energies of the fragments smaller than 4 MeV. This effect is linked to the important problem of quasiparticle excitations during the dynamical evolution of the nuclear system from its ground-state configuration up to scission. An explanation based on the Landau-Zener promotion mechanism generalized for superfluid systems is offered for the inversion of the odd-even effect. In principle, the even-even fission products cannot be produced at very low excitation energies due dynamical quasiparticle excitations produced in the avoided- level-crossing regions. These excitations are produced with a large probability when the nuclear system deforms slowly.

  5. Moduli of mathematical instanton vector bundles with odd c2 on projective space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, Aleksandr S

    2012-01-01

    We study the moduli space I n of mathematical instanton vector bundles of rank 2 with second Chern class n≥1 on the projective space P 3 , and prove the irreducibility of I n for arbitrary odd n≥1.

  6. Parity-violating anomalous currents in arbitrary odd dimensions from stochastic quantisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiange; Liu Yiaoyang

    1990-01-01

    The stochastic quantization method is applied to evaluate the parity-violating anomalous currents in arbitrary odd dimensions. The complete anomalous vacuum currents which have gauge and Lorentz covariance are achieved. (author)

  7. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  8. A method to remove odd harmonic interferences in square wave reference digital lock-in amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Shengzhao; Zhou, Mei; Li, Yongcheng; Lin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Digital lock-in amplifier using square wave reference is much easier to be implemented compared to digital lock-in amplifier using sinusoidal wave reference. However, because of the odd harmonics containing in the square wave reference, the interferences at the odd harmonics of the reference cannot be removed with conventional algorithm. A new square wave digital lock-in algorithm is presented in this paper. It cannot only be capable of removing the interferences of the odd harmonics in the signal, but also can detect the amplitudes and the phases of the interferences. The real and imaginary parts of the frequency component of interest and those of the odd harmonic interferences are calculated simultaneously. The results of simulation experiments show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm is computationally efficient and thus suitable for weak signal detection implemented in the general microprocessor.

  9. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  10. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  11. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  12. PREVALENCE OF GDM AND THEIR RISK FACTORS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ishwarya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Detecting the evidence of gestational diabetes mellitus is a major challenge as the condition is associated with diverse range of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome. Also, women detected with gestational diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of diabetes especially type 2 diabetes mellitus in the later life and future development of obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Studies conducted in different populations and with different methodologies consistently reported an increase in GDM prevalence. A true increase in the prevalence of GDM aside from its adverse consequences for the infant and newborn period might reflect or contribute to the ongoing pattern of increasing diabetes and obesity. 1&2 The aim of the study is to1. Validate the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group of India (DIPSI recommended 75 grams glucose test for the diagnosis of gestational mellitus by comparing with the WHO criteria and ADA criteria. 2. Study the prevalence of gestational diabetes in antenatal population attending Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital. 3. Study the prevalence of following risk factors in GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in 350 antenatal women of 24-28 weeks gestational age who attended antenatal clinic in Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital, Chennai. This study was done after getting clearance from ethical committee of Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital. RESULTS Incidence of GDM was 4%. DIPSI criteria had a diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 98.86%, 100% and 98.82%. WHO criteria had a diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 99.43%, 100% and 99.41%. In both, the negative predictive value was 100%. From binary logistic regression, the associated risk factors were previous history of GDM, polyhydramnios and recurrent pregnancy loss evolved as significant risk factors. Polyhydramnios has an odds ratio of 13, previous history of GDM has an odds ratio of

  13. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  14. Systematics of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and odd-even staggering

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, J B

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and the quasi-gamma bands of even-Z-even-N nuclei is investigated on a global scale, vis-a-vis the variation of band head, the moment of inertia of the band and the odd-even spin staggering. The variation with N and Z and with spin J of the odd-even spin energy staggering index is studied and a unified view of the same is presented. (author)

  15. Preschool children with ODD, CD and ADHD. Psychiatric assessment and stability of diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte - Rosingh, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned how to differentiate clinical from normative transient disruptive behaviors within the preschool age as most preschoolers exhibit at least some of the behaviors that fall under the rubric of disruptive behavior, for example losing temper and physical aggression. This point of concern is relevant for diagnosing preschool children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) (ODD and CD also called Disruptive Behavior Disorder; DBD) or Attention Deficit...

  16. Possibility of investigating P- and T-odd nuclear forces in atomic and molecular experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, O.P.; Flambaum, V.V.; Khriplovich, I.B.

    1984-01-01

    The P- and T-odd nucleon-nucleon potentials are found in the Kobayashi-Maskawa scheme. Analytic expressions for T-odd nuclear multipoles are obtained in the shell model. The electric dipole moments of the nuclei exceed that of the neutron by two to three orders of magnitude. The electric dipole moments are calculated for a number of atoms and molecules. The feasibility of experimental detection of T-invariance violation is discussed

  17. P-odd nuclear forces: a source of parity violation in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flambaum, V.V.; Khriplovich, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    We consider the electromagnetic P-odd interaction produced between an electron and a nucleus by parity-violating nuclear forces. New information on these forces can be obtained even now by experimentally investigating the optical activity of heavy atoms and diatomic molecules. In the case of the deuteron, the P-odd vector potential is expressed in terms of parameters that characterize parity violation in np scattering

  18. Burnout correlations for even- and odd-numbered peripheral rod clusters over low pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.

    1995-01-01

    Burnout data with low pressure Freon-113 for even- and odd- numbered peripheral rod clusters with relatively large spacings were used to derive equations in terms of dimensionless parameters suggested by Barnett. The equations which are for three different flow regimes for each rod geometry (even or odd) were found to predict burnout data with maximum RMS deviation being 3.8%. (author). 11 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs

  19. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Microscopic core-quasiparticle coupling model for spectroscopy of odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, S.; Liu, W. P.; Li, Z. P.; Smith, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Predictions of the spectroscopic properties of low-lying states are critical for nuclear structure studies but are problematic for nuclei with an odd nucleon due to the interplay of the unpaired single particle with nuclear collective degrees of freedom. Purpose: To predict the spectroscopic properties of odd-mass medium-heavy and heavy nuclei with a model that treats single-particle and collective degrees of freedom within the same microscopic framework. Method: A microscopic core-quasiparticle coupling (CQC) model based on the covariant density functional theory is developed that contains the collective excitations of even-mass cores and spherical single-particle states of the odd nucleon as calculated from a quadrupole collective Hamiltonian combined with a constrained triaxial relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Results: Predictions of the new model for excitation energies, kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia, and transition rates are shown to be in good agreement with results of low-lying spectroscopy measurements of the axially deformed odd-proton nucleus 159Tb and the odd-neutron nucleus 157Gd. Conclusions: A microscopic CQC model based on covariant density functional theory is developed for odd-mass nuclei and shown to give predictions that agree with measurements of two medium-heavy nuclei. Future studies with additional nuclei are planned.

  1. The odd-skipped family of zinc finger genes promotes Drosophila leg segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Irene; Green, Ryan B; Dunaevsky, Olga; Lengyel, Judith A; Rauskolb, Cordelia

    2003-11-15

    Notch signaling controls formation of joints at leg segment borders and growth of the developing Drosophila leg. Here, we identify the odd-skipped gene family as a key group of genes that function downstream of the Notch receptor to promote morphological changes associated with joint formation during leg development. odd, sob, drm, and bowl are expressed in a segmental pattern in the developing leg, and their expression is regulated by Notch signaling. Ectopic expression of odd, sob, or drm can induce invaginations in the leg disc epithelium and morphological changes in the adult leg that are characteristic of endogenous invaginating joint cells. These effects are not due to an alteration in the expression of other genes of the developing joint. While odd or drm mutant clones do not affect leg segmentation, and thus appear to act redundantly, bowl mutant clones do perturb leg development. Specifically, bowl mutant clones result in a failure of joint formation from the distal tibia to tarsal segment 5, while more proximal clones cause melanotic protrusions from the leg cuticle. Together, these results indicate that the odd-skipped family of genes mediates Notch function during leg development by promoting a specific aspect of joint formation, an epithelial invagination. As the odd-skipped family genes are involved in regulating cellular morphogenesis during both embryonic segmentation and hindgut development, we suggest that they may be required in multiple developmental contexts to induce epithelial cellular changes.

  2. Increased prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve in Turner syndrome links with karyotype: the crucial importance of detailed cardiovascular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klásková, Eva; Zapletalová, Jiřina; Kaprálová, Sabina; Šnajderová, Marta; Lebl, Jan; Tüdös, Zbyněk; Pavlíček, Jan; Černá, Jana; Mihál, Vladimír; Stará, Veronika; Procházka, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents one of the strongest risk factors for aortic dissection in Turner syndrome (TS). An exact relation between the occurrence of BAV and a particular karyotype has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to determine the association between karyotype and prevalence of BAV. Sixty-seven TS patients aged between 6.6 and 32.5 years underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. They were divided into four cytogenetic subgroups-45,X karyotype (n=27); 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (n=17); structural abnormalities of the X chromosome (n=10); and 45,X/structural abnormality of the X chromosome mosaicism (n=13). Prevalence of BAV and odds ratio (OR) compared with the general population in the whole study group, and statistical comparison of prevalences of BAV among the individual subgroups were determined. Prevalence of BAV in the whole study group was established as 28.4% [OR 208.3 (95% CI - 103.8-418.0); p-valuekaryotype had the highest prevalence of BAV - 40.7%, p-valuekaryotype significantly predisposed to BAV (p-value=0.05). The 45,X karyotype is associated with the highest prevalence of BAV. Also, the presence of the 45,X cell line in any mosaic karyotype increases the probability of BAV.

  3. Differences in prevalence of refractive errors in young Asian males in Singapore between 1996-1997 and 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Victor; Yang, Adeline; Saw, Seang Mei; Chan, Yiong Huak; Lin, Sheng Tong; Tan, Mellisa Mei Hui; Tey, Frederick; Nah, Gerard; Ikram, M Kamran

    2014-08-01

    To determine the differences in prevalence rates of refractive errors in young Singaporean males over a 13-year period between 1996-1997 and 2009-2010 METHODS: Non-cycloplegic autorefraction data were obtained in a survey of 15,085 young male subjects (mean age 19.5 ± 1.4 years, range 16-25 years) in 1996-1997 using a Nikon NRK-8000 autorefractor. A second survey of 28,908 male subjects (mean age 19.8 ± 1.2 years, range 17-29 years) was conducted in 2009-2010 using a Huvitz MRK-3100 autorefractor. The overall prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent, SEq, worse than -0.5 diopters, D) was similar in 2009-2010 (81.6%) and 1996-1997 (79.2%; odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.31-1.46; p prevalence of high myopia (SEq worse than -6.0D) increased from 13.1% in 1996-1997 to 14.7% in 2009-2010 (p prevalence of refractive astigmatism increased significantly from 41.4% in 1996-1997 to 50.9% in 2009-2010 (p prevalence of myopia and high myopia remained high and the prevalence of astigmatism increased in young male adults in Singapore over a 13-year period after controlling for age, education and ethnicity.

  4. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

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    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  6. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  7. A note on Youden's J and its cost ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Niels

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Youden index, the sum of sensitivity and specificity minus one, is an index used for setting optimal thresholds on medical tests. Discussion When using this index, one implicitly uses decision theory with a ratio of misclassification costs which is equal to one minus the prevalence proportion of the disease. It is doubtful whether this cost ratio truly represents the decision maker's preferences. Moreover, in populations with a different prevalence, a selected threshold is optimal with reference to a different cost ratio. Summary The Youden index is not a truly optimal decision rule for setting thresholds because its cost ratio varies with prevalence. Researchers should look into their cost ratio and employ it in a decision theoretic framework to obtain genuinely optimal thresholds.

  8. Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Sarah; Agyemang, Charles; Matsha, Tandi E; Peer, Nasheeta; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P

    2017-01-01

    Factors influencing the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa remain unclear. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity and effects on cardio-metabolic profile in school learners in the Western Cape, South Africa. Cross-sectional data were collected from 7 to 18-year-old South African school learners attending 14 schools, randomly selected from 107 government schools in the areas. The learners were selected through stratified random sampling techniques. Logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of overweight/obesity and its association with cardio-metabolic profile. Among the 1559 participants, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 22.9%. Being a girl (Odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI: 1.92-3.29), or Black African (1.35, 1.04-.75) was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese. The identified health consequences among the overweight/obese learners differed between the ethnic groups. Overweight/obese coloured (mixed ancestry) learners were more likely to have hypertension (3.27, 1.18-9.08), hypertriglyceridemia (1.94, 0.99-3.78) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (3.65, 2.33-5.72), overweight/obese Black African learners had higher odds for hypertension (3.62, 1.31-10.04) and low HDL-C (1.56, 1.01-2.40) and overweight/obese White learners were prone to low HDL-C (5.04, 1.35-18.80). Overweight/obesity is highly prevalent among school learners in Western Cape (South Africa), with being female or Black African increasing the odds. That overweight/obesity is also associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile aggravates the problem and suggests worse cardiovascular outcomes in South African young adults in the future.

  9. Malnutrition is prevalent among hemodialysis patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Khadija Alharbi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition (MN in hemodialysis patients (HDP is prevalent worldwide. How-ever, data regarding the nutritional status among HDP living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, is lacking. The purpose of this study was to detect MN in HDP at the Jeddah Kidney Center, with an inexpensive nutritional assessment protocol consisting of anthropometric body mass index (BMI, triceps skin fold (TSF, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC and biochemical (albumin blood measurements and the seven-point subjective global assessment (SGA. A cross-sectional study assessed 269 HDP for MN through a questionnaire, SGA and anthropometric and biochemical measurements. Spearman′s rank correlation coefficients were determined between SGA and anthropometric and biochemical measurements as well as the relative odds of MN. Statistical significance was P <0.05. These HDP were 48.7% moderately and 6.3% severely malnourished. Albumin, BMI, TSF and MAMC correlated positively with the seven-point SGA (r s = 0.16, P = 0.007; r s = 0.33, P <0.001; r s = 0.29, P <0.001; and r s = 0.34, P <0.001, respectively. Those HDP who were female (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.04, P = 0.036, older (≥55 years (OR = 1.70, P = 0.087, uneducated (OR = 1.80, P = 0.072, with a lower BMI (<18 kg/m 2 (OR = 2.00, P = 0.077 and thinner TSF (OR = 1.45, P = 0.041 had a greater risk of MN. The high prevalence of MN was detected with an inexpensive protocol. Women with thinner TSF were more likely to be malnou-rished. The implementation of this protocol is warranted along with dietary education and counseling to decrease MN in HDP.

  10. Sex difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular-related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of China: The CHPSNE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Bin; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Shi-Jie; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in urban areas of China. To estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its cardiovascular-related factors in men and women, a representative sample of 15,477 urban adults aged 18-74 years in Northeast China was selected from 2009 to 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on criteria set by the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.4% (men 27.9% and women 26.8%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher education level and a higher family income were associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men, but associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women. Higher physical activity was associated with a decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men (adjusted odds ratios (aORs) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.99), but associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00-1.29). Compared with rice as the major staple food, cooked wheaten foods were associated with lower adjusted odds for metabolic syndrome both in men (aOR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90) and in women (aOR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56-0.92). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in urban areas of China, and there is heterogeneity by sex in the relationships between risk factors and metabolic syndrome prevalence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Prevalence of ovine and caprine oestrosis in Ambo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to estimate the prevalence, larval burden and risk factors of ovine and caprine oestrosis from December 2007 to May 2008 on 554 heads of randomly selected sheep and goat slaughtered at Ambo town, Western Shoa, Ethiopia. The results show an overall prevalence of 59.9% with infection rate of 69.8% and 47.3% in sheep and goats respectively. No statistically significant difference in the prevalence was noted with regard to the assumed risk factors like sex, nose color, face color, horned versus polled, origin, and months (p > 0.05). Sheep were nearly twice more likely to be infected as compared to goats (p = 0.0001, odds ratio (OR) = 1.975). Age of the animals was found to be protective (OR = 0.579; 95% confidence interval = 0.393, 0.853; p = 0.006). As compared to very fat animals, poor (p = 0.040, OR = 4.834), medium (p = 0.049, OR = 4.198), and fat (p = 0.022, OR = 5.795) body condition animals are more likely to be infected by Oestrus ovis larvae. Nasal and sinus cavity pathology is positively correlated with the total larval count (r = 0.56, p oestrosis is a common problem in the study area and more prevalent in sheep than goats, in adult than young, and in animals with poor body condition.

  12. [Prevalence and user profile of electronic cigarettes in Spain (2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve

    To describe the prevalence and user profile of electronic cigarettes among Spanish adults and evaluate the potential dual use of these devices with combustible or conventional tobacco in 2014 in Spain. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish adult (16-75 years old) population (n=1,016). A computer-assisted telephone survey was conducted in 2014. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the use of electronic cigarettes stratified by gender, age, tobacco consumption and social status were calculated. The sample was weighted and a logistic regression model adjusted to obtain the crude odds ratios (OR) adjusted by gender, age and social status. 10.3% (95% CI: 8.6-12.4) of the Spanish adult population stated being ever users of electronic cigarettes (2% current users, 3.2% past users and 5.1% experimental users). Among current electronic cigarette users, 57.2% also smoked combustible or conventional tobacco, 28% had never smoked and 14.8% were former smokers. The prevalence of electronic cigarette use was higher in the younger population (adjusted OR=23.8; 95% CI: 2.5-227.7) and smokers of combustible tobacco (adjusted OR=10.1; 95% CI: 5.8-17.5). The use of electronic cigarettes in Spain is scarce and is most prevalent among young people and tobacco smokers. Nevertheless, one out of four current electronic cigarette users have never smoked. Hence, the regulation of these devices should be reinforced to avoid a possible gateway to nicotine products among never smokers. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Acrolein and asthma attack prevalence in a representative sample of the United States adult population 2000-2009.

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    B Rey deCastro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. OBJECTIVES: Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. METHODS: NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey 2000-2009 (n = 271,348 subjects. A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05-0.46 µg/m3, there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19] relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29] in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05-0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.

  14. Acrolein and asthma attack prevalence in a representative sample of the United States adult population 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCastro, B Rey

    2014-01-01

    Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000-2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05-0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05-0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.

  15. Effect of sibling number in the household and birth order on prevalence of Helicobacter pylori: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Forman, David; Bailey, Alastair G; Goodman, Karen J; Axon, Anthony T R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired mainly in childhood, with studies demonstrating this is related to living conditions. Effects of sibling number and birth order on prevalence of infection have not been extensively studied. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of adults, aged between 50 and 59 years, previously involved in a community-screening programme for H. pylori in Leeds and Bradford, UK. Prevalence of H. pylori was assessed at baseline with urea breath test. All individuals who were alive, and could be traced, were contacted by postal questionnaire in 2003 obtaining information on number of siblings and birth order. Data concerning childhood socioeconomic conditions were stored on file from the original study. 3928 (47%) of 8407 original participants provided data. Prevalence of infection increased according to sibling number (20% in those with none vs 63% with eight or more). Controlling for childhood socioeconomic conditions and birth order using multivariate logistic regression, infection odds were substantially increased with three siblings compared with none [odds ratio (OR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.15], and a gradient of effect continued up to eight or more siblings (OR 5.70; 95% CI 2.92-11.14). Odds of infection also increased substantially with birth order, but the positive gradient disappeared on adjustment for sibling number and childhood socioeconomic conditions. : In this cross section of UK adults, aged 50-59 years, sibling number in the household, but not birth order, was independently associated with prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  16. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  17. Concussion Increases Odds of Sustaining a Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Injury After Return to Play Among Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M Alison; Peterson, Kaitlin; Biese, Kevin; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Bell, David R

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have identified abnormalities in brain and motor functioning after concussion that persist well beyond observed clinical recovery. Recent work suggests subtle deficits in neurocognition may impair neuromuscular control and thus potentially increase risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after concussion. To determine the odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury during the 90-day period after return to play from concussion in a cohort of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in this study were 87 cases of concussion among 75 athletes (58 men; 17 women) participating in NCAA Division I football, soccer, hockey, softball, basketball, wrestling, or volleyball at a single institution from 2011 to 2014. The 90-day period after return to play for each case of concussion was reviewed for acute noncontact lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. Each 90-day period after return to play was matched to the same 90-day period in up to 3 controls. Control athletes without a history of concussion in the previous year were matched to concussed athletes by sport team/sex, games played, and position. A total of 182 control (136 men; 46 women) 90-day periods were reviewed for acute injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association between concussion and subsequent risk of acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. The incidence of acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury was higher among recently concussed athletes (15/87; 17%) compared with matched controls (17/182; 9%). The odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal injury during the 90-day period after return to play were 2.48 times higher in concussed athletes than controls during the same 90-day period (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.04-5.91; P = .04). Concussed athletes have increased odds of sustaining an acute lower extremity musculoskeletal

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Lower-Extremity Amputation in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong D; Jamjoom, Reda A; Alzahrani, Anas H; Hu, Frank B; Alzahrani, Hasan A

    2016-03-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence and correlates of lower-extremity amputation (LEA) in a Saudi population with diabetic foot ulcer. The study population consisted of 91 participants, with a median age of 55.0 years. Biomarkers were measured following standard protocols. Local symptoms of foot ulcer, including peripheral neuropathy (PN), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and foot infection were diagnosed by standard objective diagnostic tools or diagnosed clinically by a specialized surgeon. The severity of foot ulcer was classified according to the Wagner wound classification system. The prevalence of LEA was 29.7% in this population. The odds ratio for LEA comparing extreme tertiles was 2.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-8.45; P for trend = .03) for ulcer size and 0.22 (95% CI = 0.06-0.87; P for trend = .03) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. C-reactive protein and homocysteine levels were each positively associated with odds of LEA, but the associations became nonsignificant in multivariable models. Participants with foot infection showed a significantly higher adjusted prevalence of LEA (40.7%, 95% CI = 27.1%-54.3%) compared with those without foot infections (19.3%, 95% CI = 6.0%-32.4%, P = .03). Participants with Wagner grade ≥3 presented a significantly higher prevalence (40.5%, 95% CI = 27.8%-53.2%) than those with Wagner grade of 1 or 2 (16.4%, 95% CI = 2.4%-30.5%, P = .02). Participants with PN and PAD showed nonsignificantly higher prevalence of LEA. We found a relatively high prevalence of LEA as well as several clinical markers and local symptoms associated with LEA in this Saudi population with diabetic foot ulcer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyuan Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. Methods To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C. The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. Results The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (p<0.05. The concentrations of OBCFAs, especially odd-chain fatty acids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (p<0.05. The equations of ruminal microbial nucleic acid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. Conclusion This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  20. ALGORITMA PARALEL ODD EVEN TRANSPOSITION PADA MODEL JARINGAN NON-LINIER

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    Ernastuti .

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Odd-even-transposition adalah suatu algoritma paralel yang merupakan pengembangan dari algoritma sekuensial “bubble sort”. Algoritma odd-even-transposition ini didesain khusus untuk model jaringan array linier (homogen. Untuk n elemen data, kompleksitas waktu dari algoritma bubble sort adalah O(n2, sedangkan pada odd-even-transposition yang bekerja di atas n prosesor adalah (n. Ada peningkatan kecepatan waktu pada kinerja algoritma paralel ini sebesar n kali dibanding algoritma sekuensialnya. Hypercube dimensi k adalah model jaringan non-linier (non-homogen terdiri dari n = 2k prosesor, di mana setiap prosesor berderajat k. Model jaringan Fibonacci cube dan extended Lucas cube masing-masing merupakan model subjaringan hypercube dengan jumlah prosesor < 2k prosesor dan maksimum derajat prosesornya adalah k. Pada paper ini, diperlihatkan bagaimana algoritma odd-even-transposition dapat dijalankan juga pada model jaringan komputer cluster non-linier hypercube, Fibonacci cube, dan extended Lucas cube dengan kompleksitas waktu O(n. Odd-even-transposition is a parallel algorithm which is the development of sequential algorithm “bubble sort”. Odd-even transposition algorithm is specially designed for linear array network model (homogeneous. For n data elements, the time complexity of bubble sort algorithm is O(n2, while the odd-even-transposition that works with n processor is (n. There in an increase in the speed of time on the performance of this parallel algorithms for n times than its sequential algorithm. K-dimensional hypercube is a non-linear network model (non-homogeneous consists of n = 2k processors, where each processor has k degree . Network model of Fibonacci cube and extended Lucas cube are the hypercube sub-network model with the number of processors

  1. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideations among school going adolescents in a hilly state of India

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    Durgesh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent suicide is an important public health issue. Suicidal ideations are often the precursor of suicide and can be targeted by appropriate and timely interventions. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and to study its predictive factors among school going adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in selected senior secondary schools in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh, India. A pre-validated, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using Epi info software for windows (CDC Atlanta software for windows. Results: A total of 218 study subjects (30.9%; confidence interval = 27.6–34.5% had suicide ideation. Discussing problems with parents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.5, having good relations with school teachers (AOR = 0.6 and helpful classmates (AOR = 0.6 lowered the odds of having suicidal ideations. On the contrary, adolescents having worrying issues in family (AOR = 2.5, verbally or physically abused (AOR = 2.8 and body image conscious (AOR = 1.8 had increased odds of suicidal ideations. Conclusions: Suicidal ideation is a common experience among adolescents residing in Shimla district of North India. The supportive environment at home and in school decrease its vulnerability.

  2. Prevalence of xerostomia in patients attending Shorish dental speciality in Sulaimani city

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    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia among dental patients and explore the possible risk factors and symptoms associated with this condition. Patient and Methods: The prevalence of xerostomia and its associations were investigated among patients (n=1132) who were visiting the department of oral medicine at shorish dental speciality in sulaimani city. The age range was between 10-79 years. 512 (45.2%) of participants were males and 620 (54.8%) were females. The data collected were age, sex, systemic diseases, medications and habit of smoking. Logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to investigate the association of xerostomia with age, systemic diseases and medications and Chi Square test was also used to analyze the data. Results: Prevalence of xerostomia was 16.07%. Prevalence of xerostomia was significantly higher among females (19.51%) than males (11.91%) (P=0.001). The most common diseases with the highest prevalence of xerostomia were psychological disorders (57.14%) followed by diabetes mellitus (53.84%), neurological disorders (40%), thyroid disorders (37.5%) and hypertension (36.48%). The most common medication with the highest prevalence of xerostomia was antihistamine (66.66%) followed by psychotherapeutic medications (60%), pain medications (55.88%), endocrinologic agents (51.21%), antidyslipidic agents (50%) and antihypertensive medication (38.98%). Xerostomia was significantly associated with ageing (OR: 1.02, P=0.000), systemic diseases (OR: 2.80, P=0.000) and medications (OR: 5.17, P=0.000). There was a high prevalence of reported symptoms of xerostomia and these symptoms were more prevalent among females, Prevalence of xerostomia was higher in heavy smoker patients (19.48%) than non smoker patients but not significantly (16.14%) (p= 0.44). Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of xerostomia among dental patients; xerostomia was significantly more

  3. Prevalence of intravenous medication administration errors: a cross-sectional study

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    Fekadu T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tezeta Fekadu,1 Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin,2 Eyerusalem Esrael,1 Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom1 1School of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Unit of Biomedical Science, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences and Referral Hospital, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia Background: Intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs may be accompanied by avoidable undesirable effects, which might result in clinical complications.Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of MAEs and to identify the factors associated with such errors.Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2015. Data were collected by direct observation using a pretested data collection tool. Simple random sampling was used, and bivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with MAEs. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 134 patients were found to be eligible for the study. More than half of the study participants were males (76 [56.7%]. The rate of MAE was 46.1%, with the missed dose (n=162, 95.8% being reported as the most common error. The age groups of 60–79 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.166, confidence interval = 1.532–8.799 and 80–101 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.52, confidence interval = 1.198–5.584 were the determinants of MAEs.Conclusion: A high prevalence of MAEs was found. Enhancing the knowledge and practical skills of clinical nurses might minimize such errors. Keywords: prevalence, medication, administration, error

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea combined dyslipidemia render additive effect on increasing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

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    Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui

    2016-05-26

    Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients in Nigeria

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    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients. Methods: A total of 120 HIV positive patients attending the dedicated HIV outpatient clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were recruited for the study. Their periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Their CD4+ cell count was determined using the flow-cytometer method. The risk factors for periodontitis including age, gender, education, smoking, CD4+ cell counts, bleeding on probing (BOP were determined. Results: Prevalence of periodontitis was high (63.3% in the HIV positive patients. In a bivariate analysis, significant associations were observed between severity of periodontitis and age ≥35 years (P=0.021, male gender (P=0.005, smoking (P=0.040 and ≥3 community periodontal index of treatment needs sextants exhibiting BOP (P=0.004. In a binary logistic regression, independent predictors of periodontitis were ≥3 sextants exhibiting BOP (odds ratio 1.738, 95% CI 1.339 to 2.256, P=0.000 and age ≥35 years (odds ratio 1.057, 95% CI 1.005 to 1.111, P=0.030. The CD4+ cell counts were not associated with periodontitis in the HIV positive patients (P=0.988. Conclusions: A high prevalence of periodontitis was found among the HIV positive Nigerian patients in this study. Older age ≥35 years and BOP were the determinants of periodontitis. There is therefore a need for close periodontal monitoring of HIV positive Nigerian patients with emphasis on preventive, professional oral prophylaxis.

  6. Migraine is the most prevalent primary headache in individuals with temporomandibular disorders.

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    Franco, Ana L; Gonçalves, Daniela A G; Castanharo, Sabrina M; Speciali, José G; Bigal, Marcelo E; Camparis, Cinara M

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of primary headaches (HA) in adults with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) who were assessed in a specialty orofacial pain clinic, as well as in controls without TMD. The sample consisted of 158 individuals with TMD seen at a university-based specialty clinic, as well as 68 controls. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD were used to diagnose the TMD patients. HAs were assessed using a structured interview and classified according to the Second Edition of the International Classification for Headache Disorders. Data were analyzed by chi-square tests with a significance level of 5% and odds ratio (OR) tests with a 95% confidence interval (CI). HAs occurred in 45.6% of the control group (30.9% had migraine and 14.7% had tension-type headache [TTH]) and in 85.5% of individuals with TMD. Among individuals with TMD, migraine was the most prevalent primary HA (55.3%), followed by TTH (30.2%); 14.5% had no HA. In contrast to controls, the odds ratio (OR) for HA in those with TMD was 7.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.65-13.61; P = .000), for migraine, the OR was 2.76 (95% CI = 1.50-5.06; P = .001), and for TTH, the OR was 2.51 (95% CI = 1.18-5.35; P = .014). Myofascial pain/arthralgia was the most common TMD diagnosis (53.2%). The presence of HA or specific HAs was not associated with the time since the onset of TMD (P = .714). However, migraine frequency was positively associated with TMD pain severity (P = .000). TMD was associated with increased primary HA prevalence rates. Migraine was the most common primary HA diagnosis in individuals with TMD.

  7. Prevalence and associated factors of pain in the Swiss spinal cord injury population.

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    Müller, R; Brinkhof, M W G; Arnet, U; Hinrichs, T; Landmann, G; Jordan, X; Béchir, M

    2017-04-01

    Population-based, cross-sectional. To determine pain prevalence and identify factors associated with chronic pain in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in Switzerland. Swiss SCI Cohort Study (SwiSCI). Pain characteristics were assessed using an adapted version of the International SCI Pain Basic Data Set, adding one item of the SCI Secondary Conditions Scale to address chronic pain. Pain prevalence was calculated using stratification over demographic, SCI-related and socioeconomic characteristics; odds ratios (adjusted for non-response) for determinants of severity of chronic pain were calculated using stereotype logistic regressions. Pain (in the past week) was reported by 68.9% and chronic pain by 73.5% (significant 36.9%) of all participants (N=1549; 28% female). Most frequently reported pain type was musculoskeletal (71.1%). Back/spine was the most frequently reported pain location (54.6%). Contrasting the 'significant' to the 'none/mild' category of chronic pain, adjusted odds ratios were 1.54 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01; P<0.01) for women (vs men); 6.64 (95% CI: 3.37-11.67; P<0.001) for the oldest age group 61+ (vs youngest (16-30)); 3.41 (95% CI: 2.07-5.62; P<0.001) in individuals reporting severe financial hardship (vs no financial hardship). Individuals reporting specific SCI-related health conditions were 1.41-2.92 (P<0.05) times more likely to report chronic pain as 'significant' rather than 'none/mild' compared with those without the respective condition. Pain is highly prevalent in individuals with SCI living in Switzerland. Considered at risk for chronic pain are women, older individuals and individuals with financial hardship and specific secondary health conditions. Longitudinal studies are necessary to identify predictors for the development of pain and its chronification.

  8. Prevalence and demographics of anxiety disorders: a snapshot from a community health centre in Pakistan

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    Khalid Salman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developing world is faced with a high burden of anxiety disorders. The exact prevalence of anxiety disorders in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to aid policy development on tackling anxiety and depressive disorders in the country. This is the first pilot study to address the prevalence of anxiety disorders and their association with sociodemographic factors in Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among people visiting Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH, a tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan. The point prevalence of anxiety amongst the sample population, which comprised of patients and their attendants, excluding all health care personnel, was assessed using the validated Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The questionnaire was administered to 423 people. Descriptive statistics were performed for mean scores and proportions. Results The mean anxiety score of the population was 5.7 ± 3.86. About 28.3% had borderline or pathological anxiety. The factors found to be independently predicted with anxiety were, female sex (odds ratio (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.36–3.36, p = 0.01; physical illness (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.06–2.64, p = 0.026; and psychiatric illness (OR = 1.176, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, p = 0.048. In the final multivariate model, female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2, 95% CI 1.28–3.22 and physical illness (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.97–2.48 were found to be significant. Conclusion Further studies via nationally representative surveys need to be undertaken to fully grasp the scope of this emerging public health issue in Pakistan.

  9. Prevalence of Refractive Errors among High School Students in Western Iran

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    Hashemi, Hassan; Rezvan, Farhad; Beiranvand, Asghar; Papi, Omid-Ali; Hoseini Yazdi, Hosein; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Norouzirad, Reza; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive errors among high school students. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we applied stratified cluster sampling on high school students of Aligoudarz, Western Iran. Examinations included visual acuity, non-cycloplegic refraction by autorefraction and fine tuning with retinoscopy. Myopia and hyperopia were defined as spherical equivalent of -0.5/+0.5 diopter (D) or worse, respectively; astigmatism was defined as cylindrical error >0.5 D and anisometropia as an interocular difference in spherical equivalent exceeding 1 D. Results Of 451 selected students, 438 participated in the study (response rate, 97.0%). Data from 434 subjects with mean age of 16±1.3 (range, 14 to 21) years including 212 (48.8%) male subjects was analyzed. The prevalence of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism was 29.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 25-33.6%], 21.7% (95%CI, 17.8-25.5%), and 20.7% (95%CI, 16.9-24.6%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia increased significantly with age [odds ratio (OR)=1.30, P=0.003] and was higher among boys (OR=3.10, Pprevalence of hyperopia was significantly higher in girls (OR=0.49, P=0.003). The prevalence of astigmatism was 25.9% in boys and 15.8% in girls (OR=2.13, P=0.002). The overall prevalence of high myopia and high hyperopia were 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism was 14.5%, 4.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Overall, 4.6% (95%CI, 2.6-6.6%) of subjects were anisometropic. Conclusion More than half of high school students in Aligoudarz had at least one type of refractive error. Compared to similar studies, the prevalence of refractive errors was high in this age group. PMID:25279126

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with syphilis in a Reference Center.

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    Gomes, Natália Carolina Rodrigues Colombo; Meier, Denise Andrade Pereira; Pieri, Flávia Meneguetti; Alves, Elaine; Albanese, Silvia Paulino Ribeiro; Lentine, Edvilson Cristiano; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Dessunti, Elma Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of the rapid test (RT) for syphilis increases access of vulnerable populations to early diagnosis and treatment, impacting the outcomes of infection. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with syphilis in a Center for Testing and Counseling (CTC). We conducted a cross-sectional study at a Reference Center for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Londrina, Northern Paraná State, Southern Brazil. Data regarding the 5,509 individuals who underwent RT from June 2012 to December 2014 were collected from patient records and the CTC Information System and served as the basis to check associations of syphilis cases (346) and cases without syphilis (5,163). Nine patients' records were not found. OpenEpi was used to perform a prevalence analysis and determine odds ratios to assess the associations between sociodemographic and behavioral variables (independent variables) and cases of syphilis (dependent variable). An alpha value syphilis was 6.3%; higher in males (7.5%) than in females (4.3%, p Syphilis was associated with an age of 25-34 years, little education, and single marital status. The main associated behavioral factors were men who have sex with men, drug users, STD patients, and those presenting with an STD in the last year. The use of alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and crack was significantly associated with syphilis. Strategies for prevention and control of syphilis should be intensified, especially in populations identified as most vulnerable.

  11. Prevalence and Perceptions of Electronic Cigarette Use during Pregnancy.

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    Wagner, Nicholas J; Camerota, Marie; Propper, Cathi

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The current study is the first to assess pregnant women's perceptions of e-cigarettes and the prevalence of e-cigarette use during pregnancy, using a national sample of pregnant women (N = 445) recruited online. Methods An online survey was used to assess the prevalence and perceptions of e-cigarette use among pregnant women, including perceptions of e-cigarette safety. Results In our sample, 5.62% (n = 25) of women solely used tobacco cigarettes, 6.52% (n = 29) solely used e-cigarettes, 8.54% (n = 38) used both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and 79.33% (n = 353) used neither tobacco cigarettes nor e-cigarettes during their current pregnancy. Overall, 64.27% (n = 286) of participants viewed e-cigarettes as being safer than tobacco cigarettes. Having seen advertisements for e-cigarettes increased likelihood of viewing them as safer than tobacco cigarettes (OR [Odds Ratio] = 2.5, p many women use e-cigarettes during pregnancy as tobacco cigarettes, that pregnant women view e-cigarettes as being safer than tobacco cigarettes, and that these views may be influenced by exposure to e-cigarette advertisements.

  12. Do women with migraine have higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorders?

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    Maria C Gonçalves

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD, using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD in women with episodic and chronic migraine (M and CM, as well as in asymptomatic women. METHOD: Sample consisted of 61 women, being 38 with M and 23 with CM, identified from a headache outpatient center; we also investigated 30 women without headaches for at least 3 months (women without headache group - WHG. Assessment of TMD was conducted by a physical therapist who was blind to the headache status. RESULTS: The prevalence of TMD, assessed through the RDC, was 33.3% in the WHG, 86.8% in the M group and 91.3% of the CM group. Differences were significant when comparing M and CM groups with WHG (p0.05 as well as higher risk for TMD [odds ratio (OR=3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.73-5.71 and OR=3.97, 95%CI 1.76-8.94]. CONCLUSION: Women with migraine are more likely to have muscular and articular TMD, suggesting that both disorders might be clinically associated, which demonstrate the importance of physical therapy assessment in the multidisciplinary team.

  13. Prevalence of supplement use in recreationally active Kazakhstan university students.

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    Vinnikov, Denis; Romanova, Zhanna; Dushpanova, Anar; Absatarova, Karashash; Utepbergenova, Zhazira

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the supplements use and recreational sport practices in Kazakhstan university students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain supplements use prevalence and their predictors in this population. Cross-sectional survey of both undergraduate and graduate level students was completed in 2017 et al.-Farabi Kazakh National University, the largest higher institution in the country, from almost all Schools. A 45-item questionnaire was used to record physical activity, supplements use, lifestyle attributes (smoking, alcohol, sleep, etc.) and eating habits, and adjusted regression models were used to verify predictors of supplements use. Of the entire sample of 889 students (70% females), 526 (59%) were practicing recreational physical activity (RPA), and walking, jogging and track and field was the most popular activity type (38%). N  = 151 (29%) students reported the use of any supplement (31% in men and 27% in women), whereas the most popular supplement type were vitamins. Supplement use was most prevalent in swimmers (55%). Age (odds ratio (OR) 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.37), use of fitness tracker (OR 6.26 (95% CI 3.90-10.03)) and low-fat diet (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.23-3.10)), but not income predicted supplements use in adjusted models. With more than half of students exercising regularly, only less than one-third use supplements with a very strong association with fitness tracker use.

  14. Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms among women in Sabah, Malaysia.

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    Mohamad Yusuff, Aza Sherin; Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antenatal depression and to assess whether the common risk factors identified in previous studies were applicable to women in Sabah, Malaysia. A prospective cohort study of 2072 women was conducted in Sabah during 2009-2010. Participants were recruited at 36-38 weeks of gestation to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding their demographic, socioeconomic and health characteristics. The presence of depression was assessed using the validated Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 13.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.3%, 15.3%]. Women who were happy with the pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 0.43, 95% CI 0.21, 0.89] and those with a planned pregnancy (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.33, 0.60) were less likely to suffer from antenatal depression. Pregnant mothers who were taking oral contraceptives before pregnancy (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20, 2.22) and women who experienced antenatal anxiety (OR 3.17, 95% CI 2.35, 4.26) appeared to have an increased risk of antenatal depression. A substantial proportion of women suffered from antenatal depression in Sabah, Malaysia. Screening and culturally tailored intervention programs targeting vulnerable subgroups of women in the early stage of pregnancy are recommended to deal with the problem.

  15. Predictors of dyspnea prevalence: Results from the BOLD study

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    Grønseth, Rune; Vollmer, William M.; Hardie, Jon A.; Ólafsdóttir, Inga Sif; Lamprecht, Bernd; Buist, A. Sonia; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Gulsvik, Amund; Johannessen, Ane; Enright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom for cardiorespiratory diseases. No study has assessed worldwide variation in dyspnea prevalence or predictors of dyspnea. We used cross-sectional data from population-based samples in 15 countries of the BOLD study to estimate prevalence of dyspnea in the full sample as well as in an a priori defined low-risk group (few risk factors or dyspnea-associated diseases). Dyspnea was defined by the modified Medical Research Council questions. We used ordered logistic regression analysis to study the association of dyspnea with site, sex, age, education, smoking habits, low/high BMI, self-reported disease, and spirometry results. Of the 9,484 participants, 27% reported any dyspnea. In the low-risk subsample (N=4,329), 16% reported some dyspnea. In multivariate analyses, all covariates were correlated to dyspnea, but only 13% of dyspnea variation was explained. Women reported more dyspnea than men (odds ratio ≈ 2.1). When forced vital capacity (FVC) fell below 60% of predicted, dyspnea was much more likely. There was considerable geographical variation in dyspnea, even when we adjusted for known risk factors and spirometry results. We were only able to explain 13% of dyspnea variation. PMID:24176991

  16. Prevalence and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Pain in Korean Farmers.

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    Min, David; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of musculoskeletal pain (MSK) pain in Korean farmers using initial survey data of Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related MSK pain (FARM) study. Farmers (534 females and 479 males; mean age 57.2±7.5 years) who owned or rented a farm and belonged to an agricultural cooperative unit were recruited. Presence of pain for each body part (neck, shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist/hand/finger, low back, leg/foot), and characteristics of MSK pain (prevalence, location, duration, severity, and frequency) during the last year was assessed. Additionally, demographic data such as farming duration, history of prior injury, and workload (low, moderate, somewhat hard, or hard) were collected using structured questionnaires. Almost all subjects (n=925; 91.3%) complained of pain in more than one body part. The frequency order was low back (63.8%), leg/foot (43.3%), shoulder (42.9%), wrist/hand/finger (26.6%), arm/elbow (25.3%), and neck (21.8%). Low back pain was more frequent in those with over 30 years of farming experience (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.81). MSK pain was related to history of prior injury (OR, 2.18-5.24; pfarmers experience MSK pain; furthermore, there is a significant association between pain, history of prior injury, and workload, suggestive of the necessity of coping and preventive strategies to reduce injury or workload.

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

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    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56, overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37, stress (AOR = 2.56, and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85. The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15, instant noodles (AOR = 1.17, and confections (AOR = 1.17 and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22 and vegetables (AOR = 1.19 were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  18. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-08-22

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  19. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat – characteristic and health properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Adamska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat. For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  20. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ying Jye; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Chieng, Jin Yu; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC) by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future. Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis. The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4%) than men (12.5%). Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%). Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06-2.06) and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.79) with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.17, P < 0.05). Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%), with significantly more prevalence among the female respondents. Early detection of symptoms

  2. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jye Lim

    Full Text Available Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future.Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis.The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4% than men (12.5%. Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%. Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06-2.06 and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.17, P < 0.05.Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%, with significantly more prevalence among the female respondents. Early detection of

  3. Prevalence of mental illness among inmates at Mukobeko maximum security prison in Zambia: A cross-sectional study

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    Mweene T Mweene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates for mental illness among inmates at Mukobeko Maximum Security Prison, Zambia. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to assess psychiatric disturbance using a Self-Reported Questionnaire (SRQ20. A cut off point of 7/8 was used. The Chi-square test and Fishers′ exact test were used to determine associations at the 5% significance level, and magnitude of association was estimated using the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results: Of the 394 inmates in prison, 29.2% had a current mental illness. Gender status was significantly associated with mental illness. Male participants were 35% (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [0.51, 0.82] less likely to have mental illness compared to female participants. Conclusions: The prevalence of mental illness is high in Mukobeko Maximum Security Prison in Zambia. Gender-specific interventions should be designed to reduce the level of mental illness in this prison.

  4. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  5. Monosodium glutamate (MSG intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population

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    Insawang Tonkla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiology and animal models suggest that dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG may contribute to the onset of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Methods Families (n = 324 from a rural area of Thailand were selected and provided MSG as the sole source for the use in meal preparation for 10 days. Three hundred forty-nine subjects aged 35–55 years completed the study and were evaluated for energy and nutrient intake, physical activity, and tobacco smoking. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >3, and the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria were evaluated according to the daily MSG intake. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the tertile with the highest MSG intake. Further, every 1 g increase in MSG intake significantly increased the risk of having the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval-CI- 1.12 - 1.28 or being overweight (odds ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.29, independent of the total energy intake and the level of physical activity. Conclusion Higher amounts of individual MSG consumption are associated with the risk of having the metabolic syndrome and being overweight independent of other major determinants.

  6. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower prevalence of osteoarthritis: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Noale, Marianna; Solmi, Marco; Luchini, Claudio; Smith, Toby O; Cooper, Cyrus; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, Renè; Maggi, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be beneficial for several medical conditions, but data regarding osteoarthritis (OA) are not available. The aim of this study was to investigate if adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower prevalence of OA of the knee in a large cohort from North America. 4358 community-dwelling participants (2527 females; mean age: 61.2 years) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were included. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through a validated Mediterranean diet score (aMED) categorized into quartiles (Q). Knee OA was diagnosed both clinically and radiologically. The strength of the association between aMED (divided in quartiles) and knee OA was investigated through a logistic regression analysis and reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. Participants with a higher adherence to Mediterranean diet had a significantly lower prevalence of knee OA compared to those with lower adherence (Q4: 25.2% vs. Q1: 33.8%; p Mediterranean diet, only higher use of cereals was associated with lower odds of having knee OA (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.60-0.98; p = 0.03). Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower prevalence of knee OA. This remained when adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Multi-Ethnic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Kamran; Akhter, Natasha; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Önal, Ergün; Christman, John W.; Carley, David W.; Herdegen, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Relationship of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in Caucasians has been studied, but this association has not been investigated in Hispanic and African-Americans. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in patients evaluated for OSA in a predominantly African American and Hispanic sample. The secondary objective is to evaluate the relationship of REM related OSA and type 2 diabetes. Methods: 1008 consecutive patients who had a comprehensive polysomnography were evaluated. OSA was defined as an obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥ 5 per hour. REM AHI of ≥ 10 was considered to indicate REM related OSA. Results: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 30.1% in the group with OSA compared to 18.6% in those without OSA. The subjects with OSA had significantly increased odds of type 2 diabetes compared with those without OSA (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–2.6) but this association became non-significant when controlled for confounding variables and covariates (odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.9–2.0). Middle-aged participants with OSA had 2.8 times higher odds for type 2 diabetes, when compared to younger or middle aged without OSA, controlling for covariates. Finally, the odds of type 2 diabetes were 2.0 times higher in patients with REM AHI of ≥ 10/h independent of confounding variables. Conclusions: OSA is not independently associated with type 2 diabetes in a predominantly African American and Hispanic sample. However, the relationship of REM related OSA with type 2 diabetes may be statistically significant. Citation: Mahmood K; Akhter N; Eldeirawi K; Önal E; Christman JW; Carley DW; Herdegen JJ. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea in a multi-ethnic sample. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):215-221. PMID:19960641

  8. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  9. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

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    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  10. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  11. High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, P M; Rupenyan, A; Wörner, H J

    2012-12-07

    We study the emission of even and odd high-harmonic orders from oriented OCS molecules. We use an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse superimposed with its phase-controlled second harmonic field to impulsively align and orient a dense sample of molecules from which we subsequently generate high-order harmonics. The even harmonics appear around the full revivals of the rotational dynamics. We demonstrate perfect coherent control over their intensity through the subcycle delay of the two-color fields. The odd harmonics are insensitive to the degree of orientation, but modulate with the degree of axis alignment, in agreement with calculated photorecombination dipole moments. We further compare the shape of the even and odd harmonic spectra with our calculations and determine the degree of orientation.

  12. Factors influencing elementary school teachers' ratings of ADHD and ODD behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Quittner, A L; Abikoff, H

    1998-12-01

    Examined factors that influence teachers' ratings of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). 105 teachers watched 2 videotapes--1 depicting a normal child and the other a child with either ADHD or ODD--and rated each child using 2 different questionnaires. Results indicated that teachers accurately rated the child on the ADHD versus ODD tape as having significantly more inattention and hyperactivity but significantly less oppositionality. However, effect sizes indicated the presence of a unidirectional, negative halo effect of oppositional behaviors on ratings of hyperactivity and inattention. Teachers appeared less biased in their judgments when using a well-operationalized rating scale. Finally, knowledge, education, and experience with children with ADHD generally had no effect on the accuracy of teachers' ratings.

  13. On supergroups with odd Clifford parameters and non-anticommutative supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, Z. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: zhanna@cbpf.br; Rojas, M.; Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: mrojas@cbpf.br; toppan@cbpf.br

    2007-07-01

    We investigate super groups with Grassmann parameters replaced by odd Clifford parameters. The connection with non-anti commutative supersymmetry is discussed. A Berezin-like calculus for odd Clifford variables is introduced. Fermionic covariant derivatives for super groups with odd Clifford variables are derived. Applications to supersymmetric quantum mechanics are made. Deformations of the original supersymmetric theories are encountered when the fermionic covariant derivatives do not obey the graded Leibniz property. The simplest non-trivial example is given by the N = 2 SQM with a real (1, 2, 1) multiplet and a cubic potential. The action is real. Depending on the overall sign ('Euclidean' or 'Lorentzian') of the deformation, a Bender-Boettcher pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonian is encountered when solving the equation of motion of the auxiliary field. A possible connection of our framework with the Drinfeld twist deformation of supersymmetry is pointed out. (author)

  14. On supergroups with odd Clifford parameters and non-anticommutative supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, Z.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate super groups with Grassmann parameters replaced by odd Clifford parameters. The connection with non-anti commutative supersymmetry is discussed. A Berezin-like calculus for odd Clifford variables is introduced. Fermionic covariant derivatives for super groups with odd Clifford variables are derived. Applications to supersymmetric quantum mechanics are made. Deformations of the original supersymmetric theories are encountered when the fermionic covariant derivatives do not obey the graded Leibniz property. The simplest non-trivial example is given by the N = 2 SQM with a real (1, 2, 1) multiplet and a cubic potential. The action is real. Depending on the overall sign ('Euclidean' or 'Lorentzian') of the deformation, a Bender-Boettcher pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonian is encountered when solving the equation of motion of the auxiliary field. A possible connection of our framework with the Drinfeld twist deformation of supersymmetry is pointed out. (author)

  15. Influences of vehicle size and mass and selected driver factors on odds of driver fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, "vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck" was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of "vehicle type" variable, further investigation of vehicle "stiffness" and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted.

  16. Prevalence of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Chinese Adults: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng-De; Zhao, De-Wei; Wang, Wei; Guo, Lin; Tian, Si-Miao; Feng, Ao; Yang, Fan; Li, Dong-Yi

    2017-06-05

    The prevalence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown in China. We aimed to determine the prevalence of DDH in Chinese adults. In this study, we performed a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of Chinese adults. All participants underwent questionnaire investigation, physical examination, and X-ray examination. Factors associated with DDH were analyzed with logistic regression. We invited 29,180 individuals aged 18 years and over to participate, randomly selected from 18 primary sampling units (street districts in urban areas and townships in rural areas). The survey and examination were completed in 25,767 people (10,296 men and 15,471 women). DDH was diagnosed in 391 people, yielding an overall DDH prevalence of 1.52%. Based on this information, we estimate the number of individuals with DDH in China to be approximately 16.05 million. DDH prevalence increased with age (odds ratio = 1.53 [1.03-2.27], P = 0.036), was significantly higher among women than men (2.07% vs. 0.75%, PDDH. There was no evidence of an association between body mass index alone, education, or current smoking or drinking and risk of DDH (P > 0.05). DDH has become an important public health problem. Special attention should be paid to residents with DDH. Screening for DDH should be performed in China.

  17. Prevalence and Impact of Diabetes Mellitus Among Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Jung Mo; Kang, Young Ae; Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Song Yee

    2017-04-01

    South Korea has an increasing prevalence of diabetes and a relatively high burden of tuberculosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and examine the effect of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Data from patients ≥30 years diagnosed with and treated for PTB between January 2010 and December 2012 at Severance Hospital, a 2000-bed tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, were analyzed and compared with data from a contemporaneous general population sample extracted from KNHANES V. Diabetes prevalence was 24.2% (252/1044) among patients with PTB and 11.6% (1700/14,655) among controls. Diabetes [odds ratios (OR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-4.21, P Diabetes was the only factor associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.03-2.70, P = 0.039). The prevalence of diabetes was markedly higher in patients with PTB than in a sample of the general South Korean population. Diabetes may delay sputum conversion and adversely affect treatment outcomes; detection and management of diabetes in patients with PTB is crucial.

  18. Dietary Administration of Olive Mill Wastewater Extract Reduces Campylobacter spp. Prevalence in Broiler Chickens

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    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater and solid waste (pomace or olive cake. These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE and dehydrated olive cake (DOC on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05 prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001. These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Ppopulation in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754) with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  20. The prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment among the elderly in Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual impairment is associated with disability and poor quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of visual impairment among the suburban elderly in Eastern Taiwan. The cross-sectional research was conducted from April 2012 to August 2012. The ocular condition examination took place in suburban areas of Hualien County. Medical records from local infirmaries and questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic data and systemic disease status. Logistic regression models were used for the simultaneous analysis of the association between the prevalence of visual impairment and risk factors. Six hundred and eighty-one residents participated in this project. The mean age of the participants was 71.4±7.3 years. The prevalence of vision impairment (better eye 75 years was 10.0 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with diabetic retinopathy had a 3.7 times higher risk of developing visual impairment (p=0.002, while the odds ratio of refractive error was 0.36 (p<0.001. The prevalence of visual impairment was relatively high compared with previous studies. Diabetic retinopathy was an important risk factor of visual impairment; by contrast, refractive error was beneficial to resist visual impairment. Therefore, regular screening of ocular condition and early intervention might aid in the prevention of avoidable vision loss.

  1. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of somatoform disorders in the elderly: Results of a European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoust, Maria Christina; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Sehner, Susanne; Drabik, Anna; Wegscheider, Karl; Canuto, Alessandra; Weber, Kerstin; Crawford, Mike; Quirk, Alan; Grassi, Luigi; DaRonch, Chiara; Munoz, Manuel; Ausin, Berta; Santos-Olmo, Anna; Shalev, Arieh; Rotenstein, Ora; Hershkowitz, Yael; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Andreas, Sylke

    2017-03-01

    Somatoform disorders have rarely been addressed in epidemiological and health care services studies of the elderly. The few existing studies vary considerably in their methodologies limiting comparability of findings. Data come from the MentDis_ICF65+ study, in which a total of 3142 community-dwelling respondents aged 65-84 years from six different countries were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview adapted to the needs of the elderly (CIDI65+). The 12-month prevalence rate for any somatoform disorders was found to be 3.8, whereby the prevalence for somatization disorder according to DSM-IV was 0%, the prevalence for abridged somatization was 1.7% and the rate for 12-months somatoform pain disorder was 2.6%. We found a significant variation by study centre (p < 0.005). There was a significant gender difference for pain disorder, but not for abridged somatization. Significant age-related effects revealed for both disorder groups. Somatoform disorders were found to be associated with other mental disorders [odds ratio (OR) anxiety =4.8, OR affective disorders 3.6], as well as with several impairments and disabilities. Somatoform disorders are prevalent, highly impairing conditions in older adults, which are often associated with other mental disorders and should receive more research and clinical attention. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Prevalence & correlates of primary infertility among young women in Mysore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Paul C.; Krupp, Karl; Freeman, Alexandra H.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Reingold, Arthur L.; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: There are sparse data on the prevalence of primary infertility in India and almost none from Southern India. This study describes the correlates and prevalence of primary infertility among young women in Mysore, India. Methods: The baseline data were collected between November 2005 through March 2006, among 897 sexually active women, aged 15-30 yr, for a study investigating the relationship of bacterial vaginosis and acquisition of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. A secondary data analysis of the baseline data was undertaken. Primary infertility was defined as having been married for longer than two years, not using contraception and without a child. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with primary infertility. Results: The mean age of the women was 25.9 yr (range: 16-30 yr) and the prevalence of primary infertility was 12.6 per cent [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 10.5-15.0%]. The main factor associated with primary infertility was HSV-2 seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio: 3.41; CI: 1.86, 6.26). Interpretation & conclusions: The estimated prevalence of primary infertility among women in the study was within the range reported by the WHO and similar to other estimates from India. Further research is needed to examine the role of HSV-2 in primary infertility. PMID:22089604

  4. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlow B. Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, <0.001. In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Pcaries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (Pcaries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  6. The synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Su; Jung, Woon Tae; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-10-01

    The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher in the stomach cancer group (35.8%) than in the control group (17.9%) (P stomach cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 5.63). In particular, the difference in the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was more prominent in the patients above 50 years old (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.98). The results showed that the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was higher in patients with stomach cancer than in those without stomach cancer. Therefore, patients with stomach cancer should be regarded as a high-risk group for colorectal neoplasms, and colonoscopy should be recommended for screening.

  7. Economic abuse between intimate partners in Australia: prevalence, health status, disability and financial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutin, Jozica; Russell, Roslyn; Reid, Mike

    2017-06-01

    Economic abuse is a form of domestic violence that has a significant impact on the health and financial wellbeing of victims, but is understudied. This study determined the lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in Australia by age and gender, and the associated risk factors. The 2012 ABS Personal Safety Survey was used, involving a cross-sectional population survey of 17,050 randomly selected adults using face-to-face interviews. The survey-weighted prevalence of economic abuse was calculated and analysed by age and gender. Logistic regression was used to adjust odds ratios for possible confounding between variables. The lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in the whole sample was 11.5%. Women in all age groups were more likely to experience economic abuse (15.7%) compared to men (7.1%). Disability, health and financial stress status were significant markers of economic abuse. For women, financial stress and disability were important markers of economic abuse. However, prevalence rates were influenced by the measures used and victims' awareness of the abuse, which presents a challenge for screening and monitoring. Implications for public health: Social, health and financial services need to be aware of and screen for the warning signs of this largely hidden form of domestic violence. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome Components After Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Prevalence and the Impact of Obesity and Immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perito, E R; Lustig, R H; Rosenthal, P

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with long-term morbidity and mortality after adult liver transplantation (LT). Whether pediatric LT recipients have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome remains controversial. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated pediatric LT recipients aged 8-30 years using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocols. LT recipients were matched by gender, race/ethnicity, and age with controls from NHANES. Pediatric LT recipients (n = 83), after adjusting for overweight/obesity and glucocorticoid use, had increased prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 2-h glucose after oral glucose tolerance test ≥140 mg/dL), and low high-density lipoprotein compared to matched NHANES controls (n = 235) despite a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity. Among LT recipients, the adjusted odds of IGT doubled for every 7.5 years taking calcineurin inhibitors (odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval 1.06-4.17 per 7.5 years taking calcineurin inhibitors, p = 0.03). Among all subjects with IGT, LT recipients had a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and less insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) than did controls with IGT. Among normal weight subjects, LT recipients were significantly more likely than controls to have prehypertension/hypertension, IGT, low high-density lipoprotein, and metabolic syndrome. Pediatric LT recipients have unique metabolic syndrome profiles and risk factors and will require tailored screening and management protocols. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-06-03

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable

  10. The CP-odd nucleon interaction and the value of T-violation in nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Gudkov, V. P.

    1996-01-01

    The relations between the value of T- and P-violating correlations in neutron scattering and different models of CP violation are discussed. It is shown that a specific structure of CP-odd interactions gives the possibility to obtain the essential information about CP-odd interaction at the quark-gluon level from nuclear experimental data. The up-to-date estimations for CP- violating nucleon coupling constants show that CP violation in neutron scattering is sensitive to many models of CP viol...

  11. Stimulus-Parity Synaesthesia versus Stimulus-Dichotomy Synaesthesia: Odd, Even or Something Else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah C. White

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent. This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth.

  12. The CP-odd nucleon interaction and the value of T-violation in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    The relations between the value of T- and P-violating correlations in neutron scattering and different models of CP violation are discussed. It is shown that a specific structure of CP-odd nucleon interactions gives the possibility to obtain the essential information about CP-odd interaction at the quark-gluon level from nuclear experimental data. The up-to-date estimations for CP-violating nucleon coupling constants show that each class of CP-violating models can give a measurable effect for the neutron scattering experiments. 57 refs

  13. Effects of single particle on shape phase transitions and phase coexistence in odd-even nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Ru; Hu, Jing; Li, Xiao-Xue; An, Si-Yu; Zhang, Yu

    2018-02-01

    A classical analysis of shape phase transitions and phase coexistence in odd-even nuclei has been performed in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The results indicate that the effects of a single particle may influence different types of transitions in different ways. Especially, it is revealed that phase coexistence can clearly emerge in the critical region and thus be taken as a indicator of the shape phase transitions in odd-even nuclei. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375005)

  14. Second proton and neutron alignments in the doubly-odd nuclei 154,156Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D.J.; Allen, J.L.; Brown, T.B.; Kondev, F.G.; Pfohl, J.; Riley, M.A.; Fischer, S.M.; Janssens, R.V.; Nisius, D.T.; Fallon, P.; Ma, W.C.; Simpson, J.

    1999-01-01

    High-spin states in the doubly-odd nuclei 154,156 Tb have been populated in two separate experiments using the 36 S+ 124 Sn reaction at different beam energies (160 and 175 MeV). The yrast structures of both nuclei were extended to much higher spin (I≤48ℎ) than previously known and several quasiparticle alignments have been identified. These include the second neutron alignment and a clear delineation of the second proton crossing in 156 Tb. Systematics of these crossings for odd-Z nuclei and comparisons with results of cranked shell model calculations are discussed. thinsp copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Rotational high spin structures in doubly-odd in {sup 184}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, F.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J.; Bourgeois, C.; Korichi, A. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Hojman, D.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Debray, M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Knipper, A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Marguier, G. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Excited states in the doubly-odd {sup 184}Au nucleus have been studied by in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. This nucleus was produced through the fusion-evaporation reactions {sup 165}Ho({sup 24}Mg, 5n), {sup 170}Yb({sup 19}F, 5n) and {sup 161}Dy({sup 27}Al, 4n). Different rotational band structures have been observed and interpreted as specific couplings of proton and neutron single-particle excitations present in neighboring odd Au and Pt nuclei. (author). 34 refs.; Submitted to Physical Review, C (US).

  16. Gender-related differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates in urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finkelstein Julia L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates among adults in Temeke, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results of this study will help inform future research and potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against such chronic diseases. Methods The study design was a cross sectional epidemiological study. A total of 209 participants aged between 44 and 66 years were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to measure lipid profile and fasting glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined using World Health Organization criteria. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 was 13% and 35%, among men and women (p = 0.0003, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 11% and 58% (p 0.9, women: >0.85 was 51% and 73% (p = 0.002 for men and women respectively. Women had 4.3 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.9–10.1, 14.2–fold increased odds for abdominal adiposity (95% CI: 5.8–34.6, and 2.8 times greater odds of high waist-hip-ratio (95% CI: 1.4–5.7, compared to men. Women had more than three-fold greater odds of having metabolic syndrome (p = 0.001 compared to male counterparts, including abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and high fasting blood glucose components. In contrast, female participants had 50% lower odds of having hypertension, compared to men (95%CI: 0.3–1.0. Among men, BMI and waist circumference were significantly correlated with blood pressure, triglycerides

  17. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  18. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  19. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh D. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  20. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  1. Depressive Symptoms in Patients Referred to a Tertiary Lyme Center: High Prevalence in Those Without Evidence of Lyme Borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomer, Tizza P; Vermeeren, Yolande M; Landman, Gijs W; Zwerink, Marlies; van Hees, Babette C; van Bemmel, Thomas; van Kooten, Barend

    2017-10-30

    Controversy exists whether mood disorders, such as depression, are associated with Lyme borreliosis (LB). The study objective was to assess prevalence of depressive symptoms in subgroups of patients referred to a tertiary Lyme center, to investigate whether depressive symptoms can be used in clinical practice to discriminate for LB. This cohort study included adult patients who visited a tertiary Lyme center between January 2008 and December 2014. Prior to medical consultation, serum samples were taken and the Beck Depression Inventory II was completed to assess depressive symptoms. Lyme diagnosis was retrospectively extracted from the patient's medical record. Patients were classified based on clinical LB and serology results. Prevalence of moderate/severe depressive symptoms was calculated. Using logistic regression, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for moderate/severe depressive symptoms. In total, 1454 patients were included. Prevalence of moderate/severe depressive symptoms was lowest in patients with no clinical LB and positive serology (15.3%), higher in patients with clinical LB with positive and negative serology (19.3% and 20.9% respectively), and highest in patients with no clinical LB and negative serology (29.3%). The odds ratio for moderate/severe depressive symptoms in patients with LB and positive serology was 0.71 (95% CI, .50-1.03) compared to patients with no LB and negative serology. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was similar in patients with LB compared to patients with no evidence of infection. This suggests that depressive symptoms cannot be used to discriminate for LB in a tertiary Lyme center. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC) by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future. Methods Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis. Results The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4%) than men (12.5%). Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%). Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06–2.06) and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01–1.79) with P value constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%), with significantly more prevalence among the female respondents. Early detection of symptoms and further intervention studies focusing on treatment recommendation in improving the symptoms are essential. PMID:27997551

  3. The prevalence of albuminuria among diabetic patients in a primary care setting in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eng Sing; Tang, Wern Ee

    2015-12-01

    Microalbuminuria is an early sign of kidney damage. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Singapore has been reported to be 36.0%-48.5%. However, the prevalence of microalbuminuria reported in these studies was determined with one urine sample using a qualitative urine test. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria using a more stringent criterion of two positive quantitative urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) tests. We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were followed up at a primary care clinic in Singapore. Patients were diagnosed to have albuminuria if they had two positive ACR tests within a seven-month period. A total of 786 patients with T2DM met the study's inclusion criteria. 55.7% were already on an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and/or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). The prevalence rates of micro- and macroalbuminuria were 14.2% and 5.7%, respectively. Patients with albuminuria were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55-7.80). Diabetics with poorer diabetic control (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.26-2.79), and higher systolic (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.14-2.49) and diastolic (OR 1.96, 95% CI, 1.20 to 3.22) blood pressures were more likely to have albuminuria. In the present study, the prevalence of microalbuminuria is significantly lower than that previously reported in Singapore. The presence of hypertension, poor diabetic control and suboptimal blood pressure control are possible risk factors for albuminuria in patients with T2DM.

  4. Comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the rural population of Bangladesh using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Bishwajit; Afsana, Faria; Siddiquee, Tasnima; Munir, Sanjida B; Sheikh, Fareeha; Wright, Erica; Bhuiyan, Farjana R; Ashrafuzzaman, Sheikh Mohammad; Mahtab, Hajera; Azad Khan, Abul Kalam; Hussain, Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Plan III (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions and, using both definitions, determine and compare the association of MS, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease risk (CVD). Materials and Methods A total of 2,293 randomly selected participants (aged ≥20 years) in a rural community in Bangladesh were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles were studied. Age-adjusted data for MS and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed, and their relationships were examined. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of MS was 30.7% (males 30.5%; females 30.5%) using the NCEP definition, and 24.5% (males 19.2%, females 27.5%) using the IDF definition. The prevalence of MS using the NCEP definition was also higher in study participants with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, HTN and CVD risk. The agreement rate between both definitions was 92% (k = 0.80). The NCEP definition had a stronger association with type 2 diabetes and HTN (odds ratio 12.4 vs 5.2; odds ratio 7.0 vs 4.7, respectively) than the IDF definition. However, the odds ratios for prediabetes and CVD risk were not significantly different. Conclusions The prevalence of MS was higher using the NCEP definition, and was more strongly associated with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, HTN and CVD in this Bangladeshi population. PMID:25969712

  5. Comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the rural population of Bangladesh using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Bishwajit; Afsana, Faria; Siddiquee, Tasnima; Munir, Sanjida B; Sheikh, Fareeha; Wright, Erica; Bhuiyan, Farjana R; Ashrafuzzaman, Sheikh Mohammad; Mahtab, Hajera; Azad Khan, Abul Kalam; Hussain, Akhtar

    2015-05-01

    To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Plan III (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions and, using both definitions, determine and compare the association of MS, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease risk (CVD). A total of 2,293 randomly selected participants (aged ≥20 years) in a rural community in Bangladesh were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles were studied. Age-adjusted data for MS and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed, and their relationships were examined. The age-adjusted prevalence of MS was 30.7% (males 30.5%; females 30.5%) using the NCEP definition, and 24.5% (males 19.2%, females 27.5%) using the IDF definition. The prevalence of MS using the NCEP definition was also higher in study participants with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, HTN and CVD risk. The agreement rate between both definitions was 92% (k = 0.80). The NCEP definition had a stronger association with type 2 diabetes and HTN (odds ratio 12.4 vs 5.2; odds ratio 7.0 vs 4.7, respectively) than the IDF definition. However, the odds ratios for prediabetes and CVD risk were not significantly different. The prevalence of MS was higher using the NCEP definition, and was more strongly associated with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, HTN and CVD in this Bangladeshi population.

  6. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keyuan; Hao, Xiaoyan; Li, Yang; Luo, Guobin; Zhang, Yonggen; Xin, Hangshu

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C). The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (pacids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (pacid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  7. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules (TNs have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001. The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001, and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007. There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015 and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001. The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR = 1.039 (1.034–1.044, p < 0.001, the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097, Body mass index (BMI (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034, and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483 were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and

  8. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  9. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Kogi, Kazutaka; Ito, Akiyoshi; Feskens, Edith J M; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2011-05-26

    Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women) was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  10. Stock Price Reactions to Short-Lived Public Information : The Case of Betting Odds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2005-01-01

    Stock markets and betting markets co-exist for professional soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange.For each firm, two pieces of information are released to the stock market on a weekly basis from August to June: experts expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the

  11. Basic equations for odd spherical nuclei in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao Tien Khoa; Vdovin, A.I.; Voronov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    The system of basic equations in the general form is obtained for odd spherical nuclei within the quasiparticle-model. The anharmonics of vibrations of even-even core and Pauli principle corrections are included into these equations. It has been shown that the derived system of equations contains all versions of approximate equations used in the calculation within the quasiparticle-phonon model

  12. Odd-frequency superconductivity induced in topological insulators with and without hexagonal warping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenko, A. S.; Golubov, A. A.; Silkin, V. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of the Fermi surface anisotropy on the odd-frequency spin-triplet pairing component of the induced pair potential. We consider a superconductor/ ferromagnetic insulator (S/FI) hybrid structure formed on the 3D topological insulator (TI) surface. In this case three ingredients

  13. T-odd correlations in B→K*l+l- decay beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Savci, M.; Yuece, C.; Oezpineci, A.

    2002-01-01

    T-odd correlations as physical observables in the B→K*l + l - decay are studied using the most general form of the effective Hamiltonian. It is observed that these quantities are very sensitive to the new physics. We estimate the potential of discovery of these quantities at future hadron colliders

  14. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    even/odd coherent states, ((ˆa†)m |α±〉), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner function corresponding to the mentioned states in the framework of standard master ...

  15. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. Proportional Odds Logistic Regression - Effective Means of Dealing with Limited Uncertainty in Dichotomizing Clinical Outcomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valenta, Zdeněk; Pitha, J.; Poledne, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 24 (2006), s. 4227-4234 ISSN 0277-6715 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA7512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : proportional odds logistic regression * dichotomized outcomes * uncertainty Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.737, year: 2006

  17. Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125−131Ce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nated by rotational bands, built on the ground and low-lying excited states. The behaviour of these rotational bands can provide useful information about the un- derlying nuclear structure. The 125Ce nucleus is the lightest even–odd isotope of which the band structures have been published by Paul et al [2]. Excited states.

  18. Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125−131Ce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4. — journal of. April 2010 physics pp. 525–539. Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125−131Ce nuclei. ARUN BHARTI∗, SURAM SINGH and S K KHOSA. Department of ... in 125Ce have been extensively studied up to very high spins in recent years [3,4]. ... The detailed theory of PSM is given in [12].

  19. Re-appraisal of the P, T-odd interaction constant Wd in YbF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    arising from the violations of space inversion symmetry (P) and time reversal in- variance (T). The search for non-zero P, T-odd effects in these systems with the presently accessible (expected) level of experimental sensitivity would indicate the presence of the so-called 'new physics' beyond the Standard Model (SM) of elec ...

  20. An improvement of an inequality of Ochem and Rao concerning odd perfect numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zelinsky, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Let $\\Omega(n)$ denote the total number of prime divisors of $n$ (counting multiplicity) and let $\\omega(n)$ denote the number of distinct prime divisors of $n$. Various inequalities have been proved relating $\\omega(N)$ and $\\Omega(N)$ when $N$ is an odd perfect number. We improve on these inequalities. In particular, we show that if $3 \

  1. Recurrence relations for fully correlated Gaussians with odd powers of interparticle coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank E.; Monkhorst, Hendrik J.

    It is shown that the recurrence relations previously derived by the present authors, connecting fully correlated Gaussians to which even powers of the interparticle distances have been appended, are also applicable when these distances appear as odd powers. Implications of this demonstration for the description of electron correlation in few-body systems are also reviewed.

  2. On the correspondence between the dynamics with odd and even brackets and generalized Nambu's mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhaldiani, N.; Voskresenskaya, O.

    1998-01-01

    We consider selected problems of Hamiltonization and integrability of a general dynamical system described by a system of ordinary differential equations; odd and even symplectic structures; a new approach to the linearization of non-linear systems by the extended Hamiltonian and Nambu's mechanics

  3. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  4. Effect of Behavior Management Training for Mothers With Children having ODD Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Amiri

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion Overall, the findings suggest that mothers' behavioral training reduces the symptoms of ODD in children and prevents inappropriate behavior in family environment. Learning and applying principles such as avoiding punishment along with distinction between discipline and punishment, are the main principles of the training program that can reduce behavioral problems in children and increase their desirable behaviors. 

  5. Stability and Change of ODD, CD and ADHD Diagnosis in Referred Preschool Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Tessa L.; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim

  6. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  7. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  8. Time reversal odd effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this thesis the semi-iclusive deep inelastic scattering l+h→l'+h+X is studied in the framework of the parton model. Especially sum rules are checked which contain transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. Furthermore the influence of T-odd effects on the subleading order of a twist expansion are investigated. (HSI)

  9. Free energy on a cycle graph and trigonometric deformation of heat kernel traces on odd spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    We consider a possible ‘deformation’ of the trace of the heat kernel on odd dimensional spheres, motivated by the calculation of the free energy of a scalar field on a discretized circle. By using an expansion in terms of the modified Bessel functions, we obtain the values of the free energies after a suitable regularization.

  10. Energy level structure of odd-A Tm isotopes in A approx = 160 region

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng Guo Mo

    2002-01-01

    The energy levels of odd-A Tm isotopes in A approx = 160 region are calculated using the particle plus triaxial rotor model. The low lying bands of the isotopes are fit well by changing the energy gap and Coriolis attenuation factor. A possible relation between energy gap and neutron number is presented

  11. Thermodynamics and CP-odd transport in Holographic QCD with Finite Magnetic Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gursoy, U.; Drwenski, T.M.; Iatrakis, I.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a bottom-up holographic model of QCD at finite temperature T and magnetic field B, and study dependence of thermodynamics and CP-odd transport on these variables. As the magnetic field couples to the flavor sector only, one should take the Veneziano limit where the number of flavors and

  12. Changing the Odds: Informing Policy with Research on How Adult Learners Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condelli, Larry; Kirshstein, Rita; Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi; Reder, Stephen; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2010-01-01

    Research has identified the barriers adult learners face in attaining their education and English proficiency goals, entering and advancing in employment, succeeding in postsecondary education and training, and navigating service systems. Most adult learners face long odds in trying to meet these goals. What would it take to address these barriers…

  13. Atteindre les objectifs de développement durable [ODD] liés à la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2018 ... Il est de plus en plus question des objectifs de développement durable (ODD) à mesure que les gouvernements nationaux intègrent le Programme de développement durable à l'horizon 2030 à leurs propres processus d'élaboration de politiques. La reconnaissance de la nature multisectorielle des ODD ...

  14. Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs

  15. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    even/odd coherent states, ((\\^a)m|α±⟩), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner function ...

  16. Partial dynamical symmetry and odd-even staggering in deformed nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leviatan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial dynamical symmetry (PDS is shown to be relevant for describing the odd-even staggering in the γ-band of 156Gd while retaining solvability and good SU(3 symmetry for the ground and β bands. Several classes of interacting boson model Hamiltonians with SU(3 PDS are surveyed.

  17. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    added) even/odd coherent states, ((ˆa†)m |α±〉), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner ...

  18. Asymptotic Dichotomy in a Class of Odd-Order Nonlinear Differential Equations with Impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwen Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the oscillatory and asymptotic behavior of a class of odd-order nonlinear differential equations with impulses. We obtain criteria that ensure every solution is either oscillatory or (nonoscillatory and zero convergent. We provide several examples to show that impulses play an important role in the asymptotic behaviors of these equations.

  19. Norra keeldus koostööst õdede importijaga / Odd-Erik Marthinsen ; interv. Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marthinsen, Odd-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Norra tööturuameti tööala asedirektor Odd-Erik Marthinsen: Norra riik palkab ametlikult haiglaõdedeks tööjõudu Poolast, Ungarist ja Filipiinidelt, ent mitte Eestist. Kommenteerivad. Finn Radmann, Toomas Vilosius, Ase Jakobsen. Parlamendisaadik (T. Vilosius)

  20. Remarks on the determination of the odd--even staggering parameter in the spectrum of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenkorn, S.; Stroke, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    From an analysis of the isotope shifts in the Cd 3261, 4678, and 4416 A lines, it is pointed out that a precise determination of the odd--even staggering parameter is limited less by experimental error than by the lack of reliable knowledge of the specific mass effect

  1. Effectiveness of Implant Therapy Analyzed in a Swedish Population: Prevalence of Peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, J; Schaller, D; Håkansson, J; Wennström, J L; Tomasi, C; Berglundh, T

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease affecting soft and hard tissues surrounding dental implants. As the global number of individuals that undergo restorative therapy through dental implants increases, peri-implantitis is considered as a major and growing problem in dentistry. A randomly selected sample of 588 patients who all had received implant-supported therapy 9 y earlier was clinically and radiographically examined. Prevalence of peri-implantitis was assessed and risk indicators were identified by multilevel regression analysis. Forty-five percent of all patients presented with peri-implantitis (bleeding on probing/suppuration and bone loss >0.5 mm). Moderate/severe peri-implantitis (bleeding on probing/suppuration and bone loss >2 mm) was diagnosed in 14.5%. Patients with periodontitis and with ≥4 implants, as well as implants of certain brands and prosthetic therapy delivered by general practitioners, exhibited higher odds ratios for moderate/severe peri-implantitis. Similarly, higher odds ratios were identified for implants installed in the mandible and with crown restoration margins positioned ≤1.5 mm from the crestal bone at baseline. It is suggested that peri-implantitis is a common condition and that several patient- and implant-related factors influence the risk for moderate/severe peri-implantitis (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01825772). © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2-16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs.

  3. Ratio of Trunk to Leg Volume as a New Body Shape Metric for Diabetes and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joseph P.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body shape is a known risk factor for diabetes and mortality, but the methods estimating body shape, BMI and waist circumference are crude. We determined whether a novel body shape measure, trunk to leg volume ratio, was independently associated with diabetes and mortality. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 1999–2004, a study representative of the US population, were used to generate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived trunk to leg volume ratio and determine its associations to diabetes, metabolic covariates, and mortality by BMI category, gender, and race/ethnicity group. Results The prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes increased with age, BMI, triglycerides, blood pressure, and decreased HDL level. After adjusting for covariates, the corresponding fourth to first quartile trunk to leg volume ratio odds ratios (OR) were 6.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9–9.6) for diabetes, 3.9 (95% CI, 3.0–5.2) for high triglycerides, 1.8 (95% CI, 1.6–2.1) for high blood pressure, 3.0 (95% CI, 2.4–3.8) for low HDL, 3.6 (95% CI, 2.8–4.7) for metabolic syndrome, and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.20–2.60) for mortality. Additionally, trunk to leg volume ratio was the strongest independent measure associated with diabetes (Pleg volume ratio had a higher likelihood of death (5.5%) than those in the lowest quartile (0.2%). Overall, trunk to leg volume ratio is driven by competing mechanisms of changing adiposity and lean mass. Conclusions A high ratio of trunk to leg volume showed a strong association to diabetes and mortality that was independent of total and regional fat distributions. This novel body shape measure provides additional information regarding central adiposity and appendicular wasting to better stratify individuals at risk for diabetes and mortality, even among those with normal BMI. PMID:23874736

  4. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swe LA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lin Aung Swe,1 Abdul Rashid2 1Beneficial Partner Group, Bahan Township, Myanmar; 2Department of Public Health Medicine, Penang Medical College, Georgetown, Malaysia Background: Myanmar is one of the countries hardest hit by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic in Asia. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar. Interviews were conducted by trained research assistants, in private, using a questionnaire. The HIV status of the respondents was asked and confirmed by the blood test reports from the laboratories of the Myanmar National AIDS Programme sexually transmitted infections (STI/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS Teams and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs. Results: There were 200 respondents in this study. Out of the 136 participants who were tested for HIV, 25 (18.4% were HIV-positive. Respondents of other ethnic groups than Myanmars and other religions than Buddhist were about six times (odds ratio [OR] 5.9 and five times (OR 4.6, respectively, at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Those who were earning an income of less than 200,000 kyats were almost three times (OR 2.9 at higher odds of being HIV-positive. The difference in the age group was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.001. Respondents who did not have HIV counseling (OR 7.3, who did not use condoms (OR 1.3, and with regular partners who refused the use of condoms (OR 6.0 were at higher odds of being HIV-positive. Conclusion: HIV prevention services should include socioeconomic support programs, and the clients and regular partners of sex workers should also be targeted for behavior-change messages, to reduce condom resistance. Keywords: HIV prevalence, risk factors, Myanmar, sex workers, condom

  5. P-odd component of time-reversal symmetry violation. Manifestation in nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchuvil'sky, Yu.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The problem of fundamental symmetries and the effects breaking them is one of the basic challenges of modern physics. There are grounds to assume that the major contributor to these effects is placed beyond the standard model. Nuclear processes are usable tests on T-even P-odd, T-odd P-even, and T-odd P-odd effects. The first type of them is rather well-studied. The possibilities to measure an effect of the second type seem to be poor in the discussed processes. At the same time search for time-reversal P-odd (PT-) symmetry violation offers promise for experimental investigation due to existence of nuclear enhancement effects analogous to T-even P-odd ones. An investigation of the effect in nuclear processes is considered as a promising source of the information which is complementary to that obtained in the framework of K- and B-meson experiments and measurements of the electric dipole moments of elementary particles and atoms. The matter is that the amplitudes specific for PT-symmetry violation in NN-interaction (isovector meson exchange amplitude for example) turn out to be essential or even dominating in the discussed case. In the present talk the results of the analysis of capability of the wide range of experimental schemes are presented. This analysis demonstrates the significant advantage of the scheme based on the measurement of linear polarization of gamma radiation of oriented (by an incident particle, or by a preceding alpha-decay, or by cryogenic means) sample. Indeed, the discussed approach, on the one hand, allows one to remove cumbersome coincident schemes and, on the other hand, the formalism of the approach is usually characterized by a relatively large spin factor in the relation connecting the correlation effect in a nucleus with the elementary amplitude. The estimations demonstrate that in appropriate cases the upper limit to the PT-violation effect of about 10 -3 of the observed P-odd effect in the same nucleus may be obtained. This

  6. Correction the Bias of Odds Ratio resulting from the Misclassification of Exposures in the Study of Environmental Risk Factors of Lung Cancer using Bayesian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inability to measure exact exposure in epidemiological studies is a common problem in many studies, especially cross-sectional studies. Depending on the extent of misclassification, results may be affected. Existing methods for solving this problem require a lot of time and money and it is not practical for some of the exposures. Recently, new methods have been proposed in 1:1 matched case–control studies that have solved these problems to some extent. In the present study we have aimed to extend the existing Bayesian method to adjust for misclassification in matched case–control Studies with 1:2 matching. Methods: Here, the standard Dirichlet prior distribution for a multinomial model was extended to allow the data of exposure–disease (OR parameter to be imported into the model excluding other parameters. Information that exist in literature about association between exposure and disease were used as prior information about OR. In order to correct the misclassification Sensitivity Analysis was accomplished and the results were obtained under three Bayesian Methods. Results: The results of naïve Bayesian model were similar to the classic model. The second Bayesian model by employing prior information about the OR, was heavily affected by these information. The third proposed model provides maximum bias adjustment for the risk of heavy metals, smoking and drug abuse. This model showed that heavy metals are not an important risk factor although raw model (logistic regression Classic detected this exposure as an influencing factor on the incidence of lung cancer. Sensitivity analysis showed that third model is robust regarding to different levels of Sensitivity and Specificity. Conclusion: The present study showed that although in most of exposures the results of the second and third model were similar but the proposed model would be able to correct the misclassification to some extent.

  7. Interpreting the concordance statistic of a logistic regression model: Relation to the variance and odds ratio of a continuous explanatory variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Austin (Peter); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: When outcomes are binary, the c-statistic (equivalent to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve) is a standard measure of the predictive accuracy of a logistic regression model. Methods. An analytical expression was derived under the assumption that a

  8. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    many did not always wear a helmet because they found it inconvenient/uncomfortable. Analysis of trauma registry data showed that helmet wearing was associated with a significant reduction in head injuries among motorcyclists (adjusted odds ratio: 0.472, 95% CI: 0.327-0.684). This study highlights the low prevalence of helmet use and documents the potential reduction in the risk of head injuries to motorcyclists if this risk factor was addressed. The passage of a traffic amendment bill showed negligible impact on helmet use. This highlights the need for a multi-faceted strategy that includes media campaigns and widespread enforcement in addition to legislative change for improving helmet use. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Odds of death after glioblastoma diagnosis in the United States by chemotherapeutic era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Yang, Shengping

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BZM) and temozolomide (TMZ) have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma. We sought evidence for the benefit of BZM in the general patient population at large. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results SEER database was queried for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma between 2000 and 2009, divided into a pre-TMZ era (January 2000–June 2003), a transitional era (July 2003–March 2005), a TMZ era (April 2005–October 2007), and a BZM-TMZ era (November 2007–December 2009). Binomial logit regression analyzed odds of death, taking into account age at diagnosis, tumor size, gender, race, marital status, radiotherapy, and extensive surgery. Compared with the pre-TMZ era, odds of death were decreased in the TMZ era by 12% (97.5% CI [confidence interval] 3–20%) 6 months after diagnosis and 36% (30–42%) a year after diagnosis; corresponding values for BZM-TMZ were 31% (24–37%) and 50% (45–55%). For era comparisons, decreases in odds of death were larger at 12 than 6 months; the opposite was true for extensive surgery and radiotherapy (P < 0.025, Wald χ 2 test, for each analysis). For both 6 and 12 month comparisons, odds of death in the BZM-TMZ era were lower than in the TMZ era (P < 0.025, Wald χ 2 test, for each analysis). The results provide evidence that TMZ positively impacted survival of glioblastoma patients and that the addition of BZM further improved survival, this lends support to the addition of BZM to the chemotherapeutic armamentarium. Evaluation of odds of death is an attractive alternative to Cox regression when proportional hazards assumptions are violated and follow-up is good

  10. The 16-vertex model and its even and odd 8-vertex subcases on the square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Michael

    2017-09-01

    We survey and enlarge the known mappings of the 16-vertex model, with emphasis on mappings between the even and odd 8-vertex subcases of the general model, also giving new mappings between these models, valid on finite toroidal lattices. In particular, we find new mappings between the models by using their algebraic invariants with respect to the SL(2)× SL(2) symmetry of the 16-vertex model; we also find a larger set of weak-graph transformations. We show many examples of models with negative weights which map to models with only positive weights. Using the algebraic invariant relations of the even and odd 8-vertex models, we find the complete set of points in the complex field plane of the square lattice Ising model in a field which map to the even or odd 8-vertex models; these points also correspond to the set of free-fermionic points of the model. We do not find any new integrable points, but we find a new mapping between the odd 8-vertex model and the square lattice Ising model at magnetic field H= iπ/(2β) , valid on finite toroidal lattices. We also show directly through various examples that mappings via algebraic invariants do not fully exhaust the possible mappings a model may have with another model. We construct a new solution to the odd 8-vertex free-fermion model which is valid on the finite lattice, since the previous known solution resulted from a mapping valid only in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we detail for the first time the phase transitions of the column staggered free-fermion 8-vertex model, and show that it can be mapped to the bi-partite staggered free-fermion model.

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejen Gezehegn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used among 400 randomly selected food handlers who were selected as respondents. Data were collected by face to face interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with observational checklist. Fresh stool samples were collected from respondents and were examined microscopically for the presence of any of intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Multivariable logistic regression model using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR and 95% Confidence Interval (CI was fitted to analyze the independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infections. Result The mean age of the food handlers included in this study was 26.0 years. Of the total respondents, 72.5% were females, 63% have completed at least secondary school educational level. Five species of Intestinal Parasites (IPs were identified. The overall prevalence of being infected with at least one intestinal parasite was 14.5%, 95% CI (11.3, 18.0. The odds of being positive for at least one intestinal parasitic infection was 12.3 times higher among food handlers who practice medical checkup every 9 months compared to those who have a medical checkup every 3 months. The odds of being positive for intestinal parasitic infection was 3 times higher among food handlers with no formal education compared to those who have a level of education secondary school and above. Food handlers who

  12. Smoke-free air laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Melanie S; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between smoke-free laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth (aged 3-15 years). We examined data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the US population. Survey locations were dichotomized as having or not having at least 1 smoke-free workplace, restaurant, or bar law at the county or state level that covered the entire county population. Asthma prevalence was assessed as self-reported current asthma and as ever having asthma with current symptoms. Asthmatic symptoms included persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use. We also examined asthma severity (asthma attack or emergency-department visit for asthma) and persistent ear infection. Smoke-free laws were not associated with current asthma but were significantly associated with lower odds of asthmatic symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93]) among nonsmoking youth. The association between smoke-free laws and ever having asthma with current symptoms approached significance (OR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.53-1.03]). Smoke-free laws were associated with lower odds of asthma attacks (OR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.28-1.56]) and emergency-department visits for asthma (OR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.27-1.13]), although these results were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that smoke-free laws reduce asthmatic symptoms, including persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use in nonsmoking youth.

  13. Does migration affect asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema prevalence? Global findings from the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Robertson, Colin F; Ross Anderson, H; Ellwood, Philippa; Williams, Hywel C; Wong, Gary Wk

    2014-12-01

    Immigrants to Westernized countries adopt the prevalence of allergic diseases of native populations, yet no data are available on immigrants to low-income or low-disease prevalence countries. We investigated these questions using data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Standardized questionnaires were completed by 13-14-year-old adolescents and by the parent/guardians of 6-7-year-old children. Questions on the symptom prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, and a wide range of factors postulated to be associated with these conditions, including birth in or not in the country and age at immigration, were asked. Odds ratios for risk of the three diseases according to immigration status were calculated using generalized linear mixed models. These were adjusted for: world region; language and gross national income; and individual risk factors including gender, maternal education, antibiotic and paracetamol use, maternal smoking, and diet. Effect modification by gross national income and by prevalence was examined. There were 326 691 adolescents from 48 countries and 208 523 children from 31 countries. Immigration was associated with a lower prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in both age groups than among those born in the country studied, and this association was mainly confined to high-prevalence/affluent countries. This reduced risk was greater in those who had lived fewer years in the host country. Recent migration to high prevalence/affluent countries is associated with a lower prevalence of allergic diseases. The protective pre-migration environment quickly decreases with increasing time in the host country. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. Effect of insemination site and diameter of the pre-ovulatory follicle on the odds of pregnancy in heifers using sexed or non-sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenhoff, L; Hall, E; Ranjbar Ni, S; House, J K

    2017-09-01

    To determine if insemination site or pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) affects the odds of pregnancy when heifers are inseminated with sexed semen. The study was conducted in 422 Holstein heifers enrolled into 531 inseminations. Inseminations were randomly allocated to 1 of 16 treatment combinations involving three variables: semen type (sexed vs non-sexed), insemination site (uterine horn vs uterine body) and one of four sires. Ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasound prior to FTAI to determine the follicle diameter and location. AI technician, times bred, age, weight and temperature-humidity index were also recorded. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted 29 days post-insemination. Follicle diameter and body weight were categorised according to arbitrary cut-points. Each variable was analysed by logistic regression to determine the effect on pregnancy per AI and compare between sexed and non-sexed inseminations. Insemination site did not affect pregnancy per AI for either sexed (P = 0.528) or non-sexed (P = 0.886) inseminations. Heifers with an 18-22 mm follicle had better odds of pregnancy than heifers that did not (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-2.09), although no effect was detected for only sexed or only non-sexed inseminations. Heifers weighing 310-370 kg had a higher pregnancy per AI than heifers weighing > 370 kg for non-sexed inseminations (P = 0.004) and sexed semen from sire 4 caused lower odds of pregnancy than semen from sire 1 (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.89). Insemination site did not affect pregnancy per AI, but heifers with an 18-22 mm pre-ovulatory follicle at insemination had better odds of pregnancy for both sexed and non-sexed inseminations. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over 500,000 maternities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nove Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years 1988–2000 inclusive, excluding ‘high-risk’ pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions. Results Even after adjustment for known confounders such as parity, the odds of postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml of blood lost are significantly higher if a hospital birth is intended than if a home birth is intended (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.8. The ‘home birth’ group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Conclusions Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand (a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and (b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH. If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women.

  16. The association between immunoglobulin concentrations and prediabetes prevalence in a large Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Song, Yanqi; Sun, Shaomei; Gao, Li; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Gu, Yeqing; Shi, Hongbin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Zhang, Qing; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-08-01

    Prediabetes has received public attention owing to the increasing prevalence worldwide. Mounting evidence has indicated that inflammation directly contributed to the etiology of glucose metabolism disorders. Although immunoglobulins play a crucial role in immune responses, little research has been done on the link between immunoglobulins and prediabetes in adults. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations between immunoglobulins levels and prevalence of prediabetes in a general adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8856 adults (mean±standard deviation age: 48.4±10.7years) in Tianjin, China. The serum immunoglobulins concentrations were measured by the immunonephelometric technique. Prediabetes was diagnosed using the following parameters in accordance with the American Diabetes Association: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The associations between concentrations of immunoglobulins and the prevalence of prediabetes were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Overall, the prevalence of prediabetes was 37.4% (3311/8856). After controlling for confounders, compared with the lowest quintile, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of prediabetes for the highest quintile of immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A) were as follows: 1.06 (0.91-1.23), 1.31 (1.13-1.52), 0.86 (0.74-1.01), and 1.19 (1.03-1.38) (P for trend were 0.35, immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin A levels were independently and positively associated with prediabetes prevalence. There was also a trending association between immunoglobulin M concentrations and prediabetes prevalence. Further studies are necessary to clarify if there is a causal association of immunoglobulins in prediabetes or if they reflect early immunologic disturbances in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for myopia among school children in Aba, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna C. Atowa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of myopia among school children in Aba, Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in public and private (primary and secondary schools. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used for selecting participants aged between 8 and 15 years from 12 schools in Aba, Nigeria. Data were analysed for 1197 children who underwent a comprehensive eye examination. The children were divided according to the following criteria: age groups (group 1 [8–11 years] or group 2 [12–15 years], gender (male or female, level of education (primary or secondary and type of school (public or private. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refraction (SER ≤ -0.50 D in the poorer eye. Results: The prevalence of myopia was estimated to be 2.7%. Of the 96 children with refractive error, 78.1% were uncorrected. In using logistic regression analysis, risk of developing myopia was associated with older age groups (odds ratio [OR]: 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16–9.11; p < 0.010 and higher level of education (OR: 1.73; 95% CI, 1.05–2.86; p < 0.030. There was no significant difference in myopia prevalence between male and female children (p = 0.89. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of myopia and overall prevalence of refractive error in school children in Aba were low, the high prevalence of uncorrected refractive error is a significant public health problem. An effective and sustainable children’s vision screening programme is needed to prevent visual impairment and blindness.

  18. Comparison of prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hospital and community-based Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Hakuei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors, such as an unbalanced diet and lack of physical activity, may affect the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the MetS prevalence between inpatients and outpatients among schizophrenic population in Japan. Methods We recruited inpatients (n = 759 and outpatients (n = 427 with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from 7 psychiatric hospitals using a cross-sectional design. MetS prevalence was assessed using three different definitions, including the adapted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III-A. Results The overall MetS prevalences based on the ATP III-A definition were 15.8% in inpatients and 48.1% in outpatients. In a logistic regression model with age and body mass index as covariates, being a schizophrenic outpatient, compared to being a schizophrenic inpatient, was a significant independent factor (odds ratio = 3.66 for males, 2.48 for females in the development of MetS under the ATP III-A definition. The difference in MetS prevalence between inpatients and outpatients was observed for all age groups in males and for females over 40 years of age. Conclusions Outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Japan had a high prevalence of MetS compared to inpatients. MetS in schizophrenic outpatients should be carefully monitored to minimize the risks. A change of lifestyle might improve MetS in schizophrenic patients.

  19. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-05-30

    Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.

  20. Asthma prevalence and risk factors in early childhood at Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T.B.S. Branco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the commonest and most important chronic non-infectious disease in childhood and it has become more prevalent in recent years. There is a shortage of studies in relation to early childhood and so, as part of the INAIRCHILD project, this cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, namely demographic, environmental, psychosocial and clinical factors for infants and preschoolers living in Northern Portugal. Data concerning asthma prevalence were collected through questionnaires based on those from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC-derived, the questionnaires were distributed to 1042 children attending the 17 nurseries involved in the INAIRCHILD project (10 in urban and suburban context, and 7 in rural context. The response rate was 48%. Prevalence of asthma based on symptomatology and odds ratio was calculated. Around 52% of the studied children presented at least one of the respiratory symptoms investigated (wheeze, dyspnea and cough in the absence of upper respiratory infections. The prevalence of asthma was 10.7%, comparable to the figures for Portuguese schoolchildren (6–7 years old reported by the national Directorate-General of Health, thus showing that an early diagnosis might be possible and helpful for the mitigation of childhood asthma. Environmental context (urban, suburban or rural, gender and family asthma history showed clear associations with asthma prevalence, namely non-rural location, male gender, and having an asthmatic parent were found to be risk factors. Keywords: Asthma, Children, Demographic, Environmental, Psychosocial and clinical risk factors