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Sample records for prevalence increased significantly

  1. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M; Dam-Deisz, W D C; van Roon, A M; Takumi, K; van der Giessen, J W B

    2014-12-15

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk map model predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococcosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed to determine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popular recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humans and to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht. Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nested PCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastricht were analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis. In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43-74%) was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7-18%) in 2005-2006. Average worm burden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistent with the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction on the number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE cases up to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnaires showed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were considered at risk for infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  3. Prevalence Of Asymptomatic Significant Bacteriuria In Schoolgirls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterococcus faecalis was found to be the predominant bacteria cause instead of Escherichia coli as reported in some literature. Girls in the age group 11 – 12 years had the highest prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria. Prevention of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria in schoolgirls rely on strict and proper ...

  4. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  5. Cystic echinococcosis: prevalence and economic significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 at ELFORA export abattoir to determine the prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and economic significance of small ruminant cystic echinococcosis. A total of 850 small ruminants (400 sheep and 450 goats), were examined for the presence of ...

  6. Prevalence of significant bacteriuria among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill). Results: A total of 100 consenting participants were recruited into the study. The mean age was: 23.42 ± 8.31 years and a range of 14‑50 years. Only 9% (9/100) had significant bacteriuria while 44.4% (4/9) ...

  7. Increased prevalence of hypertension in haemophilia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Putte, Dietje E. Fransen; Fischer, Kathelijn; Makris, Michael; Tait, R. Campbell; Collins, Peter W.; Meijer, Karina; Roosendaal, Goris; Chowdary, Pratima; Schutgens, Roger E. G.; Mauser-Bunschoten, Eveline P.

    2012-01-01

    An increased prevalence of hypertension is reported in haemophilia patients, but data from large, unbiased studies are lacking. The aim of our study was to cross-sectionally assess the prevalence of hypertension in a large cohort of 701 haemophilia patients. Blood pressure (BP) measurements

  8. The prevalence and significance of hyperglycemia in hospitalized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Casey C; Callahan-Clark, Julie; Beckel, Nicole F; Walters, Patricia C

    2009-08-01

    To report the prevalence of hyperglycemia in cats admitted to a veterinary hospital and to determine if hyperglycemic cats had increased morbidity and mortality when compared with normoglycemic cats. DESIGN - Retrospective clinical study. Community-based referral hospital. Nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital. None. The medical records of nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. There were 182 cats that met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Information obtained included signalment, length of hospitalization, initial and highest blood glucose measurement, diagnosis, treatment, and final disposition. Sixty-three percent of cats (116/182) were hyperglycemic at the time of presentation. Total incidence of hyperglycemia at any point during hospitalization was 64% (118/182). No association was found between hyperglycemia either initially or at any point during the hospitalization and mortality. However, a significant association was documented between the presence of hyperglycemia and increased length of hospitalization (LOH) (P=0.04). The duration of LOH was also significantly associated with the degree of hyperglycemia (P=0.01). A number of different disease processes were represented in the study population. However, the number of cats in each disease category was small and no association could be found between any of them and blood glucose affecting mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of hyperglycemia in feline patients admitted to a primary referral hospital was 64%. Cats with hyperglycemia had a longer LOH when compared with normoglycemic cats; however, presence of hyperglycemia did not impact mortality in this population of cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2009.

  9. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Soo; Shin, Hayley; Song, Jung Han; Kwak, Soo Heon; Kang, Seon Mee; Won Yoon, Ji; Choi, Sung Hee; Cho, Sung Il; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Hak Chul; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The number of people with metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, and changes in socioenvironmental factors contribute to this increase. Therefore, investigation of changes in metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea, where rapid socioenvironmental changes have occurred in recent years, would be foundational in setting up an effective strategy for reducing this increasing trend. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared the prevalence and pattern of metabolic syndrome ...

  10. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  11. Smoking Prevalence Increases following Canterbury Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Erskine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents’ living, working, and social conditions. Aim. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Methods. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. Results. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41% participants had never smoked, 273 (27% were currently smoking, and 316 (32% were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24% of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2% had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1% had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4% had not changed, and 86 (31.5% had decreased their consumption. 53 (57% of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. Conclusion. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  12. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  13. Increased prevalence of migraine in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Jeroen C.; Timmermans, Janneke; Post, Martijn C.; Budts, Werner; Schepens, Marc A. A. M.; Thijs, Vincent; Schonewille, Wouter J.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Plokker, Herbert W. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A high prevalence of migraine has been described in various forms of congenital heart disease, with and without shunt. In this study we investigated the prevalence of migraine in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). METHODS: All 457 adult patients with MFS from the participating centres

  14. Increased prevalence of migraine in Marfan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Timmermans, J.; Post, M.C.; Budts, W.; Schepens, M.A.; Thijs, V.; Schonewille, W.J.; Bie, R.M. de; Plokker, H.W.M.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A high prevalence of migraine has been described in various forms of congenital heart disease, with and without shunt. In this study we investigated the prevalence of migraine in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). METHODS: All 457 adult patients with MFS from the participating centres

  15. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  16. The prevalence and clinical significance of acanthosis nigricans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.04). AN was more commonly seen in diabetics (p = 0.004). The presence and severity of AN in the neck correlated far better with. BMI and blood glucose than other sites, including the axilla. Conclusion: AN was found to be extremely common, with a prevalence of 30% in this group. An association with blood glucose.

  17. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  19. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS) significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA) to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. PMID:22435642

  20. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  1. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...... tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...

  2. Increased prevalence of Methanosphaera stadtmanae in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Blais Lecours

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is associated with the modulation of mucosal immunity and the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Previous studies focused on the impact of bacterial species on IBD but seldom suspected archaea, which can be a major constituent of intestinal microbiota, to be implicated in the diseases. Recent evidence supports that two main archaeal species found in the digestive system of humans, Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS and Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS can have differential immunogenic properties in lungs of mice; with MSS but not MBS being a strong inducer of the inflammatory response. We thus aimed at documenting the immunogenic potential of MBS and MSS in humans and to explore their association with IBD.To validate the immunogenicity of MBS and MSS in humans, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects were stimulated with these two microorganisms and the production of inflammatory cytokine TNF was measured by ELISA. To verify MBS and MSS prevalence in IBD, stool samples from 29 healthy control subjects and 29 patients suffering from IBD were collected for DNA extraction. Plasma was also collected from these subjects to measure antigen-specific IgGs by ELISA. Quantitative PCR was used for bacteria, methanogens, MBS and MSS quantification.Mononuclear cells stimulated with MSS produced higher concentrations of TNF (39.5 ng/ml compared to MBS stimulation (9.1 ng/ml. Bacterial concentrations and frequency of MBS-containing stools were similar in both groups. However, the number of stool samples positive for the inflammatory archaea MSS was higher in patients than in controls (47% vs 20%. Importantly, only IBD patients developed a significant anti-MSS IgG response.The prevalence of MSS is increased in IBD patients and is associated with an antigen-specific IgG response.

  3. Increasing prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brola, Waldemar; Sobolewski, Piotr; Flaga, Stanisław; Fudala, Małgorzata; Jantarski, Konrad

    Epidemiologic data on multiple sclerosis (MS) in Poland are limited. Our objectives were to assess a mean annual incidence rate, and MS prevalence on December 31, 2015 in the Swietokrzyskie province (central Poland). We analyzed data of 1525 patients, collected in the Polish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. On December 31, 2015, overall crude prevalence of MS was not less than 121.3/100,000 (95% CI, 114.6-128.4). Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in females (167.1; 95% CI, 155.6-179.1) than in males (73.2; 95% CI, 64.2-82.6; PPoland confirmed that central Poland is a high risk area for MS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  4. Increased prevalence of nocturnal smoking in restless legs syndrome (RLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provini, F; Antelmi, E; Vignatelli, L; Zaniboni, A; Naldi, G; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Vetrugno, R; Plazzi, G; Pizza, F; Montagna, P

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of nocturnal smoking (NS) in patients with RLS. One hundred RLS patients living in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) and 100 matched controls, randomly selected from the general population, underwent interviews for the presence of nocturnal smoking and for obsessive-compulsive traits, depression, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and subjective sleep quality. NS was more prevalent in RLS patients than controls (lifetime prevalence: 12% vs. 2%, P=0.012). Patients with NS had more frequently Sleep-Related Eating Disorders (SRED) than patients without NS (83.3% vs. 26.1%, P=0.0002). Pathological and borderline Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) values as well as pathological values at the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) increased from controls to RLS patients without NS to RLS patients with NS (P=0.005 and P=0.01, respectively). We demonstrate an increased prevalence of NS in patients with RLS, in many cases associated with increased SRED. NS may be associated with psychopathological traits in RLS and may be relevant in the management of RLS patients. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pedram

    Full Text Available 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown.to assess 1 the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2 if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3 if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4 if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'.A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire.The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001. Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls.Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  6. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  7. Increasing Prevalence Expectation in Thoracic Radiology Leads to Overcall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Stephen; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Reed, Warren; Pietryzk, Marius; Lewis, Sarah; McEntee, Mark; Brennan, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of prevalence expectation as determined by clinical history on the diagnostic performance of radiologists during pulmonary nodule detection on adult chest radiographs. A multi-observer, counter-balanced study (having half the readers in each group read a different condition initially) was performed to assess the effect of abnormality expectation on experienced radiologists' performance. A total of 33 board-certified radiologists were divided into three groups and searched for evidence of malignancy on a single set of 47 postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs, 10 of which contained a single pulmonary nodule. The radiologists were unaware of disease prevalence. Before each viewing of the same dataset, the radiologists were allocated to two of three conditions based on the differing clinical information (previous cancer, no history, visa applicant). Location sensitivity, specificity, and jack-knife free-response receiver operator characteristics figure of merit were used to compare radiologist performance between conditions. A significant reduction in specificity was shown for the cancer compared to that for the visa condition (W = -41 P = 0.02). No other significant findings were demonstrated for this or the other condition comparisons. No significant difference in the performance of radiologists was noted when viewing images under the same conditions. This study suggested that there is a reduction in specificity with high compared to low prevalence expectation following specific radiological contexts. A reduction in specificity can have important clinical consequences leading to unnecessary interventions. The results and their implications emphasize the caution that should be placed on providing accurate referral criteria. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical significance of DVM and its prevalence in pre-gestational diabetes cases versus normal pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Akhlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-gestational diabetes mellitus affects less than 1% of all pregnancies and is a significant cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. It is hypothesized that impaired placental function, in the form of abnormal placental weight and/or abnormal placental histology, may be responsible for this event in such pregnancies. Delayed villous maturation of placental villi, which is one of the findings associated with pre-gestational diabetes increases the rate of perinatal mortality. There is limited literature regarding the delayed maturation of placental villous. This review included trials (randomized and non-randomized, cohort and case-control studies registered in Medline/PubMed database, from January 2001 to September 2012 that evaluated the clinical significance of delayed villous maturation and its prevalence in pre-gestational diabetic cases compared to normal pregnancies.It emphasizes that further studies with focus on possible clinical or ultrasound markers of placental delayed villous maturation, especially in a high risk-group such as women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus are highly recommended.

  9. Prevalence and prognostic significance of hyponatraemia in outpatients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Louise; Schou, Morten; Videbæk, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Hyponatraemia has been reported to be a potent predictor of poor outcome in patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and prognostic significance of hyponatraemia in a large cohort of HF outpatients followed in clinics participating...... in the Danish Heart Failure Clinics Network....

  10. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Epileptiform EEG Discharges in a Large Memory Clinic Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, M.; Stam, C.J.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Scheltens, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although EEG is not considered as standard in memory clinics, evidence indicates that epileptiform discharges are of value in diagnosing cognitive complaints as epilepsy. Objective: To determine prevalence and significance of epileptiform discharges in a memory clinic. Methods: 1,674

  11. [Increased prevalence of congenital dacryostenosis following cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhli-Hattenbach, Claudia; Lüchtenberg, M; Hofmann, C; Kohnen, T

    2016-08-01

    Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (dacryostenosis) with a persisting membrane at Hasner's valve is the most common cause of persistent tear and ocular discharge in infants. To evaluate whether there is an association between congenital dacryostenosis and delivery via cesarean section. In a prospective study we examined 107 children (mean age 9.2 ± 7.1 months) with congenital dacryostenosis. We evaluated data about the mode of delivery (vaginal delivery versus cesarean section) and gestational age at the time of birth. Within the first 8 months of life children were treated by probing using local anesthesia, whereas older children were treated using general anesthesia. After the age of 11 months treatment included nasolacrimal duct intubation with a bicanalicular stent. Statistical analyses were performed using binomial tests, Fisher's exact test and the t-test. In this study 51 children delivered by cesarean section were compared with 56 children delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery. A total of 44 age-matched pairs from both groups were evaluated in order to eliminate confounding factors due to gestational age at delivery. Based on the published rate of cesarean sections from the same region of the State of Hesse between 2002-2004 we observed a statistically significant association between congenital dacryostenosis and delivery by cesarean section among the 88 age-matched patients (P = 0.009). Moreover, subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between congenital dacryostenosis and delivery by primary cesarean section (P = 0.00004). The prevalence of surgical treatment was not statistically different between both groups based on the mode of delivery (P = 0.8). Our results suggest that delivery via cesarean section is associated with a significantly higher prevalence of congenital dacryostenosis.

  12. Prevalence and clinical significance of extracardiac findings in cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyte, Agne; Valeviciene, Nomeda; Palionis, Darius; Kundrotaite, Simona; Tamosiunas, Algirdas

    2016-09-22

    In cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), incidental pathological findings are frequently found outside the investigated cardiovascular system. Some of these findings might have clinical implications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of incidental extracardiac findings (ECF) in CMR and their clinical significance. A total of 4165 CMR reports from 2009-2012 were retrospectively reviewed for ECF. Two hundred-twenty reports with ECF were found. For each case, we obtained information on sex, age of the patient, reported ECF and radiologist recommendation. Follow-up data were analyzed by reviewing available electronic medical records. ECF was considered clinically significant if there was an associated diagnosis, additional treatment or further investigations in the clinical follow-up data. In total, 356 ECF were recorded in 220 (5.3%) CMR reports. Sixty (23.7%) of the 253 ECF with follow-up data available were clinically significant. The most prevalent ECF were pleural effusions (n=54), kidney cysts (n=54), diffuse lung parenchyma changes (n=33) and liver cysts (n=29). Adrenal pathology (n=3, 100% significant), renal masses (n=3, 100%) and pulmonary masses (n=5, 62.5%) were the most clinically significant ECF. Although prevalence of these ECF was low, they were significant particularly frequently. When radiologist recommendations for further investigation were present in the report, the frequency of clinically significant ECF was higher compared to reports with no further investigation recommended (preported not very commonly (5.3%). A substantial part of ECF was clinically significant, changing patient diagnosis or management, with an overall prevalence of 1.3%. Copyright © 2016 Hellenic Cardiological Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumidonming, Wilawan; Salman, Doaa; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Abdelbaset, Abdelbaset E; Sangkaeo, Khamphon; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Igarashi, Makoto

    2017-01-10

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand.

  14. Increased multiple sclerosis relapses related to lower prevalence of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vinícius Martins da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aims to investigate the presence of pain amongst multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Method One hundred MS patients responded to questionnaires evaluating neuropathic and nociceptive pain, depression and anxiety. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann–Whitney U, Chi-Square and two-tailed Fisher’s exact tests and multivariate logistic regression. Results Women had a statistically higher prevalence of pain (p = 0.037, and chances of having pain after the age of 50 reduced. Women with pain had a statistically significant lower number of relapses (p = 0.003, restricting analysis to those patients with more than one relapse. After the second relapse, each relapse reduced the chance of having pain by 46%. Presence of pain was independent of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS anxiety, and depression. Conclusion Our findings suggest a strong inverse association between relapses and pain indicating a possible protective role of focal inflammation in the control of pain.

  15. Increased prevalence of anellovirus in pediatric patients with fever.

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    Erin McElvania TeKippe

    Full Text Available The Anelloviridae family consists of non-enveloped, circular, single-stranded DNA viruses. Three genera of anellovirus are known to infect humans, named TTV, TTMDV, and TTMV. Although anelloviruses were initially thought to cause non-A-G viral hepatitis, continued research has shown no definitive associations between anellovirus and human disease to date. Using high-throughput sequencing, we investigated the association between anelloviruses and fever in pediatric patients 2-36 months of age. We determined that although anelloviruses were present in a large number of specimens from both febrile and afebrile patients, they were more prevalent in the plasma and nasopharyngeal (NP specimens of febrile patients compared to afebrile controls. Using PCR to detect each of the three species of anellovirus that infect humans, we found that anellovirus species TTV and TTMDV were more prevalent in the plasma and NP specimens of febrile patients compared to afebrile controls. This was not the case for species TTMV which was found in similar percentages of febrile and afebrile patient specimens. Analysis of patient age showed that the percentage of plasma and NP specimens containing anellovirus increased with age until patients were 19-24 months of age, after which the percentage of anellovirus positive patient specimens dropped. This trend was striking for TTV and TTMDV and very modest for TTMV in both plasma and NP specimens. Finally, as the temperature of febrile patients increased, so too did the frequency of TTV and TTMDV detection. Again, TTMV was equally present in both febrile and afebrile patient specimens. Taken together these data indicate that the human anellovirus species TTV and TTMDV are associated with fever in children, while the highly related human anellovirus TTMV has no association with fever.

  16. Increased genetic variance of BMI with a higher prevalence of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rokholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no doubt that the dramatic worldwide increase in obesity prevalence is due to changes in environmental factors. However, twin studies suggest that genetic differences are responsible for the major part of the variation in body mass index (BMI and other measures of body fatness within populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI. METHODS: The data consisted of self-reported height and weight from two Danish twin surveys in 1994 and 2002. A total of 15,017 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were divided into subgroups by year of birth (from 1931 through 1982 and sex. The genetic and environmental variance components of BMI were calculated for each subgroup using the classical twin design. Likewise, the prevalence of obesity, prevalence of overweight and the mean of the BMI distribution was calculated for each subgroup and tested as explanatory variables in a random effects meta-regression model with the square root of the additive genetic variance (equal to the standard deviation as the dependent variable. RESULTS: The size of additive genetic variation was positively and significantly associated with obesity prevalence (p = 0.001 and the mean of the BMI distribution (p = 0.015. The association with prevalence of overweight was positive but not statistically significant (p = 0.177. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the genetic variation in BMI increases as the prevalence of obesity, prevalence of overweight and the BMI mean increases. The findings suggest that the genes related to body fatness are expressed more aggressively under the influence of an obesity-promoting environment.

  17. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acne inversa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sabat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56, and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09 in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001. AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend

  18. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity: are Portuguese adolescents still increasing weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    To report the prevalence and trends of the BMI of Portuguese adolescents in 2002, 2006 and 2010. 4138 boys and 4472 girls self-reported weight, height, physical activity, perception of health and life satisfaction. For adolescents aged 11-13 years, the prevalence of overweight/obesity decreased from 23.5 % in 2002 to 20.7 % in 2010, using IOTF cutoff points, and decreased from 32.4 to 28.4 % between 2002 and 2010 using WHO cutoff points. For adolescents aged 15-17 years, the prevalence increased from 13.9 to 16.8 % between 2002 and 2010 using IOTF cutoff, and increased from 14.8 % in 2002 to 18.2 % in 2010 when using WHO cutoff points. Although the prevalence decreased among younger adolescents and increased among older ones, the differences were not significant. Physical activity in the last 7 days (p obesity prevalence in Portuguese adolescents from 2002 to 2010. However, the prevalence remains high and therefore it is important to continue surveillance.

  19. Prevalence and clinical significance of pleural microbubbles in computed tomography of thoracic empyema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolikov, A.; Smolyakov, R.; Riesenberg, K.; Schlaeffer, F.; Borer, A.; Cherniavsky, E.; Gavriel, A.; Gilad, J.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of pleural microbubbles in thoracic empyema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of 71 consecutive patients with empyema were retrospectively reviewed for relevant demographic, laboratory, microbiological, therapeutic and outcome data. Computed tomography (CT) images were reviewed for various signs of empyema as well as pleural microbubbles. Two patient groups, with and without microbubbles were compared. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 49 years and 72% were males. Microbubbles were detected in 58% of patients. There were no significant differences between patients with and without microbubbles in regard to pleural fluid chemistry. A causative organism was identified in about 75% of cases in both. There was no difference in the rates of pleural thickening and enhancement, increased extra-pleural fat attenuation, air-fluid levels or loculations. Microbubbles were diagnosed after a mean of 7.8 days from admission. Thoracentesis before CT was performed in 90 and 57% of patients with and without microbubbles (p=0.0015), respectively. Patients with microbubbles were more likely to require repeated drainage (65.9 versus 36.7%, p=0.015) and surgical decortication (31.7 versus 6.7%, p=0.011). Mortalities were 9.8 and 6.6% respectively (p=0.53). CONCLUSION: Pleural microbubbles are commonly encountered in CT imaging of empyema but have not been systematically studied to date. Microbubbles may be associated with adverse outcome such as repeated drainage or surgical decortication. The sensitivity and specificity of this finding and its prognostic implications need further assessment

  20. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  1. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for significant liver fibrosis among HIV-monoinfected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Localio Russell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-monoinfected patients may be at risk for significant liver fibrosis, but its prevalence and determinants in these patients are unknown. Since HIV-monoinfected patients do not routinely undergo liver biopsy, we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of significant hepatic fibrosis in this group using the aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected patients negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibody in the Penn Center for AIDS Research Adult/Adolescent Database. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the database at enrollment. Hypothesized determinants of significant fibrosis were modifiable risk factors associated with liver disease progression, hepatic fibrosis, or hepatotoxicity, including immune dysfunction (i.e., CD4 T lymphocyte count 3, HIV viremia, diseases associated with hepatic steatosis (e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, and use of antiretroviral therapy. The primary outcome was an APRI score >1.5, which suggests significant hepatic fibrosis. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent risk factors for significant fibrosis by APRI. Results Among 432 HIV-monoinfected patients enrolled in the CFAR Database between November 1999 and May 2008, significant fibrosis by APRI was identified in 36 (8.3%; 95% CI, 5.9 - 11.4% patients. After controlling for all other hypothesized risk factors as well as active alcohol use and site, detectable HIV viremia (adjusted OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.02 - 8.87 and diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.12 - 10.10 remained associated with significant fibrosis by APRI. Conclusions Significant fibrosis by APRI score was found in 8% of HIV-monoinfected patients. Detectable HIV viremia and diabetes mellitus were associated with significant fibrosis. Future studies should explore mechanisms for fibrosis in HIV-monoinfected patients.

  3. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  4. Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Katie M; Bertelsen, Geir; Cumberland, Phillippa

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether myopia is becoming more common across Europe and explore whether increasing education levels, an important environmental risk factor for myopia, might explain any temporal trend. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of population-based, cross-sectional studies from the European Eye...... a range of median ages from 44 to 78 years. METHODS: Noncycloplegic refraction, year of birth, and highest educational level achieved were obtained for all participants. Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent ≤-0.75 diopters. A random-effects meta-analysis of age-specific myopia prevalence...... was performed, with sequential analyses stratified by year of birth and highest level of educational attainment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variation in age-specific myopia prevalence for differing years of birth and educational level. RESULTS: There was a significant cohort effect for increasing myopia prevalence...

  5. Increased prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in Funen County, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshøj, O; Green, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in Funen County, Denmark as of 1 July 1987 and compare the findings with those of a similar study from 1973. DESIGN: The population was identified by insulin prescriptions collected during a 1 year period. The identity...... of the prescription holders, the diagnosis and the date of diagnosis were verified from medical records and public registers. RESULTS: The estimated degree of ascertainment of the material is 0.95-0.97. The prevalence rates (per 1000 of the population) of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus as of 1 July 1987 are: 4......: There was a significant increase in the prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in Funen County, Denmark from 1973 to 1987. Analysis of the data shows that an important factor for this increase is a liability to start insulin treatment of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus at an earlier stage than...

  6. Increased prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in Funen County, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshøj, O; Green, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1994-01-01

    : There was a significant increase in the prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in Funen County, Denmark from 1973 to 1987. Analysis of the data shows that an important factor for this increase is a liability to start insulin treatment of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus at an earlier stage than......OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus in Funen County, Denmark as of 1 July 1987 and compare the findings with those of a similar study from 1973. DESIGN: The population was identified by insulin prescriptions collected during a 1 year period. The identity...... of the prescription holders, the diagnosis and the date of diagnosis were verified from medical records and public registers. RESULTS: The estimated degree of ascertainment of the material is 0.95-0.97. The prevalence rates (per 1000 of the population) of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus as of 1 July 1987 are: 4...

  7. Increase in the prevalence of rhinitis among Danish children from 1986 to 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, K; Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2007-01-01

    .001). The increase was most pronounced among subjects who suffered from non-allergic rhinitis (p history of asthma and parental atopic disease were...... strong predictors of non-allergic rhinitis, whereas a history of asthma, parental atopic disease, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, eczema, and age at examination were statistically significant predictors of allergic rhinitis. The prevalence of non-allergic rhinitis among Danish children has increased...

  8. [Cardio-hepatic Syndrome in Heart Failure: Prevalence, Pathogenesis and Prognostic Significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobalava, Zh D; Villevalde, S V; Soloveva, A E

    2016-12-01

    In a framework of the concept of organ interactions great attention has been paid during recent years to interaction of the heart and liver. The term cardio-hepatic syndrome (CHS) designates the combination of clinical-laboratory signs of liver dysfunction and acute or chronic cardiac pathology. In this article, we present mechanisms and characteristics of CHS in acute and chronic heart failure (HF), data of large clinical studies and registries on prevalence, associations, and prognostic significance of cardiogenic disturbances of liver function in patients with HF.

  9. Increasing Prevalence of US Elementary School Gardens, but Disparities Reduce Opportunities for Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Eliason, Meghan; Sandoval, Anna; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of school garden programs at US public elementary schools. The study examined time trends, demographic and regional disparities, and associations with related programs such as farm-to-school. Annual surveys were gathered from nationally representative samples of elementary schools between 2006-2007 and 2013-2014. Annual samples ranged from 553 to 748 schools. The prevalence of gardens increased steadily from 11.9% in 2006-2007 to 31.2% in 2013-2014 (p garden programs varied significantly by school characteristics. Gardens were more prevalent in the west than in other regions. Gardens were less prevalent at schools serving higher proportions of lower-income students, and were more prevalent at urban schools than in suburbs, towns, or rural areas. Gardens were more common at schools with farm-to-school programs. Gardens also were associated with offering formal classroom-based nutrition education. Garden programs in elementary schools have increased over time, but there is room for wider implementation, particularly at schools serving lower-income students. Given the role of childhood in establishing food preferences and dietary consumption habits, such programs are important and can reinforce the messages imparted through nutrition education. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  10. A high and increasing HPV prevalence in tonsillar cancers in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnaes, Emilie; Kiss, Katalin; Andersen, Luise

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to explore whether the incidence of tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) increased in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010, and whether human papillomavirus (HPV) could explain the increase, and to assess the association of HPV prevalence with gender, age, and origin (i.e., the certainty...... of tonsillar tumor origin). We applied HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry to all TSCCs registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) and in the Danish Pathology Data Bank (n = 632). Pathologists reviewed and subdivided the tumors into two groups: specified and nonspecified TSCCs....... Approximately 10% of HPV-positive tumors was genotyped by amplicon next-generation sequencing. The overall crude incidence of TSCCs increased significantly (2.7% per year) and was explained by an increasing incidence of HPV-positive TSCCs (4.9% per year). The overall HPV prevalence was 58%, with HPV16 being...

  11. Increased Prevalence of Non-Motor Symptoms in Essential Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Lacerte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cases with essential tremor (ET have been described with Lewy body inclusions, the hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD. Patients with PD may suffer from anosmia, depression, constipation, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD, sometimes years before the appearance of their motor syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of these non‐motor Parkinson's associated symptoms in patients with ET.Methods: Fifty ET subjects were contacted by phone and given questionnaires evaluating the presence or absence of anosmia, depression, constipation, and RBD. Frequencies of these symptoms were compared with their published prevalence in the general population.Results: Of the patients with ET, 4.5% reported having anosmia or hyposmia and 21.7% reported being constipated, similar to what is observed in the general population. Using a screening questionnaire for RBD, 43.5% of ET patients are possibly suffering from RBD, whereas in the general population prevalence is estimated to be 0.5%. Finally, depression was detected in 21.7% of ET patients; in the general population, prevalence is 5%.Discussion: Patients with ET seem to have more RBD and more depression than found in the general population. Prospective studies with normal control groups are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Increased incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Patten, Scott B; Tremlett, Helen; Wolfson, Christina; Leung, Stella; Fisk, John D

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis and multiple sclerosis (MS) share some risk factors, and fumarates are effective disease-modifying therapies for both psoriasis and MS, suggesting a common pathogenesis. However, findings regarding the occurrence of psoriasis in the MS population are inconsistent. We aimed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in the MS population versus a matched cohort from the general population. We used population-based administrative data from the Canadian province of Manitoba to identify 4911 persons with MS and 23,274 age-, sex- and geographically-matched controls aged 20 years and older. We developed case definitions for psoriasis using ICD-9/10 codes and prescription claims. These case definitions were compared to self-reported psoriasis diagnoses. The preferred definition was applied to estimate the incidence and prevalence of psoriasis over the period 1998-2008. We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate the risk of psoriasis in the MS population at the individual level, adjusting for sex, age at the index date, socioeconomic status and physician visits. In 2008, the crude incidence of psoriasis per 100,000 person-years was 466.7 (95%CI: 266.8-758.0) in the MS population, and 221.3 in the matched population (95%CI: 158.1-301.4). The crude prevalence of psoriasis per 100,000 persons was 4666.1 (95%CI: 3985.2-5429.9) in the MS population, and 3313.5 (95%CI: 3057.4-3585.3) in the matched population. The incidence and prevalence of psoriasis rose slightly over time. After adjusting for sex, age at the index date, socioeconomic status and physician visits, the risk of incident psoriasis was 54% higher in the MS population (HR 1.54; 95%CI: 1.07-2.24). Psoriasis incidence and prevalence are higher in the MS population than in the matched population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Prevalence and clinical significance of cathepsin G antibodies in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Favaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of cathepsin G antibodies in patients affected with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma. Methods: 115 patients affected by SSc, 55 (47,8% with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc and 60 (52,2% with limited scleroderma (lSSc, were tested for cathepsin G antibodies by ELISA method. Moreover these sera were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on ethanol and formalin fixed human neutrophils. Results: By means of the ELISA method 16 (13,9% patients were found to be sera positive for anti-cathepsin G, 2 (12.5% of which showed a perinuclear fluorescence pattern (P-ANCA and 4 (25% an atypical ANCA staining, while 10 (62,5% were negative on IIF. The IIF on scleroderma sera revealed 5 (4,3% P-ANCA and 18 (15,7% atypical ANCA patterns. The anti-cathepsin G antibodies significantly prevailed in scleroderma sera (p=0.02 when their frequency was compared with that of healthy controls; while they were not significantly associated to any clinical or serological features of SSc patients. Conclusions: The anti-cathepsin G antibodies were significantly frequent in scleroderma sera; however, no clinical correlations were found. Thus, the significance of their presence in SSc still needs to be clarified.

  14. Prevalence, characterization and clinical significance of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Sarita Nayak, Suman Singh, Soeb Jankhwala, Riddhi Pradhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella peumoniae, a capsulated gram negative bacillus is responsible for causing life threatening infections in humans. Carbapenems are the drug of choice for serious infection caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The emergence of carbapenem resistance has made it extremely difficult to treat such infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: To study the prevalence of carbapenem resistance using ertapenem as a marker and to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae as a mechanism of resistance. Material and Methods: The study included 102 patients from which Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed on miniAPI (Analytical Profile Index, Semiautomated bacterial identification system according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines of 2011. The modified Hodge test was performed for detection of Carbapenemase production. Patient’s clinical and demographic details along with risk factors and co-morbid conditions, type of response to antimicrobial therapy and mortality were collected. Results: The prevalence of carbapenem resistance was found to be 30.41% with 16.6% KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The co-morbid conditions like immunocompromised state (p =0.042, prior antibiotics therapy (p=0.047, previous hospitalization (p =0.021, intensive care unit stay (p=0.047 and use of indwelling devices (p =0.013 were found to be significantly associated with carbapenem resistance. Adverse clinical outcomes (death or worsening among patients infected with ertapenem resistant patients was found to be statistically significant than ertapenem sensitive strains (p =0.008. Conclusions: A high degree of carbapenem resistance in present study is alarming and poses therapeutic dilemmas for clinicians. Initiating timely and appropriate infection control measures along with a

  15. Increase in self-reported migraine prevalence in the Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel

    2012-01-01

    It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark....

  16. Increased Prevalence of Renal and Urinary Tract Anomalies in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Juhi; Gordillo, Roberto; Kaskel, Frederick J.; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Woroniecki, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies in children with congenital hypothyroidism to determine whether further renal and urologic investigations would be of benefit. Study design Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism was obtained from the New York State Congenital Malformation Registry. The occurrence of urinary tract anomalies were calculated for children with congenital hypothyroidism and compared to children without congenital hypothyroidism. In addition we obtained congenital hypothyroidism data from New York State newborn screening, and the cases were matched to Congenital Malformation Registry. Results Analysis of Congenital Malformation Registry data showed 980 children with congenital hypothyroidism and 3 661 585 children without congenital hypothyroidism born in New York State (1992-2005). Children with congenital hypothyroidism have a significantly increased risk of congenital renal and urological anomalies with the odds ratio (OR) of 13.2 (10.6-16.5). The other significantly increased defects in congenital hypothyroidism were cardiac, gastrointestinal, and skeletal. Analysis of matched data confirmed an increase of congenital renal and urologic anomalies with OR of 4.8 (3.7-6.3). Conclusions Children with congenital hypothyroidism have an increased prevalence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies. We suggest that these children should be evaluated for the presence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies with renal ultrasonography, and that further studies of common genes involved in thyroid and kidney development are warranted. PMID:18823909

  17. Increasing prevalence of depression from 2000 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Thielen, Karsten; Bech, Per

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Depression is the leading cause of disability and is projected to become the second highest burden of disease (measured in disability-adjusted life years) by 2020, but only a few studies have examined changes over time in the occurrence of depression. The aim of this study is to provide...... evidence to the hypothesis that the prevalence of depression is rising in the Danish population. We will do that in a longitudinal design among adult Danes by studying the trends from 2000 to 2006 of major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as the distribution across the whole Major Depression Inventory...

  18. Type 1 diabetes prevalence increasing globally and regionally: the role of natural selection and life expectancy at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wen-Peng; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease is increasing worldwide. We aim to test correlation of T1D prevalence to the reduced natural selection measured by Biological State Index (Ibs). Country-specific estimates of T1D prevalence, life expectancy, obesity prevalence rate, urbanization rates, per capita sugars consumption and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained. Ibs and country-specific longevity (e50) increase for each country were self-calculated. These data were then matched to T1D prevalence by country for our ecological study among 118 countries. Countries were also grouped to study the associations in different regions. SPSS V.22 was used for correlation analysis. Worldwide, both Ibs and life expectancy at birth (Ibs proxy) were significantly correlated to T1D prevalence in Pearson r (r=0.713, pGlobally, both life expectancy at birth and Ibs exponentially correlated to T1D prevalence. Pearson correlations generally existed in different country categorizations by geographic region, culture background and economic status. Reduced natural selection may have contributed to the increasing T1D prevalence worldwide. T1D epidemiology study in total population may be the practical solution to identify the causes of increasing T1D prevalence.

  19. Loss of local capture of the pulmonary vein myocardium after antral isolation: prevalence and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squara, Fabien; Liuba, Ioan; Chik, William; Santangeli, Pasquale; Zado, Erica S; Callans, David J; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2015-03-01

    Capture of the myocardial sleeves of the pulmonary veins (PV) during PV pacing is mandatory for assessing exit block after PV isolation (PVI). However, previous studies reported that a significant proportion of PVs failed to demonstrate local capture after PVI. We designed this study to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical significance of loss of PV capture after PVI. Thirty patients (14 redo) undergoing antral PVI were included. Before and after PVI, local PV capture was assessed during circumferential pacing (10 mA/2 milliseconds) with a circular multipolar catheter (CMC), using EGM analysis from each dipole of the CMC and from the ablation catheter placed in ipsilateral PV. Pacing output was varied to optimize identification of sleeve capture. All PVs demonstrated sleeve capture before PVI, but only 81% and 40% after first time and redo PVI, respectively (P capture after PVI (40% sleeve capture, P capture by design was coincident with the development of PV entrance block and importantly predicted absence of acute reconnection during adenosine challenge with 96% positive predictive value (23% negative predictive value). Loss of PV local capture is common after antral PVI resulting in entrance block, and may be used as a specific alternate endpoint for PV electrical isolation. Additionally, loss of PV local capture may identify PVs at very low risk of acute reconnection during adenosine challenge. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prevalence of cerebral cavernous malformations associated with developmental venous anomalies increases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; El-Masri, Ali El-Rida; Wald, John T; Flemming, Kelly D; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that the prevalence of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) associated with developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) increases with age, we studied the age-related prevalence of DVA-associated CCM among patients with DVAs. Patients with DVAs on contrast-enhanced MRI exams performed over a 2-year period were included in this study. A single neuroradiologist reviewed all imaging exams for the presence of CCMs. Baseline demographic data collected included age, gender, presence of CNS neoplasm, history of cranial radiation, and history of seizure. Patients were divided into age groups based on decade of life. Cochran-Armitage trend tests were performed to determine if increasing age was associated with CCM prevalence. A total of 1689 patients with DVAs identified on contrast-enhanced MRI were included. Of these patients, 116 (6.9%) had a cavernous malformation associated with the DVA. There was a significant positive association between age and the prevalence of DVA-associated CCM (P = 0.002). The prevalence of DVA-associated CCM was 0.8% for the 0-10 age group, 1.6% for the 11-20 age group, 7.5% for the 21-30 age group, 9.5% for the 31-40 age group, 6.1% for the 41-50 age group, 6.3% for the 51-60 age group, 7.4% for the 61-70 age group, and 11.6% for the >70 age group (P DVA-associated cavernous malformations among patients with DVAs. These findings suggest that DVA-associated cavernous malformations are acquired lesions.

  1. Prevalence of Mupirocin Resistance Among Staphylococci, its Clinical Significance and Relationship to Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudresh, Manohar Shoorashetty; Ravi, Giriyapur Siddappa; Motagi, Aravind; Alex, Ann Mary; Sandhya, Parthasarathi; Navaneeth, Bangalore Viswanath

    2015-01-01

    Mupirocin competitively inhibits bacterial isoleucyl transfer-RNA synthetase and inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Widespread usage and over the counter availability of the drug has resulted in resistance among Staphylococcus species. This study aimed to determine the overall prevalence of mupirocin resistance among staphylococci. Correlate clinical significance of mupirocin resistance and its relationship to clinical use. Consecutive, nonrepetitive, clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n = 98), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (n = 45) from skin and soft-tissue infections between January 2014 and June 2014 were studied. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Low- and high-level mupirocin resistance was screened by using 5 µg and 200 µg discs respectively and confirmed by agar dilution. Annual consumption of mupirocin was studied and correlated with resistance. High-level mupirocin resistance was found in 8.2% S. aureus and 15.6% of CoNS, while low-level mupirocin resistance was found in 17% S. aureus and 8.9% CoNS. High-level mupirocin resistance was more common in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates when compared with methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (P staphylococci demands the judicious use of the drug in the community.

  2. Prevalence and Significance of Unrecognized Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, Zach; Leader, Avi; Neuman, Yoram; Shlezinger, Meital; Goldenberg, Ilan; Mosseri, Morris; Pereg, David

    2016-02-01

    Unrecognized renal insufficiency, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of unrecognized renal insufficiency in a large unselected population of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The study population consisted of patients with acute coronary syndrome included in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli biennial Surveys during 2000-2013. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: 1) normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rates ≥60 mL/min/1/73 m(2)); 2) unrecognized renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rates renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rates acute coronary syndrome patients. Unrecognized renal insufficiency was present in 2536 (19.8%). Patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency were older and more frequently females. All-cause mortality rates at 1 year were highest among patients with recognized renal insufficiency, followed by patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency, with the lowest mortality rates observed in patients with normal renal function (19.4%, 9.9%, and 3.3%, respectively, P renal insufficiency were less frequently referred for coronary angiography and were less commonly treated with guideline-based cardiovascular medications. Acute coronary syndrome patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency should be considered as a high-risk population. The question of whether this group would benefit from a more aggressive therapeutic approach should still be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Waterpipes and Electronic Cigarettes: Increasing Prevalence and Expanding Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of noncigarette tobacco product use is on the rise across the globe, especially for waterpipes (also known as hookah, narghile, and shisha) and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). The scientific literature reveals that waterpipe tobacco smoking is associated with exposure to a variety of toxicants that can cause short- and long-term adverse health events. In contrast, there is far less evidence of health harms related to e-cigarette use, although the variety of products in this category makes it difficult to generalize. We searched the PubMed database for all publications on waterpipes and e-cigarettes from January 2000 to March 2014. The number of publications on waterpipes rose in a slow, linear pattern during this time, while the number of publications on e-cigarettes showed exponential growth. The different trends suggest there may be more interest in studying a novel nicotine product (the e-cigarette) over a traditional tobacco product (the waterpipe). We posit that, although the specific research needs for these products are different, public health would be served best by a more equitable research approach. Scientists should continue to devote attention to understanding the unknown long-term health effects of e-cigarettes and their potential to serve as harm reduction or smoking cessation tools while simultaneously investigating how to reduce waterpipe smoking given that it exposes users to toxicants known to cause harm to health. Recent regulatory action in the United States, which proposes to include waterpipes and e-cigarettes under some of the same regulations as tobacco cigarettes, makes such research particularly timely. PMID:25338174

  4. Prevalence of osteoporosis increased in postmenopausal women with postural scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2015-12-01

    In post menopausal women with postural scoliosis found a higher incidence of osteoporosis. High endurance of erector spinae muscle lowers the risk of scoliosis. Exercise to improve posture and increase endurance of erector spinae muscle need to be done to prevent decline of BMD.

  5. Significant disparities in allergy prevalence and microbiota between the young people in Finnish and Russian Karelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, L; Paalanen, L; Karkman, A; Laatikainen, T; von Hertzen, L; Vlasoff, T; Markelova, O; Masyuk, V; Auvinen, P; Paulin, L; Alenius, H; Fyhrquist, N; Hanski, I; Mäkelä, M J; Zilber, E; Jousilahti, P; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T

    2017-05-01

    Atopic allergy has been more common among schoolchildren in Finland, as compared to Russian Karelia. These adjacent regions show one of the most contrasting socio-economical differences in the world. We explored changes in allergy from school age to young adulthood from 2003 to 2010/2012 in these two areas. The skin and nasal microbiota were also compared. Randomly selected children from Finnish (n = 98) and Russian Karelia (n = 82) were examined in 2003, when the children were 7-11 years of age, and again in 2010 (Finnish Karelia) and 2012 (Russian Karelia). We analysed self-reported allergy symptoms and sensitization to common allergens by serum sIgE values. The skin (volar forearm) and nasal mucosa microbiota, collected in 2012 (aged 15-20 years), identified from DNA samples, were compared with multivariate methods. Asthma, hay fever, atopic eczema, self-reported rhinitis, as well as atopic sensitization, were threefold to 10-fold more common in Finland, as compared to Russian Karelia. Hay fever and peanut sensitization were almost non-existent in Russia. These patterns remained throughout the 10-year follow-up. Skin microbiota, as well as bacterial and fungal communities in nasal mucosa, was contrastingly different between the populations, best characterized by the diversity and abundance of genus Acinetobacter; more abundant and diverse in Russia. Overall, diversity was significantly higher among Russian subjects (P skin microbiota suggests a potential underlying mechanism. Our results also suggest that high abundance and diversity of Acinetobacter might contribute to the low allergy prevalence in Russia. Implications of early-life exposure to Acinetobacter should be further investigated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence and significance of autoantibodies in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Scott J; Kanji, Kiran; Keshavarzian, Ali; Jensen, Donald M; Jakate, Shriram

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical and histologic correlates of autoantibodies in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) have been identified in patients with NASH. The significance of autoantibodies in NASH is uncertain. Clinical data from patients with a histologic diagnosis of NASH at a university hospital in Chicago, Illinois between January 1999 and April 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Seventy-four patients who were tested for autoantibodies and had no history of alcohol abuse or a systemic autoimmune disease were included. Demographic information and laboratory data were collected. Autoantibody titers > or = 1:40 were considered positive. A single pathologist reviewed all liver biopsies and scored features of NASH and identified characteristics of autoimmune hepatitis. Thirty-four percent of patients with NASH had positive ANA titers and 6% were ASMA positive. Demographic and laboratory parameters did not differ by ANA status, except that women were more frequently ANA positive then men (P = 0.01). The severity of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis on liver biopsy were similar in the ANA positive and negative groups. Only 15% of ANA positive patients with NASH had a plasma cell infiltrate on liver biopsy and there was no difference in the frequency of histologic features of autoimmune hepatitis between ANA positive and negative patients. Antinuclear antibodies are common in patients with NASH and most frequently represent a nonspecific antibody response that is not associated with the pattern or severity of injury on liver biopsy.

  7. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  8. The prevalence and prognostic significance of KRAS mutation subtypes in lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng DF

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Difan Zheng,1,2,* Rui Wang,1,2,* Yang Zhang,1,2 Yunjian Pan,1,2 Xinghua Cheng,3 Chao Cheng,1,2 Shanbo Zheng,1,2 Hang Li,1,2 Ranxia Gong,1,2 Yuan Li,2,4 Xuxia Shen,2,4 Yihua Sun,1,2 Haiquan Chen1–3,51Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 3Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 4Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 5Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: We performed this retrospective study to identify the prevalence of KRAS mutation in Chinese populations and make a comprehensive investigation of the clinicopathological features of KRAS mutation in these patients.Patients and methods: Patients from 2007 to 2013 diagnosed with primary lung adenocarcinoma who received a radical resection were examined for KRAS, EGFR, HER2, BRAF mutations, and ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions. Clinicopathological features, including sex, age, tumor–lymph node–metastasis stage, tumor differentiation, smoking status, histological subtypes, and survival information were analyzed.Result: KRAS mutation was detected in 113 of 1,368 patients. Nine different subtypes of KRAS mutation were identified in codon 12, codon 13, and codon 61. KRAS mutation was more frequently found in male patients and former/current smoker patients. Tumors with KRAS mutation had poorer differentiation. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma predominant and solid predominant subtypes were more frequent in KRAS mutant patients. No statistical significance was found in relapse-free survival or overall survival between patients with KRAS mutation and patients with other mutations.Conclusion: In Chinese populations, we identified KRAS mutation in 8.3% (113/1,368 of the patients with lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS mutation defines a molecular subset of

  9. The prevalence and significance of substance use disorders in bipolar type I and II disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strakowski Stephen M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature examining the epidemiology, outcome, and treatment of patients with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs. Articles for this review were initially selected via a comprehensive Medline search and further studies were obtained from the references in these articles. Given the lack of research in this field, all relevant studies except case reports were included. Prior epidemiological research has consistently shown that substance use disorders (SUDs are extremely common in bipolar I and II disorders. The lifetime prevalence of SUDs is at least 40% in bipolar I patients. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances most often abused, followed by cocaine and then opioids. Research has consistently shown that co-occurring SUDs are correlated with negative effects on illness outcome including more frequent and prolonged affective episodes, decreased compliance with treatment, a lower quality of life, and increased suicidal behavior. Recent research on the causal relationship between the two disorders suggests that a subgroup of bipolar patients may develop a relatively milder form of affective illness that is expressed only after extended exposure to alcohol abuse. There has been very little treatment research specifically targeting this population. Three open label medication trials provide limited evidence that quetiapine, aripiprazole, and lamotrigine may be effective in treating affective and substance use symptoms in bipolar patients with cocaine dependence and that aripiprazole may also be helpful in patients with alcohol use disorders. The two placebo controlled trials to date suggest that valproate given as an adjunct to lithium in bipolar patients with co-occurring alcohol dependence improves both mood and alcohol use symptoms and that lithium treatment in bipolar adolescents improves mood and SUD symptoms. Given the high rate of SUD co

  10. The prevalence and significance of displacement for wilderness recreation management and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid E. Schneider

    2007-01-01

    The concept of visitor displacement has important implications for wilderness management and research. Research on actual displacement of wilderness visitors is extremely limited, but this displacement likely follows patterns found for general recreationists: visitors employ a variety of coping responses and displacement is prevalent. Understanding if and when visitors...

  11. Increasing Prevalence, Changes in Diagnostic Criteria, and Nutritional Risk Factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Yasmin H.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnoses has been increasing for decades, but researchers cannot agree on whether the trend is a result of increased awareness, improved detection, expanding definition, or an actual increase in incidence or a combination of these factors. Though both genetic and multiple environmental risk factors have been studied extensively, many potentially modifiable risk factors including nutritional and immune function related risk factors such as vitamin D, folic acid, and metabolic syndrome have not received sufficient attention. Several recent studies have put forward hypotheses to explain the mechanism of association between both folic acid and vitamin D and autism. A continuous rise in the prevalence of autism in the USA has coincided with a significant enhancement of maternal folate status with FDA mandated folic acid fortification of certain foods starting in 1998. There is also a growing body of research that suggests that vitamin D status either in utero or early in life may be a risk for autism. In this communication, controversies regarding increase in estimate of prevalence, implications of changes in definition, and possible association between some modifiable nutritional risk factors such as folic acid and vitamin D and ASD will be discussed. PMID:24967269

  12. Increased prevalence of fall risk factors in older people following hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrington, C; Lord, S R

    1998-01-01

    Many people who suffer a hip fracture do not achieve full functional recovery. Simple tests of physical function such as quadriceps strength and postural sway may provide insight into why this population is at increased risk of experiencing further falls and fractures and assist in developing rehabilitation strategies for preventing falls. To determine whether impairments in a range of physiological measures and specific medical conditions are more prevalent in people who have suffered a fall-related hip fracture than in a matched sample of community-dwelling people without a history of falls. This case-control study involved 88 older people. The hip fracture group comprised 44 persons aged 64-94 years, assessed on average 7 months following a fall-related hip fracture. An age- and sex-matched control group (older persons who had not fallen in a 12-month period before recruitment) was drawn randomly from community samples. Compared with the control group, the hip fracture group had markedly reduced quadriceps strength and increased body sway when tested on firm and compliant (foam rubber) surfaces. Patients in the hip fracture group also had higher prevalence rates of poor vision, arthritis and stroke, were taking more medications, were less physically active and perceived themselves to be at greater risk of falling than the control group. No significant differences were apparent for cardiovascular conditions, subjective health status and psychoactive medication use between the groups. Multivariate analyses identified quadriceps strength and body sway on the compliant surface as the most important variables for distinguishing between the hip fracture and no hip fracture groups. These two variables correctly classified 92% of the cases, with equal sensitivity and specificity. The findings identify an increased prevalence of certain physical fall risk factors among older persons who have suffered a hip fracture. Decreased quadriceps strength and increased postural

  13. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wu, Lei; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying; He, Yao

    2013-01-01

    The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year's change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female) in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female) in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%-52.4%) in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%-60.2%) in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year's period (psyndrome was more common in female than male in both survey years. Among the five components, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C had increased most, with an increase of 14.8% (from 29.4% to 44.2%) and 9.9% (from 28.3% to 38.2%) respectively. The adjusted ORs of MetS for CHD, stroke and CVD were 1.67(95%CI: 1.39-1.99), 1.50(95%CI: 1.19-1.88) and 1.70(95%CI: 1.43-2.01) respectively in 2001, and were 1.74(95%CI: 1.40-2.17), 1.25(95%CI: 0.95-1.63) and 1.52(95%CI: 1.25-1.86) respectively in 2010. The prevalence of MetS is high and increasing rapidly in this Chinese elderly population. Participants with Mets and its individual components are at significantly elevated ORs for CVD. Urgent public health actions are needed to control MetS and its components, especially for dislipidemia.

  14. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Liu

    Full Text Available The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year's change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010.We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition.A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%-52.4% in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%-60.2% in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year's period (p<0.001. The syndrome was more common in female than male in both survey years. Among the five components, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C had increased most, with an increase of 14.8% (from 29.4% to 44.2% and 9.9% (from 28.3% to 38.2% respectively. The adjusted ORs of MetS for CHD, stroke and CVD were 1.67(95%CI: 1.39-1.99, 1.50(95%CI: 1.19-1.88 and 1.70(95%CI: 1.43-2.01 respectively in 2001, and were 1.74(95%CI: 1.40-2.17, 1.25(95%CI: 0.95-1.63 and 1.52(95%CI: 1.25-1.86 respectively in 2010.The prevalence of MetS is high and increasing rapidly in this Chinese elderly population. Participants with Mets and its individual components are at significantly elevated ORs for CVD. Urgent public health actions are needed to control MetS and its components, especially for dislipidemia.

  15. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    has been suggested as part of HIV prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, and to compare the result with data on symptoms from the lower abdomen, sexual habits and immune status. 234 women......, recruited from Danish HIV centres as part of a larger observational study on aspects of living with HIV as a woman (the SHADE study), were included. RESULTS: We tested cervical samples for M. genitalium by specific PCR. We found three samples positive (1.3%). The women were between 30 and 50 years old, all...... were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does...

  16. Increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a developing country and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animaw, Worku; Seyoum, Yeshaneh

    2017-01-01

    All countries, irrespective of their developmental stage, face an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including diabetes mellitus. There is substantial evidence of the existence of the gap in the level of diabetes mellitus and its complications prevention and control measures in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in urban and rural dwellers in a low-income country from both younger and older population and to identify factors related. This is a community based comparative cross-sectional study conducted in a low-income country, Ethiopia. The sample size was determined by EPI-Info for two populations; the WHO's STEP-wise approach for non-communicable diseases surveillance in developing countries was employed for sampling, study variable selection and data collection procedures. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured by finger pricking after overnight fasting. Data entry was done by EPI-data computer program version 3.1 and then processed by SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to assess the associations between diabetes status of individuals and its potential predictor variables. P-value prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 3.3%; while it was 2.0% for rural and (4.6%) for urban dwellers. Both the mean blood glucose level and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were significantly higher for urban residents than rural. More than three-fourths of diabetic cases were newly diagnosed by this study. Urban dwellers, centrally obese, overweight, and hypertensive individuals have higher odds of getting diabetes mellitus. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus involving both old and young population was documented. Most diabetic cases were suddenly diagnosed during this survey. The problem is noticeably alarming, attention should be given to the control and prevention of diabetes mellitus and related complications.

  17. Increasing land use drives changes in plant phylogenetic diversity and prevalence of specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Villalobos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased human land use has resulted in the increased homogenization of biodiversity between sites, yet we lack sufficient indicators to predict which species decline and the consequence of their potential loss on ecosystem services. We used comparative phylogenetic analysis to (1 characterize how increasing conversion of forest and grasslands to grazing pasturelands changes plant diversity and composition; (2 examine how changes in land use relate to declines in functional trait diversity; and (3 specifically investigate how these changes in plant composition affect the prevalence of zygomorphy and the possible consequences that these changes may have on pollinator functional groups. As predicted, we found that the conversion to grazing pasturelands negatively impacted species richness and phylogenetic composition. Clades with significantly more represented taxa in grasslands (GL were genera with a high representation of agricultural weeds, while the composition was biased towards clades of subalpine herbaceous wildflowers in Mixed Forest (MF. Changes in community composition and structure had strong effects on the prevalence of zygomorphic species likely driven by nitrogen-fixing abilities of certain clades with zygomorphic flowers (e.g., Fabaceae. Land conversion can thus have unexpected impacts on trait distributions relevant for the functioning of the community in other capacities (e.g., cascading effects to other trophic levels (i.e., pollinators. Finally, the combination of traits represented by the current composition of species in GL and MF might enhance the diagnostic value of productivity and ecosystem processes in the most eroded ecosystems.

  18. Increasing prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A in Greece: estimating epidemic history and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Sypsa, Vana; Paparizos, Vassilios; Lazanas, Marios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Panos, Georgios; Chrysos, Georgios; Sambatakou, Helen; Karafoulidou, Anastasia; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Kordossis, Theodoros; Koratzanis, Georgios; Theodoridou, Maria; Daikos, Georgios L; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Pybus, Oliver G; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2007-10-15

    In North America and Europe, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection has typically been dominated by subtype B transmission. More recently, however, non-B subtypes have been increasingly reported in Europe. We analyzed 1158 HIV-1-infected individuals in Greece by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of protease and partial reverse-transcriptase regions. We found that the prevalence of non-B subtypes has increased over time and that this significant trend can be mainly attributed to subtype A, which eventually surpassed subtype B in prevalence in 2004 (42% and 33%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the year of HIV diagnosis was independently associated with subtype A infection (odds ratio for being infected with subtype A for a 10-year increase in the time period of diagnosis, 2.09 [95% confidence interval, 1.36-3.24]; PGreece is the result of a single founder event. The date of the most recent common ancestor of the subtype A in Greece was estimated to be 1977.9 (95% highest posterior density interval, 1973.7-1981.9). Subtype A circulates among the long-term residents of Greece. This is in contrast to the situation in most European countries, in which infection with non-B genetic forms is associated either with being an immigrant or heterosexual or with intravenous drug use.

  19. Increasing land use drives changes in plant phylogenetic diversity and prevalence of specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Soraya; Vamosi, Jana C

    2016-01-01

    Increased human land use has resulted in the increased homogenization of biodiversity between sites, yet we lack sufficient indicators to predict which species decline and the consequence of their potential loss on ecosystem services. We used comparative phylogenetic analysis to (1) characterize how increasing conversion of forest and grasslands to grazing pasturelands changes plant diversity and composition; (2) examine how changes in land use relate to declines in functional trait diversity; and (3) specifically investigate how these changes in plant composition affect the prevalence of zygomorphy and the possible consequences that these changes may have on pollinator functional groups. As predicted, we found that the conversion to grazing pasturelands negatively impacted species richness and phylogenetic composition. Clades with significantly more represented taxa in grasslands (GL) were genera with a high representation of agricultural weeds, while the composition was biased towards clades of subalpine herbaceous wildflowers in Mixed Forest (MF). Changes in community composition and structure had strong effects on the prevalence of zygomorphic species likely driven by nitrogen-fixing abilities of certain clades with zygomorphic flowers (e.g., Fabaceae). Land conversion can thus have unexpected impacts on trait distributions relevant for the functioning of the community in other capacities (e.g., cascading effects to other trophic levels (i.e., pollinators). Finally, the combination of traits represented by the current composition of species in GL and MF might enhance the diagnostic value of productivity and ecosystem processes in the most eroded ecosystems.

  20. Cost of wound treatment to increase significantly in Denmark over the next decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Anne Mette; Gottrup, F

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate that changes in demography, life expectancy and incidence of background diseases (including type 2 diabetes mellitus) during the period 2009-2020 will significantly increase the costs of wound care in Denmark.......To demonstrate that changes in demography, life expectancy and incidence of background diseases (including type 2 diabetes mellitus) during the period 2009-2020 will significantly increase the costs of wound care in Denmark....

  1. Inferior right hepatic veins: MR assessment of prevalence and potential clinical significance in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Y.Y.; Finn, J.P.; Hall-Craggs, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of Inferior Right Hepatic Veins (IRHVs) in 82 children who had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen was assessed. IRHVs larger than or equal in size to the Superior Right Hepatic Vein were found in 23% (19/82). In two patients with radiological evidence of Superior Hepatic Venous occlusion and without radiological evidence of portal hypertension, venous drainage was accomplished via large IRHVs. The findings suggest that, in children, IRHVs may act as efficient collaterals and help protect the liver from the consequences of high IVC obstruction. (orig.)

  2. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans Ole; Vestergaard, Therese Risom

    2010-01-01

    in the prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature children could be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous......(-4) in 1% of newborns (i.e. 100-fold their risk of t(12;21)-positive ALL), but only at levels of 10(-5) to 10(-6) in 0.5% adults. As the risk of developing ALL is inversely associated to the gestational age at birth, we investigated if this increased risk could be explained by an increase in prevalence...

  4. Increased waist circumference is associated with an increased prevalence of mood disorders and depressive symptoms in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R O; Marca, K F; Appolinario, J C; Coutinho, W F

    2007-03-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that obese patients may be more prone to develop certain psychiatric diseases, especially mood disorders. However, no studies have already determined which indicator of fat distribution best explains these comorbidities. The aim of this study is to investigate which anthropometric indicator of overweight (i.e. body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] or waist/hip ratio [WHR]) best correlates with the presence of current mood disorders and the severity of depressive symptoms in obese women. Two hundred seventeen (217) obese women (BMI> or =30 kg/m2) between 18 and 75 years old were selected to participate in the study. All participants had anthropometrical data registered. The diagnosis of current mood disorders was assessed according to the Portuguese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [SCID]. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A statistically significant association was found between BDI scores and BMI (r=0.16; p=0.018) and WC (r=0.20; p=0.004), but not WHR (r=0.10; p=0.15) or any socio-demographic variable. An increased prevalence of mood disorders was observed in the fourth quartile of WC, but not BMI or WHR, in comparison with the first and the second ones (pdepressive symptoms and the prevalence of current mood disorders in obese women. Waist circumference, and not BMI or WHR, seems to be the anthropometric indicator of overweight and fat distribution that best explains these findings.

  5. Increase in sexual risk behavior and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among adolescents in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sara J; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Papp, John; Kilmarx, Peter H; Markowitz, Lauri E; Tappero, Jordan W; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Uthaivoravit, Wat; van Griensven, Frits

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring changes in adolescent sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus and other prevention programs, but population-based data on adolescents in Thailand are limited. We report findings from 2 cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999 and 2002 among 15-to 21-year-old vocational students. In 1999 and 2002, 1725 and 966 students, respectively, were interviewed using computer-assisted self-interview methods. Urine samples were collected and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by polymerase chain reaction. From 1999 to 2002 C. trachomatis prevalence increased from 3.2% to 7.5% (P partners among both men (3.4-4.7, P = 0.01) and women (2.5-3.3, P partners among men (1.1-2.1, P use decreased significantly among women with casual partners (43%-19%, P = 0.03) but not among men (25%-31%, P = 0.31). Our study identified important increases in the prevalence of chlamydial infection and in sexual risk behaviors among Thai adolescents over a 3-year period. These findings are consistent with other studies suggesting profound social changes are changing norms of adolescent sexual behavior in Thailand, and highlight the need for adolescent sexual health services and prevention programming.

  6. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth.

  7. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  8. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  10. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization among dialysis patients: a meta-analysis of prevalence, risk factors, and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Rice, Louis B; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become important nosocomial pathogens causing outbreaks worldwide. Patients undergoing dialysis represent a vulnerable population due to their comorbid conditions, frequent use of antibacterial agents, and frequent contact with health care settings. Systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of screening for VRE colonization. Patients receiving long-term dialysis treatment. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify studies performing screening for VRE colonization among dialysis patients. Region, recent use of vancomycin or other antibiotics, previous hospitalization. (1) VRE colonization and (2) rate of VRE infection among colonized and noncolonized individuals. Relative effects were expressed as ORs and 95% CIs. We identified 23 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria and provided data for 4,842 dialysis patients from 100 dialysis centers. The pooled prevalence of VRE colonization was 6.2% (95% CI, 2.8%-10.8%), with significant variability between centers. The corresponding number for North American centers was 5.2% (95% CI, 2.8%-8.2%). Recent use of any antibiotic (OR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.22-10.75), particularly vancomycin (OR, 5.15; 95% CI, 1.56-17.02), but also use of antibiotics other than vancomycin (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 0.99-8.55) and recent hospitalization (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 1.93-10.74) significantly increased the possibility of a VRE-positive surveillance culture. Colonized patients had a significantly higher risk of VRE infection (OR, 21.62; 95% CI, 5.33-87.69) than their noncolonized counterparts. In 19 of 23 studies, a low percentage of dialysis patients (vancomycin, and recent hospitalization are important predicting factors of colonization, whereas the risk of VRE infection is significantly higher for colonized patients. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy Increase Prevalence and/or Progression of Neuromuscular Scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kevin R; Novotny, Susan A; Krach, Linda E

    2017-11-01

    Retrospective, case-matched review. Compare a group of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) who had intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pumps to a group of individuals with CP who did not have ITB pumps in order to determine if there was a difference in the prevalence of new-onset neuromuscular scoliosis, an increased rate of progression of preexisting neuromuscular scoliosis, or an increased rate of posterior spine fusion surgery in skeletally immature individuals with CP who had ITB pumps. Various authors report conflicting findings, with some reporting an increased incidence or prevalence of scoliosis in individuals with CP who have ITB pumps whereas others report no difference in the rate of scoliosis between groups. Retrospective chart and radiographic case-matched study in which individuals were matched by gender and Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) level. We found no difference in the rates of new-onset neuromuscular scoliosis for those with CP and ITB pumps and those without ITB pumps. However, we did see a higher rate of progression as well as an increased rate of posterior spine fusion surgery in individuals with CP who had ITB pumps than for those with CP who did not have an ITB pump. We continue to recommend ITB pump therapy for individuals with severe spasticity associated with CP (GMFCS IV and V). There is a significant risk of complications for individuals in general. The risk of neuromuscular scoliosis is relatively high in this population. Our findings suggest that individuals with CP who have ITB pumps and who do or do not have preexisting scoliosis should be monitored closely for either developing new neuromuscular scoliosis or progression of preexisting scoliosis. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A possible cause of epistaxis: increased masked hypertension prevalence in patients with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Baran; Yavuz, Bunyamin; Yıldız, Erdem; Ozkan, Selcuk; Ayturk, Mehmet; Sen, Omer; Deveci, Onur Sinan

    Epistaxis and hypertension are frequent conditions in the adult population. Masked hypertension is defined as a clinical condition in which a patient's office blood pressure level is epistaxis. The prevalence of this condition in patients with epistaxis is not well defined. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of masked hypertension using the results of office blood pressure measurement compared with the results of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Sixty patients with epistaxis and 60 control subjects were enrolled in the study. All patients with epistaxis and controls without history of hypertension underwent physical examination, including office blood pressure measurement, ambulatory or home blood pressure, and measurement of anthropometric parameters. Mean age was similar between the epistaxis group and the controls - 21-68 years (mean 42.9) for the epistaxis group and 18-71 years (mean 42.2) for the control group. A total of 20 patients (33.3%) in the epistaxis group and 7 patients (11.7%) in the control group (p=0.004) had masked hypertension. Night-time systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in patients with epistaxis than in the control group (pepistaxis (p=0.517). This study demonstrates increased masked hypertension prevalence in patients with epistaxis. We suggest that all patients with epistaxis should undergo ambulatory or home blood pressure to detect masked hypertension, which could be a possible cause of epistaxis. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population: Forensic identification significance of a rare trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental techniques are frequently used in human identification; some of those include comparative analyses of dental features that, being rare or unique to an individual, can establish a positive identification. The usefulness of each feature depends on its population, frequency, and uniqueness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed. Three hundred and two patients were studied, and talon cusps presence was assessed. Statistical tests were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Statistical analysis relied primarily on descriptive statistics and crosstabs, with Chi-square analysis. Results: Results showed that talon cusps were observed in only 6.3% of patients. The maxillary lateral incisors were the most common teeth showing this feature (82.1% of all teeth. Conclusion: It can be concluded that talon cusps are an uncommon trait in these Portuguese population, and therefore, it is a feature that can be potentially very useful in forensic human identification, when antemortem dental records are available.

  14. Prevalence and clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies in Iranian women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molazadeh, Morteza; Karimzadeh, Hadi; Azizi, Mohammad R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in women with recurrent miscarriage have been reported. The presence of moderate to high titers of these antibodies represents an autoimmune condition that can endanger the health of the fetus in pregnant women. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of ANAs in Iranian women with a history of two or more unexplained abortion. Materials and Methods: 560 women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage and 560 healthy controls accounted for this study over a period of 13 months. ANAs were detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique. Results: ANAs were detected in 74 of 560 (13.21%) patient with recurrent miscarriage, and in only 5 of 560 (0.9%) controls (p1.640) were seen in about 46% and 16% of cases respectively. Finally evaluating of microscopic ANA patterns revealed that about half of positive cases had antibodies against DNA- histone complex, associated with systemic lupus erythematosus disease. Conclusion: Antinuclear antibodies are not uncommon in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, suggesting the possible role of an autoimmune disorder on abortion, at least in a subgroup of patients. PMID:24799884

  15. Celiac disease prevalence is not increased in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LASA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Previous evidence trying to assess the risk of celiac disease among dyspeptic patients has been inconclusive, showing in some cases notorious discrepancies. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with dyspepsia compared to healthy controls without dyspepsia. METHODS Adult patients under evaluation for dyspepsia were invited to participate. These patients were offered an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies. On the other hand, asymptomatic adult volunteers who performed a preventive visit to their primary care physician were invited to participate and agreed to undertake an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies as well. Those patients with histologic signs of villous atrophy were furtherly evaluated and serological tests were performed in order to determine celiac disease diagnosis. Celiac disease prevalence was compared between groups. RESULTS Overall, 320 patients with dyspepsia and 320 healthy controls were recruited. There were no significant differences in terms of gender or age between groups. Celiac disease diagnosis was made in 1.25% (4/320 of patients in the dyspepsia group versus 0.62% (2/320 in the control group. CONCLUSION Patients with dyspepsia who underwent routine duodenal biopsies did not show an increased risk for celiac disease when compared to healthy individuals.

  16. A prospective echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients in the United States: prevalence and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudha Ramasubbu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kumudha Ramasubbu1, Anita Deswal1, Cheryl Herdejurgen2, David Aguilar1, Adaani E Frost21Section of Cardiology, Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA; 2Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USABackground: Pulmonary hypertension (PH, a disease which carries substantial morbidity and mortality, has been reported to occur in 25%–45% of dialysis patients. No prospective evaluation of the prevalence or clinical significance of PH in chronic dialysis patients in the United States (US has been undertaken.Methods: Echocardiograms were performed prospectively in chronic hemodialysis patients prior to dialysis at a single dialysis center. PH was defined as a tricuspid regurgitant jet ≥2.5 m/s and “more severe PH” as ≥3.0 m/s. Clinical outcomes recovered were all-cause hospitalizations and death at 12 months.Results: In a cohort of 90 patients, 42 patients (47% met the definition of PH. Of those, 18 patients (20% met the definition of more severe PH. At 12 months, mortality was significantly higher in patients with PH (26% compared with patients without PH (6%. All-cause hospitalizations were similar in patients with PH and without PH. Echocardiographic findings suggesting impaired left ventricular function and elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were significantly associated with PH.Conclusion: This prospective cross-sectional study of a single dialysis unit suggests that PH may be present in nearly half of US dialysis patients and when present is associated with increased mortality. Echocardiographic findings demonstrate an association between elevated filling pressures, elevated pulmonary artery pressures, and higher mortality, suggesting that the PH may be secondary to diastolic dysfunction and compounded by volume overload.Keywords: renal failure, pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction

  17. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stalder

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis, a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus. In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus, 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius. In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI of 22.6-32.2%, but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7% in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2 were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9% of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0% in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8. Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6–32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1–63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1–55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0–99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1–297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  19. Hypothesis: Urbanization and exposure to urban heat islands contribute to increasing prevalence of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S; Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Various etiologies may in part explain this observation including increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, increased dietary protein and salt content, and decreased dietary dairy products. We hypothesize an additional and novel potential contributor to increasing kidney stone prevalence: migration to urban settings, or urbanization, and resultant exposure of the population to the higher temperatures of urban heat islands (UHIs). Both urbanization and exposure to UHIs are worldwide, continuous trends. Because the difference in temperature between rural and urban settings is greater than the increase in temperature caused by global warming, the potential effect of urbanization on stone prevalence may be of greater magnitude. However, demonstration of a convincing link between urbanization and kidney stones is confounded by many variables simultaneously affected by migration to cities, such as changes in occupation, income, and diet. No data have yet been published supporting this proposed association. We explore the plausibility and limitations of this possible etiology of increasing kidney stone prevalence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Urban Growth Causes Significant increase in Extreme Rainfall - A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    World's urban centers are growing rapidly causing the impact of extreme rainfall events felt much more severely due to relatively well unerstood phenomena like decreased infiltration and flow resistance. However, an increasing set of evidence (e.g. heavy rainfall event observed at Nerima, central part of Tokyo metropolitan area, on 21 July 1999) suggest that the extreme rainfall, the driving force itself increases as a result of the microclimatic changes due to urban growth. Urban heat islands(UHI) due to heat anomalies of urban sprawl act as virtual mountains resulting in a local atmosphere more conducive for heavy rainfall. In this study, we employ a popular mesoscale atmoshperic model to numerically simulate the UHI induced rainfall enhancement. Initial idealized experiments conducted under trophical atmospheric conditions indicated that the changes in landuse due to significant urban growth will indeed cause more intense rainfall events. This is largely due to increased convective breakup, causing a favourable situation for convective cloud systems. Five historical heavy rainfall events that caused floods in five urban centres (Dhaka, Mumbai, Colombo, Lyon and Taipei) were selected from historical records. Numerical simulations were setup to assertain what would be the amount of rainfall if the same large-scale atmospheric situations (forcings) occured under a hypothetical situation of doubled urbanization level these events. Significant increases (upto 50%) of extreme rainfall was indicated for many of the events. Under major assumptions, these simulations were used to estimate the anticipated changes in the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF). The magnitude of the 30min event with 25 year return period increased by about 20 percent. Without considering any changes in the external forcing the urban growth alone could cause very significant increase in local rainfall.

  1. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  2. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed serologic screening for celiac disease in 188 infertile women (ages 25–39). While we did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of celiac disease in our overall infertile female population, we were able to detect a significantly increased prevalence (5.9%) of undiagnosed celiac disease among women presenting with unexplained infertility (n=51). Our findings suggest the importance of screening infertile female patients, particularly those with unexplained infertility, for celiac disease. PMID:21682114

  3. Significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity documented between 1994 and 2008 in Mexican college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcala, H; Cuevas-Ramos, D; Genestier-Tamborero, Ch; Hirales-Tamez, O; Almeda-Valdés, P; Mehta, R; Aguilar-Salinas, CA

    2010-01-01

    We describe the changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 4606 students that applied to a Mexican University during 1994 to 2008. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) age was 17.7 ± 1.2 years-old. Progressive and significant increments of bodyweight (female [F] = 2.6, P = 0.03), body mass index (BMI) (F = 4.4, P = 0.001), and waist circumference (F = 30.08, P < 0.0001) in women, and bodyweight (male [M] = 8.9, P < 0.001), BMI (M = 10.4, P < 0.001), and waist circumference (M = 13.01, P < 0.001) in men were observed. A significant increment (P < 0.05) in the prevalence of overweight since 1994 (n = 87, 12.1%) throughout 1997 (n = 102, 14.1%), 1998 (n = 133, 18.4%), 1999 (n = 1993, 26.8%), and 2008 (n = 206, 19.9%) was documented. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity had a significant increment in all students evaluated (P < 0.0001) since 1994 (n = 29, 13.2%) through 1997 (n = 11, 5.0%), 1998 (n = 45, 20.5%), 1999 (n = 53, 24.1%), and 2008 (n = 82, 37.3%). The increment was significant in both women (P = 0.02) and men (P < 0.001). In summary, we report a significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican students living in an urban setting over a time period of 14 years. PMID:21437078

  4. Types, Prevalence, and Potential Clinical Significance of Medication Administration Errors in Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M.; Gray, Shelly L.; McCormick, Wayne C.; Sikma, Suzanne K.; Reinhard, Susan; Trippett, Linda Johnson; Christlieb, Carol; Allen, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the types and potential clinical significance of medication administration errors in assisted living (AL). DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING This study was conducted in 12 AL settings in three states (Oregon, Washington, and New Jersey). PARTICIPANTS Participants included 29 unlicensed assistive personnel and 510 AL residents. MEASUREMENTS Medication administration observations, chart review, and determination of rates, types, and potential clinical significance of errors using standardized methodology. RESULTS Of 4,866 observations, 1,373 errors were observed (28.2% error rate). Of these, 70.8% were wrong time, 12.9% wrong dose, 11.1% omitted dose, 3.5% extra dose, 1.5% unauthorized drug, and 0.2% wrong drug. Excluding wrong time, the overall error rate dropped to 8.2%. Of the 1,373 errors, three were rated as having potential clinical significance. CONCLUSION A high number of daily medications are given in AL. Wrong time accounted for the majority of the errors. The bulk of the medications are low risk and routine; to promote optimal care delivery, clinicians need to focus on high-risk medications and residents with complex health problems. PMID:18482296

  5. Introducing extra NADPH consumption ability significantly increases the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Fuliang; Meng, Hengkai; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai – the highest mountain over the North China Plain – during 2003–2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr−1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr−1 for the July–August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3 with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980–2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs. An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  7. The increased prevalence of cervical spondylosis in patients with adult thoracolumbar spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, William W; Carrer, Alexandra; Lu, Michael; Hu, Serena S

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective cohort study. To assess the concomitance of cervical spondylosis and thoracolumbar spinal deformity. Patients with degenerative cervical spine disease have higher rates of degeneration in the lumbar spine. In addition, degenerative cervical spine changes have been observed in adult patients with thoracolumbar spinal deformities. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies quantifying the association between cervical spondylosis and thoracolumbar spinal deformity in adult patients. Patients seen by a spine surgeon or spine specialist at a single institution were assessed for cervical spondylosis and/or thoracolumbar spinal deformity using an administrative claims database. Spinal radiographic utilization and surgical intervention were used to infer severity of spinal disease. The relative prevalence of each spinal diagnosis was assessed in patients with and without the other diagnosis. A total of 47,560 patients were included in this study. Cervical spondylosis occurred in 13.1% overall, but was found in 31.0% of patients with thoracolumbar spinal deformity (OR=3.27, Pspondylosis (OR=3.26, Pspondylosis or thoracolumbar spinal deformity had significantly higher rates of the other spinal diagnosis. This correlation was increased with increased severity of disease. Patients with both diagnoses were significantly more likely to have received a spine fusion. Further research is warranted to establish the cause of this correlation. Clinicians should use this information to both screen and counsel patients who present for cervical spondylosis or thoracolumbar spinal deformity.

  8. Increased prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve in Turner syndrome links with karyotype: the crucial importance of detailed cardiovascular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klásková, Eva; Zapletalová, Jiřina; Kaprálová, Sabina; Šnajderová, Marta; Lebl, Jan; Tüdös, Zbyněk; Pavlíček, Jan; Černá, Jana; Mihál, Vladimír; Stará, Veronika; Procházka, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents one of the strongest risk factors for aortic dissection in Turner syndrome (TS). An exact relation between the occurrence of BAV and a particular karyotype has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to determine the association between karyotype and prevalence of BAV. Sixty-seven TS patients aged between 6.6 and 32.5 years underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. They were divided into four cytogenetic subgroups-45,X karyotype (n=27); 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (n=17); structural abnormalities of the X chromosome (n=10); and 45,X/structural abnormality of the X chromosome mosaicism (n=13). Prevalence of BAV and odds ratio (OR) compared with the general population in the whole study group, and statistical comparison of prevalences of BAV among the individual subgroups were determined. Prevalence of BAV in the whole study group was established as 28.4% [OR 208.3 (95% CI - 103.8-418.0); p-valuekaryotype had the highest prevalence of BAV - 40.7%, p-valuekaryotype significantly predisposed to BAV (p-value=0.05). The 45,X karyotype is associated with the highest prevalence of BAV. Also, the presence of the 45,X cell line in any mosaic karyotype increases the probability of BAV.

  9. Perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent and significantly associated in adolescents: an epidemiological cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, Berit; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2015-10-23

    Long-term musculoskeletal pain and negative stress are health risks with adverse long-term health effects, and these health risks seem to increase among young people. The mechanisms behind this are unclear. There is a need for a better understanding of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents, in order to improve health promotion and treatment approaches in this group. Objectives were to evaluate the current prevalence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain in 15 and 16 year olds, to explore stress-pain associations and the probability that perceived stress (PSQ) was related to the reporting of pain and variations in pain, and to investigate possible differences in stress between different types of musculoskeletal pain in the adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Elementary schools participated. The outcomes were stress (Perceived stress questionnaire; PSQ) and musculoskeletal pain (pain/no pain, pain sites, pain duration and pain intensity (Visual analogue scale; VAS). Fifty-one point two percent (N = 422) reported pain, of which 70.8 % reported long-term pain. Some more girls (57.9 %) reported pain. 22.0 % of the study population reported moderate to severe stress (PSQ ≥ 0.45), of which 79.6 % were bothered by pain (Pearson Chi-square 38.47, p ≤ .001). All stress and pain variables were significantly associated (p stress (PSQ) (r = 0.40). Perceived stress (PSQ) was associated with the reporting of pain among the adolescents (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.68) and could explain some of the variation in pain intensity (VAS; β = 0.15, p stress (PSQ) between different types of musculoskeletal pain. There was high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, long-term pain and moderate to severe stress (PSQ ≥ 0.45) in this study sample. Perceived stress (PSQ) was related to the reporting of musculoskeletal pain among the adolescents and could explain some of the variation in pain intensity (VAS) and number of pain

  10. Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental F18-FDG breast uptake. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagna, F.; Giubbini, R.; Treglia, G.; Giovanella, L.; Orlando, E.; Dognini, L.; Sadeghi, R.

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to analyse the published data on the prevalence and clinical significance of breast incidental F18-FDG uptake detected by PET or PET/CT (BIU). A comprehensive computer literature search of the Pub-Med/MEDLINE, Scopus and Embase databases for studies on BIU published through July 2013 was performed. Pooled prevalence and malignancy risk of BIU were calculated. The literature search revealed 42 articles, and 17 were selected. One study was excluded because of data overlap but four additional studies were found screening the references. Finally, 20 articles were included in the systematic review and 13 were eligible for a meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of BIU on all scans was 0.4% (95% CI 0.23-0.61%), the pooled prevalence on scans on female patients only was 0.82% (95% CI 0.51-1.2%), the pooled risk of malignancy of BIU when further analysed was 48% (95% CI 38-58%) and the pooled risk of malignancy of BIU with histological examination was 60% (95% CI 53-66%). The most frequent malignant lesion detected was infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Despite being rare, the identification of BIU frequently signals the presence of an unsuspected subclinical lesion, which differs from the indicated reason for which the patient was initially scanned, and the risk of malignancy is very high. (author)

  11. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  12. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  13. Increasing prevalence despite decreasing incidence of ischeamic heart disease and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Davidsen, Michael; Andersen, Lisbeth V.

    2015-01-01

    ,000 in 2009. The number of subjects having survived an AMI increased from 67,000 to 72,000. About 3% of the Danish population is afflicted by IHD. CONCLUSION: Decreasing incidence, reduced case fatality and demographic development result in an increased prevalence of IHD, since the decline in incidence......AIMS: Mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Denmark peaked around 1977, after which a marked decline has occurred as a result of decreasing incidence and increasing effect of treatment. IHD is a chronic, relapsing condition, and the effect...... of these changes on the prevalence of IHD is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in incidence and prevalence in 2000-2009 are presented, using nationwide data from public registers. An incident case is defined as a subject registered with a diagnosis of IHD/AMI and without a prior diagnosis for the past 20...

  14. Increasing prevalence of specific IgE to aeroallergens in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2000-01-01

    E to aeroallergens had increased in an adult general population over an 8-year period. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1998. A mailed screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms sent to random samples of 15- to 41-year-old subjects living in Copenhagen (Denmark) preceded both...... that the prevalence of specific IgE positivity to aeroallergens increased in an adult Danish general population from 1990 and 1998.......BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the prevalence of respiratory allergy has increased in children in many countries. However, this evidence is largely based on questionnaire data, and little is known about similar trends in adults. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the prevalence of specific Ig...

  15. Increase in the prevalence of rhinitis among Danish children from 1986 to 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, K; Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there has been a change in the prevalence of rhinitis among children in Denmark from 1986 to 2001. We compared data from two random population-based samples...... of Danish children, aged 7-17 yr, who were examined in 1986 (n = 527) and 2001 (n = 480) using similar designs. Symptoms of rhinitis, skin test reactivity, and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine were assessed. The prevalence of rhinitis increased from 11.8% in 1986 to 23.3% in 2001 (p ....001). The increase was most pronounced among subjects who suffered from non-allergic rhinitis (p 

  16. The Study on the Prevalence and Significance of Urinary HBsAg Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jin Suk; Pyo, Heui Jung; Shin, Young Tae; Park, Jeong Sik; Kim, Suhng Gwon; Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Jung Sang; Lee, Mon Ho

    1981-01-01

    HBsAg. was identified in the urine of the patients positive for serum HBsAg. by Tripatzis in 1970. In 1977, Hourani et al reported the incidence of HBsAg. in urine was about 52% in the patients positive for serum HBsAg. with hemodialysis treatment due to chronic renal failure. A series of studies on the HBsAg. in urine has revealed the urine of the patients positive for serum HBsAg. to be important source of infection. But there's much room to debate on the relationship of HBsAg. in urine with infectivity and the exact mechanism of urinary emergence of HBsAg. The authors detected HBsAg. in serum and urine by employing sandwitch solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and performed urinalysis, liver function test and renal function evaluation. Percutanous liver and/or kidney biopsies were done. Among 38 renal disease patients, 9 cases(23.4%) were shown to be positive for serum HBsAg. and 5 cases(55.5%) among above 9 patients positive for urine HBsAg. 56 cases(67.4%) of 83 liver disease patients revealed positive for serum HBsAg. All 10 renal and liver disease patients revealed positive serum HBsAg., and among the 9 cases(90%) positive for urine HBsAg. In the 25 patients positive for urine HBsAg. all of 5 renal patients and 9 renal and liver patients had hematuria or/and proteinuria above 2 positive for albumin. But in the 11 liver patients 6 cases(55.1%) were normal findings. And there's no significant in cpm of urine HBsAg. between the patient positive for serum HBsAg. and negative, and in cpm of serum HBsAg. between liver and renal disease patients. But there's statistical significance in cm of urine HBsAg. between renal and liver diseases.

  17. Prevalence and Significance of Autoantibodies in Children With Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkewicz, Michael R; Horslen, Simon; Belle, Steven H; Rudnick, David A; Ng, Vicky L; Rosenthal, Philip; Romero, Rene; Loomes, Kathleen M; Zhang, Song; Hardison, Regina M; Squires, Robert H

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate autoantibody (auto-AB) frequency, clinical characteristics, and 21-day outcome of participants in the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group (PALFSG) by antinuclear antibody, smooth muscle antibody, and liver-kidney microsomal (LKM) antibody status. Auto-ABs were determined at local and/or central laboratories. Subjects were assigned to autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), indeterminate, and other diagnoses groups. Between 1999 and 2010, 986 subjects were enrolled in the PALFSG. At least 1 auto-AB result was available for 722 (73.2%). At least 1 auto-AB was positive for 202 (28.0%). Diagnoses for auto-AB+ subjects were AIH (63), indeterminate (75), and other (64). Auto-ABs were more common in Wilson disease (12/32, 37.5%) compared with other known diagnoses (52/253, 20.6%, P = 0.03). LKM+ subjects were younger (median 2.4 vs 9.1 years, P liver transplantation (53.3% vs 31.4% P = 0.02) than other auto-AB+/LKM- subjects. Steroid treatment of subjects who were auto-AB+ was not significantly associated with survival and the subgroup with known diagnoses other than AIH had a higher risk of death. Auto-ABs are common in children with acute liver failure, occurring in 28%. Auto-AB+ subjects have similar outcomes to auto-AB negative subjects. LKM+ children are younger and more likely to undergo liver transplantation compared with other auto-AB+ subjects. Although auto-AB may indicate a treatable condition, positivity does not eliminate the need for a complete diagnostic evaluation because auto-ABs are present in other conditions. The significance of auto-AB in pediatric acute liver failure remains uncertain, but LKM+ appears to identify a unique population of children who merit further study.

  18. Endurance training significantly increases serum endocan but not osteoprotegerin levels: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, Michael; Campean, Ioana-Alexandra; Emich, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Litschauer, Brigitte; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Graf, Senta; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2017-01-05

    Endocan (EN) was suggested a potential inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) marker which might also be involved in renal failure and/or renal failure-associated vascular events. It is not clear whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a pro- or anti-atherogenic factor, however, it is agreed upon that OPG is elevated in subjects with increased calcification status. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of long-term physical activity on serum endocan (EN) and osteoprotegerin-levels. One hundred nine subjects were told to increase their amount of physical activity for 8 months by performing 150min/week moderate or 75min/week vigorous exercise. Incremental cycle ergometer tests were performed at the beginning and the end of the study to prove and quantify the performance gain. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 2 months for the determination of EN and OPG. To investigate the difference between baseline and 8 months levels of EN and OPG we used a paired sample t-test. To investigate the significance of the tendency of the progression (baseline/2 months/4 months/6 months/8 months) we used a Friedman test. Thirty-eight female and 60 male subjects completed the study. In the group of 61 subjects who had a performance gain by >4,9% EN-levels increased from 146 ± 110 to 196 ± 238 pg/ml (p = 0,036) equivalent to an increase of 33,5% but there was no significant change in OPG (4,4 ± 2,4 pmol/l vs. 4,3 ± 2,1 pmol/l; p = 0,668). Physical activity increases significantly EN-levels relativizing the status of EN as proinflammatory factor. EN should rather be considered as a mediator which is involved in several physiological (e.g., angiogenesis) but also pathological processes (e.g., CVD, tumour progression or endothelium-dependent inflammation) and whose expression can be significantly influenced by long term endurance training. Clinical trial registration number: NCT02097199 Date of trial registration at Clinical Trials

  19. Non-random biodiversity loss underlies predictable increases in viral disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Christelle; Jolles, Anna; Seabloom, Eric W; Power, Alison G; Mitchell, Charles E; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2014-03-06

    Disease dilution (reduced disease prevalence with increasing biodiversity) has been described for many different pathogens. Although the mechanisms causing this phenomenon remain unclear, the disassembly of communities to predictable subsets of species, which can be caused by changing climate, land use or invasive species, underlies one important hypothesis. In this case, infection prevalence could reflect the competence of the remaining hosts. To test this hypothesis, we measured local host species abundance and prevalence of four generalist aphid-vectored pathogens (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses) in a ubiquitous annual grass host at 10 sites spanning 2000 km along the North American West Coast. In laboratory and field trials, we measured viral infection as well as aphid fecundity and feeding preference on several host species. Virus prevalence increased as local host richness declined. Community disassembly was non-random: ubiquitous hosts dominating species-poor assemblages were among the most competent for vector production and virus transmission. This suggests that non-random biodiversity loss led to increased virus prevalence. Because diversity loss is occurring globally in response to anthropogenic changes, such work can inform medical, agricultural and veterinary disease research by providing insights into the dynamics of pathogens nested within a complex web of environmental forces.

  20. Mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged despite significant increase in utilization of endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; McPhee, James T; Farber, Alik

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated if increase in utilization of endovascular surgery has affected in-hospital mortality rates among patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. The National Inpatient Sample (2003-2011) was queried for acute mesenteric ischemia using ICD-9 code for acute mesenteric ischemia (557.1). This cohort was divided into patients treated with open vascular surgery (open vascular group) and by endovascular therapies (endovascular group) based on the ICD-9CM procedure codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine temporal trend for mortality while adjusting for confounding variables. There was 1.45-fold increase in utilization of endovascular techniques in this study. In-hospital mortality rate, total median charges and length of stay were significantly lower among the endovascular group than the open vascular group despite having significantly higher Elixhauser comorbidities index (3 ± 0.1 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1, p = .003). Over the course of the study period, there was no change in the overall mortality rate despite higher endovascular utilization. Factors associated with increased mortality included age, open surgical repair (Odds ratio: 1.45, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-1.91, p = .016) and bowel resection Odds ratio: 2.88, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.01-4.12). The mortality rate for acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged throughout this contemporary study. Open surgical intervention, bowel resection and age were associated with increased mortality. Endovascular group patients had better survival despite higher morbidity indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Prevalence and prognostic significance of silent myocardial ischemia in patients after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin-Ilić Marina Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Silent myocardial ischemia (MI can be detected in subjects with any symptoms, in patients after myocardial infarction and in coronary patients who have episodes of symptomatic, as well as of silent MI. This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency, characteristics and prognostic significance of silent MI detected in stress echocardiography test in patients after myocardial infarction. Methods. In 210 patients within three months after myocardial infarction exercise test was performed. In those patients with ischemic ST depression on exercise electrocardiogram, in order to confirm MI stress echocardiography was additionally performed. To assess the incidence of major cariovascular events, all the patients were followed at least five years after the first myocardial infraction. Results. Out of 210 patients 88 (42% had ischemic response during stress echocardiography test. Out of 88 patients with MI 54 (61% had anginal pain (patients with symptomatic MI, while 34 (39% were free of symptoms (patients with silent MI. Level of exercise test, heart rate, time to the onset of ST segment depression, and the magnitude of ST segment depression were similar in both subgroups of the patients with MI. Duration of exercise test was longer in patients with silent MI (p < 0.05. Wall motion score index during stress echocardiography was higher in patients with symptomatic MI (p < 0.05. Coronary angiography findings were similar in patients with silent and those with symptomatic MI. During a five- yearsfollow- up period the occurrence of major cardic events (cardiac mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction was similar in both subgroups of the patients with MI. Conclusion. In more than one third of patients after myocardial infarction silent MI during stress echocardiography was detected. The patients with silent ischemia had longer duration of exercise test and smaller wall motion score index on stress echocardiography. There was no

  2. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Ravn, Pernille; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Fedorcsak, Peter; Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-11-01

    Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649/876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P PCOS phenotype did not predict 2-h glucose levels during OGTT after adjustment for BMI and age. The present study included cross-sectional data and prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. These results may not apply to populations of other ethnic origin. Routine OGTT may not be indicated in normal-weight women with PCOS. None. N/A.

  3. Respiratory symptoms/diseases prevalence is still increasing: a 25-yr population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Sara; Baldacci, Sandra; Carrozzi, Laura; Pistelli, Francesco; Angino, Anna; Simoni, Marzia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Cerrai, Sonia; Martini, Franca; Fresta, Martina; Silvi, Patrizia; Di Pede, Francesco; Guerriero, Massimo; Viegi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Few epidemiological surveys on general population samples estimated changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms/diseases over a long time interval; our study aims to quantify the temporal changes in the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) after 25 years from baseline. A general population sample participated in 3 cross-sectional surveys carried out in Central Italy (Pisa) in 1985-88 (n = 3865), 1991-93 (n = 2841), 2009-11 (n = 1620). 2276 (47%) subjects participated in at least 1 survey, 1723 (35.5%) in at least 2 surveys and 849 (17.5%) in all the 3 surveys. All subjects filled in a standardized questionnaire about health status and risk factors; a sub-sample performed spirometry. Chi-square test was used to compare adjusted prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms/diseases and descriptive characteristics among the surveys. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the association between respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors. There was an increasing trend in prevalence rates of all respiratory symptoms/diseases throughout the surveys: current asthma attacks (1st-3rd survey prevalence: 3.4-7.2%), allergic rhinitis (16.2-37.4%), usual phlegm (8.7-19.5%) and COPD (2.1-6.8%) more than doubled. The GEE model confirmed these increasing trends, indicating higher risk of having respiratory symptoms/diseases in the second and third surveys. While asthma and allergic rhinitis increasing trends were confirmed, with respect to other international studies, also a COPD increasing prevalence rates was shown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased prevalence of ECG markers for sudden cardiac arrest in refractory epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R. J.; Blom, M. T.; Novy, J.; Belluzzo, M.; Seldenrijk, A.; Penninx, B. W.; Sander, J. W.; Tan, H. L.; Thijs, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    People with epilepsy are at increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ECG-confirmed ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, as seen in a community-based study. We aimed to determine whether ECG-risk markers of SCA are more prevalent in people with epilepsy. In a cross-sectional,

  5. Increased prevalence of ECG markers for sudden cardiac arrest in refractory epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.; Blom, M.; Novy, J.; Belluzzo, M.; Seldenrijk, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Sander, J.; Tan, H.L.; Thijs, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: People with epilepsy are at increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ECG-confirmed ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, as seen in a community-based study. We aimed to determine whether ECG-risk markers of SCA are more prevalent in people with epilepsy. Methods: In a

  6. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    and Rhodospirillaceae, were found to be the significantly increased by the BOF addition and the genus Lysobacter may identify members of this group effective in biological control-based plant disease management and the members of family Rhodospirillaceae had an important role in fixing molecular nitrogen. These results strengthen the understanding of responses to the BOF and possible interactions within bacterial communities in soil that can be associated with disease suppression and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen. The increase of apple yields after the application of BOF might be attributed to the fact that the application of BOF increased SOM, and soil total nitrogen, and changed the bacterial community by enriching Rhodospirillaceae, Alphaprotreobateria, and Proteobacteria.

  7. Significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity documented between 1994 and 2008 in Mexican college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available H García-Alcala1, D Cuevas-Ramos2, Ch Genestier-Tamborero1, O Hirales-Tamez1, P Almeda-Valdés2, R Mehta2, CA Aguilar-Salinas21Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; 2Department of Endocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion “Salvador Zubiran” (INC MNSZ, Mexico City, MexicoAbstract: We describe the changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 4606 students that applied to a Mexican University during 1994 to 2008. The mean (± standard deviation [SD] age was 17.7 ± 1.2 years-old. Progressive and significant increments of bodyweight (female [F] = 2.6, P = 0.03, body mass index (BMI (F = 4.4, P = 0.001, and waist circumference (F = 30.08, P < 0.0001 in women, and bodyweight (male [M] = 8.9, P < 0.001, BMI (M = 10.4, P < 0.001, and waist circumference (M = 13.01, P < 0.001 in men were observed. A significant increment (P < 0.05 in the prevalence of overweight since 1994 (n = 87, 12.1% throughout 1997 (n = 102, 14.1%, 1998 (n = 133, 18.4%, 1999 (n = 1993, 26.8%, and 2008 (n = 206, 19.9% was documented. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity had a significant increment in all students evaluated (P < 0.0001 since 1994 (n = 29, 13.2% through 1997 (n = 11, 5.0%, 1998 (n = 45, 20.5%, 1999 (n = 53, 24.1%, and 2008 (n = 82, 37.3%. The increment was significant in both women (P = 0.02 and men (P < 0.001. In summary, we report a significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican students living in an urban setting over a time period of 14 years.Keywords: body mass index, adolescents, weight problems, obese

  8. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  9. HBV Outreach Programs Significantly Increase Knowledge and Vaccination Rates Among Asian Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Tresa; Wang, Winnie; Dao, Doan; Wojciechowski, Helena; Lee, William M; Do, Son; Singal, Amit G

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100% (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75% (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64%, p campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations.

  10. High phosphate content significantly increases apatite formation of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Mohammed; Hill, Robert G; Bushby, Andrew J; Brauer, Delia S

    2011-04-01

    Bioactive glass-containing toothpastes for treating dentine hypersensitivity work by precipitating hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) onto the tooth surface, but concerns exist over the long-term durability of HCA in the mouth. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses form fluorapatite (FAp) in physiological solutions, which is more chemically stable against acid attack. The influence of phosphate content on apatite formation was investigated by producing a low-phosphate (about 1 mol% P(2)O(5)) and a high-phosphate (about 6 mol%) series of melt-derived bioactive glasses in the system SiO(2)P(2)O(5)CaONa(2)O; increasing amounts of CaF(2) were added by keeping the ratio of all other components constant. pH change, ion release and apatite formation during immersion in Tris buffer at 37°C over up to 7 days were investigated. Crystal phases formed in Tris buffer were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An increase in phosphate or fluoride content allowed for apatite formation at lower pH; fluoride enhanced apatite formation due to lower solubility of FAp compared to hydroxyapatite or HCA. High phosphate content glasses formed apatite significantly faster (within 6h) than low phosphate content glasses (within 3 days). In addition, an increase in phosphate content favoured apatite formation rather than fluorite (CaF(2)). (19)F magic angle spinning NMR showed the apatite formed by fluoride-containing glasses to be FAp, which makes these glasses of particular interest for dental applications. This study shows that by varying the phosphate content, the reactivity and apatite formation of bioactive glasses can be controlled successfully. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher Body Mass Index and Increased Prevalence of Paranasal Sinus Disease

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    Yusuke Kabeya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that higher body mass index (BMI was associated with increased prevalence of paranasal sinus disease and examined the hypothesis in Japanese adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 1350 Japanese adults aged 40 years or more who participated in a health check-up program focusing on brain diseases and metabolic syndrome. Participants were divided into quartiles of BMI levels. Paranasal sinus disease was confirmed by a head MRI scan. The association between BMI and paranasal sinus disease was examined using logistic regression analysis, which was adjusted for age, sex, waist:hip ratio, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, alcohol intake, and white blood cell count. Results: Of the 1350 participants, 151 (11.2% had paranasal sinus disease. In relation to those in the lowest quartile of BMI, the odds ratios of having the disease among those in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of BMI were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–3.48, 2.26 (95% CI, 1.20–4.23 and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.14–4.51, respectively. When BMI was analysed as a continuous variable, an increase of one unit in BMI was significantly associated with increased odds of having the disease, with an OR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.01–1.16. Conclusions: The present study suggests that patients with higher BMI are more likely to have paranasal sinus disease.

  12. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMPH. Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  13. Myriocin Significantly Increases the Mortality of a Non-Mammalian Model Host during Candida Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Nadja Rodrigues; Abdrahman, Ahmed; Greig, Carolyn; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Thornton, Catherine; Ratcliffe, Norman A.; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Butt, Tariq M.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR) inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMPH). Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans -infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders. PMID:24260135

  14. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  16. Proton pump inhibitor therapy did not increase the prevalence of small-bowel injury: A propensity-matched analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Yamada

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that the suppression of acid secretion by using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs results in dysbiosis of the small-bowel microbiota, leading to exacerbated small-bowel injuries, including erosions and ulcers. This study was designed to assess the association between PPI therapy and small-bowel lesions after adjustment for the differences in baseline characteristics between users and non-users of PPIs.We retrospectively studied patients suspected to be suffering from small-bowel diseases, who underwent capsule endoscopy between 2010 and 2013. We used propensity matching to adjust for the differences in baseline characteristics between users and non-users of PPIs. The outcomes included the prevalence of small-bowel lesions: erosion, ulcer, angioectasia, varices, and tumor.We selected 327 patient pairs for analysis after propensity matching, and found no significant differences in the prevalence of small-bowel injuries, including erosions and ulcers, between users and non-users of PPIs. Two subgroup analyses of the effect of the type of PPI and the effect of PPI therapy in users and non-users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs indicated no significant differences in the prevalence of small-bowel injuries in these two groups.PPI therapy did not increase the prevalence of small-bowel injury, regardless of the type of PPI used and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  18. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  19. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilppula, Anitta; Kaukinen, Katri; Luostarinen, Liisa; Krekelä, Ilkka; Patrikainen, Heikki; Valve, Raisa; Mäki, Markku; Collin, Pekka

    2009-06-29

    Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb) and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s). The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002-2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  20. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilppula Anitta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s. Methods The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Results Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002–2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. Conclusion The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  1. Do patients with osteoporosis have an increased prevalence of periodontal disease? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, E J; Southern, H N; Coates, P; Adams, J E; Walsh, T; Horner, K; Devlin, H

    2013-07-01

    The study examined if women with osteoporosis were at increased risk of periodontal disease. Three hundred eighty females aged 45-65 years with recent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the spine and proximal femur agreed to a dental examination. No association was established between the presence of severe periodontal disease and osteoporosis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether patients with osteoporosis have an increased severity and extent of periodontal disease, taking full account of confounding factors. Volunteer dentate women (45-65 years), who had undergone recent DXA of the femur and lumbar spine, received a clinical examination of their periodontal tissues by a single trained operator who was blind to the subject's osteoporosis status. Clinical examinations were performed within 6 months of the DXA. Basic Periodontal Examination score, gingival bleeding score, periodontal pocket depth, recession and calculus were the periodontal outcome measures. Potential confounding factors were recorded. Logistic regression was performed for the dichotomous outcome measure of severe periodontal disease (present or absent) with osteoporotic status, adjusting for confounding factors. There were 380 dentate participants for whom DXA data were available. Of these, 98 had osteoporosis. When compared with osteoporotic subjects, those with normal bone mineral density were significantly younger (p = 0.01), had a higher body mass index (p = 0.03) and had more teeth (p = 0.01). The prevalence of severe periodontal disease in the sample was 39 %. The unadjusted odds ratio for the association between osteoporosis and severe periodontal disease was 1.21 (0.76 to 1.93). The adjusted odds ratio analysis including other covariates (age, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol) was 0.99 (0.61 to 1.61). No association was established between the presence of severe periodontal disease and osteoporosis.

  2. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of FLT3 Mutation Status in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Sierra, Jorge; Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Martínez-Hernández, Ramón A; García-Sepúlveda, Ricardo D; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Mónica; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Ortíz-López, Rocío; Villarreal-Villarreal, César D; Ruiz-Arguelles, Guillermo J; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo; Lutz-Presno, Julia; Garcés-Eisele, Javier; Ignacio-Ibarra, Gregorio; Muciño-Hernández, Gabriel; Arana-Trejo, Rosa M; Jiménez-Mejia, Angélica M; Vásquez-Palacio, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    FLT3-ITD mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with a poor prognosis. In Latin America, little epidemiological data exist about these mutations and their influence on clinical evolution and prognosis. Standardization and well-established clinical correlation make FLT3 mutational analysis by molecular methods an invaluable tool to decide among treatment options and to determine AML prognosis. We assessed the prevalence of FLT3-ITD mutations in 138 patients with AML at four hematology referral centers from Mexico and Colombia. Molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed for determining FLT3-ITD status. Mutations were present in 28 patients indicating a prevalence of 20.28%. Median age was 47 years (5-96). The FLT3 mutation positive group was older, had higher WBC and hemoglobin values and lower platelet counts but without statistical significance. A not previously described mutation in the FLT3 gene was found in one patient involving a nucleotide exchange of timine for cytosine at the 66608 position. A high mortality was found in the FLT3-mutated group, 67.8 vs. 42.72% in the non-mutated group and median survival was 4.9 months vs. 20.4 months, p = 0.009. A mutated FLT3 did not confer poor prognosis to those with M3 AML. The mutated FLT3 population had poor overall survival (OS) despite hematoprogenitor stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Prevalence of FLT3-ITD mutation in AML was present in a proportion comparable to other populations and, when present, was associated with a very poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Viral prevalence increases with regional colony abundance in honey bee drones (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forfert, Nadège; Natsopoulou, Myrsini E; Paxton, Robert J; Moritz, Robin F A

    2016-10-01

    Transmission among colonies is a central feature for the epidemiology of honey bee pathogens. High colony abundance may promote transmission among colonies independently of apiary layout, making colony abundance a potentially important parameter determining pathogen prevalence in populations of honey bees. To test this idea, we sampled male honey bees (drones) from seven distinct drone congregation areas (DCA), and used their genotypes to estimate colony abundance at each site. A multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) was used to assess the prevalence of ten viruses, using five common viral targets, in individual drones. There was a significant positive association between colony abundance and number of viral infections. This result highlights the potential importance of high colony abundance for pathogen prevalence, possibly because high population density facilitates pathogen transmission. Pathogen prevalence in drones collected from DCAs may be a useful means of estimating the disease status of a population of honey bees during the mating season, especially for localities with a large number of wild or feral colonies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Undiagnosed Visually Significant Cataract: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Lim, Blanche; Fenwick, Eva K; Gan, Alfred Tau Liang; Tan, Ava Grace; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of undiagnosed visually significant cataract in an Asian population. The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases is a population-based study where 8,697 adults of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicities aged > 40 years were invited for an eye examination, including lens photograph, to establish cataract diagnosis. Visually significant cataract was defined by Wisconsin Cataract Grading System and a best-corrected visual acuity educational attainment, in employment, and without a history of diabetes (all P<0.05). In those with undiagnosed visually significant cataract, half had bilateral visual impairment, which was significantly associated with 24.8% poorer visual functioning compared to those with unilateral visual impairment (P<0.001). Two-thirds of Singaporean adults with visually significant cataract were previously undiagnosed. Half of these cases had bilateral visual impairment and substantially reduced quality of life. Public health strategies targeting elderly patients, such as regular screening for visual impairment and timely referral to ophthalmologists in order to prevent progression to bilateral visual impairment when visual function is compromised are warranted.

  5. Prevalence and long-term clinical significance of intracranial atherosclerosis after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Christian; Abild, Annemette; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and long-term risk associated with intracranial atherosclerosis identified during routine evaluation.......We investigated the prevalence and long-term risk associated with intracranial atherosclerosis identified during routine evaluation....

  6. Are eating disorders and their symptoms increasing in prevalence among adolescent population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanen, Jessi; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Isomaa, Rasmus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2017-01-01

    A debate concerns whether eating disorders are increasing in prevalence. The role of socio-economic status (SES) for adolescent eating disorders (ED) is another matter of debate. To ascertain whether self-reported eating disorders or their symptoms have increased in prevalence in adolescent population from the early 2000s to early 2010s. A person-identifiable classroom survey, Adolescent Mental Health Cohort study, was carried out among the 9th graders in comprehensive schools in Tampere, Finland, during academic year 2002-2003, and replicated among then 9th graders during academic years 2012-2013. Eating disorders were elicited with questionnaires tailored according to DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No changes were observed between 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 in the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia, most of the symptoms of anorexia and bulimia, or the proportion of adolescents having received treatment due to eating disorders among the girls or the boys. Eating disorders, treatment contacts due to eating disorders, and eating disorder symptoms were not systematically associated with either low or high parental socio-economic status. Based on this dataset, eating disorders are not increasing in the adolescent population. Adolescent eating disorders are not associated with socio-economic status of their family.

  7. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G

    2013-02-11

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend

  8. Does first line antiretroviral therapy increase the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Indian patients?: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, R A B; Rupali, P; Abraham, O C; Kattula, D

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with a myriad of metabolic complications which are potential cardiovascular risk factors. Early detection of these risk factors could help in alleviating morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients on ART. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients on a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) - the standard combination first line ART regimen used in tertiary referral center. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV infected subjects with stage 1t disease on standard first line ART for at least 1 year, HIV infected subjects with stage 1 disease and not on ART and HIV negative subjects was assessed. The study was a cross-sectional study design. Basic demographic data was collected and patients were examined for anthropometric data and blood was collected for analysis of blood glucose, serum lipids, and fasting insulin levels. Chi-square test was used to calculate significance. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16.0 was used for data analysis. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the patients on ART when compared to patients not on ART (PART and those not on ART. First line ART is associated with increased prevalence of dyslipidemia. Early detection and treatment of dyslipidemia should help in reducing the cardiovascular morbidity in patients on ART.

  9. Prevalence of myocardial fibrosis patterns in patients with systolic dysfunction: prognostic significance for the prediction of sudden cardiac arrest or appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmadi, Fahad; Joncas, Sebastien Xavier; Nevis, Immaculate; Zahrani, Mohammad; Bokhari, Mahmoud; Stirrat, John; Fine, Nowell M; Yee, Raymond; White, James A

    2014-07-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance is increasingly performed in patients with systolic dysfunction. Numerous patterns of fibrosis are commonly reported among this population. However, the relative prevalence and prognostic significance of these findings remains uncertain. Three hundred eighteen consecutive patients referred for late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance and a left ventricular ejection fraction 35% (40% versus 6%; P=0.005). Patients with systolic dysfunction frequently demonstrate multiple patterns of myocardial fibrosis. Of these, a midwall striae pattern of fibrosis is the strongest independent predictor of sudden cardiac arrest or appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator therapy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.

  11. Do patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased prevalence of Cushing's syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Krarup, Thure; Hagen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Many clinical features are common for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Cushing's syndrome (CS) such as central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Patients with CS often have T2DM. Because T2DM is much more frequent than CS, it is possible that some patients with T2DM have...... increased production of cortisol and thus represent patients with CS. The aim of this review was to evaluate the prevalence of CS in patients with T2DM. A search was performed in PubMed and Medline. We found seven prospective studies, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional studies...... with T2DM varies widely between the different studies, ranging from 0-9.4%. This may be due to patient selection, differences in test methodology (including choice of test), cutoff values and different cortisol assays. The true prevalence of CS in T2DM has not been determined. We need more studies...

  12. Prevalence of increased alpha angles as a measure of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement in youth ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Marc J; Ho, Charles P; Briggs, Karen K; Stull, Justin; LaPrade, Robert F

    2013-06-01

    It has been reported that relative to other sports participants, ice hockey players suffer from cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in higher numbers. α angles have been reported to increase with the likelihood of symptomatic FAI. It is unclear how prevalent increased α angles, commonly associated with cam FAI, are in asymptomatic young ice hockey players. There would be a higher prevalence of α angles associated with cam FAI in youth ice hockey players than in a non-hockey-playing (skier) youth control group. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 61 asymptomatic youth ice hockey players (aged 10-18 years) and 27 youth skiers (controls) (aged 10-18 years) underwent a clinical hip examination consisting of the flexion/abduction/external rotation (FABER) distance test, impingement testing, and measurement of hip internal rotation. The hip α angle was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and labral tears and articular cartilage lesions were documented. Hockey players were grouped according to their USA Hockey classification as peewees (ages 10-12 years), bantams (ages 13-15 years), and midgets (ages 16-19 years). Overall, ice hockey players had significantly higher α angles than did the control group, and hockey players had a significant correlation between increased age and increased α angles, while the control group did not. In the ice hockey group, 75% had an α angle of ≥55°, while in the skier group, 42% had an α angle of ≥55° (P Hockey players were 4.5 times more likely to have an α angle commonly associated with cam impingement than skiers. Midget players had the highest risk of increased α angles. Even at young ages, ice hockey players have a greater prevalence of α angles associated with cam FAI than do skier-matched controls. Properties inherent to ice hockey likely enhance the development of a bony overgrowth on the femoral neck, leading to cam FAI.

  13. Increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1998-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Shin, Hayley; Song, Jung Han; Kwak, Soo Heon; Kang, Seon Mee; Won Yoon, Ji; Choi, Sung Hee; Cho, Sung Il; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Hak Chul; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2011-06-01

    The number of people with metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, and changes in socioenvironmental factors contribute to this increase. Therefore, investigation of changes in metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea, where rapid socioenvironmental changes have occurred in recent years, would be foundational in setting up an effective strategy for reducing this increasing trend. We compared the prevalence and pattern of metabolic syndrome among participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007. In each survey, stratified, multistage, probability-sampling designs and weighting adjustments were conducted to represent the entire Korean population. The revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were used as the definition of metabolic syndrome. All biochemical parameters were measured in a central laboratory. A total of 6,907 (mean ± SE age 45.0 ± 0.2 years), 4,536 (45.5 ± 0.2), 5,373 (47.1 ± 0.2), and 2,890 (49.9 ± 0.3) Koreans over 20 years of age have participated in the studies in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased significantly from 24.9% in 1998, 29.2% in 2001, and 30.4% in 2005 to 31.3% in 2007. Among the five components, the level of low HDL cholesterol increased the most, by 13.8% over the 10 years. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia followed, with 8.7 and 4.9% increases, respectively. Because dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity were major factors in increasing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Koreans for the past 10 years, lifestyle interventions should be conducted at the national level to reduce the burden and consequences of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Amniotic fluid "sludge"; prevalence and clinical significance of it in asymptomatic patients at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanir, Ilknur; Ozyuncu, Ozgur; Gokmen Karasu, Ayse Filiz; Onderoglu, Lutfu S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study is to determine prevalence and clinical significance of the presence of amniotic fluid "sludge" among asymptomatic patients at high-risk for spontaneous preterm delivery, prospectively. In our study, 99 patients at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery were evaluated for the presence of amniotic fluid sludge with transvaginal ultrasonography at 20-22, 26-28, and 32-34 gestational weeks, prospectively; between August 2009 and October 2010 in Hacettepe University Hospital. And, these patients were followed up for their delivery weeks and pregnancy outcomes. We defined the high-risk group as the patients possessing one or more of the followings; a history of spontaneous preterm delivery, recent urinary tract infections, polyhydramnios, uterine leiomyomas, müllerian duct anomalies, and history of cone biyopsy or LEEP. Patients with multiple gestations, placenta previa, fetal anomalies, or symptoms of preterm labor at first examination were excluded. We have obtained ethical board approval from Hacettepe University (16.07.2009-HEK/No:09-141-59). The prevalence of amniotic fluid sludge in the study population was 19,6% (18/92). The rates of spontaneous preterm delivery at preterm delivery (p = 0.002). A higher proportion of neonates born to patients with amniotic fluid sludge had a neonatal morbidity (50% (9/18) vs. 24,3% (18/74), p = 0.044) and died in the perinatal period, (p = 0,013) than those born to patients without sludge. When we combined sludge and cervical lenght (CL) (preterm delivery; it catched more women with preterm delivery, (p = 0.000). While sensitivity of sludge was 37,5%, and sensitivity of CL was 34%, sensitivity of "sludge positive or CL ≤25 mm" was 56% for preterm birth (PTB) in high-risk group. The prevalence of amniotic fluid sludge is 19,6% and "sludge" is an independent risk factor for spontaneous preterm delivery among asymptomatic patients at high-risk for spontaneous preterm delivery. PTB is

  15. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  16. A painful train of events: increased prevalence of fibromyalgia in survivors of a major train crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, D; Ablin, J N; Ben-Zion, I; Muntanu, D; Shalev, A; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Cohen, H

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of fibromyalgia in survivors of a major train crash in southern Israel, three years after the event. Survivors were contacted by mail and telephone. Individuals consenting to participate in the study underwent physical examination, including a tender point count and dolorimetry, as well as extensive evaluation of parameters relating to quality of life, presence of widespread pain, fatigue, physical and social function, posttraumatic symptoms and symptoms related to anxiety, dissociation, depression, somatisation, etc. Fifteen percent of survivors participating in the study met ACR criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Significantly lower rates of physical and emotional functioning were found among survivors with fibromyalgia compared with those not meeting the classification criteria. Survivors with fibromyalgia rated significantly higher on scales of somatisation, obsessive-compulsive ideation, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anger and hostility, phobic and general anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. Survivors with fibromyalgia also rated significantly higher on scales of posttraumatic symptoms including intrusion, avoidance and arousal. These individuals also rated significantly higher on the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDE-Q) and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (Hebrew version) (DES-H). Fibromyalgia was found to be highly prevalent, three years after a major train crash, among individuals exposed to the combination of physical injury and extreme stress. This finding is in accordance with previous data regarding the association of fibromyalgia with both physical and emotional trauma and calls attention to studying the underlying susceptibility factors which may partake in this association.

  17. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with unilateral compared with bilateral moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Bin; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Sun, Hong; He, Min; You, Chao

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT This study explored whether there were differences between the autoimmune disease prevalence rates in unilateral and bilateral moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained from the medical records of their hospital, analyzing and comparing the clinical characteristics and prevalence rates of all autoimmune diseases that were associated with unilateral and bilateral MMD in their hospital from January 1995 to October 2014. RESULTS Three hundred sixteen patients with bilateral MMD and 68 with unilateral MMD were identified. The results indicated that patients with unilateral MMD were more likely to be female than were patients with bilateral MMD (67.6% vs 51.3%, p = 0.014, odds ratio [OR] 1.99). Overall, non-autoimmune comorbidities tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (17.6% vs 9.8%, p = 0.063, OR 1.97, chi-square test). Autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune diseases also tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (19.1% vs 10.8%, p = 0.056, OR 1.96 and 8.8% vs 3.5%, p = 0.092, OR 2.77, respectively, chi-square test). The overall autoimmune disease prevalence in the unilateral MMD cases was significantly higher than in the bilateral MMD cases (26.5% vs 13.6%, p = 0.008, OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.22-4.28, chi-square test). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that autoimmune disease was more likely to be associated with unilateral than with bilateral MMD (p = 0.039, OR 10.91, 95% CI 1.13-105.25). CONCLUSIONS This study indicated a higher overall autoimmune disease prevalence in unilateral than in bilateral MMD. Unilateral MMD may be more associated with autoimmune disease than bilateral MMD. Different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie moyamoya vessel formation in unilateral and bilateral MMD.

  18. Profile of refractive errors in European Caucasian children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder; increased prevalence and magnitude of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anketell, Pamela M; Saunders, Kathryn J; Gallagher, Stephen; Bailey, Clare; Little, Julie-Anne

    2016-07-01

    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by impairment of communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviours. Only a small number of studies have investigated fundamental clinical measures of vision including refractive error. The aim of this study was to describe the refractive profile of a population of children with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) children. Refractive error was assessed using the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 open-field autorefractor following the instillation of cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1% eye drops. A total of 128 participants with ASD (mean age 10.9 ± 3.3 years) and 206 typically developing participants (11.5 ± 3.1 years) were recruited. There was no significant difference in median refractive error, either by spherical equivalent or most ametropic meridian between the ASD and TD groups (Spherical equivalent, Mann-Whitney U307 = 1.15, p = 0.25; Most Ametropic Meridian, U305 = 0.52, p = 0.60). Median refractive astigmatism was -0.50DC (range 0.00 to -3.50DC) for the ASD group and -0.50DC (Range 0.00 to -2.25DC) for the TD group. Magnitude and prevalence of refractive astigmatism (defined as astigmatism ≥1.00DC) was significantly greater in the ASD group compared to the typically developing group (ASD 26%, TD 8%, magnitude U305 = 3.86, p = 0.0001; prevalence (χ12=17.71 , p refractive profile of a population of European Caucasian children with ASD compared to a TD population of children. Unlike other neurodevelopmental conditions, there was no increased prevalence of spherical refractive errors in ASD but astigmatic errors were significantly greater in magnitude and prevalence. This highlights the need to examine refractive errors in this population. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  19. Significance of increased and reduced proteasome activity in the pathomechanism of selected disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Tylicka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are structures responsible for the elimination of damaged and misfolded proteins. Thus, they also regulate the most important intracellular processes. Changes in their functions can lead to many molecular diseases. There are two possible disorders in the function of proteasomes. Their increasing activity causes excessive degradation of important cell proteins. On the other hand, their insufficiency can inhibit the degradation of pathological proteins and lead to their accumulation.The increase of proteasome activity and the degradation of important proteins are observed in many pathological disorders. Therefore the study of pharmacological methods using proteasome inhibitors has gained growing interest in the last years. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of proteasomes in pathogenesis of selected diseases and discusses the potential use of proteasomes in diagnosis of different disorders.

  20. Vector species richness increases haemorrhagic disease prevalence through functional diversity modulating the duration of seasonal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew W; Cleveland, Christopher A; Dallas, Tad A; Corn, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Although many parasites are transmitted between hosts by a suite of arthropod vectors, the impact of vector biodiversity on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Positive relationships between host infection prevalence and vector species richness (SR) may operate through multiple mechanisms, including (i) increased vector abundance, (ii) a sampling effect in which species of high vectorial capacity are more likely to occur in species-rich communities, and (iii) functional diversity whereby communities comprised species with distinct phenologies may extend the duration of seasonal transmission. Teasing such mechanisms apart is impeded by a lack of appropriate data, yet could highlight a neglected role for functional diversity in parasite transmission. We used statistical modelling of extensive host, vector and microparasite data to test the hypothesis that functional diversity leading to longer seasonal transmission explained variable levels of disease in a wildlife population. We additionally developed a simple transmission model to guide our expectation of how an increased transmission season translates to infection prevalence. Our study demonstrates that vector SR is associated with increased levels of disease reporting, but not via increases in vector abundance or via a sampling effect. Rather, the relationship operates by extending the length of seasonal transmission, in line with theoretical predictions.

  1. Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production Significantly Increases during Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Cuong; Kidder, Joshua B.; Jacobson, Erik R.; Otto, Michael; Proctor, Richard A.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is important for the development of a mature biofilm. PIA production is increased during growth in a nutrient-replete or iron-limited medium and under conditions of low oxygen availability. Additionally, stress-inducing stimuli such as heat, ethanol, and high concentrations of salt increase the production of PIA. These same environmental conditions are known to repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, leading us to hypothesize that altering TCA cycle activity would affect PIA production. Culturing Staphylococcus epidermidis with a low concentration of the TCA cycle inhibitor fluorocitrate dramatically increased PIA production without impairing glucose catabolism, the growth rate, or the growth yields. These data lead us to speculate that one mechanism by which staphylococci perceive external environmental change is through alterations in TCA cycle activity leading to changes in the intracellular levels of biosynthetic intermediates, ATP, or the redox status of the cell. These changes in the metabolic status of the bacteria result in the attenuation or augmentation of PIA production. PMID:15838022

  2. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of accessory maxillary ostium and Haller cells: Prevalence and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ibrahim K.; Sansare, Kaustubh; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Vanga, Kavita; Salve, Prashant [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India); Pawar, Ajinkya M. [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2017-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Haller cells and accessory maxillary ostium (AMO) in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to analyze the relationships among Haller cells, AMO, and maxillary sinusitis. Volumetric CBCT scans from 201 patients were retrieved from our institution's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine archive folder. Two observers evaluated the presence of Haller cells, AMO, and maxillary sinusitis in the CBCT scans. AMO was observed in 114 patients, of whom 27 (23.7%) had AMO exclusively on the right side, 26 (22.8%) only on the left side, and 61 (53.5%) bilaterally. Haller cells were identified in 73 (36.3%) patients. In 24 (32.9%) they were present exclusively on the right side, in 17 (23.3%) they were only present on the left side, and in 32 (43.8%) they were located bilaterally. Of the 73 (36.3%) patients with Haller cells, maxillary sinusitis was also present in 50 (68.5%). On using chi-square test, a significant association was observed between AMO and maxillary sinusitis in the presence of Haller cells. Our results showed AMO and Haller cells to be associated with maxillary sinusitis. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of CBCT in imaging the bony anatomy of the sinonasal complex with significantly higher precision and a smaller radiation dose.

  3. Occult hepatitis B infection in Portuguese patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease: prevalence and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Claudia; Alves, Ana L; Augusto, Fátima; Freire, Ricardo; Quintana, Carlos; Gonçalves, Matilde; Oliveira, Ana P

    2013-02-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum), has been reported in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Some data suggest its association with a more severe liver disease and a worse response to interferon therapy in this subgroup of patients. However, the clinical significance of this condition is still under debate. To determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection and its clinical significance in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease. A prospective analysis of consecutive outpatients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent a liver biopsy recruited between January 2008 and June 2011 was carried out. Data included patient's sex and age, source of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HCV genotype and viral load, presence of serologic markers of previous HBV infection, HBV DNA presence in the liver, histologic findings, and response to interferon and ribavirin treatment. HBV DNA and HCV RNA detection were carried out using a sensitive commercially available PCR kit. HBV DNA was tested in liver samples using a nested PCR procedure. One hundred patients were included, 73% men, mean age 49 ± 11.9 years. Most patients had a genotype 1, with a high viral load, HCV infection. Of the patients, 33% had HBV serologic markers of past infection. The presence of HBV DNA in liver samples was found in 57% of the patients. No statistically significant difference in the epidemiological, histological, or virological or response to therapy data was found in patients with occult HBV infection. Occult HBV infection occurred in a high percentage of patients but was not clinically significant.

  4. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans O.; Vestergaard, Therese Risom

    2010-01-01

    in the prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature children could be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous...

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea combined dyslipidemia render additive effect on increasing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui

    2016-05-26

    Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.

  6. Calcium phosphate cement augmentation after volar locking plating of distal radius fracture significantly increases stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Hans; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Antoni, Anna; Redl, Heinz; Zysset, Philippe; Weninger, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Distal radius fractures represent the most common fractures in adults. Volar locking plating to correct unstable fractures has become increasingly popular. Although reasonable primary reduction is possible in most cases, maintenance of reduction until the fracture is healed is often problematic in osteoporotic bone. To our knowledge, no biomechanical studies have compared the effect of enhancement with biomaterial on two different volar fixed-angle plates. Human fresh-frozen cadaver pairs of radii were used to simulate an AO/OTA 23-A3 fracture. In a total of four groups (n = 7 for each group), two volar fixed-angle plates (Aptus 2.5 mm locking fracture plate, Medartis, Switzerland and VA-LCP two-column distal radius plate 2.4, volar, Synthes, Switzerland) with or without an additional injection of a biomaterial (Hydroset Injectable HA Bone Substitute, Stryker, Switzerland) into the dorsal comminution zone were used to fix the distal metaphyseal fragment. Each specimen was tested load-controlled under cyclic loading with a servo-hydraulic material testing machine. Displacement, stiffness, dissipated work and failure mode were recorded. Improved mechanical properties (decreased displacement, increased stiffness, decreased dissipated work) were found in both plates if the biomaterial was additionally injected. Improvement of mechanical parameters after biomaterial injection was more evident in the Synthes plate compared to the Aptus plate. Pushing out of the screws was noticed as a failure mode only in samples lacking supplementary biomaterial. Injection of a biomaterial into the dorsal comminution zone increases stability after volar locking plating of distal radius fractures in vitro.

  7. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease among Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel: urbanization and increasing prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Freha, Naim; Schwartz, Doron; Elkrinawi, Jaber; Ben Yakov, Gil; Abu Tailakh, Muhammad; Munteanu, Daniela; Abu Ganim, Abdelrhman; Fich, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with genetic and environmental factors, including urban living. IBD was rare in the Israeli Bedouin community 30 years ago. Over recent decades, a large proportion of this community has undergone a transition from a nomadic to a western lifestyle. Our aim was to carry out an updated evaluation of the clinical and epidemiological features of IBD in the Bedouin sector of southern Israel. All Bedouin patients with a known diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in the retrospective study. The cohort included 31 CD patients and 31 UC patients. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 29±10.9 and 35±17.5 years for CD and UC, respectively. The prevalence rate for CD was 15.5/100,000 and the incidence rate was 0.8-3.55/100,000. Fourteen of the CD patients (45%) had ileal disease and 64.5% had inflammatory disease behavior according to the Montreal classification. Eleven of the CD patients (35%) were treated with anti-TNF-α and 26% had undergone surgery. Over the previous decade, the prevalence of UC was 14/100,000 and the incidence was 0.5-2.39/100,000. Eighteen UC patients (58%) had left-sided colitis. Three (9.7%) had undergone total colectomy for severe disease. We found an increased prevalence of IBD in the Bedouin population, associated with their change in lifestyle over previous decades. However, the prevalence is still markedly lower than that in other population groups. A high percentage of patients were treated with anti-TNF-α and/or surgery.

  9. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  10. Longer duration of asthma is significantly associated with increased RV/TLC ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anupama; Rahman, Kazi; Abejie, Belayneh; Jain, Vipul V; Vempilly, Jose Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Although FEV1/FVC ratio has been shown to be negatively associated with longer duration of asthma; an association between RV/TLC ratio and longer duration of asthma has not been explored. Patients with established asthma for more than a year and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited. Data obtained by questionnaire after informed consent was obtained, Pulmonary function tests and laboratory results were collected through chart review. Correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Among the 93 subjects, 61 were women. The mean age of patients was 58 ± 15 years, and the mean duration of asthma was 21 ± 18 years. The ethnic composition included: Caucasians 64%, Hispanics 28% and other groups 8%. The FEV1/FVC ratio was not significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.15, p = 0.05). However, the RV/TLC ratio was significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.46, p TLC ratio may be a better indicator than FEV1/FVC ratio to detect airway obstruction related to longer duration of asthma. Lung volume measurements should be done in addition to spirometry to detect changes related to airway obstruction in patients with longer duration of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  12. Dietary phosphorus is associated with a significant increase in left ventricular mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kalani T.; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C.; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A.C.; Siscovick, David; Weiss, Noel S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4,494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1,167 mg/day in men and 1,017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 gram greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 gram greater LVM compared to the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies. PMID:23283134

  13. Significantly Increased Extreme Precipitation Expected in Europe and North America from Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Walsh, E.; Zappa, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, changes in circulation are key to determining the impacts of climate warming. The mechanisms governing these circulation changes are complex, leading to the well documented uncertainty in projections of the future location of the mid-latitude storm tracks simulated by climate models. These storms are the primary source of precipitation for North America and Europe and generate many of the large-scale precipitation extremes associated with flooding and severe economic loss. Here, we show that in spite of the uncertainty in circulation changes, by analysing the behaviour of the storms themselves, we find entirely consistent and robust projections across an ensemble of climate models. In particular, we find that projections of change in the most intensely precipitating storms (above the present day 99th percentile) in the Northern Hemisphere are substantial and consistent across models, with large increases in the frequency of both summer (June-August, +226±68%) and winter (December-February, +186±34%) extreme storms by the end of the century. Regionally, both North America (summer +202±129%, winter +232±135%) and Europe (summer +390±148%, winter +318±114%) are projected to experience large increases in the frequency of intensely precipitating storms. These changes are thermodynamic and driven by surface warming, rather than by changes in the dynamical behaviour of the storms. Such changes in storm behaviour have the potential to have major impacts on society given intensely precipitating storms are responsible for many large-scale flooding events.

  14. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    -35 years were sampled from the general population living in a defined area of central Copenhagen. The first examination took place in 1976-8 and comprised 1034 subjects (response rate 67.2%). A new sample comprising 1104 subjects (response rate 62.6%) from exactly the same area was examined 15 years later...... in 1991-4. All participants answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases and performed spirometric tests with measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC). RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma increased from 1.5% in the first...

  15. Significant rise of the prevalence and clinical features of childhood asthma in Qingdao China: cluster sampling investigation of 10,082 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongjun; Guan, Renzheng; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhao, Baochun; Guan, Jie; Lu, Ling

    2014-09-26

    Recent investigations suggested that the trend of childhood asthma has been stabilizing or even reversing in some countries. The observation provides contrast to our experience. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical features of asthma in children aged 0-14 years in Qingdao China, determine the changes of childhood asthma in China, and discover evidence that can allow better diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma. A cluster sampling method was used. We randomly extracted the investigation clusters from schools, kindergartens, and communities in Qingdao. Subsequently, we interviewed the members of the clusters using a questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) to find children with asthmatic symptoms. After determination by the doctors, more details on the asthmatic children were obtained by asking questions from the National Epidemiology Study of Asthma and Allergies in China questionnaire to obtain more details. We intended to survey 10,800 children. However, the actual number of children was 10,082. The prevalence of asthma in Qingdao children aged 0-14 years was 3.69%. The prevalence among male children was higher than in female (χ2 = 24.53,P attack when they were less than three years old. Moreover, 71.2% once suffered respiratory tract infections. For 95.7% of asthmatic children, the asthma attack was first manifested as cough. Asthmatic children who used inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) only accounted for 46%. The prevalence of asthma in children aged 0-14 years in Qingdao China increased significantly based on data obtained ten years ago (2000). Respiratory tract infections were the most important precursors of asthma attack. The attack was most commonly manifested as cough. The treatment, especially the use of ICS, was more rational. However, a certain difference was found, which has yet to be contrasted with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) project.

  16. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  17. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  19. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease: a meta-analysis evaluating prevalence, mean provocative dose of aspirin and increased asthma morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, D R; Guthrie, B; Lipworth, B J; Jackson, C; Donnan, P T; Santiago, V H

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence and mean provocative dose of oral aspirin (MPDA) triggering respiratory reactions in people with asthma have been inconsistently reported, and the relationship between NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) and asthma morbidity was less well quantified. A systematic review was performed by identifying studies diagnosing NERD using blinded, placebo-controlled oral provocation challenge tests (OPCTs) or by self-reported history in people with asthma. Data were extracted, and effect estimates for changes in respiratory function, MPDA and asthma morbidity were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The prevalence of NERD in adults with asthma was 9.0% (95% CI 6-12%) using OPCTs and 9.9% (95% CI 9.4-10.5%) using self-reported history from questionnaires. The MPDA in adults with NERD was 85.8 mg (95% CI 73.9-97.6). In people with NERD, the risk of: uncontrolled asthma was increased twofold (RR 1.96 (95% CI 1.25-3.07)); severe asthma and asthma attacks was increased by 60% (RR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15-2.16) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.21-2.09), respectively); emergency room visits was increased by 80% (RR 1.79 (95% CI 1.29-2.49)); and asthma hospitalization was increased by 40% (RR 1.37 (95% CI 1.12-1.67)) compared to people with NSAID-tolerant asthma. Respiratory reactions triggered by oral aspirin in people with asthma are relatively common. At the population level, the prevalence of NERD was similar when measured using appropriately conducted OPCTs or by self-reported history. On average, respiratory reactions were triggered by clinically relevant doses of oral aspirin. Asthma morbidity was significantly increased in people with NERD who potentially require more intensive monitoring and follow-up. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The pro-active payload strategy significantly increases selective release from mesoporous nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Shahed; Steinmann, Mark; Estupiñán, Diego; Landfester, Katharina; Crespy, Daniel

    2016-11-28

    The controlled release of payloads from mesoporous silica nanocapsules (SiNCs) consisting of stimulus-responsive shells is of considerable interest in applications such as self-healing materials and drug delivery. However, the release of payloads from SiNCs before application of external triggers (i.e. non-selective release) remains a formidable challenge. In fact, the non-selective release of payloads from SiNCs occurs because of the mesoporous nature of the silica shell that cannot trap payloads in the core of SiNCs perfectly. We establish an efficient and straightforward strategy based on the encapsulation of a pro-active payload to hinder the non-selective release of small payloads from mesoporous capsules. A pro-active payload is defined as a compound that is converted to an active functional molecule in the environment where it is needed. In this sense, it is a generalization of a prodrug. Encapsulating a pro-active payload instead of a payload allowed hindering the non-selective release of the payload from SiNCs. A selective release of the payload could be achieved upon reduction of the encapsulated pro-active payload. Furthermore, the total amount of released substance is significantly enhanced by introducing responsive groups in the silica shell. These results show that the pro-active payload strategy combined with the use of stimulus-responsive materials can be successfully exploited to achieve selective release of cargo from mesoporous nanocapsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Significant increase in the stability of rare gas hydrides on insertion of beryllium atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekharan, T; Ghanty, Tapan K

    2007-09-21

    Chemical binding between a rare gas atom with other elements leading to the formation of stable chemical compounds has received considerable attention in recent years. With an intention to predict highly stable novel rare gas compounds, the process of insertion of beryllium atom into rare gas hydrides (HRgF with Rg=Ar, Kr, and Xe) has been investigated, which leads to the prediction of HBeRgF species. The structures, energetic, and charge distributions have been obtained using MP2, density functional theory, and CCSD(T) methods. Analogous to the well-known rare gas hydrides, HBeRgF species are found to be metastable in nature; however, the stabilization energy of the newly predicted species has been calculated to be significantly higher than that of HRgF species. Particularly, for HBeArF molecule, it has been found to be an order of magnitude higher. Strong chemical binding between beryllium and rare gas atom has also been found in the HBeArF, HBeKrF, and HBXeF molecules. In fact, the basis set superposition error and zero-point energy corrected Be-Ar bond energy calculated using CCSD(T) method has been found to be 112 kJ/mol, which is the highest bond energy ever achieved for a bond involving an argon atom in any chemically bound neutral species. Vibrational analysis reveals a large blueshift (approximately 200 cm(-1)) of the H-Be stretching frequency in HBeRgF with respect to that in BeH and HBeF species. This feature may be used to characterize these species after their preparation by the laser ablation of Be metal along with the photolysis of HF precursor in a suitable rare gas matrix. An analysis of the nature of interactions involved in the present systems has been performed using theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). Geometric as well as energetic considerations along with the AIM results suggest a substantial covalent nature of Be-Rg bond in these systems. Thus, insertion of a suitable metal atom into rare gas hydrides is a promising way to energetically

  3. Gangrenous cholecystitis: Deceiving ultrasounds, significant delay in surgical consult, and increased postoperative morbidity!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Daniel Dante; Cropano, Catrina; Fagenholz, Peter; King, David R; Chang, Yuchiao; Klein, Eric N; DeMoya, Marc; Kaafarani, Haytham; Velmahos, George

    2015-11-01

    Gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) is difficult to diagnose preoperatively in the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. We sought to characterize preoperative risk factors and post-operative complications. Pathology reports of all patients undergoing cholecystectomy for suspected acute cholecystitis from June 2010 to January 2014 and admitted through the emergency department were examined. Patients with GC were compared with those with acute/chronic cholecystitis (AC/CC). Data collected included demographics, preoperative signs and symptoms, radiologic studies, operative details, and clinical outcomes. Thirty-eight cases of GC were identified and compared with 171 cases of AC/CC. Compared with AC/CC, GC patients were more likely to be older (57 years vs. 41 years, p < 0.001), of male sex (63% vs. 31%, p < 0.001), hypertensive (47% vs. 22%, p = 0.002), hyperlipidemic (29% vs. 14%, p = 0.026), and diabetic (24% vs. 8%, p = 0.006). GC patients were more likely to have a fever (29% vs. 12%, p = 0.007) and less likely to have nausea/vomiting (61% vs. 80%, p = 0.019) or an impacted gallstone on ultrasound (US) (8% vs. 26%, p = 0.017). Otherwise, there was no significant difference in clinical or US findings. Among GC patients, US findings were absent (8%, n = 3) or minimal (42%, n = 16). Median time from emergency department registration to US (3.3 hours vs. 2.8 hours, p = 0.28) was similar, but US to operation was longer (41.2 hours vs. 18.4 hours, p < 0.001), conversion to open cholecystectomy was more common (37% vs. 10%, p < 0.001), and hospital stay was longer (median, 4 days vs. 2 days, p < 0.0001). Delay in surgical consultation occurred in 16% of GC patients compared with 1% of AC patients (p < 0.001). Demographic features may be predictive of GC. Absent or minimal US signs occur in 50%, and delay in surgical consultation is common. Postoperative morbidity is greater for patients with GC compared with those with AC/CC. Epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic

  4. Do children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes have increased prevalence of sleep disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Avital; Gavan, Michal-Yackobovitz; Tauman, Riva; Phillip, Moshe; Shalitin, Shlomit

    2017-09-01

    Sleep has been shown to impact glucose regulation, and may be altered in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). To assess sleep characteristics in T1D patients and the possible association between sleep disturbances and diabetes-related variables. In a cross-sectional study in 154 young patients with T1D and 154 age-range-matched nondiabetic controls subjective sleep characteristics were assessed using validated questionnaires: Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale (ASWS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Clinical and disease-related variables were obtained from medical charts. Sleep disorders were frequent in all age groups, with no significant difference in prevalence or total scores of the SDSC, ASWS, PSQI, or ESS between the patients and the controls. In T1D children, SDSC score was significantly higher in those using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) vs glucose meters (P = .042). The score of disorders related to "initiating and maintaining sleep" was significantly higher in those treated with pumps vs patients treated with injections (P = .014), in those using CGM vs glucose meters (P = .02), and in those with nocturnal hypoglycemia vs those without (P = .023). The percentage of children with excessive daytime sleepiness was significantly lower in patients vs controls (P = .035). No significant differences were found in the other two age groups. The prevalence of sleep disorders among most of the young T1D patients was no higher than in the nondiabetic population. Studies using objective sleep measures are warranted to further assess sleep quality in T1D patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

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    Mills Edward

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries. Discussion Our findings show that even in the most extreme situations, where 15% of the female population was raped, where HIV prevalence among assailants was 8 times the country population prevalence, and where the HIV transmission rate was highest at 4 times the average high rate, widespread rape increased the absolute HIV prevalence of these countries by only 0.023%. These projections support the finding that widespread rape in conflict-affected countries in SSA has not incurred a major direct population-level change in HIV prevalence. However, this must not be interpreted to say that widespread rape does not pose serious problems to women's acquisition of HIV on an individual basis or in specific settings. Furthermore, direct and indirect consequences of sexual violence, such as physical and psychosocial trauma, unwanted pregnancies, and stigma and discrimination cannot be understated. Summary The conclusions of this article do not significantly change current practices in the field from an operational perspective. Proper care and treatment must be provided to every survivor of rape regardless of the epidemiological effects of HIV transmission at the population level. Sexual violence must be treated as a protection issue and not solely a reproductive health and psychosocial issue. It is worth publishing data and conclusions that could be

  6. Thyroid Incidentaloma Detected by Time-Resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 3T: Prevalence and Clinical Significance

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    Choi, Nami; Moon, Won Jin; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo [Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To determine the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas detected by time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (TRMRA) and to evaluate their clinical significance by using an ultrasonographic (US) and cytologic correlation. We retrospectively reviewed 2010 consecutive TRMRA examinations performed at our institution between August 2006 and April 2010. The TRMRA findings of thyroid incidentalomas were analyzed according to location, size, as well as vascularity, and were correlated with the US findings and cytologic results. Each nodule was classified as suspiciously malignant, indeterminate or probably benign according to the US criteria recommended by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. A total of 102 incidentalomas were detected in 90 of 2010 patients (5%). TRMRA showed homogenous hypervascularity in 48 (47%), inhomogeneous hypervascularity in 46 (45%), and hypovascularity in 8 (8%) thyroid nodules. At follow-up study, out of 26 patients with 30 incidentalomas on TRMRA, 27 nodules were identified on US. Of the 27 nodules, 24 (89%) nodule were classified as indeterminate, two (7%) as probably benign, and one (4%) as suspiciously malignant. Among the 16 nodules with available cytopathologic results, 14 (82%) were benign, one (6%) was indeterminate, and one (6%) was malignant. Thyroid incidentalomas are found in 5% of TRMRA examinations. Although their presence does not necessarily indicate malignancy, nonspecific findings of detected incidentalomas on TRMRA require further evaluation by US.

  7. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Sterile Intra-amniotic Inflammation in Patients with Preterm Labor and Intact Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Miranda, Jezid; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Gotsch, Francesca; Dong, Zhong; Ahmed, Ahmed I.; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kim, Chong J.; Yeo, Lami

    2014-01-01

    Problem Inflammation and infection play a major role in preterm birth. The purpose of this study was to: 1) determine the prevalence and clinical significance of sterile intra-amniotic inflammation; and 2) examine the relationship between amniotic fluid (AF) concentrations of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and the interval from amniocentesis-to-delivery in patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation. Method of Study AF samples obtained from 135 women with preterm labor and intact membranes were analyzed using cultivation techniques as well as broad-range PCR and mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation was defined when patients with negative AF cultures and without evidence of microbial footprints had intra-amniotic inflammation (AF interleukin-6 ≥ 2.6 ng/mL). Results 1) The frequency of sterile intra-amniotic inflammation was significantly greater than that of microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation [26% (35/135) vs. 11% (15/135); (p=0.005)]; 2) patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation delivered at comparable gestational ages, had similar rates of acute placental inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes as patients with microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation; and 3) patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation and high AF concentrations of HMGB1 (≥ 8.55 ng/mL) delivered earlier than those with low AF concentrations of HMGB1 (p=0.02). Conclusions 1) sterile intra-amniotic inflammation is more frequent than microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation; and 2) we propose that danger signals participate in sterile intra-amniotic inflammation in the setting of preterm labor. PMID:25078709

  8. An Assessment of the Prevalence, Perceived Significance, and Response to Dowry Solicitation and Domestic Violence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kim A; Hassan, Shahidul

    2016-03-02

    The current study focuses on the prevalence of two pervasive gender-related crimes in Bangladesh: dowry solicitation and domestic violence. We assess victim perceptions of how these two crimes rank in significance compared with other types of crimes experienced and the actions victim households took in response. Our research builds on prior qualitative studies by making use of nation-wide household survey data, collected by the World Bank, to examine dowry and domestic violence in the context of all legal conflicts experienced by households in every administrative region of the country. The analyses show that both dowry solicitation and domestic violence rank in the top five most common crimes, including violent and non-violent crimes. Women report more experiences of dowry solicitation and domestic violence, with urban females most frequently disclosing both. Among the households that experienced multiple types of violent and non-violent crimes, 55.9% of dowry and 70.8% of domestic violence victims reported another crime ranked higher in significance. Of the households that considered these two crimes the most serious they experienced, 56.1% of dowry and 32.5% of domestic violence households took no action at all in response. Among the households that took action, most eschewed both police and state judicial institutions. Choosing to act alone or with the help of family members was the most frequent response. The findings illustrate the need for governance reforms in Bangladesh and may inform state and non-state improvement initiatives. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  10. Factors Related to Increasing Prevalence of Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Reshef, David; Berman, Stuart; Weinstock, Hillard; Sabeti, Pardis; Del Rio, Carlos; Hall, Geraldine; Hook, Edward W.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, we studied changes in ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in the United States during 2002–2007. Compared with prevalence in heterosexual men, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae infections showed a more pronounced increase in men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly through an increase in prevalence of strains also resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Moreover, that multidrug resistance profile among MSM was negatively associated with recent travel. Across the surveillance project sites, first appearance of ciprofloxacin resistance in heterosexual men was positively correlated with such resistance for MSM. The increase in prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance may have been facilitated by use of fluoroquinolones for treating gonorrhea and other conditions. The prominence of multidrug resistance suggests that using other classes of antimicrobial drugs for purposes other than treating gonorrhea helped increase the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains that are also resistant to those drugs. PMID:22840274

  11. Obesity increases the prevalence and the incidence of asthma and worsens asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, R; Moreira, P; Padrão, P; Teixeira, V H; Carvalho, P; Delgado, L; Moreira, A

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to explore the association between obesity and asthma prevalence, incidence and severity. The study included 32,644 adults, 52.6% female, from a representative sample of the 4th Portuguese National Health Survey. The following asthma definitions were used: ever asthma (ever medical doctor asthma diagnosis), current asthma (asthma within the last 12 months), current persistent asthma (required asthma medication within the last 12 months), current severe asthma (attending an emergency department because of asthma within the last 12 months), and incident asthma (asthma diagnosis within the last 12 months). Body mass index was calculated based on self-reported weight and height and categorised according to WHO classification. Logistic regression models adjusted for confounders were performed. Prevalence of ever asthma was 5.3%, current asthma 3.5%, current persistent asthma 3.0%, current severe asthma 1.4%, and incident asthma 0.2%. Prevalence of obesity was 16%, overweight 37.6%, normal weight 44.6% and underweight 0.2%. Being overweight, obesity class I and II, and obesity class III were associated with an OR (95% CI) with ever asthma 1.22 (1.21-1.24), 1.39 (1.36-1.41), 3.24 (3.08-3.40) respectively; current asthma 1.16 (1.14-1.18), 1.86 (1.82-1.90), 4.73 (4.49-4.98) respectively; current persistent asthma 1.08 (1.06-1.10), 2.06 (2.01-2.10), 5.24 (4.96-5.53), and current severe asthma 1.36 (1.32-1.40), 1.50 (1.45-1.55) and 3.70 (3.46-3.95), respectively. Considering the incidence of asthma, obesity more than quadrupled the odds (OR = 4.46, 95% CI 4.30, 4.62). Obesity is associated in a dose dependent way with an increase of prevalent and incident asthma, and it seems to increase the odds of a more persistent and severe asthma phenotype independently of socio-demographic determinants, physical activity, and dietary patterns. Our results provide rational for future lifestyle intervention studies for weight reduction in the obesity-asthma phenotype. Copyright

  12. Study on the prevalence of cystic hydatidosis and its economic significance in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Feyesa; Molla, Alemante; Bekele, Jemere

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2008 to March 2009 to assess the status of cystic hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir. Out of the total 632 cattle examined visually and manually (palpation and incision), 333 (52.69%) were found harboring hydatid cysts. A significantly higher infection was detected in older cattle (P 0.05, chi(2) = 2.148) was observed as the prevalence was 54.55% for lean cattle followed by medium (53.83%) and fat (46.88%). Of the total 333 infected, 123 (36.9%) had hydatid cysts only in the lung, 23 (6.9%) in the liver, 12 (3.6%) in the spleen, five (1.5%) in the heart, and three (0.9%) in the kidney while the rest 167 (50.2%) had multiple organ infections. Of the 530 viscera harboring hydatid cysts, the highest (52.83%) was lung followed by liver (34.15%), spleen (9.06%), heart (3.39%), and kidney (0.56%). Size assessment made on 874 cysts indicated that 308 (35.3%) were small, 251 (28.7%) medium, 89 (10.2%) large, and 226 (25.9%) were calcified. The distribution of characterized cysts in different organs based on their size was found to be statistically significant (P fertile, 47.3% sterile, and 25.9% calcified or purulent cysts. There was a significant difference in fertility of cyst from different organs (P fertile. Likewise, out of the 121 fertile cysts subjected for viability test, 68 (56.2%) were viable. Considering the current result, the total annual economic loss from organ condemnation and carcass weight loss due to bovine hydatidosis at Hawassa Municipal abattoir was estimated at 1,791,625.89 Ethiopian Birr (ETB; 1USD = 12.93ETB). Results in the study were discussed in light of the situation in different parts of Ethiopia and abroad, and finally, relevant recommendations were forwarded.

  13. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease

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    González-Pacheco H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Héctor González-Pacheco,1 Jesús Vargas-Barrón,2 Maite Vallejo,2 Yigal Piña-Reyna,3 Alfredo Altamirano-Castillo,1 Pedro Sánchez-Tapia,1 Carlos Martínez-Sánchez1 1Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Catheterization Laboratory, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, 80%–90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ≥50% determined through coronary angiography is not well described. Methods: We studied 3,447 patients with a diagnosis of ACS and significant CAD with stenosis ≥50%, as shown on angiography. We recorded the presence of conventional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we analyzed the lipid profiles within the first 24 hours of admission. We analyzed the studied population and compared findings according to sex.Results: Most patients (81.7% were male. ST-elevation myocardial infarction was present in 51.3% of patients, and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome was present in 48.7%. The most frequent risk factor was smoking, which was present in 68% of patients, followed by hypertension (57.8%, dyslipidemia (47.5%, and diabetes (37.7%. In women, the most frequent risk factors were hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, whereas in men, smoking was the most frequent. We identified at least one risk factor in 95.7% of all patients, two or three risk factors in 62%, and four risk factors in 8.6% of patients. The lipid profile analysis revealed that

  14. Prevalence and clinical significance of supra- or infraclavicular drainage on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Sato, S; Tada, A; Inai, R; Taira, N; Doihara, H; Kanazawa, S

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping by lymphoscintigraphy is helpful to evaluate extra-axillary SLNs over a wider range than the blue dye method. However, the clinical value of extra-axillary SLNs remains uncertain. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of supra- or infraclavicular drainage on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in women with breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the files of 942 consecutive breast cancer women who underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for SLN biopsy at our institution between April 2004 and March 2015. Supra- or infraclavicular drainage was detected in 5/942 women (0.5%) on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. An axillary hot spot was detected in all five women, and a positive axillary SLN was detected in four women. Breast tumor locations were the upper inner or outer quadrants in four women and the lower outer quadrant in one woman. The median follow-up period was 75 months (mean: 92; range: 26-111 months). Recurrence outside the axilla was found in three (60%) women. The woman with a negative SLN status did not undergo adjuvant chemotherapy, but developed extra-axillary lymph node recurrence 3 years after primary surgery. No patient died of metastatic breast cancer at the last follow-up. The detection of the supra- or infraclavicular SLNs on lymphoscintigraphy may provide additional staging information to tailor individual treatment regimens with regard to the potential risk of recurrence or metastasis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and significance of early repolarisation in a black African population: data of 246 individuals with cardiovascular morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Aime; Noah, Dominique Noah; Amougou, Sylvie Ndongo; Saka, Cecile

    2013-08-01

    Early repolarisation (ER) is commonly seen on electrocardiograms (ECG). Recent reports have described the relationship between ER and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The prevalence and significance of ER have not been studied in black Africans. We matched clinical and ECG records of subjects over 18 years of age who consulted a cardiac unit in two medical centres of Douala, Cameroon. A questionnaire focusing on past history of syncope or family history of sudden unexplained death (SUD) was filled in by each subject. A 12-lead ECG was recorded by a trained nurse and analysed by two independent physicians. Of the 752 ECGs recorded, we studied 246 index cases. The mean age of subjects was 45 ± 16 years and 53% were female. Almost 57% had hypertension, 41% had palpitations and 18% reported a history of syncope. ER pattern was found in 20% [slurring in three (3%), notching in 13% and both in three (7%)]. ER subjects were younger than those without (41 ± 16 vs 49 ± 16 years, p = 0.0048). Lead localisation was predominantly the laterals for the slurring pattern, whereas the inferior and lateral leads were equally involved for the notching pattern. Negative T waves in the infero-lateral leads were associated with ER (p = 0.00025). Among the subjects with syncope, 41% displayed ER and 13% did not have ER (p = 0.00014). The notching pattern seemed to be associated with syncope (p = 0.00011). Early repolarisation is frequent in black Africans, especially in the setting of cardiovascular morbidity. Early repolarisation may be associated with a past history of syncope, especially the notched pattern.

  16. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromium allergy has traditionally been caused by occupational skin contact with cement. In 1983, Danish legislation made the addition of ferrous sulphate compulsory in cement to reduce the water-soluble chromium content to not more than 2 ppm. An effect from this intervention has...... previously been demonstrated among Danish construction workers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the development of chromium allergy among patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007 in Denmark. Furthermore, to determine causative exposures in patients with chromium allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS......: A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 16,228) and charts from patients with chromium allergy were reviewed. Comparisons were made using a chi(2) test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of chromium allergy decreased significantly from...

  17. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-01-01

    of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. PARTICIPANTS......STUDY QUESTION: Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY QNSWER: OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI 2. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence....../MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. MAIN RESULT AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649...

  18. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are increasingly more prevalent among workers in small underground coal mines in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, A Scott; Attfield, Michael D

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether the prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) among United States underground miners is associated with mine size. We examined chest radiographs from 1970 to 2009 of working miners who participated in the National Coal Workers Health Surveillance Program for the presence of small and large opacities consistent with pneumoconiosis, based upon the International Labour Organization classification system. A total of 145 512 miners contributed 240 067 radiographs for analysis. From the 1990s to the 2000s, the prevalence of radiographic CWP increased among miners in mines of all sizes, while miners working in mines with fewer than 50 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of CWP compared to miners who worked in mines with 50 or more employees (pmine size was significant for all decades. Since 1999, miners from small mines were five times more likely to have radiographic evidence of PMF (1.0% of miners) compared to miners from larger mines (0.2% of miners) with a prevalence ratio of 5.0 and 95% CI 3.3 to 7.5. The prevalence of CWP among United States coal miners is increasing in mines of all sizes, while CWP and PMF are much more prevalent among workers from underground mines with fewer than 50 workers.

  19. Increasing Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation and Permanent Atrial Arrhythmias in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labombarda, Fabien; Hamilton, Robert; Shohoudi, Azadeh; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Broberg, Craig S; Chaix, Marie A; Cohen, Scott; Cook, Stephen; Dore, Annie; Fernandes, Susan M; Fournier, Anne; Kay, Joseph; Macle, Laurent; Mondésert, Blandine; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Proietti, Anna; Rivard, Lena; Ting, Jennifer; Thibault, Bernard; Zaidi, Ali; Khairy, Paul

    2017-08-15

    Atrial arrhythmias are the most common complication encountered in the growing and aging population with congenital heart disease. This study sought to assess the types and patterns of atrial arrhythmias, associated factors, and age-related trends. A multicenter cohort study enrolled 482 patients with congenital heart disease and atrial arrhythmias, age 32.0 ± 18.0 years, 45.2% female, from 12 North American centers. Qualifying arrhythmias were classified by a blinded adjudicating committee. The most common presenting arrhythmia was intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART) (61.6%), followed by atrial fibrillation (28.8%), and focal atrial tachycardia (9.5%). The proportion of arrhythmias due to IART increased with congenital heart disease complexity from 47.2% to 62.1% to 67.0% in patients with simple, moderate, and complex defects, respectively (p = 0.0013). Atrial fibrillation increased with age to surpass IART as the most common arrhythmia in those ≥50 years of age (51.2% vs. 44.2%; p congenital heart disease, with a predominantly paroxysmal pattern. However, atrial fibrillation increases in prevalence and atrial arrhythmias progressively become permanent as the population ages. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Hatfields and the McCoys: Prevalence and Significance of Mutual Antipathies among Preadolescents and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecassis, Maurissa; Hartup, Willard W.

    In this study, questions regarding the prevalence of mutual antipathies and their relation to the behavior of individual children were examined among preadolescents and adolescents. Mutual antipathies were defined as relationships in which children mutually nominated one another as least liked on a sociometric task. A distinction was drawn between…

  1. Increased prevalence of malnutrition and reduced lean body mass in overweight/obese kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Małgorzewicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are common in subjects after kidney transplantation. On the other hand, features of malnutrition are also frequently recognized in this group of patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of both abnormalities in a cohort of stable kidney recipients and to assess whether obesity precludes malnutrition in transplanted patients. We also investigated associations between the nutritional status, graft function and adipokines concentrations. The study was performed in 80 prevalent kidney transplant patients and in a control group which consisted of 23 healthy volunteers. Body composition (% of fat, lean body mass (LBM, water content was measured by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (Body Composition Manager. Nutritional status was determined by a 7–point Subjective Global Assessment (SGA, anthropometric measurements and s-albumin concentration. C–reactive protein (CRP, Il–6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 (PAI–1 were used as markers of inflammatory status. Concentration of leptin, adiponectin and visfatin were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean age was 52.4±13.9 years (45 men and 35 women. Diabetes mellitus was present in 29% (n=23 of them. Mean time after transplantation (transplantation vintage was 82.5±56.5 months (median=73 months. Mean eGFR was 41.7±14.9 ml/min (4 points MDRD, BMI was 25.7±4.2. Overweight was present in 41% of the patients and obesity in 14%. On the basis of SGA evaluation, signs of malnutrition were observed in 48% of the subjects. Malnutrition was present in 64% (21/33 of the overweight patients and in 91% (10/11 of the obese patients. Transplantation vintage was directly associated with fat mass and inversely associated with LBM. Malnourished patients (SGA had a longer transplantation vintage. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in transplanted patients as compared to controls. In multivariate analysis, leptin was an independent predictor of serum

  2. Increased Prevalence of Cerebrovascular Disease in Hospitalized Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarasa T; Cloft, Harry; Flemming, Kelly D; Kallmes, David F; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Brinjikji, Waleed

    2017-08-01

    Small studies have suggested that Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is associated with a number of cerebrovascular complications. We sought to determine whether a clinical diagnosis of EDS is associated with a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than the general population by performing a case-control study of hospitalized patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Using the 2000-2012 NIS, we performed a case-control study matching cases of EDS to controls without such a diagnosis. The prevalence of various cerebrovascular diseases between the 2 groups was compared, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for suspected comorbidities. Between 2000 and 2012, there were a total of 9067 discharges carrying a diagnosis of EDS. On univariate analysis, patients with EDS were more likely to be hospitalized for carotid dissection (.2% versus .01%, odds ratio [OR] = 18.0, confidence interval [CI] = 2.41-135.12, P cerebrovascular malformation (.1% versus .02%, OR = 5, CI = 1.10-22.85, P = .021), compared to the controls. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, race, and comorbidities, EDS patients had significantly higher odds of carotid dissection (OR = 15.02, CI = 3.08-270.87, P cerebrovascular malformation (OR = 4.67, CI = 1.20-30.87, P = .0243). Carotid and vertebral dissections, cervical and cerebral aneurysms, as well as other cerebrovascular malformations are more common in hospitalized patients with EDS compared to controls. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. State Variation in Increased ADHD Prevalence: Links to NCLB School Accountability and State Medication Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    The study's objective was to investigate whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses from 2003 to 2011 were associated with either public school consequential accountability reforms initiated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, particularly for low-income children, or with state psychotropic medication laws that prohibit public schools from recommending or requiring medication use. Logistic regression difference-in-differences models were estimated with repeated U.S. and state-representative cross-sections of responses to the 2003, 2007, and 2011 National Survey of Children's Health. Each wave included approximately 35,000 public school children between ages six and 13. From 2003 to 2007, the change in adjusted diagnostic prevalence was 2.8 percentage points higher for children ages six to 13 in households with incomes ≤185% of the federal poverty level residing in states first exposed to consequential accountability through NCLB (from 8.5% to 13.2%), compared with demographically similar children residing in other states (from 10.2% to 12.1%). From 2003 to 2011, the change in adjusted diagnostic prevalence was 2.2 percentage points lower for children ages six to 13 residing in states with a psychotropic medication law (from 8.1% to 7.8%), compared with children residing in other states (from 8.1% to 10.1%). NCLB-initiated consequential accountability reforms were associated with more ADHD diagnoses among low-income children, consistent with increased academic pressures from NCLB for this subgroup. In contrast, psychotropic medication laws were associated with fewer ADHD diagnoses, because they may indirectly reduce diagnoses via restrictions on recommending or requiring medication use. Future research should investigate whether children most affected by these policies are receiving appropriate diagnoses.

  4. Increased prevalence of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; Nawaf, Gamal; Nawaf, Fawaz; Itzhak, Baruch; Minuchin, Oscar; Vardi, Pnina

    2006-06-01

    Microvascular complications of diabetes contribute significantly to the disease morbidity. The metabolic syndrome is common among subjects with diabetes and is a very important risk factor for macrovascular complications. However, its contribution to the microvascular complication has not been assessed. To assess the risk of microvascular complications associated with the metabolic syndrome in diabetes subjects. The study group comprised 415 diabetic subjects attending a primary care clinic. The prevalence of microvascular complications was compared between 270 diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome (NCEP-III criteria) and 145 diabetic patients without. We found that as a group, diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher frequency of microvascular-related complications than diabetic subjects without the syndrome (46.6% and 26.8% respectively, P= 0.0005). These include microalbuminuria (41.5% vs. 23.9%, P= 0.013), neuropathy (10.4% vs. 7.5%, P = 0.38), retinopathy (9.6% vs. 4.1%, P = 0.046) and leg ulcers (7.9% vs. 2.8%, P = 0.044). After adjustment for age, gender, glycemic control, disease duration, lipid profile and blood pressure, metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly higher risk of microvascular complications: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for nephropathy 2.27 (1.53-3.34), neuropathy 1.77 (0.79-4.0), retinopathy 3.42 (1.2-9.87), and leg ulcers 3.57 (1.08-11.95). In addition to hyperglycemia and disease duration, the metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for the development of microvascular complications in diabetic subjects.

  5. Increased Prevalence of Cerebrovascular Disease in Hospitalized Patients with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarasa T; Cloft, Harry; Flemming, Kelly D; Kallmes, David F; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Brinjikji, Waleed

    2018-02-01

    Small studies have suggested that Marfan syndrome is associated with a number of cerebrovascular complications. We sought to determine whether a clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome is associated with a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than the general population by performing a case-control study of hospitalized patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Using the 2000-2012 NIS, we performed a case-control study matching cases of Marfan syndrome to controls without such a diagnosis. The prevalence of various cerebrovascular diseases between the 2 groups were compared, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for suspected comorbidities. Between 2000 and 2012, there were a total of 13,883 discharges carrying a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. On univariate analysis, patients with Marfan syndrome were more likely to have a primary or secondary diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke (0.5% versus 0.3%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.29, P = 0.02) as well as intracranial hemorrhage (subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] and hemorrhagic stroke) (0.3% versus 0.2%, OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05-2.82, P = 0.03). Patients hospitalized with Marfan syndrome were significantly more likely to have carotid dissection (0.3% versus 0.0%, OR = 11.69, 95% CI = 3.60-38.08, P Marfan syndrome had significantly higher odds of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02-1.43, P = 0.03), hemorrhagic stroke (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.18-2.63, P = 0.005), carotid artery dissection (OR = 11.94, 95% CI = 4.23-50.03, P Marfan syndrome when compared with controls. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased prevalence of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and its implications for malaria control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, F. H.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, C. A.; Chimsuku, L.; Kazembe, P.; Broadhead, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    To examine in pregnant women the relationship between HIV infection and malaria prevalence and to determine, in relation to HIV infection, the effectiveness of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in clearing P. falciparum infection. Descriptive cross-sectional analysis of P. falciparum prevalence in pregnant

  7. Are lifetime prevalence of impetigo, molluscum and herpes infection really increased in children having atopic dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Sayaka; Furusho, Norihiro; Uchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Shougo; Eiraku, Kunimitsu; Gondo, Chisato; Tsuji, Gaku; Hachisuka, Junichi; Fukagawa, Shuji; Kido, Makiko; Nakahara, Takeshi; Moroi, Yoichi; Hayashi, Jun; Hagihara, Akihito; Furue, Masutaka

    2010-12-01

    Cutaneous infections such as impetigo contagiosum (IC), molluscum contagiosum (MC) and herpes virus infection (HI) appear to be associated with atopic dermatitis (AD), but there are no reports of concrete epidemiological evidence. We evaluated the association of childhood AD with these infections by conducting a population-based cross-sectional study. Enrolled in this study were 1117 children aged 0-6 years old attending nursery schools in Ishigaki City, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Physical examination was performed by dermatologists, and a questionnaire was completed on each child's history of allergic diseases including AD, asthma, allergic rhinitis and egg allergy, and that of skin infections including IC, MC and HI, as well as familial history of AD. In 913 children (AD; 132), a history of IC, MC or HI was observed in 45.1%, 19.7%, and 2.5%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of having a history of IC were 1.8 times higher in AD children than in non-AD children. Meanwhile, a history of MC was significantly correlated to the male gender, but not to a personal history of AD. As for HI, we found no correlated factors in this study. The lifetime prevalence of IC was indeed higher in young children with a history of AD. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in canine samples after heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Luisa; Blagburn, Byron L; Duncan-Decoq, Rebecca; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Meinkoth, James; Gruntmeir, Jeff; Little, Susan E

    2014-11-15

    Canine serum samples may contain factors that prevent detection of antigen of Dirofilaria immitis on commercial assays, precluding accurate diagnosis. To determine the degree to which the presence of blocking antibodies or other inhibitors of antigen detection may interfere with our ability to detect circulating antigen in canine samples, archived plasma and serum samples (n=165) collected from dogs in animal shelters were tested for D. immitis antigen before and after heat treatment. Negative samples were also evaluated for their ability to block detection of D. immitis antigen in a sample from a positive dog. All 165 samples were negative prior to heating, but 11/154 (7.1%) became positive after heat treatment, a conversion that was documented and quantified on spectrophotometric plate assays, and 7/165 (4.2%) samples decreased detection of antigen when mixed with a known positive sample, suggesting some blocking ability was present. An additional 103 plasma and serum samples that tested positive prior to heating also were evaluated; the optical density of 14/101 (13.9%) increased by ≥50%, and one sample by as much as 15-fold, after heat treatment. Our results suggest that canine serum and plasma samples from dogs in the southeastern United States can contain inhibitors of D. immitis antigen detection, and that prevalence estimates of heartworm infection based on these assays would benefit from heat treatment of samples prior to testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity documented between 1994 and 2008 in Mexican college students

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    H García-Alcala1, D Cuevas-Ramos2, Ch Genestier-Tamborero1, O Hirales-Tamez1, P Almeda-Valdés2, R Mehta2, CA Aguilar-Salinas21Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; 2Department of Endocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion “Salvador Zubiran” (INC MNSZ), Mexico City, MexicoAbstract: We describe the changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 4606 students that applied to a Mexican...

  10. Increased prevalence of dental caries and poor oral hygiene in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbury, R R; Thomason, J M; Fitzgerald, J L; Steen, I N; Marshall, N J; Foster, H E

    2003-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a trend to treat juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with increasing immunosuppression to improve the long-term outcome. Poor oral hygiene and dental decay cause significant morbidity, and patients with chronic disease (who may be further immunocompromised by treatment) are at greater risk. This study investigated patients with JIA using standard measures of oral health. One hundred and forty-nine patients with JIA were included. The children were attending a regional paediatric rheumatology service and the adults were attending an adult rheumatology clinic. Random age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited from a dental teaching hospital. The structured dental examination included standard epidemiological indices of oral hygiene (gingival index, plaque index, oral cleanliness index) and dental decay [DMFT (decayed, missing or filled teeth) index]. JIA patients, at all ages, had increased levels of dental decay and poor oral hygiene. This increased level of decay was statistically significant in the patients aged 0-11 yr. Significant levels of untreated caries and increased levels of missing teeth were found in JIA, suggesting that patients with JIA had less restorative dental treatment, with tooth extraction often the chosen option for the treatment of dental decay. This is the largest study of oral health in JIA and is cross-sectional with non-diseased controls. It shows significantly increased levels of poor oral hygiene and dental decay in patients with JIA. The high levels of untreated dental decay suggest barriers to dental care. These results emphasize the role of regular dental care in the multidisciplinary management of JIA.

  11. Prevalence and prognostic significance of incidental cardiac troponin T elevation in ambulatory patients with stable coronary artery disease: Data from The Heart and Soul Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Bill P. C.; Rogers, Adam M.; Na, Beeya; Wu, Alan H. B.; Schiller, Nelson B.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The significance of troponin elevation and clinical utility of troponin testing in ambulatory patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been examined. We sought to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation in a population with stable CAD. Methods We studied 987 patients with stable CAD enrolled in the Heart & Soul study who had plasma cTnT measurements before performing exercise treadmill testing. Results Of the studied population, 58 patients or 6.2% had detectable cTnT levels, ≥0.01 ng/mL (0.01–0.72 ng/mL). During a mean follow-up period of 4.3 (0.1–6.5) years, 58.6% of participants with detectable cTnT had cardiovascular events compared with 22.5% of those without detectable cTnT (hazard ratio [HR] 3.8, 95% CI 2.6–5.4, P <.001). This association remained strong after adjustment for traditional risk factors and C-reactive protein (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.1, P = .002). However, after further adjustment for N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular function, cTnT elevation was not an independent predictor of cardiovascular events (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 0.8–2.3, P = .28). Conclusions In ambulatory patients with stable CAD, the prevalence of cTnT elevation was 6.2%. Cardiac troponin T elevation detected using the conventional troponin assay was associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but its prognostic value was not incremental over N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiographic evidence of cardiac abnormalities. PMID:19781430

  12. Prevalence, prognostic significance, and treatment of atrial fibrillation in congestive heart failure with particular reference to the DIAMOND-CHF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Brendorp, Bente; Køber, Lars

    2003-01-01

    failure and the prevalence increases with the severity of the disease. These two conditions seem to be linked together, and congestive heart failure may either be the cause or the consequence of atrial fibrillation. The prognosis of atrial fibrillation is controversial, but studies indicate that atrial...

  13. The Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Low Procalcitonin Levels Among Patients With Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Eun A; Shin, Tae Gun; Jo, Ik Joon; Hwang, Sung Yeon; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Sim, Min Seob

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of low procalcitonin (PCT) levels among patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, and to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with low PCT levels. We analyzed data from the sepsis registry for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in the emergency department. Based on a specific PCT cutoff value, patients were classified into two groups: a low PCT group, PCT septic shock in the emergency department, suggesting favorable outcomes. The prevalence of low PCT levels was significantly different according to obesity, the source of infection, C-reactive protein levels, lactate levels, bacteremia, and organ failure.

  14. Potential Increased Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality With Significant Dose Fractionation in the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B.; Little, Mark P.; Cornett, R. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Risks of noncancer causes of death, particularly cardiovascular disease, associated with exposures to high-dose ionizing radiation, are well known. Recent studies have reported excess risk in workers who are occupationally exposed to low doses at a low dose rate, but the risks of moderately fractionated exposures, such as occur during diagnostic radiation procedures, remain unclear. The Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study includes 63,707 tuberculosis patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic procedures in 1930–1952 and followed-up for death from noncancer causes in 1950–1987. We used a Poisson regression to estimate excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy of cumulative radiation dose to the lung (mean dose = 0.79 Gy; range, 0–11.60). The risk of death from noncancer causes was significantly lower in these subjects compared with the Canadian general population (P < 0.001). We estimated small, nonsignificant increases in the risk of death from noncancer causes with dose. We estimated an ERR/Gy of 0.176 (95% confidence interval: 0.011, 0.393) (n = 5,818 deaths) for ischemic heart disease (IHD) after adjustment for dose fractionation. A significant (P = 0.022) inverse dose fractionation effect in dose trends of IHD was observed, with the highest estimate of ERR/Gy for those with the fewest fluoroscopic procedures per year. Radiation-related risks of IHD decreased significantly with increasing time since first exposure and age at first exposure (both P < 0.05). This is the largest study of patients exposed to moderately fractionated low-to-moderate doses of radiation, and it provides additional evidence of increased radiation-associated risks of death from IHD, in particular, significantly increased radiation risks from doses similar to those from diagnostic radiation procedures. The novel finding of a significant inverse dose-fractionation association in IHD mortality requires further investigation. PMID:24145888

  15. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  16. Sex-specific increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently encountered cardiac arrhythmia. It is a risk factor for stroke and premature death. We studied the temporal changes in the prevalence of AF from 1976 to 1994 in a random population aged 50 to 89 years. The prevalence of AF, diagnosed from electrocar.......4% in 1976 to 1978 (odds ratio [OR] 1.0, reference) to 1.9% in 1981 to 1983 (OR 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.1), and to 3.3% in 1991 to 1994 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.4, p...

  17. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Elderly Population: 2001?2010

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Miao; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wu, Lei; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoying; He, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year?s change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Results A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female)...

  18. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  19. Increased Prevalence of Intermittent Rhythmic Delta or Theta Activity (IRDA/IRTA) in the Electroencephalograms (EEGs) of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Fleck, Max; Bartels, Susanne; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Perlov, Evgeniy; Endres, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA), the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the frequency of EEG abnormalities in a carefully analyzed psychiatric collective. Following earlier reports, we hypothesized an increased prevalence of EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. We recruited 96 consecutive patients with BPD from the archive of a university clinic for psychiatry and psychotherapy, and compared the prevalence of EEG abnormalities to those of 76 healthy controls subjects. The EEGs were rated by three different blinded clinicians, including a consultant specializing in epilepsy from the local epilepsy center. We found a significant increase in the prevalence of IRDAs and IRTAs in BPD patients (14.6%) compared to the control subjects (3.9%; p = 0.020). In this blinded retrospective case-control study, we were able to confirm an increased prevalence of pathological EEG findings (IRDAs/IRTAs only) in BPD patients. The major limitation of this study is that the control group was not matched on age and gender. Therefore, the results should be regarded as preliminary findings of an open uncontrolled, retrospective study. Future research performing prospective, controlled studies is needed to verify our findings and answer the question of whether such EEG findings might predict a positive response to anticonvulsive pharmacological treatment.

  20. Increased prevalence of intermittent rhythmic delta or theta activity (IRDA/IRTA in the electroencephalograms (EEGs of patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger eTebartz Van Elst

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD. In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA, the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the frequency of EEG abnormalities in a carefully analyzed psychiatric collective. Following earlier reports, we hypothesized an increased prevalence of EEG abnormalities in BPD patients.Participants and Methods: We recruited 96 consecutive patients with BPD from the archive of a university clinic for psychiatry and psychotherapy, and compared the prevalence of EEG abnormalities to those of 76 healthy controls subjects. The EEGs were rated by three different blinded clinicians, including a consultant specializing in epilepsy from the local epilepsy center.Results: We found a significant increase in the prevalence of IRDAs and IRTAs in BPD patients (14.6% compared to the control subjects (3.9%; p=0.020. Discussion: In this blinded retrospective case-control study, we were able to confirm an increased prevalence of pathological EEG findings (IRDAs/IRTAs only in BPD patients. The major limitation of this study is that the control group was not matched on age and gender. Therefore, the results should be regarded as preliminary findings of an open uncontrolled, retrospective study. Future research performing prospective, controlled studies is needed to verify our findings and answer the question of whether such EEG findings might predict a positive response to anticonvulsive pharmacological treatment.

  1. Prevalence of increased canine pancreas-specific lipase concentrations in young dogs with parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalli, Irida V; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Patsika, Michael N; Pardali, Dimitra; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Menexes, George; Brellou, Georgia D; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic abnormalities during canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis have not been studied prospectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of canine serum pancreas-specific lipase (Spec cPL) concentration in dogs with CPV enteritis for the presence of acute pancreatitis (AP). Puppies with naturally occurring CPV enteritis were recruited and prospectively allocated into 2 groups according to normal or increased serum Spec cPL concentration. Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and pancreas-associated variables were compared between groups, and the impact of possible AP on disease course, duration of hospitalization, and outcome was assessed. Serum Spec cPL concentration in 35 puppies was above the upper limit of the RI in 17/35 (48.6%) dogs (Group A) and within the RI in 18 dogs (Group B). An increased serum lipase activity was present in 29/35 (82.9%) dogs, and Group A dogs had a higher serum lipase activity than Group B (P = .006). Serum Spec cPL in Group A dogs was positively correlated with serum lipase activity at the day of presentation (r = .667; P = .003) and day of discharge (r = .628; P = .007). No statistically significant difference was found between groups (P = .233) for the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (6/17 or 35.3% dogs Group A, and 8/18 or 44.4% dogs Group B), the disease course, duration of hospitalization, or outcome between groups. Increased serum Spec cPL is relatively common in dogs with CPV enteritis. However, such increases do not seem to correlate with the outcome of disease. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Further increase of obesity prevalence in Chinese children and adolescents--cross-sectional data of two consecutive samples from the city of Shanghai from 2003 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miaoying; Guo, Fengxia; Tu, Yuezhen; Kiess, Wieland; Sun, Chengjun; Li, Xi; Lu, Wei; Luo, Feihong

    2012-11-01

    Putative changes in the prevalence of obesity in Chinese children and adolescents in Shanghai, one of the most urbanized areas in China, were analyzed in a cross-sectional manner in 2003-2008. One urban and one suburban district were randomly selected. 70,582 students in 2003 and 86,355 students in 2008 from schools from within the two districts were examined. Anthropometric parameters were measured in all. Adiposity status was estimated using body mass index according to International Obesity Task Force standards. The prevalence of obesity was analyzed. The standardized prevalence of overweight significantly increased from 12.75 to 14.2% (p Chinese children in the Shanghai area. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Obesity in older adults is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, Noor; Snijder, Marieke B; Deeg, Dorly J H; Seidell, Jaap C; Visser, Marjolein

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between BMI and pain. This prospective study investigated the associations of measured BMI and waist circumference with prevalent and incident pain in older adults. The study included participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, aged 55-85

  4. Obesity in older adults is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, N.; Snijder, M.B.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Seidell, J.C.; Visser, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between BMI and pain. This prospective study investigated the associations of measured BMI and waist circumference with prevalent and incident pain in older adults. The study included participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, aged 55-85

  5. High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…

  6. Increasing prevalence of coeliac disease in Denmark: a linkage study combining national registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dydensborg, Stine; Toftedal, Peter; Biaggi, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Aim:  To determine the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed coeliac disease (CD) in Danish children and adolescents and to describe trends over time. Methods:  All children with a CD diagnosis registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) were included in the study. Data were validated...

  7. Increasing Prevalence of US Elementary School Gardens, but Disparities Reduce Opportunities for Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Eliason, Meghan; Sandoval, Anna; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the prevalence of school garden programs at US public elementary schools. The study examined time trends, demographic and regional disparities, and associations with related programs such as farm-to-school. Methods: Annual surveys were gathered from nationally representative samples of elementary schools between 2006-2007…

  8. Increased genetic variance of BMI with a higher prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Ängquist, Lars

    2011-01-01

    populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI....

  9. Increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes among the Status Aboriginal population in urban and rural Alberta, 1995-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey A; Vermeulen, Stephanie U; Toth, Ellen L; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Ralph-Campbell, Kelli; Hugel, Greg; King, Malcolm; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2009-01-01

    To compare changes in diagnosed diabetes prevalence and incidence among Status Aboriginal men and women living in urban and rural areas of Alberta. We compared trends in diabetes prevalence and incidence from 1995 to 2006 based on diagnostic codes from Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW) administrative records for adults aged 20 years and older. The AHW Registry file was used to determine registered Aboriginal status, as well as rural and urban residence (based on postal code). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare diabetes rates over time, by sex and location of residence. Age- and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence increased 35% in rural Status Aboriginals, from 10.9 (10.4-11.5) per 100 in 1995 to 14.7 (14.2-15.2) per 100 in 2006. Rates in urban Status Aboriginals increased 22% in the same time period from 9.4 (8.5-10.3) per 100 in 1995 to 11.5 (10.9-12.1) per 100 in 2006. The increases in prevalence were greater (p increased 45% in Status Aboriginal men, from 7.4 (4.9-10.6) per 1000 in 1995 to 10.7 (8.3-13.5) per 1000 in 2006 in urban locations, compared to a 35% increase among Status Aboriginal men living in rural locations (p = 0.628). Among Status Aboriginal women, incidence increased by 25% for those living in urban locations, but did not change for those in rural locations (p = 0.109). Prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes were highest in Status Aboriginal women, but these rates have increased faster in men over the past decade, regardless of their location of residence.

  10. Large increase in the prevalence of self-reported diabetes based on a nationally representative survey in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domján, Beatrix A; Ferencz, Viktória; Tänczer, Tímea; Szili-Janicsek, Zsófia; Barkai, László; Hidvégi, Tibor; Jermendy, György; Kempler, Péter; Winkler, Gábor; Gerő, László; Tabák, Adam G

    2017-04-01

    To estimate and compare the prevalence of self-reported diabetes based on nationally representative surveys of the Hungarian adult population in 2002 (published data - Hungarostudy) and a survey in 2012. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey on a stratified representative sample of community-dwelling adults (n=1000) in 2012. To describe self-reported diabetes prevalence and its temporal changes generalized linear models were used and results were compared to figures from Hungarostudy. Age standardized prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes was 11.7% (95%CI 10.0-13.8%) without gender or rural-urban differences in 2012. People with self-reported diabetes were older than controls (mean [SE]: 63.9 [0.9] vs. 45.9 [0.3] years, p<0.0001). The prevalence of diabetes sharply increased after 40 years of age and peaked at age 70 (27.7% [2.5], p age*age <0.0001). The prevalence of self-reported diabetes increased by 89% (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.53-2.32) from 6.2 to 11.7% between the two surveys with the most pronounced increase in the age group 55-64 years (from 11.6 to 24.4%). We reported an alarming increase in the prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes in the last decade that mostly affects working age people. If this trend continues, a major public health crisis in Hungary can be envisaged. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Syncope in Brugada syndrome: prevalence, clinical significance, and clues from history taking to distinguish arrhythmic from nonarrhythmic causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; Vink, Arja S.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; de Lange, Freek J.; de Jong, Jonas S. S. G.; Wieling, Wouter; van Dijk, Nynke; Tan, Hanno L.

    2015-01-01

    Syncope in Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients is a sign of increased risk for sudden cardiac death and usually is ascribed to cardiac arrhythmias. However, syncope often occurs in the general population, mostly from nonarrhythmic causes (eg, reflex syncope). The purpose of this study was to distinguish

  12. Interspecific rice hybrid of Oryza sativa x Oryza nivara reveals a significant increase in seed protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed A; Sukumar, S; Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-01-23

    Wild species offer a potential reservoir of genetic variation for crop improvement. Besides the valuable genes for disease resistance that the wild species have provided for rice improvement, recent studies have shown that these wild species could also provide favorable alleles for the improvement of yield and yield-related traits. The present study reports yet another potential of wild relatives of rice, which involves the improvement of seed protein content. A significant increase in seed protein content was observed in an interspecific hybrid between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and the wild species Oryza nivara. The hybrid showed a protein content of 12.4%, which was 28 and 18.2% higher than those of the parents O. nivara and IR 64, respectively. The increase in protein content was dependent on the genetic background of the rice variety used in the hybridization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of seed storage proteins demonstrated that a significant increase in prolamins and glutelins was mainly responsible for the elevated protein content of the hybrid. Amino acid analysis of seed proteins revealed that the hybrid had net gains of 19.5% in lysine and 19.4% in threonine over the O. nivara parent on a seed dry weight basis. Molecular analysis indicated that the increase in protein content of the hybrid was not a result of chromosomal rearrangements or transposable element activation, at least in the chromosomal regions containing seed storage protein genes. A preliminary genetic analysis of the F 2 segregating population showed that the inheritance of the increased protein content was polygenic in nature. The development of this interspecific hybrid offers a great potential for selecting new rice cultivars that combine the high yield and superior cooking quality of IR 64 with improved seed protein content.

  13. Rural to urban migration is associated with increased prevalence of childhood wheeze in a Latin-American city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro; Vaca, Maritza G; Chico, Martha E; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cooper, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    The urbanisation process has been associated with increases in asthma prevalence in urban and rural areas of low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, although rural to urban migration and migration between cities are considered important determinants of this process, few studies have evaluated the effects of internal migration on asthma in urban populations of LMICs. The present study evaluated the effects of internal migration on the prevalence of wheeze in an urban area of Latin America. We did a cross-sectional analysis of 2510 schoolchildren living in the city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between childhood wheeze and different aspects of migration among schoolchildren. 31% of schoolchildren were migrants. Rural to urban migrants had a higher prevalence of wheeze, (adj.OR=2.01,95% CI1.30 to 3.01, p=0.001) compared with non-migrants. Age of migration and time since migration were associated with wheeze only for rural to urban migrants but not for urban to urban migrants. Children who had migrated after 3 years of age had a greater risk of wheeze (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.97, p=0.001) than non-migrants while migrants with less than 5 years living in the new residence had a higher prevalence of wheeze than non-migrants (migration is associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze among schoolchildren living in a Latin-American city. Age of migration and time since migration were important determinants of wheeze only among migrants from rural areas. A better understanding of the social and environmental effects of internal migration could improve our understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma and differences in prevalence between urban and rural populations.

  14. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm) is the primary etiologic factor associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The outgrowth of these keratinocyte-derived skin lesions is enhanced by the ability of UVB to impair an immune response that would otherwise...... eliminate them. Studies in a range of inbred mouse strains as well as mast cell-depleted mice reconstituted with mast cell precursors support a functional link between histamine-staining dermal mast cells and the extent of susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. Humans, like mouse strains......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...

  15. Increased prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Knudsen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without...... manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design. METHODS: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years) were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus......-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers. RESULTS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C had more hypertension (40% versus 25%, prevalence ratio [PR] 1.6; 95...

  16. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Holocaust survivors: the pain behind the agony. Increased prevalence of fibromyalgia among Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, J N; Cohen, H; Eisinger, M; Buskila, D

    2010-01-01

    To assess the frequency of fibromyalgia among a population of Holocaust survivors in Israel as well as the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and concurrent psychiatric symptoms, including depression and anxiety among survivors. Eighty-three survivors of the Nazi Holocaust and 65 age-matched individuals not exposed to Nazi occupation were recruited. Physical examination and manual tender point assessment was performed for the establishment of the diagnosis of fibromyalgia and information was collected regarding quality of life (SF-36), physical function and health (FIQ), psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) and PTSD symptoms (CAPS). Significantly increased rates of fibromyalgia were identified among Holocaust survivors compared with controls (23.81% vs. 10.94, pHolocaust survivors six decades after the end of the Second World War. This finding furthers our knowledge regarding the long-term effect of stress on the development of fibromyalgia.

  18. Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe--evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Eaton

    Full Text Available Recent data from the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, a general-population open HIV cohort study, suggested that between 2004 and 2007 HIV prevalence amongst males aged 15-17 years in eastern Zimbabwe increased from 1.20% to 2.23%, and in females remained unchanged at 2.23% to 2.39%, while prevalence continued to decline in the rest of the adult population. We assess whether the more likely source of the increase in adolescent HIV prevalence is recent sexual HIV acquisition, or the aging of long-term survivors of perinatal HIV acquisition that occurred during the early growth of the epidemic. Using data collected between August 2006 and November 2008, we investigated associations between adolescent HIV and (1 maternal orphanhood and maternal HIV status, (2 reported sexual behaviour, and (3 reporting recurring sickness or chronic illness, suggesting infected adolescents might be in a late stage of HIV infection. HIV-infected adolescent males were more likely to be maternal orphans (RR = 2.97, p<0.001 and both HIV-infected adolescent males and females were more likely to be maternal orphans or have an HIV-infected mother (male RR = 1.83, p<0.001; female RR = 16.6, p<0.001. None of 22 HIV-infected adolescent males and only three of 23 HIV-infected females reported ever having had sex. HIV-infected adolescents were 60% more likely to report illness than HIV-infected young adults. Taken together, all three hypotheses suggest that recent increases in adolescent HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe are more likely attributable to long-term survival of mother-to-child transmission rather than increases in risky sexual behaviour. HIV prevalence in adolescents and young adults cannot be used as a surrogate for recent HIV incidence, and health systems should prepare for increasing numbers of long-term infected adolescents.

  19. Increased prevalence of VNTR III of the insulin gene in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Hariklia; Anastasiou, Eleni; Thalassinou, Louminitsa; Sarika, Helen-Leda; Philippou, George; Alevizaki, Maria

    2007-05-01

    The VNTR polymorphism in the promoter region of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) affects transcription rate and has been associated with insulin resistance and DM2. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a multifactorial disorder, where both impaired insulin secretion and action may be involved. The aim of the study was to examine the distribution of the INS-VNTRs in women with GDM and to investigate possible associations with features of beta cell function and glycaemic control in this population. One hundred and sixty-one women with GDM and 111 normal pregnant women (n) were genotyped for INS-VNTR during the 24th-32nd pregnancy week. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during the diagnostic OGTT. The majority of the previous GDM women were also examined at 3-6 months post-partum. VNTR class III/III genotype was significantly more frequent in the GDM group 8.7% versus 2.7%, p=0.02 giving an OR of 3.97 (1.1-14.29). An increased frequency of the VNTR class III allele was found in those GDM women who required insulin for treatment compared to those controlled with diet alone (12.4% versus 4%, pwomen homozygous for the class III allele without reaching statistical significance (p=0.09). The INS-VNTR class III is more frequent in women who develop GDM, and may be associated with decreased ability of the beta cell to meet the increased insulin requirements as reflected by the need for insulin supplementation for adequate glycaemic control.

  20. The Intracranial Volume Pressure Response in Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients: Clinical Significance of the Volume Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Hsin; Lee, Ching-Yi

    2016-01-01

    For patients suffering from primary brain injury, monitoring intracranial pressure alone is not enough to reflect the dynamic intracranial condition. In our previous study, a segment of the pressure-volume curve can be expressed by the parabolic regression model with single indicator "a". The aim of this study is to evaluate if the indicator "a" can reflect intracranial conditions. Patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and/or hydrocephalus who had external ventricular drainage from January 2009 to February 2010 were included. The successive volume pressure response values were obtained by successive drainage of cerebral spinal fluid from intracranial pressure 20-25 mm Hg to 10 mm Hg. The relationship between withdrawn cerebral spinal fluid volume and intracranial pressure was analyzed by the parabolic regression model with single parameter "a". The overall mean for indicator "a" was 0.422 ± 0.046. The mean of "a" in hydrocephalus was 0.173 ± 0.024 and in severe intracranial mass with slender ventricle, it was 0.663 ± 0.062. The two extreme intracranial conditions had a statistical significant difference (ppressure-volume curve can reflect the dynamic intracranial condition and is comparable in different situations. A significantly larger indicator "a" with increased intracranial pressure is always observed in severe intracranial mass lesions with cerebral edema. A significantly smaller indicator "a" with increased intracranial pressure is observed in hydrocephalus. Brain computed tomography should be performed early if a rapid elevation of indicator "a" is detected, as it can reveal some ongoing intracranial pathology prior to clinical deterioration. Increased intracranial pressure was frequently observed in patients with intracranial pathology. The progression can be differentiated using the pattern of the volume pressure indicator.

  1. The prevalence, diagnostic significance and demographic characteristics of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ihara, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of first-rank symptoms (FRSs) remains uncertain. Ethnic differences in FRSs may account for high rates of schizophrenia in minority groups. This study aims to examine the prevalence of FRSs in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses stratified by relevant demographic variables. SAMPLING AND METHOD: We identified everyone aged 16-64 presenting with their first psychosis over 2 years in 3 UK centres.

  2. Significant increase of light emission efficiency by in situ site-selective etching of InGaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhilai

    2009-07-01

    An indium post-treatment of the InGaN epilayers was employed for InGaN-to-GaN interface modification. We find that the treatment could lead to selective etching of the InGaN epilayers around threading dislocations (TDs) due to preferential etching of the chemically active step-correlated TDs and formation of indium-rich InGaN nanostructures on the smooth InGaN surface. The intentionally formed V-shaped pits by site-selective etching of the InGaN epilayers resulted in an increased surface potential barrier at the pit sidewalls due to the relatively thin InGaN single quantum well. The increased energy bandgap of the InGaN active layers around the TDs cores caused the lateral carrier confinement away from nonradiative recombination at the defects and thus significantly enhanced the light emission efficiency.

  3. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  4. Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes.

  5. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  6. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  7. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  8. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  9. The prevalence and clinical significance of sonographic tendon abnormalities in asymptomatic ballet dancers: a 24-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Jules; Cook, Jill L; Malliaras, Peter; McCormack, Moira; Calleja, Michelle; Clarke, Andrew; Connell, David

    2013-01-01

    Sonographic abnormalities of the achilles and patellar tendons are common findings in athletes, and tendinopathy is a common cause of pain and disability in athletes. However, it is unclear whether the sonographic changes are pathological or adaptive, or if they predict future injury. We undertook a cohort study to determine what sonographic features of the achilles and patellar tendons are consistent with changes as a result of ballet training, and which may be predictive of future development of disabling tendon symptoms. The achilles and patellar tendons of 79 (35 male, 44 female) professional ballet dancers (members of the English Royal Ballet) were examined with ultrasound, measuring proximal and distal tendon diameters and assessing for the presence of hypoechoic change, intratendon defects, calcification and neovascularity. All subjects were followed for 24 months for the development of patellar tendon or achilles-related pain or injury severe enough to require time off from dancing. Sonographic abnormalities were common among dancers, both male and female, and in both achilles and patellar tendons. Disabling tendon-related symptoms developed in 10 dancers and 14 tendons: 7 achilles (3 right, 4 left) and 7 patellar (2 right, 5 left). The presence of moderate or severe hypoechoic defects was weakly predictive for the development of future disabling tendon symptoms (p=0.0381); there was no correlation between any of the other sonographic abnormalities and the development of symptoms. There was no relationship between achilles or patellar tendons' diameter, either proximal or distal, with an increased likelihood of developing tendon-related disability. The presence of sonographic abnormalities is common in ballet dancers, but only the presence of focal hypoechoic changes predicts the development of future tendon-related disability. This suggests that screening of asymptomatic individuals may be of use in identifying those who are at higher risk of developing

  10. Syncope in Brugada syndrome: prevalence, clinical significance, and clues from history taking to distinguish arrhythmic from nonarrhythmic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Vink, Arja S; Wilde, Arthur A M; de Lange, Freek J; de Jong, Jonas S S G; Wieling, Wouter; van Dijk, Nynke; Tan, Hanno L

    2015-02-01

    Syncope in Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients is a sign of increased risk for sudden cardiac death and usually is ascribed to cardiac arrhythmias. However, syncope often occurs in the general population, mostly from nonarrhythmic causes (eg, reflex syncope). The purpose of this study was to distinguish arrhythmic events from nonarrhythmic syncope in BrS and to establish the clinical relevance of nonarrhythmic syncope. We reviewed the patient records of 342 consecutively included BrS patients and conducted systematic interviews in 141 patients with aborted cardiac arrest (ACA) or syncope. In total, 23 patients (7%) experienced ECG-documented ACA and 118 (34%) syncope; of these 118, 67 (57%) were diagnosed with suspected nonarrhythmic syncope. Compared to suspected nonarrhythmic syncope patients, ACA patients were older at first event (45 vs 20 years), were more likely to be male (relative risk 2.1) and to have urinary incontinence (relative risk 4.6), and were less likely to report prodromes. ACA was never triggered by hot/crowded surroundings, pain or other emotional stress, seeing blood, or prolonged standing. During follow-up (median 54 months), ACA rate was 8.7% per year among ACA patients and 0% per year among suspected nonarrhythmic syncope patients. Syncope, especially nonarrhythmic syncope, often occurs in BrS. The high incidence of nonarrhythmic syncope must be taken into account during risk stratification. Arrhythmic events and nonarrhythmic syncope may be distinguished by clinical characteristics (absence of prodromes and, particularly, specific triggers), demonstrating the importance of systematic history taking. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) registry VII: prevalence and clinical significance of serositis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Bai, W; Zhu, P; Zhang, X; Liu, S; Wu, L; Ma, L; Bi, L; Zuo, X; Sun, L; Huang, C; Tian, X; Li, M; Zhao, Y; Zeng, X

    2016-05-01

    To investigate both the prevalence and clinical characteristics of serositis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a large cohort in the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) database. A prospective cross-sectional study of patients with SLE was conducted based on the data from the CSTAR registry. Serositis was defined according to the 1999 revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE - that is, pleuritis/pleural effusion and/or pericarditis/pericardial effusion detected by echocardiography, chest X-ray or chest computerized tomography (CT) scan. Peritonitis/peritoneal effusion were confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. We analysed the prevalence and clinical associations of serositis with demographic data, organ involvements, laboratory findings and SLE disease activity. Of 2104 patients with SLE, 345 were diagnosed with serositis. The prevalence of lupus nephritis (LN), interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as the presence of leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypocomplementemia and anti-dsDNA antibodies was significantly higher in patients with serositis (P Lupus-related peritonitis had similar clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles as serositis caused by SLE. There is a significant association of nephropathy, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, hypocomplementemia, leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated anti-dsDNA antibodies with serositis. The results suggest that higher SLE disease activity contributes to serositis development, and should be treated aggressively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Anti beta 2glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss: prevalence and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, M; Aoki, K; Matsuura, E; Sasa, H; Yagami, Y

    1996-12-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were found to recognize beta 2glycoprotein I (beta 2GPI) structure altered by its interaction with an oxygen modified solid phase surface by gamma-ray radiation. Lupus anticoagulant (LA) has been reported to comprise anti prothrombin antibodies, anti factor X antibodies and anti beta 2GPI antibodies. The present study focuses on the possible association between antibodies against the altered beta 2GPI structure (anti beta 2GPI antibodies) and LA in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Moreover, the clinical significance of both subgroups of so-called antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated to cast light on the controversy of whether aCL and LA are risk factors for pregnancy losses. One hundred and ninety five women with a history of two or more unexplained consecutive miscarriages and 100 control pregnant women were tested. Lupus anticoagulant was detected by the dilute phospholipid activated partial thromboplastin time. Anti beta 2GPI antibodies were measured by the ELISA method using commercially oxygenated microtiter plates. Twenty two (11.3%) and 19 (9.7%) of the 195 recurrent aborters were, respectively, positive for LA and anti beta 2GPI antibodies. Seven (3.6%) of the aborters had both of them. None of the control pregnant women had LA. Three of the control pregnant women had anti beta 2GPI antibodies. Nine (40.9%) of 22 aborters with positive-LA had a history of miscarriages in the second trimester as compared to 8 (4.6%) of 173 aborters with negative-LA. (P = 0.000007, Odds ratio = 14.3). None of the 12 aborters with anti beta 2GPI antibodies but no LA had a history of second trimester-fetal loss. These results support the hypothesis that aCL and LA define two distinct but partly related populations and that aCL include two subtypes of antibodies, with and without LA activity. LA and anti beta 2GPI antibodies appear to be associated with pregnancy loss, with LA being linked not only to abortions in the first

  13. The GIP/GIPR axis is functionally linked to GH-secretion increase in a significant proportion of gsp- somatotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzo, D; Losa, M; Albiger, N M; Terreni, M R; Vazza, G; Ceccato, F; Emanuelli, E; Denaro, L; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G

    2017-05-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor ( GIPR ) overexpression has been recently described in a proportion of gsp - somatotropinomas and suggested to be associated with the paradoxical increase of GH (GH-PI) during an oral glucose load. This study was aimed at linking the GIP/GIPR pathway to GH secretion in 25 somatotropinomas-derived primary cultures and correlating molecular with clinical features in acromegalic patients. Given the impairment of the GIP/GIPR axis in acromegaly, an additional aim was to assess the effect of GH/IGF-1 stimulation on GIP expression in the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Nearly 80% of GIPR -expressing somatotropinomas, all of them negative for gsp mutations, show increased GH secretion upon GIP stimulation, higher sensitivity to Forskolin but not to somatostatin analogs. Besides increased frequency of GH-PI, GIPR overexpression does not appear to affect acromegalic patients' clinical features. In STC-1 cells transfected with GIP promoter-driven luciferase vector, IGF-1 but not GH induced dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity. We demonstrate that GIPR mediates the GH-PI in a significant proportion of gsp - acromegalic patients. In these cases, the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on GIP promoter support the hypothesis of a functional GH/IGF-1/GIP axis. Further studies based on larger cohorts and the development of a stable transgenic model with inducible GIPR overexpression targeted to pituitary somatotroph lineage will be mandatory to establish the real role of GIPR in the pathogenesis of somatotropinomas. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Increased RLS prevalence in children and adolescents with migraine: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Stefan; Böck, Andreas; Schlegel, Werner; Kilic, Arzu; Wagner, Gudrun; Gelbmann, Gloria; Hübenthal, Almut; Kanbur, Incifer; Natriashvili, Sofia; Karwautz, Andreas; Wöber, Christian; Wöber-Bingöl, Ciçek

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have reported an increased frequency of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in adult migraine patients. Until now, the frequency of RLS in pediatric patients has not been investigated. We set out to assess the frequency of RLS in children and adolescents with migraine compared to headache-free controls. We investigated 111 consecutive patients with a sole diagnosis of migraine with or without aura presenting to the Headache Unit at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and 73 headache-free controls for the presence of RLS using a semistructured interview. In addition, we assessed the level of daytime sleepiness by means of the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). A second group of headache-free controls was screened for the presence of RLS using an online questionnaire. The frequency of RLS in migraine patients was significantly higher than in controls (22% vs. 5% (p RLS and migraine in the pediatric population. Future studies are needed to determine the extent of sleep disruption in children and adolescents with migraine and comorbid RLS.

  15. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  16. Simulation of Jack-Up Overturning Using the Monte Carlo Method with Artificially Increased Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2010-01-01

    wave height irrespectively of the non-linearity in the system. However, the FORM analysis only gives an approximation to the mean out-crossing rate. A more exact result can be obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, but the necessary length of the time domain simulations for very low out-crossing rates...... might be prohibitive long. In such cases the property mentioned above for the FORM reliability index can be assumed valid in the Monte Carlo simulations making it possible to increase the out-crossing rates and thus reduced the necessary length of the time domain simulations by applying a larger......-linear processes the mean out-crossing rate depends non-linearly on the response level r and a good estimate can be found using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), see e.g. Jensen and Capul (2006). The FORM analysis also shows that the reliability index is strictly inversely proportional to the significant...

  17. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  18. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI 2 , n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 37), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  19. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  20. Increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that control of cardiovascular risk factors deteriorates among residents after a natural disaster. This study assessed the hypothesis that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This longitudinal study examined subjects aged 40-90 years using data collected from 26,163 participants (11,628 men and 14,535 women) sourced from general health checkups conducted in twelve communities, including the evacuation zone specified by the government, between 2008 and 2010. The study obtained 12-lead ECG tracings and conducted follow-up examinations from June 2011 to the end of March 2013. A total of 12,410 participants (5704 men and 6706 women, follow-up proportion: 47%) received follow-up examinations after the earthquake, with an average follow-up of 1.4 years. The prevalence of AF increased among participants after the earthquake (before: 1.9% vs. after: 2.4%, Pearthquake, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 3.07 (1.55-6.08) and 1.87 (1.19-2.94), respectively. The prevalence of AF increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake, with excess alcohol intake and obesity associated with an increased risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The increasing prevalence of myopia in junior high school students in the Haidian District of Beijing, China: a 10-year population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Jia; Qi, Pengcheng

    2017-06-12

    Myopia is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Although, multiple cross-sectional epidemiological studies have confirmed that there is a high prevalence of myopia in high school-aged students in China. However, few longitudinal studies have been performed to assess junior high school students. In the present study, we investigate changes in the prevalence of myopia in third year junior high school (grade 9) students in the Haidian District of Beijing, China, from 2006 to 2015. A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study was performed over 10 years. A total of 37,424 third-year middle school (grade 9) students from 8 junior high schools in Haidian district, Beijing, were included. Participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination in which they were evaluated using autorefraction under cycloplegia and submitted to retinoscopy to assess accuracy. According to the spherical equivalent refraction (SER) of the right eye, subjects were separated into the following groups: non-myopia, -0.5 ≤ SER diopters (D); low myopia, -3.0 ≤ SER  -6.0 D. The following characteristics were measured: refractive error; the proportion of subjects with non- myopia, low myopia, moderate myopia and high myopia; and the difference in the prevalence of myopia between male and female subjects. From 2006 to 2015, the prevalence of non-myopia (from 44.05% to 34.52%) and low myopia (from 32.27% to 20.73%) decreased, while the prevalence of moderate myopia (from 19.72% to 38.06%) and high myopia (from 3.96% to 6.69%) significantly increased. For refractive error, the worse eye was -2.23 ± 2.42 D (median, -1.75; range - 12.75 to +8.50) in 2006 and -3.13 ± 2.66 D (median, -2.75; range - 12.75 to +8.50) in 2015. When the entire population was considered, the overall prevalence of myopia increased from 55.95% in 2005 to 65.48% in 2015. There was a significant positive relationship between the year and the prevalence of myopia in both girls and boys. Girls were more

  2. Frontal Sinus Breach During Routine Frontal Craniotomy Significantly Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infection: 10-Year Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzey, Joseph R; Wilson, Thomas J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2017-09-01

    Frontotemporal craniotomies are commonly performed for a variety of neurosurgical pathologies. Infections related to craniotomies cause significant morbidity. We hypothesized that the risk of cranial surgical site infections (SSIs) may be increased in patients whose frontal sinuses are breached during craniotomy. To compare the rate of cranial SSIs in patients undergoing frontotemporal craniotomies with and without frontal sinus breach (FSB). We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing frontotemporal craniotomies for the management of cerebral aneurysms from 2005 to 2014. This study included 862 patients undergoing 910 craniotomies. Primary outcome of interest was occurrence of a cranial SSI. Standard statistical methods were utilized to explore associations between a variety of variables including FSB, cranial SSI, and infections requiring reoperation. Of the 910 craniotomies, 141 (15.5%) involved FSB. Of those involving FSB, 22 (15.6%) developed a cranial SSI, compared to only 56 of the 769 without FSB (7.3%; P = .001). Cranial SSI requiring reoperation was much more likely in patients with FSB compared to those without a breach (7.8% vs 1.6%; P craniotomies are at significantly greater risk of serious cranial SSIs if the frontal sinus has been breached. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  4. Prevalence of anti-histone antibodies, their clinical significance and correlation with other autoantibodies in a cohort of Italian scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, Gabriella; Bellisai, Francesca; Fineschi, Irene; Scaccia, Francesca; Pucci, Gabriella; Simpatico, Antonella; Tampoia, Marilina; Chialà, Alessandra; Lapadula, Giovanni; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2011-05-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence, clinical significance of antibodies to individual histone components and to evaluate their correlation with other autoantibody specificities in a cohort of Italian SSc patients. Some authors, demonstrated high prevalence of anti-histone antibodies in Italian SSc patients, associated with cardiac and renal involvement, suggesting a prognostic value of these autoantibodies; however, these data need to be confirmed. Serum from 112 adult SSc patients, classified as diffuse (dc) and limited cutaneous (lc) SSc subsets were analyzed for autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence, fluoroenzyme immunoassay and enzyme immunoassay. AHA were found in 13 patients (11.6%), nine with lcSSc and four with dcSSc. Among them, five patients were anti-Scl70+ and four were anti-CENP B+. The presence of AHA was not associated with multi-organ involvement or with diffuse subset, as already described. Anti-Scl70 was detected in 43% of patients, anti-CENP B in 32% and anti-RNA polymerase III in 7.1%. We confirmed the association between anti-Scl70 antibodies and pulmonary fibrosis (OR 15.75, p < 0.0001). In our experience, the very low prevalence of AHA in Italian SSc patients and the lack of association with clinical manifestations suggest that this test is of little clinical use; however, it would be worthwhile extending the study to a larger population of patients.

  5. Increased prevalence of preeclampsia among women undergoing procedural intervention for renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Chardonnay J; Taylor, Robert N; Craven, Timothy E; Edwards, Matthew S; Corriere, Matthew A

    2015-08-01

    Renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia (RA-FMD) has a higher prevalence among women and a presumed hormonal etiology. Although preeclampsia has a clinical presentation similar to symptomatic RA-FMD and occurs exclusively in women, associations between these 2 diseases have not been characterized. To explore epidemiologic associations between RA-FMD and preeclampsia, we administered a validated screening instrument for preeclampsia to a cohort of women with a history of pregnancy who had previously been treated with procedural intervention for symptomatic RA stenosis. Women with a history of pregnancy who had previously undergone procedural intervention (including angioplasty and/or bypass) for symptomatic RA stenosis were identified from a prospectively maintained operative registry and screened for remote history of preeclampsia using a validated survey instrument. Univariable associations between RA-FMD and preeclampsia among participants with a history of pregnancy were evaluated using t-tests for continuous factors and chi-squared tests for dichotomous factors. Multivariable associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. A total of 144 women were identified who met the study inclusion criteria, including 94 with atherosclerotic RA stenosis and 50 with RA-FMD. Sixty-nine patients were contacted, 59 consented to participate, and 52 had a history of pregnancy (and therefore were at risk for preeclampsia). Participants completed the survey instrument at a mean of 7.1 ± 3.1 vs. 6.9 ± 3.6 years after RA procedural intervention, respectively. Survey responses indicated a history of preeclampsia in 19/52 (36.5%) of participants overall, including 14/27 (51.9%) with RA-FMD versus 5/20 (20.0%) with RA atherosclerosis (P = 0.02). Preeclampsia remained associated with FMD in a multivariable model adjusting for smoking status, age at time of surgery, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (odds ratio [OR] 9.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-60.6, P = 0

  6. Edge effect and significant increase of the superconducting transition onset temperature of 2D superconductors in flat and curved geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Chi Ho; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The superconducting transition temperature T c in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is compared. • Being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the T c through phonon softening unless a curvature is added. • The edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on T c in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a simple method to model the curvature activated phonon softening in a 2D superconducting layer. The superconducting transition temperature T c in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is calculated by the quantum mechanical electron–phonon scattering matrix, and a series of collective lattice vibrations in the surface state. We will show that being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the T c through phonon softening. However, if a curvature is added, T c can be strongly enhanced. The increase in T c with respect to the bulk is greatest in a hollow sphere, intermediate in a hollow cylinder and weakest for the rectangular sheet, when systems of identical length scale are considered. In addition, we find that the edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on T c in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations.

  7. Increased prevalence of disordered eating in the dual diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokatly Latzer, Itay; Rachmiel, Marianna; Zuckerman Levin, Nehama; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Landau, Zohar; Ben-David, Rachel Frumkin; GrafBar-El, Chana; Gruber, Noah; Levek, Noa; Weiss, Batia; Stein, Daniel; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit

    2018-03-01

    Disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) may lead to full blown eating disorders. Both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease (CD) have been linked to DEBs. To compare the presence of DEBs between adolescents and young adults with a dual diagnosis of T1DM and CD, and individuals with only one of the diagnoses. Individuals with a dual diagnosis of T1DM and CD ("T1DM + CD group" n = 39), with a diagnosis of T1DM only ("T1DM group" n = 97) and with a diagnosis of CD only ("CD group" n = 267) filled the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) questionnaire. Those with T1DM completed in addition to the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R). The study population comprised of 403 individuals, of whom 65% were females. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in distribution of sex, age, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, age of disease diagnosis and duration. The prevalence of DEBs in the T1DM + CD group was 3-fold higher (26.0%) than in the T1DM (8.2%) and CD (8.2%) groups (P = .003). This trend was observed for both females and males. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the T1DM + CD group had an increased risk for DEBs (odds ratio, OR: 4.7, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.9-11.2, P = .001) after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Additionally, being female, older and overweight increased the risk for DEBs. HbA1c values were not associated with an increased DEBs rate. Individuals with the dual diagnoses of T1DM and CD have an increased likelihood to develop DEBs compared to those with only one of these diagnoses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Use of a nonmedicated dietary supplement correlates with increased prevalence of streptomycin-sulfa-tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Artashes R; Besser, Thomas E; Hancock, Dale D; Call, Douglas R

    2006-07-01

    We examined how a dietary supplement affects the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli on a dairy farm in Washington State. Between 2001 and 2004 the prevalence of fecal E. coli strains resistant to streptomycin, sulfadiazine, and tetracycline (SSuT strains) declined from 59.2% to 26.1% in the calf population. In 2003 the dairy discontinued use of a dietary supplement, and we hypothesized that the decline in prevalence of SSuT strains was related to this change in management. To test this we established three treatments in which calves received no supplement, the dietary supplement with oxytetracycline, or the dietary supplement without oxytetracycline. Calves receiving either dietary supplement had a significantly higher prevalence of SSuT E. coli than the no-supplement control group (approximately 37% versus 20%, respectively; P = 0.03). Importantly, there was no evidence that oxytetracycline contributed to an increased prevalence of fecal SSuT E. coli. We compared the growth characteristics of SSuT and non-SSuT E. coli in LB broth enriched with either the complete dietary supplement or its individual constituents. Both the complete dietary supplement and its vitamin D component supported a significantly higher cell density of SSuT strains (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). The dry milk and vitamin A components of the dietary supplement did not support different cell densities. These results were consistent with selection and maintenance of SSuT E. coli due to environmental components independent of antibiotic selection.

  9. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, Waleed F.; Packianathan, Satyaseelan; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A ≤3, B ≤7, C ≤14, D ≤21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered ≤3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p 3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  10. Two mutations associated with macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum: increasing prevalence and correlation with molecular strain type in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew; Sahi, Sharon K; Godornes, B Charmie; Tantalo, Lauren C; Roberts, Neal; Bostick, David; Marra, Christina M; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2012-12-01

    Although azithromycin promised to be a safe and effective single-dose oral treatment of early syphilis, azithromycin treatment failure has been documented and is associated with mutations in the 23S rDNA of corresponding Treponema pallidum strains. The prevalence of strains harboring these mutations varies throughout the United States and the world. We examined T. pallidum strains circulating in Seattle, Washington, from 2001 to 2010 to determine the prevalence of 2 mutations associated with macrolide resistance and to determine whether these mutations were associated with certain T. pallidum strain types. Subjects were enrolled in a separate ongoing study of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in patients with syphilis. T. pallidum DNA purified from blood and T. pallidum strains isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed for two 23S rDNA mutations and for the molecular targets used in an enhanced molecular stain typing system. Nine molecular strain types of T. pallidum were identified in Seattle from 2001 to 2010. Both macrolide resistance mutations were identified in Seattle strains, and the prevalence of resistant T. pallidum exceeded 80% in 2005 and increased through 2010. Resistance mutations were associated with discrete molecular strain types of T. pallidum. Macrolide-resistant T. pallidum strains are highly prevalent in Seattle, and each mutation is associated with discrete strain types. Macrolides should not be considered for treatment of syphilis in regions where prevalence of the mutations is high. Combining the resistance mutations with molecular strain typing permits a finer analysis of the epidemiology of syphilis in a community.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Factors Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Spinach Fields in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-09-01

    While rain and irrigation events have been associated with an increased prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments, quantitative data are needed to determine the effects of various spatial and temporal factors on the risk of produce contamination following these events. This study was performed to quantify these effects and to determine the impact of rain and irrigation events on the detection frequency and diversity of Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes) and L. monocytogenes in produce fields. Two spinach fields, with high and low predicted risks of L. monocytogenes isolation, were sampled 24, 48, 72, and 144 to 192 h following irrigation and rain events. Predicted risk was a function of the field's proximity to water and roads. Factors were evaluated for their association with Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation by using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). In total, 1,492 (1,092 soil, 334 leaf, 14 fecal, and 52 water) samples were collected. According to the GLMM, the likelihood of Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation from soil samples was highest during the 24 h immediately following an event (odds ratios [ORs] of 7.7 and 25, respectively). Additionally, Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolates associated with irrigation events showed significantly lower sigB allele type diversity than did isolates associated with precipitation events (P = <0.001), suggesting that irrigation water may be a point source of L. monocytogenes contamination. Small changes in management practices (e.g., not irrigating fields before harvest) may therefore reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Life Style Related Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Increased Prevalence in Saudi Arabia: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fareed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Role of life style related risk factors is very important in the pathogenesis and progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this article is to review the disease burden of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among the population of Saudi Arabia due to unhealthy life style. Methods: In this review, the information was collected from published literatures related to risk factors like unhealthy dietary pattern and sedentary life style leading to T2DM. Additionally, some epidemiological information for the prevalence of T2DM in Saudi Arabia was also collected. Results: Earlier studies have depicted that unhealthy life style and dietary patterns are risk factors involved in the development of insulin resistance in the body cells. In Saudi Arabia, rapid economic growth has provided a luxurious life style to the masses eventually leading to decrease in the physical activities and adoption of unhealthy dietary patterns. The increased prevalence of T2DM in Saudi Arabia is very much implicated to the life style related risk factors which needs to be improvise for the prevention of this disease. Conclusion: Since the increased prevalence of T2DM is associated with the sedentary life style and unhealthy dietary pattern, so it is recommended that creating awareness about the life style related risk factors for T2DM among general population and patients, will effectively contribute in lowering its incidence rate.

  13. The Increasing Prevalence of Crohn’s Disease in Industrialized Societies: The Price of Progress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron W Wells

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal system. While inflammation can activate one of a number of specific branches of the immune system, CD promotes a T helper cell type 1 (Th1 profile. The prospect that CD is a form of Th1-dominant autoimmune disease is gaining acceptance, with support from the current use of immunosuppressants. Recently, convincing evidence that the various branches of the immune system have the ability to keep each other in check has suggested that the Th1 profile of CD may stem from a greatly reduced T helper cell type 2 (Th2 immune response. A strong Th2 immune response is a characteristic of the once prevalent enteric parasitic diseases, now nearly eradicated from industrial society. This has led to the acceptance of a hygiene hypothesis, which suggests that the inverse relationship between CD and the level of a society’s industrialization is, in fact, causal -- that the lack of parasitic infections causes a weakened systemic Th2 cytokine profile, leading to elevated Th1 cytokines and, ultimately, the development of spontaneous Th1-mediated diseases such as CD. Supporting this, it has been recently demonstrated that an experimentally-induced Th2 response can help moderate Th1-dominant events in both animal and human studies. Based on this recent and convincing work, the present review focuses on the role of immunoregulation in the development of CD, with particular emphasis on the potential use of Th2-promoting agents (such as helminths or cytokines as therapeutics in the treatment or prevention of CD.

  14. Estimation and Comparison of Copper Content in Raw Areca Nuts and Commercial Areca Nut Products: Implications in Increasing Prevalence of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Philips; Austin, Ravi David; Varghese, Soma Susan; Manojkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often preceded by potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) like oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). The rate of transformation of OSMF to OSCC ranges from 3 to 19%. OSMF is etiologically related to chewing of areca nut (betel nut), a habit prevalent among the population groups in south-east Asia. Along with alkaloids, the high copper content in areca nut plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OSMF. The increased prevalence of OSMF in the last two decades or so corresponds with the increased processing and commercialization of areca nut products. Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the copper content of raw areca nuts in three different stages of maturity, and commercial areca nut products. Materials and Methods: Raw areca nut samples of three different maturities were obtained from four plantations in Sullia, Karnataka, India and commercial areca nut products were obtained from local shops in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India. The samples were grounded and subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) for copper analysis. Results: There was statistically significant difference in copper content in raw areca nuts of all three maturities (p<0.05) and was highest in the exfoliated mature nuts. Importantly copper level was significantly higher in the commercial products compared to raw areca nuts of different degrees of maturity (p<0.05). Conclusions: The copper levels in commercial products are significantly higher than that of raw areca nuts in all three stages of maturity. The increase in copper content on processing and post commercialization can be related to the increasing prevalence of OSMF. PMID:24596787

  15. Insulin pump treatment; increasing prevalence, and predictors for better metabolic outcome in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B; Johannesen, J; Fredheim, S; Svensson, J

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have looked at nationwide data for insulin pump treatment. Since 1996 the Danish Childhood Diabetes Registry (DanDiabKids) has collected data on all Danish diabetic patients aged 0-15 yr. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) use among Danish children with diabetes and to compare metabolic control in CSII-treated children and adolescents to those treated with MDI. The Registry collects on a yearly basis data on insulin regimen, central measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and demographic data on all patients. In the period 2005-2011, 2983 young patients (1721 males) with diabetes were followed in the Registry. Mean observation period was 5.11 yr [standard error (SE) 0.09]. In the total period 1846 patients were treated with MDI and 1493 changed from MDI to CSII. In 2005, less than 5% of children were treated with CSII whereas the percentage of children on CSII increased to approximately 50% in 2011. The patients were divided into age groups, 15 yr. HbA1c was significantly higher in MDI-treated children, +5.29 (CI 95% 4.29; 6.29 mmol/mol). HbA1c in all age groups was significantly lower in CSII-treated patients, and longitudinally HbA1c continued to be lower in all age groups. In multivariate analysis, a low HbA1c at CSII start, centers with more than 100 pump patients, a more recent year of diabetes onset, a higher number of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurements, a higher number of daily boluses, and a higher percentage of bolus insulin were all related to a lower HbA1c. The percentage of children on pumps (CSII) is CSII treatment is associated with a significantly lower Hba1c, achieved just after treatment initiation. In the following years there is a parallel rise in HbA1c in both MDI as well as in MDI treated patients. Patients coming from larger clinics, and patients measuring more blood glucose values and taking more boluses have a better metabolic control. © 2014 John

  16. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease

  17. Increased Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Disease Prevalence in Domestic Hybrids Among Free-Living Wild Boar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.; Hooft, van W.F.; Lutz, W.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife immune genes are subject to natural selection exerted by pathogens. In contrast, domestic immune genes are largely protected from pathogen selection by veterinary care. Introgression of domestic alleles into the wild could lead to increased disease susceptibility, but observations are

  18. Higher Levels of Lipoprotein Associated Phospholipase A2 is associated with Increased Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment: the APAC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruixuan; Chen, Shengyun; Shen, Yuan; Wu, Jianwei; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2016-09-09

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a unique circulating phospholipase with inflammatory and oxidative activities and the limited data regarding the relationship between Lp-PLA2 and cognitive impairment are conflicted. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 1,374 Chinese adults recruited from 2010 to 2011, aiming to evaluate the relationship between Lp-PLA2 levels and the prevalence of cognitive impairment in a Chinese community-based population. Participants underwent standardized evaluation. Serum Lp-PLA2 mass was measured by ELISA. Cognition status was evaluated via the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and cognitive impairment was identified as MMSE <24. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of Lp-PLA2 mass with cognitive impairment. Lp-PLA2 mass was significantly associated with the prevalence of cognitive impairment after adjusting for other potential confounding factors (compared with the first quartile, adjusted ORs of the second, third, and fourth quartile were 2.058 (95% CI, 0.876-4.835), 2.834 (95% CI, 1.255-6.398), and 4.882 (95% CI, 2.212-10.777), p < 0.0001). In conclusion, elevated level of Lp-PLA2 mass was independently associated with the prevalence of cognitive impairment in Chinese adults.

  19. The Prevalence and Significance of Overt Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Patients with Septic Shock in the Emergency Department According to the Third International Consensus Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byuk Sung Ko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence and prognostic value of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in patients with septic shock presenting to emergency departments (EDs is poorly understood, particularly following the release of a new definition of septic shock. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of DIC in septic shock. Methods We performed retrospective review of 391 consecutive patients with septic shock admitting to the ED of tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital during a 16-month. Septic shock was defined as fluid-unresponsive hypotension requiring vasopressor to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg or greater, and serum lactate level ≥ 2 mmol/L. Overt DIC was defined as an International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH score ≥ 5 points. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Results Of 391 patients with septic shock, 290 were included in the present study. The mean age was 65.6 years, the 28-day mortality rate was 26.9%, and the prevalence of overt DIC was 17.6% (n = 51 according to the ISTH score. The median DIC score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (5.0 vs. 2.0, p = 0.001. Significant higher risk of mortality was observed in overt DIC patients compared to those without (28.2% vs. 13.7%, p = 0.005. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified DIC to be independently associated with 28-day mortality (odds ratio, 2.689 [95% confidence interval, 1.390-5.201]. Conclusions Using the ISTH criteria of DIC, overt DIC in septic shock was found to be common among patients admitting to the ED and to be associated with higher mortality when it is accompanied with septic shock. Efforts are required to identify presence of overt DIC during the initial treatment of septic shock in patients presenting the the ED.

  20. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Infanger, Constantine; Bättig, Veronika; Kremo, Jürg; Widmer, Andreas F; Egli, Adrian; Bingisser, Roland; Battegay, Manuel; Erb, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey) and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea), respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years). Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (pasylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods. The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  1. Secular trends in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in a tertiary-care hospital: increasing prevalence and accelerated decline in antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an increasingly important etiologic agent of nosocomial infections in recent years. This is mainly due to the expression of virulence factors and development of resistance to several antimicrobial drugs. METHODS This retrospective study examines data obtained from the microbiology laboratory of a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital. To assess temporal trends in prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility, K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed from 2000 to 2013. The relative frequencies of K. pneumoniae isolation were calculated among all Gram-negative bacilli isolated in each period analyzed. Susceptibility tests were performed using automated systems. RESULTS: From 2000-2006, K. pneumonia isolates comprised 10.7% of isolated Gram-negative bacilli (455/4260. From 2007-2013, this percentage was 18.1% (965/5331. Strictly considering isolates from bloodstream infections, the relative annual prevalence of K. pneumoniae increased from 14-17% to 27-32% during the same periods. A progressive decrease in K. pneumoniae susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents assessed was detected. Partial resistance was also observed to antimicrobial drugs that have been used more recently, such as colistin and tigecycline. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that K. pneumoniae has become a major pathogen among hospitalized patients and confirms its recent trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

  2. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Bloch-Infanger

    Full Text Available The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations.Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea, respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years. Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001 and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017 in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4 and bacterial skin infections (n = 2 in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9, pneumonia (n = 6, Chickenpox (n = 5, other viral infections (n = 5 and bacterial skin infections (n = 5 in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods.The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  4. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    -of-interest (ROIs) within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed......There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various...... non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenital blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions...

  5. Declining Inconsistent Condom Use but Increasing HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers: Analysis From Sentinel Surveillance Sites (2010-2015), Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs).We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40-49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time.By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P preferred LTFSWs, especially older clients (81.9%).Our results suggest that HIV and syphilis infections are increasing in older clients who prefer LTFSWs. HIV and syphilis are likely increasing in Guangxi Province through heterosexual transmission.

  6. Increasing Hepatitis B Vaccine Prevalence Among Refugee Children Arriving in the United States, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kailey; Mamo, Blain; Matheson, Jasmine; Payton, Colleen; Scott, Kevin C.; Song, Lihai; Stauffer, William M.; Stone, Barbara L.; Young, Janine; Lin, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether the addition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine to national immunization programs improved vaccination rates among refugee children, a marginalized population with limited access to care. Methods. The sample included 2291 refugees younger than 19 years who completed HBV screening after arrival in the United States. Children were categorized by having been born before or after the addition of the 3-dose HBV vaccine to their birth country’s national immunization program. The outcome was serological evidence of immunization. Results. The odds of serological evidence of HBV immunization were higher for children born after the addition of HBV vaccine to their birth country’s national immunization program (adjusted odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval = 2.04, 3.15). Conclusions. National HBV vaccination programs have contributed to the increase in HBV vaccination coverage observed among US-bound refugee children. Public Health Implications. Ongoing public health surveillance is needed to ensure that vaccine rates are sustained among diverse, conflict-affected, displaced populations. PMID:27310356

  7. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  8. Clinical significance of increased serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in elderly subjects with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Luo Nanping; Sun Xiaoming; Liu Hengguo; Li Jinhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and bone r-carboxyglutamic acid protein (BGP) in elderly subjects with osteoporosis. Methods: Serum IL-6, TNF-α and BGP levels were measured with RIA in 40 elderly patients with osteoporosis, 40 elderly subjects with decreased bone density but not to the degree of osteoporosis (i.e. decreased bone mass), 35 aged controls (above 60) and 35 younger controls (below 45). Results: By definition, the bone density in patients with osteoporosis was significantly lower than that in all other groups (P<0.05-0.01) and the bone density in subjects with decreased bone mass only was also significantly lower than that in younger controls (P<0.01). The serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with osteoporosis were significantly higher than those in all controls (P<0.05-0.01), especially in advanced eases, while the BGP levels were significantly lower. Conclusion: Serum IL-6, TNF-α and BGP levels could be used as indicators of the degree of osteoporosis. (authors)

  9. Farming behaviour of reef fishes increases the prevalence of coral disease associated microbes and black band disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jordan M; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Choat, J Howard; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-08-07

    Microbial community structure on coral reefs is strongly influenced by coral-algae interactions; however, the extent to which this influence is mediated by fishes is unknown. By excluding fleshy macroalgae, cultivating palatable filamentous algae and engaging in frequent aggression to protect resources, territorial damselfish (f. Pomacentridae), such as Stegastes, mediate macro-benthic dynamics on coral reefs and may significantly influence microbial communities. To elucidate how Stegastes apicalis and Stegastes nigricans may alter benthic microbial assemblages and coral health, we determined the benthic community composition (epilithic algal matrix and prokaryotes) and coral disease prevalence inside and outside of damselfish territories in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed distinct bacterial communities associated with turf algae and a two to three times greater relative abundance of phylotypes with high sequence similarity to potential coral pathogens inside Stegastes's territories. These potentially pathogenic phylotypes (totalling 30.04% of the community) were found to have high sequence similarity to those amplified from black band disease (BBD) and disease affected corals worldwide. Disease surveys further revealed a significantly higher occurrence of BBD inside S. nigricans's territories. These findings demonstrate the first link between fish behaviour, reservoirs of potential coral disease pathogens and the prevalence of coral disease. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The awareness of the problem of the scarcity of water of high quality has strongly changed the approach of wastewater treatment. Currently, there is an increasing need for the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and to recover valuable products and energy from the wastewater. Because

  11. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...... be estimated during neural activity using a reference condition obtained with known CMRO2 change. In this work, nine subjects were studied at a magnetic field of 1.5 T; each subject underwent inhalation of a 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture as a reference and two visual stimulation studies. Relative CBF and BOLD...... signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec...

  12. Increased synthetic drug abuse and trends in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female drug users from 2010-2014 from Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming; Guo, Wei; Li, Guiying; He, Shufang; Lu, Hongyan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the trend of addiction drug use and its relationship with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female drug users (FDUs). Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted during 2010-2014 among FDUs in Beijing to collect information on addiction drug usage, sexual behaviors, and STI prevalence. Characteristics were analyzed and compared between traditional and synthetic drug users among FDUs by logistic regression method. A total of 3859 FDUs were surveyed during 2010-2014, with the median age being 32.7 years old. The proportion of synthetic drug users among FDUs increased from 43.7% in 2010 to 70.7% in 2014. Compared with traditional drug users, synthetic drug users were younger (P drug FDUs. However, the engagement of commercial sexual activities (P drug users were significantly higher than traditional drug users. Synthetic drug abuse appears to be correlated with commercial sex behavior and higher syphilis prevalence among FDUs. Tailored strategies on health education to curb the prevalence of synthetic drug abuse are urgently needed in Beijing.

  13. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2016-01-01

    Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children in the general population. Professionals (N = 104) from out-of-home care facilities reported cases of CSA that occurred in 2010 for the children they worked with (N = 1650). In out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, 9.8 per 1000 children were victims of CSA. This prevalence was significantly higher than in regular out-of-home care and in the general population. Children with a mild intellectual disability in out-of-home care have an increased risk of CSA. Adequate education and support for both children and caregivers is necessary to recognize and prevent further sexual abuse. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  15. Significant, but limited collateral blood flow increases occur with prolonged training in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, B M; Ren, J; Terjung, R L; Yang, H T

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the capacity of collateral dependent blood flow induced by a prolonged treadmill training program, as compared to a low collateral resistance model created by femoral artery to vein (A-V) shunt. Sprague-Dawley rats, with bilateral femoral artery occlusion were confined to cage activity (Sed, n=9) or trained by daily treadmill exercise (Tr, n=15; up to ≈350 min/d) for 15 weeks. Another set of animals received a femoral A-V anastomosis in one limb and treated with (n=4) or without VEGF(165) (n=9) infusion for 2 weeks. The contralateral side was used as control. Blood flow (BF) was measured with isotope labeled microspheres. Maximal calf muscle BF increased by 15 week training (up to 100±5.0 ml x min(-1) x 100g(-1) (ptraining programs used previously. In contrast, femoral A-V shunt with VEGF(165) increased calf muscle conductance to 1.70±0.3 ml x min(-1) x 100 g(-1) x mmHg(-1) that is similar to blood flows observed in non-occluded rats during maximal running. Our data indicate that the collateral circuit development is related to the driving stimulus and that exercise training, does not provide a maximal stimulus for adaptation that is possible. Nonetheless, exercise training results in profound increases in exercise capacity associated with this enhanced collateral blood flow. Our results illustrate that vascular adaptations can be much greater when physiologically induced stimuli are enhanced at the time of therapeutic angiogenesis.

  16. Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Clara; Ramey, Andrew M.; Gustafsson Hall, Gabriel; Jarhult, Josef; Borjesson, Stefan; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAntibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats.MethodsEscherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n=160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula.ResultsScreening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected.ConclusionOur findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  17. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: 20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between female Marines and greater odds of larger magnitude strength differences after returning from an injury.

  20. Chronic fatigue in 812 testicular cancer survivors during long-term follow-up: increasing prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprauten, M; Haugnes, H S; Brydøy, M; Kiserud, C; Tandstad, T; Bjøro, T; Bjerner, J; Cvancarova, M; Fosså, S D; Oldenburg, J

    2015-10-01

    Chronic fatigue (CF) has been reported to be slightly more prevalent in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) than in the general population. In this study, we wished to explore possible determinants of CF in TCSs median 12 (survey I) and 19 years (survey II) after treatment, in particular the relation to late effects after treatment. Overall, 812 TCSs treated between 1980 and 1994 provided blood samples (testosterone and luteinizing hormone) and completed questionnaires at survey I (1998-2002) and survey II (2007-2008). Hormone levels were categorized according to quartile thresholds for decadal age groups of controls. Associations between CF and possible risk factors, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), treatment, physical activity, hormone levels, neurotoxicity, and comorbidity, were analyzed by logistic regression. Prevalence of CF increased from 15% at survey I to 27% at survey II (P interventions, early detection and treatment of depression and anxiety, and possibly testosterone substitution might reduce the risk of CF. Extended long-term follow-up seems to be important. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Depressive episodes of bipolar disorder in early teenage years: changes with increasing age and the significance of IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, T; Takahashi, N; Suzuki, T; Abe, K

    2000-05-01

    Depressive (or depression-like) episodes are the most common manifestations of bipolar affective disorder in early teenage years. The present paper analyses the clinical features and their changes over time in these episodes. By a prospective study on children who had their first affective or psychotic episodes between the ages of ten and fifteen, those who eventually met the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder were selected and followed up. There were three boys and nine girls. Their early depressive episodes were characterised by psychotic features and clinging to the mother in most cases, and in some by brief episodes and/or a good response to sulpiride. However, these characteristics tended to disappear with increasing age. Five children (42%) had an IQ of 61-75. Generalisability of the results is limited because of the small number of patients and the lack of control groups. Bipolar disorder in early teenage years may show clinical features and a drug response that are different from those in adulthood. Low IQ may expedite the onset of bipolar disorder.

  2. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  3. Exposure to Extreme Heat Events Is Associated with Increased Hay Fever Prevalence among Nationally Representative Sample of US Adults: 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upperman, Crystal Romeo; Parker, Jennifer D; Akinbami, Lara J; Jiang, Chengsheng; He, Xin; Murtugudde, Raghuram; Curriero, Frank C; Ziska, Lewis; Sapkota, Amir

    Warmer temperature can alter seasonality of pollen as well as pollen concentration, and may impact allergic diseases such as hay fever. Recent studies suggest that extreme heat events will likely increase in frequency, intensity, and duration in coming decades in response to changing climate. The overall objective of this study was to investigate if extreme heat events are associated with hay fever. We linked National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 1997 to 2013 (n = 505,386 respondents) with extreme heat event data, defined as days when daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the 95th percentile values of TMAX for a 30-year reference period (1960-1989). We used logistic regression to investigate the associations between exposure to annual and seasonal extreme heat events and adult hay fever prevalence among the NHIS respondents. During 1997-2013, hay fever prevalence among adults 18 years and older was 8.43%. Age, race/ethnicity, poverty status, education, and sex were significantly associated with hay fever status. We observed that adults in the highest quartile of exposure to extreme heat events had a 7% increased odds of hay fever compared with those in the lowest quartile of exposure (odds ratios: 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.11). This relationship was more pronounced for extreme heat events that occurred during spring season, with evidence of an exposure-response relationship (P trend extreme heat events is associated with increased prevalence of hay fever among US adults. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to extreme heat events is associated with increased hay fever prevalence among nationally representative sample of US adults: 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upperman, Crystal Romeo; Parker, Jennifer D.; Akinbami, Lara J.; Jiang, Chengsheng; He, Xin; Murtugudde, Raghuram; Curriero, Frank C.; Ziska, Lewis; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background Warmer temperature can alter seasonality of pollen as well as pollen concentration, and may impact allergic diseases such as hay fever. Recent studies suggest that extreme heat events will likely increase in frequency, intensity, and duration in coming decades in response to changing climate. Objective The overall objective of this study is to investigate if extreme heat events are associated with hay fever. Methods We linked National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 1997 to 2013 (N=505,386 respondents) with extreme heat event data, defined as days when daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the 95th percentile values of TMAX for a 30-year reference period (1960–1989). We used logistic regression to investigate the associations between exposure to annual and seasonal extreme heat events and adult hay fever prevalence among the NHIS respondents. Results During 1997–2013, hay fever prevalence among adults 18 years and older was 8.43%. Age, race/ethnicity, poverty status, education, and sex were significantly associated with hay fever status. We observed that adults in the highest quartile of exposure to extreme heat events had a 7% increased odds of hay fever compared to those in the lowest quartile of exposure (Odds Ratios 1.07, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02–1.11). This relationship was more pronounced for extreme heat events that occurred during spring season, with evidence of an exposure-response relationship (Ptrend extreme heat events is associated with increased prevalence of hay fever among US adults. PMID:27840238

  5. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  6. The significance of increased FDG accumulation in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy. A follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Y.; Sun, X.G.; Yu, J.Q.; El-Haddad, G.; Kumar, R.; Alavi, A.; Chen, S.L.; Zhuang, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that increased FDG uptake in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy could represent thymic uptake and probably not malignancy. However, long-term follow-up of these 'thymic uptake' has not been reported. The purpose of this retrospective investigation was to assess whether the FDG accumulation in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy is indeed a benign finding. Method: The records of 83 patients who following chemotherapy revealed FDG uptake in the anterior mediastinum on PET scan were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-one of these 83 patients had follow-up imaging study and were included in the final analysis. A repeat FDG-PET was performed in 23 patients and follow-up chest CT was performed in 25 patients (7 patients had both follow-up PET and CT). The average follow-up period was 9.3 month. Results: For 40 of the 41 patients no malignancy was noted in the mediastinum during the follow-up period. In 23 patients with follow-up PET scans, FDG uptake in the thymic region remained unchanged in 4 patients, decreased in intensity or returned to completely normal in 18 patients. One patient had more intense FDG activity in the thymic region in the follow-up PET study. However, in this patient, 4 subsequent follow-up CTs up to 634 days post PET scan demonstrated no mediastinal pathology. None of the follow-up CT demonstrated any mediastinal pathology except for one patient with primary thymic carcinoma. Conclusion: Diffuse anterior mediastinal FDG uptake in post-chemotherapy states does not represent a pathological process and is possibly related to an inflammatory reaction to the immunological effects of chemotherapy. (authors)

  7. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in parents of children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasenbrink, I; Fühlhuber, V; Juhasz-Boess, I; Stolz, E; Hahn, A; Kaps, M; Hero, B; Blaes, F

    2007-06-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disease in childhood which can be associated with neuroblastoma. Since autoantibodies have been detected in some patients with OMS, an autoimmune etiology is suspected. We compared the prevalence of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in parents of children with OMS and in a group of controls of same age and sex. Autoimmune diseases were found in 15.8% of the parents of OMS children, but only in 2.0% of the controls (pOMS parents (42.8% vs. 8.0%, pOMS parents also had significantly more autoantibodies against CNS structures than the controls (pOMS and may also hint to a genetic susceptibility for OMS.

  8. Catalase protects Aedes aegypti from oxidative stress and increases midgut infection prevalence of Dengue but not Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, José Henrique M; Talyuli, Octávio A C; Goncalves, Renata L S; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela Oliveira; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique F; Alvarenga, Patricia Hessab; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2017-04-01

    Digestion of blood in the midgut of Aedes aegypti results in the release of pro-oxidant molecules that can be toxic to the mosquito. We hypothesized that after a blood meal, the antioxidant capacity of the midgut is increased to protect cells against oxidative stress. Concomitantly, pathogens present in the blood ingested by mosquitoes, such as the arboviruses Dengue and Zika, also have to overcome the same oxidative challenge, and the antioxidant program induced by the insect is likely to influence infection status of the mosquito and its vectorial competence. We found that blood-induced catalase mRNA and activity in the midgut peaked 24 h after feeding and returned to basal levels after the completion of digestion. RNAi-mediated silencing of catalase (AAEL013407-RB) reduced enzyme activity in the midgut epithelia, increased H2O2 leakage and decreased fecundity and lifespan when mosquitoes were fed H2O2. When infected with Dengue 4 and Zika virus, catalase-silenced mosquitoes showed no alteration in infection intensity (number of plaque forming units/midgut) 7 days after the infectious meal. However, catalase knockdown reduced Dengue 4, but not Zika, infection prevalence (percent of infected midguts). Here, we showed that blood ingestion triggers an antioxidant response in the midgut through the induction of catalase. This protection facilitates the establishment of Dengue virus in the midgut. Importantly, this mechanism appears to be specific for Dengue because catalase silencing did not change Zika virus prevalence. In summary, our data suggest that redox balance in the midgut modulates mosquito vectorial competence to arboviral infections.

  9. Evidence of increasing sedentarism in Mexico City during the last decade: Sitting time prevalence, trends, and associations with obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Barquera, Simón

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors such as sitting time are associated with obesity and diabetes independently of total reported physical activity. This study aimed to describe the current sitting time/day prevalence and trends and to examine the association of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical variables in Mexico City. Two cross-sectional representative surveys in Mexico City were used for this analysis (2006: n = 1148 and 2015: n = 1329). Sedentary behavior questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire included time spent sitting on a weekday in the last week or on a Wednesday. Sitting time /day was divided into deciles, and participants in the highest decile (≥ 420 minutes/day) were classified within the high sitting category; others were classified in the low sitting time category. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical indicators, controlling for confounders and testing for potential interactions. A total of 13.7% (2006) and 14.8% (2015) adults were classified in the highest sitting time category (≥ 420 minutes/day). There was a significant increase in the average sitting time/day between the surveys (216.0 minutes in 2006 vs. 233.3 minutes in 2015, p obesity (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 5.09) and those with high glucose levels (survey finding) (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.25) were more likely to report sitting time in the highest category. Sitting time/day prevalence increased 8%, and average daily sitting minutes significantly increased by 8.2% (18 minutes) in the nine-year study period (2006-2015). Current public health policies should consider strategies not only for increasing physical activity levels, but also for reducing sitting time/day among the population as a measure to fight the growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes in Mexico.

  10. Factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes among adults in a Canadian province: a critical review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Thibault

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes has increased since the last decade in New Brunswick. Identifying factors contributing to the increase in diabetes prevalence will help inform an action plan to manage the condition. The objective was to describe factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick since 2001. Methods A critical literature review was conducted to identify factors potentially responsible for an increase in prevalence of diabetes. Data from various sources were obtained to draw a repeated cross-sectional (2001–2014 description of these factors concurrently with changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick. Linear regressions, Poisson regressions and Cochran Armitage analysis were used to describe relationships between these factors and time. Results Factors identified in the review were summarized in five categories: individual-level risk factors, environmental risk factors, evolution of the disease, detection effect and global changes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased by 120% between 2001 and 2014. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, prediabetes, alcohol consumption, immigration and urbanization increased during the study period and the consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased which could represent potential factors of the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity, smoking, socioeconomic status and education did not present trends that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. During the study period, the mortality rate and the conversion rate from prediabetes to diabetes decreased and the incidence rate increased. Suggestion of a detection effect was also present as the number of people tested increased while the HbA1c and the age at detection decreased. Period and birth cohort effect were also noted through a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes across all age groups, but greater increases were

  11. Prognostic significance of lymphadenectomy and prevalence of lymph node metastasis in clinically-apparent stage I endometrioid and mucinous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Chapman-Davis, Eloise; Witkin, Steven S; Holcomb, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of lymph node (LN) metastasis in women with apparent stage I ovarian carcinoma of endometrioid or mucinous histology and to examine the prognostic significance of LN sampling/dissection (LND) on patient survival. The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was accessed and a cohort of surgically-staged women, diagnosed between 1988 and 2013, with apparent stage I ovarian carcinoma of mucinous or endometrioid histology was selected. Information derived from the histopathology report was employed to determine whether LND was performed and the status of harvested LNs. Five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was calculated following generation of Kaplan-Meier curves. Comparisons were made using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the effect of LND on survival. A total of 3354 and 2855 women with endometrioid and mucinous tumors who met the inclusion criteria were identified. LND was performed in 2307 (68.8%) and 1602 (56.1%) of them (pcarcinoma. Lymph node involvement in women with mucinous and endometrioid ovarian carcinoma grossly confined to the ovary is infrequent. LND is associated with a survival advantage for those with endometrioid carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusiol Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31st, 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women's medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.

  13. Prevalence of antiseptic resistance genes increases in staphylococcal isolates from orthokeratology lens wearers over initial six-month period of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Sen, Shi; Boost, Maureen; Cho, Pauline

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antiseptic-resistance (QAC) genes in staphylococci colonizing periorbital tissues and accessories of orthokeratology (ortho-k) lens wearers over a 6-month period and determine the effect of their presence on minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of disinfectants and log reduction of multipurpose contact lens solutions (MPS). Staphylococci were isolated from periorbital tissues and accessories of patients before commencing ortho-k therapy and at two subsequent visits. Presence of QAC genes in 116 S. aureus and 67 CNS isolates was determined by PCR and association with period of ortho-k use determined. MICs and MBCs of staphylococci gene-positive were compared with gene-negative strains and the effectiveness of four MPS for rigid contact lenses investigated. S. aureus carriage rates in the conjunctiva decreased significantly from 41.2 % (baseline) to 11.8 % (3-months), and 13.3 % (6-months) (p trend 0.03), while CNS increased from 58.8 %(baseline) to 94.1 % (3-months), and 93.3 % (6-months) (p trend 0.02). Prevalence of qacA/B increased considerably over time (S. aureus: 4.4 % to 15.4 %, CNS: 6.7 % to 25 %), but frequency of smr was relatively stable. Only five CNS isolates harboured qacH. MICs and MBCs of gene-positive isolates were significantly increased and three MPS did not achieve a 3-log reduction of many QAC-positive strains. Ortho-k lens wear contributed to changes of staphylococcal carriage rates in the conjunctival sac. Use of MPS containing quaternary ammonium compounds may select for the carriage of organisms harbouring QAC genes, as the low concentration of disinfecting agents is not adequate for killing gene-positive strains.

  14. Prevalence and clinical significance of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease: observations at MR imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, V O

    2013-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease in patients with anterior knee pain and to correlate it with patient demographics, patellar shape, and patellofemoral alignment.

  15. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-12-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  16. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. High prevalence of abdominal obesity increases the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Nigerian type 2 diabetes patients: using the International Diabetes Federation worldwide definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwaka, Chidum E; Okoye, Osita; Esonwune, Chibuike; Onuoha, Philip; Dioka, Chudi; Osuji, Charles; Oguejiofor, Celestine; Meludu, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Some Nigerian studies have reported cases of the metabolic syndrome in the population. This study aims to assess the prevalence of the components of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) worldwide definition. Eighty-nine T2DM patients were studied after an overnight fast. The patients' blood pressure, anthropometric indices, and biochemical parameters were measured. The components of the metabolic syndrome-raised blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides (TGs), and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)-were calculated using the IDF definition for the European ethnic group. About 25% of the patients had raised blood pressure (>130/85 mmHg), with the male patients having higher prevalence of raised systolic blood pressure (SBP>130 mmHg) than the female patients (73.3 vs. 52.3%, P0.05), abdominal obesity predominates significantly in female patients (97.7 vs. 68.9%, Prisk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recommend that diabetes education emphasizing the risk of CVD in patients with increased abdominal fat should be intensified in the developing countries.

  18. Increased Prevalence of Intermittent Rhythmic Delta or Theta Activity (IRDA/IRTA) in the Electroencephalograms (EEGs) of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Fleck, Max; Bartels, Susanne; Altenm?ller, Dirk-Matthias; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Perlov, Evgeniy; Endres, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA), the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormal...

  19. Impact of increasing prevalence of minimally invasive prostatectomy on open prostatectomy observed in the national inpatient sample and national surgical quality improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Matthias D; Meeks, Joshua J; Cashy, John; Kundu, Shilajit; Zhao, Lee C

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic and especially robot-assisted minimally invasive prostatectomy (MIP) has increased in popularity over the past decade. We analyzed how the increasing prevalence of MIP has affected the outcomes of MIP and open radical prostatectomy (RRP). In the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 23,473 patients undergoing MIP and 118,266 undergoing RRP between 2002 and 2008 are reported. We analyzed length of stay (LOS), hospital charges (THC), complication rates (CR), and socioeconomic characteristics. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to identify complication rates (RRP n=666, and MIP n=2205). The proportion of MIP increased from 1.4% in 2002 to 29.5% in 2008. Mean LOS decreased for MIP (2.4 days in 2002, 1.6 days in 2008) and RRP (3.1 days in 2002, 2.1 days in 2008). Mean THC for MIP decreased ($46k in 2002, $34k in 2008) and increased for RRP ($18k in 2002, $32k in 2008). After 2005, overall CRs of MIP were lower than for RRP. High-volume centers reported lower CRs for both procedures. MIP was associated with fewer transfusions and wound complications. Men living in ZIP codes with the top quartile of yearly mean household income were more likely to undergo MIP than RRP (P<0.001). Although there were more white patients receiving MIP and black or Hispanic patients more frequently underwent RRP, there was no statistically significant difference. Increasing use of MIP led to decreased hospital stay for all patients, increase charges for RRP, and decreased CRs for both MIP and RRP. In recent years, MIP was associated with fewer complications. Charges for RRP have increased over time to approach those for MIP, and patients with increased socio-economic status were more likely to undergo MIP.

  20. HETEROGENEITY OF NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS IN EUROPE - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SITE OF DEFECT AND PRESENCE OF OTHER MAJOR ANOMALIES IN RELATION TO GEOGRAPHIC DIFFERENCES IN PREVALENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLK, H; DEWALS, P; GILLEROT, Y; LECHAT, MF; AYME, S; CORNEL, M; CUSCHIERI, A; GARNE, E; GOUJARD, J; LAURENCE, KM; LILLIS, D; LYS, F; NEVIN, N; OWENS, J; RADIC, A; STOLL, C; STONE, D; TENKATE, L

    1991-01-01

    In the period 1980-1987, neural tube defects were two to three times more prevalent in populations covered by EUROCAT registries in the United Kingdom and Ireland (UKI) than in Continental Europe and Malta (CEM). 1864 NTD cases in a total population of 580,000 births in UKI and 455 cases in a

  1. Human papillomavirus shows highly variable prevalence in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and no significant correlation to p16INK4a overexpression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Sanne Høxbroe; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; von Buchwald, Christian

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This review investigates the role of p16(INK4a) as a marker of transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the regional prevalence of HPV in ESCC. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched ...

  2. Prevalence of defined ultrasound findings of unknown significance at the second trimester fetal anomaly scan and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Welsh study of mothers and babies population?based cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Hurt, Lisa; Wright, Melissa; Dunstan, Frank; Thomas, Susan; Brook, Fiona; Morris, Susan; Tucker, David; Wills, Marilyn Ann; Davies, Colin; John, Gareth; Fone, David; Paranjothy, Shantini

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this article was to estimate the population prevalence of seven defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance (?markers?) in the second trimester and the associated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Method A prospective record?linked cohort study of 30?078 pregnant women who had second trimester anomaly scans between July 2008 and March 2011 in Wales was conducted. Results The prevalence of markers ranged from 43.7 per 1000 singleton pregnancies for car...

  3. Prevalence of defined ultrasound findings of unknown significance at the second trimester fetal anomaly scan and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Welsh study of mothers and babies population‐based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Lisa; Wright, Melissa; Dunstan, Frank; Thomas, Susan; Brook, Fiona; Morris, Susan; Tucker, David; Wills, Marilyn Ann; Davies, Colin; John, Gareth; Fone, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this article was to estimate the population prevalence of seven defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance (‘markers’) in the second trimester and the associated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Method A prospective record‐linked cohort study of 30 078 pregnant women who had second trimester anomaly scans between July 2008 and March 2011 in Wales was conducted. Results The prevalence of markers ranged from 43.7 per 1000 singleton pregnancies for cardiac echogenic foci [95% confidence interval (CI): 38.8, 51.1] to 0.6 for mild‐to‐moderate ventriculomegaly (95% CI: 0.3, 1.0). Isolated echogenic bowel was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies [risk ratio (RR) 4.54, 95% CI: 2.12, 9.73] and preterm birth (RR 2.30, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.90). Isolated pelvicalyceal dilatation was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 3.82, 95% CI: 2.16, 6.77). Multiple markers were associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 5.00, 95% CI: 1.35, 18.40) and preterm birth (RR 3.38, 95% CI 1.20, 9.53). Conclusions These data are useful for counselling families and developing clinical guidance and care pathways following the detection of markers in clinical practice, particularly the need for follow‐up scans to monitor placental function and growth in pregnancies with isolated echogenic bowel, and further investigation for multiple markers. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26475362

  4. Prevalence of defined ultrasound findings of unknown significance at the second trimester fetal anomaly scan and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Welsh study of mothers and babies population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Lisa; Wright, Melissa; Dunstan, Frank; Thomas, Susan; Brook, Fiona; Morris, Susan; Tucker, David; Wills, Marilyn Ann; Davies, Colin; John, Gareth; Fone, David; Paranjothy, Shantini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to estimate the population prevalence of seven defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance ('markers') in the second trimester and the associated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A prospective record-linked cohort study of 30 078 pregnant women who had second trimester anomaly scans between July 2008 and March 2011 in Wales was conducted. The prevalence of markers ranged from 43.7 per 1000 singleton pregnancies for cardiac echogenic foci [95% confidence interval (CI): 38.8, 51.1] to 0.6 for mild-to-moderate ventriculomegaly (95% CI: 0.3, 1.0). Isolated echogenic bowel was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies [risk ratio (RR) 4.54, 95% CI: 2.12, 9.73] and preterm birth (RR 2.30, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.90). Isolated pelvicalyceal dilatation was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 3.82, 95% CI: 2.16, 6.77). Multiple markers were associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 5.00, 95% CI: 1.35, 18.40) and preterm birth (RR 3.38, 95% CI 1.20, 9.53). These data are useful for counselling families and developing clinical guidance and care pathways following the detection of markers in clinical practice, particularly the need for follow-up scans to monitor placental function and growth in pregnancies with isolated echogenic bowel, and further investigation for multiple markers. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Chronic Hypopituitarism Associated with Increased Postconcussive Symptoms Is Prevalent after Blast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Undurti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI, or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25–50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions. We measured circulating hormone levels and accessed demographic and testing data from two groups of male veterans with hazardous duty experience in Iraq or Afghanistan. Veterans in the mTBI group had experienced one or more blast-related concussion. Members of the deployment control (DC group encountered similar deployment conditions but had no history of blast-related mTBI. 12 of 39 (31% of the mTBI participants and 3 of 20 (15% veterans in the DC group screened positive for one or more neuroendocrine disorders. Positive screens for growth hormone deficiency occurred most often. Analysis of responses on self-report questionnaires revealed main effects of both mTBI and hypopituitarism on postconcussive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms. Symptoms associated with pituitary dysfunction overlap considerably with those of PTSD. They include cognitive deficiencies, mood and anxiety disorders, sleep problems, diminished quality of life, deleterious changes in metabolism and body composition, and increased cardiovascular mortality. When such symptoms are due to hypopituitarism, they may be alleviated by hormone replacement. These findings suggest consideration of routine post-deployment neuroendocrine screening of service members and veterans who have experienced blast-related mTBI and are reporting postconcussive symptoms.

  6. [Social marketers' lack of success in using CSM discipline to harness commercial resources and increase contraceptive prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J

    1984-01-01

    Social marketers have certainly shown that the CSM discipline can quickly and cost-effectively harness commercial resources to increase contraceptive prevalence. But why hasn't the social marketing idea caught on in more countries? According to Social Marketing Forum, only a tiny number of countries have active programs after more than a decade of effort. The most likely reason for this lack of success is doubt and fear on the part of both developing countries' officials and donor agencies about allowing marketing enthusiasts--with our very noticeable advertising methods--to join the family planning fight. And what has our answer been? Usually, a head-on retort such as, "But look at all the condoms we've sold]" And that gets us nowhere, because the successful peddling of 1 not-so-impressive method doesn't begin to balance the fears of a possible backlash that brash condom promotions could bring down on official heads. The lesson we should be learning is that social marketers possess to narrow an outlook and promote a small range of products that don't enthuse decisionmakers. Hence, we are often perceived as condom salesmen--and not much more. What should we be doing? We should be selling the idea of using private sector experience to assist national development. That means social development, particularly improved health, family planning and women's education. These 3 activities have proven effective in reducing fertility and would add up to a marketing opportunity--a longterm challenge that should enthuse dicisionmakers, private sector entrepreneurs and donor agencies alike. Further, our model--the commercial sector--is renowned for branching out and secceeding in a broad range of endeavors. As an example, Procter and Gamble uses separate divisions to market different products. Initiatives already exist in many countries to harness the private sector as a development tool. Social marketers should be leading the initiative--and benefitting from it, too. full text

  7. High prevalence of asthma symptoms in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela is significantly associated with open-fire cooking: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraai, Stèphan; Verhagen, Lilly M; Valladares, Enrique; Goecke, Joaquin; Rasquin, Lorena; Colmenares, Paula; Del Nogal, Berenice; Hermans, Peter Wm; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2013-07-20

    The International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms in 17 centers in nine Latin American countries that was similar to prevalence rates reported in non-tropical countries. It has been proposed that the continuous exposure to infectious diseases in rural populations residing in tropical areas leads to a relatively low prevalence of asthma symptoms. As almost a quarter of Latin American people live in rural tropical areas, the encountered high prevalence of asthma symptoms is remarkable. Wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke have been identified as possible risk factors for having asthma symptoms. We performed a cross-sectional observational study from June 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012 in which we interviewed parents and guardians of Warao Amerindian children from Venezuela. Asthma symptoms were defined according to the ISAAC definition as self-reported wheezing in the last 12 months. The associations between wood smoke exposure and environmental tobacco smoke and the prevalence of asthma symptoms were calculated by means of univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. We included 630 children between two and ten years of age. Asthma symptoms were recorded in 164 of these children (26%). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was associated with the cooking method. Children exposed to the smoke produced by cooking on open wood fires were at higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children exposed to cooking with gas (AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.18 - 3.84). Four percent of the children lived in a household where more than ten cigarettes were smoked per day and they had a higher risk of having asthma symptoms compared to children who were not exposed to cigarette smoke (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.11 - 6.48). Our findings suggest that children living in rural settings in a household where wood is used for cooking or where more than ten cigarettes are smoked daily have a higher risk of having

  8. Evidence of increasing sedentarism in Mexico City during the last decade: Sitting time prevalence, trends, and associations with obesity and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Medina

    Full Text Available Sedentary behaviors such as sitting time are associated with obesity and diabetes independently of total reported physical activity. This study aimed to describe the current sitting time/day prevalence and trends and to examine the association of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical variables in Mexico City.Two cross-sectional representative surveys in Mexico City were used for this analysis (2006: n = 1148 and 2015: n = 1329. Sedentary behavior questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire included time spent sitting on a weekday in the last week or on a Wednesday. Sitting time /day was divided into deciles, and participants in the highest decile (≥ 420 minutes/day were classified within the high sitting category; others were classified in the low sitting time category. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical indicators, controlling for confounders and testing for potential interactions.A total of 13.7% (2006 and 14.8% (2015 adults were classified in the highest sitting time category (≥ 420 minutes/day. There was a significant increase in the average sitting time/day between the surveys (216.0 minutes in 2006 vs. 233.3 minutes in 2015, p < 0.001. In 2015, men, those aged 20-49 years, those in low-intensity jobs, students, and those with a high socioeconomic level were more likely to be in the highest sitting time category. Participants with overweight/obesity (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 5.09 and those with high glucose levels (survey finding (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.25 were more likely to report sitting time in the highest category.Sitting time/day prevalence increased 8%, and average daily sitting minutes significantly increased by 8.2% (18 minutes in the nine-year study period (2006-2015. Current public health policies should consider strategies not only for increasing physical activity levels, but also for reducing sitting

  9. Conference report on tobacco taxes in Central America: current situation and opportunities to reduce prevalence and increase fiscal revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Ana; Garcés, Miguel; Barnoya, Joaquin; Cabrera, Maynor; Sandoval, Rosa; Orozco, Juan Guillermo; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    As stated in Article 6 of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), increasing tobacco prices through higher taxes is one of the most effective interventions to reduce tobacco use and to encourage smokers to quit. The potential for tax increases on tobacco products in Central America is ample. We aim to synthesize the current tobacco taxes situation and highlight research needs to strengthen taxation. In May 2012, a workshop was carried out with representatives from each Central American country to analyze the tobacco tax situation in each country and to identify key research gaps with experts in the field. Tobacco taxes in Central America fall far short of the levels recommended by FCTC. Moreover, the legal framework is complex and creates barriers for higher taxes that require further research and political will. Top research priorities are an in-depth analysis of tobacco tax legislation, impact of tax and price policies, analysis of costs associated to health care of tobacco-related diseases and lost productivity, and the feasibility of approaches to increasing tobacco taxes in certain contexts. An additional area of research is the interrelationship between human rights and tobacco control. Central American countries would benefit from increasing excise taxes on tobacco products. The lack of available data and research to counteract tobacco industry arguments are significant obstacles. Active leadership of civil society in support of the partnership of chronic disease interventions is vital in order to obtain tax increases on tobacco products.

  10. Plateaued national utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery despite increasing prevalence of obesity-associated co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindel, Tammy L; Lomelin, Daniel; McBride, Corrigan; Kothari, Vishal; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    The number of adolescent bariatric surgeries (ABS) performed from 2003 to 2009 has been stable despite reports of an increase in adolescent morbid obesity. We sought to determine the trend in national ABS volume and the changes in obesity-associated co-morbidities (OACM) from 2004 to 2011. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample database. The National Inpatient Sample database was queried for adolescents undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, or sleeve gastrectomy from 2004 to 2011. Twelve OACM categories were created by ICD-9 code. From 2004 to 2011, an estimated 968 ABS cases per year were performed with no significant change in yearly volumes. There was a significant decrease in the annual volume of Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (85.7%-54.4%, Padolescent increased significantly, from 1.44±1.3 in 2004-2005 to 1.85±1.5 in 2010-2011 (Padolescent bariatric surgical evaluation and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus in the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Zazeri Leite

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Peripheral blood was used to quantify inflammatory cytokines and plasma LPS concentrations, by CBA flex and ELISA, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney and Spearman’s tests. Analysis of variance, diversity indexes, and analysis of alpha- and beta-diversity were conducted using an annotated Operational Taxonomic Unit table. This study included 20 patients and 22 controls. We observed significant differences (P < 0.01 in the microbiota composition (beta-diversity between patients and controls, suggesting intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients. The prevalent species found in patients’ feces were the Gram-negatives Prevotella copri, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides rodentium, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens. The proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6 was significantly increased (P < 0.05 in patients’ plasma and LPS levels were decreased. We find correlations between the proinflammatory interferon-gamma with Gram-negatives Bacteroides and Prevotella species, and a positive correlation between the LPS levels and P. copri reads. The P. copri and B. vulgatus species were associated with insulin resistance in previous studies. In this study, we suggested that the prevalence of Gram-negative species in the gut and the increased plasma IL-6 in patients could be linked to low

  12. Increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in food animals and the diversity of CTX-M genotypes during 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lili; Lv, Luchao; Zeng, Zhenling; Chen, Sheng; He, Dandan; Chen, Xiaojie; Wu, Congming; Wang, Yang; Yang, Tong; Wu, Peng; Liu, Yahong; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2014-08-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trends and the diversity of CTX-M types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Escherichia coli isolated from food animals in China over a ten-year period. From 2003 to 2012, 2815 E. coli isolates collected from diseased animals (chickens, pigs, and waterfowl) were screened for the prevalence of CTX-M genes. CTX-M-positive isolates were tested for their susceptibilities to 10 antimicrobial agents and the clonal relationship of CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates was also assessed. Overall, 677 (20.1%) of the 2815 E. coli isolates carried CTX-M genes. Eighteen different types of CTX-M ESBLs were identified, with CTX-M-14, CTX-M-55, and CTX-M-65 being the most dominant genotypes. The occurrence of CTX-M-producing E. coli increased significantly from 5.7% in 2003-2005 to 35.3% in 2009-2012 (p<0.0001). High genetic heterogeneities were observed in the CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates. Most CTX-M-producing strains were also resistant to other classes of antimicrobials. Compared to isolates carrying CTX-M-9 subgroup of ESBLs, isolates carrying CTX-M-1 subgroup ESBLs showed significantly higher resistance rates to ceftazidime, amikacin, and fosfomycin (p<0.01). The study reported the dramatic increase of CTX-M ESBLs in E. coli isolated from animals overtime in China. The increasing incidence of CTX-M-55 with high hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime and the widely spread co-resistance in CTX-M-producing isolates alarm the serious antimicrobial resistance situation in China and highlight the need for urgent control strategies to limit the dissemination of those resistant genes in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Philips; Austin, Ravi David; Varghese, Soma Susan; Manojkumar, A D

    2015-01-01

    Potentially malignant disorders like oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) often precede oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The rate of transformation of OSMF to OSCC ranges from 3 to 19%. OSMF is etiologically related to chewing of areca nut (betel nut), and the high copper content in areca nut plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Even though many studies estimated and confirmed increased copper levels in areca nuts, studies tracing the source of the increased copper content are scarce. Interestingly, on review of agricultural literature, it was found that most of the areca nut plantations in South India commonly use a copper-based fungicide, bordeaux mixture (BM). The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the copper content in areca nuts from plantations with and without copper-based fungicide usage. Four areca nut plantations from Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka (group A) and four plantations from Ernakulam district, Kerala (group B) were selected for the study. The plantations from Karnataka used copper-based fungicide regularly, whereas the latter were devoid of it. Areca nut samples of three different maturities (unripe, ripe, and exfoliated) obtained from all plantations were dehusked, ground, and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for copper analysis. There was statistically significant difference in the copper content of areca nuts from both groups. The areca nuts from plantations treated with copper-based fungicide showed significantly higher copper levels in all maturity levels compared to their counterparts in the other group (P < 0.05). The high copper content in areca nut may be related to the copper-based fungicide treatment on the palms. These areca nuts with high copper content used in quid or commercial products may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of OSMF.

  14. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus in the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Aline Zazeri; Rodrigues, Nathália de Campos; Gonzaga, Marina Ignácio; Paiolo, João Carlos Cicogna; de Souza, Carolina Arantes; Stefanutto, Nadine Aparecida Vicentini; Omori, Wellington Pine; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Brisotti, João Luiz; Matheucci Junior, Euclides; Mariano, Vânia Sammartino; de Oliveira, Gislane Lelis Vilela

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Peripheral blood was used to quantify inflammatory cytokines and plasma LPS concentrations, by CBA flex and ELISA, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney and Spearman’s tests. Analysis of variance, diversity indexes, and analysis of alpha- and beta-diversity were conducted using an annotated Operational Taxonomic Unit table. This study included 20 patients and 22 controls. We observed significant differences (P Prevotella copri, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides rodentium, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens. The proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly increased (P Prevotella species, and a positive correlation between the LPS levels and P. copri reads. The P. copri and B. vulgatus species were associated with insulin resistance in previous studies. In this study, we suggested that the prevalence of Gram-negative species in the gut and the increased plasma IL-6 in patients could be linked to low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. In conclusion, the P. copri and B. vulgatus species could represent an intestinal microbiota signature, associated with T2D development. Furthermore, the identification of these Gram-negative bacteria, and the detection of inflammatory markers, such as increased IL-6, could be used as diabetes predictive markers in overweight, obese and in genetically predisposed

  15. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence ofPrevotella copriandBacteroides vulgatusin the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Aline Zazeri; Rodrigues, Nathália de Campos; Gonzaga, Marina Ignácio; Paiolo, João Carlos Cicogna; de Souza, Carolina Arantes; Stefanutto, Nadine Aparecida Vicentini; Omori, Wellington Pine; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Brisotti, João Luiz; Matheucci Junior, Euclides; Mariano, Vânia Sammartino; de Oliveira, Gislane Lelis Vilela

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Peripheral blood was used to quantify inflammatory cytokines and plasma LPS concentrations, by CBA flex and ELISA, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Spearman's tests. Analysis of variance, diversity indexes, and analysis of alpha- and beta-diversity were conducted using an annotated Operational Taxonomic Unit table. This study included 20 patients and 22 controls. We observed significant differences ( P  Prevotella copri, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides rodentium , and Bacteroides xylanisolvens . The proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly increased ( P  Prevotella species, and a positive correlation between the LPS levels and P. copri reads. The P. copri and B. vulgatus species were associated with insulin resistance in previous studies. In this study, we suggested that the prevalence of Gram-negative species in the gut and the increased plasma IL-6 in patients could be linked to low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. In conclusion, the P. copri and B. vulgatus species could represent an intestinal microbiota signature, associated with T2D development. Furthermore, the identification of these Gram-negative bacteria, and the detection of inflammatory markers, such as increased IL-6, could be used as diabetes predictive markers in overweight, obese and in genetically predisposed

  16. High diabetes mellitus prevalence with increasing trend among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis patients in an Asian population: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yen; Lin, Shi-Dou; Tu, Shih-Te; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Su, Shih-Li; Hsu, Shang-Ren; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) and to determine its associated factors in an Asian population. The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals in the period of 2000-2010. The data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group. We measured the prevalence and the associated comorbidities of DM. During 2000-2010, the prevalence of DM progressively increased, with an average prevalence rate of 27.9%. The patients with ages of 55-64 years had the highest association of DM (OR=3.53) compared with those under 45 years. TB patients with heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and liver disease were more likely to associate with DM (ORs=1.27, 1.23, 1.30, 2.32, 3.26, 1.6, and 1.68, respectively) compared to those without the variables. The prevalence of DM among TB patients in Taiwan was high and tended to increase in the past decade. Clinically, inquiring about DM history and screening routinely for those without DM history among TB patients should be carried out in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased Prevalence of Unusual Sensory Behaviors in Infants at Risk for, and Teens with, Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, Hannah M; Kaur, Maninderjit; Srinivasan, Sudha M; Cohen, Shereen J; Bhat, Anjana; Dobkins, Karen R

    2017-11-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and pattern of unusual sensory behaviors (USBs) in teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and infants (3-36 months) at risk for ASD. From two different sites (UCSD and UConn), caregivers of infants at high (n = 32) and low risk (n = 33) for ASD, and teenagers with (n = 12) and without ASD (n = 11), completed age-appropriate Sensory Profile questionnaires (Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile; Dunn 2002; Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile; Brown and Dunn 2002). The results show that high-risk infants and teenagers with ASD exhibit higher-than-typical prevalence of USBs. Results of our distribution analyses investigating the direction of sensory atypicalities (greater-than-typical vs. less-than-typical) revealed a fair degree of consistency amongst teens, however, USB patterns were more varied in high-risk infants.

  18. A COMMUNITY BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: INCREASING PREVALENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES AMONG RURAL ADULT POPULATION OF KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Brata Tripathy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A community based cross-sectional study in the age group 25 years and above conducted at the field area of primary health centre Chakenahalli, Hassan district, Karnataka, India. The population was similar in characteristics regarding occupation, socio-economic status and food habits. Total of 626 subjects were included by multi-stage sampling. Information collected by the interviewers through face to face interview, after informed consent. The individuals were assessed on anthropometric parameters and screening was done by Random Blood Glucose (RBG with a standardized technique; diagnosis of type 2 diabetes done by WHO criteria. Prevalence of diabetes was found in 11.3% males and 15% females, altogether the total prevalence was 13.09% with 8.79% self reported cases of diabetes . Hypertension was associated with 25.6% diabetic subjects. It was also observed that 28.1% of study population had BMI ≥ 25.

  19. Mucolytic bacteria with increased prevalence in IBD mucosa augment in vitro utilization of mucin by other bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Png, C.W.; Linden, S.K.; Gilshenan, K.S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; McSweeney, C.S.; Sly, L.I.; McGuckin, M.A.; Florin, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mucosa-associated bacteria are increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which suggests the possibility of an increased source of digestible endogenous mucus substrate. We hypothesized that mucolytic bacteria are increased in IBD, providing increased substrate to sustain

  20. Effects of rainfall and salinity increase on prevalence of vector mosquitoes in coastal areas of Alappuzha district, Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R; Nikhil, T L

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal abundance patterns for Japanese encephalitis vectors along climatic variations were studied in the coastal areas of Alappuzha district from June 2012 to May 2013. A total of 10563 female mosquitoes belonging to eleven species were collected. Culex gelidusTheobald (50.04%), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles (26.50%), and Cx. sitiens Wiedemann (7.55%) were found to be most common in these areas. Cx. sitiens females were collected from each sampling occasion from early monsoon season June to late summer May with a distinct peak in April at 7.18 electrical conductivity (EC). Cx. sitiens abundance increased rapidly when monthly salinity level consistently exceeded 7.76, occurring in March at 7.76 and April at 7.18 electrical conductivity (EC). While analyzing correlation of Cx. sitiens density with salinity and rainfall was significant. High density of Cx. gelidus was greatly influenced by total rainfall and it was found to be significantly correlated with Per Man Hour (PMH) (P areas may develop in to brackish and saline water populated by Cx. sitiens, which can be new vectors for Japanese encephalitis or West Nile virus in these areas.

  1. Increased pre-school overweight and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2013 is associated with appetite, eating frequency and supportive facilities: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Tao; Yang, Bo; Li, Duo

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing. However, little is known about the changes in di-etary factors and supportive facilities associated with childhood obesity. We aimed to document the changes in various dietary factors and supportive facilities and their associations with obesity among pre-school children. Among 42,531 children 4-5 years old, recruited between 2004 and 2013 in the Jiax-ing Birth Cohort, we examined the changes in the prevalence of various dietary factors and supportive facilities and overweight/obesity over 10 years. We used logistic regression to investigate the cross-sectional association between these factors and childhood overweight/obesity risk, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity increased steadily from 11.8% (boy: 14.8%; girl: 9%) during 2004-2005 to 18% (boy: 21.4%%; girl: 15%) during 2012-2013. The prevalence of meal/snack frequency 3 times /day decreased substantially from 23% during 2004-2005 to 8% during 2012-2013, with more children having 5 times /day: from 32% to 45.6%. Children with a fair/bad appetite, compared with those with a good appetite, had a 45% (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.62) lower risk of overweight/obesity. Children with a meal frequency >=6 times/day (compared with 3 times/day) had a 0.12 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.2) higher BMI-z-score. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased substantially within a decade in southeast China. A better appetite and greater eating frequency were associated with the increased prevalence.

  2. Short-term increase in prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus following mass drug administration with azithromycin for trachoma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojang, Ebrima; Jafali, James; Perreten, Vincent; Hart, John; Harding-Esch, Emma M; Sillah, Ansumana; Mabey, David C W; Holland, Martin J; Bailey, Robin L; Roca, Anna; Burr, Sarah E

    2017-03-28

    Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a corner-stone of trachoma control however it may drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In a cluster-randomized trial (Clinical trial gov NCT00792922), we compared the reduction in the prevalence of active trachoma in communities that received three annual rounds of MDA to that in communities that received a single treatment round. We used the framework of this trial to carry out an opportunistic study to investigate if the increased rounds of treatment resulted in increased prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two villages receiving three annual rounds of MDA (3 × treatment arm). Surveys were conducted immediately before the third round of MDA (CSS-1) and at one (CSS-2) and six (CSS-3) months after MDA. The final survey also included six villages that had received only one round of MDA 30 months previously (1 × treatment arm). In the 3 × treatment arm, a short-term increase in prevalence of S. aureus carriage was seen following MDA from 24.6% at CSS-1 to 38.6% at CSS-2 (p azithromycin resistant (Azm R ) strains from 8.9% at CSS-1 to 34.1% (p azithromycin were associated with a short-term increase in both the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus and prevalence of carriage of Azm R and iMLS B S. aureus. This study was ancillary to the Partnership for the Rapid Elimination of Trachoma, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00792922 , registration date November 17, 2008.

  3. Significant association of high-grade inflammation and thick lining epithelium with the increased number of Langerhans cells in dentigerous cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: A significant association of high-grade inflammation and thick lining epithelium with the increased LC number in DCs is found. The finding of few LCs in the lining epithelia of DCs without inflammation indicates the reduced immunosurveillance ability against DC lining epithelial cells in DC patients. It needs further studies to confirm the role of reduced immunosurveillance in the enlargement of the DC.

  4. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Holmes

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART, yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition.We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3 and men (17 cells/mm3 annually, with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year (p<0.0001. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2 had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%, compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%; in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4% than non-pregnant women (14.4%. Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5% compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%, (absolute

  5. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Charles B; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Elul, Batya; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Ssali, John; Kambugu, Andrew; Musick, Beverly S; Cohen, Craig; Williams, Carolyn; Diero, Lameck; Padian, Nancy; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women) started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3) and men (17 cells/mm3 annually), with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2) had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%), compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%); in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4%) than non-pregnant women (14.4%). Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5%) compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%), (absolute

  6. Significance of the rapid increase in GSH levels in the protective response to cadmium exposure through phosphorylated Nrf2 signaling in Jurkat T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Yuki; Takeda, Yuko; Takayama, Hazuki; Nishimoto, Shouichi; Ichikawa, Keisuke; Ueki, Maiko; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2014-04-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is a redox system disruptor, the systematic defensive responses to Cd-induced oxidative stress remain unclear. In this study, we initially determined that when human T-cell-derived Jurkat cells were exposed to a low concentration of Cd, the glutathione (GSH) concentration rapidly increased via the transient nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Therefore, we hypothesized that this increase in the GSH levels was a significant event that occurred in response to the Cd toxicity in the Jurkat T-cells. To test this hypothesis, the expression of Nrf2 in the cells was silenced using siRNA transfection. These restricted expression conditions demonstrated that the sensitivity of the Jurkat T-cells to Cd toxicity was significantly higher in the knockdown cells. Whereas we could not find differences in the metallothionein (MT) expression responses, accumulation of Nrf2 in the nuclei and the GSH increase after Cd exposure were clearly suppressed in the Nrf2 knockdown cells. These findings strongly suggest that the Cd-induced activation of GSH synthesis is initiated as an acute response for Cd detoxification. Furthermore, the Cd remaining in the Jurkat T-cells did not cause a significant inhibition of cell growth after the rapid and transient increase in the GSH concentration returned to its basal level. Additionally, we found that MT expression induced by Cd occurred much later, with the expression seen at least 12h or more after the Nrf2-dependent immediate responses were almost completed. These results indicate that the rapid increase in GSH is an essential defensive response, with the subsequent induction of MT potentially chelating the Cd retained in the cell, thereby leading to continued suppression of Cd toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin T Shearn

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT. In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN.

  8. Rapid Increase in Prevalence of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Emergence of Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 in CRE in a Hospital in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Yingbo; Zhang, Yangjunna; Yang, Jun-Wen; Shu, Ling-Bin; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Shaolin; Shen, Zhangqi

    2018-04-01

    The global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is one of the most severe threats to human health in a clinical setting. The recent emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 among CRE strains greatly compromises the use of colistin as a last resort for the treatment of infections caused by CRE. This study aimed to understand the current epidemiological trends and characteristics of CRE from a large hospital in Henan, the most populous province in China. From 2014 to 2016, a total of 7,249 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from clinical samples, among which 18.1% (1,311/7,249) were carbapenem resistant. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli were the two most common CRE species, with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDM), respectively, responsible for the carbapenem resistance of the two species. Notably, >57.0% ( n = 589) of the K. pneumoniae isolates from the intensive care unit were carbapenem resistant. Furthermore, bla NDM-5 and mcr-1 were found to coexist in one E. coli isolate, which exhibited resistance to almost all tested antibiotics. Overall, we observed a significant increase in the prevalence of CRE isolates during the study period and suggest that carbapenems may no longer be considered to be an effective treatment for infections caused by K. pneumoniae in the studied hospital. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Prevalence of anti-rubella, anti-measles and anti-mumps IgG antibodies in neonates and pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain) in 2013: susceptibility to measles increased from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, P; de Ory, F; Campins, M; Álvarez, E; Payà, T; Guisasola, E; Compte, C; Vellbé, K; Sánchez, C; Lozano, M J; Aran, I; Bonmatí, A; Carreras, R; Jané, M; Cabero, L

    2015-06-01

    Non-immune neonates and non-immune pregnant women are at risk of developing rubella, measles and mumps infections, including congenital rubella syndrome. We describe the seroepidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) in neonates and pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain). Anti-rubella, anti-measles and anti-mumps serum IgG titres were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in 353 cord blood samples from neonates of a representative sample of pregnant women obtained in 2013. The prevalence of protective antibody titres in neonates was 96 % for rubella IgG (≥8 IU/ml), 90 % for measles IgG (>300 IU/ml) and 84 % for mumps IgG (>460 EU/ml). Slightly lower prevalences of protective IgG titres, as estimated from the cord blood titres, were found in pregnant women: 95 % for rubella IgG, 89 % for measles IgG and 81 % for mumps IgG. The anti-measles and anti-mumps IgG titres and the prevalences of protective IgG titres against measles and mumps increased significantly (p < 0.001) with maternal age. The prevalence of protective anti-measles IgG titres decreased by 7 % [odds ratio (OR) = 0.15, p < 0.001), the prevalence of protective anti-rubella IgG titres increased by 3 % (OR = 1.80, p < 0.05) and the MMR vaccination coverage (during childhood) in pregnant women increased by 54 % (OR = 2.09, p < 0.001) from 2003 to 2013. We recommend to develop an MMR prevention programme in women of childbearing age based on mass MMR vaccination or MMR screening and vaccination of susceptible women to increase immunity levels against MMR.

  10. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI Among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Golin, C E; Friedman, S R; Scheidell, J D; Adimora, A A; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, M M; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, K K; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, K P; Wohl, D A

    2015-08-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months before incarceration, and 9 % tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3 %, gonorrhea: 0.5 %, trichomoniasis: 4.9 %). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio: 3.79, 95 % CI 1.19-12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis.

  11. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Intimate Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, MR; Golin, CE; Friedman, SR; Scheidell, JD; Adimora, AA; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, MM; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, KK; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, KP; Wohl, DA

    2015-01-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N=207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42%), concurrent partnerships (33%), and buying sex (11%) in the six months before incarceration, and 9% tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3%, gonorrhea: 0.5%, trichomoniasis: 4.9%). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.79, 95% CI: 1.19–12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis. PMID:25863467

  12. Increased prevalence and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, M; Chen, R-P; Yang, R; Chen, H

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We recruited patients with Type 2 diabetes with a BMI ≥ 24 kg/m 2 , who visited the diabetes clinics of 60 hospitals in 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China from August 2011 to March 2012. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests and abdominal ultrasonography were performed for all the patients. The study included 3861 patients (1860 men) with a mean ± sd (range) age of 58.91 ± 13.06 (18-90) years. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was found in 1751 patients (45.4%), with a significantly higher prevalence among men than women (48.0 vs 42.9%). The peak of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence was in patients with a BMI of 34-35 kg/m 2 , those with a triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio of 5.5-6.0, men aged non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, while heart rate and female gender were protective factors. The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes in South China is high. Multiple metabolic disorders were significantly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  13. "Impact of and response to increased tuberculosis prevalence among Syrian refugees compared with Jordanian tuberculosis prevalence: case study of a tuberculosis public health strategy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Susan T; Abaza, Hiba; Clarke, Kevin R; Burton, Ann; Sabrah, Nadia A; Rumman, Khaled A; Odeh, Nedal; Naoum, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    By the summer of 2014, the Syrian crisis resulted in a regional humanitarian emergency with 2.9 million refugees, including 608,000 in Jordan. These refugees access United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-sponsored clinics or Jordan Ministry of Health clinics, including tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Tuberculosis care in Syria has deteriorated with destroyed health infrastructure and drug supply chain. Syrian refugees may have undiagnosed tuberculosis; therefore, the UNHCR, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Public Health Strategy for Tuberculosis among Syrian Refugees in Jordan. This case study presents that strategy, its impact, and recommendations for other neighboring countries. UNHCR determined that World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for implementing a tuberculosis program in an emergency were met for the Syrian refugees in Jordan. Jordan NTP assessed their tuberculosis program and found that access to Syrian refugees was the one component of their program missing. Therefore, a strategy for tuberculosis control among Syrian refugees was developed. Since that development through work with IOM, UNHCR, and NTP, tuberculosis case detection among Syrian refugees is almost 40 % greater (74 cases/12 months or 1.01/100,000 monthly through June 2014 vs. 56 cases/16 months or 0.73/100,000 monthly through June 2013) using estimated population figures; more than two fold the 2012 Jordan tuberculosis incidence. Additionally, the WHO objective of curing ≥85 % of newly identified infectious tuberculosis cases was met among Syrian refugees. Tuberculosis (TB) rates among displaced persons are high, but increased detection is possible. High TB rates were found among Syrian refugees through active screening and will probably persist as the Syrian crisis continues. Active screening can detect tuberculosis early and reduce risk

  14. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections Are Associated With an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and a T-Helper Type 2 Cytokine Signature in Cervical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Marks, Morgan; Kosek, Margaret; Huang, Christine; Cabrera, Lilia; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Medrano, Alberto Mejia; Trigoso, Dixner R.; Qureshi, Sarah; Bardales, Gustavo S.; Manrique-Hinojosa, Javier; Cardenas, Albert Z.; Larraondo, Manuel A.; Cok, Jaime; Qeadan, Fares; Siracusa, Mark; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. An ecological correlation between invasive cervical cancer incidence and burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is hypothesized to explain the excess in detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Latin America, via a global T-helper type 2 (Th2)–biased mucosal immune response secondary to STH infection. Methods. The association between current STH infection and HPV prevalence was compared in regions of Peru where STH is or is not endemic. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with robust variance were estimated as an effect measure of STH infection on HPV prevalence in each study site. Soluble immune marker profiles in STH-infected and STH-uninfected women were compared using Spearman rank correlation with the Sidak correction. Results. Among women in the helminth-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon, those with STH infection women had a 60% higher prevalence of HPV, compared with those without STH infection (PR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–2.7). Non-STH parasitic/protozoal infections in the non–STH-endemic population of Peru were not associated with HPV prevalence. In Iquitos, A Th2 immune profile was observed in cervical fluid from helminth-infected women but not helminth-uninfected women. Conclusions. A proportion of the increased HPV prevalence at older ages observed in Latin America may be due to a population-level difference in the efficiency of immunological control of HPV across the lifespan due to endemic STH infection. PMID:26486638

  15. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections Are Associated With an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and a T-Helper Type 2 Cytokine Signature in Cervical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan; Kosek, Margaret; Huang, Christine; Cabrera, Lilia; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Medrano, Alberto Mejia; Trigoso, Dixner R; Qureshi, Sarah; Bardales, Gustavo S; Manrique-Hinojosa, Javier; Cardenas, Albert Z; Larraondo, Manuel A; Cok, Jaime; Qeadan, Fares; Siracusa, Mark; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    An ecological correlation between invasive cervical cancer incidence and burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is hypothesized to explain the excess in detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Latin America, via a global T-helper type 2 (Th2)-biased mucosal immune response secondary to STH infection. The association between current STH infection and HPV prevalence was compared in regions of Peru where STH is or is not endemic. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with robust variance were estimated as an effect measure of STH infection on HPV prevalence in each study site. Soluble immune marker profiles in STH-infected and STH-uninfected women were compared using Spearman rank correlation with the Sidak correction. Among women in the helminth-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon, those with STH infection women had a 60% higher prevalence of HPV, compared with those without STH infection (PR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.7). Non-STH parasitic/protozoal infections in the non-STH-endemic population of Peru were not associated with HPV prevalence. In Iquitos, A Th2 immune profile was observed in cervical fluid from helminth-infected women but not helminth-uninfected women. A proportion of the increased HPV prevalence at older ages observed in Latin America may be due to a population-level difference in the efficiency of immunological control of HPV across the lifespan due to endemic STH infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Diet control to achieve euglycemia induces significant loss of heart and liver weight via increased autophagy compared with ad libitum diet in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Ju-Han; Jin, Mingli; Han, Sang-Don; Chon, Gyu-Rak; Kim, Ick-Hee; Kim, Seonguk; Kim, Sung-Young; Choi, Soo-Bong; Noh, Yun-Hee

    2014-08-29

    Intensive glucose control increases the all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that strict diet control to achieve euglycemia in diabetes damages major organs, increasing the mortality risk. To evaluate effects on major organs when euglycemia is obtained by diet control, we generated a model of end-stage T2DM in 13-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by subtotal pancreatectomy, followed by ad libitum feeding for 5 weeks. We divided these rats into two groups and for the subsequent 6 weeks provided ad libitum feeding to half (AL, n=12) and a calorie-controlled diet to the other half (R, n=12). To avoid hypoglycemia, the degree of calorie restriction in the R group was isocaloric (g per kg body weight per day) compared with a sham-operated control group (C, n=12). During the 6-week diet control period, AL rats ate three times more than rats in the C or R groups, developing hyperglycemia with renal hyperplasia. R group achieved euglycemia but lost overall body weight significantly compared with the C or AL group (49 or 22%, respectively), heart weight (39 or 23%, respectively) and liver weight (50 or 46%, respectively). Autophagy levels in the heart and liver were the highest in the R group (Pdiabetes but may be deleterious even at isocaloric rate when insulin is deficient because of significant loss of heart and liver mass via increased autophagy.

  17. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients.

  18. X Chromosome Dose and Sex Bias in Autoimmune Diseases: Increased Prevalence of 47,XXX in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Kurien, Biji T; Zimmerman, Sarah L; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Taft, Diana H; Kottyan, Leah C; Lazaro, Sara; Weaver, Carrie A; Ice, John A; Adler, Adam J; Chodosh, James; Radfar, Lida; Rasmussen, Astrid; Stone, Donald U; Lewis, David M; Li, Shibo; Koelsch, Kristi A; Igoe, Ann; Talsania, Mitali; Kumar, Jay; Maier-Moore, Jacen S; Harris, Valerie M; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Jonsson, Roland; Lessard, James A; Lu, Xianglan; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Cunninghame-Graham, Deborah S; Huang, Andrew J W; Brennan, Michael T; Hughes, Pamela; Illei, Gabor G; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Keystone, Edward C; Bykerk, Vivian P; Hirschfield, Gideon; Xie, Gang; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nordmark, Gunnel; Eriksson, Per; Omdal, Roald; Rhodus, Nelson L; Rischmueller, Maureen; Rohrer, Michael; Segal, Barbara M; Vyse, Timothy J; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Witte, Torsten; Pons-Estel, Bernardo; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Guthridge, Joel M; James, Judith A; Lessard, Christopher J; Kelly, Jennifer A; Thompson, Susan D; Gaffney, Patrick M; Montgomery, Courtney G; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P; Alarcón, Graciela S; Langefeld, Carl L; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L; Tsao, Betty P; McCune, W Joseph; Salmon, Jane E; Merrill, Joan T; Weisman, Michael H; Wallace, Daniel J; Utset, Tammy O; Bottinger, Erwin P; Amos, Christopher I; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Mariette, Xavier; Sivils, Kathy L; Harley, John B; Scofield, R Hal

    2016-05-01

    More than 80% of autoimmune disease predominantly affects females, but the mechanism for this female bias is poorly understood. We suspected that an X chromosome dose effect accounts for this, and we undertook this study to test our hypothesis that trisomy X (47,XXX; occurring in ∼1 in 1,000 live female births) would be increased in patients with female-predominant diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], primary Sjögren's syndrome [SS], primary biliary cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) compared to patients with diseases without female predominance (sarcoidosis) and compared to controls. All subjects in this study were female. We identified subjects with 47,XXX using aggregate data from single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and, when possible, we confirmed the presence of 47,XXX using fluorescence in situ hybridization or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found 47,XXX in 7 of 2,826 SLE patients and in 3 of 1,033 SS patients, but in only 2 of 7,074 controls (odds ratio in the SLE and primary SS groups 8.78 [95% confidence interval 1.67-86.79], P = 0.003 and odds ratio 10.29 [95% confidence interval 1.18-123.47], P = 0.02, respectively). One in 404 women with SLE and 1 in 344 women with SS had 47,XXX. There was an excess of 47,XXX among SLE and SS patients. The estimated prevalence of SLE and SS in women with 47,XXX was ∼2.5 and ∼2.9 times higher, respectively, than that in women with 46,XX and ∼25 and ∼41 times higher, respectively, than that in men with 46,XY. No statistically significant increase of 47,XXX was observed in other female-biased diseases (primary biliary cirrhosis or RA), supporting the idea of multiple pathways to sex bias in autoimmunity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Insulin pump treatment; increasing prevalence, and predictors for better metabolic outcome in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birthe; Johannesen, J; Fredheim, S

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Few studies have looked at nationwide data for insulin pump treatment. Since 1996 the Danish Childhood Diabetes Registry (DanDiabKids) has collected data on all Danish diabetic patients aged 0-15 yr. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of continuous subcutaneous insulin...... infusion (CSII) use among Danish children with diabetes and to compare metabolic control in CSII-treated children and adolescents to those treated with MDI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Registry collects on a yearly basis data on insulin regimen, central measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and demographic data...... on all patients. In the period 2005-2011, 2983 young patients (1721 males) with diabetes were followed in the Registry. Mean observation period was 5.11 yr [standard error (SE) 0.09]. In the total period 1846 patients were treated with MDI and 1493 changed from MDI to CSII. In 2005, less than 5...

  20. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  1. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  2. Evaluation of prostate cancer prevalence in Iranian male population with increased PSA level, a one center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Lotfi, Fariborz; Tahvildar, Seyed Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in Iranian male patients with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and normal or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) that underwent prostate biopsy. From March 2006 to April 2009, a total of 346 consecutive males suspected of having PCa due to increased PSA levels underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided sextant biopsy of the prostate. The total PSA (tPSA), demographic data, incidence of PCa, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatitis were assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their PSA values (group A serum tPSA level, 4–10 ng/mL; group B serum tPSA level, 10.1–20.0 ng/mL). Of the 346 biopsied cases, 193 cases (56%) had PCa, 80 cases (23%) had BPH, and 73 cases (21%) had prostatitis. The mean PSA and the age of the carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the benign group (P < 0.01). The biopsy results were grouped as PCa, BPH, and prostatitis. Incidence of PCa for group A and group B cases were 115 cases (51%), and 78 cases (65%), respectively. In the case of PCa, BPH, and prostatitis, the mean PSAs were 10.02 ng/mL, 8.76 ng/mL, and 8.41 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.40). TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and interpretation by a skilled team is highly recommended for early detection of PCa or its ruling-out. It seems that a PSA cutoff value of 4 ng/mL may be applied to the Iranian population. Although the chance of PCa is high in the PSA levels of 4–10 ng/mL, the combination of some data, like age and prostate volume, can decrease the rate of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We recommend prostate biopsy when PSA and/or DRE is elevated in symptomatic patients with obstructive and/or irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as dysuria, frequency, or nocturia. Due to the very high incidence of PCa in the patients with PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, TRUS-guided biopsy is indicated, whatever the findings on DRE and

  3. Increased brain expression of GPNMB is associated with genome wide significant risk for Parkinson's disease on chromosome 7p15.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Megha N; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hardy, John; Lewis, Patrick A; Trabzuni, Daniah

    2017-07-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) have previously revealed a significant association with a locus on chromosome 7p15.3, initially designated as the glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) locus. In this study, the functional consequences of this association on expression were explored in depth by integrating different expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) datasets (Braineac, CAGEseq, GTEx, and Phenotype-Genotype Integrator (PheGenI)). Top risk SNP rs199347 eQTLs demonstrated increased expressions of GPNMB, KLHL7, and NUPL2 with the major allele (AA) in brain, with most significant eQTLs in cortical regions, followed by putamen. In addition, decreased expression of the antisense RNA KLHL7-AS1 was observed in GTEx. Furthermore, rs199347 is an eQTL with long non-coding RNA (AC005082.12) in human tissues other than brain. Interestingly, transcript-specific eQTLs in immune-related tissues (spleen and lymphoblastoid cells) for NUPL2 and KLHL7-AS1 were observed, which suggests a complex functional role of this eQTL in specific tissues, cell types at specific time points. Significantly increased expression of GPNMB linked to rs199347 was consistent across all datasets, and taken in combination with the risk SNP being located within the GPNMB gene, these results suggest that increased expression of GPNMB is the causative link explaining the association of this locus with PD. However, other transcript eQTLs and subsequent functional roles cannot be excluded. This highlights the importance of further investigations to understand the functional interactions between the coding genes, antisense, and non-coding RNA species considering the tissue and cell-type specificity to understand the underlying biological mechanisms in PD.

  4. Increased expression of interleukin-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and its predicating significance in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guanglin; Yuan, Aping; Zhu, Li; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    The role and significance of interleukin (IL)-21 in the development of sporadic CRC have not been well defined. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the dynamics of the IL-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and to evaluate the impact of IL-21 on clinicopathological parameters and CRC prognosis. The real-time PCR results showed that the level of IL-21 in adenomas (n=50) and sporadic CRC (n=50) were significantly higher than that in normal controls (n=18), which were predominately observed in the adenoma/CRC stroma. Analysis revealed that IL-21 level was correlated with the overall survival time in CRC patients. Double immunofluorescence observations confirmed that IL-21 positive cells were mostly natural killer cells and T lymphocytes in the tumor stroma. These results indicate that significant increased IL-21 expression present within the adenoma/CRC microenvironment might have a potential predicating significance for survival time in patients with CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Final report of a randomized trial on altered-fractionated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma prematurely terminated by significant increase in neurologic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter Man Lung; Leung, Sing Fai; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Choi, Peter Ho Keung; Kwan, Wing Hong; Lee, Wai Yee; Chau, Ricky Ming Chun; Yu, Peter Kau Wing; Johnson, Philip James

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the survival, local control and complications of conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From February 1993 to October 1995, 159 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (M0) NPC with N0 or 4 cm or less N1 disease (Ho's N-stage classification, 1978) were randomized to receive either conventional radiotherapy (Arm I, n = 82) or conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Arm II, n = 77). Stratification was according to the T stage. The biologic effective dose (10 Grays) to the primary and the upper cervical lymphatics were 75.0 and 73.1 for Arm I and 84.4 and 77.2 for Arm II, respectively. Results: With comparable distribution among the T stages between the two arms, the free from local failure rate at 5 years after radiotherapy was not significantly different between the two arms (85.3%; 95% confidence interval, 77.2-93.4% for Arm I; and 88.9%; 95% confidence interval, 81.7-96.2% for Arm II). The two arms were also comparable in overall survival, relapse-free survival, and rates of distant metastasis and regional relapse. Conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with significantly increased radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system (including temporal lobe, cranial nerves, optic nerve/chiasma, and brainstem/spinal cord) in Arm II. Although insignificant, radiation-induced cranial nerve(s) palsy (typically involving VIII-XII), trismus, neck soft tissue fibrosis, and hypopituiturism and hypothyroidism occurred more often in Arm II. In addition, the complications occurred at significantly shorter intervals after radiotherapy in Arm II. Conclusion: Accelerated hyperfractionation when used in conjunction with a two-dimensional radiotherapy planning technique, in this case the Ho's technique, resulted in increased radiation damage to the central

  6. [Percutaneous transfemoral valvuloplasty in patients with calcified aortic stenosis and significantly increased surgical risk: clinical course and value of Doppler sonography in assessment of therapeutic success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kücherer, H; Katus, H; Dietz, R; Rauch, B; Kübler, W

    1988-07-01

    Percutaneous transluminal valvuloplasty (PTV) was performed in 24 patients (aged 67-86 years, mean: 76 +/- 5.7 years) with calcific aortic stenosis and high operative risk. The gradient between maximal left ventricular and aortic pressures (peak-to-peak gradient, PPPG) could be reduced by 52% from 73 +/- 21 to 34 +/- 12 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Peak pressure gradient (PPG), as assessed by continuous wave Doppler, could be reduced from 80 +/- 28 to 58 +/- 21 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Aortic valve area (AVA) as determined by Doppler and two dimensional echocardiography increased significantly from 0.39 +/- 0.14 to 0.61 +/- 0.3 cm2 (p less than 0.05). Clinical symptoms were found to be improved in 5 of 8 patients with impaired ejection fraction and in 11 of 16 patients with normal ejection fraction during the first week after PTV. Complications due to the procedure were surgical revision of femoral artery puncture site in one patient and hemodynamic relevant pericardial effusion in another patient. Transmitral early (E) and late (L) diastolic filling integrals were measured by pulsed Doppler: the ratio E/L decreased significantly after PTV from 0.9 +/- 0.5 to 0.63 +/- 0.31 (p less than 0.03) indicating further reduction of left ventricular early diastolic filling. Ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output did not significantly change immediately after PTV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Training Programs on Endoscopic Scoring Systems for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Lead to a Significant Increase in Interobserver Agreement Among Community Gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daperno, Marco; Comberlato, Michele; Bossa, Fabrizio; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Biancone, Livia; Bonanomi, Andrea G; Cosintino, Rocco; Lombardi, Giovanni; Mangiarotti, Roberto; Papa, Alfredo; Pica, Roberta; Grassano, Luca; Pagana, Guido; D'Incà, Renata; Orlando, Ambrogio; Rizzello, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Endoscopic outcomes are increasingly used in clinical trials and in routine practice for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in order to reach more objective patient evaluations than possible using only clinical features. However, reproducibility of endoscopic scoring systems used to categorize endoscopic activity has been reported to be suboptimal. The aim of this study was to analyse the inter-rated agreement of non-dedicated gastroenterologists on IBD endoscopic scoring systems, and to explore the effects of a dedicated training programme on agreement. A total of 237 physicians attended training courses on IBD endoscopic scoring systems, and they independently scored a set of IBD endoscopic videos for ulcerative colitis [with Mayo endoscopic subscore], post-operative Crohn's disease [with Rutgeerts score] and luminal Crohn's disease (with the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease [SESCD] and Crohn's Endoscopic Index of Severity [CDEIS]). A second round of scoring was collected after discussion about determinants of discrepancy. Interobserver agreement was measured by means of the Fleiss' kappa [kappa] or intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] as appropriate. The inter-rater agreement increased from kappa 0.51 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.48-0.55) to 0.76 [95% CI 0.72-0.79] for the Mayo endoscopic subscore, and from 0.45 [95% CI 0.40-0.50] to 0.79 [0.74-0.83] for the Rutgeerts score before and after the training programme, respectively, and both differences were significant [P training programme can significantly impact on inter-rater agreement, increasing it to levels expected among expert central reviewers. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Significant ecological impact on the progression of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli with increased community use of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Oscar; Oteo, Jesús; Lázaro, Edurne; Aracil, Belén; de Abajo, Francisco; García-Cobos, Silvia; Ortega, Adriana; Campos, José

    2011-03-01

    To determine trends in ciprofloxacin resistance and co-resistance to other antibiotic classes in blood isolates of Escherichia coli, and to investigate if there is an ecological relationship to the community use of fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics. Forty-two Spanish hospitals of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network collected ciprofloxacin and other antibiotic susceptibility data for non-duplicate consecutive E. coli isolates from patients with bacteraemia between 2001 and 2009. The nationwide ambulatory use of antibiotics between 1997 and 2008 was determined by WHO methods, and the co-evolution of both parameters was further analysed. Of the 28 307 E. coli blood isolates, 27.9% were ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (CIPNS), increasing from 17.6% in 2001 to 32.7% in 2009. A continuous increase was observed between CIPNS and other resistances, including cephalosporin resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and non-susceptibility to both amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and tobramycin. Although the total use of antibiotics did not increase, community use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid increased by 307.2%, 62.6% and 70.1%, respectively. Yearly rates of CIPNS E. coli strongly correlated with the use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (r(2 )> 0.80; P resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, production of ESBLs and resistance to aminoglycosides. Community use of fluoroquinolones (mainly moxifloxacin and levofloxacin) and of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid represents a significant driver in the progression of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteraemic E. coli.

  9. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  10. Increased prevalence of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase in dry eyes and mouth syndrome or sicca asthenia polyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavragani, Clio P; Skopouli, Fotini N; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2009-08-01

    A subset of patients presenting with sicca features suggestive of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) do not fulfill diagnostic or histopathological criteria. This presentation was previously designated as dry eyes and mouth syndrome (DEMS) or sicca asthenia polyalgia syndrome (SAPS). We sought to define the underlying clinical, laboratory, and histological features of these patients. The study population consisted of 27 consecutive patients with DEMS/SAPS; 54 patients with pSS served as controls. Medical charts were retrospectively evaluated for clinical and serological data and frozen sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against HIV, hepatitis C virus, and thyroid antigens. Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin embedded tissues was also performed. Sicca symptoms and nonspecific musculoskeletal pain were the commonest clinical features of patients with DEMS/SAPS; positive titers of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase was the main underlying abnormality found in 16 out of 27 (59.2%) of patients with DEMS/SAPS compared to 11 out of 54 (20.4%) of pSS controls (p = 0.0009). Histological analysis of the minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies of patients with DEMS/SAPS disclosed a mild inflammatory infiltration of the interstitial tissue with a predominantly perivascular distribution. Patients with DEMS/SAPS present with sicca features and nonspecific musculoskeletal complaints, have high prevalence of antithyroid antibodies, and their MSG biopsies demonstrate a mild interstitial lymphocytic infiltration with a predominantly perivascular distribution. In the setting of clinical practice, we propose that in the presence of DEMS/SAPS testing for antithyroid antibody should be performed.

  11. Prevalence, distribution and functional significance of the -237C to T polymorphism in the IL-12Rβ2 promoter in Indian tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar Verma

    Full Text Available Cytokine/cytokine receptor gene polymorphisms related to structure/expression could impact immune response. Hence, the -237 polymorphic site in the 5' promoter region of the IL-12Rβ2 (SNP ID: rs11810249 gene associated with the AP-4 transcription motif GAGCTG, was examined. Amplicons encompassing the polymorphism were generated from 46 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 35 family contacts and 28 miscellaneous volunteers and sequenced. The C allele predominated among patients, (93.4%, 43/46, and in all volunteers and contacts screened, but the T allele was exclusively limited to patients, (6.5%, 3/46. The functional impact of this polymorphism on transcriptional activity was assessed by Luciferase-reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. Luciferase-reporter assays showed a significant reduction in transcriptional efficiency with T compared to C allele. The reduction in transcriptional efficiency with the T allele construct (pGIL-12Rb2-T, in U-87MG, THP-1 and Jurkat cell lines, were 53, 37.6, and 49.8% respectively, compared to the C allele construct (pGIL-12Rb2-C. Similarly, densitometric analysis of the EMSA assay showed reduced binding of the AP-4 transcription factor, to T compared to the C nucleotide probe. Reduced mRNA expression in all patients (3/3 harboring the T allele was seen, whereas individuals with the C allele exhibited high mRNA expression (17/25; 68%, p = 0.05. These observations were in agreement with the in vitro assessment of the promoter activity by Luciferase-reporter and EMSA assays. The reduced expression of IL-12Rβ2 transcripts in 8 patients despite having the C allele was attributed to the predominant over expression of the suppressors (IL-4 and GATA-3 and reduced expression of enhancers (IFN-α of IL-12Rβ2 transcripts. The 17 high IL-12Rβ2 mRNA expressers had significantly elevated IFN-α mRNA levels compared to low expressers and volunteers. Notwithstanding the presence of high levels of IL-12R

  12. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  13. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, Christoph; Souza, Richard B.; Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008–0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  14. Calf muscle stimulation with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase in lower limb inflow without generating limb ischemia or pain in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Pierre; Mateus, Victor; Bieuzen, Francois; Ouedraogo, Nafi; Cisse, Fallou; Leftheriotis, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Increase in arterial inflow to the lower limbs is important to obtain functional improvement in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients with claudication. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of electrical stimulation of calf muscles on arterial inflow and tissue oxygen content in PAD in the area of stimulation. Fifteen adult patients [mean (standard deviation) age, 62 (12 ) years; height, 165 (8)cm; weight, 76 (13) kg; lowest ankle-brachial index 0.66 (0.19)] with stable arterial claudication were recruited. All patients performed a treadmill test (3.2 km/h, 10% slope) associated with a transcutaneous oximetry test expressed as decrease from rest of oxygen pressure (DROP) index values (calf changes minus chest changes from rest) with a maximum walking distance (median [25th/75th percentiles]) of 295 [133-881] m. The DROP index on the symptomatic side was -25 [-18/-34] mm Hg. On another day the patients underwent electrical stimulation in the seated position on the leg that was the most symptomatic on the treadmill. After resting values were recorded, the gastrocnemius was stimulated for 20minutes at increasing contraction rates at 5-minute steps of 60, 75, 86, and 100bpm on the most symptomatic side. Arterial blood inflow with duplex Doppler ultrasound scanning of the femoral artery, DROP transcutaneous oxygen pressure value, and oxygen concentration (O2Hb) from the near-infrared spectroscopic signal of the calf were recorded on both sides. Patients were instructed to report eventual contraction-induced pain in the stimulated calf. Results are given as mean (standard deviation) or median [25th/75th percentiles] according to distribution, and the level of statistical significance was set at P  .05) before stimulation, 123 [75/156] vs 57 [44/92] (P calf muscle with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase of arterial inflow without measurable muscle ischemia or pain. Potential use of this device as an adjuvant treatment to improve

  15. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  16. Increased prevalence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with early multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Modvig, Signe; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokines produced by cells of the immune system are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been shown to produce and secrete a wide range of the cytokines involved in MS pathogenesis; however...... in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients experiencing their first or second demyelinating event. We found a substantial increase in both frequency and number of ILCs, in particular the LTi subset, as compared to healthy controls. We also found an association between CSF pleocytosis and an increased frequency...

  17. The crisis in leadership in the context of the nursing shortage and the increasing prevalence of nursing unions

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh-Robinson, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    Latisha L Balogh-RobinsonMarist College, School of Global and Professional Programs, Poughkeepsie, NY, USAAbstract: Developing nurse leaders in a unionized environment presents unique challenges that are beyond those traditionally experienced in nonunion settings. This literature review examines multiple factors contributing to increasing nursing union membership, including population aging, the nursing shortage, and the relationship between leadership and staff engagement. Current trends in ...

  18. Pre-existing malignancy results in increased prevalence of distinct populations of CD4+ T cells during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianfeng; Robertson, Jennifer M; Chen, Ching-Wen; Zhang, Wenxiao; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2018-01-01

    The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks. These cancer hosts and age-matched non-cancer controls were then subjected to CLP. Splenocytes were harvested at 24h post CLP and flow cytometry and SPADE (Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events) were used to analyze populations of CD4+ cells most different between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to non-cancer controls, cancer mice contained more resting memory CD4+ T cells, more activated CD4+ effectors, and fewer naïve CD4+ T cells during sepsis, suggesting that the CD4+ T cell compartment in cancer septic hosts is one of increased activation and differentiation. Moreover, cancer septic animals exhibited expansion of two distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells relative to previously healthy septic controls. Specifically, we identified increases in both a PD-1hi population and a distinct 2B4hi BTLAhi LAG-3hi population in cancer septic animals. By combining phenotypic analysis of exhaustion markers with functional analysis of cytokine production, we found that PD-1+ CD4+ cells in cancer hosts failed to make any cytokines following CLP, while the 2B4+ PD-1lo cells in cancer mice secreted increased TNF during sepsis. In sum, the immunophenotypic landscape of cancer septic animals is characterized by both increased CD4+ T cell activation and exhaustion, findings that may underlie the observed increased mortality in mice with pre-existing malignancy

  19. Pre-existing malignancy results in increased prevalence of distinct populations of CD4+ T cells during sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xie

    Full Text Available The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks. These cancer hosts and age-matched non-cancer controls were then subjected to CLP. Splenocytes were harvested at 24h post CLP and flow cytometry and SPADE (Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events were used to analyze populations of CD4+ cells most different between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to non-cancer controls, cancer mice contained more resting memory CD4+ T cells, more activated CD4+ effectors, and fewer naïve CD4+ T cells during sepsis, suggesting that the CD4+ T cell compartment in cancer septic hosts is one of increased activation and differentiation. Moreover, cancer septic animals exhibited expansion of two distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells relative to previously healthy septic controls. Specifically, we identified increases in both a PD-1hi population and a distinct 2B4hi BTLAhi LAG-3hi population in cancer septic animals. By combining phenotypic analysis of exhaustion markers with functional analysis of cytokine production, we found that PD-1+ CD4+ cells in cancer hosts failed to make any cytokines following CLP, while the 2B4+ PD-1lo cells in cancer mice secreted increased TNF during sepsis. In sum, the immunophenotypic landscape of cancer septic animals is characterized by both increased CD4+ T cell activation and exhaustion, findings that may underlie the observed increased mortality in mice with pre

  20. Emerged HA and NA Mutants of the Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Viruses with Increasing Epidemiological Significance in Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tsai, Chu-Han; Chu, Kuan-Ying; Chuang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Chang-Chun; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Wu, Ko-Wen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shen, Yea-Huei; Huang, Li-Min; Lee, Ping-Ing; Yang, ChingLai; Compans, Richard; Rouse, Barry T.; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to observe dynamic changes of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of pH1N1 strains that spread in two metropolitan areas -Taipei and Kaohsiung. We observed cumulative increases of amino acid substitutions of both HA and NA that were higher in the post–peak than in the pre-peak period of the epidemic. About 14.94% and 3.44% of 174 isolates had one and two amino acids changes, respective, in the four antigenic sites. One unique adaptive mutation of HA2 (E374K) was first detected three weeks before the epidemic peak. This mutation evolved through the epidemic, and finally emerged as the major circulated strain, with significantly higher frequency in the post-peak period than in the pre-peak (64.65% vs 9.28%, p<0.0001). E374K persisted until ten months post-nationwide vaccination without further antigenic changes (e.g. prior to the highest selective pressure). In public health measures, the epidemic peaked at seven weeks after oseltamivir treatment was initiated. The emerging E374K mutants spread before the first peak of school class suspension, extended their survival in high-density population areas before vaccination, dominated in the second wave of class suspension, and were fixed as herd immunity developed. The tempo-spatial spreading of E374K mutants was more concentrated during the post–peak (p = 0.000004) in seven districts with higher spatial clusters (p<0.001). This is the first study examining viral changes during the naïve phase of a pandemic of influenza through integrated virological/serological/clinical surveillance, tempo-spatial analysis, and intervention policies. The vaccination increased the percentage of E374K mutants (22.86% vs 72.34%, p<0.001) and significantly elevated the frequency of mutations in Sa antigenic site (2.36% vs 23.40%, p<0.001). Future pre-vaccination public health efforts should monitor amino acids of HA and NA of pandemic influenza viruses isolated at

  1. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  2. Laninamivir octanoate and artificial surfactant combination therapy significantly increases survival of mice infected with lethal influenza H1N1 Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Fukushi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with influenza virus infection can develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS which have a high mortality. Influenza virus infection is treated worldwide mainly by neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. However, monotherapy with NAIs is insufficient for severe pneumonia secondary to influenza virus infection. We previously demonstrated that mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza virus develop diffuse alveolar damage (DAD with alveolar collapse similar to that seen in ARDS in humans. Additionally, pulmonary surfactant proteins were gradually increased in mouse serum, suggesting a decrease in pulmonary surfactant in the lung. Therefore, the present study examined whether combination therapy of NAI with exogenous artificial surfactant affects mortality of influenza virus-infected mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were inoculated with several viral doses of influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 virus (H1N1. The mice were additionally administered exogenous artificial surfactant in the presence or absence of a new NAI, laninamivir octanoate. Mouse survival, body weight and general condition were observed for up to 20 days after inoculation. Viral titer and cytokine/chemokine levels in the lungs, lung weight, pathological analysis, and blood O(2 and CO(2 pressures were evaluated. Infected mice treated with combination therapy of laninamivir octanoate with artificial surfactant showed a significantly higher survival rate compared with those that received laninamivir octanoate monotherapy (p = 0.003. However, virus titer, lung weight and cytokine/chemokine responses were not different between the groups. Histopathological examination, a hydrostatic lung test and blood gas analysis showed positive results in the combination therapy group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combination therapy of laninamivir octanoate with artificial surfactant reduces lethality in mice infected with influenza virus, and

  3. Incorporating biologic measurements (SF2, CFE) into a tumor control probability model increases their prognostic significance: a study in cervical carcinoma treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, Francesca Meteora; Davidson, Susan E.; Hunter, Robert D.; Nahum, Alan E.; West, Catharine M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether incorporation of measurements of surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF 2 ) and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) into a tumor control probability (tcp) model increases their prognostic significance. Methods and Materials: Measurements of SF 2 and CFE were available from a study on carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation alone. These measurements, as well as tumor volume, dose, and treatment time, were incorporated into a Poisson tcp model (tcp α,ρ ). Regression analysis was performed to assess the prognostic power of tcp α,ρ vs. the use of either tcp models with biologic parameters fixed to best-fit estimates (but incorporating individual dose, volume, and treatment time) or the use of SF 2 and CFE measurements alone. Results: In a univariate regression analysis of 44 patients, tcp α,ρ was a better prognostic factor for both local control and survival (p 2 alone (p=0.009 for local control, p=0.29 for survival) or CFE alone (p=0.015 for local control, p=0.38 for survival). In multivariate analysis, tcp α,ρ emerged as the most important prognostic factor for local control (p α,ρ , CFE was still a significant independent prognostic factor for local control, whereas SF 2 was not. The sensitivities of tcp α,ρ and SF 2 as predictive tests for local control were 87% and 65%, respectively. Specificities were 70% and 77%, respectively. Conclusions: A Poisson tcp model incorporating individual SF 2 , CFE, dose, tumor volume, and treatment time was found to be the best independent prognostic factor for local control and survival in cervical carcinoma patients

  4. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 -28C>G is significantly associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lelin; Zhang, Kaixian; Yao, Lihong; Wang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) has been shown to play an important role in antimycobacterial immune responses. Previous studies have extensively reported that the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. To investigate the relationship between the CCL5 -28C>G and the risk of TB, we performed a meta-analysis. Methods: We searched articles published before June 6, 2014 from PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. Data were extracted from all eligible publications independently by two investigators and statistically analyzed. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association between CCL5 polymorphism and TB. Results: Four case-control studies including 647 TB cases and 726 controls were involved in the meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis indicated the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of TB (G vs. C: 3.75, 95% CI = 1.76-7.99; GG vs. CC: OR = 30.26, 95% CI = 14.28-64.12). Conclusion: Our results suggested that the -28C>G polymorphism is significantly associated with higher TB risk, which is opposite from previously published reports. However, the number of the study is limited, additional well-designed studies are required to elucidate the association between the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism and TB. PMID:26550245

  5. Increased prevalence of depression and anxiety among subjects with metabolic syndrome and known type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkov, Alexander; Borissova, Anna-Maria; Kovatcheva, Roussanka; Vlahov, Jordan; Dakovska, Lilia; Atanassova, Iliana; Petkova, Paulina

    2018-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The MetS and its elements have been linked to anxiety and depressive disorders. The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety, measured by the Zung Self-Rating Scale in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. A total of 2111 adults were included, 1155 female, age 47.6 (13.7) and 956 male, age 45.2 (13.5). All participants filled questionnaires covering current and past disorders and medication, smoking and family history. Zung self-rating depression and anxiety scales were completed. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured, BMI was calculated, serum glucose and lipids were measured. Depression (SDSi) and anxiety scores (SASi) were higher in the females and increased with age (p anxiety were more prevalent in the subjects with known diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance but not in the newly-diagnosed diabetes. The OR for depressiveness was 2.0 (1.3; 2.6) in subjects with MetS and 4.2 (2.3; 7.8) in those with known diabetes. In conclusion, depressiveness and anxiety were associated positively with age and female gender and were more prevalent among subjects with MetS and known diabetes mellitus.

  6. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis meals in West African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Koréissi-Dembélé

    Full Text Available Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16, using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat, each fortified with (57Fe or (58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed, with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU per g (whole wheat. Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C. Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8 in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9 in FWFP (P<0.0001. Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  7. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  8. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  9. N- and C-terminal truncations of a GH10 xylanase significantly increase its activity and thermostability but decrease its SDS resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Huang, Jingxuan; Liu, Xingchen; Hu, Hang; Long, Liangkun; Chen, Kaixiang; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    XynII from Volvariella volvacea has high sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistance, with the potential for industrial applications under harsh conditions. It consists of a single glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) catalytic domain but contains an additional unique 10 and 4 amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. In this study, five XynII derivatives with N- and/or C-terminus deletions were constructed to determine the effects of these regions on enzyme activity, substrate specificity, thermostability, and SDS resistance. Our results revealed that N- and/or C-terminal truncations significantly increased enzyme activity and thermostability, but reduced SDS resistance. Specifically, the XynIIΔNC4 mutant had 2.53-fold more catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) towards beechwood xylan than wild-type and 3.0-fold more thermostability (t 1/2 [55°C]). XynIIΔNC4 displayed 3.33-, 4.38-, 1.37-, and 1.98-fold more activity against xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, and xylohexaose, respectively, than XynII did. However, its half-life (t 1/2) in 4 % SDS was only 1.72 h, while that of XynII was 4.65 h. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that deletion of N- and C-terminal segments caused minor changes in secondary structure. Our observations suggest that the extra N- and C-terminal segments in wild-type XynII evolved to strengthen the interaction between these regions of the protein, making the local structure more rigid and reducing structural flexibility. In this way, N- and C-terminal truncations increased the thermostability and activity of XynII on different xylans and linear xylooligosaccharides, but reduced its resistance to SDS.

  10. Epilepsy by the Numbers: Epilepsy deaths by age, race/ethnicity, and gender in the United States significantly increased from 2005 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlund, Sujay F; Croft, Janet B; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-04-01

    To inform public health efforts to prevent epilepsy-related deaths, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER; Wonder.cdc.gov) to examine any-listed epilepsy deaths for the period 2005-2014 by age groups (≤24, 25-44, 45-64, 65-84, ≥85years), sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native). Epilepsy deaths were defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes G40.0-G40.9. The total number of deaths per year with epilepsy as any listed cause ranged from 1760 in 2005 to 2962 in 2014. Epilepsy was listed as the underlying cause of death for about 54% of all deaths with any mention of epilepsy in 2005 and for 43% of such deaths in 2014. Age-adjusted epilepsy mortality rates (as any-listed cause of death) per 100,000 significantly increased from 0.58 in 2005 to 0.85 in 2014 (47% increase). In 2014, deaths among the non-Hispanic Black population (1.42 deaths per 100,000) were higher than among non-Hispanic White (0.86 deaths per 100,000) and Hispanic populations (0.70 deaths per 100,000). Males had a higher mortality rate than females (1.01 per 100,000 versus 0.74 per 100,000 in 2014), and those aged 85years or older had the highest mortality among age groups. Results highlight the need for heightened action to prevent and monitor epilepsy-associated mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. High proportions of Staphylococcus epidermidis in dental caries harbor multiple classes of antibiotics resistance, significantly increase inflammatory interleukins in dental pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Muzaheed; Aldeyab, Sultan Salem; Alfawaz, Sara A; AlKheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ahmed Khan, Aftab

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of most prevalent in dental caries or dental pulp which has the capability of horizontal genetic transfer between different bacterial species in the oropharynx, suggesting that it may evolve with the dissemination of resistant determinants, This study was performed to molecularly characterize and differentiate S. epidermidis isolated from dental caries and healthy individual. Also, two important cytokines in inflammation were assayed caused due to S. epidermidis of health and dental caries sources. Dental caries strains were more resistant with high MIC 50 and MIC 90 value. These isolates also showed the presence of mecA gene and another virulence gene i. e sea and seb comparatively more than healthy individual isolates. SCCmec types, III and IV was more prevalent in dental caries isolates where an as healthy individual was more non-typable. Additionally, the quantity of IL-1β and IL-8 caused due to dental caries isolates was seen more which indicate dental caries isolates are able to induce. This study showed that S. epidermidis a normal flora of oropharyngeal are more diverse to those strains which cause dental caries. S. epidermidis owns a prodigious genetic plasticity that permits to obtain, lose or regulate genetic elements that provide compensations to improve its colonization in the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data...... are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (...

  13. Educational intervention increased referrals to allopathic care by traditional healers in three high HIV-prevalence rural districts in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M Audet

    Full Text Available Delayed uptake of clinical services impedes favorable clinical outcomes in Mozambique. Care is delayed among patients who initiate care with traditional healers; patients with conditions like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or tuberculosis are rarely referred to the health system in a timely fashion.We conducted a pre-post educational intervention with traditional healers, assessing healer referral rates and HIV knowledge in three rural districts in Zambézia Province.The median monthly referral rate prior to the intervention was 0.25 patients (interquartile range [IQR]: 0-0.54 compared with a post-intervention rate of 0.34 patients (IQR: 0-0.71, a 35% increase (p=0.046. A median HIV knowledge score of 67% (IQR: 59-78 was noted 4-months pre-intervention and a median score of 81% (IQR: 74-89 was recorded 2½ months post-intervention (p<0.001. One hundred and eleven healers referred 127 adults, 36 pregnant women, and 188 children to health facilities. Referred patients were most likely to be diagnosed with bronchopneumonia (20% adults; 13% children and/or malaria (15% adults; 37% children. Of 315 non-pregnant persons referred, 3.5% were tested for HIV and 2.5% were tested for tuberculosis.We engaged traditional healers with some success; referral rates were low, but increased post-intervention. Once seen in the clinics, patients were rarely tested for HIV or tuberculosis, though symptoms suggested screening was indicated. We found increased referral rates through an inexpensive intervention with traditional healers, a viable, cost-effective method of directing patients to health facilities. However, quality improvement within the clinics is necessary before a substantial impact can be expected.

  14. Increasing prevalence of macrosomia in Flanders, Belgium: an indicator of population health and a burden for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyselaers, W.; Martens, G.

    2012-01-01

    Macrosomia, defined as birth weight > 4 kg, increased in Flanders from 7.3% (4899/67143) in 1991 to 8.63% (6034/69924) in 2010 (p  25 kg/m²), and 12% are obese (BMI > 30 kg/m²). From these data, rate and increase of macrosomia can be considered indirect indicators of general public health. Next to the risks for obstetrical complications, neonates > 4 kg are at risk for development of adult obesity and type 2 diabetes with related diseases, such as hypertension and metabolic syndrome. As adults, they also tend to deliver macrosomic baby’s themselves. As such, macrosomia at birth is a burden for a community’s future health status, health care and related costs. Prenatal health care workers should be aware of the relevance to prevent macrosomia in the first generation by implementing guidelines on nutrition, physical activity and appropriate weight gain into routine preconceptional and prenatal care, screening for gestational diabetes with strict monitoring of blood sugar levels in affected individuals, and promotion of breastfeeding. PMID:24753901

  15. Nosocomial significant bacteriuria: prevalence and pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'étude a été entreprise pour déterminer la prévalence des bactéuries nosocomiales significatives et types d'agents pathogènes bactériens parmi les enfants hospitalisés pour troubles urinaires non infectieux appelès glomérulonéphrite aigue, syndrome néphrotique, insuffisance rénale et anomalie congénitale rénale dans ...

  16. The crisis in leadership in the context of the nursing shortage and the increasing prevalence of nursing unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh-Robinson LL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Latisha L Balogh-RobinsonMarist College, School of Global and Professional Programs, Poughkeepsie, NY, USAAbstract: Developing nurse leaders in a unionized environment presents unique challenges that are beyond those traditionally experienced in nonunion settings. This literature review examines multiple factors contributing to increasing nursing union membership, including population aging, the nursing shortage, and the relationship between leadership and staff engagement. Current trends in succession planning and leadership development are also highlighted. Job dissatisfaction related to the inability to provide quality care in the context of a protracted nursing shortage and current health care trends is identified as the driver in nursing union growth. The discussion that follows assumes current trends in nursing unionization will continue and proposes that adversarial relationships between management and union nurses will further amplify the dearth in leadership by reducing the pool of nurses willing to leave the union for nonunion leadership roles.Keywords: succession planning, baby boomer, staff engagement, population aging

  17. Anti-microbial locks increase the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic-resistant Enterobacter: observational retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John J; Steele, Maggi; Makanjuola, A David

    2012-09-01

    Anti-microbial lock solutions (AML), in conjunction with systemic antibiotics, may successfully treat tunnelled haemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI). It is unknown whether AML promote anti-microbial resistance. This is a retrospective cohort study of all CR-BSI (2003-2006) in our dialysis unit. Controls (n = 265) were treated with systemic vancomycin and gentamicin. In addition to the systemic antibiotics, the study group (n = 662) received AML containing vancomycin and gentamicin during inter-dialytic periods. Antibiotic sensitivity/resistance profiles of all organisms were analysed. Changes in the incidence of infection (chi-square test) and resistant organisms (Fisher's exact test) were calculated. The incidence of CR-BSI decreased from 8.50/1000 catheter days (controls) to 3.80 (study group; P 15.29; P anti-microbial-resistant Enterobacter are increased.

  18. Prevalência de lesões intraepiteliais em atipias de significado indeterminado em um serviço público de referência para neoplasias cervicais Prevalencia de lesiones intraepiteliales en atipias de significado indeterminado en un servicio público de referencia para neoplasias cervicales Prevalence of atypical squamous cell intraepithelial lesions of undetermined significance in a public health referral service for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railda Fraga Costa

    2011-01-01

    óstico colpocitológico de atipias de significado indeterminado (ASCUS fue del 23,7%, el aumento del riesgo fue directamente proporcional al de la edad y hubo mayor prevalencia de lesión intraepitelial de bajo grado, asociada a la infección por el Papilomavirus humano.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of low and high grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. Knowing the influence of age and the etiological agents for sexually transmitted diseases on the risk of developing low and high grade intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: Cross sectional prevalence study at a public referral center for cervical cancer. We studied records of 253 women with atypical diagnoses of undetermined significance, in 2007. RESULTS: The prevalence of intraepithelial lesions was 23.7%; 26.7% were low grade and 73.3% high grade. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was 23.7%; the increase in risk was directly proportional to the age and higher prevalence of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion associated with papillomavirus infection.

  19. Negative Emotions in Migraineurs Dreams: The Increased Prevalence of Oneiric Fear and Anguish, Unrelated to Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Angeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Migraineurs brain has shown some functional peculiarities that reflect not only in phonophobia, and photophobia, but also in mood and sleep. Dreaming is a universal mental state characterized by hallucinatory features in which imagery, emotion, motor skills, and memory are created de novo. We evaluated dream contents and associated emotions in migraineurs. Materials and Methods. 412 subjects: 219 controls; and 148 migraineurs (66 with aura, MA; 82 without aura, MO, and 45 tension type headache patients (TTH. A semistructured retrospective self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate dreams. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were administered to evaluate anxiety and depression. Results. Migraineurs showed increased levels of anxiety (P=0.0002 for MA versus controls, P=0.004 for MO versus controls. Fear and anguish during dreaming were more frequently reported by migraine patients compared to controls, independently by anxiety and depression scores. Discussion. The brain of migraineurs seems to dream with some peculiar features, all with a negative connotation, as fear and anguish. It may be due to the recorded negative sensations induced by recurrent migraine pain, but it may just reflect a peculiar attitude of the mesolimbic structures of migraineurs brain, activated in both dreaming and migraine attacks.

  20. Negative emotions in migraineurs dreams: the increased prevalence of oneiric fear and anguish, unrelated to mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, F; Lovati, C; Giani, L; Mariotti D'Alessandro, C; Raimondi, E; Scaglione, V; Castoldi, D; Capiluppi, E; Mariani, C

    2014-01-01

    Migraineurs brain has shown some functional peculiarities that reflect not only in phonophobia, and photophobia, but also in mood and sleep. Dreaming is a universal mental state characterized by hallucinatory features in which imagery, emotion, motor skills, and memory are created de novo. We evaluated dream contents and associated emotions in migraineurs. 412 subjects: 219 controls; and 148 migraineurs (66 with aura, MA; 82 without aura, MO), and 45 tension type headache patients (TTH). A semistructured retrospective self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate dreams. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered to evaluate anxiety and depression. Migraineurs showed increased levels of anxiety (P = 0.0002 for MA versus controls, P = 0.004 for MO versus controls). Fear and anguish during dreaming were more frequently reported by migraine patients compared to controls, independently by anxiety and depression scores. The brain of migraineurs seems to dream with some peculiar features, all with a negative connotation, as fear and anguish. It may be due to the recorded negative sensations induced by recurrent migraine pain, but it may just reflect a peculiar attitude of the mesolimbic structures of migraineurs brain, activated in both dreaming and migraine attacks.

  1. Negative Emotions in Migraineurs Dreams: The Increased Prevalence of Oneiric Fear and Anguish, Unrelated to Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, F.; Lovati, C.; Giani, L.; Mariotti D'Alessandro, C.; Raimondi, E.; Scaglione, V.; Castoldi, D.; Capiluppi, E.; Mariani, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Migraineurs brain has shown some functional peculiarities that reflect not only in phonophobia, and photophobia, but also in mood and sleep. Dreaming is a universal mental state characterized by hallucinatory features in which imagery, emotion, motor skills, and memory are created de novo. We evaluated dream contents and associated emotions in migraineurs. Materials and Methods. 412 subjects: 219 controls; and 148 migraineurs (66 with aura, MA; 82 without aura, MO), and 45 tension type headache patients (TTH). A semistructured retrospective self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate dreams. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered to evaluate anxiety and depression. Results. Migraineurs showed increased levels of anxiety (P = 0.0002 for MA versus controls, P = 0.004 for MO versus controls). Fear and anguish during dreaming were more frequently reported by migraine patients compared to controls, independently by anxiety and depression scores. Discussion. The brain of migraineurs seems to dream with some peculiar features, all with a negative connotation, as fear and anguish. It may be due to the recorded negative sensations induced by recurrent migraine pain, but it may just reflect a peculiar attitude of the mesolimbic structures of migraineurs brain, activated in both dreaming and migraine attacks. PMID:25049452

  2. Hypertension and diabetes prevalence among adults with moderately increased BMI (23·0-24·9 kg/m2): findings from a nationwide survey in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muntasirur; Williams, Gail; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2017-06-01

    BMI is a proxy for fat accumulation in the body. Increased diabetes and CVD risks have been observed for Asian populations at lower BMI than the WHO-recommended BMI cut-off points for overweight (≥25·0 kg/m2) and obesity (≥30·0 kg/m2). The current study aimed to quantify the increased hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in Bangladeshi adults with moderately increased BMI (23·0-24·9 kg/m2). Data from the most recent Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (2011) were analysed. Modified Poisson regression models with robust error variance were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) for HTN or T2DM by BMI category, considering BMI=18·5-22·9 kg/m2 as the reference. All analyses incorporated the complex sampling design of the survey. BMI, blood pressure, blood sugar and related information were collected from a nationally representative sample. Adults (n 7433) aged≥35 years. About 12 % of Bangladeshi adults, both male and female, were within the BMI range 23·0-24·9 kg/m2 or moderately overweight. Compared with the reference BMI group (18·5-22·9 kg/m2), they had an increased PR for HTN (1·55-1·77) and T2DM (1·54-1·93). These increased PR are similar to those for the WHO-defined overweight group (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2). Our findings support the recommendation that calls for setting the optimum BMI for Asian populations to 18·5-23·0 kg/m2 for health promotion and for public health interventions like leisure-time physical activity. WHO cut-off points for overweight (≥25 kg/m2) should be used to facilitate international comparisons.

  3. Fourfold increase in prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus after adoption of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Evelyn A; Massaro, Nadine; Streckeisen, Simone; Manegold-Brauer, Gwendolin; Schoetzau, Andreas; Schulzke, Sven M; Winzeler, Bettina; Hoesli, Irene; Lapaire, Olav

    2017-04-01

    The aim was to evaluate the influence of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) guidelines for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on GDM prevalence in a cohort from a Swiss tertiary hospital. This was a retrospective cohort study involving all pregnant women who were screened for GDM between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. From 2008 until 2010 (period 1), a two-step approach with 1-h 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) was used, followed by fasting, 1- and 2-h glucose measurements after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in case of a positive GCT. From 2010 until 2013 (period 2), all pregnant women were tested with a one-step 75 g OGTT according to new IADPSG guidelines. In both periods, women with risk factors could be screened directly with a 75 g OGTT in early pregnancy. Overall, 647 women were eligible for the study in period 1 and 720 in period 2. The introduction of the IADPSG criteria resulted in an absolute increase of GDM prevalence of 8.5% (3.3% in period 1 to 11.8% in period 2). The adoption of the IADPSG criteria resulted in a considerable increase in GDM diagnosis in our Swiss cohort. Further studies are needed to investigate if the screening is cost effective and if treatment of our additionally diagnosed GDM mothers might improve short-term as well as long-term outcome.

  4. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from distinct geographic locations in China: an increasing prevalence of spa-t030 and SCCmec type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus belongs to one of the most common bacteria causing healthcare and community associated infections in China, but their molecular characterization has not been well studied. From May 2011 to June 2012, a total of 322 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were consecutively collected from seven tertiary care hospitals in seven cities with distinct geographical locations in China, including 171 methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and 151 MRSA isolates. All isolates were characterized by spa typing. The presence of virulence genes was tested by PCR. MRSA were further characterized by SCCmec typing. Seventy four and 16 spa types were identified among 168 MSSA and 150 MRSA, respectively. One spa type t030 accounted for 80.1% of all MRSA isolates, which was higher than previously reported, while spa-t037 accounted for only 4.0% of all MRSA isolates. The first six spa types (t309, t189, t034, t377, t078 and t091 accounted for about one third of all MSSA isolates. 121 of 151 MRSA isolates (80.1% were identified as SCCmec type III. pvl gene was found in 32 MSSA (18.7% and 5 MRSA (3.3% isolates, with ST22-MSSA-t309 as the most commonly identified strain. Compared with non-epidemic MRSA clones, epidemic MRSA clones (corresponding to ST239 exhibited a lower susceptibility to rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a higher prevalence of sea gene and a lower prevalence of seb, sec, seg, sei and tst genes. The increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant spa-t030 MRSA represents a major public health problem in China.

  5. Increasing Prevalence of Aminoglycoside-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolates Due to the aac(6')-aph(2") Gene: A Therapeutic Problem in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Mitra; Fatollahzade, Mahdie; Pajavand, Hamid; Bakhtiari, Somaye; Abiri, Ramin

    2016-03-01

    Enterococci are important pathogens in nosocomial infections. Various types of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, are used for treatment of these infections. Enterococci can acquire resistant traits, which can lead to therapeutic problems with aminoglycosides. This study was designed to identify the prevalence of, and to compare, the aac(6')-aph(2") and aph(3)-IIIa genes and their antimicrobial resistance patterns among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from patients at Imam Reza hospital in Kermanshah in 2011 - 2012. One hundred thirty-eight clinical specimens collected from different wards of Imam Reza hospital were identified to the species level by biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests against kanamycin, teicoplanin, streptomycin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin were performed by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and amikacin were evaluated with the microbroth dilution method. The aminoglycoside resistance genes aac(6')-aph(2") and aph(3")-IIIa were analyzed with multiplex PCR. The prevalence of isolates was 33 (24.1%) for E. faecium and 63 (46%) for E. faecalis. Eighty-nine percent of the isolates were high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR), and 32.8% of E. faecium isolates and 67.2% of E. faecalis isolates carried aac(6')-aph(2"). The prevalence of aph(3")-IIIa among the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates was 22.7% and 77.3%, respectively. Remarkably increased incidence of aac(6')-aph(2") among HLGR isolates explains the relationship between this gene and the high level of resistance to aminoglycosides. As the resistant gene among enterococci can be transferred, the use of new-generation antibiotics is necessary.

  6. Diabetes is associated with increased prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Marissa M; Shaw, Kate M; McKeever Bullard, Kai; Ali, Mohammed K; Magee, Matthew J

    2018-03-21

    We aim to determine the association between prediabetes and diabetes with latent TB using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Participants ≥20 years were eligible. Diabetes was defined by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as no diabetes (≤5.6% [38 mmol/mol]), prediabetes (5.7-6.4% [39-46mmol/mol]), and diabetes (≥6.5% [48 mmol/mol]) combined with self-reported diabetes. Latent TB infection was defined by the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) test. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of latent TB infection by diabetes status were calculated using logistic regression and accounted for the stratified probability sample. Diabetes and QFT-GIT measurements were available for 4,958 (89.2%) included participants. Prevalence of diabetes was 11.4% (95%CI 9.8-13.0%) and 22.1% (95%CI 20.5-23.8%) had prediabetes. Prevalence of latent TB infection was 5.9% (95%CI 4.9-7.0%). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, history of active TB, and foreign born status, the odds of latent TB infection were greater among adults with diabetes (aOR 1.90, 95%CI 1.15-3.14) compared to those without diabetes. The odds of latent TB in adults with prediabetes (aOR 1.15, 95%CI 0.90-1.47) was similar to those without diabetes. Diabetes is associated with latent TB infection among adults in the United States, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Given diabetes increases the risk of active TB, patients with co-prevalent diabetes and latent TB may be targeted for latent TB treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofton, Alexander W.; Paparini, Andrea; Codello, Annachiara; Greay, Telleasha; Gillett, Amber; Warren, Kristin; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2017-01-01

    Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani) removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2–39.8%) were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2–39.8%), T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7–32.3%), T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8–34.8%) and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0–15.7%). Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0–3.3%), and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017) was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1–9.2%). Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21–35%) of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2–9%). Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7%) of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS) within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides

  8. Increased genetic diversity and prevalence of co-infection with Trypanosoma spp. in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus and their ticks identified using next-generation sequencing (NGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Barbosa

    Full Text Available Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32.2% (95% CI: 25.2-39.8% were positive for at least one Trypanosoma sp. Previously described Trypanosoma spp. from koalas were identified, including T. irwini (32.1%, 95% CI: 25.2-39.8%, T. gilletti (25%, 95% CI: 18.7-32.3%, T. copemani (27.4%, 95% CI: 20.8-34.8% and T. vegrandis (10.1%, 95% CI: 6.0-15.7%. Trypanosoma noyesi was detected for the first time in koalas, although at a low prevalence (0.6% 95% CI: 0-3.3%, and a novel species (Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 was identified at a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI: 2.1-9.2%. Mixed infections with up to five species were present in 27.4% (95% CI: 21-35% of the koalas, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of single infections 4.8% (95% CI: 2-9%. Overall, a considerably higher proportion (79.7% of the Trypanosoma sequences isolated from koala blood samples were identified as T. irwini, suggesting this is the dominant species. Co-infections involving T. gilletti, T. irwini, T. copemani, T. vegrandis and Trypanosoma sp. AB-2017 were also detected in ticks, with T. gilletti and T. copemani being the dominant species within the invertebrate hosts. Direct Sanger sequencing of Trypanosoma 18S rRNA gene amplicons was also performed and results revealed that this method was only able to identify the genotypes with greater amount of reads (according to NGS within koala samples, which highlights the advantages of NGS in detecting mixed infections. The present study provides new insights

  9. Increase in condom use and decline in prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgender persons in Maharashtra, India: Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Deshpande, Sucheta; Gautam, Abhishek; Pardeshi, Dilip B; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Mainkar, Mandar M

    2014-08-03

    The present study assessed coverage, changes in condom use, and prevalence of HIV and other STIs among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM; highly visible, recruited from cruising sites/sex venues) and transgender (TG; male-to-female transgender persons, also called hijras) in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Data from Avahan's computerized management information system; two rounds of integrated behavioral and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (Round 1 with 653 HR-MSM/TG and Round 2 with 652 HR-MSM/TG); and project-supported condom social marketing was used for the present analysis. Logistic regression models were used to assess changes in key indicators over these two rounds and to explore the association between exposure to Avahan interventions and condom use and STI prevalence in HR-MSM/TG. By December 2007, Avahan had reached about 90% of the estimated HR-MSM/TG population, and 83% of the estimated total population had visited STI clinics by March 2009. Free direct condom distribution by Avahan program NGOs and social marketing outlets in Maharashtra increased from about 2.7 million condoms in 2004 to 15.4 million in 2008. HR-MSM/TG were more likely to report higher consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.58) with regular male partners (spouse/lover/boyfriend) in Round 2 of IBBA, compared to Round 1. HR-MSM/TG exposed to Avahan interventions were more likely to report consistent condom use with regular male partners (AOR: 2.46; CI 1.34-4.52) than those who were unexposed. Prevalence of reactive syphilis serology declined significantly from 8.8% in Round 1 to 1.1% in Round 2 (p = 0.001), while the observed change HIV prevalence (12.3% to 6.3%, p = 0.16) was insignificant. The current evaluation provides evidence for successful scale up and coverage of target population by Avahan interventions in Maharashtra. The assessment findings showed improved accessibility to condoms and reduced risk

  10. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  11. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusztal Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  12. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Increasing Prevalence in Intersex Variation from Toxicological Dysregulation in Fetal Reproductive Tissue Differentiation and Development by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Rich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.. Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs. Occupational studies verified higher prevalence of offspring with IV in chemically exposed workers (male and female. Chemicals associated with endocrine-disrupting ability in humans include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and furans. Intersex individuals may have concurrent physical disorders requiring lifelong medical intervention and experience gender dysphoria. An urgent need exists to determine which chemicals possess the greatest risk for IV and the mechanisms by which these chemicals are capable of interfering with normal physiological development in children.

  14. Increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk biomarkers in patients with unknown type 2 diabetes visiting cardiology specialists: results from the DIASPORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, Thomas; Lübben, Georg; Karagiannis, Efstrathios; Erdmann, Erland; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and IGT have a high risk for cardiovascular events. It is tempting to speculate that these patients are often first seen by cardiologists. This cross-sectional study investigates the diabetes prevalence in cardiology care units and the correlated metabolic conditions as assessed by several circulating biomarkers. Patients aged 55 or older with suspected or overt coronary heart disease were eligible for trial participation. Fasting blood samples were drawn from patients to determine HOMA score, glycaemic and lipid profile, and several risk biomarkers. An OGTT was performed in patients without known diabetes. We enrolled 530 patients (181 male, 349 female, mean age, 68+/-7 years) in this study from 22 German cardiology centres; 156 patients (29.4%) had known diabetes and OGTT revealed that 184 patients (34.7%) had no diabetes, 106 patients (20.0%) had IGT or IFG and 84 patients (15.9%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes. Increased cardiovascular risk as reflected by increased hsCRP, ICAM and MMP-9 values was observed in diabetes patients. A higher cardiovascular biomarkers risk profile was seen in the IGT/IFG cohort. This study confirms the observation that one third of patients of a cardiologic care unit suffer from impaired glucose regulation. Furthermore, the cardiology patients with previously unknown glucose homeostasis abnormalities had a higher prevalence of macrovacular disease and an impaired biomarker risk profile. This study underlines the importance of joint treatment efforts by cardiologists in concert with diabetologists for treatment of this patient group at high risk for cardiovascular events.

  15. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  16. VaCPK20 gene overexpression significantly increased resveratrol content and expression of stilbene synthase genes in cell cultures of Vitis amurensis Rupr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleynova-Shumakova, O A; Dubrovina, A S; Manyakhin, A Y; Karetin, Y A; Kiselev, K V

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol, a naturally occurring plant phenol, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of valuable biological and pharmacological properties. In the present investigation, we show that transformation of a Vitis amurensis Rupr. cell suspension with the gene VaCPK20 for a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter increased resveratrol production in five independently transformed cell lines in 9-68 times compared with control cells. The VaCPK20-transformed calli were capable of producing 0.04-0.42 % dry wt. of resveratrol, while the control calli produced up to 0.008 % dry wt. of resveratrol Also, we characterized expression of stilbene synthase (STS) genes in the five VaCPK20-transgenic cell lines of V. amurensis. In all VaCPK20-transgenic cell lines, expression of VaSTS7 increased; while expression of VaSTS1 decreased. We suggest that transformation of V. amurensis calli with the VaCPK20 gene induced resveratrol accumulation via enhancement of expression of the VaSTS7 gene involved in resveratrol biosynthesis. The obtained data first demonstrate that overexpression of a CDPK gene resulted in increased accumulation of a stilbenoid phytoalexine in transgenic plant cells. We propose that the VaCPK20 gene could play an important role in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis in grape cells.

  17. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  18. Distribution of Report on Procedures to Estimate Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission Increases from Mobile and Area Sources for Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Increment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ex-professional association footballers have an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis of the hip compared with age matched controls despite not having sustained notable hip injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, G; Banks, A; Ryan, W

    2003-01-01

    Method: A questionnaire was sent to the 92 football league and premiership managers to assess the prevalence of OA of various joints. The prevalence of OA of the hip in those managers that were ex-professional footballers was assessed. Radiographic controls were obtained and used to assess the prevalence of OA of the hip in the general population. The results of the two groups were compared statistically using χ2 tabulation.

  2. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Serum immunoglobulins in 28 adults with autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss: increased prevalence of subnormal immunoglobulin G1 and immunoglobulin G3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Luigi F; Pappas, Dennis G; Barton, J Clayborn; Barton, James C

    2014-10-22

    Our informal observations suggested that some patients with acute sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) have subnormal serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels. We evaluated 28 consecutive adults (18 men, 10 women) at ASNHL diagnosis using: antibodies to 68 kD protein, 30 kD protein, and type II collagen; and serum total IgG, IgG subclasses, total IgA, and IgM. Reference ranges for Ig levels were mean ± 2 SD. We compared prevalences of subnormal IgG subclasses to those in 275 healthy European adults in previous reports. We also reviewed charts of consecutive adult index patients with primary Ig deficiency (35 common variable immunodeficiency, 406 IgG subclass deficiency) to identify other patients with probable ASHNL. Mean age was 53 ± 10 (SD) y. Six patients (21.4%) had other autoimmunity manifestations. Antibodies to 68 kD protein, 30 kD protein, and type II collagen were detected in 21.4% (6/28), 21.1% (4/19) and 18.8% (3/16), respectively. Three patients (10.7%) had subnormal IgG1, six (21.4%) had subnormal IgG3, and four (14.3%) had subnormal IgG1 and IgG3. Some had subnormal IgG2, IgG4, IgA, and IgM (n = 1, 2, 3, and 1, respectively). Prevalences of subnormal IgG1 or IgG3 were greater in ASNHL patients (25.0% and 35.7%) than 275 controls (2.1% and 3.3%), respectively (p < 0.0001, each comparison). Relative risks of subnormal IgG1 and IgG3 in ASNHL were 11.5 [95% CI: 4.1, 31.7] and 10.9 [4.8, 25.6], respectively. Hearing improved after initial therapy in 17 patients (60.7%). Multiple regressions on Ig levels revealed no significant associations with other available variables. Logistic regressions on initial therapy response revealed a positive association with men (p = 0.0392) and a negative association with IgA (p = 0.0274). Our estimated prevalence of probable ASNHL in 35 patients with common variable immunodeficiency during a follow-up interval of 8 ± 4 y was 0% [95% CI: 0, 12.3]). Prevalence of probable ASNHL in 406 patients with IgG subclass deficiency during the

  4. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  5. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohner, F.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Wegmueller, R.; Tschannen, A.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2)

  6. The prevalence of child sexual abuse in out-of-home care: Increased risk for children with a mild intellectual disability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, S.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tharner, A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in

  7. Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adult Malawians: nationwide population based NCD STEPS survey. ... Introduction: Overweight and obesity are significant causes of increased morbidity and premature mortality from non-communicable diseases, particularly in ...

  8. Increased prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospital setting due to cross-species transmission of the bla NDM-1 element and clonal spread of progenitor resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Chen, Gongxiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangping; Cai, Jiachang; Chan, Edward W; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains collected from a hospital setting in China, in which consistent emergence of CRE strains were observable during the period of May 2013 to February 2014. Among the 45 CRE isolates tested, 21 (47%) strains were found to harbor the bla NDM-1 element, and the rest of 24 CRE strains were all positive for bla KPC-2. The 21 bla NDM-1-borne strains were found to comprise multiple Enterobacteriaceae species including nine Enterobacter cloacae, three Escherichia coli, three Citrobacter freundii, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two Klebsiella oxytoca, and two Morganella morganii strains, indicating that cross-species transmission of bla NDM-1 is a common event. Genetic analyses by PFGE and MLST showed that, with the exception of E. coli and E. cloacae, strains belonging to the same species were often genetically unrelated. In addition to bla NDM-1, several CRE strains were also found to harbor the bla KPC-2, bla VIM-1, and bla IMP-4 elements. Conjugations experiments confirmed that the majority of carbapenem resistance determinants were transferable. Taken together, our findings suggest that transmission of mobile resistance elements among members of Enterobacteriaceae and clonal spread of CRE strains may contribute synergistically to a rapid increase in the population of CRE in clinical settings, prompting a need to implement more rigorous infection control measures to arrest such vicious transmission cycle in CRE-prevalent areas.

  9. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-Home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children…

  10. High prevalence of malaria in Zambezia, Mozambique: the protective effect of IRS versus increased risks due to pig-keeping and house construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Temu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African countries are scaling up malaria interventions, especially insecticide treated nets (ITN and indoor residual spraying (IRS, for which ambitious coverage targets have been set. In spite of these efforts infection prevalence remains high in many parts of the continent. This study investigated risk factors for malaria infection in children using three malaria indicator surveys from Zambezia province, Mozambique. The impact of IRS and ITNs, the effects of keeping farm animals and of the construction material of roofs of houses and other potential risk factors associated with malaria infection in children were assessed. METHODS: Cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in October of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A total of 8338 children (ages 1-15 years from 2748 households were included in the study. All children were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic tests. Caregiver interviews were used to assess household demographic and wealth characteristics and ITN and IRS coverage. Associations between malaria infection, vector control interventions and potential risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of malaria infection was 47.8% (95%CI: 38.7%-57.1% in children 1-15 years of age, less than a quarter of children (23.1%, 95%CI: 19.1%-27.6% were sleeping under ITN and almost two thirds were living in IRS treated houses (coverage 65.4%, 95%CI: 51.5%-77.0%. Protective factors that were independently associated with malaria infection were: sleeping in an IRS house without sleeping under ITN (Odds Ratio (OR= 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9; additional protection due to sleeping under ITN in an IRS treated house (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.7 versus sleeping in an unsprayed house without a ITN; and parental education (primary/secondary: OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.5-0.7 versus parents with no education. Increased risk of infection was associated with: current fever (OR = 1.2; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 versus no fever; pig keeping (OR

  11. Prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of occult hepatitis B virus among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Significance of hepatitis B core antibodies screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbedewy, T.A.; Elashtokhy, H.A.; Rabee, E.S.; Kheder, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA in the liver and/or serum, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Anti-HBc is the most sensitive marker of previous HBV. HBV reactivation in patients under immunosuppressive treatment is life-threatening, occurring in both overt and occult HBV especially in hematological malignancies. Aim of the work: To evaluate the prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of OBI among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and to determine the significance of anti-HBc screening among this group of patients before receiving chemotherapy. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 72 DLBCL patients negative for HBsAg, HBsAb and hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV). Patients were subjected to investigations including anti-HBc. All patients underwent alanine transaminase (ALT) monitoring before each cycle of chemotherapy and monthly for 12 months after the end of chemotherapy. Patients with suspected OBI were tested for HBV-DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Anti-HBc was detected in 10 of 72 HBsAg negative sera (13.89%) (95% confidence interval 6.9-22.2%). Five of the 10 anti-HBc positive patients in this study had OBI reactivation. Conclusion: The study concluded that anti-HBc screening is mandatory before chemotherapy. HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients should be closely observed for signs of HBV reactivation through the regular monitoring of ALT. Prophylaxis lamivudine is recommended for anti-HBc positive patients before chemotherapy.

  12. Increase in prevalence of overweight in dutch children and adolescents: A comparison of nationwide growth studies in 1980, 1997 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönbeck, Y.; Talma, H.; Dommelen, P. van; Bakker, B.; Buitendijk, S.E.; HiraSing, R.A.; Buuren, S. van

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Dutch children and adolescents, to examine the 30-years trend, and to create new body mass index reference charts. Design: Nationwide cross-sectional data collection by trained health care professionals. Participants: 10,129 children of Dutch

  13. Increasing prevalence and diversity of ESBL/AmpC-type ß-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolated from veal calves from 1997 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Giessen, van de A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Veldman, K.; Kant, A.; Mevius, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several studies on faecal carriage of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli have been performed in cattle, but little is known about faecal carriage in veal calves. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of ESBL/AmpC genes in E.

  14. Increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Wilms tumor treated with radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, M. M.; Bakker, P. J. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have assessed cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) in childhood cancer survivors. We determined the prevalence of CRFs in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Wilms tumor. PROCEDURE: Adult survivors of ALL and Wilms tumor treated with

  15. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...].

  16. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  17. Severe obesity increases the prevalence but not the incidence of depressive symptoms in the elderly-population-based cohort in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Vanessa Fernanda; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; D'Orsi, Eleonora; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    The relation between body weight status and depressive symptoms in the elderly differs according to age and country of origin. The goal of this study was to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and depressive symptoms in the elderly. A population-based cohort study of 1,702 elderly individuals (70.6+8.0 years) in Southern Brazil evaluated in 2009/10 and 2013/14 was accessed. The body weight status was assessed using measured data of BMI and WC. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used to determine depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral variables was performed. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in 2009/10 was 23.3% (95% CI 20.3-26.6) and the cumulative incidence in the 4-years period was 10.9% (95% CI 8.7-13.6). Elderly people with obesity class II-III and WC in the highest quartile had higher prevalence odds ratio of being depressed than individuals with normal weight or WC in the lower quartile (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.42-3.87 and OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.13-2.65, respectively). Meanwhile, intermediary values of BMI and WC were associated with a lower prevalence. When evaluating the incidence of depressive symptoms, overweight individuals and those in the second quartile of WC had a lower risk (58% and 57%, respectively), but severely obese individuals had the same risk compared to those with normal BMI/WC. Severely obese individuals presented a similar incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with normal BMI/WC, but higher prevalence. Intermediary values of body weight status decrease the risk of depressive symptoms.

  18. Age-Related Increased Prevalence of Asthma and Nasal Polyps in Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Association with Altered IL-6 Trans-Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Sun H.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah; Hong, Seung J.; Suh, Lydia; Norton, James; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Seshadri, Sudarshan; Conley, David B.; Kern, Robert C.; Tan, Bruce K.; Peters, Anju; Grammer, Leslie C.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    We report that S100 proteins were reduced in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). S100A8/9, which is important in epithelial barrier function, was particularly decreased in elderly patients with CRS. Epithelial expression of S100A8/9 is partly regulated by the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway. The goal of this study was to investigate whether or not age-related reduction of S100A8/9 in CRS is associated with blunting of IL-6 trans-signaling. The levels of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble gp130 (sgp130), and S100A8/9 from control subjects (n = 10), and patients with CRS without nasal polyps (n = 13) and those with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) (n = 14), were measured by ELISA. Age-related differences in the level of each protein were investigated. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in air–liquid interface and stimulated with IL-6/sIL-6R and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with or without the addition of sgp130, a natural inhibitor of IL-6 trans-signaling. There was a significant age-related decline in S100A8/9 and an increase in sgp130 in nasal tissue samples from patients with CRSwNP, although there was no age-related difference in IL-6/sIL-6R production. Additionally, expression of the S100A8/9 gene and protein was increased significantly by IL-6/sIL-6R plus TNF-α in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This increase was blocked by sgp130. These results suggest that increased sgp130 in older patients may inhibit IL-6 trans-signaling, impair barrier function, and decrease S1008/9 production in elderly patients with CRSwNP. Restoration of barrier function by targeting sgp130 may be a novel treatment strategy. PMID:26266960

  19. Has the prevalence of congenital abnormalities after intracytoplasmic sperm injection increased? The Leuven data 1994-2000 and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryckx, An; Peeraer, Karen; Debrock, Sophie; Legius, Eric; de Zegher, Francis; Francois, Inge; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Demyttenaere, Koen; Rijkers, Anna; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is now accepted as the treatment of choice for severe male infertility, concerns about its safety and the potential risks for the offspring remain. We reviewed the literature with respect to the prevalence of major congenital malformations after the ICSI technique and supplemented these data with the results of a prospective follow-up study performed in our center. From January 1994 till June 2000, 776 ICSI cycles were carried out at the Leuven University Fertility Center. The resulting pregnancies (n = 172) were followed for biochemical and obstetrical parameters, prenatal diagnosis and congenital abnormalities. A total of 134/172 (78%) ongoing pregnancies resulted in 132 deliveries of 166 live born children. Two terminations of pregnancy were carried out due to the presence of major congenital anomalies, diagnosed at prenatal ultrasound. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 55 fetuses. Two de novo chromosomal aberrations were found. Major congenital abnormalities were observed at birth in 9/150 (6.0%) children. The total malformation rate was 6.5%. The prevalence of congenital abnormalities in children born after ICSI in our center (6.5%) was comparable to the prevalence of congenital abnormalities after ICSI reported in the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Temporal Changes in Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in 23 U.S. Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Fridkin, Scott K.; Hill, Holly A.; Volkova, Nataliya V.; Edwards, Jonathan R.; Lawton, Rachel M.; Gaynes, Robert P.; McGowan, John E.; Hospitals, Project

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in nearly all health-care?associated pathogens. We examined changes in resistance prevalence during 1996?1999 in 23 hospitals by using two statistical methods. When the traditional chi-square test of pooled mean resistance prevalence was used, most organisms appear to have increased in prevalence. However, when a more conservative test that accounts for changes within individual hospitals was used, significant increases in prevalence of resistance were c...

  1. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system–based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys (n = ∼500 children aged 6–23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24–59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623. PMID:28179488

  2. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-04-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system-based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys ( n = ∼500 children aged 6-23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24-59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P social franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623.

  3. Can cognitive dissonance methods developed in the West for combatting the 'thin ideal' help slow the rapidly increasing prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue

    2013-12-01

    Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the 'thin ideal' that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed.

  4. Predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers in a developing country with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasinghe A Sriyani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the socio demographic, life style and foot examination related predictors of diabetic foot and leg ulcers with a view to develop a screening tool appropriate for the use in an outpatient setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross sectional study included type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients; 88 subjects with leg and foot ulcers and 80 non ulcer controls. Socio demographic data and life style factors were documented. Foot was examined for skin changes and structural abnormalities. Distal peripheral neuropathy was