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Sample records for prevalence hospitalization rate

  1. Association between Search Behaviors and Disease Prevalence Rates at 18 U.S. Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dennis; Wolbrink, Traci; Logvinenko, Tanya; Harper, Marvin; Burns, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Background Usage of online resources by clinicians in training and practice can provide insight into knowledge gaps and inform development of decision support tools. Although online information seeking is often driven by encountered patient problems, the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate has not been previously characterized. Objective This article aimed to (1) identify topics frequently searched by pediatric clinicians using UpToDate (http://www.uptodate.com) and (2) explore the association between disease prevalence rate and search rate using data from the Pediatric Health Information System. Methods We identified the most common search queries and resources most frequently accessed on UpToDate for a cohort of 18 children's hospitals during calendar year 2012. We selected 64 of the most frequently searched diseases and matched ICD-9 data from the PHIS database during the same time period. Using linear regression, we explored the relationship between clinician query rate and disease prevalence rate. Results The hospital cohort submitted 1,228,138 search queries across 592,454 sessions. The majority of search sessions focused on a single search topic. We identified no consistent overall association between disease prevalence and search rates. Diseases where search rate was substantially higher than prevalence rate were often infectious or immune/rheumatologic conditions, involved potentially complex diagnosis or management, and carried risk of significant morbidity or mortality. None of the examined diseases showed a decrease in search rate associated with increased disease prevalence rates. Conclusion This is one of the first medical learning needs assessments to use large-scale, multisite data to identify topics of interest to pediatric clinicians, and to examine the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate for a set of pediatric diseases. Overall, disease search rate did not appear to be associated with hospital

  2. Prevalence and Predictive Value of Dyspnea Ratings in Hospitalized Patients: Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea (breathing discomfort) can be as powerfully aversive as pain, yet is not routinely assessed and documented in the clinical environment. Routine identification and documentation of dyspnea is the first step to improved symptom management and it may also identify patients at risk of negative clinical outcomes. Objective To estimate the prevalence of dyspnea and of dyspnea-associated risk among hospitalized patients. Design Two pilot prospective cohort studies. Setting Single academic medical center. Patients Consecutive patients admitted to four inpatient units: cardiology, hematology/oncology, medicine, and bariatric surgery. Measurements In Study 1, nurses documented current and recent patient-reported dyspnea at the time of the Initial Patient Assessment in 581 inpatients. In Study 2, nurses documented current dyspnea at least once every nursing shift in 367 patients. We describe the prevalence of burdensome dyspnea, and compare it to pain. We also compared dyspnea ratings with a composite of adverse outcomes: 1) receipt of care from the hospital’s rapid response system, 2) transfer to the intensive care unit, or 3) death in hospital. We defined burdensome dyspnea as a rating of 4 or more on a 10-point scale. Results Prevalence of burdensome current dyspnea upon admission (Study 1) was 13% (77 of 581, 95% CI 11%-16%). Prevalence of burdensome dyspnea at some time during the hospitalization (Study 2) was 16% (57 of 367, 95% CI 12%-20%). Dyspnea was associated with higher odds of a negative outcome. Conclusions In two pilot studies, we identified a significant symptom burden of dyspnea in hospitalized patients. Patients reporting dyspnea may benefit from a more careful focus on symptom management and may represent a population at greater risk for negative outcomes. PMID:27070144

  3. Prevalence rates of infection in intensive care units of a tertiary teaching hospital

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    Toufen Junior Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence rates of infections among intensive care unit patients, the predominant infecting organisms, and their resistance patterns. To identify the related factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection and mortality rates. DESIGN: A 1-day point-prevalence study. SETTING:A total of 19 intensive care units at the Hospital das Clínicas - University of São Paulo, School of Medicine (HC-FMUSP, a teaching and tertiary hospital, were eligible to participate in the study. PATIENTS: All patients over 16 years old occupying an intensive care unit bed over a 24-hour period. The 19 intensive care unit s provided 126 patient case reports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of infection, antimicrobial use, microbiological isolates resistance patterns, potential related factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection, and death rates. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were studied. Eighty-seven patients (69% received antimicrobials on the day of study, 72 (57% for treatment, and 15 (12% for prophylaxis. Community-acquired infection occurred in 15 patients (20.8%, non- intensive care unit nosocomial infection in 24 (33.3%, and intensive care unit-acquired infection in 22 patients (30.6%. Eleven patients (15.3% had no defined type. The most frequently reported infections were respiratory (58.5%. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae (33.8%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.4%, and Staphylococcus aureus (16.9%; [100% resistant to methicillin]. Multivariate regression analysis revealed 3 risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection: age > 60 years (p = 0.007, use of a nasogastric tube (p = 0.017, and postoperative status (p = 0.017. At the end of 4 weeks, overall mortality was 28.8%. Patients with infection had a mortality rate of 34.7%. There was no difference between mortality rates for infected and noninfected patients (p=0.088. CONCLUSION: The rate of nosocomial infection is high in intensive care

  4. The trend of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in German hospitals: results of seven cross-sectional studies.

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    Kottner, Jan; Wilborn, Doris; Dassen, Theo; Lahmann, Nils

    2009-05-01

    Pressure ulcer prevalence rates provide useful information about the magnitude of this health problem. Only limited information on pressure ulcers in Germany was available before 2001. The purpose of this study was to compare results of seven pressure ulcer prevalence surveys which were conducted annually between 2001 and 2007 and to explore whether pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased. The second aim was to evaluate if the measured prevalence rates of our sample could be generalised for all German hospitals. Results of seven point pressure ulcer prevalence studies conducted in 225 German hospitals were analysed. Chi-square tests, chi-square trend tests and one-way ANOVA to assess differences and trends across the years were applied. The sample was stratified according to pressure ulcer risk and speciality. Finally, study samples were compared with the potential population. In total data of 40,247 hospital patients were analysed. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence rate in German hospitals was 10.2%. Patient samples of each year were comparable regarding gender, age and pressure ulcer risk. Pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased from 13.9% (year 2001) to 7.3% (year 2007) (pcare units remained stable. With some limitations our study results are representative for all hospitals within Germany. It is highly probable that the decrease of prevalence rates was due to an increased awareness of the pressure ulcer problem in Germany and subsequent efforts to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The quality of clinical practice regarding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment has improved. However, pressure ulcers are still relevant and require attention. In 2007, one out of 10 hospital patients who were at pressure ulcer risk had at least one pressure related skin damage.

  5. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Impact on Mortality and Hospitalization Rate in Predialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, N.; Grootendorst, D. C.; Urlings, T. A. J.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Sijpkens, Y. W.; Huisman, R. M.; Krediet, R. T.; Dekker, F. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Anemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in both early and very late stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to assess whether anemia is a risk factor for mortality or hospitalization in CKD stage 4-5 predialysis patients not yet on

  6. Prevalence Rate of Congenital Anomaly of Male Newborn in Fasa Hospital

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    Seyed Mohsen Hesami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Congenital anomalies of external genitalia are one of the most frequently congenital anomalies especially in the boys neonates, that in many cases no definite cause was found for them. Because of having basic knowledge will help our for early diagnosis planning, early treatment and decreasing psycho-social problems of these patients and their parents, we decided to carry out this study to survey of congenital anomalies of external genitalia among boy neonates born in valiasr hospital-Fasa and additionally to compare our findings with other studies in other cities of Iran. Materials & Methods: This study is a descriptive, cross sectional study, that was done with all of neonates who were born from October until March 2011 in valiasr hospital-Fasa .Sample was examined by pediatrician for general and external genitalia assessment. Neonates with reproductive disease reassessed by urologist physician and paraclinical assessment were done if it was necessary. Impalpable one or both testes in scrotum defied as undescended testis. Having hydrocele and hernia was confirmed by physical exam and sonography. Results: During the study 885 recently born boy neonate were assessed. Among participants 58 boys (%6.5 have congenital anomalies of external genitalia.Hydrocele was the most frequent anomaly that was seen in 25 boy neonates(%2.8.The second anomaly was undescended testis that was observed in 19 boy neonates.(%2.1.Then hypospadias in 11 neonates(%1.2 and inguinal hernia in 3 neonates(%0.4 were seen. Conclusion: This study showed that hydrocele ,undescended testis ,hypospadias and inguinal hernia are orderly the most frequent congenital anomalies of external genitalia in recently born neonates in Fasa.

  7. A Survey of Mother BMI Relationship with Cesarean Prevalence Rate in Bam Maternity Hospital, Bam, Iran Mahdyeh

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    Solimanizadeh L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Abnormality of maternal weight has an important role in reproductive health. High and low BMI play importaxt roles in the development of some pregnancy complications, high birth weight, and cesarean rate increas. Thus, the complications such as sever infection, bleeding, thromboembolism attacks, respiratory pneumonia in pregnant women undergoing cesarean occur more often. The aim of prenatal care is safety in infant birth and one of the conditions in pregnancy health care is normal weight. The present study sought to determine the role of mother BMI on cesarean prevalence rate in women referring to Bam Mahdieh Maternity Hospital in Bam, Iran, in 2005.Methods: This attempt was a comparative cross-sectional study done on 294 pregnant women who were divided into three groups: underweight n=111 (BMI26. All pregnant women in our study wanted normal vaginal deliveries, and none was willing to undergo cesarean without indication. Data were collected by questionnaire that included three parts. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, ANOVA and . A Pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The cesarean rate in over weight cases was 28/9%, while in normal weight women it was 15/2%, and in under weight ones, it was 4/5%, showing statistically significant differences. The overweight group had the highest age mean value in comparison with underweight and normal groups. The mean of babies’ weights in over weight group was more than that of the under-and normal-weight groups, but the mean of APGAR Scores at first and fifth minutes in over weight group was low.Conclusion: Concerning the findings, it is recommended that obese women be consulted before the pregnancy and during the pregnancy in order to attain normal weight with a suitable diet and the level of necessary activity, so that correct planning and education are performed to reach successful pregnancy outcomes.Keywords: Obesity

  8. A Survey of Mother BMI Relationship with Cesarean Prevalence Rate in Bam Maternity Hospital, Bam, Iran Mahdyeh

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    L Solimanizadeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Abnormality of maternal weight has an important role in reproductive health. High and low BMI play importaxt roles in the development of some pregnancy complications, high birth weight, and cesarean rate increas. Thus, the complications such as sever infection, bleeding, thromboembolism attacks, respiratory pneumonia in pregnant women undergoing cesarean occur more often. The aim of prenatal care is safety in infant birth and one of the conditions in pregnancy health care is normal weight. The present study sought to determine the role of mother BMI on cesarean prevalence rate in women referring to Bam Mahdieh Maternity Hospital in Bam, Iran, in 2005.

    Methods: This attempt was a comparative cross-sectional study done on 294 pregnant women who were divided into three groups: underweight n=111 (BMI<19.8 normal n=145 (19.826. All pregnant women in our study wanted normal vaginal deliveries, and none was willing to undergo cesarean without indication. Data were collected by questionnaire that included three parts. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, ANOVA and . A Pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

    Results: The cesarean rate in over weight cases was 28/9%, while in normal weight women it was 15/2%, and in under weight ones, it was 4/5%, showing statistically significant differences. The overweight group had the highest age mean value in comparison with underweight and normal groups. The mean of babies’ weights in over weight group was more than that of the under-and normal-weight groups, but the mean of APGAR Scores at first and fifth minutes in over weight group was low.

    Conclusion: Concerning the findings, it is recommended that obese women be consulted before the pregnancy and during the pregnancy in order to attain

  9. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...... pain in the previous 24 hours. One hundred and thirty four (24%) indicated moderate to severe pain and 43% would have preferred an intervention to alleviate the pain. In children hospitalized for more than 24 hours, the prevalence of moderate/severe pain was significantly higher compared to children...

  10. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

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    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  11. Prevalence Rate of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Identification of Candida Species in Women in Referred to Hamedan Hospitals 2013 - 2014, West of Iran

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    Reza Habibipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common gynecological finding among the women worldwide. Objectives In this study determine of prevalence rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis and identification of Candida species was investigated. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study study, 350 females selected and examined by wet mount and culture procedure. Results The prevalence rate, by means of culture procedure was 26%. Candida albicans was responsible for 81.3% episodes of volvovaginal candidiasis. Conclusions In order to decrease the prevalence rate of vulvovaginitis, more epidemiological surveillance and accurate informative programs about public health care, symptoms and signs and transmission ways should be performed in the future.

  12. Prevalence of Hospital Acquired Infections in The Intensive Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are defined as infections which develop 48 hours after hospital admission or within 48 hours after being discharged. This study investigates the prevalence rate of HAIs and the risk factors involved in Ilorin Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 50 ...

  13. Prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis infection among 41,112 pregnant women and the mother-to-child transmission rate in a public hospital in South Brazil

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    Ivana S Varella

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Untreated acute toxoplasmosis among pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae among newborns, including neurological impairment and blindness. In Brazil, the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CTox has not been fully evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate trends in acute toxoplasmosis prevalence from 1998-2005, the incidence of CTox and the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to dentify patients who fit the criteria for acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Exposed newborns were included in a historical cohort, with a median follow-up time of 11 months, to establish definite diagnosis of CTox. Diagnoses for acute infection in pregnancy and CTox were based on European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis criteria. In 41,112 pregnant women, the prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis was 4.8/1,000 women. The birth prevalence of CTox was 0.6/1,000 newborns [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.4-0.9]. During the follow-up study, 12 additional cases were detected, increasing the CTox rate to 0.9/1,000 newborns (95% CI: 0.6-1.3. Among the 200 newborns exposed to Toxoplasma gondii,there were 37 babies presenting diagnostic criteria of CTox, leading to an MTCT rate of 18.5% (95% CI: 13.4-24.6%. The additional cases identified during follow-up reinforce the need for serological monitoring during the first year of life, even in the absence of evidence of congenital infection at birth.

  14. Knee osteoarthritis prevalence in hospitalized elderly patients: a retrospective study.

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    Huang, Ke Qiang; Li, Chuan Silvia; Lin, Zhong Qiu; Feng, Guo Fei; Wang, Xiao Hui; Fu, Wen Zhe; Xie, Zhi Quan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the risk factors for OA in hospitalized elderly patients. We conducted this retrospective study in elderly patients (aged 65 years and older) who were hospitalized in the Geriatric Ward of General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of the People's Liberation Army between January 2011 and June 2013, including general condition, present history, past history, physical examination, X-ray results, and disease diagnosis. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment rates of knee OA in hospitalized elderly patients were calculated. Risk factors were computed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of a total of 267 (17.4%) hospitalized elderly patients diagnosed with knee OA, the prevalence rate of OA was 9.95% in males and 37.76% in females. The rate of awareness among those with OA was 51.68%; the rate of treatment was 83.33%; and the rate of control was 77.39%. The medical expenses for both females (1143±315 yuan month-1) and males (1192±357 yuan month-1) in knee OA patients are higher than that of the non-knee OA group (989±274 yuan month-1, 1038±295 yuan month-1). The risk factors for knee OA include gender (OR=2.448), age (OR=1.124), transportation mode (OR= 8.972), exercise (OR=7.374), bowel evacuation position (OR=5.767), family history of knee OA (OR=2.195), and body mass index (OR=2.469). The prevalence of knee OA is unexpectedly high in hospitalized elderly patients, and the rates of awareness and treatment are less than desirable. Prevention and control measures should be taken in patients with concomitant risk factors.

  15. Nursing magnet hospitals have better CMS hospital compare ratings

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    Robbins RA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been conflicting data on whether Nursing Magnet Hospitals (NMH provide better care. Methods: NMH in the Southwest USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, and New Mexico were compared to hospitals not designated as NMH using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS hospital compare star designation. Results: NMH had higher star ratings than non-NMH hospitals (3.34 + 0.78 vs. 2.86 + 0.83, p<0.001. The hospitals were mostly large, urban non-critical access hospitals. Academic medical centers made up a disproportionately large portion of the NMH. Conclusions: Although NMH had higher hospital ratings, the data may favor non-critical access academic medical centers which are known to have better outcomes.

  16. High tuberculosis prevalence in a psychiatric hospital in Vietnam

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    van Duc, L.; Vree, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Phuc, L. T.; Sy, D. N.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in psychiatric hospitals in Vietnam, but prevalence may be higher than in the general population. We assessed the TB prevalence among in-patients of a psychiatric hospital in 2005 in Danang City, Vietnam. Of 300 in-patients, 70 had an abnormal X-ray

  17. [Prevalence of obesity in hospitalized internal medicine patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Sánchez, F J; Díaz Alcaide, F; Marín Fernández, Y; Chaparro Moreno, I; Pujol de la Llave, E

    2002-09-01

    We describe the weight's distribution in a sample of medical patients in hospital. We estimate the global prevalence and the presence between other different clinical variables. A prevalence cross-sectional study was carried out. We determine weight, stature and several clinical variables in 101 patients admit in the internal medicine department of Juan Ramón Jiménez hospital in Huelva. The patients were admitted from 6th to 7th of june in 2000. The Body Mass Index (BMI) > or = 30 Kg/m2 was used to define the obesity. The prevalence of obesity was 32.2% [0.236-0.416]. In the study we find an association with female (prevalente rate -PR- 3.22), HTA (PR 4.72), dislipemia (RP 4.40) and hyperuricacemia (RP 4.28). The prevalence of obesity in our patients was between 23.41%, it was greater than others estimations in general people. We find association with women and classic cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

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    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in hospitalized children: a point prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavare, Jana; Grope, Ilze; Gardovska, Dace

    2009-04-03

    In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia. A descriptive prospective point prevalence study (using two time periods, each 24 h, randomly chosen) was conducted on all children (n = 943) treated in the hospital. All children with abnormal temperatures - fever or hypothermia (n = 92) - were included in the study. Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. The prevalence of SIRS was detected with 95% CI. Out of a total of 943 patients treated in the hospital, 10% (n = 92) had abnormal temperatures. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. Of the children with fever, 72% (n = 66) had SIRS. Of the SIRS patients, 8% (n = 5) developed sepsis, 5% (n = 3) severe sepsis and 2% (n = 1) septic shock. Seventy-six percent (n = 50) of the SIRS patients had fever in combination with respiratory rate >2 SD above normal for age; 50% (n = 33) had fever with abnormal leukocyte count; 15% (n = 10) had fever with tachycardia >2 SD above normal for age. Most of the SIRS patients (39%, n = 25) were aged 2-5 years. Twenty-one percent (n = 14) of the children with SIRS and 50% (n = 2) of those with severe sepsis and septic shock had an underlying disease. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards. Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis.

  20. Hospitalization rates among economic immigrants to Canada.

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    Ng, Edward; Sanmartin, Claudia; Manuel, Douglas G

    2017-07-19

    Economic immigrants generally, and economic class principal applicants (ECPAs) specifically, tend to have better health than other immigrants. However, health outcomes vary among subcategories within this group, especially by sex. This study examines hospitalization rates among ECPAs aged 25 to 74 who arrived in Canada between 1980 and 2006 as skilled workers, business immigrants, or live-in caregivers. The analysis used two linked databases to estimate age-standardized hospitalization rates (ASHRs) overall and for leading causes by sex. ASHRs of ECPA subcategories were compared with each other and with those of the Canadian-born population. Logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios for hospitalization among ECPAs, by sex. Male and female ECPAs aged 25 to 74 had significantly lower all-cause ASHRs than did the Canadian-born population in the same age range. This pattern prevailed for each ECPA subcategory and for each disease examined. Compared with skilled workers, business immigrants had lower odds of hospitalization; live-in caregivers who arrived after 1992 had higher odds. Adjustment for education, official language proficiency, and world region reduced the strength of or eliminated these associations. Compared with the Canadian-born population, ECPAs generally had low hospitalization rates. Differences were apparent among ECPA subcategories.

  1. Reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence through a focused prevention program.

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    McInerney, Joan A

    2008-02-01

    To provide health care organizations with strategies for decreasing the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence was measured every 6 months for 4.5 years while multiple strategies were implemented. The study took place in a not-for-profit, 548-bed, 2-hospital system in Southwest Florida. All adult patients with the exception of those admitted for obstetric or mental health care. An assortment of interventions were implemented, including electronic medical records, risk assessment tied to automatic consults, pressure relief measures including new equipment and personnel augmentation, and an interdisciplinary team to decide on protocols. Hospital-acquired prevalence rate for all pressure ulcers was reduced by 81%. The rate for heel ulcers alone was reduced by 90%. A pressure ulcer prevention program has been developed, which has shown a trend toward improved patient outcomes with a resultant cost savings.

  2. The prevalence of Capgras syndrome in a university hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Lut; Karatas, Gonca; Zeren, Tayfun; Ozpoyraz, Nurgul

    2003-10-01

    Capgras syndrome (CS), the most common type of delusional misidentification syndrome, is the delusional belief that significant people in the patient's life have been replaced by identical doubles. Capgras syndrome is thought to be a rare syndrome which commonly occurs in a psychotic context. The objective of this study was to estimate the 5-year prevalence rate of CS in a university hospital in-patient setting and determine associated etiological and sociodemographic factors. All patient files and medical records were reviewed in detail for the presence of Capgras syndrome. The sociodemographic variables, clinical manifestations, and psychiatric and medical diagnoses of patients who fulfilled clinical criteria for Capgras syndrome were recorded for statistical evaluation. The retrospective evaluation of patient files in 920 cases admitted to our psychiatric in-patient unit over 5 years revealed that 12 patients fulfilled the criteria for Capgras syndrome. The crude prevalence of Capgras syndrome in this population during 5-year period was 1.3% (1.8% for females, 0.9% for males). Schizophrenia (50%) was the most common psychiatric diagnosis in these patients. Only two patients presented with an organic etiology underlying Capgras syndrome. The results of this study indicate that Capgras syndrome is not a rare syndrome, and commonly occurs during the course of either functional or organic psychotic illness. Age seems to be an important predicting factor for the etiology of psychosis underlying Capgras syndrome.

  3. [Prevalence of burnout syndrome in nurses in 2 Mexican hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Morales, Yusvisaret; Prince-Vélez, Roberto; Searcy-Bernal, Roberto; Compean-Saucedo, Bertha

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome in nursing staff in 2 different second level hospitals in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted in all nursing staff (n = 698) in 2 second level hospitals (the Gynecology, Pediatrics and Family Medicine Hospital No. 31 and the General Specialist Hospital No. 30 in Mexicali). A stratified random sample was obtained from the 698 nurses, with a sample size of 184 nurses from each hospital. The Maslach Burn-out Inventory and a general questionnaire on demographic factors were used. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and analysis of proportions using the chi-squared test. A total of 368 nurses were studied, of whom 345 (93.75%) were women. The mean age was 41.21 SD (standard deviation) = 6.59 years. The mean length of service was 15.87 (SD = 6.12) years. In both hospitals, the prevalence of burnout syndrome was 6.79% (25). Previous publications on burn-out have included studies performed in Mexico and in nurses in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Barcelona, as well as in other health care professionals. In comparison with these studies, the prevalence of burn-out observed in the present study was significantly lower.

  4. [Smoking prevalence in hospital workers: meta-analysis in 45 Catalan hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Antón, Laura; Riccobene, Anna; Fu, Marcela; Quirós, Nuria; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of smoking in workers from hospitals within the Catalan Network for Smoke-free hospitals from 2009 to 2012 according to workers' sociodemographic characteristics and the type of hospital. A meta-analysis was performed of prevalence surveys from representative samples of workers from 45 hospitals. The combined prevalence for all hospitals was calculated using a regression model with a random effects model weighted by sample size. The overall prevalence of smoking was 28.1% (95%CI: 26.1 to 30.0%) with a maximum and minimum of 40.3% and 19.1%, respectively. The health professionals with the lowest prevalence of smoking were physicians (16.4%; 95%CI: 12.9 to 19.9) and nurses (25.4%; 95%CI 21.6 to 29.2). The prevalence of smoking in hospital health workers was lower than in the general population of working age. Physicians were the group with the lowest smoking prevalence. Smoking cessation should be promoted among other professional groups. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency and hospital effectiveness in improving Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mona; Makarem, Suzanne C; Rosko, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency has emerged as a central goal to the operations of health care organizations. There are two competing perspectives on the relationship between efficiency and organizational performance. Some argue that organizational slack is a waste and that efficiency contributes to organizational performance, whereas others maintain that slack acts as a buffer, allowing organizations to adapt to environmental demands and contributing to organizational performance. As value-based purchasing becomes more prevalent, health care organizations are incented to become more efficient and, at the same time, improve their patients' experiences and outcomes. Unused slack resources might facilitate the timely implementation of these improvements. Building on previous research on organizational slack and inertia, we test whether efficiency and other organizational factors predict organizational effectiveness in improving Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) ratings. We rely on data from the American Hospital Association and HCAHPS. We estimate hospital cost-efficiency by Stochastic Frontier Analysis and use regression analysis to determine whether efficiency, competition, hospital size, and other organizational factors are significant predictors of hospital effectiveness. Our findings indicate that efficiency and hospital size have a significant negative association with organizational ability to improve HCAHPS ratings. Although achieving organizational efficiency is necessary for health care organizations, given the changes that are currently occurring in the U.S. health care system, it is important for health care managers to maintain a certain level of slack to respond to environmental demands and have the resources needed to improve their performance.

  6. Prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respectively. Blood group O positive had the highest percentage 58.1 % (n=50) and was the commonest group. Conclusion. In this study, HIV prevalence is very high among blood donors at the Juba Teaching Hospital blood bank. The Republic of South Sudan has emerged from war in the past 9 years. These were years of ...

  7. Prevalence of hypoalbuminemia and nutritional issues in hospitalized elders

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    Felipe Brock

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to estimate the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia in hospitalized elders, related to socio-demographic variables, nutritional status and length of stay. Methods: crosscutting study with 200 patients hospitalized in a large hospital in the South of Brazil during three months. Evaluations, lab tests and interviews through questionnaires were performed. Results: the average albuminemia was 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. Hypoalbuminemia was diagnosed in 173 subjects (87% and was absent in 27 (13% that have normal albuminemia (p=0,000. After six days of hospitalization, the prevalence of low levels grew significantly to 90% (p=0,002, average 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, it was observed that 41 patients were malnourished and from those, 40 had hypoalbuminemia. Conclusion: the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia proved to be high, in approx. nine in ten elders, and the nutritional status and the length of stay proved to be related to the decrease of serum albumin levels. Thus, it is suggested that monitoring albumin levels should be done to evaluate the risk that the patient has to develop malnutrition and other complications during hospital stays.

  8. The prevalence and significance of hyperglycemia in hospitalized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Casey C; Callahan-Clark, Julie; Beckel, Nicole F; Walters, Patricia C

    2009-08-01

    To report the prevalence of hyperglycemia in cats admitted to a veterinary hospital and to determine if hyperglycemic cats had increased morbidity and mortality when compared with normoglycemic cats. DESIGN - Retrospective clinical study. Community-based referral hospital. Nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital. None. The medical records of nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. There were 182 cats that met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Information obtained included signalment, length of hospitalization, initial and highest blood glucose measurement, diagnosis, treatment, and final disposition. Sixty-three percent of cats (116/182) were hyperglycemic at the time of presentation. Total incidence of hyperglycemia at any point during hospitalization was 64% (118/182). No association was found between hyperglycemia either initially or at any point during the hospitalization and mortality. However, a significant association was documented between the presence of hyperglycemia and increased length of hospitalization (LOH) (P=0.04). The duration of LOH was also significantly associated with the degree of hyperglycemia (P=0.01). A number of different disease processes were represented in the study population. However, the number of cats in each disease category was small and no association could be found between any of them and blood glucose affecting mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of hyperglycemia in feline patients admitted to a primary referral hospital was 64%. Cats with hyperglycemia had a longer LOH when compared with normoglycemic cats; however, presence of hyperglycemia did not impact mortality in this population of cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2009.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Soil Contamination Rate, Prevalence, Intensity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... January 2018. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i1.8. 64. INTRODUCTION. Soil contamination with parasite eggs, infective larvae, cysts and oocysts constitutes the most important risk factor for some human parasitic .... 0.05 since no report was recorded for infection prevalence of intestinal parasitic ...

  10. Prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Echer, Isabel Cristina; Corrêa, Ana Paula Almeida; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Ferreira, Stephani Amanda Lukasewicz; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital in Southern Brazil. Data collection happened in 2008, during the periodic health exam, using a questionnaire, according to the smoking status of the employees. The sample consisted of 1,475 subjects, in which 979 (66.4%) were non-smokers, 295 (20%) former smokers and 201 (13.6%) smokers. Smoking was more prevalent among employees with lower education levels and among professionals i...

  11. Pre-hospital Delay after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Central Urban China: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanfeng; Yang, Tingting; Gong, Yanhong; Li, Wenzhen; Chen, Yawen; Li, Jing; Wang, Mengdie; Yin, Xiaoxv; Hu, Bo; Lu, Zuxun

    2017-05-01

    Timely thrombolytic treatment is paramount after acute ischemic stroke (AIS); however, a large proportion of patients experience substantial delays in presentation to hospital. This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors in pre-hospital delays after AIS in central urban China. AIS patients from 66 hospitals in 13 major cities across Hubei Province, between October 1, 2014 and January 31, 2015 were interviewed and their medical records were reviewed to identify those who suffered pre-hospital delays. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken to determine the prevalence rates and the risk factors associated with pre-hospital delays. A total of 1835 patients were included in the analysis, with 69.3 % patients reportedly arrived at hospital 3 or more hours after onset and 55.3 % patients arrived 6 or more hours after onset. Factors associated with increased pre-hospital delays for 3 or more hours were as follows: patient had a history of stroke (odds ratio (OR), 1.319, P = 0.028), onset location was at home (OR, 1.573, P = 0.002), and patients rather than someone else noticed the symptom onset first (OR, 1.711; P pre-hospital delays. These findings indicate that pre-hospital delays after AIS are common in urban central China, and future intervention programs should be focused on public awareness of stroke and appropriate response.

  12. Prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among hospitalized elderly patients in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Sami H; Alamri, Sultan H

    2017-07-03

    Malnutrition is a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the body from a functional or clinical perspective. It is very often observed in the elderly population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly patients and its associated factors and outcomes in terms of length of stay and mortality in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly patients using the most recent version of the short form of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). A total of 248 hospitalized patients were included (70.0 ± 7.7 years; 60% female). According to the MNA-SF, a total of 76.6% patients were either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Malnourished patients had significantly lower levels of serum albumin (28.2 ± 7.7), hemoglobin (10.5 ± 1.8), and lymphocyte (1.7 ± 0.91). They had increased tendency to stay in the hospital for longer durations (IQR, 5-11 days; median = 7 days) and had a mortality rate of 6.9%. Malnutrition was highly prevalent among hospitalized elderly and was associated with increased length of stay and mortality.

  13. Point Prevalence Surveys of Antimicrobial Use among Hospitalized Children in Six Hospitals in India in 2016

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    Sumanth Gandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in India is among the highest in the world. Antimicrobial use in inpatient settings is an important driver of resistance, but is poorly characterized, particularly in hospitalized children. In this study, conducted as part of the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy in Neonates and Children (GARPEC project, we examined the prevalence of and indications of antimicrobial use, as well as antimicrobial agents used among hospitalized children by conducting four point prevalence surveys in six hospitals between February 2016 and February 2017. A total of 681 children were hospitalized in six hospitals across all survey days, and 419 (61.5% were prescribed one or more antimicrobials (antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals. Antibacterial agents accounted for 90.8% (547/602 of the total antimicrobial prescriptions, of which third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs accounted for 38.9% (213/547 and penicillin plus enzyme inhibitor combinations accounted for 14.4% (79/547. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI was the most common indication for prescribing antimicrobials (149 prescriptions; 24.8%. Although national guidelines recommend the use of penicillin and combinations as first-line agents for LRTI, 3GCs were the most commonly prescribed antibacterial agents (55/149 LRTI prescriptions; 36.9%. In conclusion, 61.5% of hospitalized children were on at least one antimicrobial agent, with excessive use of 3GCs. Hence there is an opportunity to limit their inappropriate use.

  14. Prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae from a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India

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    Pravin K. Nair

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The emergence of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE in recent times has become a serious threat to public health due to the high mortality, potential dissemination rates and limited treatment options associated with these organisms. Thus, the present study was conducted in our tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CRE in the hospital. Methods: The study was carried out in the microbiology department of the tertiary care hospital over a period of 12 months. The samples tested were clinical samples from hospitalized and Out-Patient Department (OPD patients sent to the department for microbiological testing. CRE isolates were identified using the Vitek 2- Compact system (BioMérieux, France. Results: A CRE prevalence rate of 12.26% was obtained from the study, from which the majority of the isolates were detected in urine samples (46%. Although most of the CRE isolates were detected in patient samples from the wards (42% and the ICU (26%, a significant number of isolates was also detected from the OPD patients (19%. Conclusion:Thus, the study shows a significant rate of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalized and OPD patients. This emphasizes the urgent need for CRE control at the hospital and community level, and to rationalize the use of antibiotics. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 207-210

  15. Prevalence of Nosocomial Infection in Different Wards of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad

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    Jamal Falahi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The CDC defines a nosocomial infection as a localized or systemic condition caused by an adverse reaction to the presence of an infectious agent(s or its toxin(s. It is an infection that occurs between 48 to 72 hours after admission of patients in the hospital or as soon after the hospital discharge and on the admission time, patients don't have this infection. Objectives This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of nosocomial infection in Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in all wards of the Ghaem hospital, Mashhad during the 1 year period (2013; the data were collected from the wards records and HIS system and analyzed by the SPSS software (version16. Results In the present study, of total 35979 hospitalized patients in different wards of the Ghaem hospital was reported 1.1% of nosocomial infection. In the meantime, overall, the most prevalent organism was Acinetobacter baumannii with a prevalence of 37.2% and the minimum was linked to the Bacillus species with a prevalence 0.3%. The highest and lowest prevalence of the nosocomial infection was in the ICU and CCU with 49.9% and 0.3%, respectively. In general, among all wards of the mentioned hospital, the most frequent nosocomial infection was pneumonia (47.4% and the lowest belonged to CSF (2.3%. Conclusions In our study, the ICU ward was accounted for the highest rate of nosocomial infection, due to the critical importance of this ward. Preventive measures and survivelance system for reduction of nosocomial infections is needed.

  16. The prevalence rates of refractive errors among children, adolescents, and adults in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Jobke; Erich Kasten; Christian Vorwerk

    2008-01-01

    Sandra Jobke1, Erich Kasten2, Christian Vorwerk31Institute of Medical Psychology, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Otto-von Guericke-University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 2Institute of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, GermanyPurpose: The prevalence rates of myopia vary between 5% in Australian Aborigines to 84% in Hong Kong and Taiwan, 30% in Norwegian adults, and 49.5% in Swedish schoolchildren. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ...

  17. Falls among Adult Patients Hospitalized in the United States: Prevalence and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Erin D.; Andresen, Elena M.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Simon, Michael; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Mion, Lorraine C.; Shorr, Ronald I.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide normative data on fall prevalence in US hospitals by unit type and to determine the 27-month secular trend in falls prior to the implementation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS) rule which does not reimburse hospitals for care related to injury resulting from hospital falls. Methods We used data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) collected between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2008 to estimate prevalence and secular trends of falls occurring in adult medical, medical-surgical and surgical nursing units. More than 88 million patient days (pd) of observation were contributed from 6,100 medical, surgical, and medical-surgical nursing units in 1,263 hospitals across the United States. Results A total of 315,817 falls occurred (rate=3.56 falls/1,000 pd) during the study period, of which 82,332 (26.1%) resulted in an injury (rate=0.93/1,000 pd). Both total fall and injurious fall rates were highest in medical units (fall rate=4.03/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=1.08/1,000 pd) and lowest in surgery units (fall rate=2.76/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=0.67/1,000 pd). Falls (0.4% decrease/quarter, pfalls (1% decrease per quarter, pfall and injurious fall prevalence varied by nursing unit type in US hospitals. Over the 27 month study, there was a small, but statistically significant, decrease in falls (pfalls (p<0.0001). PMID:23143749

  18. Prevalence of potential drug–drug interactions among internal medicine ward in University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: We have recorded a high rate of prevalence of potential DDI in the internal medicine ward of UOG hospital and a high number of clinically significant DDIs which the most prevalent DDI were of moderate severity. Careful selection of drugs and active pharmaceutical care is encouraged in order to avoid negative consequences of these interactions.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China: An observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weifeng; Zhang, Suzhen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Fude; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Mei, Qiyi; He, Hongbo; Chen, Zhiyu; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Tiebang; Xie, Shiping; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Congpei; Sang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Shi, Le; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Hongyan; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Prevalence of auditory changes in newborns in a teaching hospital

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    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The precocious diagnosis and the intervention in the deafness are of basic importance in the infantile development. The loss auditory and more prevalent than other joined riots to the birth. Objective: Esteem the prevalence of auditory alterations in just-born in a hospital school. Method: Prospective transversal study that evaluated 226 just-been born, been born in a public hospital, between May of 2008 the May of 2009. Results: Of the 226 screened, 46 (20.4% had presented absence of emissions, having been directed for the second emission. Of the 26 (56.5% children who had appeared in the retest, 8 (30.8% had remained with absence and had been directed to the Otolaryngologist. Five (55.5% had appeared and had been examined by the doctor. Of these, 3 (75.0% had presented normal otoscopy, being directed for evaluation of the Evoked Potential Auditory of Brainstem (PEATE. Of the total of studied children, 198 (87.6% had had presence of emissions in one of the tests and, 2 (0.9% with deafness diagnosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of auditory alterations in the studied population was of 0,9%. The study it offers given excellent epidemiologists and it presents the first report on the subject, supplying resulted preliminary future implantation and development of a program of neonatal auditory selection.

  1. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  2. Prevalence of hospital acquired enterococci infections in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that become pathogenic when they colonize niches where they are not normally found. Of recent, they have become major cause of nosocomial infections, especially of the bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical sites. The aim of this study is to determine the point‐prevalence rate of ...

  3. PREVALENCE OF THYROID DISORDERS IN PREGNANCY AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL

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    Guntoory Indira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid disorders are the second most common endocrinological disorders seen in pregnant women. Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in pregnancy both in the development of a healthy baby and in maintaining the health of the mother. Several studies have shown a rising prevalence of thyroid disease in India and in South Asian countries. The diagnosis of thyroid disease in pregnancy is difficult as many of the signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are also common to pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid disease in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study. 333 antenatal women were screened in their first visit to the antenatal clinic by serum TSH, fT3, fT4. Statistical analysis of the results was done. RESULTS 283 women out of 333 antenatal women screened were found to be euthyroid. 50 women were detected to be having thyroid disorder. 45 women had subclinical hypothyroidism, one woman had overt hypothyroidism and four women had subclinical hyperthyroidism. 4 women had hypothyroidism prior to pregnancy. The overall prevalence of thyroid disorders in pregnancy in our study was found to be 16.21%. CONCLUSION The prevalence was found to be high in our study and in several studies from India and in its neighbouring countries. This is probably due to iodine deficiency being prevalent in several areas in our country. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is high. This all the more stresses the need for universal screening of pregnant women for thyroid disease in our country.

  4. Neonatal hypoglycemia: prevalence and clinical manifestations in tehran children's hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, N.; Einollahi, N.; Abbasi, S.

    2007-01-01

    To measure the prevalence of hypoglycemia among newborn infants in Children Hospital using a standard laboratory glucose method and to evaluate the evidence of clinical manifestations of hypoglycemia, designing appropriate strategies for prevention and treatment. The study population consisted of 673 neonates in Tehran Children's Hospital and was conducted between June 2004 and March 2005. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia in the present study group was 15.15% live births. The clinical features which remained significantly associated with the hypoglycemic neonates were refusal of feeding (45%), hyporeflexia (36.2%), irritability (30%), cyanosis (28.4%), tackypnea (24.5%), seizure (16.6%), weak cry (15.8%), apneic spels (9.8%), pallor (1.9%), cardiac arrest (9.1%) and sweating (1%). Hypoglycemia does occur frequently in newborn infants and requires careful monitoring and therapy of serum glucose. (author)

  5. Prevalence of dental caries in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia

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    Đorđević Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is considered that over 450 million people worldwide suffer from some form of mental disorder. Previous studies in other countries have shown that schizophrenia is among the most frequent. Oral health is significant for general health and should not be separated from mental health. Studies in other countries have shown an increased incidence of carious and extracted teeth, and less incidence of filled teeth in this group of psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to establish condition of the existing teeth, to determine the prevalence of caries and to consider possible risk factors that contribute to the current oral health status of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Methods. The study comprised 190 patients with schizophrenia, hospitalized at the Clinic for Psychiatric Disorders “Dr. Laza Lazarević” in Belgrade, and 190 mentally healthy patients at the Clinic for Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine in Belgrade. The decayed, missing, filled (DMF index, sociodemographic and economic characteristics were registered in both groups, as well as characteristics of the primary disease of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Results. The value of DMF index (representing the sum of carious, extracted and filled teeth, in the hospitalized patients with schizophrenia was 18.57 ± 7.07 and 12.47 ± 5.64 in the healthy group (p = 0.000. The structure of the DMF index in the study group showed that caries and extracted teeth dominated with 88.1%; in the control group, filled teeth dominated with 55.6%, which was a statistically significant difference for all the three observed variables. Conclusion. Hospitalized patients with schizophrenia had twice as many caries and extracted teeth, and five time less filled teeth than healthy people. The patient’s age and taking antiparkinsonics were established as predictors of the increased DMF index in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

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    Yallew WW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Walelegn Worku Yallew,1 Abera Kumie,2 Feleke Moges Yehuala3 1Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 2School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Hospital-acquired infection (HAI is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results: A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years. A total of 650 (71.6% patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1. Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44% and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4% were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was

  7. Prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj, 2011

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    P Khodadadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Aim: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of dehydrating and gastroenteritis among children worldwide. . The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj. Methods: This cross sectional – descriptive study was done on 184 stool samples of children younger than 7 years of age hospitalized at Imam Sajjad hospital of Yasuj in 2011 due to acute gastroenteritis. All samples were routinely analyzed for detection of rotavirus by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA test. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 184 samples analyzed, 52(28.26% were positive.The Results showed significant relationship between the seasonal distribution and virus detection (p=0/001. The highest incidence of rotavirus was seen in autumn with frequency of (48.08% and the lowest in spring (5.77%. Conclusions: According to high prevalence of rotavirus infection, continual surveillance is necessary to provide useful data for formulating effective vaccines and perform diarrhea prevention programs. Key words: Rotavirus, Gastroenteritis, Prevalence, Elisa

  8. The Relationship between Self-rated Health and Hospital Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) covaries with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Ageing with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995 to 2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and fut...

  9. Prevalence of depression in a general hospital in Izhevsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakriev, Sergei; Kovalev, Juri; Mozhaev, Mikhail

    2009-11-01

    There are a lot of studies on depressive disorders in a general hospital done across the world, but no data from Russia on this subject was found in international psychiatric journals or MEDLINE. to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in medical inpatients in Izhevsk, the capital of the Udmurt Republic, a region in Russia, and to identify associated factors. A sample of 323 adult medical inpatients was composed. The Russian version of the MINI 5.0.0 was used. The prevalence of lifetime and current depressive disorders was 30% and 20.7%, respectively. Depression was more common in women, widowed or divorced, retired or disabled, with low income and bad family relationships, and among respondents with a chronic somatic illness. Depression had a high comorbidity with organic mental and anxiety disorders. Only 40.3% of the individuals with depression had referred for psychiatric consultations, most of them being treated with fluvoxamine. Prevalence of depression was substantial but consistent with other studies. Taking into consideration associated factors, physicians can improve recognition and treatment of depression in medical inpatients.

  10. The prevalence and determinants of hypothyroidism in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Bao, Cuiping; Deng, Meiyu; Xu, Hui; Fan, Meijuan; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Xu, Weili; Qi, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related factors, and to assess the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. A total of 1662 type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients hospitalized at the Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2013 were included in this study. Information on demographic and anthropometric factors and additional variables related to hypothyroidism were collected from medical records. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using direct method based on the age-specific and sex-specific structure of all participants. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and 77.0 % of the patients with hypothyroidism had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age, and was higher in women (10.8 %) than in men (3.4 %). Older age (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 % confidence interval, 1. 05 to 2.89), female gender (odds ratio, 2.02; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.87), and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (odds ratio, 4.99; 95 % confidence interval, 2.83 to 8.79) were associated with higher odds of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients. The type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than those with euthyroidism after adjustment for age and gender. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and most patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Older age, female gender, and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody could be indicators for detecting hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients.

  11. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  12. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in the university medical center of Rabat, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razine Rachid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to determine the hospital-acquired infections (HAI prevalence in all institutions of Rabat University Medical Center, to ascertain risk factors, to describe the pathogens associated with HAI and their susceptibility profile to antibiotics. Materials and methods Point-prevalence survey in January 2010 concerning all patients who had been in the hospital for at least 48 hours. At bedside, 27 investigators filled a standardized questionnaire from medical records, temperature charts, radiographs, laboratory reports and by consultation with the ward’s collaborating health professionals. Risk factors were determined using logistic regression. Results 1195 patients involved, occupancy rate was 51%. The prevalence of HAI was 10.3%. Intensive care units were the most affected wards (34.5%. Urinary tract infection was the most common infected site (35%. Microbiological documentation was available in 61% of HAI. Staphylococcus was the organism most commonly isolated (18.7% and was methicillin-resistant in 50% of cases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with HAI were advanced age, longer length of hospital stay, presence of comorbidity, invasive devices and use of antibiotic use. Conclusion HAI prevalence was high in this study. Future prevention program should focus on patients with longer length of stay, invasive devices, and overprescribing antibiotics.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of workplace violence of health care workers in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Kung, Shou-Mei; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-01-01

    Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an important concern in occupational health. This study determined the prevalence of workplace violence and its risk factors for employees at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. A questionnaire developed by ILO/ICN/WHO/PSI was first translated and validated. It was then used to survey the prevalence of workplace violence in the last 12 months experienced by all nursing aides, nurses, and clerks at the hospital. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to discover the determinants of violence. A total of 222 out of 231 surveyed workers completed a valid questionnaire. The one-year prevalence rates of physical violence (PV), verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 35.1, 50.9, 15.8, 9.5, and 4.5%, respectively. The prevalence of PV at this hospital was higher than that reported by other countries for the health sector. A high anxiety level was associated with the occurrence of PV. These results need to be corroborated by future investigation. A training program may be required for high risk groups to reduce workplace violence.

  14. Hospital-Nursing Home Transfer Patterns and Influence on Nursing Home Clostridium difficile Infection Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lauren; Bush, Kristen; Dumyati, Ghinwa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known as to how hospital C. difficile infection (CDI) may impact nursing home (NH) CDI, or how patient transfers may modify this relationship. This study aims to examine a possible association between hospital and NH CDI rates, and whether NH CDI rates are influenced by patient transfers from hospital to NH. Methods Patient transfers among the 5 hospitals and 34 NHs in Monroe County, NY were identified from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 and Medicare Provider Analysis and Review files for 2011–13, and aggregated to the NH level. NH and hospital CDI rates were obtained from Emerging Infections Program CDI population surveillance and National Healthcare Safety Network data, respectively. Multivariate negative binomial regression modeled the association between hospital CDI rate (weighted by hospital-to-NH transfers/overall transfers among hospitals and NHs) and NH CDI rate, controlling for NH covariates from NH Compare and the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting files. Patient transfer networks between hospitals and NHs were constructed, and basic network analysis of transfer patterns was conducted to confirm contributing factors to NH CDI rates from the multivariate model. Results When weighted hospital CDI rate increased by 1%, NH CDI rate increased by 18% (P = 0.016). Antibiotic and feeding tube prevalence were associated with a 4% and 8% increase in NH CDI rate, respectively (P≤0.014). Network analysis confirmed multivariate results and detected hospital-NH pairs with high edge weights (number of transfers) where NHs receiving patients from hospitals with high CDI rates had higher CDI rates. Network clustering methods were used to identify 2 sub-networks within overall annual networks and clusters of hospital-NH pairs for targeted intervention. Conclusion Hospital CDI rate, adjusting for patient transfers, is associated with higher NH CDI rates in multivariate and network analyses, suggesting that NHs with a large inflow

  15. A comparison of antibiotic point prevalence survey data from four Irish regional/general hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naughton, C

    2011-06-01

    Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are increasingly used to examining and compare hospital antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to identify the (1) point prevalence of antibiotic use in one regional hospital and (2) compare PPS data from similar regional\\/general hospitals.

  16. Changing trends in hospitalization rates associated with psychosis: Spain, 1980-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Herrero, Alvaro; Amate, J M; Saz-Parkinson, Z; Gómez-Beneyto, M

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the prevalence of hospitalization attributable to psychosis in Spain over the last three decades. Longitudinal analysis (1980-2009) of age-adjusted hospital discharges rates associated with psychosis (ICD9 290-8) in all Spanish hospitals. Spanish Hospital Morbidity Survey. The hospitalization rate associated with psychotic episodes had been gradually increasing since 1980 until 2004; an abrupt turnaround observed in 2004 marks the beginning of a steady decline in the rate. The turning point described is not observed for each of the psychotic diagnoses separately analyzed. However, it is clearly seen when data are grouped in diagnosis-related groups (organic-psychosis, functional psychosis and substance-induced psychosis) since the time course of the diseases within the major diagnostic groups are interrelated as evidenced by shared turning points which collectively display a common time course pattern. Main hospital indicators and antipsychotic drug prescriptions were analyzed for any possible turning point in mid-2000s. Psychiatric hospital beds and length of stays remained stable by 2004; the hospitalizations associated with non-psychotic psychiatric pathologies show no turning point in 2004. However, an abrupt change on antipsychotic drug prescriptions is precisely observed in 2004. After decades of linear growth, hospitalizations for psychotic patients begin to decline in 2004, coinciding with the start of last generation atypical antipsychotic drug consumption in Spain. Some of the psychotic diagnostic rates evolve in an interrelated manner which calls into question the diagnosis and nosological boundaries between some of these pathologies.

  17. Prevalence of hypoalbuminemia and nutritional issues in hospitalized elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Felipe; Bettinelli, Luiz Antonio; Dobner, Taise; Stobbe, Júlio César; Pomatti, Gabriela; Telles, Cristina Trevizan

    2016-08-08

    to estimate the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia in hospitalized elders, related to socio-demographic variables, nutritional status and length of stay. crosscutting study with 200 patients hospitalized in a large hospital in the South of Brazil during three months. Evaluations, lab tests and interviews through questionnaires were performed. the average albuminemia was 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. Hypoalbuminemia was diagnosed in 173 subjects (87%) and was absent in 27 (13%) that have normal albuminemia (p=0,000). After six days of hospitalization, the prevalence of low levels grew significantly to 90% (p=0,002), average 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, it was observed that 41 patients were malnourished and from those, 40 had hypoalbuminemia. the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia proved to be high, in approx. nine in ten elders, and the nutritional status and the length of stay proved to be related to the decrease of serum albumin levels. Thus, it is suggested that monitoring albumin levels should be done to evaluate the risk that the patient has to develop malnutrition and other complications during hospital stays. estimar a prevalência de hipoalbuminemia em idosos hospitalizados, em relação às variáveis sociodemográficas, estado nutricional e tempo de internação. estudo transversal, com 200 pacientes internados em hospital de grande porte do sul do Brasil, durante o período de três meses. Foram realizadas avaliações, análise de exames laboratoriais e entrevista através de questionário. a média de albuminemia foi 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. O diagnóstico de hipoalbuminemia, foi encontrado em 173 sujeitos (87%), e não revelado em 27 (13%), que apresentaram albuminemia normal (p=0,000). Constatou-se que após seis dias de internação a prevalência de níveis baixos aumentou significativamente para 90% (p=0,002), com média de 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Utilizando-se a Mini Avaliação Nutricional, observou-se que 41 pacientes estavam desnutridos, e que destes, 40

  18. Prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Echer, Isabel Cristina; Corrêa, Ana Paula Almeida; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Ferreira, Stephani Amanda Lukasewicz; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2011-01-01

    Este é um estudo transversal, e teve como objetivo identificar a prevalência do tabagismo em funcionários de um hospital universitário do Sul do Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu no ano 2008, durante exame periódico de saúde dos funcionários, por meio de questionário, de acordo com a condição tabágica dos mesmos. A amostra ficou constituída por 1.475 sujeitos, desses, 979 (66,4%) eram não fumantes, 295 (20%) ex-fumantes e 201 (13,6%) fumantes. O predomínio de fumantes está entre funcionários ...

  19. Temporal Changes in Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in 23 U.S. Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Fridkin, Scott K.; Hill, Holly A.; Volkova, Nataliya V.; Edwards, Jonathan R.; Lawton, Rachel M.; Gaynes, Robert P.; McGowan, John E.; Hospitals, Project

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in nearly all health-care?associated pathogens. We examined changes in resistance prevalence during 1996?1999 in 23 hospitals by using two statistical methods. When the traditional chi-square test of pooled mean resistance prevalence was used, most organisms appear to have increased in prevalence. However, when a more conservative test that accounts for changes within individual hospitals was used, significant increases in prevalence of resistance were c...

  20. The role of sex in the prevalence rates and psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recorded the prevalence rates of cyberbullying and investigated its psychological outcomes among 324 secondary school learners in the Kgakotlou school circuit, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Learners completed an instrument consisting of objective questionnaires on cyberbullying, psychological distress and ...

  1. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  2. Prevalence of HIV and discordant rate and their associated factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Understanding and monitoring the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among premarital clients and determining discordant rate and applying specific interventions targeted at this group could bring dual benefits as it prevents both heterosexual and vertical transmission of the disease.

  3. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  4. Soil contamination rate, prevalence, intensity of infection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections remain an important public health problem in the tropics. This study aimed to evaluate the soil contamination rate and prevalence of infestations of geohelminth among residents in Bazou. Methods: Four hundred (400) soil samples and 182 stool specimens were ...

  5. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders: Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, Frédérique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increas...

  6. Do more hospital beds lead to higher hospitalization rates? a spatial examination of Roemer's Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Delamater

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Roemer's Law, a widely cited principle in health care policy, states that hospital beds that are built tend to be used. This simple but powerful expression has been invoked to justify Certificate of Need regulation of hospital beds in an effort to contain health care costs. Despite its influence, a surprisingly small body of empirical evidence supports its content. Furthermore, known geographic factors influencing health services use and the spatial structure of the relationship between hospital bed availability and hospitalization rates have not been sufficiently explored in past examinations of Roemer's Law. We pose the question, "Accounting for space in health care access and use, is there an observable association between the availability of hospital beds and hospital utilization?" METHODS: We employ an ecological research design based upon the Anderson behavioral model of health care utilization. This conceptual model is implemented in an explicitly spatial context. The effect of hospital bed availability on the utilization of hospital services is evaluated, accounting for spatial structure and controlling for other known determinants of hospital utilization. The stability of this relationship is explored by testing across numerous geographic scales of analysis. The case study comprises an entire state system of hospitals and population, evaluating over one million inpatient admissions. RESULTS: We find compelling evidence that a positive, statistically significant relationship exists between hospital bed availability and inpatient hospitalization rates. Additionally, the observed relationship is invariant with changes in the geographic scale of analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the effects of Roemer's Law, thus suggesting that variations in hospitalization rates have origins in the availability of hospital beds. This relationship is found to be robust across geographic scales of analysis. These findings

  7. Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence and outcome of major congenital anomalies in Saudi Arabia: A hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Al-Hoshan, Manal S.; Attyyaa, Rehman A.; Al-Suleimat, Abdelmane A.

    2008-01-01

    The exact antenatal prevalence of congenital anomalies in Saudi society is unknown. Early antenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies is crucial for early counseling, intervention and possible fetal therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antenatal frequency of major congenital anomalies and malformations patterns in our hospital population and to evaluate the outcome and perinatal mortality rates for major congenital anomalies. This was a prospective study of the antenatal diagnosis of major fetal congenital anomalies conducted in the ultrasound Department of the Women's Specialized Hospital at King Fahd Medical City from for 7762 patients and 5379 babies delivered in our institution. We diagnosed 217 cases of fetal anomalies. The antenatal prevalence of congenital anomalies was 27.96 per 1000. The median maternal age at diagnosis was 27.5 years. Te median gestational age at diagnosis was 31 weeks. Genitourinary and cranial anomalies were the commonest; for 186 patients delivered in our institution, the birth prevalence was 34.57 per 1000 births. The median gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks. The perinatal mortality arte was 34.9% (65/186), including all cases of intrauterine fetal and neonatal deaths. The prevalence of major congenital anomalies in our population appears to be similar to international figures. Major congenital anomalies are a major cause of perinatal mortality. (author)

  8. Hospital Malnutrition: Prevalence, Identification and Impact on Patients and the Healthcare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lisa A.; Gout, Belinda S.; Crowe, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is a debilitating and highly prevalent condition in the acute hospital setting, with Australian and international studies reporting rates of approximately 40%. Malnutrition is associated with many adverse outcomes including depression of the immune system, impaired wound healing, muscle wasting, longer lengths of hospital stay, higher treatment costs and increased mortality. Referral rates for dietetic assessment and treatment of malnourished patients have proven to be suboptimal, thereby increasing the likelihood of developing such aforementioned complications. Nutrition risk screening using a validated tool is a simple technique to rapidly identify patients at risk of malnutrition, and provides a basis for prompt dietetic referrals. In Australia, nutrition screening upon hospital admission is not mandatory, which is of concern knowing that malnutrition remains under-reported and often poorly documented. Unidentified malnutrition not only heightens the risk of adverse complications for patients, but can potentially result in foregone reimbursements to the hospital through casemix-based funding schemes. It is strongly recommended that mandatory nutrition screening be widely adopted in line with published best-practice guidelines to effectively target and reduce the incidence of hospital malnutrition. PMID:21556200

  9. Dementia in older people admitted to hospital: a regional multi-hospital observational study of prevalence, associations and case recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Suzanne; Manning, Edmund; Barrett, Aoife; Brady, Noeleen M.; Browne, Vanessa; O’Shea, Emma; Molloy, David William; O'Regan, Niamh A.; Trawley, Steven; Cahill, Suzanne; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Woods, Noel; Meagher, David; Ni Chorcorain, Aoife M.; Linehan, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: previous studies have indicated a prevalence of dementia in older admissions of ∼42% in a single London teaching hospital, and 21% in four Queensland hospitals. However, there is a lack of published data from any European country on the prevalence of dementia across hospitals and between patient groups. Objective: to determine the prevalence and associations of dementia in older patients admitted to acute hospitals in Ireland. Methods: six hundred and six patients aged ≥70 years were recruited on admission to six hospitals in Cork County. Screening consisted of Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE); patients with scores dementia; with 29% in public hospitals. Prevalence varied between hospitals (P dementia had a previous diagnosis. Patients with dementia were older and frailer, with higher co-morbidity, malnutrition and lower functional status (P dementia (57%) on admission. Conclusion: dementia is common in older people admitted to acute hospitals, particularly in acute medical admissions, and rural hospitals, where services may be less available. Most dementia is not previously diagnosed, emphasising the necessity for cognitive assessment in older people on presentation to hospital. PMID:26420638

  10. The Relationship between Self-rated Health and Hospital Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien

    This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) co-varies with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Aging with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995-2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future...... hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result, that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future...... hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that SRH is able to capture diseases at prodromal stages and that with a sufficiently long time series of individual records, objective health measures can predict mortality...

  11. The Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Hospital Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) co-varies with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Aging with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995-2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future...... hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result, that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future...... hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that SRH is able to capture diseases at prodromal stages and that with a sufficiently long time series ofindividual records, objective health measures can predict mortality...

  12. Prevalence and mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia in elderly hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles-Montaudon, N; Parrot, F; Balas, D; Bouzigon, E; Rainfray, M; Emeriau, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine concentrations increase with age and remain an independent risk factor for vascular disease in the elderly. There are negative correlations between plasma homocysteine and serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Two mechanisms, poor nutritional status, and chronic atrophic gastritis, could explain hyperhomocysteinemia. The purpose of the study was to determine prevalence and mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia in older hospitalized patients. During a 12-month period, all the consecutive hospitalized patients who underwent gastric endoscopy were recruited in this observational prospective study. Clinical, histological, and biological data concerning nutritional status, gastric analysis, homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate concentrations were collected during the study for each included patient. One hundred and ninety six patients (132 women and 64 men, mean age: 85.3 5.7 years) were included. Hyperhomocysteinemia (>or= 18 mmol/l) was diagnosed in 45.4 %, cobalamin deficiency in 13.3 %, and folate deficiency in 11.7 % patients. Hyperhomocysteinemia was significantly correlated to cobalamin deficiency (r = - 0.21; p = 0.005). In a sub group of patients without hypothyroidism, or chronic renal impairment, univariate and multivariate analysis showed a significant association between hyper homocysteinemia and low MNA (OR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99), and low albumin (OR: 0.92; 95% IC: 0.83-0.99; p = 0.04). No correlation was found between homocysteine concentrations and chronic atrophic gastritis or Helicobacter pylori infection. Hyperhomocysteinemia seems to be frequent in the elderly and is associated with poor nutritional status rather than chronic atrophic gastritis.

  13. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection and colonization in a tertiary hospital and elderly community of North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul, N H; Ma, Z F; Besari, A; Siti Asma, H; Rahman, R A; Collins, D A; Hamid, N; Riley, T V; Lee, Y Y

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P < 0·05). Absence of these factors was a possible reason for low colonization in the community. Only 3% of 154 respondents answered all questions correctly in the awareness survey. C. difficile colonization is prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah D; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Chapman, Barbara; Vera, Claudio; Giglia, Lucia; Fusch, Christoph; Foster, Gary

    2012-06-01

    To estimate the population-based prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in singleton and twin term newborns. We studied all hospital births in the province of Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010, to perform a retrospective cohort study. We included live singleton and twin births, at term (37 0/7 weeks of gestation to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation), with information about feeding at maternal-newborn discharge. Descriptive statistics were performed and logistic regression was used to identify factors related to exclusive breastfeeding. Our study population consisted of 92,364 newborns, of whom 56,865 (61.6%) were exclusively breastfed at discharge. Older, nonsmoking, higher-income mothers with no pregnancy complications or reproductive assistance were more likely to breastfeed. Mothers of twins were less likely to exclusively breastfeed (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.36) as were women who did not attend prenatal classes (adjusted OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.83). Compared with patients of obstetricians (57%), women cared for by midwives (87%, adjusted OR 4.49, 95% CI 4.16-4.85) and family physicians (67%, adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.47-1.61) were more likely to exclusively breastfeed. Breastfeeding after a planned (50%, adjusted OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.52-0.60) or unplanned (48%, adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.44-0.51) cesarean delivery was less common than after a spontaneous vaginal birth (68%). Neonates born at 39, 38, and 37 weeks of gestation (compared with 41 weeks of gestation) were increasingly less likely to breastfeed (adjusted ORs 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.98; 0.84, 95% CI 0.80-0.88; and 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.76). This large population-based study found that fewer than two thirds of term newborns are exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge, substantially lower than previously reported. II.

  15. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  16. Prevalence of frailty and its ability to predict in hospital delirium, falls, and 6-month mortality in hospitalized older patients

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten, Etienne; Demuynck, Mathias; Detroyer, Elke; Milisen, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and significance of frailty are seldom studied in hospitalized patients. Aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of frailty and to determine the extent that frailty predicts delirium, falls and mortality in hospitalized older patients. Methods In a prospective study of 220 older patients, frailty was determined using the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) frailty index. Patients were classified as nonfrail, prefrail...

  17. Prevalence rate of chronic overuse pain in taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jae-Ok

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo. This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport poomsae taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. The prevalence of COP is high among sport poomsae taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.

  18. Reducing pressure ulcer prevalence rates in the long-term acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Catherine T; Trigilia, Donna; Houle, Tracy L; Delong, Sandra; Rosenblum, David

    2009-04-01

    Information about pressure ulcer prevalence, prevention, and optimal management strategies in the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting is sparse. Although care processes in other patient care settings have been reported to affect pressure ulcer prevalence rates, the effect of such programs in the LTACH is unknown. To reduce perceived above-average pressure ulcer prevalence rates and improve care processes, a 108-bed LTACH used a failure mode and effects analysis to identify and address high-priority areas for improvement. Areas in need of improvement included a lack of 1) wound care professionals, 2) methods to consistently document prevention and wound data, and 3) an interdisciplinary wound care team approach, as well as a faulty electronic medical record. While prevalence data were collected, policies and procedures based on several published guidelines were developed and incorporated into the pressure ulcer plan of care by the newly established wound care team. Improved assessment and documentation methods, enhanced staff education, revised electronic records, wound care product reviews, and a facility-wide commitment to improved care resulted in a reduction of facility-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence from 41% at baseline to an average of 4.2% during the following 12 months as well as fewer missing electronic record data (improves care practices and reduces pressure ulcer prevalence in the LTACH. Studies to increase knowledge about the LTACH patient population and their unique needs and risk profiles are needed.

  19. Risk adjustment for inter-hospital comparisons of caesarean section rates in Taipei municipal hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Chyang; Shieh, Guahn-Ren; Wu, Chuan-Song; Shen, Hsi-Che; Tang, Chao-Hsiun

    2006-08-01

    This study sets out to determine whether adjustments for specific patient caesarean delivery risk factors have an affect on the assessment of performance rates among the municipal hospitals of Taipei City. Analysis of National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data, linked with birth certificate data, was undertaken on a cohort of 27,693 live births in the six general hospitals of the Taipei Medical Hospital System (TMHS) between 1999 and 2001. Using multivariable logistic regression modeling of the risk factors independently associated with caesarean deliveries, an expected caesarean delivery rate was constructed for each of the hospitals. By contrasting observed rates with expected rates to quantify the magnitude of the deviation from average practice, a measurement similar to relative risk (RR) was also constructed for each hospital. The observed rates for two of the six hospitals examined fell within the expected 95% confidence interval (CI), two were above the expected upper limit, and two were below the expected lower limit. The RR ranking of Hospitals A (RR=1.08, CI=1.01-1.15) and C (RR=1.01, CI=1.00-1.03) improved from first to second, and third to fourth, whilst the RR of Hospitals B (RR=1.09, CI=1.05-1.14) and D (RR=1.02, CI=0.99-1.06) worsened from second to first, and fourth to third, respectively. The RR rankings of Hospitals E (RR=0.92, CI=0.88-0.96) and F (RR=0.80, CI=0.77-0.84) were the same as the observed rates. Caesarean delivery rate profiles, or hospital comparisons without risk adjustment, may be methodologically biased and may lead to unfair judgments by healthcare purchasers.

  20. PREVALENCE OF HEALTH CARE ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN DAKSHINA KANNADA, KARNATAKA: A HOSPITAL BASED CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Animesh Gupta, Divya C V, Diwakar K Singh, Krutarth B, Maria N, Srinivas R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health Care-Associated Infections (HCAI affect millions of people each year and raise a great risk for patients in health care settings, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of HCAI and to explore the association between certain socio-demographic factors, invasive procedures and mean duration of hospital stay with HCAI in a tertiary-care hospital. Materials and Methods: Data was obtained from the patients who were admitted for more than 48 hours in the general wards and their records in tertiary-care hospital for duration of 3 months (February 2014 to April 2014. Results: Among 290 patients, the prevalence of HCAI was estimated to be 11.7%. The prevalence of HCAI was proportionately less among men (10.2% than in women (14.2%, was more (15.6% among patients who underwent invasive procedures after admission and with mean duration of hospital stay of 12.47 days. Conclusion: Health Care-Associated Infections (HCAIs were found to be significantly associated with increased duration of hospital stay and invasive procedures done after admission. Prevalence was higher in patients aged more than 40 years.

  1. Hospital employee assault rates before and after enactment of the california hospital safety and security act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Nocera, Maryalice; Smith, Jamie B; Blando, James; Goldmacher, Suzi; O'Hagan, Emily; Valiante, David; Harrison, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This study examines changes in violent event rates to hospital employees before and after enactment of the California Hospital Safety and Security Act in 1995. We compared pre- and post-initiative employee assault rates in California (n = 116) emergency departments and psychiatric units with those in New Jersey (n = 50), where statewide workplace violence initiatives do not exist. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare assault rates between a 3-year pre-enactment period (1993-1995) and a 6-year post-enactment period (1996-2001) using New Jersey hospitals as a temporal control. Assault rates among emergency department employees decreased 48% in California post-enactment, compared with emergency department employee assault rates in New Jersey (rate ratio [RR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31, 0.90). Emergency department employee assault rates decreased in smaller facilities (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.96) and for-profit-controlled hospitals (RR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.79) post-enactment. Among psychiatric units, for-profit-controlled hospitals (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.85) and hospitals located in smaller communities (RR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.92) experienced decreased assault rates post-enactment. Policy may be an effective method to increase safety to health care workers.

  2. Pressure ulcer prevalence and perceptions on prevention: a hospital-wide survey of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alison L; Walia, Gurjot S; Bello, Ricardo; Aquino, Carla S; Sacks, Justin M

    2018-04-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) remain a problem despite numerous prevention initiatives. To understand why, it is necessary to know health professionals' perceptions regarding the importance of prevention, and the usability of current initiatives. We hypothesised that positive perceptions of existing initiatives would not be correlated with low HAPU prevalence, and that health professionals would perceive the initiatives to have a low usability. A two-part, online survey was developed and distributed electronically to nurses, in-training physicians and attending physicians, across all inpatient and perioperative departments of an academic hospital. Part one of the survey was the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Staff Attitude Scale on beliefs regarding PU prevention; part two was additional questions on the usability of existing preventative initiatives. The results of the survey were compared with quarterly HAPU prevalence data by hospital unit. In total, 839 health professionals completed the survey (579 nurses, 131 residents, 119 attending physicians). The mean score for the AHRQ survey was 42.5 (≥40 denoting positive perceptions). There was a moderate correlation between AHRQ scores and prevalence of HAPUs (r=-0.60, p=0.402). For usability, repositioning was felt to be the most effective intervention (mean: 4.54, standard deviation (SD): 0.64), while educational posters were felt to be the least effective (mean: 3.31, SD: 0.99). Respondents generally rated satisfaction much lower, with no single initiative significantly better than the others (range: 3.21-3.79). Perceived effectiveness and satisfaction were all positively correlated. High HAPU prevalence, despite position perceptions, suggests that prevention methods are not as effective as thought, or they are not being used as widely as they should. Further research should take advantage of positive attitudes by prospectively investigating the usability of novel interventions.

  3. The prevalence of undernutrition upon hospitalization in children in a developing country: A single hospital study from Malaysia

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    Way-Seah Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of undernutrition among children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Malaysia was 14%. Strategies for systematic screening and provision of nutritional support in children at risk of undernutrition as well as treatment of undernutrition in children requiring hospitalization are needed.

  4. Variation in the rates of adverse events between hospitals and hospital departments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, M.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.; Wal, G. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the variation in the rates of adverse events (AEs), and preventable AEs, between hospitals and hospital departments in order to investigate the room for improvement in reducing AEs at both levels. In addition, we explored the extent to which

  5. Variation in rates of adverse events between hospitals and hospital departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, M.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.; van der Wal, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to analyze the variation in the rates of adverse events (AEs), and preventable AEs, between hospitals and hospital departments in order to investigate the room for improvement in reducing AEs at both levels. In addition, we explored the extent to which

  6. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus introduced into intensive care units of a University Hospital

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    Silvana M.M. Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the principal human pathogens that colonize healthy individuals in the community in general, and it is responsible for severe infections in hospitalized patients. Due to an increase in the prevalence of strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, combating these microorganisms has become increasingly difficult. A descriptive study was carried out on 231 patients in intensive care at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital (HUOC in Recife, Brazil between January and April 2003 to determine the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA and to evaluate risk factors for colonization by these bacteria when introduced into Intensive Care Units (ICUs. Body secretions were collected from the nostrils, axillary and perineal regions, and from broken skin lesions, of all patients during the first 48 hours following admission to the ICU. Samples were inoculated into blood agar and mannitol-salt-agar culture medium and identified by Gram staining, and by coagulase, DNAse and agglutination (Slidex Staph Test® tests. Growth in Mueller-Hinton agar with 4% sodium chloride and 6mg/L oxacillin was used to identify MRSA. In addition, the latex agglutination test was performed to identify penicillin-binding protein, PBP 2A. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA was 87/231 (37.7% and 30/231 (12.98%, respectively. There was no association between any risk factor studied (age, sex, origin of the patient - whether hospital or community, previous hospitalization, use of current or previous antibiotic therapy, corticotherapy and/or immunotherapy, reason for hospitalization and place of hospitalization and the presence of S. aureus. However, a significant association was established between previous hospitalization and the presence of MRSA (RR:1.85; CI:1.00-3.41; p=0.041. The nostrils were the principal site of colonization by both S. aureus (80.4% and MRSA (26.4%, followed by the perineal area, with rates of 27.6% and 12.6%, respectively. If only

  7. Lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A; Barber, Jacques P

    2011-10-01

    To determine lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis. Keyword term searches using "sleep paralysis", "isolated sleep paralysis", or "parasomnia not otherwise specified" were conducted using MEDLINE (1950-present) and PsychINFO (1872-present). English and Spanish language abstracts were reviewed, as were reference lists of identified articles. Thirty five studies that reported lifetime sleep paralysis rates and described both the assessment procedures and sample utilized were selected. Weighted percentages were calculated for each study and, when possible, for each reported subsample. Aggregating across studies (total N=36,533), 7.6% of the general population, 28.3% of students, and 31.9% of psychiatric patients experienced at least one episode of sleep paralysis. Of the psychiatric patients with panic disorder, 34.6% reported lifetime sleep paralysis. Results also suggested that minorities experience lifetime sleep paralysis at higher rates than Caucasians. Sleep paralysis is relatively common in the general population and more frequent in students and psychiatric patients. Given these prevalence rates, sleep paralysis should be assessed more regularly and uniformly in order to determine its impact on individual functioning and better articulate its relation to psychiatric and other medical conditions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Prevalence, Nature, Severity and Risk Factors for Prescribing Errors in Hospital Inpatients: Prospective Study in 20 UK Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Darren M; Lewis, Penny J; Tully, Mary P; Farragher, Tracey M; Taylor, David; Wass, Valerie; Williams, Steven D; Dornan, Tim

    2015-09-01

    It has been suggested that doctors in their first year of post-graduate training make a disproportionate number of prescribing errors. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of prescribing errors made by first-year post-graduate doctors with that of errors by senior doctors and non-medical prescribers and to investigate the predictors of potentially serious prescribing errors. Pharmacists in 20 hospitals over 7 prospectively selected days collected data on the number of medication orders checked, the grade of prescriber and details of any prescribing errors. Logistic regression models (adjusted for clustering by hospital) identified factors predicting the likelihood of prescribing erroneously and the severity of prescribing errors. Pharmacists reviewed 26,019 patients and 124,260 medication orders; 11,235 prescribing errors were detected in 10,986 orders. The mean error rate was 8.8 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.6-9.1) errors per 100 medication orders. Rates of errors for all doctors in training were significantly higher than rates for medical consultants. Doctors who were 1 year (odds ratio [OR] 2.13; 95 % CI 1.80-2.52) or 2 years in training (OR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.89-2.65) were more than twice as likely to prescribe erroneously. Prescribing errors were 70 % (OR 1.70; 95 % CI 1.61-1.80) more likely to occur at the time of hospital admission than when medication orders were issued during the hospital stay. No significant differences in severity of error were observed between grades of prescriber. Potentially serious errors were more likely to be associated with prescriptions for parenteral administration, especially for cardiovascular or endocrine disorders. The problem of prescribing errors in hospitals is substantial and not solely a problem of the most junior medical prescribers, particularly for those errors most likely to cause significant patient harm. Interventions are needed to target these high-risk errors by all grades of staff and hence

  9. Very high prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in bacteriemic patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals in Bamako, Mali.

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    Samba Adama Sangare

    Full Text Available The worldwide dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, (ESBL-E and their subset producing carbapenemases (CPE, is alarming. Limited data on the prevalence of such strains in infections from patients from Sub-Saharan Africa are currently available. We determined, here, the prevalence of ESBL-E/CPE in bacteriemic patients in two teaching hospitals from Bamako (Mali, which are at the top of the health care pyramid in the country. During one year, all Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bloodstream infections (E-BSI, were collected from patients hospitalized at the Point G University Teaching Hospital and the pediatric units of Gabriel Touré University Teaching Hospital. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, enzyme characterization and strain relatedness were determined. A total of 77 patients had an E-BSI and as many as 48 (62.3% were infected with an ESBL-E. ESBL-E BSI were associated with a previous hospitalization (OR 3.97 95% IC [1.32; 13.21] and were more frequent in hospital-acquired episodes (OR 3.66 95% IC [1.07; 13.38]. Among the 82 isolated Enterobacteriaceae, 58.5% were ESBL-E (20/31 Escherichia coli, 20/26 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 8/15 Enterobacter cloacae. The remaining (5 Salmonella Enteritidis, 3 Morganella morganii 1 Proteus mirabilis and 1 Leclercia adecarboxylata were ESBL negative. CTX-M-1 group enzymes were highly prevalent (89.6% among ESBLs; the remaining ones being SHV. One E. coli produced an OXA-181 carbapenemase, which is the first CPE described in Mali. The analysis of ESBL-E relatedness suggested a high rate of cross transmission between patients. In conclusion, even if CPE are still rare for the moment, the high rate of ESBL-BSI and frequent cross transmission probably impose a high medical and economic burden to Malian hospitals.

  10. Very high prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in bacteriemic patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, Samba Adama; Rondinaud, Emilie; Maataoui, Naouale; Maiga, Almoustapha Issiaka; Guindo, Ibrehima; Maiga, Aminata; Camara, Namory; Dicko, Oumar Agaly; Dao, Sounkalo; Diallo, Souleymane; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Andremont, Antoine; Maiga, Ibrahim Izetiegouma; Armand-Lefevre, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, (ESBL-E) and their subset producing carbapenemases (CPE), is alarming. Limited data on the prevalence of such strains in infections from patients from Sub-Saharan Africa are currently available. We determined, here, the prevalence of ESBL-E/CPE in bacteriemic patients in two teaching hospitals from Bamako (Mali), which are at the top of the health care pyramid in the country. During one year, all Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bloodstream infections (E-BSI), were collected from patients hospitalized at the Point G University Teaching Hospital and the pediatric units of Gabriel Touré University Teaching Hospital. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, enzyme characterization and strain relatedness were determined. A total of 77 patients had an E-BSI and as many as 48 (62.3%) were infected with an ESBL-E. ESBL-E BSI were associated with a previous hospitalization (OR 3.97 95% IC [1.32; 13.21]) and were more frequent in hospital-acquired episodes (OR 3.66 95% IC [1.07; 13.38]). Among the 82 isolated Enterobacteriaceae, 58.5% were ESBL-E (20/31 Escherichia coli, 20/26 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 8/15 Enterobacter cloacae). The remaining (5 Salmonella Enteritidis, 3 Morganella morganii 1 Proteus mirabilis and 1 Leclercia adecarboxylata) were ESBL negative. CTX-M-1 group enzymes were highly prevalent (89.6%) among ESBLs; the remaining ones being SHV. One E. coli produced an OXA-181 carbapenemase, which is the first CPE described in Mali. The analysis of ESBL-E relatedness suggested a high rate of cross transmission between patients. In conclusion, even if CPE are still rare for the moment, the high rate of ESBL-BSI and frequent cross transmission probably impose a high medical and economic burden to Malian hospitals.

  11. Characterizing and predicting rates of delirium across general hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomas H; Hart, Kamber L; Perlis, Roy H

    2017-05-01

    To better understand variation in reported rates of delirium, this study characterized delirium occurrence rate by department of service and primary admitting diagnosis. Nine consecutive years (2005-2013) of general hospital admissions (N=831,348) were identified across two academic medical centers using electronic health records. The primary admitting diagnosis and the treating clinical department were used to calculate occurrence rates of a previously published delirium definition composed of billing codes and natural language processing of discharge summaries. Delirium rates varied significantly across both admitting diagnosis group (X 2 10 =12786, pdelirium (86/109764; 0.08%) and neurological admissions the greatest (2851/25450; 11.2%). Although the rate of delirium varied across the two hospitals the relative rates within departments (r=0.96, pdelirium varies significantly across admitting diagnosis and hospital department. Both admitting diagnosis and department of care are even stronger predictors of risk than age; as such, simple risk stratification may offer avenues for targeted prevention and treatment efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospital-acquired infection rate in a tertiary care teaching hospital in China: a cross-sectional survey involving 2434 inpatients

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    Xiu-Bin Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A single-day hospital-acquired infections (HAIs point prevalence study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in China. The overall prevalence rate of HAIs was 3.53% (95% confidence interval 2.80–4.26% among 2434 inpatients surveyed. Respiratory system infection was the most common type of HAI (49.43%, followed by surgical site infection (22.99%. The pathogen detection results for 50 patients showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa to account for 24.00% of isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.00% and Escherichia coli (14.00%.

  13. Period prevalence and reporting rate of medication errors among nurses in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Behzad Karami; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nouri, Bijan; Rezaeian, Shahab; Mohammadi, Masoud; Rezaei, Satar

    2018-01-22

    To estimate the 1-year period prevalence of medication errors and the reporting rate to nurse managers among nurses working in hospitals in Iran. Medication errors are one of the main factors affecting the quality of hospital services and reducing patient safety in health care systems. A literature search from Iranian and international scientific databases was developed to find relevant studies. Meta-regression was used to identify which characteristics may have a confounding effect on the pooled prevalence estimates. Based on the final 22 studies with 3556 samples, the overall estimated 1-year period prevalence of medication errors and its reporting rate to nurse managers among nurses were 53% (95% confidence interval, 41%-60%) and 36% (95% confidence interval, 23%-50%), respectively. The meta-regression analyses indicated that the sex (female/male) ratio was a statistically significant predictor of the prevalence of medication errors (p medication errors to nurse managers. The period prevalence of medication errors among nurses working in hospitals was high in Iran, whereas its reporting rate to nurse managers was low. Continuous training programmes are required to reduce and prevent medication errors among nursing staff and to improve the reporting rate to nurse managers in in Iran. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W

    2012-08-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increase in the high risk-group of 15-19 year old girls. It is unclear whether this reflects earlier detection of anorexia nervosa cases or an earlier age at onset. The occurrence of bulimia nervosa might have decreased since the early nineties of the last century. All eating disorders have an elevated mortality risk; anorexia nervosa the most striking. Compared with the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder is more common among males and older individuals.

  15. Hospital revisit rate after a diagnosis of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkler, Alexander E; Parikh, Neal S; Chaudhry, Simriti; Chait, Alanna; Allen, Nicole C; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the hospital revisit rate of patients diagnosed with conversion disorder (CD). Using administrative data, we identified all patients discharged from California, Florida and New York emergency departments (EDs) and acute care hospitals between 2005 and 2011 with a primary discharge diagnosis of CD. Patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of seizure or transient global amnesia (TGA) served as control groups. Our primary outcome was the rate of repeat ED visits and hospital admissions after initial presentation. Poisson regression was used to compare rates between diagnosis groups while adjusting for demographic characteristics. We identified 7946 patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of CD. During a mean follow-up of 3.0 (±1.6) years, patients with CD had a median of three (IQR, 1-9) ED or inpatient revisits, compared with 0 (IQR, 0-2) in patients with TGA and 3 (IQR, 1-7) in those with seizures. Revisit rates were 18.25 (95% CI, 18.10 to 18.40) visits per 100 patients per month in those with CD, 3.90 (95% CI, 3.84 to 3.95) in those with TGA and 17.78 (95% CI, 17.75 to 17.81) in those with seizures. As compared to CD, the incidence rate ratio for repeat ED visits or hospitalisations was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for seizure disorder and 0.32 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.34) for TGA. CD is associated with a substantial hospital revisit rate. Our findings suggest that CD is not an acute, time-limited response to stress, but rather that CD is a manifestation of a broader pattern of chronic neuropsychiatric disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Retrospective study of pressure ulcer prevalence in Dutch general hospitals since 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Y; Meijers, J; Halfens, R

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether factors such as patient characteristics, pressure ulcer (PU) prevention strategies and the structural quality indicators used by institutions and wards can explain an apparent decline in PU prevalence from 2001 to 2008. The Dutch National Prevalence Survey of Care Problems (known as LPZ) database from 2001 to 2008 was used to explore differences in patient characteristics, PU prevention strategies and structural quality indicators used by institutions and wards between two periods, 2001-2004 (PU as an internal health-care quality indicator) and 2005-2008 (PU as an external health-care quality indicator). Compared with 2001-2004, fewer participants with CVA /hemiparesis (OR 0.485), infectious diseases (OR 0.861), surgery lasting >2 hours (OR 0.637), at-risk Braden scale scores (OR 0.844), and more participants with diabetes mellitus (OR 1.693) were found in the 2005-2008 group. More special beds/mattresses (OR 2.216) and special cushions in wheelchairs (OR 2.277) were used in the 2005- 2008 period, as well as slightly more repositioning, dehydration/malnutrition prevention and PU prevention and treatment information. More institutions had information leaflets (OR 5.894), PU prevention guidelines (OR 4.625), a PU committee (OR 2.503), and a PU-wound care nurse at ward level (OR 2.434) in the 2005-2008 period. The decline in PU prevalence at Dutch general hospitals after 2004 may be partly explained by differences in patient characteristics, improved structural quality indicators and a slight improvement in PU prevention. Further research is needed to find evidence of which individual factors can explain the decline in PU prevalence after 2004 and whether any changes in health care policy have impacted on these prevalence rates.

  17. A Point Prevalence Survey of Antibiotic Use in 18 Hospitals in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Talaat, Maha; Saied, Tamer; Kandeel, Amr; Abo El-Ata, Gehad A.; El-Kholy, Amani; Hafez, Soad; Osman, Ashraf; Abdel Razik, Mohamed; Ismail, Ghada; El-Masry, Sherine; Galal, Rami; Yehia, Mohamad; Amer, Amira; Calfee, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use leads to increased risk of antibiotic resistance and other adverse outcomes. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of antibiotic use in Egyptian hospitals to identify opportunities for quality improvement. A point prevalence survey was conducted in 18 hospitals in March 2011. A total of 3408 patients were included and 59% received at least one antibiotic, with the most significant use among persons <12 years and inten...

  18. Prevalence of congenital malformation in newborns of the public hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Aritana Pereira Ramos; Maria Nice Dutra de Oliveira; Jefferson Paixão Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    The study aimmed to estimate the predominance of congenital malformations in newborns of the Public Hospital in the Jequié city, Brazil. It was utilized spring of secondary facts, from the fact-gathering of available manuals in the Service of Medical Files of the hospital, in the period of January of 2005 to December of 2006. It was utilized instrument of collection standardized where information about characteristics they were collected of the mother, general characteristics of the newborn...

  19. Forecasting Advancement Rates to Petty Officer Third Class for U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Lemeshow HM hospital corpsman HM1 hospital corpsman first class HM2 hospital corpsman second class HM3 hospital corpsman third class HMC chief...hospital corpsman HMCM master chief hospital corpsman HMCS senior chief hospital corpsman HN hospitalman HR hospitalman recruit HYT high year tenure...between the rates of seaman (E-3; HN) and chief petty officer (E-7; HMC ) in the Hospital Corpsman (HM) rating, this thesis seeks to develop advancement

  20. Prevalence and outcome of severe malnutrition in children less than five-year-old in Omdurman Paediatric Hospital, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanan, Shaza O H; Swar, Mohammed Osman

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient's hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients' record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (51.4%) with a male: female ratio of 1:0.9. The mean age these children was 22.3 months. Children 36-59 months were least affected. 35.4% were classified as low socioeconomic class, 22.9% classified as an average class and there were no sufficient data to classify the remaining. The overall prevalence of severe malnutrition was 6.5%, and the general mortality rate was 2.4% while mortality rate among children with severe malnutrition was 9.3%. Among the 593 admitted children with malnutrition, 407 (68.6%) had marasmus, 141 (23.8%) had kwashiorkor and 45 (7.6%) had marasmic-kwashiorkor. The highest prevalence and mortality rate occurred in September. The most common clinical presentations were gastroenteritis, malaria, urinary tract infections, giardiasis, tuberculosis and AIDS. Only 10.8% of the admitted children were exclusively breast fed for the first three months. 33% were fully vaccinated. Overall 75.7% improved and discharged, 15% discharged against medical advice and 9.3% died. We concluded that prevalence and mortality among children with acute severe malnutrition at Omdurman paediatrics hospital were high, and the current management strategies require review to identify the causes. We recommended adopting policies to manage malnutrition in the community and hospitals.

  1. Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial utilization in a Canadian tertiary-care teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This prospective point prevalence survey provided important baseline information on antimicrobial use within a large tertiary care teaching hospital and identified potential targets for future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. A multi-center point prevalence survey should be considered to identify patterns of antimicrobial use in Canada and to establish the first steps toward international antimicrobial surveillance.

  2. Sustained low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus upon admission to hospital in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, L. G. M.; Wertheim, H. F. L.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.; Bogaers-Hofman, D.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Roosendaal, R.; Troelstra, A.; Box, A. T. A.; Voss, A.; van Belkum, A.; Verbrugh, H. A.; Vos, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage at hospital admission in The Netherlands was 0.03% in 1999-2000. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the prevalence of MRSA carriage in The Netherlands has changed over the last few years. In five Dutch

  3. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  4. [Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy, Pucallpa Regional Hospital, Perú].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, C; Gonzales, G F; Villena, A; de la Cruz, D; Florián, A

    1998-05-01

    Population based health surveys in Peru show that the general fertility rates, proportion of pregnant adolescents, and maternal and child morbidity are higher in the jungle regions than in other parts of the country. Endemic intestinal parasitic diseases increase the risk of anemia in pregnant women already suffering from iron, folic acid, and other nutritional deficiencies. This is the most common complication of pregnancy in many Latin American countries and is often associated with premature labor, low birthweight, and perinatal mortality. There are very few studies on this subject based on jungle populations and no reliable estimates of the prevalence of anemia in local pregnant women. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women attending the Regional Hospital in Pucallpa, located in the Peruvian jungle, from January 1993 to June 1995. This cross-sectional study, which was based on the registries of prenatal and childbirth services encompassing 1,015 pregnant women, looked into the potential association between anemia and such variables as the mother's chronological age, schooling, previous pregnancies, and weight at the beginning of pregnancy. Maternal hemoglobin levels were compared with the newborns' weight at birth. The prevalence of anemia in this population sample was 70.1%. This value was not modified when adjusted for maternal age, schooling, or interval between births. Anemia prevalence was directly related to the number of previous pregnancies and inversely related to weight gain during pregnancy. The perinatal mortality rate was 37.7 per 1,000 births. Neither this rate nor the birthweights were associated with the mother's degree of anemia. A multivariate regression analysis showed that maternal body weight at the start of pregnancy (P = 0.0001), weight gain during pregnancy (P = 0.0001), and the number of pregnancies (P = 0.008) are predictors of birthweight. Results showed that the high prevalence of

  5. The Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking in Patients With Diabetes in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Albaroodi, K.A.I.; Syed Sulaiman, S.A.; Shafie, A.A.; Awaisu, A.; Lajis, R.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread evidence has demonstrated the negative effects of tobacco smoking in patients with diabetes. Although many studies have explored the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population, data are lacking regarding its prevalence in a specific population with a chronic disease such as diabetes.Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among patients with diabetes in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional surv...

  6. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993. ...

  7. Prevalence of lens opacity at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laterality is reported probably for the first time in Central Africa - bilateral cataracts being more common than unilateral ones, and the leading cause of cataracts in adults was senility whereas congenital cataracts were commoner in children. The prevalence increased with age, males being affected more than females.

  8. Obesity among workers of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria: prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Excess body weight is a risk factor for mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and several other conditions. The prevalence of obesity in Sub- Saharan Africa is on the increase. There is a scarcity of information on obesity and other cardiovascular markers among health workers who are ...

  9. Prevalence of anxiety in patients admitted to a university hospital in southern Brazil and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Gullich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of anxiety in adults hospitalized in the clinical ward of a university hospital and to analyze the possible associated factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed in a university hospital. All interviewees answered a specific questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results: 282 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of anxiety was 33.7% (95%CI 28.2 - 39.3. Characteristics associated with the outcome were female gender (RP 2.44, age ≥ 60 years (PR 0.65, consultation in primary health care (PR 2.37, estimated time of contact between patient and student > 30 min (RP 1.36, high blood pressure (PR 1.57, diabetes mellitus (PR 1.43, and obesity (RP 1.43. Conclusion: This study found prevalence of high anxiety. It may be associated with certain characteristics of the patients (gender, age, chronic diseases; the medical appointment in primary care and time (estimated by the patient that the student remained with this patient. The need for a focused approach to mental health care within the hospital has been discussed for a long time. The particularity of this study refers to the environment of a university hospital and to what extent the environment and the patient's relationship with the student are associated with higher prevalence of anxiety.

  10. Low prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: review of a clinical data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, T M; Mahadeshwar, P; Nguyen, S; Li, J; Kapoor, S; Bathon, J; Giles, J; Askanase, A

    2017-12-01

    Objective In the era of powerful immunosuppression, opportunistic infections are an increasing concern in systemic lupus erythematosus. One of the best-studied opportunistic infections is Pneumocystis pneumonia; however, the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus is not clearly defined. This study evaluates the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus patients, with a focus on validating the Pneumocystis pneumonia and systemic lupus erythematosus diagnoses with clinical information. Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluates the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in all systemic lupus erythematosus patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center-New York Presbyterian Hospital between January 2000 and September 2014, using electronic medical record data. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and patients with renal transplants (including both early and late post-transplant patients) represented immunocompromised control groups. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Pneumocystis pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, or renal transplant were identified using diagnostic codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9). Results Out of 2013 hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus patients, nine had presumed Pneumocystis pneumonia, yielding a low prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus of 0.45%. Three of the nine Pneumocystis pneumonia cases were patients with concomitant systemic lupus erythematosus and HIV/AIDS. Only one of these nine cases was histologically confirmed as Pneumocystis pneumonia, in a patient with concomitant systemic lupus erythematosus and HIV/AIDS and a CD4 count of 13 cells/mm 3 . The prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in renal transplant patients and HIV/AIDS patients was 0.61% and 5.98%, respectively. Conclusion Given the reported high rate of adverse effects

  11. Prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus Aureus and associated risk factors on admission to a specialist care eye hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Sara I.; Moore, C.

    2002-01-01

    Staphyloccocus aureus is known to be a frequent pathogen in hospital settings, with its well-known and resistant forms to the anti-staphylococcal penicillins. Reports on community carriage outside hospital settings have been feared to be on the increase due to the due to the frequency of reported cases on admission to hospitals. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of and to establish predictors for, nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) at the time of admission to a specialist care eye hospital. A prospective survey was conducted at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH), Riyadh during the three differing weeks randomly selected from the year 1999. The first 100 patients admitted during those three weeks were selected according to inclusion criteria. The hospital is a 220-bed tertiary ophthalmic care facility, with an average 7,500admission per year. Nasal bacterial swabs were taken within 48 hours of admission and tested for all strains of S.aureus and sensitivity to methicillin. Detailed interviews were conducted about medical history and habitual environment. Of 306 nasal cultures tested, none was isolated for MRSA and 102 (33%) were sensitive to methicillin (MSSA).We found 0% nasal carriage rate for MRSA. Respondents have difficulty with questions related to antibiotic administration. No identifiable medical or environmental risk factors could be found. Nasal swabs of patients admitted to KKESH did not reveal MRSA colonization, indicating that MRSA may not be prevalent in the community at present. (author)

  12. Prevalence of ototoxicity in University of Benin Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... medicine (CM) services, not only homeopathy. Until around 1980, it was a small general hospital with a specialist homeopathic department. The surgical and other facilities were replaced by a range of CM services including the. NHS's first complementary cancer (1960), acupuncture. (1977), autogenic ...

  13. Prevalence of Neonatal Jaundice on Central Hospital, Warri, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 272 babies (aged 1 – 30 days) the Neonatal Clinic of the Department of Child Health, Central Hospital, Warri, Delta State between June 2009 and June 2010 were examined daily for evidence of jaundice. Those with serum bilirubin ³15mg/100ml were subjected to additional clinical and laboratory investigations to ...

  14. Prevalence of Malaria Parasites in Hospitals of Portharcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted between March and July, 2010 in Portharcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The method of diagnosis utilised by the hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic laboratories was thick and thin method and malaria parasite was identified using standard criteria. In all the zones of the study, high ...

  15. Prevalence of malnutrition in hospital children in federal teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a state of excess or deficiency in energy, protein and or other nutrients which causes measurable adverse effects on body forms and function. A holistic approach is required in the management of hospitalized pediatric patients and includes the assessment and management of nutritional ...

  16. Prevalence of nasal carriage and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus among inpatients and hospital staff at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egyir, Beverly; Guardabassi, Luca; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2013-01-01

    %) was more common than for other agents (resistant S. aureus carriage was observed among IP compared with HS (P = 0.01). High genetic diversity was shown by spa typing, with 55 spa types found among 105 isolates; the predominant spa types were t355 (10%) and t084 (10......There is a paucity of data on Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology in Africa. Prevalence of nasal carriage and genetic diversity of S. aureus were determined among hospital staff (HS) and inpatients (IP) at the largest hospital in Ghana. In total, 632 nasal swabs were obtained from 452 IP and 180 HS...... in the Child Health Department (CHD) and Surgical Department (SD). S. aureus carriage prevalences were 13.9% in IP and 23.3% in HS. The chance of being a carrier was higher in HS (P = 0.005) and IP staying ≤7 days in hospital (P = 0.007). Resistance to penicillin (93%), tetracycline (28%) and fusidic acid (12...

  17. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Schizophrenia Referred to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Jalal; Karimi, Kamyar; Farnia, Vahid; Golshani, Senobar; Alikhani, Mostafa

    2016-07-01

    Our study was conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. The study population included all patients with schizophrenia who were referred to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, between March 2014 and March 2015. A total of 280 subjects who met the study criteria were selected according to the census sampling method. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 30.4% (20.7% in men and 51.5% in women). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was greater in patients > 40 years than patients aged 20-40 years. There was a significant relationship between marital status and number of hospitalizations with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia, healthcare professionals should take measures to identify the risk factors and timely treatment of affected patients, thereby improving the patient's quality of life and reducing health costs.

  18. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Paramedics Working in a Large Hospital in Ahwaz, Southwestern Iran in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Shafizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are common among employees throughout the world, particularly in high risk groups such as nurses. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MSDs among nurses in a large hospital in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran, and to examine its correlation with gender, age, shift working, years at service and smoking. Methods: Using a self-reported questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, Nordic questionnaire for MSDs was disseminated to all inpatient hospital paramedics (n=195 in a large hospital in Ahwaz. Results: Questionnaires of 161 participants were completed and returned back for analysis (response rate of 83%. The reported prevalence of MSDs was very high in the studied paramedics so that more than 90% of them reported at least one MSD in last week. The most prevalent site affected was that of neck (64% followed by head (62.1%, knees (54.7% and wrists/hands (49.7%; the least frequent disorder was that of elbows (14.3%. MSD was more common in females and increased with age and years of service. Non-shift workers reported more neck and elbows MSDs than shift workers. Conclusion: Considering the very high prevalence of MSDs among paramedics, it is suggested that they engage in an exercise program at their work place to lower the risk of MSDs and promote working efficiency.

  19. Reducing hospital readmission rates: current strategies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Sunil; Theobald, Cecelia N; Anctil, Beth; Vasilevskis, Eduard E

    2014-01-01

    New financial penalties for institutions with high readmission rates have intensified efforts to reduce rehospitalization. Several interventions that involve multiple components (e.g., patient needs assessment, medication reconciliation, patient education, arranging timely outpatient appointments, and providing telephone follow-up) have successfully reduced readmission rates for patients discharged to home. The effect of interventions on readmission rates is related to the number of components implemented; single-component interventions are unlikely to reduce readmissions significantly. For patients discharged to postacute care facilities, multicomponent interventions have reduced readmissions through enhanced communication, medication safety, advanced care planning, and enhanced training to manage medical conditions that commonly precipitate readmission. To help hospitals direct resources and services to patients with greater likelihood of readmission, risk-stratification methods are available. Future work should better define the roles of home-based services, information technology, mental health care, caregiver support, community partnerships, and new transitional care personnel.

  20. 42 CFR 412.331 - Determining hospital-specific rates in cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., after a new hospital accepts its first patient but before the end of its base year, it merges with one... hospital-specific rate and payment determination for the merged entity are determined as follows— (1) Post... campus in accordance with § 412.328, and then determines a revised hospital-specific rate for the merged...

  1. The prevalence rates of refractive errors among children, adolescents, and adults in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jobke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Jobke1, Erich Kasten2, Christian Vorwerk31Institute of Medical Psychology, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Otto-von Guericke-University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 2Institute of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, GermanyPurpose: The prevalence rates of myopia vary between 5% in Australian Aborigines to 84% in Hong Kong and Taiwan, 30% in Norwegian adults, and 49.5% in Swedish schoolchildren. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in German children, adolescents, and adults.Methods: The parents (aged 24–65 years and their children (516 subjects aged 2–35 years were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their refractive error and spectacle use. Emmetropia was defined as refractive status between +0.25D and –0.25D. Myopia was characterized as ≤−0.5D and hyperopia as ≥+0.5D. All information concerning refractive error were controlled by asking their opticians.Results: The prevalence rates of myopia differed significantly between all investigated age groups: it was 0% in children aged 2–6 years, 5.5% in children aged 7–11 years, 21.0% in adolescents (aged 12–17 years and 41.3% in adults aged 18–35 years (Pearson’s Chi-square, p = 0.000. Furthermore, 9.8% of children aged 2–6 years were hyperopic, 6.4% of children aged 7–11 years, 3.7% of adolescents, and 2.9% of adults (p = 0.380. The prevalence of myopia in females (23.6% was significantly higher than in males (14.6%, p = 0.018. The difference between the self-reported and the refractive error reported by their opticians was very small and was not significant (p = 0.850.Conclusion: In Germany, the prevalence of myopia seems to be somewhat lower than in Asia and Europe. There are few comparable studies concerning the prevalence rates of hyperopia.Keywords: Germany, hyperopia, incidence, myopia, prevalence

  2. Biliary Lithiasis: Prevalence and Ultrasound Profile in a Service Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath, J; Chakraborty, I; Mohan, R

    2003-01-01

    Real time gray scale ultrasonography of upper abdomen was carried out in 1237 cases for varied indications. Overall prevalence of biliary lithiasis was 11.56% with female to male ratio of 4:1. Fifty years and below, female to male ratio was 6.5:1. 88.8% cases of biliary lithiasis were 60 years and below. Gall bladder dyspepsia (61.5%) and right upper quadrant pain (41%) were the main presenting features of biliary lithiasis. 26 patients (18%) presented with acute abdomen. Asymptomatic gallsto...

  3. PREVALENCE OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATION IN NEWBORNS OF THE PUBLIC HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritana Pereira Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimmed to estimate the predominance of congenital malformations in newborns of the Public Hospital in the Jequié city, Brazil. It was utilized spring of secondary facts, from the factgathering of available manuals in the Service of Medical Files of the hospital, in the period of January of 2005 to December of 2006. It was utilized instrument of collection standardized where information about characteristics they were collected of the mother, general characteristics of the newborn and bad-congenital formation. The results show predominance of 3.1% of born infants been with evil congenital formation. Among these, it prevailed the of the male sex (64,0%, premature (56,7% of normal birth (56,7%, with adequate weight (70,0%, classified in the majority of isolated form (76,7%, of smaller clinical importance (63,0% and evolving for high hospital with 60.0% of the cases; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system, however this pathology next to of the osteomuscular system. The majority of the mothers had between 17 and 24 years (46,7%, carried out more of seven consults prenatal (30,0% and live in the urban zone of the town (60,0%; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system. Those finds are compatible with others finds described in the Brazilian scientific literature, what is going to reflect about the implementation of public politics with infrastructure qualified service implementation in the perspective of prevention, detection and cares of those individuals in all of the levels of the net of health.

  4. Prevalence of congenital malformation in newborns of the public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritana Pereira Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimmed to estimate the predominance of congenital malformations in newborns of the Public Hospital in the Jequié city, Brazil. It was utilized spring of secondary facts, from the fact-gathering of available manuals in the Service of Medical Files of the hospital, in the period of January of 2005 to December of 2006. It was utilized instrument of collection standardized where information about characteristics they were collected of the mother, general characteristics of the newborn and bad-congenital formation. The results show predominance of 3.1% of born infants been with evil-congenital formation. Among these, it prevailed the of the male sex (64,0%, premature (56,7% of normal birth (56,7%, with adequate weight (70,0%, classified in the majority of isolated form (76,7%, of smaller clinical importance (63,0% and evolving for high hospital with 60.0% of the cases; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system, however this pathology next to of the osteomuscular system. The majority of the mothers had between 17 and 24 years (46,7%, carried out more of seven consults prenatal (30,0% and live in the urban zone of the town (60,0%; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system. Those finds are compatible with others finds described in the Brazilian scientific literature, what is going to reflect about the implementation of public politics with infrastructure qualified service implementation in the perspective of prevention, detection and cares of those individuals in all of the levels of the net of health.

  5. [Prevalence of nosocomial infections in two hospitals in Conakry (Guinea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Alpha Kabinet; Doumbouya, Naman; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Konaté, Bintou; Dabo, Yacouba; Panzo, Daniel Agbo; Keita, Mamady

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections can be prevented by applying simple hygiene rules. However, they have not been sufficiently studied in the Republic of Guinea. For this purpose, we conducted a one-day study in the Conakry University Hospital surgery wards and intensive care units. Fourteen units (12 surgical wards and 2 intensive care units) participated in the study. A total of 310 patients were included. A nosocomial infection was observed in 62 patients, [20%, 95%CI 15.9-24.8%]. Surgical site infections were significantly more frequent with 42/62 cases [67.7%, 95%CI 55.3-78.1%, p = 0.0001] than other types of infections (urinary tract, skin and digestive) with 20/62 cases [32.3% 95%CI 21.9-44.6%]. The average hospital stay of 29.1 ± 23.4 days [95%CI, 23.2 ± 35.04] for patients with nosocomial infection was significantly different (p = 0.0001) from that observed in patients without nosocomial infection: 15.9 ± 16.3 days [95%CI, 13.8 ± 17.9]. Staphylococcus aureus was the pathogen most commonly isolated: 32/62 (51.6%; 95%CI 39.5-63.6%). Escherichia coli infection was identified in the bladder catheters of 13 patients [20.9%, 95%CI 12.7-32.6%]. Finally, five deaths were observed among the 62 patients with nosocomial infection. This study shows that nosocomial infections are common in Conakry University Hospital. Further studies must be conducted to identify the risk factors for nosocomial infections and to propose solutions.

  6. Low hospital referral rates of school scoliosis screening positives in an urban district of mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yawen; Jiang, Qingwu; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Luo, Chunyan; Leppold, Claire; Nishimura, Koichi; He, Yongpin; Kato, Shigeaki; Ding, Xiaocang

    2017-04-01

    Significant prevalence rates of adolescent scoliosis in China were suggested in previous studies. However, school screenings for adolescent scoliosis have been suspended due to low rates of positive detection under the past screening system in China. The present study was undertaken to screen for adolescent scoliosis in middle school students under a modern assessment system in a district of Shanghai. We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study of a middle school scoliosis screening program in the Jingan district. In 2015, schoolchildren were initially screened by visual inspection of clinical signs and the forward-bending test. Suspected cases were referred for radiography in hospital for scoliosis diagnosis. A total of 5327 middle school students (grades 6-8) were screened with 520 (9.76%) positives (the positive rates of girls and boys at 15.28% and 4.59%, respectively) and no statistically significant difference among grades. Only 301 positives (57.9%) followed the referral for hospital radiography. There were 102 cases (33.9%) that were diagnosed with scoliosis by radiography criteria (Cobb angle ≥10°) including mild scoliosis (Cobb 10-25) for 94 cases and moderate scoliosis (Cobb 25-40) for 8 cases, and false-positives (Cobb 0) for 39 cases. The putative prevalence rate was estimated as 1.9% from the referred students. Under an accurate and modern assessment system, school screenings can detect scoliosis at a significant rate, but awareness of scoliosis risks is needed for residents in China to take up referrals for hospital diagnosis after school screenings.

  7. [Prevalence of workplace violence in staff of two hospitals in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zu-Hui; Wang, Sheng-Yong; Jing, Chun-Xia

    2003-09-01

    To understand prevalence of workplace violence in hospital and to analyse its relevant causes to lay a basis for maintaining normal working order in hospital. A study was conducted to look into workplace violence situation in health care workers in two large hospitals of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province during October 2001 to October 2002. Workplace violence was defined as any events occurred in hospital staff, who suffered psychological or/and physical violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 678 of 1 043 hospital staff (65%) investigated had such experience during the past year, mainly psychological violence. Medical doctors were more vulnerable than nurses, with prevalence of 70.3% and 67.7% for medical doctors and nurses, respectively. Prevalence was the highest in those aged 30 - 39 years with 11 - 20 years of employment. Man staff were more vulnerable to physical violence than women, with prevalence of 11.7% and 5.3%, respectively. No significant difference in psychological or sexual violence between man and woman staff was found. Frequently, nurses and nurse aides were victims of sexual violence. Usually, troublemakers were patients relatives or patients themselves, accounting for 64.2% and 50.0% of the total events, respectively. Main causes for workplace violence in hospital included unreasonable requirement from patients or their relatives which was not met, or not-so-quick recovery as they desired. Workplace violence occurred in hospital staff was prevalent in Guangzhou, which should be attached more importance. Comprehensive intervention measures should be adopted focusing on law reinforcement and education, to maintain normal working order in hospital.

  8. Assessing the magnitude and trends in hospital acquired infections in Canadian hospitals through sequential point prevalence surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Taylor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare acquired infections (HAI are an important public health problem in developed countries, but comprehensive data on trends over time are lacking. Prevalence surveys have been used as a surrogate for incidence studies and can be readily repeated. Methods The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program conducted prevalence surveys in 2002 and 2009 in a large network of major Canadian acute care hospitals. NHSN definitions of HAI were used. Use of isolation precautions on the survey day was documented. Results In 2009, 9,953 acute care inpatients were surveyed; 1,234 infections (124/1000 were found, compared to 111/1000 in 2002, (p < 0.0001. There was increased prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI and Clostridium difficile, offset by decreases in pneumonia and bloodstream infection. Use of isolation precautions increased from 77 to 148 per 1000 patients (p < 0.0001, attributable to increased use of contact precautions in patients infected or colonized with antimicrobial resistant organisms. Conclusion Between 2002 and 2009 HAI prevalence increased by 11.7 % in a network of major Canadian hospitals due to increases in Clostridium difficile and urinary tract infection. The use of isolation precautions increased by 92.2 % attributable to increased contact isolation. National prevalence surveys are useful tools to assess evolving trends in HAI.

  9. Prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soressa, Urgessa; Mamo, Abebe; Hiko, Desta; Fentahun, Netsanet

    2016-06-04

    In Africa, acute intestinal obstruction accounts for a great proportion of morbidity and mortality. Ethiopia is one of the countries where intestinal obstruction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital in Oromia region, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study design was used. Data covering the past three years were collected from hospital medical records of sampled patients. The collected data were checked for any inconsistency, coded and entered into SPSS version 16.0 for data processing and analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used. Statistical significance was based on confidence interval (CI) of 95 % at a p-value of acute abdomen surgery and total surgical admissions, respectively. The mortality rate was 2.5 % (6 of 262). The most common cause of small bowel obstruction was intussusceptions in 48 patients (30.9 %), followed by small bowel volvulus in 47 patients (30.3 %). Large bowel obstruction was caused by sigmoid volvulus in 60 patients (69.0 %) followed by colonic tumor in 12 patients (13.8 %). After controlling for possible confounding factors, the major predictors of management outcome of intestinal obstruction were: duration of illness before surgical intervention (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.49, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.97); intra-operative findings [Viable small bowel volvulus (SBV) (AOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.95) and viable (AOR = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.03-0.88)]; completion of intra-operative procedures (bowel resection & anastomosis (AOR = 3.05, 95 % CI: 1.04-8.94); and length of hospital stay (AOR = 0.05, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.16). Small bowel obstruction was more prevalent than large bowel obstruction. Intussusceptions and sigmoid volvulus were the leading causes of small and large bowel obstruction. Laparotomy was the most common methods of intestinal obstruction management. Bowel

  10. High prevalence of obesity among nursing personnel working in tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M; Siddiqui, A A; Sandeep, G; Madhu, S V

    2017-12-22

    To find out the prevalence of obesity and glucose intolerance among nurses working in tertiary care hospital. Study was conducted in 496 apparently healthy females comprising two groups. Group B had 290 nurses and control group A had 206 age matched female subjects of general population. Detailed performa was filled which included anthropometry, systemic examination and other details. Fasting plasma glucose was done followed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects with body mass index ≥23 kg/m 2 were categorized as 'overweight' and ≥25 kg/m 2 as 'obese' as per criteria for Asian Indians. Women with waist circumference of ≥80 cm were categorized as 'centrally obese'. Mean age of subjects in groups A and B was 40.45 ± 8.64 years and 40.50 ± 6.96 years respectively. Significantly higher number of nurses (80%) were overweight or obese compared to controls (59.71%,P = < .001). Similarly, central obesity was significantly higher in nurses (82.07%) compared to controls (67.96%,P = <.001). The prevalence of glucose intolerance (prediabetes and newly detected diabetes) was significantly higher in controls compared to nurses (45.63% vs 29.66%, P < .001). Every four out of five nurses working in tertiary care hospital have overweight/obesity and central obesity. Despite this they have lower rates of glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Readmission rates in not-for-profit vs. proprietary hospitals before and after the hospital readmission reduction program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Lauren E; Oglesby, Willie H

    2018-01-19

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) to penalize hospitals with excessive 30-day hospital readmissions of Medicare enrollees for specific conditions. This policy was aimed at increasing the quality of care delivered to patients and decreasing the amount of money paid for potentially preventable hospital readmissions. While it has been established that the number of 30-day hospital readmissions decreased after program implementation, it is unknown whether this effect occurred equally between not-for-profit and proprietary hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the HRRP decreased readmission rates equally between not-for-profit and proprietary hospitals between 2010 and 2012. Data on readmissions came from the Dartmouth Atlas and hospital ownership data came from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Data were joined using the Medicare provider number. Using a difference-in-differences approach, bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to compare readmission rates between not-for-profit and proprietary hospitals between 2010 and 2012 and were adjusted for hospital characteristics. In 2010, prior to program implementation, unadjusted readmission rates for proprietary and not-for-profit hospitals were 16.16% and 15.78%, respectively. In 2012, following program implementation, 30-day readmission rates dropped to 15.76% and 15.29% for proprietary and not-for-profit hospitals. The data suggest that the implementation of the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program had similar effects on not-for-profit and proprietary hospitals with respect to readmission rates, even after adjusting for confounders. Although not-for-profit hospitals had lower 30-day readmission rates than proprietary hospitals in both 2010 and 2012, they both decreased after the implementation of the HRRP and the decreases were not statistically significantly different. Thus, this study

  12. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM KOLEA HOSPITAL (ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Boukhatem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of multiple antibiotic resistances is a major public health problem, often causing therapeutic impasses. Our study was conducted at the Bacteriology Laboratory of Kolea (Tipaza, Algeria Hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of staphylococci in clinical purulent, sepsis and urinary samples, and to test the sensitivity of the selected strains against a various antibiotic (ATB discs. The identification of Staphylococcus strains was performed by using classic biochemistry tests. Susceptibility against ATB was determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Among 1403 clinical samples obtained, only 61 was related to staphylococci infections (4.34%. Staphylococcus strains were found mainly in the purulent samples (60.65%. S.aureus was found to be the mainly isolated strains with a rate of 61.53% while the S. epidermidis strain was found predominantly in hospitalized patients (68.57%. The frequency of the overall resistance of S.aureus against penicillin G (80.6% and gentamicin (61.53% remains high. The multi-resistant Staphylococcus has become extremely widespread, hence the need for the accomplishment of a strategy to prevent the spread of this resistance.

  13. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients referred to Razi hospital cosmetic clinic with complaints of cosmetic disorders

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    Amirhooshang Ehsani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined defect in ones appearance or an exaggeration of a slight physical anomaly. Any part of the appearance may be the focuse of BDD patients. Thus preoccupation with appearance leads to significant damages of social and job functioning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BDD in patients referred to cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Methods: Patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital were selected if they agreed to participate in the study. They were evaluated by Yale brown obsessive compulsive scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder (YBOCS-BDD as well as questionnaires containing demographic characteristics of patients including gender, educational status, marital status, history of reference to psychiatrist or psychologist, other medication, history of cosmetic surgery and rate of satisfaction of cosmetic surgery. YBOCS-BDD questionnaires then processed by educated specialist to determine BDD score of patie-nts. Demographic questionnaires, also analysed to evaluate epidemiologic properties of patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Results: The prevalence of BDD in current sample was 33.3%. 70.7% of BDD patients were female while 29.3% were male. The commonest age range was 21-50 years (82.8%. 65.5% were educated to level of diploma or lower, while 34.5% had academic degrees. 51.7% were married. 20.7% had history of reference to psychiatrist or psycholo-gist. 17/2% had history of cosmetic surgery with satisfaction ranging from unsatisfied (20% to relative satisfaction (80%. None were fully satisfied.Conclusion: BDD had high prevalence in patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi skin hospital. This high rate of prevalence show the necessity of diagnosis of BDD in skin patients and it is critical for them to refer to psychiatrists or psychologists.

  14. Biliary Lithiasis: Prevalence and Ultrasound Profile in a Service Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, J; Chakraborty, I; Mohan, R

    2003-01-01

    Real time gray scale ultrasonography of upper abdomen was carried out in 1237 cases for varied indications. Overall prevalence of biliary lithiasis was 11.56% with female to male ratio of 4:1. Fifty years and below, female to male ratio was 6.5:1. 88.8% cases of biliary lithiasis were 60 years and below. Gall bladder dyspepsia (61.5%) and right upper quadrant pain (41%) were the main presenting features of biliary lithiasis. 26 patients (18%) presented with acute abdomen. Asymptomatic gallstones were found in 25 (17.5%) cases. Solitary calculus was less common than multiple calculi with a ratio of 1:4. Amongst cases of multiple calculi the small sized (2-4 mm) variety was the maximum (49%) followed by medium sized (5-10mm) and large sized (>10mm) calculi respectively.

  15. High prevalence of hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative carbapenem resistant strains in Vietnamese pediatric ICUs: A multi-centre point prevalence survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, N.K.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Vu, P.D.; Khu, D.T.; Le, H.T.; Hoang, B.T.; Vo, V.T.; Lam, Y.M.; Vu, D.T.; Nguyen, Thanh Son; Thai, T.Q.; Nilsson, L.E.; Rydell, U.; Nguyen, K.V.; Nadjm, B.; Clarkson, L.; Hanberger, H.; Larsson, M.

    2016-01-01

    There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral

  16. Maintenance fluid therapy in a tertiary hospital: A prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uña Orejón, R; Gisbert de la Cuadra, L; Garríguez Pérez, D; Díez Sebastián, J; Ureta Tolsada, M P

    To assess the types of maintenance fluids used in our hospital, comparing their volume and composition to the standards recommended by the guidelines. Observational, cross-sectional study. Volume and type of fluid therapy administered during 24h to patients admitted to various hospital departments were recorded. Patients receiving fluid therapy because of water-electrolyte imbalance were excluded. Out of 198 patients registered, 74 (37.4%) were excluded because they did not meet the criteria for inclusion. Mean administered volume was 2,500cc/day. Mean daily glucose dose was 36g per 24h (SD: 31.4). The most frequent combination included normal saline solution (NSS) and glucose 5% (64.4%). Mean daily dose of sodium and chlorine was, respectively, 173mEq (SD: 74.8) and 168mEq (SD: 75), representing a surplus daily dose of +87.4mEq and +85mEq. Potassium, magnesium and calcium daily deficit was, respectively, -50mEq, -22mEq and -21mEq per day. Buffer administration was exceptional, bicarbonate (2.29%), acetate (1.29%), lactate (1.15%) and gluconate (1.10%) being the buffering agents most frequently used. NNS is the most frequently used solution. In contrast to excess doses of sodium and chlorine, there is a great deficit of other ions, buffering agents and caloric intake in the fluid therapy regimens that are usually prescribed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term treatment with olanzapine in hospital conditions: Prevalence and predictors of the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Irena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The risk of metabolic abnormalities is greatly increased in schizophrenic patients started on an atypical antipsychotic medication. Patients with psychiatric disorders exceed mortality ranges resulting from, among others, increased risk of cardiovascular events. Other factors contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome include prolonged duration of illness, increasing age, female sex and lifestyle factors. Objective. This cross-sectional study was taken up to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in schizophrenic patients receiving olanzapine monotherapy for at least six months and to determine the most important risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome presence in these patients. Methods. A total of 93 long term hospitalized schizophrenic patients (71 men, 22 women, had a screening of the following: case-history data, psychiatric scales, anthropometric measures, blood (fasting glucose, lipid status, C-reactive protein - CRP and urine samples (microalbuminuria. Results. Prevalence of MetS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria in our study was 34.4%. The multivariate analysis distinguished the following significant predictors of MetS presence (in order of appearance: data about diabetes mellitus in family history (p=0.002, body mass index >25 kg/m2 (p=0.002, hyperlipidemia in family history (p=0.008, and elevated CRP value (p=0.042. Conclusion. High rate of MetS in patients treated with olanzapine in this study exceeds MetS prevalence in general population. Among observed parameters, our study pointed to several “high risk” predictors associated with MetS presence. Regular monitoring of cardiometabolic risk factors is highly recommended. Positive heredity distress mentioned above may direct a psychiatrist to prescribe some other drug than olanzapine in the long term treatment of schizophrenia.

  18. Smoking prevalence of female nurses in the national hospitals of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ohida, T.; Osaki, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sekiyama, M.; Minowa, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To estimate the prevalence of smoking and the attitudes towards the restriction of smoking at work among female nurses in the national hospitals in Japan.
DESIGN—Questionnaires mailed to 14 randomly selected national hospitals and sanitariums in Japan in 1993.
SUBJECTS—2207 female nurses.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Smoking status and history, and attitudes towards the restriction of smoking at work.
RESULTS—The prevalence of smoking among female nurses was 18.6%, which was higher than th...

  19. Prevalence of impaired memory in hospitalized adults and associations with in-hospital sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calev, Hila; Spampinato, Lisa M; Press, Valerie G; Meltzer, David O; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-07-01

    Effective inpatient teaching requires intact patient memory, but studies suggest hospitalized adults may have memory deficits. Sleep loss among inpatients could contribute to memory impairment. To assess memory in older hospitalized adults, and to test the association between sleep quantity, sleep quality, and memory, in order to identify a possible contributor to memory deficits in these patients. Prospective cohort study. General medicine and hematology/oncology inpatient wards. Fifty-nine hospitalized adults at least 50 years of age with no diagnosed sleep disorder. Immediate memory and memory after a 24-hour delay were assessed using a word recall and word recognition task from the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. A vignette-based memory task was piloted as an alternative test more closely resembling discharge instructions. Sleep duration and efficiency overnight in the hospital were measured using actigraphy. Mean immediate recall was 3.8 words out of 15 (standard deviation = 2.1). Forty-nine percent of subjects had poor memory, defined as immediate recall score of 3 or lower. Median immediate recognition was 11 words out of 15 (interquartile range [IQR] = 9-13). Median delayed recall score was 1 word, and median delayed recognition was 10 words (IQR = 8-12). In-hospital sleep duration and efficiency were not significantly associated with memory. The medical vignette score was correlated with immediate recall (r = 0.49, P memory while in the hospital, signaling that hospitalization might not be an ideal teachable moment. In-hospital sleep was not associated with memory scores. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  20. Assessing the adequacy of pressure ulcer prevention in hospitals: a nationwide prevalence survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderwee, Katrien; Defloor, Tom; Beeckman, Dimitri; Demarré, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Durme, Therese; Gobert, Micheline

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The development of a pressure ulcer is an adverse event and is often avoidable if adequate preventive measures are applied. No large-scale data, based on direct patient observations, are available regarding the pressure ulcer preventive interventions used in hospitals. Purpose: The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the adequacy of interventions used to prevent pressure ulcers in Belgian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre pressure ulcer preval...

  1. Hospital Evaluations by Social Media: A Comparative Analysis of Facebook Ratings among Performance Outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, McKinley; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Choy, Garry; Prabhakar, Anand M; Pandharipande, Pari V; Gazelle, G Scott

    2015-10-01

    An increasing number of hospitals and health systems utilize social media to allow users to provide feedback and ratings. The correlation between ratings on social media and more conventional hospital quality metrics remains largely unclear, raising concern that healthcare consumers may make decisions on inaccurate or inappropriate information regarding quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which hospitals utilize social media and whether user-generated metrics on Facebook(®) correlate with a Hospital Compare(®) metric, specifically 30-day all cause unplanned hospital readmission rates. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted among all U.S. hospitals performing outside the confidence interval for the national average on 30-day hospital readmission rates as reported on Hospital Compare. Participants were 315 hospitals performing better than U.S. national rate on 30-day readmissions and 364 hospitals performing worse than the U.S. national rate. The study analyzed ratings of hospitals on Facebook's five-star rating scale, 30-day readmission rates, and hospital characteristics including beds, teaching status, urban vs. rural location, and ownership type. Hospitals performing better than the national average on 30-day readmissions were more likely to use Facebook than lower-performing hospitals (93.3 % vs. 83.5 %; p Facebook rating was associated with increased odds of the hospital belonging to the low readmission rate group by a factor of 5.0 (CI: 2.6-10.3, p Facebook-related variables. Hospitals with lower rates of 30-day hospital-wide unplanned readmissions have higher ratings on Facebook than hospitals with higher readmission rates. These findings add strength to the concept that aggregate measures of patient satisfaction on social media correlate with more traditionally accepted measures of hospital quality.

  2. Prevalence and genotypic relatedness of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is the most common multidrug-resistant pathogen causing nosocomial infections across the world. MRSA is not only associated with significant mortality and morbidity but also places a large economic strain on our health care system. MRSA isolates are also typically resistant to multiple, non-β-lactam antibiotics. We conducted a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital, to determine the prevalence of MRSA and to establish the clonal distribution of MRSA isolates recovered from various clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: Clinical samples were cultured and S. aureus was identified as per standard microbiological procedures. Susceptibility testing was done by agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method as recommended by CLSI. Methicillin resistance was detected by phenotypic methods namely, oxacillin disc diffusion (ODD, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin, cefoxitin disk diffusion (CDD, and MIC of cefoxitin. Amplification of mecA gene by PCR was used as gold standard for detection of methicillin resistance. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE typing was performed for MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 390 S. aureus isolates, 154 (39.48% isolates were MRSA and 236 (60.51% isolates were MSSA. Penicillin was the least effective antibacterial drug against the hospital associated S. aureus isolates with 85.64% resistance rate. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The MRSA showed a high level of resistance to all antimicrobials in general in comparison to the MSSA and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Multiplex PCR performed for all strains showed amplification of both the mecA and nucA genes in MRSA strains whereas MSSA strains showed amplification of only nucA gene. PFGE of these isolates showed 10 different patterns. Conclusion: Prevalence of MRSA in our hospital was 39.48%. Most of these isolates were

  3. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  4. Impact of pulsed xenon ultraviolet light on hospital-acquired infection rates in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Pedro G; Dale, Charles R; Simmons, Sarah; Stibich, Mark; Licitra, Carmelo M

    2016-03-01

    The role of contaminated environments in the spread of hospital-associated infections has been well documented. This study reports the impact of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet no-touch disinfection system on infection rates in a community care facility. This study was conducted in a community hospital in Southern Florida. Beginning November 2012, a pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection system was implemented as an adjunct to traditional cleaning methods on discharge of select rooms. The technology uses a xenon flashlamp to generate germicidal light that damages the DNA of organisms in the hospital environment. The device was implemented in the intensive care unit (ICU), with a goal of using the pulsed xenon ultraviolet system for disinfecting all discharges and transfers after standard cleaning and prior to occupation of the room by the next patient. For all non-ICU discharges and transfers, the pulsed xenon ultraviolet system was only used for Clostridium difficile rooms. Infection data were collected for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, C difficile, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). The intervention period was compared with baseline using a 2-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. In non-ICU areas, a significant reduction was found for C difficile. There was a nonsignificant decrease in VRE and a significant increase in methicillin-resistant S aureus. In the ICU, all infections were reduced, but only VRE was significant. This may be because of the increased role that environment plays in the transmission of this pathogen. Overall, there were 36 fewer infections in the whole facility and 16 fewer infections in the ICU during the intervention period than would have been expected based on baseline data. Implementation of pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection is associated with significant decreases in facility-wide and ICU infection rates. These outcomes suggest that enhanced environmental disinfection plays a role in the risk mitigation of hospital

  5. Mental Health Conditions and Symptoms in Pediatric Hospitalizations: A Single-Center Point Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Stephanie K; Henry, M Katherine; Bae, Hanah; Litman, Jessica; Turner, Shanarra; Scharko, Alexander M; Feudtner, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Children and adolescents necessitating hospitalization for physical health conditions are at high risk for mental health conditions; however, the prevalence of mental health conditions and symptoms among hospitalized children and adolescents is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of hospitalized children and adolescents who have diagnosed mental health disorders or undiagnosed mental health problems. In this single-center point prevalence study of hospitalized children between the ages of 4 and 21 years, patients or their parents reported known mental health diagnoses and use of services using the Services Assessment for Children and Adolescent, and they reported patient mental health symptoms using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 17-item form (PSC-17). Of 229 eligible patients, 119 agreed to participate. Demographic characteristics of patients who enrolled were not statistically significantly different from those of patients who declined to participate. Among participants, 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-35%) reported a known mental health diagnosis. On the PSC-17, 29% (95% CI, 21%-38%) of participants had a positive screen for mental health symptoms. Of those with a positive screen, 38% (95% CI, 21%-55%) had no known mental health diagnosis, and 26% (95% CI, 12%-43%) had not received ambulatory mental health services in the 12 months before hospitalization. Mental health conditions and symptoms are common among patients hospitalized in a tertiary children's hospital, and many affected patients are not receiving ambulatory mental health services. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  7. Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in a tertiary hospital in Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stillbirth is a silent but major cause of perinatal mortality and source of foetal wastage. Aim: To determine the prevalence of stillbirth, demographic characteristics and identify the possible risk factors in our Hospital. Methods: This was a ten year cross-sectional retrospective study of stillbirths between 1st ...

  9. Nursing Diagnosis Risk for falls: prevalence and clinical profile of hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Freitas Luzia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify the prevalence of the Nursing Diagnosis (ND Risk for falls in the hospitalizations of adult patients in clinical and surgical units, to characterize the clinical profile and to identify the risk factors of the patients with this ND.METHOD: a cross-sectional study with 174 patients. The data was collected from the computerized nursing care prescriptions system and on-line hospital records, and analyzed statistically.RESULTS: the prevalence of the ND Risk for falls was 4%. The patients' profile indicated older adults, males (57%, those hospitalized in the clinical units (63.2%, with a median length of hospitalization of 20 (10-24 days, with neurological illnesses (26%, cardio-vascular illnesses (74.1% and various co-morbidities (3±1.8. The prevalent risk factors were neurological alterations (43.1%, impaired mobility (35.6% and extremes of age (10.3%.CONCLUSION: the findings contributed to evidencing the profile of the patients with a risk of falling hospitalized in clinical and surgical wards, which favors the planning of interventions for preventing this adverse event.

  10. Nursing Diagnosis Risk for falls: prevalence and clinical profile of hospitalized patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Melissa de Freitas; Victor, Marco Antonio de Goes; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to identify the prevalence of the Nursing Diagnosis (ND) Risk for falls in the hospitalizations of adult patients in clinical and surgical units, to characterize the clinical profile and to identify the risk factors of the patients with this ND. Method a cross-sectional study with 174 patients. The data was collected from the computerized nursing care prescriptions system and on-line hospital records, and analyzed statistically. Results the prevalence of the ND Risk for falls was 4%. The patients' profile indicated older adults, males (57%), those hospitalized in the clinical units (63.2%), with a median length of hospitalization of 20 (10-24) days, with neurological illnesses (26%), cardio-vascular illnesses (74.1%) and various co-morbidities (3±1.8). The prevalent risk factors were neurological alterations (43.1%), impaired mobility (35.6%) and extremes of age (10.3%). Conclusion the findings contributed to evidencing the profile of the patients with a risk of falling hospitalized in clinical and surgical wards, which favors the planning of interventions for preventing this adverse event. PMID:26107834

  11. Nursing Diagnosis Risk for falls: prevalence and clinical profile of hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Melissa de Freitas; Victor, Marco Antonio de Goes; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    to identify the prevalence of the Nursing Diagnosis (ND) Risk for falls in the hospitalizations of adult patients in clinical and surgical units, to characterize the clinical profile and to identify the risk factors of the patients with this ND. a cross-sectional study with 174 patients. The data was collected from the computerized nursing care prescriptions system and on-line hospital records, and analyzed statistically. the prevalence of the ND Risk for falls was 4%. The patients' profile indicated older adults, males (57%), those hospitalized in the clinical units (63.2%), with a median length of hospitalization of 20 (10-24) days, with neurological illnesses (26%), cardio-vascular illnesses (74.1%) and various co-morbidities (3±1.8). The prevalent risk factors were neurological alterations (43.1%), impaired mobility (35.6%) and extremes of age (10.3%). the findings contributed to evidencing the profile of the patients with a risk of falling hospitalized in clinical and surgical wards, which favors the planning of interventions for preventing this adverse event.

  12. The prevalence and correlates of alcohol use disorder amongst bipolar patients in a hospital setting, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Hway Ann; Loh, Huai Seng; Ng, Chong Guan

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of alcohol-use disorder and associated correlates amongst bipolar patients in a university hospital in Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 121 bipolar disorder patients were included. Their alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (plus version) and the Addiction Severity Index-Lite-Clinical Factors version. The number of lifetime hospitalizations and the survival days (the number of days between the last discharge and the most current readmission) were calculated. The prevalence of alcohol-use disorder amongst bipolar patients was 18.2%. Indian ethnicity was the only demographic factor that was statistically associated with alcohol-use disorder (p suicidal attempt (p Malaysia. Since alcohol-use disorder, as well as the potential interactions with the course of the disorder, is highly prevalent amongst bipolar patients, alcohol use should be addressed in these patients.

  13. Combined audit of hospital antibiotic use and a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2010-05-01

    Appropriate antibiotic use improves patient outcome and prevents the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A point-prevalence audit of antibiotic use at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin was carried out during the collection of data for the 2006 Hospital Infection Society (HIS) Prevalence Survey of Healthcare-Associated Infection. All inpatients who met the HIS survey entry criteria were included in the HIS survey, and all inpatients who were receiving antibiotics at the time of the survey were included in the point-prevalence audit of antibiotic use. Among these, 7.18% and 36.8% of patients had a healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and were on antibiotics, respectively. Unnecessary collection of duplicate data was avoided by conducting an audit of antibiotic use and a national survey of HCAI simultaneously.

  14. The prevalence of undernutrition upon hospitalization in children in a developing country: A single hospital study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Way-Seah; Ahmad, Zulfadly

    2017-10-01

    Undernourished children who require hospital care have a longer duration of hospitalization and respond poorly to modern medical therapy. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the nutritional status of children admitted to a pediatric tertiary center in Malaysia and the risk factors leading to undernutrition upon admission. In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, anthropometric measurements [weight, length/height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness were performed in 285 children aged from 3 months to 15 years who were admitted to University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur in November 2013. Acute (wasting) and chronic (stunting) undernutrition were defined as weight-for-height (WFH) and height-for-age (HFA) standard deviation (S.D.), respectively. Underweight was defined as weight-for-age definition for acute undernutrition (HFA definition of acute undernutrition, an additional eight patients were noted to have acute undernutrition (n = 40, 14%). No significant risk factors associated with undernutrition were identified. The prevalence of undernutrition among children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Malaysia was 14%. Strategies for systematic screening and provision of nutritional support in children at risk of undernutrition as well as treatment of undernutrition in children requiring hospitalization are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, D. H.; Sy, D. N.; Linh, N. D.; Hoan, T. M.; Dien, H. T.; Thuy, T. B.; Hoa, N. P.; Tung, L. B.; Cobelens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of

  16. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  17. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is one of the common anomalies of the systemic veins. Its prevalence is 0.10.3% in the general population and is more common with congenital heart disease (CHD). The importance of detecting persistent LSVC prior to cardiac surgery is paramount for systemic veins ...

  18. The prevalence and effects of urinary incontinence in women working in the Universitas Academic Hospital, Bloemfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique C. Bailey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence affects 30% of women by the time they reach 50 years of age and continues to increase thereafter. Symptoms vary in severity and adversely impact on the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of affected individuals. By means of a self-administered questionnaire, the study investigated the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its effects on the quality of life in women working at the Universitas Academic Hospital in Bloemfontein in 2007. Pregnant women were not included in the study. One hundred and nine questionnaires were analysed. Participants were 24–62 years of age (mean age 44.4 years. Of these, 27.5% reported symptoms of urinary incontinence. Only one affected individual was younger than 30 years. Three-quarters of affected women rated their symptoms as light to moderate. In 34.6% of the affected women, the condition did not interfere with everyday activities at all, but 11.5% reported severe interference. Information regarding urinary incontinence, precautionary measures, such as Kegel exercises, and its associated psychosocial consequences, should be disseminated to women of all ages.

  19. SelfMED: Self-Administration of Medication in Hospital: A Prevalence Study in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwesemael, Toke; Van Rompaey, Bart; Petrovic, Mirko; Boussery, Koen; Dilles, Tinne

    2017-05-01

    Self-management is a key element in regaining and maintaining health. However, during hospitalization it becomes less obvious. Patient self-administration of medication during hospitalization is suggested to be beneficial to patient satisfaction, adherence to pharmacotherapy, and self-care competence. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of self-administration of medication during hospitalization, and possible contributing factors. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 12 Belgian hospitals from February 2015 until June 2015. Data were collected on all hospitalized patients at 57 wards, based in 12 hospitals. A structured questionnaire at ward level and patient level on medication management, self-administration of medication, and rationale for prohibiting or allowing patients to self-administer their medication was conducted in consultation with the head nurse. Of the 1,269 patients participating in this study, 22% self-administered at least one medicine during hospitalization and 13.8% self-administered at least 50% of their total amount of medication. In the opinion of the head nurse, 40.9% of the hospitalized patients would have been able to self-administer their medication during hospitalization. Only a few wards had an available procedure and screening tool to assess the competence of the patients to self-administer their medication. This did not affect the prevalence of self-administration. Self-administration occurred significantly more at surgical short-stay wards, compared to other wards. The self-administering patients were on average younger and female and had a lower number of different medications per day before and during hospitalization. These patients had a good health status and were independent to mildly dependent on nurses on the ward. Related factors were used to provide a multivariate logistic regression model. Sometimes self-administration of medication was allowed. According to the surveyed nurses, however, more

  20. Hospital characteristics associated with increased conversion rates among organ donors in New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Diaz, Arturo J; Olufajo, Olubode A; Stinebring, Jill; Endicott, Samantha; McKown, Brandon T; Metcalfe, David; Zogg, Cheryl K; Salim, Ali

    2017-10-01

    It is unknown whether hospital characteristics affect institutional performance with regard to organ donation. We sought to determine which hospital- and patient-level characteristics are associated with high organ donor conversion rates after brain death (DBD). Data were extracted from the regional Organ Procurement Organization (2011-2014) and other sources. Hospitals were stratified into high-conversion hospitals (HCH; upper-tertile) and low-conversion hospitals (LCH; lower-tertile) according to conversion rates. Hospital- and patient-characteristics were compared between groups. There were 564 potential DBD donors in 27 hospitals. Conversion rates differed between hospitals in different states (p donors differed between HCH and LCH in race (p organ donor conversion rates. This suggests that there is a pool of potential donors in large specialized hospitals that are not successfully converted to DBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the adequacy of pressure ulcer prevention in hospitals: a nationwide prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwee, Katrien; Defloor, Tom; Beeckman, Dimitri; Demarré, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Durme, Thérèse; Gobert, Micheline

    2011-03-01

    The development of a pressure ulcer is an adverse event and is often avoidable if adequate preventive measures are applied. No large-scale data, based on direct patient observations, are available regarding the pressure ulcer preventive interventions used in hospitals. The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the adequacy of interventions used to prevent pressure ulcers in Belgian hospitals. A cross-sectional, multi-centre pressure ulcer prevalence study was performed in Belgian hospitals. The methodology used to measure pressure ulcer prevalence was developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. The data collection instrument includes five categories of data: general data, patient data, risk assessment, skin observation and prevention. The total sample consisted of 19,968 patients. The overall prevalence of pressure ulcers Category I-IV was 12.1%. Only 10.8% of the patients at risk received fully adequate prevention in bed and while sitting. More than 70% of the patients not at risk received some pressure ulcer prevention while lying or sitting. Generally, there is a limited use of adequate preventive interventions for pressure ulcers in hospitals, which reflects a rather low quality of preventive care. The implementation of pressure ulcer guidelines requires more attention. The pressure ulcer prevention used in practice should be re-evaluated on a regular basis.

  2. Prevalence of anemia and its influence on hospital readmissions and emergency department visits in outpatients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Kim, Bo Hwan

    2017-12-01

    Anemia is a frequent comorbidity in patients with heart failure. However, the incidence of anemia in patients with heart failure varies widely, and there is limited evidence on the association between anemia and rehospitalization and on the health consequences of anemia in patients with heart failure. We aimed to identify the prevalence of anemia and its influence on hospital readmissions and emergency department visits in outpatients with heart failure. This cross-sectional study included 284 patients with heart failure diagnosed at outpatient cardiology clinics at a tertiary care university hospital in Cheonan, South Korea. We obtained socio-demographic and clinical information, including frequency of readmissions and emergency department visits, using face-to-face interviews and medical record reviews. The prevalence of anemia, defined based on World Health Organization guidelines, was 39.1% among patients with heart failure. Anemia was significantly more prevalent among patients with one or more re-admissions or emergency department visits compared with patients with no history of hospital re-admissions or emergency department visits (42.7% vs. 13.9% ( p = 0.001) and 55.1% vs. 34% ( p = 0.002) respectively). Anemia increased the risk of hospital readmission (odds ratio =8.04, 95% confidence interval, 2.19-29.54) and emergency department visit (odds ratio=2.37, 95% confidence interval, 1.22-4.60) in patients with heart failure. It is imperative that patients with heart failure presenting with anemia undergo appropriate nursing assessment and intervention. Future prospective studies targeting interventions to improve anemia are required to determine whether anemia influences readmission rates and emergency department visits.

  3. Prevalence of pressure ulcers in three university teaching hospitals in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul

    2012-02-03

    AIM: Pressure ulceration is a significant, but preventable, cause of morbidity and resource utilisation in hospital populations. Data on pressure ulcer prevalence in Ireland are limited. This study aims to determine (i) the point-prevalence of pressure ulcers in three teaching hospitals in Ireland and (ii) risk factors for their development. METHODS: Eight teams of one doctor and one nurse visited 672 adult patients over a 2-day period in three teaching hospitals. Each patient was examined and pressure ulcers graded with the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel system. Mental test score, Barthel index, type of support surface, length of stay, documentation of risk assessment and serum albumin were recorded. RESULTS: Point-prevalence of pressure ulceration was 18.5%. Seventy-seven percent of pressure ulcers were hospital-acquired, 49% grade 1, 37% grade 2, 11% grade 3 and 3% grade 4. Reduced mobility, urinary incontinence, cognitive impairment, low serum albumin and length of stay were significantly associated with pressure ulcers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found reduced mobility (odds ratio 8.84; 95% CI 5.04-15.48, p<0.0001) and length of stay (odds ratio 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.02, p<0.0001) to be predictive of the presence of pressure ulcers. Age, gender and risk assessment documentation were not associated with pressure ulcers. Sixty-five percent of patients with pressure ulcers were positioned on appropriate support surfaces. DISCUSSION: Point-prevalence of pressure ulceration was 18.5%, similar to international data. Regular audit of prevalence, prevention and management strategies may raise awareness, influence resource allocation and ultimately improve patient care.

  4. Prevalence of frailty and its ability to predict in hospital delirium, falls, and 6-month mortality in hospitalized older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Etienne; Demuynck, Mathias; Detroyer, Elke; Milisen, Koen

    2014-01-06

    The prevalence and significance of frailty are seldom studied in hospitalized patients. Aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of frailty and to determine the extent that frailty predicts delirium, falls and mortality in hospitalized older patients. In a prospective study of 220 older patients, frailty was determined using the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) frailty index. Patients were classified as nonfrail, prefrail, and frail, according to the specific criteria. Covariates included clinical and laboratory parameters. Outcome variables included in hospital delirium and falls, and 6-month mortality. The CHS frailty index was available in all 220 patients, of which 1.5% were classified as being nonfrail, 58.5% as prefrail, and 40% as frail. The SOF frailty index was available in 204 patients, of which 16% were classified as being nonfrail, 51.5% as prefrail, and 32.5% as frail. Frailty, as identified by the CHS and SOF indexes, was a significant risk factor for 6-month mortality. However, after adjustment for multiple risk factors, frailty remained a strong independent risk factor only for the model with the CHS index (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.7-12.8). Frailty (identified by CHS and SOF indexes) was not found to be a risk factor for delirium or falls. Frailty, as measured by the CHS index, is an independent risk factor for 6-month mortality. The CHS and the SOF indexes have limited value as risk assessment tools for specific geriatric syndromes (e.g., falls and delirium) in hospitalized older patients.

  5. Burnout among workers in emergency Departments in Palestinian hospitals: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Motasem; Hamra, Asma'a Abu

    2017-06-15

    Working in Emergency Departments (EDs) entails high work pressure and stress due to witnessing human suffering and the unpredictable nature of the work. This environment puts personnel at risk of burnout. This analysis aims to assess burnout levels and associated risk factors among health workers in EDs in Palestinian hospitals. Also, it examines the association between burnout and workplace violence, as well as with job turnover. Cross-sectional design utilising a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from all workers at 14 EDs; 8 from the West Bank and 6 from the Gaza Strip. Burnout was measured using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. A total of 444 workers (response rate 74.5%) participated: 161(36.3%) nurses, 142(32.0%) physicians and 141(31.7%) administrative personnel. Results showed high levels of burnout among EDs workers; 64.0% suffered from high emotional exhaustion, 38.1% from high depersonalization and 34.6% from low personal accomplishment. In addition, high levels of emotional exhaustion (72.3%) was significantly prevalent among physicians compared to nurses (69.8%) and administrative workers (51.4%) (p nurses (48.8%) compared to physicians (32.1%) and administrative workers (31.9%) (p burnout among the three groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, high degree of burnout was more prevalent among EDs workers in the West Bank than among those working in the Gaza Strip (OR 2.02, 95% CI = 1.11-3.69, p = 0.019), and higher among younger workers (aged ≤30 years old) than their older counterparts (OR 2.4, 95% CI = 1.302-4.458, p = 0.005). Exposure to physical violence was significantly associated with having a high degree of burnout (OR 2.017 95% CI = 1.121-3.631, p = 0.019), but no association was observed with regards to exposure to verbal violence (p > 0.05). Finally, burnout was significantly associated with workers' intention to leave work at EDs (p Burnout is considerably prevalent among EDs' workers

  6. Prevalence of psychological symptoms among adults with sickle cell disease in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anim, Michael Tetteh; Osafo, Joseph; Yirdong, Felix

    2016-11-10

    Previous research revealed high prevalence of psychological symptoms among sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in the West and Europe. In some Black SCD populations such as Nigeria and Jamaica, anxiety and depression had low prevalence rates compared to Europe. With difficulty locating research data on the prevalence of psychological symptoms in Ghana, this study aimed at exploring psychological symptoms among adults with SCD in a Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Two hundred and one participants (males 102 and females 99) who were HbSS (n = 131) and HbSC (n = 70), aged 18 years and above were purposively recruited. Using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in a cross-sectional survey, the research answered questions about the prevalence of psychological symptoms. It also examined gender and genotype differences in psychological symptoms scores. Results indicated that adults with SCD had non-distress psychological symptoms scores. Although paranoid ideation as a psychological symptom indicated "a little bit" score, its prevalence was only 1 %. The prevalence of psychological symptoms as indexed by the Positive Symptom Total (PST) was 10 %. Anxiety, hostility, and depression were psychological symptoms with low scores. Furthermore, except psychoticism scores, males did not differ significantly from females in other psychological symptoms. On the contrary, HbSS participants differed significantly, reporting more psychological symptoms than their HbSC counterparts. The study concluded that there was low prevalence of psychological symptoms among adults with SCD in this Ghanaian study. Although psychological symptoms distress scores were not observed among study participants at this time, females differed significantly by experiencing more psychoticism symptoms than males. HbSS participants also differed significantly by experiencing more depression, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and additional symptoms such as poor appetite, trouble falling

  7. Prevalence of psychological symptoms among adults with sickle cell disease in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tetteh Anim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research revealed high prevalence of psychological symptoms among sickle cell disease (SCD patients in the West and Europe. In some Black SCD populations such as Nigeria and Jamaica, anxiety and depression had low prevalence rates compared to Europe. With difficulty locating research data on the prevalence of psychological symptoms in Ghana, this study aimed at exploring psychological symptoms among adults with SCD in a Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Methods Two hundred and one participants (males 102 and females 99 who were HbSS (n = 131 and HbSC (n = 70, aged 18 years and above were purposively recruited. Using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI in a cross-sectional survey, the research answered questions about the prevalence of psychological symptoms. It also examined gender and genotype differences in psychological symptoms scores. Results Results indicated that adults with SCD had non-distress psychological symptoms scores. Although paranoid ideation as a psychological symptom indicated “a little bit” score, its prevalence was only 1 %. The prevalence of psychological symptoms as indexed by the Positive Symptom Total (PST was 10 %. Anxiety, hostility, and depression were psychological symptoms with low scores. Furthermore, except psychoticism scores, males did not differ significantly from females in other psychological symptoms. On the contrary, HbSS participants differed significantly, reporting more psychological symptoms than their HbSC counterparts. Conclusions The study concluded that there was low prevalence of psychological symptoms among adults with SCD in this Ghanaian study. Although psychological symptoms distress scores were not observed among study participants at this time, females differed significantly by experiencing more psychoticism symptoms than males. HbSS participants also differed significantly by experiencing more depression, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation

  8. The effect of hospital infection control policy on the prevalence of surgical site infection in a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisibe, Seiyefa Fun-Akpa; Ordinioha, Best; Gbeneolol, Precious K

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity, emotional stress and financial cost to the affected patients and health care institutions; and infection control policy has been shown to reduce the burden of SSIs in several health care institutions. This study assessed the effects of the implementation of the policy on the prevalence of SSI in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. A review of the records of all Caesarean sections carried out in the hospital, before and 2 years after the implementation of the infection control policy was conducted. Data collected include the number and characteristics of the patients that had Caesarean section in the hospital during the period and those that developed SSI while on admission. The proportion of patients with SSI decreased from 13.33% to 10.34%, 2 years after the implementation of the policy (P-value = 0.18). The implementation of the policy did not also result in any statistically significant change in the nature of the wound infection (P-value = 0.230), in the schedule of the operations (P-value = 0.93) and in the other predisposing factors of the infections (P-value = 0.72); except for the significant decrease in the infection rate among the un-booked patients (P-value = 0.032). The implementation of the policy led to a small decrease in SSI, due to the non-implementation of some important aspects of the WHO policy. The introduction of surveillance activities, continuous practice reinforcing communications and environmental sanitation are recommended to further decrease the prevalence of SSI in the hospital.

  9. Prevalence and costs of hospitalizations for poisoning and accidental intoxication in Brazilian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Silva de Abreu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of secondary data/information obtained from the Hospital Information System (HIS spanning the years 2008 - 2009 was performed. The distribution of the main hospital admissions by gender, age, color/race, region and federal unit of residence, average expenditure and average length of hospital stay, year of hospitalization and mortality rates (MR were studied. The data collected were tabulated by TabNet and keyed into Microsoft Excel 2007. It was verified that elderly males (54.3%, from 60 to 69 years old (50.6%, nonwhites (36.3% and residents of Southeast and North regions of the country had the highest rates of hospitalization. Seniors were hospitalized for an average of 4.8 days, and the major causes were exposure to alcohol (43.7% and to drugs (33.9%. Expenses related to hospital admissions were, on average, R$ 529,817.70. The highest mortality rates were recorded among females (MR = 4.34, in elderly, 80 years or older (MR = 10.16 and Caucasians (MR = 3.95, where pharmacological substances with action on the Autonomic Nervous System were the leading cause of death. There are demographic differences in morbi-mortality of these elderly since, although men and younger elderly were the main victims, women and elderly of advanced age have greater mortality. The leading causes of hospitalization were alcohol and drugs.

  10. Mobbing in Schools and Hospitals in Uruguay: Prevalence and Relation to Loss of Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Abraham P; Franco, Silvia; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Zurriaga, Rosario

    2016-01-19

    In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital employees, 40.4%, and among school employees, 23.9% reported being the victim of mobbing at least once a week. Being the victim of mobbing was, in both hospitals and schools, more prevalent among older employees, and in hospitals, among employees who were more highly educated and who had been employed for a longer time. Men and women did not differ in reporting that one was a victim of mobbing, but men reported more perceived loss of status than women. However, among women, being the victim of mobbing was much more strongly related to experiencing a loss of status than among men. Several explanations for this gender difference and the practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD and other psychological disorders among Saudi firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alghamd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.

  12. Prevalence and prognosis of acutely ill patients with organ failure at arrival to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Bank; Hrobjartsson, Asbjorn; Nielsen, Daniel Lykke

    2017-01-01

    undifferentiated patients, at arrival to hospital. The result of the review will assist physicians working in an ED, when assessing patients' risk of organ failure and their associated prognosis. METHODS: The information sources used are electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL...... and analyze studies of prevalence and prognosis of acutely ill patients, with organ failure at arrival to hospital, assist ED physicians assessing the risk of organ failure in unselected patients, and guide recommendations for further research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017060871....

  13. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993......% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4). This increased risk was not due to misclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate gender-related differences in either the severity, perception, or management of asthma....

  14. Prevalence and assessment of malnutrition among children attending the Reproductive and Child Health clinic at Bagamoyo District Hospital, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Omar Ali; Enumah, Zachary Obinna; Wheatley, Hannah; Rafiq, Mohamed Yunus; Shekalaghe, Seif; Ali, Ali; Mgonia, Shishira; Abdulla, Salim

    2016-10-19

    Malnutrition has long been associated with poverty, poor diet and inadequate access to health care, and it remains a key global health issue that both stems from and contributes to ill-health, with 50 % of childhood deaths due to underlying undernutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among children under-five seen at Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH) and three rural health facilities ranging between 25 and 55 km from Bagamoyo: Kiwangwa, Fukayosi, and Yombo. A total of 63,237 children under-five presenting to Bagamoyo District Hospital and the three rural health facilities participated in the study. Anthropometric measures of age, height/length and weight and measurements of mid-upper arm circumference were obtained and compared with reference anthropometric indices to assess nutritional status for patients presenting to the hospital and health facilities. Overall proportion of stunting, underweight and wasting was 8.37, 5.74 and 1.41 % respectively. Boys were significantly more stunted, under weight and wasted than girls (p-value Children aged 24-59 months were more underweight than 6-23 months (p-value = Children from rural areas experienced increased rates of stunting, underweight and wasting than children in urban areas (p-value children in and around Bagamoyo suffer moderately high rates of malnutrition. Current nutrition programs focus on education for at risk children and referral to regional hospitals for malnourished children. Even though the general population has even greater malnutrition than the population presenting at the hospital, in areas of high malnutrition, hospital-based interventions should also be considered as centralized locations for reaching thousands of malnourished children under-five.

  15. Low hospital admission rates for respiratory diseases in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans); F.G. Schellevis (François); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstractBACKGROUND: Population-based data on hospital admissions for children aged 0-17 years concerning all respiratory diseases are scarce. This study examined hospital admissions in relation to the preceding consultations in general practice in this age group. METHODS: Data on

  16. Prevalence and overlap of Disease Management Program diseases in older hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne; Sivertsen, Ditte Maria

    2017-01-01

    defined by several ICD-10 codes predefined in the DMPs. Of these patients, 904 (19.4%) had 2 + PDs, and there were 47 different combinations of the six different PDs. The most prevalent pair of PDs was type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular disease in 203 (22.5%) patients, of whom 40.4% had an additional PD......Many countries, like Denmark, have tailored Disease Management Programs (DMPs) based on patients having single chronic diseases [defined institutionally as "program diseases" (PDs)], which can complicate treatment for those with multiple chronic diseases. The aims of this study were (a) to assess...... the prevalence and overlap among acutely hospitalized older medical patients of PDs defined by the DMPs, and (b) to examine transitions between different departments during hospitalization and mortality and readmission within two time intervals among patients with the different PDs. We conducted a registry study...

  17. High Prevalence of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae among Hospitalized Children in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Nicolas; Nordmann, Patrice; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta; Poirel, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Luanda, Angola. A total of 157 rectal samples were collected from children visiting a pediatric hospital in Luanda in March 2015. Fifty-seven imipenem-nonsusceptible enterobacterial isolates were recovered, most of which were non-clonally related. The blaOXA-181 (50/57) and blaNDM-1 (7/57) carbapenemase genes were identified. Notably, OXA-181-producing Escherichia coli isolates rarely coproduced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and consequently remained susceptible to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The blaOXA-181 gene was always located on an IncX3 plasmid, while the blaNDM-1 gene was located on either IncFIA or IncA/C plasmids. The study identified a high prevalence of OXA-181 among hospitalized children in Angola. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Segmented polynomials for incidence rate estimation from prevalence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiané, Severin Guy; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2017-01-30

    The study considers the problem of estimating incidence of a non remissible infection (or disease) with possibly differential mortality using data from a(several) cross-sectional prevalence survey(s). Fitting segmented polynomial models is proposed to estimate the incidence as a function of age, using the maximum likelihood method. The approach allows automatic search for optimal position of knots, and model selection is performed using the Akaike information criterion. The method is applied to simulated data and to estimate HIV incidence among men in Zimbabwe using data from both the NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) and Zimbabwe Demographic Health Surveys (2005-2006). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Prevalence and outcome of teenage hospital births at the Buea Health District, South West Region, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Thomas Obinchemti; Omeichu, Amadeus; Halle-Ekane, Gregory Edie; Tchente, Charlotte Nguefack; Egbe, Eta-Nkongho; Oury, Jean-Francois

    2015-12-23

    Teenage pregnancy is a high-risk condition that requires skilled antenatal care for good outcome. World estimates in 2008 report about 16 million births to adolescent mothers, most of them occurring in low and middle-income countries. In Cameroon, about 12% of all births are to adolescent mothers. This study determines the prevalence of hospital teenage deliveries in the Buea Health District and compares the delivery outcomes and demographic characteristics between pregnant teenage mothers (14-19) and adult mothers (20-29 years). We also identify factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We undertook a retrospective study of case files of patients who gave birth in the Buea Regional Hospital during the period 2009-2012, to determine the prevalence of hospital-delivered teenage pregnancies in the BHR. We also undertook a, cross-sectional study to compare the outcomes of 148 singleton adolescent births with 360 adult births in three health facilities in the Buea Health District during the period March 1 to August 31, 2013. The prevalence of teenage births was 13.3%. The adverse fetal outcomes imputable to adolescent births were low birth weight (teenage pregnancies were mainly perineal tear (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.95-2.7). Teenage births were not discovered in any significant way to cause preeclampsia/eclampsia, episiotomy, premature rupture of membranes and caesarean section. Maternal factors like age and gravidity were discovered to lead to adverse fetal outcomes in adolescents, while maternal factors like age, unemployment, marital status and gravidity were, for their part, directly responsible for adverse maternal outcomes in adolescents. Teenage pregnancies are quite prevalent in the Buea Health District, and hospital delivery common. Adolescent pregnancies are more likely to lead to adverse fetal and maternal outcomes than adult pregnancies.

  20. Hip fracture in older adults: prevalence and costs in two hospitals. Tabasco. México. 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo-Tejero, Elsy del Carmen; División Académica de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. México. Médico, Maestra en Geriatría.; Zavala-González, Marco Antonio; División Académica de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. México. Médico, Maestro en Educación.; Hernández-Gamas, Arianna del Carmen; División Académica de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. México. Estudiante de Medicina Humana.; Hernández-Ortega, Hilda María; División Académica de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. México. Estudiante de Medicina Humana.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To determine hip fracture prevalence and direct healthcare costs in elderly users of the reference hospitals of the Mexican Institute of Social Insurance (IMSS by spanish initials) and Mexican Oils (PEMEX by spanish initials), from Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, during 2009. Materials and methods. This is a cross-sectional study. The information was based on the registers of surgical interventions and institutional reports of the elderly inpatients who had a registered attention i...

  1. PREVALENCE OF VAGINITIS IN FEMALES ATTENDING NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE AND TEACHING HOSPITAL, BIRGUNJ, NEPAL

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    Dipak Bhargava*, Sanjay Kar, Abhilasha Saha, Mukesha Saha

    2016-01-01

    Vaginitis which include bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis are the major gynaecological problems associated with the females of reproductive age group. In this study a sincere effort has been put to find out the prevalence of common types of vaginitis in females attending the Gynaecological outpatient Department of National medical college and teaching hospital, Birgunj from 1st January, 2016 to 30th June, 2016. A total of three hundred and thirty high vaginal sw...

  2. [Prevalence and characteristics of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal diseases in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; González-Galilea, Ángel; Gisbert, Javier P; Cucala, Mercedes; Ponce, Julio

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal diseases. An epidemiological, multicenter, mixed design study (retrospective review of randomized clinical records and prospective visits) conducted between February 2010 and March 2011 in 22 Spanish gastroenterology departments. Severe anemia was defined as Hb < 10g/dL, mild/moderate as Hb ≥ 10g/dL, and iron deficiency as ferritin < 30ng/ml or transferrin saturation < 16%. We included 379 patients. The mean±SD age was 57±19 years and 47% were men. The prevalence of anemia at admission was 60% (95% CI 55 to 65), and anemia was severe (Hb <10g/dl) in half the patients. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 54% of evaluable patients (95% CI 47 to 61). Gastrointestinal bleeding at admission was found in 39% of the patients, of whom 83% (121/146) were anemic. At discharge, the proportion of anemic patients was unchanged (from 60% at admission to 58% at discharge) (95% CI 53 to 63) and iron deficiency was found in 41% (95% CI 32 to 50): anemia was severe in 17% and mild/moderate in 41%. During follow-up, at 3-6 months after admission, 44% (95% CI 39 to 50) of evaluable patients continued to have iron deficiency and 28% (95% CI 23 to 32) were still anemic: 5% severe and 23% mild/moderate. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 44% (95% CI: 39-50). During admission, 50% of patients with anemia did not receive treatment. At discharge, 55% were untreated. The prevalence of anemia in patients hospitalized for gastroenterological diseases was very high. Anemia persisted in over a quarter of patients at the follow-up visit. Only half of hospitalized patients received treatment for anemia, even when the anemia was severe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalência de dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial de Salvador, Brasil Prevalence of dyslipidemias in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil

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    Ines Lessa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial não-hospitalar da cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Casuística procedente de amostra probabilística de 25% dos laboratórios não-hospitalares da cidade que usavam o método enzimático para dosagem dos lípides séricos e controle de qualidade da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (93% do total; LDL estimado pela fórmula de Friedewald. Sorteados os meses ímpares de 1995 para o estudo. Critérios para dislipidemias, em mg/dl: colesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200. Análise: prevalências, seus intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% e qui-quadrado (chi². RESULTADOS: Excluídos uma recusa e um laboratório que arquivava laudos só por 3 meses, foram analisados dados de 24 dos 26 laboratórios amostrados. Dos 7392 adultos, 65,5% eram mulheres. Prevalências estimadas e valores dos IC a 95% para homens, foram: hipercolesterolemia =24,0% (20,5; 27,5; LDL elevado =26,1 (22,4; 29,3; HDL baixo =15,9 (14,2; 17,8 e hipertrigliceridemia =27,6 (25,7; 29,5. Para mulheres: hipercolesterolemia =30,0 (27,8; 32,2, LDL elevado =33,1 (30,8; 35,4; HDL baixo =8,0 (7,1; 8,9 e hipertrigliceridemia =30,4 (29,0; 31,4. Todas as prevalências diferiram significantemente inter-gênero (p, 0,05 a pPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in subjects from a probabilistic sample of 25% of a total of 104 local laboratories that used the same enzymatic method for lipid analysis with the quality control as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analyses. These represented 93% of all non-hospital laboratories of Salvador in 1995. The odd months of 1995 were selected for sampling in the present study. Criteria for dyslipidemias were: total cholesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200mg/dl. Prevalence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI and chi² test were

  4. A Point Prevalence Survey of Antibiotic Use in 18 Hospitals in Egypt

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    Maha Talaat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate antibiotic use leads to increased risk of antibiotic resistance and other adverse outcomes. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of antibiotic use in Egyptian hospitals to identify opportunities for quality improvement. A point prevalence survey was conducted in 18 hospitals in March 2011. A total of 3408 patients were included and 59% received at least one antibiotic, with the most significant use among persons <12 years and intensive care unit patients (p < 0.05. Third generation cephalosporin were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics (28.7% of prescriptions. Reasons for antibiotic use included treatment of community—(27% and healthcare-associated infections (11% and surgical (39% and medical (23% prophylaxis. Among surgical prophylaxis recipients, only 28% of evaluable cases received the first dose within two hours before incision and only 25% of cases received surgical prophylaxis for <24 h. The prevalence of antibiotic use in Egyptian hospitals was high with obvious targets for antimicrobial stewardship activities including provision of antibiotic prescription guidelines and optimization of surgical and medical prophylaxis practices.

  5. [Hip fracture in older adults: prevalence and costs in two hospitals. Tabasco, Mexico, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Tejero, Elsy del Carmen; Zavala-González, Marco Antonio; Hernández-Gamas, Arianna del Carmen; Hernández-Ortega, Hilda María

    2011-01-01

    To determine hip fracture prevalence and direct healthcare costs in elderly users of the reference hospitals of the Mexican Institute of Social Insurance (IMSS by spanish initials) and Mexican Oils (PEMEX by spanish initials), from Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, during 2009. This is a cross-sectional study. The information was based on the registers of surgical interventions and institutional reports of the elderly inpatients who had a registered attention in their institution. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed considering the following variables: age, gender, hip fracture type, occurrence month, direct healthcare cost. Out of 10,765 records of hospitalized elderly, 57 hip fracture cases were found (33 in the IMSS and 24 in PEMEX). Hip fracture prevalence was 0.5%, (IMSS 1.1% and PEMEX 0.3%), being more frequent in women and older than 69. The most frequent fracture type was the femur neck one (78.9%). The estimated cost of healthcare in the hospital per patient was USD 5,803 in the IMSS and USD 11,800 in PEMEX. The hip fracture prevalence was higher in the IMSS users. Estimated healthcare costs per patient were higher than the reported in other institutions of the of the mexican health national system.

  6. Prevalence of hospital malnutrition in Latin America: the multicenter ELAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, M Isabel T D; Campos, Antonio Carlos L

    2003-10-01

    We determined the nutrition status and prevalence of malnutrition as determined by the Subjective Global Assessment in Latin America, investigated the awareness of the health team with regard to nutrition status, evaluated the use of nutritional therapy, and assessed the governmental policies regulating the practice of nutritional therapy in each country. This cross-sectional, multicenter epidemiologic study enrolled 9348 hospitalized patients older than 18 y in Latin America. Student's t test and chi-square tests were used to analyze univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, respectively. Malnutrition was present in 50.2% of the patients studied. Severe malnutrition was present in 11.2% of the entire group. Malnutrition correlated with age (>60 y), presence of cancer and infection, and longer length of hospital stay (P policies ruling the practice of nutritional therapy exist only in Brazil and Costa Rica. Hospital malnutrition in Latin America is highly prevalent. Despite this prevalence, physicians' awareness of malnutrition is weak, nutritional therapy is not used routinely, and governmental policies for nutritional therapy are scarce.

  7. Prevalence of Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma in Elders Admitted to a Reference Hospital in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Filho, Marcus Antonio Melo; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Dos Anjos, Rita Edna da Silveira; Pinheiro, Solange Sousa; Cardoso, Luciana de Carvalho Pádua; Moizan, Jean André Hervé; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter

    2015-01-01

    To know the prevalence and etiology of oral and maxillofacial trauma in elders. Analytical quantitative cross-sectional study conducted at a public trauma hospital located in Fortaleza-Ceará, Brazil. The study population comprised patients with trauma who were hospitalized from April to August 2014. Of these patients, patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma were chosen to be included in the research. A questionnaire was administered in order to obtain information on socio-demographics, systemic comorbidities, use of medication, deleterious habits (smoking and alcohol consumption), etiology of oral and maxillofacial trauma and type of pre-hospital care. Of the 280 elderly hospitalized with trauma, 47 had oral and maxillofacial trauma, with a prevalence of 16.8%. In this group, the age ranged from 60 to 88 years, with a mean age of 72.4 years (SD± 8.38). The elderly were mostly women (55.3%), self-declared pardos (53.2%), who presented with cardiovascular disorders (48.9%), and who received formal pre-hospital care (70.2%). Elderly who were in the 60-69 years age group, spent 6-9 years at school and drank alcohol were 2.64, 3.75, and 1.97, respectively, more likely to suffer oral and maxillofacial trauma. The main causes of trauma were physical aggression, traffic accidents, falls and domestic accidents. All of the physical aggressions resulted in oral and maxillofacial traumas, and the elderly who suffered traffic accidents were four times more likely to have oral and maxillofacial trauma. The prevalence of 16.8% and the lack of research on oral and maxillofacial traumas in the elderly is worrisome and should be included in the oral health indicators for the elderly population to support the importance of oral health.

  8. Prevalence, intensity and complications of Microsporidium spores amongst HIV-positive hospital patients in Ilorin, Nigeria

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    Amase Nyamngee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microsporidiasis, which is of great concern for immunocompromised patients, is poorly studied in developing countries. Objectives: A study was carried out amongst HIV-positive hospital patients and HIV-negative hospital controls in Ilorin, Nigeria, between January 2009 and July 2010 to determine the prevalence and intensity of Microsporidium spores and the complications associated with their presence. Method: Stool samples from 750 HIV-positive patients and 375 HIV-negative patients were studied using the Chromotrope-2R staining technique. Determination of CD4+ count was performed on the Partec Cyflow SL-3 CD4/8 instrument. Intensity of spores was determined by counting the total number of the spores in a 10 μl stained smear of stool. Images were captured with Phenix Microimage Analysis Software and data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: The prevalence of Microsporidium isolates amongst the HIV-positive hospital patients was significantly higher (42.4% than amongst the HIV-negative controls (19.2%(p < 0.05. The intensity of microsporidial spores amongst HIV-positive hospital patients was also significantly higher than amongst the controls (p < 0.05. However, the difference in the intensity of spores amongst HIV-positive patients who were on antiretroviral therapy(n = 411 and those who were not (n = 339 was not significant (p = 0.236. Microsporidiasis in HIV infection infection was common amongst patients with with low CD4+ counts, diarrhoea, body rashes and cough. Conclusion: Both the prevalence and intensity of Microsporidiasis are high amongst HIV-positive hospital patients; campaigns to promote awareness, prevention and control are required. Laboratory testing for microsporidia in HIV patients should be performed routinely so as to identify the organism for prompt medical attention.

  9. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Yalewayker Tegegne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  10. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okocha, E C; Ibeh, C C; Ele, P U; Ibeh, N C

    2005-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors and to determine the possible risk of transmission of malaria parasite to recipients of blood in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State. Four hundred and forty-four subjects were selected randomly and EDTA added blood was collected for screening malaria parasites using Giemsa stain. The data were subjected to chi2 analysis. Prevalence of malaria was 30.2% among blood donors and showed bimodal distribution with significant variation in different months. Due to high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in this region, all blood samples should be screened for malaria parasites (post-donor screening) and administered with a curative dose of antimalarials prophylactically to all patients transfused with malaria parasite positive blood.

  11. Atherosclerotic Heart Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors in Hospitalized Men with Hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Moore, Charity G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Few studies have determined prevalence and predictors of ASHD in hemophilia (HA), a population whose survival is improving with safer blood products and effective treatments for AIDS and hepatitis C. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with ASHD in hemophilia A patients in Pennsylvania. Methods The prevalence of ASHD (myocardial infarction, angina, coronary disease), cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, co-morbidities, and in-hospital mortality were assessed on statewide ASHD discharge data, 2001–2006, from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4). Results The prevalence of hemophilia ASHD admissions fluctuated between 6.5% and 10.5% for 2001 to 2006, p=0.62. Compared to HA without ASHD, HA with ASHD were older and more likely to be hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic, all pHemophilia patients with ASHD have similar cardiovascular risk factors, admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, and in-hospital mortality as the general population. These findings suggest cardiovascular prevention measures should be promoted in hemophilia. PMID:21371197

  12. Apnea in the Otherwise Healthy, Term Newborn: National Prevalence and Utilization during the Birth Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jonathan C; Jang, Jisun; Rhein, Lawrence M

    2017-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of apnea in otherwise healthy term newborns, identify attributable length of stay (LOS) and healthcare utilization (cost) of apnea, and measure hospital variation in attributable LOS and cost of apnea in this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of a national administrative dataset, the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database, which included 3.4 million newborn discharges in the US. The birth hospitalizations of approximately 2.6 million otherwise healthy, full-term newborns were included for analysis. Attributable LOS and cost of apnea were calculated using multivariate analyses. Apnea was diagnosed in 1 in 1000 healthy full-term newborns. Multivariate analyses showed that newborns with apnea had 0.6 days longer LOS (P apnea plus hypoxia and/or bradycardia had 1.4 days longer LOS (P apnea varied between individual hospitals and differed by hospital region. Apnea is associated with higher LOS and cost in the newborn hospitalization, with variation in hospital practice. This suggests the need for better comprehension of the underlying physiology and standardization of practice in its management in the term newborn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary Greek hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachrimanidou, M; Tsorlini, E; Katsifa, E; Vlachou, S; Kyriakidou, S; Xanthopoulou, K; Tsergouli, K; Samourli, T; Papa, A

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of health- and community-associated infections; its prevalence in Greece is among the highest in Europe. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of MRSA in a tertiary Greek hospital. Spa typing and random polymorphic DNA analysis were used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of 28 MRSA isolates during May 2010 to May 2011 in a tertiary hospital in Northern Greece. Nine spa types were detected; t003 was the predominant (32.1%) one, detected in various wards and throughout the study period, while t037 was recovered only from intensive care unit patients, and only in April 2011, suggestive of an epidemic. Additional rare types were detected for the first time in Greece. Spa typing and random polymorphic DNA analysis gave an insight into the epidemiology of MRSA in a Northern Greece hospital. Concerning the distribution in the hospital, the predominant spa type t003 was present in various wards, and was constantly detected throughout the study period, very suggestive of an epidemic, while other types were detected only in specific wards. Our data underline the need for surveillance, typing and constant reassessment of existing strategies to control MRSA.

  14. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST80-IV in hospital and community settings in Algiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antri, K; Rouzic, N; Dauwalder, O; Boubekri, I; Bes, M; Lina, G; Vandenesch, F; Tazir, M; Ramdani-Bouguessa, N; Etienne, J

    2011-04-01

    USA300 is an epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (C-MRSA) clone in the USA, whereas the European C-MRSA clone ST80-IV has mainly a sporadic diffusion in Europe. The prevalence of European clone ST80-IV in Algeria is poorly documented. We prospectively studied S. aureus infections at Mustapha Bacha hospital in Algiers over a 20-month period. S. aureus nasal colonization was studied during a further 6-month period. The European clone ST80-IV was responsible for more than one-third of both community infections (35.7%) and hospital infections (35.8%). Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA isolated from hospital inpatients were resistant to multiple antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones in 44.9% of cases. The PVL-positive MRSA nasal carriage rate was high among patients and staff in the dermatology unit (8.7% and 18.5%, respectively), but low (2.7%) among patients attending the outpatient clinic. The European PVL-positive C-MRSA clone ST80-IV is widespread in the Algiers hospital and community settings. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. Embedding integrated mental health assessment and management in general hospital settings: feasibility, acceptability and the prevalence of common mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, L; Matcham, F; Hutton, J; Stringer, C; Dobson, J; Steer, S; Hotopf, M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of routine web-based screening in general hospital settings, and describe the level of common mental disorder. A service development platform to integrate mental and physical healthcare was implemented in six specialties (rheumatology, limb reconstruction, hepatitis C, psoriasis, adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), chronic pain) across three general hospitals in London, UK. Under service conditions, patients completed a web-based questionnaire comprising mental and physical patient-reported outcome measures, whilst waiting for their appointment. Feasibility was quantified as the proportion of patients who completed the questionnaire. Acceptability was quantified as the proportion of patients declining screening, and the proportion requiring assistance completing the questionnaire. The prevalence of probable depression and anxiety was expressed as the percentage of cases determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7. The proportion of patients screened varied widely across specialties (40.1-98.2%). The decline rate was low (0.6-9.7%) and the minority required assistance (11.7-40.4%). The prevalence of probable depression ranged from 60.9% in chronic pain to 6.6% in ACHD. The prevalence of probable anxiety ranged from 25.1% in rheumatology to 11.4% in ACHD. Web-based screening is acceptable to patients and can be effectively embedded in routine practice. General hospital patients are at increased risk of common mental disorder, and routine screening may help identify need, inform care and monitor outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Extended-spectrum β-Lactamases-producing Escherichia coli from Hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan

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    Mutasim E. Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and assess antimicrobial susceptibility of extended- spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from clinical specimens of patients at hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan.Methods: During April to August 2011, a total of 232 E. coli isolates were collected from various clinical specimens of patients. Isolates were identified, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened for ESBL production as per standard methods. The double-disk diffusion method was used to confirm ESBL production using antimicrobial disks of ceftazidime (30 μg, cefotaxime (30 μg, with or without clavulanic acid (10 μg. A zone difference of >5 mm between disks was considered indicative of ESBL production.Results: Out of 232 E. coli isolates, 70 (30.2% were found to be positive for ESBL by the applied phenotypic methods. ESBL-producing isolates yielded high resistance rates for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98.6%, tetracycline (88.6%, nalidixic acid (81.4% and ciprofloxacin (81.4%. The highest antimicrobial activities of ESBL-producing isolates were observed for amikacin (95.7%, followed by tobramicin (74.3% and nitrofurantoin (68.6%. Resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and chloramphenicol was higher in ESBL than non-ESBL isolates (p<0.05. The frequency of ESBL-producing isolates varied among hospitals (18.2% to 45.1%, although a high prevalence was recorded as 45.1% at Khartoum Teaching Hospital. Wound specimens were the most common source of ESBL-producing isolates. The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli did not differ significantly between adults and children (31% vs. 27%.Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli detected in this study is of great concern, which requires sound infection control measures including antimicrobial management and detection of ESBL-producing isolates.

  17. Suspected appendicitis during pregnancy: prevalence and management at prince Hashem Ben AL-Hussein Hospital (Zarqa/Jordan

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    Hasan Al-Dahamsheh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the clinical picture and outcome of suspected appendicitis in pregnant women. Retrospective analytic study of 28 appendectomies performed during pregnancy for suspected appendicitis in our hospital at period April 2004 to September 2006. All files and medical records of these patients were analyzed and studied. Those including variables (demographic, clinical, laboratory and surgical outcomes data were collected retrospectively. Prevalence of appendicitis was calculated from the total number of deliveries and abortions that occurred during this period. Numbers of correct and wrong diagnosis were reported and comparison of perinatal outcome, maternal morbidity and different variables in negative and positive laparotomies performed. The prevalence of suspected appendicitis in pregnancy is 0.29%. Incidences of negative laparotomies were 36%. The most diagnostic findings for acute appendicitis were history of periumbilical pain, anorexia and Rt iliac fossa findings. Half of wrong diagnosis were related to premature labor pain or abortion. The prevalence of suspected appendicitis during pregnancy in our environment during this period was higher than the reported incidence and rate of wrong diagnosis still high. Good clinical assessment with adjunct ultrasonic examination could reduce the incidence of negative laparotomies or prevent late complication. Delay in operation leading to higher rate of maternal morbidity and adversely affect the obstetric outcome. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-1, 36-43 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i1.6824

  18. Prevalence of Depression among Type 2 Diabetic Outpatients in Black Lion General Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients’ depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9. Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75 fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32 for moderate depression, 2.7% (7 for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4 for severe depression. But 45.8% (121 of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%.

  19. Hospitalization rates and post-operative mortality for abdominal aortic aneurysm in Italy over the period 2000-2011.

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    Luigi Sensi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported declines in incidence, prevalence and mortality for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs in various countries, but evidence from Mediterranean countries is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine the trend of hospitalization and post-operative mortality rates for AAAs in Italy during the period 2000-2011, taking into account the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR in 1990s. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with 4.5 million inhabitants. A total of 19,673 patients hospitalized for AAAs between 2000 and 2011, were identified from the hospital discharge records (HDR database. Hospitalization rates, percentage of OSR and EVAR and 30-day mortality rates were calculated for unruptured (uAAAs and ruptured AAAs (rAAAs. RESULTS: Adjusted hospitalization rates decreased on average by 2.9% per year for uAAAs and 3.2% for rAAAs (p<0.001. The temporal trend of 30-day mortality rates remained stable for both groups. The percentage of EVAR for uAAAs increased significantly from 2006 to 2011 (42.7 versus 60.9% respectively, mean change of 3.9% per year, p<0.001. No significant difference in mortality was found between OSR and EVAR for uAAAs and rAAAs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and trend of hospitalization rates for rAAAs and uAAAs decreased significantly in the last decade, while 30-day mortality rates in operated patients remained stable. OSR continued to be the most common surgery in rAAAs, although the gap between OSR and EVAR recently declined. The EVAR technique became the preferred surgery for uAAAs since 2008.

  20. High prevalence of skin and wound care of hospitalized elderly in Brazil: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Silva, Carleara Ferreira; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; de Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista; do Carmo, Thalita Gomes

    2017-02-02

    Skin changes caused by aging increase the risk of skin damages, such as pressure ulcers, during hospitalization of elderly patients. There is few information about the cost of wound treatment in Brazil. Conversely, skin and wound problems are highly reported among hospitalized elderly patients and caregivers. The purpose is to analyze the socio-demographic and clinical profile associated with skin and wound care in hospitalized elderly. This is a prospective observational study. The sample consisted of 75 patients, aged 60 years or more, randomly selected in three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data extraction from nursing records of the sample, using cross mapping with Nursing Interventions Classification. Data Synthesis supported by SAS 6.11 (SAS Institute, Inc. Cary North Carolina) in association with SPSS version 14.0 and statistics analysis. The findings were: age standard deviation 7.8, with minimum as 60, and maximum as 91 years old. Prevalence of women and married seniors. High prevalence of long-term hospitalization. There were 21 Nursing Interventions in the nursing records and seventeen of them related to skin and wound care. They were described in 57 nursing activities, present during 376 evaluations and repeated 1756 times. A significant difference was obtained between age and the presence of the nursing interventions "Positioning" (p-0.004), Eye Care/Hygiene (p- < 0.0001) and Oral Health Maintenance (p-0.0003). The skin care to prevention and treatment of skin damages represented the major demand of nursing interventions in different clinical conditions of hospitalized elderly.

  1. Association Between Medicare Summary Star Ratings for Patient Experience and Clinical Outcomes in US Hospitals

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    Stephen Trzeciak MD, MPH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS released new summary star ratings for US hospitals based on patient experience. We aimed to test the association between CMS patient experience star ratings and clinical outcomes. Methods: We analyzed risk-adjusted data for more than 3000 US hospitals from CMS Hospital Compare using linear regression. Results: We found that better patient experience was associated with favorable clinical outcomes. Specifically, a higher number of stars for patient experience had a statistically significant association with lower rates of many in-hospital complications. A higher patient experience star rating also had a statistically significant association with lower rates of unplanned readmissions to the hospital within 30 days. Conclusion: Better patient experience according to the CMS star ratings is associated with favorable clinical outcomes. These results support the inclusion of patient experience data in the framework of how hospitals are paid for services.

  2. Prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital Prevalencia del tabaquismo en funcionarios de un hospital universitario Prevalência do tabagismo em funcionários de um hospital universitário

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Cristina Echer; Ana Paula Almeida Corrêa; Amália de Fátima Lucena; Stephani Amanda Lukasewicz Ferreira; Marli Maria Knorst

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital in Southern Brazil. Data collection happened in 2008, during the periodic health exam, using a questionnaire, according to the smoking status of the employees. The sample consisted of 1,475 subjects, in which 979 (66.4%) were non-smokers, 295 (20%) former smokers and 201 (13.6%) smokers. Smoking was more prevalent among employees with lower education levels and among professionals i...

  3. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reliability assessment of a hospital quality measure based on rates of adverse outcomes on nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggs, Vincent S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for assessing the reliability of scores on a widely disseminated hospital quality measure based on nursing unit fall rates. Poisson regression interactive multilevel modeling was adapted to account for clustering of units within hospitals. Three signal-noise reliability measures were computed. Squared correlations between the hospital score and true hospital fall rate averaged 0.52 ± 0.18 for total falls (0.68 ± 0.18 for injurious falls). Reliabilities on the other two measures averaged at least 0.70 but varied widely across hospitals. Parametric bootstrap data reflecting within-unit noise in falls were generated to evaluate percentile-ranked hospital scores as estimators of true hospital fall rate ranks. Spearman correlations between bootstrap hospital scores and true fall rates averaged 0.81 ± 0.01 (0.79 ± 0.01). Bias was negligible, but ranked hospital scores were imprecise, varying across bootstrap samples with average SD 11.8 (14.9) percentiles. Across bootstrap samples, hospital-measure scores fell in the same decile as the true fall rate in about 30% of cases. Findings underscore the importance of thoroughly assessing reliability of quality measurements before deciding how they will be used. Both the hospital measure and the reliability methods described can be adapted to other contexts involving clustered rates of adverse patient outcomes.

  5. [Prevalence rate of ovine hepatic cystic echinococcosis in Quaker Wusu area of Bayinbuluke of Xinjiang, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Yang, Lingfei; Zhang, Wenbao; Li, Haitao; Jiang, Tao; Qi, Xinwei; Song, Tao

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of ovine hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE) in sheep in Quaker Wusu area of Bayinbuluke of Xinjiang by ultrasonography and provide evidence for the prevention and control of HCE in sheep. The prevalence screening of HCE in sheep was conducted based on ultrasound images in this area in July 2014. The sheep were divided into different groups by dental age to calculate the age specific prevalence rate of HCE and analyzed the correlation between the dental age and the prevalence rate. The total prevalence rate of HCE in sheep in this area was 36.9%. The prevalence rates of none-calcified HCE and calcified HCE were 7.3% and 29.6%, respectively. The prevalence rates of none-calcified HCE in different age groups were 1.2% (1-2 years old), 1.4% (2-3 years old), 14.0% (3-4 years old), 10.0% (4-5 years old), 15.6% (5-6 years old) and 4.2% (>6 years old) respectively. The prevalence rate of calcified HCE in different age groups were 9.9% (1-2 years old), 16.2% (2-3 years old), 31.6% (3-4 years old), 47.8% (4-5 years old), 42.2% (5-6 years old) and 41.7% (>6 years old) respectively. The prevalence rate of HCE in 1-2 years old group was lower than those in other groups, the prevalence rate of HCE in age groups >3 years increased significantly. There was positive correlation between the prevalence rate of HCE and dental age (r = 0.372, R(2) = 0.107, F = 44.176, P = 0.000). HCE is highly endemic in Quaker Wusu area. The prevalence rate of HCE is low in sheep with young age and high in sheep aged 3-4 years. It is necessary to conduct early prevention of HCE in sheep in this area.

  6. Prevalence of palate-gingival groove in patients of Dhulikhel Hospital

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    D Shreshta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palato-gingival groove is a rare developmental anomaly leading to pulpal and periodontal diseases. Radicular extensions of these grooves are areas for plaque accumulation which are difficult to clean. Its clinical and radiographic findings mimic endo-perio lesions leading to diagnostic dilemma, ineffective treatment attempts and treatment failures. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of coronal and radicular palato-gingival groove in dental patients visiting Dhulikhel Hospital and its association with gingival disease. Methods: Patients (N=231 visiting dental out-patient department of Dhulikhel Hospital, were examined for the presence or absence of palato-gingival groove in maxillary anteriors. Loe and Silness Gingival index was also recorded for all the patients using University of North Caroline-15 periodontal probe. Chisquare test was used to test the association of the presence of palato-gingival groove and gingival disease. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 1362 maxillary anterior teeth were included in the study. The prevalence of coronal palatogingival groove among 1362 teeth was 6.6%. Coronal palato-gingival grooves were more common in females (56.6% than in male (43.3% patients. Prevalence of radicular groove was only 0.88% for lateral incisors and 0.2% for canines. There was no significant association between palate-gingival groove and gingival disease (P=0.91. Conclusion: The prevalence of palato-gingival groove is common in dental patients visiting Dhulikhel Hospital. Gingival disease is not significantly associated with palate-gingival groove. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i1.12765 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(1; 32-36

  7. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Kroon, M.L.A. de; Cameron, N.; Schonbeck, Y.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  8. Identification of medication discrepancies during hospital admission in Jordan: Prevalence and risk factors

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    Lana Salameh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medication errors are considered among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Among these errors are discrepancies identified during transfer of patients from one care unit to another, from one physician care to another, or upon patient discharge. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify the prevalence and types of medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Jordan and to identify risk factors affecting the occurrence of these discrepancies. Methods: A three months prospective observational study was conducted at the department of internal medicine at Jordan university hospital. During the study period, 200 patients were selected using convenience sampling, and a pre-prepared data collection form was used for data collection. Later, a comparison between the pre-admission and admission medication was conducted to identify any possible discrepancies, and all of these discrepancies were discussed with the responsible resident to classify them into intentional (documentation errors or unintentional. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors associated with the occurrence of unintentional discrepancies. Results: A total of 412 medication discrepancies were identified at the time of hospital admission. Among them, 144 (35% were identified as unintentional while the remaining 268 (65% were identified as intentional discrepancies. Ninety-four patients (47% were found to have at least one unintentional discrepancy and 92 patients (46% had at least one documentation error. Among the unintentional discrepancies, 97 (67% were found to be associated with a potential harm/deterioration to the patients. Increasing patients’ age (beta = 0.195, p-value = .013 and being treated by female residents (beta = 0.139, p-value = .045 were significantly associated with higher number of discrepancies. Conclusion: The prevalence of

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug-drug Interactions in the Regional Hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Driton; Tahiri, Zejdush; Bara, Petrit; Hudhra, Klejda; Malaj, Ledian; Jucja, Besnik; Bozalia, Adnan; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged ≥18 years (mean age: 57.8±11.2 years; 50.3% women; overall response: 96%) from the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo, during 2011-2013. Potential drug-drug-interactions were assessed and clinical data as well as demographic and socioeconomic information were collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of drug-drug interactions. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as the clinical characteristics, drug-drug interactions were positively and significantly related to older age (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.3-2.8), a lower educational attainment (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.9), a longer hospitalization period (OR=2.7, 95%CI=2.1-3.6), presence of three groups of diseases [infectious diseases (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.3-2.4), cardiovascular diseases (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.4-2.6), respiratory diseases (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.2-2.5)], presence of comorbid conditions (OR=3.2, 95%CI=2.3-4.4) and an intake of at least four drugs (OR=5.9, 95%CI=4.6-7.1). Our study provides important evidence on the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the hospitalized patients in the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo. Findings from our study should raise the awareness of decision-makers and policy makers about the prevalence and determinants of drug-drug interactions in the adult population of post-war Kosovo.

  10. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among Italian hospital healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficarra, Maria G; Gualano, Maria R; Capizzi, Silvio; Siliquini, Roberta; Liguori, Giorgio; Manzoli, Lamberto; Briziarelli, Lamberto; Parlato, Antonino; Cuccurullo, Pasquale; Bucci, Roberto; Piat, Simone Chiadò; Masanotti, Giuseppe; de Waure, Chiara; Ricciardi, Walter; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2011-02-01

    Healthcare professionals play a key role in tobacco use prevention because they are considered as model by patients. This multicenter study was aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence, knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco among Italian hospital professionals. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered to healthcare professionals in seven Italian hospitals, to investigate personal and occupational data, knowledge, attitudes, job setting, clinical activities, smoking habits and pattern for current smokers. Potential predictors of current smoking habits were evaluated using multiple logistic regressions. Sample population was comprised of 1082 health professionals (51.4% females; mean age was 37.3 years: 25.3% were nurses, 24.5% medical doctors, 17.1% students and 33.1% other healthcare workers). Smoking prevalence was 44%. Among responders, 67.7% considered healthcare professional as a model for citizens, 90.5% declared to see colleagues smoking cigarettes inside the hospital (47.4% in the dependents' toilets, 33.4% in the department kitchens and 4.7% in the patient room). Multivariate analysis showed that healthcare professionals working in Naples had a higher risk to be smokers in comparison to Rome [odds ratio (OR) = 2.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-3.73]. Compared to medical doctors, post-graduate students (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.81-6.44), nurses (OR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.51-4.08), nursing students (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.08-3.38) and auxiliary personnel (OR = 2.72; 95% CI 1.51-4.88), showed a higher likelihood of smoking. Among Italian hospital personnel there is a paradoxically large prevalence of smokers, higher than in the general population. Interventions aimed for the development of an adequate culture of health promotion, among these professionals, are urgently needed.

  11. ANEMIA PREVALANCE AND RELATED FACTORS IN PREGNANT WOMEN ADMITTED TO STATE HOSPITAL

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    Riza Citil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to determine the prevalance of anemia and related nutrition and other risk factors in pregnant women who admitted to the hospital for prenatal care. Material and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study to receive prenatal care to the hospital admitted 311 women participated. The data on socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women, pregnancy information and dietary habits using a questionnaire that was collected using face to face interviews. To determine anemia in pregnant women in the hospital laboratory records made during routine pregnancy examination hemoglobin (Hb values were used. Hb values of 0.05. Similarly, pregnancy, abortion and curettage with the numbers there is no significant difference between the prevalance of anemia (p> 0.05. Using iron-multivitamin preparations in pregnant women (32.9% than those using (20.4% were seen significantly more anemia, and anemia among pregnants who drank dark tea was more prevalent than pregnants who drank light tea and the difference was significant (33,9% vs 17,2% (p<0,05. Conclusion: As a conclusion, admitted to the hospital for routine prenatal care, anemia seen in one of every four pregnant women, and not taking iron-multivitamin preparations regularly and consumption of dark tea seemed to be related with gestational anemia. Thus, anemia should be diagnosed earlier in pregnant and iron and vitamin supplements must be started; and women must be informed about the risk factors of anemia by the health stuff. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 76-83

  12. Determinants of hospital fall rate trajectory groups: a longitudinal assessment of nurse staffing and organizational characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Damian; Schumacher, Jessica R; Duncan, R Paul; Hall, Allyson G; Neff, Donna F; Shorr, Ronald I

    2014-01-01

    Patient falls in acute care hospitals represent a significant patient safety concern. Although cross-sectional studies have shown that fall rates vary widely between acute care hospitals, it is not clear whether hospital fall rates remain consistent over time. The aim of this study was to determine whether hospitals can be categorized into fall rate trajectory groups over time and to identify nurse staffing and hospital characteristics associated with hospital fall rate trajectory groups. We conducted a 54-month (July 2006-December 2010) longitudinal study of U.S. acute care general hospitals participating in the National Database for Nursing Quality Indicators (2007). We used latent class growth modeling to categorize hospitals into groups based on their long-term fall rates. Nurse staffing and hospital characteristics associated with membership in the highest hospital fall rate group were identified using logistic regression. A sample of 1,529 hospitals (mean fall rate of 3.65 per 1,000 patient days) contributed data to the analysis. Latent class growth modeling findings classified hospital into three groups based on fall rate trajectories: consistently high (mean fall rate of 4.96 per 1,000 patient days), consistently medium (mean fall rate of 3.63 per 1,000 patient days), and consistently low (mean fall rate of 2.50 per 1,000 patient days). Hospitals with higher total nurse staffing (odds ratio [OR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.85, 0.99]), Magnet status (OR = 0.49, 95% CI [0.35, 0.70]), and bed size greater than 300 beds (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.51, 0.94]) were significantly less likely to be categorized in the "consistently high" fall rate group. Over this 54-month period, hospitals were categorized into three groups based on long-term fall rates. Hospital-level factors differed among these three groups. This suggests that there may be hospitals in which "best practices" for fall prevention might be identified. In addition, administrators may be able

  13. [Trends in the prevalence of pressure ulcers in an acute care tertiary hospital (2006-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Lorente, C; Barrasa-Villar, J I; Aibar-Remón, C

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the trends in pressure ulcer prevalence from 2006 to 2013. To determine the main risk factors associated with pressure ulcers. A descriptive study analysing the prevalence in a series of pressure ulcers collected in the study on the prevalence of nosocomial infections in Spain from 2006 to 2013 in the Clinical University Hospital of Zaragoza. The mean prevalence among the 5,354 patients included over the period of study was 4.5% (95% CI=3.9-5.0%). No significant difference in its trend or distribution of pressure ulcers was observed over the several years of the study. Prevalence increased up to 5.0% (95% CI=4.4-5.6%) when short-stay patients (less than 24 hours) and those admitted into low risk units (Paediatrics, Psychiatry and Obstetrics) were removed from the study, but there was still no significant differences in its yearly trend or distribution (p>0.05). Age, length of stay, presence of coma, in-dwelling urethral catheters, malnutrition, infection, and admission unit were risk factors associated with pressure ulcer prevalence in the logistic regression. Age, length of stay, coma, in-dwelling urethral catheters, malnutrition, infection, and admission unit were independent risk markers for patients with pressure ulcers. No particular trend of pressure ulcer prevalence could be determined to demonstrate any effects from the different strategies of improvement implemented during the period of study, although this fact could be due to the limitations of data used in the study. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence, susceptibility profile for fluconazole and risk factors for candidemia in a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil

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    Valério Rodrigues Aquino

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections caused by yeast, Candida spp, are quite important clinically and epidemiologically due to a high mortality rate and an increasing number of non-albicans species with a more resistant (differentiated susceptibility profile. We examined species prevalence and susceptibility profile for fluconazole and the risk for nosocomial infections by Candida spp at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, a general tertiary care hospital in southern Brazilian, through a retrospective study, beginning with positive cultures of hospitalized patients. The distribution by species in 131 documented episodes was as follows: Candida albicans (45%, C. parapsilosis (24.4%, C. tropicalis (15.3%, C. glabrata (6.9%, C. krusei (4.6% and 3.8% other species (C. pelicullosa, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. The vast majority of samples (121- 92.4% were susceptible to fluconazole; the resistant or dose-dependent sensitive samples included only C. krusei and C. glabrata. Blood diseases (leukemia, lymphoma, or neoplasias (solid tumors, were found in 35.0% of the candidemia episodes. We noted the previous use of antibiotics in 128 (97.7% patients, with 79.7% using three or more antibiotics before the candidemia episode. Other risk factors included a central venous catheter in 94 (71.8% and abdominal surgery in 32 (24.4% patients. The overall mortality rate was 51.9%, which varied according to the underlying disease. We found that C. albicans was the most prevalent species, although the non-albicans species predominated. However, in vitro resistance to fluconazole was detected only among the species (C. glabrata and C. krusei that tend to be resistant to the azolic compounds. Previous use of antibiotic and the use of a central venous catheter were the main risk factors among patients with candidemia.

  15. Prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases among Nepalese adults - a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rajkarnikar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of periodontal diseases among adults visiting the dental department of a hospital based in Jorpati. Methods Four hundred and seventeen patients were randomly taken from a dental hospital situated in Jorpati during the time period of March 2013 to August 2013. All patients visiting the dental department who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The data included patients overall information along with their chief complaint, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD, frequency of brushing, adverse habits and the diagnosis of the patients examined. Results We found that 52.5% suffered from gingivitis and 47.5% suffered from periodontitis. Also 28.3% suffered from localized and 18% suffered from generalized form of periodontitis. There was no statistically significant difference in the gender when the prevalence of periodontal disease was compared. 51.4% of male and 44.4% of female was seen to be affected with periodontitis. Also habits like smoking and intake of smokeless tobacco was seen to be associated with periodontitis. Regarding the age group more number of patients in the age group of >50 years were seen to be suffering from periodontitis (84.3% as compared to age group of <35 years (25.9%. Conclusion There is high prevalence of periodontitis and gingivitis in the studied population. Periodontitis was seen to be more prevalent as age advanced which can be attributed mainly to untreated gingivitis. However, no significant difference was seen in the prevalence of periodontitis with respect to gender. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i1.12762 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(1; 11-16

  16. High prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among hospitalized children in Rakai, Uganda.

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    Valerian L Kiggundu

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data on malaria among hospitalized children in malaria endemic areas. We determined the prevalence, presentation and treatment outcomes of malaria and anemia among children in two hospitals in Rakai, Uganda.Children under five years hospitalized in Kalisizo hospital or Bikira health center in Rakai district, Uganda between May 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled and followed-up until discharge, death or referral. Data were collected on social-demographic characteristics, current and past illnesses and clinical signs and symptoms. Blood smears, hemoglobin (Hgb levels and HIV testing were performed from finger/heel prick blood. The associations between malaria infection and other factors were estimated using log-binomial regression to estimate adjusted prevalence risk ratios (aPRR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs, controlling for clustering at health facilities.2471 children were enrolled. The most common medical presentations were fever (96.2%, cough (61.7%, vomiting (44.2%, diarrhea (20.8%, and seizures (16.0%. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 54.6%. Children with malaria were more likely to present with a history of fever (aPRR 2.23; CI 1.18-4.24 and seizures (aPRR 1.12; CI 1.09-1.16. Confirmed malaria was significantly lower among girls than boys (aPRR 0.92; CI 0.91-0.93, HIV infected children (aPRR 0.60 CI 0.52-0.71, and children with diarrhea (aPRR 0.76; CI 0.65-0.90. The overall prevalence of anemia (Hgb<10 g/dl was 56.3% and severe anemia (Hgb<6 g/dL was 17.8%. Among children with severe anemia 76.8% had malaria parasitemia, of whom 93.1% received blood transfusion. Malaria associated mortality was 0.6%.There was a high prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among inpatient children under five years. Malaria prevention is a priority in this population.

  17. Pressure Ulcer Prevalence and Care in Indonesian Hospitals: A Multicenter, Cross-sectional Evaluation Using an Extended Donabedian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yufitriana; Tan, Frans E S; Halfens, Ruud; Lohrmann, Christa; Schols, Jos

    2017-02-01

    Although the number of studies on pressure ulcer (PU) occurrence continues to grow, research regarding the quality of PU care and its effect on outcomes is limited. Using an extended Donabedian model, a 1-day, multicenter, cross-sectional evaluation of the quality of PU care was conducted in a convenience sample of Indonesian hospitals among patients ≥18 years of age in the medical, surgical, and intensive care units. Structure (ie, hospital attributes), process (recommended PU preventive measures), and outcome indicators (nosocomial PU prevalence excluding nonblanchable erythema), along with patient characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, admission days, diseases [per ICD-10], recent surgery, PU categorization [4 categories according to National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel-European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel guidelines], PU history, care dependency, and Braden score) were examined. Patient data were collected by 2 nurses -1 from the patient's unit and 1 from another unit - using the Landelijke Prevalentiemeting Zorgproblemen-International questionnaire, a paper-and-pencil survey translated into Indonesian. Heads of wards and nursing units completed the questionnaires at institutional and ward levels, respectively. The data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate analyses, and multilevel logistic regression modeling was applied according to the generalized estimating equation approach. Among the 4 participating hospitals, 66 care units, 36 pairs of nurses, and 1132 adult patients (mean age 48.7 ± 17.4 years, 40.9% women) were involved. Ninety-one (91) patients developed 1 or more PUs; the nosocomial PU prevalence (excluding nonblanchable erythema, category I) was 3.6%. The most frequently used PU preventive measures were patient education (329, 29.1%), repositioning (269, 23.8%), and skin moisturizing (266, 23.5%). The factors most associated with nosocomial PU rate excluding category I were the inclusion of PU care in patient care files (P = .001

  18. Prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in three training hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fnais, Naif; al-Nasser, Muhammad; Zamakhshary, Mohammad; Abuznadah, Wesam; Dhukair, Shahla Al; Saadeh, Mayssa; Al-Qarni, Ali; Bokhari, Bayan; Alshaeri, Taqreed; Aboalsamh, Nouf; Binahmed, AbdulAziz

    2013-01-01

    Multiple surveys of medical residents have shown a high incidence of harassment and discrimination in academic health centers. Harassment has a negative effects on residents' health and on their ability to function. No previous study has documented the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in Saudi Arabia. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents at a tertiary care academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional survey conducted at National Guard Hospitals in Riyadh, Jeddah and Al-Ahsa'a from 27 July to 20 August 2010. The survey included questions on the prevalence of harassment of different types, inlcuding verbal, academic, physical and sexual harassment, as well as discrimination on the basis of gender, region of origin or physical appearance. Of 380 residents, 213 (56%) returned a completed questionnaire (123 male, 57.8%). At least one of type of harassment and discrimination was reported by 83.6% of respondents. The most frequently reported forms were verbal harassment and gender discrimination (61.5% and 58.3%, respectively). Sexual harassment was commonly reported (19.3%) and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (P=.0061). Harassment and discrimination of Saudi residents is common with more than three-quarters reporting having had such an experience. Identification of the risk factors is a necessary first step in clarifying this issue and could be used when planning strategies for prevention.

  19. [Prevalence of urinary tract infection in hospitalized patients with preterm labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Terriquez, Jorge Emmanuel; Ramos-Martínez, Martín Alberto; Zamora-Aguilar, Liliana María; Murillo-Llanes, Joel

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with preterm labor. A prospective, observational, descriptive study, with a sample of 272 patients who were hospitalized in the Hospital de la Mujer at Culiacan, Sinaloa that presented symptoms of preterm labor. Age body mass index (BMI), parity, education, weeks of gestation, mode of delivery, history of preterm delivery and UTI were assessed. Of the 272 patients with threatened preterm delivery, 97 (35.6%) had positive urine culture and of these patients, 32 (32.9%) had preterm labor. Association between urinary tract infection and patients with a hemoglobin (Hb) less than 11 g/dL OR: 2.66 95% CI (1.55-4.55), p 0.0003. Was isolated E. coli in 72 (74.4%) patients, Proteus in 9 (9.2%) patients. It was found that 42% of E. coli strains were resistant to ampicillin and 38.4% to ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of UTI is higher than the national prevalence.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with minor psychiatric disorders in hospital housekeeping workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, Cintia da Silva; Magnago, Ana Carolina de Souza; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Andolhe, Rafaela; Tavares, Juliana Petri

    2017-06-12

    Investigating the prevalence and factors associated with minor psychiatric disorders (MPDs) in Hospital housekeeping workers. A cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 with workers from the cleaning service of a public university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected through a form containing sociodemographic, occupational, habits and health variables. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 was used in order to evaluate MPDs. The study population consisted of 161 workers. The overall prevalence of suspected MPD was 29.3%. The chances of suspected MPDs were higher in workers with Effort-Reward Imbalance, those who did not have time or who occasionally had time for leisure activities, and those taking medications. The prevalence of MPDs was similar to that found in the literature for health workers. Therefore, we consider it important to include these workers in institutional programs for continuing health education. Investigar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos Distúrbios Psíquicos Menores (DPMs) em trabalhadores do Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza. Estudo transversal, realizado em 2013, com trabalhadores do serviço de limpeza de um hospital universitário público do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um formulário contendo variáveis sociodemográficas, laborais, hábitos e saúde. Para avaliação dos DPMs utilizou-se do Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. A população do estudo foi composta pelos 161 trabalhadores. A prevalência global para suspeição de DPM foi de 29,3%. As chances de suspeição de DPMs foram maiores nos trabalhadores em Desequilíbrio Esforço-Recompensa, nos que não tinham ou às vezes tinham tempo para o lazer e naqueles que faziam uso de medicação. A prevalência de DPMs assemelhou-se à encontrada na literatura em trabalhadores da área saúde. Portanto, considera-se importante a inclusão desses trabalhadores em programas institucionais de educação permanente em saúde.

  1. Variation in hospital admission rates between a tertiary care and two freestanding emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Erin L; Dark, Cedric; Kovacs, Mitch; Shakya, Sunita; Meek, Craig A

    2017-10-29

    Recently, freestanding emergency departments (FSEDs) have grown significantly in number. Critics have expressed concern that FSEDs may increase healthcare costs. We determined whether admission rates for identical diagnoses varied among the same group of physicians according to clinical setting. This was a retrospective comparison of adult admission rates (n=3230) for chest pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and congestive heart failure (CHF) between a hospital-based ED (HBED) and two FSEDs throughout 2015. Frequency distribution and proportions were reported for categorical variables stratified by facility type. For categories with cell frequency less or equal to 5, Fisher's Exact test was used to calculate a P value. Chi square tests were used to assess difference in proportions of potential predictor variables between the HBED and FSEDs. For continuous variables, the mean was reported and Student's t-test assessed the difference in means between HBED and FSED patients. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) for patient disposition outcomes associated with type of ED facility visited. Of 3230 patients, 53% used the HBED and 47% used the FSED. Patients visiting the HBED and FSED varied significantly in gender, acuity levels, diagnosis, and number of visits. Age was not significantly different between facilities. Multivariable adjusted estimated prevalence odds ratio for patients admitted were 1.2 [95%CI: 1.0-1.4] in the HBED facility compared to patients using FSEDs. In our healthcare system, FSEDs showed a trend towards a 20% lower admission rate for chest pain, COPD, asthma and CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nasal Colonization rate of Staphylococcus aureus strains among Health Care Service Employee’s of Teaching University Hospitals in Yazd

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    Khalili Mohammad Bagher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to find the extent of staphylococcal carriages including Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in employee's of teaching university hospitals in Yazd. Nasal swabs of 742 employees in four different medical teaching hospitals in Yazd were collected, and tested for detection of staphylococci strains. Out of 742 employees, 94 (12.7% were carrier of staphylococcus aurus and 57 (11.38% for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA respectively. Prevalence of Staphylococci aureus and MRSA in individual hospitals and wards were different. In general the highest carriers were personnel of dialysis ward and the lowest pediatrics wards. Resistance rate of MRSA against Ciprofloxacin, Vancomycin, and Rifampin were found to be as 28.1%, 10.5% and 35.1% respectively.

  3. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity

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    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay.

  4. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da; Carminate, Delaine La Gatta; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Carvalho, Iná Pires de; Silva, Maria Luzia da Rosa E; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca

    2012-12-01

    Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality), were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762); disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742), presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715) and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872). Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months), fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay.

  5. Prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns em trabalhadores de enfermagem em um hospital da Bahia

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    Eder Pereira Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se descrever a prevalência de "suspeitos" de transtornos mentais comuns (TMC em trabalhadores de enfermagem em um hospital geral, no estado da Bahia. Realizou-se um estudo epidemiológico, de corte transversal, com 309 profissionais de enfermagem, que trabalhavam em atividades assistenciais em um hospital de grande porte. Os profissionais de enfermagem referiram sobrecarga de trabalho e baixa remuneração. As queixas de saúde mais frequentes estavam relacionadas à postura corporal e a saúde mental. A prevalência geral de "suspeitos" de TMC foi de 35,0%. Em relação aos aspectos psicossociais do trabalho, relataram uma alta demanda psicológica e baixo controle sobre as atividades laborais. Os resultados obtidos apontam que as condições de trabalho e saúde observadas, não são adequadas para a efetiva realização do trabalho de enfermagem no hospital estudado.

  6. The impact of HMO penetration on the rate of hospital cost inflation, 1985-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that growth in health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment slows hospital cost inflation. During the period 1985-1993, hospitals in areas with high rates of HMO penetration and growth had a slower rate of growth in expenses (8.3%) than hospitals in low penetration areas (11.2%). From 1992-1993, HMO growth lowered the rate of hospital cost inflation by .34 to 3.40 percentage points, depending on the base-year level and the annual change in HMO penetration. Declines in Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) margins also lowered hospital cost inflation; over the time period, annual hospital cost inflation was reduced by .38 percentage points. The estimates imply that the cumulative effect of HMO growth on hospital costs has been a $56.2 billion reduction (in 1993 dollars).

  7. Association of water softness and heavy alcohol consumption with higher hospital admission rates for alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Mark; Riva, Antonio; Marks, Peter; Williams, Roger

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that regional variations in the prevalence of alcoholic liver disease are contributed to by regional variations in 'softness' of drinking water, i.e. its mineral content. Annual hospital admission rates for alcoholic liver disease per 100,000 population in the 28 Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) existing in England over the period 2003-2006 were compared with regional measures of water hardness, alcohol consumption and social deprivation. As corroborative evidence, the same relations were examined for hospital admission rates for osteoporosis, a disorder with an already established link with calcium deficiency in drinking water (as well as with heavy drinking). Hospital admissions rates for alcoholic liver disease were higher in predominant-soft-water SHAs than with hard water SHAs. These areas, with one exception, were also associated with high alcohol consumption, but not with greater social deprivation. Hospital admission rates for osteoporosis were found to vary in a way similar to that for alcoholic liver disease, with significant correlations with soft water and alcohol consumption. Given experimental evidence that magnesium deficiency can aggravate liver damage from alcohol, soft water with its low magnesium concentration may be a factor additional to alcohol consumption in the development of liver damage. The parallel findings with osteoporosis admissions, explainable by low calcium and magnesium levels present in soft water, along with the known effect of heavy drinking on bone metabolism, provide corollary support for the hypothesis linking soft water with the pathogenesis of these two diseases.

  8. The Relationship between Place of Residence and Hospitalization Rate in the Biggest Referral Hospital of the Northwest according to Hospitalization Wards

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    Amin Talebpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and objectives: In accordance with the global pattern, the urban population in Iran is higher than the rural population. But, are the statistics of using hospitalization services in public hospitals in these two categories similar to this pattern? This study seeks to determine the effect of place of residence on hospitalization rate by examining annual hospitalization statistics of the country’s biggest referral hospital in the northwest. Material and Methods: The method used in this study is cross-sectional and all cases of hospitalization in Imam Reza Hospital as the northwest’s biggest referral hospital were picked by available sampling method. The cases of 30260 hospitalized patients were examined through direct observation and items extracted from their files were recorded in the checklist. In order to determine the relations between the variables, K2 test was applied and the P-value was considered less than 0.05 The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS.16 software. Results: Results indicated that the frequency distribution of patients in terms of their urban or rural residence did not yield any significant difference (P>0/05. Results also showed that the highest hospitalization rate for urban patients was 16.1% (3305 individuals in surgery ward while it was 14.2% (1384 individuals for rural patients in orthopedic ward. The least significant statistical difference between urban and rural hospitalization rates was observed in renal ward with 72.9% (1162 individual urban patients and 27.1% (432 individuals rural patients of total patients hospitalized in this ward. The most significant statistical difference between urban and rural hospitalization rates was observed in ICU with 44.9% (297 individuals urban patients and 55.1% (365 individuals rural patients of the total patients hospitalized in this ward. Conclusion: A relative comparison among illnesses in urban and rural populations, aside from illnesses caused by trauma

  9. Prevalence of tobacco in Darbhanga district: A hospital-based cross-sectional study

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    Jatin Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study reflects the high prevalence rates of tobacco use among various sections of society. Apart from mass against tobacco products, authorities should focus on strict enforcement of law and promote research for creating new and harmless replacement products.

  10. Comparison of prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hospital and community-based Japanese patients with schizophrenia

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    Yamashita Hakuei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors, such as an unbalanced diet and lack of physical activity, may affect the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the MetS prevalence between inpatients and outpatients among schizophrenic population in Japan. Methods We recruited inpatients (n = 759 and outpatients (n = 427 with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from 7 psychiatric hospitals using a cross-sectional design. MetS prevalence was assessed using three different definitions, including the adapted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III-A. Results The overall MetS prevalences based on the ATP III-A definition were 15.8% in inpatients and 48.1% in outpatients. In a logistic regression model with age and body mass index as covariates, being a schizophrenic outpatient, compared to being a schizophrenic inpatient, was a significant independent factor (odds ratio = 3.66 for males, 2.48 for females in the development of MetS under the ATP III-A definition. The difference in MetS prevalence between inpatients and outpatients was observed for all age groups in males and for females over 40 years of age. Conclusions Outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Japan had a high prevalence of MetS compared to inpatients. MetS in schizophrenic outpatients should be carefully monitored to minimize the risks. A change of lifestyle might improve MetS in schizophrenic patients.

  11. [Administrative Prevalence and Health Care Situation of Dementia Patients in Acute Care Hospitals: An Epidemiological Health Care Study Based on Claims Data of Insured Persons in Saxony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzek, Tom; Werblow, Andreas; Schmitt, Jochen; Marquardt, Gesine

    2018-02-05

    The increasing number of people with dementia will challenge the health care system, especially acute care. Using health insurance claims data, the study objective was to examine the regional patterns of the administrative prevalence of dementia, the prevalence of dementia in hospitals and the care situation in hospitals. We used 2014 claims data from AOK PLUS, the largest statutory health insurance service in Saxony. If dementia was diagnosed either in an outpatient or inpatient setting in 3 of 4 quarters in a year, a person was categorised as a dementia case (n=61,700). The analysis of health care status included 61,239 patients with dementia and 183,477 control subjects. The control group was matched using the criteria of gender, age and region of residence. For those older than 65 years, the overall administrative prevalence rate of dementia was 9.3%. The estimated prevalence for those in hospitals was 16.7%. In 2014, there were 33% more admissions, 36% more hospital days and 18% higher costs per person-year among people diagnosed with dementia than the control subjects. The longer annual hospital stays and the higher costs were primarily caused by the greater number of admissions of people with dementia. Inpatient service use was, compared to people without dementia, characterized by a need for care and assistance, rather than by a need for medical therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. To improve the health care situation of people with dementia, to adapt to the challenges facing hospitals and to reduce the financial burden caused by dementia, more efforts are needed to improve the health care situation. Measures include, among others, improvements in recognition of dementia and reduction of unnecessary hospital stays. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Prevalence of lymphoedema and quality of life among patients attending a hospital-based wound management and vascular clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gethin, Georgina

    2012-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic, incurable, debilitating condition, usually affecting a limb and causes discomfort, pain, heaviness, limited motion, unsatisfactory appearance and impacts on quality of life. However, there is a paucity of prevalence data on this condition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of lymphoedema among persons attending wound management and vascular clinics in an acute tertiary referral hospital. Four hundred and eighteen patients meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed. A prevalence rate of 2.63% (n = 11) was recorded. Thirty-six percent (n = 4) had history of cellulitis and broken skin, 64% (n = 7) had history of broken skin and 36% (n = 4) had undergone treatment for venous leg ulcers. The most common co-morbidities were hypertension 55% (n = 6), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) 27% (n = 3), hypercholesterolemia 36% (n = 4) and type 2 diabetes 27% (n = 3). Quality of life scores identified that physical functioning was the domain most affected among this group. This study has identified the need to raise awareness of this condition among clinicians working in the area of wound management.

  13. [Prevalence of birth defects according to the level of care in two hospitals, Cali, Colombia, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Villota, Vania A; Cruz, Luz Marina; Ariza, Yoseth

    2015-01-01

    Birth defects are morphologic alterations diagnosed prenatal or postnatally. Surveillance systems have been used to estimate the prevalence in high complexity care centers; however, the variation of the prevalence among different complexity care centers remains unknown. To compare the prevalence of birth defects among two different complexity care centers in Cali, Colombia. A descriptive hospital-based study following the methodology of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations was conducted during 20 months in a medium complexity hospital and a high complexity hospital. During the study period, 7,140 births were attended of which 225 had at least one birth defect. The prevalence of these was of 1.7% (IC95% 1.3-2.0) and 7.4% (IC95% 6.2-8.7) for the medium complexity hospital and the high complexity hospital, respectively. The highest frequencies for the high complexity care center were: ventricular septal defect, 10%; congenital hydronephrosis, 7%; abdominal wall defects, 6%, and hydrocephalus, 5%, while for the medium complexity were: polydactyly, 15%; preauricular skin tags, 8%; congenital talipes equino varus, 7%, and hemangioma, 6%. The prevalence of birth defects among different complexity care centers varies in quantity, type and severity of the anomaly diagnosed. The surveillance of birth defects is a useful tool for any level of care. It allows estimating more accurately the prevalence of the city, as well being a base for the planning and targeting of resources according to the prevalence of different congenital defects.

  14. Prevalence of infection in patients with temporary catheter for hemodialysis in a teaching hospital

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    Palmiane de Rezende Ramim Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of infection related to the provisional catheter for hemodialysis in a teaching hospital and evaluate the risk factors associated with these infections.  A cross-sectional study analyzed by descriptive statistics and parametric tests. It was found that out of 129 patients, 48.8 % had catheter-related infection in hemodialysis, 65 % were male, 33.3 % were 60 years old and over, and 88 % of patients were admitted to intensive care unit. The prevalence of infection in this group was high, and the vast majority of diagnoses of infection were empirical. Given this, it is suggested to establish the routine culture of the catheter tip in all cases of suspected catheter infection to improve the quality of patient care, and the relentless pursuit of the causes that trigger the infection process in line with good practice from across the healthcare team.

  15. Point prevalence of suboptimal footwear features among ambulant older hospital patients: implications for fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Satyan R; McRae, Prue; Stewart, Matthew J; Webster, Joan; Fenn, Mary; Haines, Terry P

    2016-09-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to establish the point prevalence of 'suboptimal' features in footwear reported to have been used by older hospital patients when ambulating, and to explore underpinning factors for their choice of footwear. Method A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken on 95 of 149 eligible in-patients across 22 high fall-risk wards in a large metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Results Over 70% of participants experienced an unplanned admission. Although most participants had access to some form of footwear in hospital (92%), nearly all reported ambulating in footwear with 'suboptimal' features (99%). Examples included slippers (27%), backless slippers (16%) or bare feet (27%). For patients who ambulated in bare feet, only one-third reported 'lack of access to footwear' as the primary cause, with others citing foot wounds, pain, oedema and personal choice as the main reason for bare foot ambulation. Conclusions Admitted patients frequently use footwear with 'suboptimal' features for ambulation in hospital. While some footwear options (for example well-fitting slippers) could be suited for limited in-hospital ambulation, others are clearly hazardous and might cause falls. Since footwear choices are influenced by multiple factors in this population, footwear education strategies alone may be insufficient to address the problem of hazardous footwear in at-risk patients. Footwear requirements may be more effectively addressed within a multidisciplinary team approach encompassing foot health, mobility and safety. What is known about the topic? Accidental falls while ambulating are an important health and safety concern for older people. Because certain footwear characteristics have been negatively linked to posture and balance, and specific footwear types linked to falls among seniors, the use of footwear with fewer suboptimal characteristics is generally recommended as a means of reducing the risk of falling. While footwear

  16. Hospital costs, length of stay and prevalence of hip and knee arthroplasty in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D; Zhou, Ying

    2017-07-14

    significantly longer for hip arthroplasties patients with IBD, (3.85 +/-2.59 d vs 3.68 +/-2.54 d, respectively, P = 0.009). Costs, LOS and survival from the procedures was similar in patients with CD and UC compared to matched controls. These results are shown in Tables 1-10. The prevalence of hip arthroplasty in patients with IBD was 0.5% in 2007, (170/33783 total patients with diagnostic codes for IBD) and was 0.66% in matched controls ( P = 0.0012). The prevalence of knee arthroplasty in patients with IBD was 1.36, (292/21202 IBD patients) and was 2.22% in matched controls ( P Costs and mortality rates for hip and knee arthroplasties are the same in patients with IBD and the general population, while a statistical but non-relevant increase in LOS is seen for hip arthroplasties in patients with IBD. Compared to the general population, arthroplasties of the hip and knee are less prevalent in hospitalized patients with IBD.

  17. [Prevalence of burnout syndrome in health professionals of an onco-hematological pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Aline Bedin; Lucca, Sergio Roberto de

    2015-04-01

    To identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in medical professionals, nurses and nursing technicians working in an Onco-Hematological Pediatric Hospital in São Paulo. An exploratory, descriptive study with cross-sectional design and quantitative approach, with a sample of 188 health professionals. Data were collected using two self-report instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) which is a biosocial data form, and a non-participant observation guide. High depersonalization for nurses (29.8%), low job performance for physicians (27.8%), and of nursing technicians (25.5%). High scores were identified in at least two domains of Burnout in 19.2% of nurses, 16.8% of nursing technicians, and 16.6% of doctors. Health professionals are highly vulnerable to each of the dimensions of Burnout syndrome - namely emotional exhaustion, alienation, and low job performance/satisfaction- in the hospital work.

  18. Prevalence of Burnout syndrome in health professionals of an onco-hematological pediatric hospital

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    Aline Bedin Zanatta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in medical professionals, nurses and nursing technicians working in an Onco-Hematological Pediatric Hospital in São Paulo. METHOD An exploratory, descriptive study with cross-sectional design and quantitative approach, with a sample of 188 health professionals. Data were collected using two self-report instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS which is a biosocial data form, and a non-participant observation guide. RESULTS High depersonalization for nurses (29.8%, low job performance for physicians (27.8%, and of nursing technicians (25.5%. High scores were identified in at least two domains of Burnout in 19.2% of nurses, 16.8% of nursing technicians, and 16.6% of doctors. CONCLUSION Health professionals are highly vulnerable to each of the dimensions of Burnout syndrome - namely emotional exhaustion, alienation, and low job performance/satisfaction- in the hospital work.

  19. HBV and HIV co-infection: Prevalence and clinical outcomes in tertiary care hospital Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Ali; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Soo, Chow Ting; Khan, Kashifullah

    2016-03-01

    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prevalence of anaemia among patients with heart failure at the Brazzaville University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikama, Méo Stéphane; Nsitou, Bernice Mesmer; Kocko, Innocent; Mongo, Ngamami Solange; Kimbally-Kaky, Gisèle; Nkoua, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of ospitalisation in cardiology. Its prognosis depends on several risk factors, one of which is anaemia. We aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia in patients with heart failure, and evaluate its impact on their prognosis. This article describes a cross-sectional study with prospective collection of data, carried out from 1 January to 31 December 2010 in the Department of Cardiology at Brazzaville University Hospital, Congo. Patients admitted for heart failure were included. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level failure, and it had a negative effect on the prognosis.

  1. Prevalence and management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea: A field research

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    Sang Heon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to investigate the current management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire surveys and in-depth person-to-person interviews were conducted at 13 hospitals within the Seoul and Incheon areas. Results: The study was carried out from July to December 2014; 75.6% of patients (1,858/2,458 and 77.5% (779/1,031 of medical personnel responded to our survey. All surveys and interviews were performed by urology specialists, fellows, residents, or nurses. The hospitals included in the study had an average of 215.2 beds (range, 110–367, 189.1 patients (range, 90–345, and 40.2 nurses (range, 10–83. The average number of physicians was 6.2 (range, 3–11, but none of these were certified urologists. Only 4 hospitals provided consultation services for urological disorders. In total, 64% of patients had urological disorders, although only 20.7% of patients were receiving medication. Most patients were being treated using urological interventions; diapers (49.7%, indwelling catheters (19.5%, clean intermittent catheters (12.2%, and external collection urinary drainage (7.9%. However, most interventions were inadequately implemented, and only 17% of the patients had been examined by a certified urologist. Urological complications were found in 20.2% of patients, and secondary complications occurred in 18.8%. Excluding redundant cases, the total prevalence of urological complications was 39.0%. Conclusions: Urologic diseases are poorly managed, and no certified urologists work in geriatric hospitals. Therefore, more designated urologists are needed in geriatric hospitals.

  2. Prevalence and overlap of Disease Management Program diseases in older hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne; Sivertsen, Ditte Maria; Andersen, Ove

    2017-09-01

    Many countries, like Denmark, have tailored Disease Management Programs (DMPs) based on patients having single chronic diseases [defined institutionally as "program diseases" (PDs)], which can complicate treatment for those with multiple chronic diseases. The aims of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence and overlap among acutely hospitalized older medical patients of PDs defined by the DMPs, and (b) to examine transitions between different departments during hospitalization and mortality and readmission within two time intervals among patients with the different PDs. We conducted a registry study of 4649 acutely hospitalized medical patients ≥65 years admitted to Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, in 2012, and divided patients into six PD groups (type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disease, dementia and cancer), each defined by several ICD-10 codes predefined in the DMPs. Of these patients, 904 (19.4%) had 2 + PDs, and there were 47 different combinations of the six different PDs. The most prevalent pair of PDs was type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular disease in 203 (22.5%) patients, of whom 40.4% had an additional PD. The range of the cumulative incidence of being readmitted within 90 days was between 28.8% for patients without a PD and 46.6% for patients with more than one PD. PDs overlapped in many combinations, and all patients had a high probability of being readmitted. Hence, developing strategies to create a new generation of DMPs applicable to older patients with comorbidities could help clinicians organize treatment across DMPs.

  3. Malnutrition in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients: Assessment, Prevalence, and Association to Adverse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalou, Efstratia; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Augoustides-Savvopoulou, Persefone

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent finding in pediatric health care settings in the form of undernutrition or excess body weight. Its increasing prevalence and impact on overall health status, which is reflected in the adverse outcomes, renders imperative the application of commonly accepted and evidence-based practices and tools by health care providers. Nutrition risk screening on admission and nutrition status evaluation are key points during clinical management of hospitalized pediatric patients, in order to prevent health deterioration that can lead to serious complications and growth consequences. In addition, anthropometric data based on commonly accepted universal growth standards can give accurate results for nutrition status. Both nutrition risk screening and nutrition status assessment are techniques that should be routinely implemented, based on commonly accepted growth standards and methodology, and linked to clinical outcomes. The aim of the present review was to address the issue of hospital malnutrition in pediatric settings in terms of prevalence, outline nutrition status evaluation and nutrition screening process using different criteria and available tools, and present its relationship with outcome measures. Key teaching points • Malnutrition-underweight or excess body weight-is a frequent imbalance in pediatric settings that affects physical growth and results in undesirable clinical outcomes. • Anthropometry interpretation through growth charts and nutrition screening are cornerstones for the assessment of malnutrition.To date no commonly accepted anthropometric criteria or nutrition screening tools are used in hospitalized pediatric patients. • Commonly accepted nutrition status and screening processes based on the World Health Organization's growth standards can contribute to the overall hospital nutrition care of pediatric patients.

  4. [Prevalence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in hospitals in Saxony, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhard, I; Karaalp, A-K; Hackel, T; Höll, G; Rodewald, N; Reif, U; Kaase, M; Eckmanns, T; Sydow, W

    2014-04-01

    The presence of pathogenic bacteria with acquired carbapenem resistance constitutes an increasing problem for infection control and infectious disease management. Prompted by an outbreak of infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae producing the carbapenemase KPC-2 at a hospital in Saxony, the Saxon State Ministry of Social Affairs and Consumer Protection (SMS) initiated a point-prevalence survey for carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria. Wards at 53 hospitals in Saxony, mainly intensive care units, were investigated between October 2012 and February 2013. Stool samples and rectal swabs of 1,037 patients were analyzed for the presence of bacteria with resistance against four major groups of antibiotics (4MRGN). Carbapenemase producers were detected in 3 patients [0.3% CI95 (0.0596; 0.843)] and carbapenem-resistant bacteria without carbapenemases were detected in 9 patients [0.9% CI95 (0.397; 1.64)]. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed 166 patients [16.0% CI95 (13.82; 18.38)] with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. At the time of investigation, K. pneumoniae producing the carbapenemase KPC-2 was diagnosed in 2 patients at one hospital. Moreover, it is necessary to remain vigilant towards other types of carbapenemase producers, as demonstrated by the finding of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain harbouring the carbapenemase VIM-1 in another hospital.

  5. Analysis of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Malnutrition among Hospitalized Patients in Busan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha-Kyung; Choi, Hee-Sun; Son, Eun-Joo; Lyu, Eun-Soon

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for malnutrition in hospitalized patients in Busan, Republic of Korea. 944 patients (440 men and 504 women) were hospitalized in four Busan general hospitals from March through April, 2011. Nutritional status was assessed on admission by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Data were collected from the electronic medical records system for the characteristics of the subjects, clinical outcomes, biochemical laboratory data, and nutrition support states. Clinical dietitians interviewed the patients using structured questionnaires involving data on weight loss and problems related to oral intakes. Malnourished patients were significantly older (P<0.001) than well-nourished patients, but the values for BMI, serum albumin, total cholesterol, TLC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were significantly lower (P<0.001) for malnourished than for well-nourished patients. Logistic regression indicated that the main determinant factors for nutritional status were the age, length of stay, BMI, serum albumin, and total cholesterol. In order to increase therapeutic effects of hospitalized patients, clinical dietitians need to offer proper nutritional intervention based on the results of nutrition assessment and identification of malnutrition.

  6. Prevalence of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Risk Classifications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Rajavithi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinnapakorn, Veerasak; Sunthorntepwarakul, Thongkum; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Niramitmahapanya, Sathit; Napartivaumnuay, Navapom

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are a major cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputation in patients with type 2 diabetes. In 2014, the Diabetes Association of Thailand issued new guidelines for classifying type 2 diabetes patients' levels of risk of developing foot ulcers, but no research on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes using these new classification criteria had been performed prior to the current study. To study the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers overall and in different risk groups in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Rajavithi Hospital, and to evaluate risk factors of these groups and correlations with ankle brachial index (ABI) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). 593 type 2 diabetes patients at Rajavithi Hospital were studied and classified into risk groups based on the classification criteria issued by the Thailand Diabetes Association in 2014. ABI measurements were taken from 132 patients, and measurements of CAVI were taken from 101 patients. The prevalence of foot ulcers was 3.4% and 2.2% of patients had a history of amputation. The percentages of patients at low, intermediate and high risk of developing foot ulcers were 55.8%, 33.6% and 10.6%, respectively. Age, duration of diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease (CVA), deformity of foot, numbness, abnormal protective sensation, pulse deficit, ulcer, and amputation were factors significantly associated with a high risk of foot ulcers (p diabetes patients were in the groups with an intermediate or high risk of developing foot ulcers. Screening of patients at risk of foot ulceration is necessary in order to classify patients into risk groups and provide appropriate education, as well as proper monitoring and management.

  7. Prevalence of hearing loss among high risk newborns hospitalized in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zamani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: American pediatric Association proposes to screen all neonates with Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE. In developing countries, because of several limitations, health policy makers recommend to screen only in high risk patients. This study is performed with the aim to screen hearing loss in 950 high risk newborns hospitalized in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University using the OAE test."n"nMethods: A total of 950 neonates hospitalized in the Neonatal and NICU wards of Vali-e-Asr, Shariati, Medical Center and Bahrami Hospitals during the years 2004-2006 who showed at least one risk factor using TEOAE hearing test were enrolled into this cross-sectional descriptive analytical study and were diagnosed with mild deafness and total deafness. Blood exchange due to hyperbillirubinemia, septicemia, congenital heart disease, the fifth minute apgar scores below six, PROM more than six hours, epilepsia, need to NICU more than five hours, pneumonia and Oto-Toxic drugs were considered as risk factors. Data was past medical history, current disease, admission cause, sign & symptoms and complications of disease."n"nResults: Multivariate logistic regression and paired t-test showed that blood exchange, low birth weight and low

  8. Prevalence of serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer L; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Paul, April L

    2017-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) with serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). DESIGN Prospective observational study. ANIMALS 80 dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs hospitalized in an ICU for > 12 hours between February 1 and June 1, 2015, that had at least 0.25 mL of serum left over from diagnostic testing were eligible for study inclusion. Dogs with serum antibody titers > 1:32 (as determined by serum neutralization) and > 1:80 (as determined by hemagglutination inhibition) were considered seropositive for CDV and CPV, respectively. The date of last vaccination was obtained from the medical record of each dog. RESULTS Of the 80 dogs, 40 (50%) and 65 (81%) dogs were seropositive for CDV and CPV, respectively. Of the 40 dogs that were seronegative for CDV, 27 had been vaccinated against CDV within 3 years prior to testing. Of the 15 dogs that were seronegative for CPV, 3 had been vaccinated against CPV within 3 years prior to testing. Ten dogs were seronegative for both CDV and CPV. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated the prevalence of dogs hospitalized in an ICU that were seropositive for CDV and CPV was lower than expected given the high vaccination rate reported for dogs. Although the antibody titer necessary to prevent disease caused by CDV or CPV in critically ill dogs is unknown, adherence to infectious disease control guidelines is warranted when CDV- or CPV-infected dogs are treated in an ICU.

  9. Unplanned 3-day re-attendance rate at Emergency Department (ED) and hospital's bed occupancy rate (BOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Heng, Bee Hoon; Tay, Seow Yian; Tan, Kelvin Brian

    2015-12-01

    Unplanned re-attendance at the Emergency Department (ED) is often monitored as a quality indicator of the care accorded to patients during their index ED visit. High bed occupancy rate (BOR) has been considered as a matter of reduced patient comfort and privacy. Most hospitals in Singapore operate under BORs above 85 %. This study aims to explore factors associated with the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate and, in particular, if higher BOR is associated with higher 3-day unplanned ED re-attendance rate. This was a multicenter retrospective study using time series data. Three acute tertiary hospitals were selected from all six adult public hospitals in Singapore based on data availability. Daily data from year 2008 to 2013 were collected from the study hospitals' information systems. These included: ED visit date, day of week, month, year, public holiday, daily hospital BOR, daily bed waiting time (BWT) at ED (both median and 95th percentile), daily ED admission rate, and 3-day ED re-attendance rate. The primary outcome of the study was unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate from all reasons. Both univariate analysis and generalized linear regression were respectively applied to study the crude and adjusted association between the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate and its potential associated factors. All analyses were conducted using SPSS 18 (PASW 18, IBM). The average age of patients who visited ED was 35 years old (SD = 2), 37 years old (SD = 2), and 40 years old (SD = 2) in hospitals A, B, and C respectively. The average 3-day unplanned ED re-attendance rate was 4.9 % (SE = 0.47 %) in hospital A, 3.9 % (SE = 0.35 %) in hospital B, and 4.4 % (SE = 0.30 %) in hospital C. After controlling for other covariates, the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rates were significantly associated with hospital, time trend, day of week, daily average BOR, and ED admission rate. Strong day-of-week effect on early ED re-attendance rate was

  10. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Surgical Population of the University of Puerto Rico Affiliated Hospitals: A Study using the Surgery Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Norma I; Santiago, Elvis; Abdul-Hadi, Anwar

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the surgical population of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR)-affiliated hospitals. We examined all the surgical cases that were entered into the Surgical Database from April 1, 2014 through September 30, 2014. This database collects patient and procedural information from different surgical services of various UPR-affiliated hospitals (the University District Hospital, the University Pediatric Hospital, the UPR Carolina Hospital, the Dr. Isaac Gonzalez Oncologic Hospital, the PR Cardiovascular Center [thoracic service], the Pavia Hospital [colorectal service], and the Auxilio Mutuo Hospital [colorectal and oncological services]). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2 combined) was estimated, and the nondiabetic and diabetic groups were compared. The difference between groups was evaluated using a Chi2 test, Student's t-test, or ANOVA, whichever was appropriate, with a p-value of less than 0.05 being considered significant. Information from 2,603 surgical patients was available. The mean age of the group was 49 (±23) years. The gender distribution indicated that 56% were women and 44% were men. Diabetes was present in 21% of the surgical population, increasing to 40% in patients aged 65 and over. The surgical procedures most frequently required by diabetic patients were in the categories of general surgery (36%), colorectal surgery (22%), vascular surgery (16%) and oncologic surgery (14%). Complications (5%, diabetic group vs. 2%, nondiabetic group; p diabetic group vs. 0.2%, nondiabetic group; p diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group. Our surgical population has a high prevalence of diabetes, and these diabetic patients showed higher complication and mortality rates from surgery than did the non-diabetic patients. Surgeons must consider the specific needs of these diabetic patients in order to provide optimal care.

  11. Extraspinal incidental findings on routine MRI of lumbar spine: Prevalence and reporting Rates in 1278 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  12. National trends in heart failure hospitalization rates in Slovenia 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omersa, Daniel; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan; Lainscak, Mitja

    2016-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) hospitalization rates are decreasing in western Europe, but little is known about trends in central and east European countries. We analysed the Slovenian national hospitalization database to determine the burden of HF hospitalization. The Slovenian National Hospital Discharge Registry was searched for HF hospitalizations between 2004 and 2012 in patients aged ≥20 years. A total of 55 531 main HF hospitalizations (43 636 first HF hospitalizations) in 34 406 patients (median age 78 years, 55% female) were recorded. The most common co-morbidities were arterial hypertension (54.3%), atrial fibrillation (40.6%), diabetes mellitus (24.5%), and ischaemic heart disease (21.9%). The number of age-standardized main and first HF hospitalizations per 100 000 population decreased from 249 to 232 (7.1%, P = 0.002) and from 467 to 435 (6.8%, P = 0.074), respectively. Crude main and first HF hospitalization rates increased from 249 to 298 (19.8%, P Slovenia, standardized HF hospitalization rates have decreased but the crude HF hospitalization burden has increased. Readmissions were associated with established cardiovascular risk factors. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  13. Prevalence and outcome of severe malnutrition in children less than five-year-old in Omdurman Paediatric Hospital, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Kanan, Shaza O H; Swar, Mohammed Osman

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient’s hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients’ record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (...

  14. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2018-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.

  15. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Prevalence and Characteristics among Administrative Staff at Dr.Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrian Andrian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a neurologic disease affecting hands, which is closely related to work, and is the most prevalent nerve compression disease. The incidence of CTS quite often occur in people working with their hands, for instance the administrative staff, especially in a busy workplace such as Dr.Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. CTS causes reduction in work productivity, and consequently degrading family welfare and the quality of public service. For that very reason, the prevalence and characteristics of CTS among administrative staff at Dr.HasanSadikin General Hospital Bandung needed to be revealed. Methods: This quantitative descriptive study involved 94 administrative staff in the Medical record department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital using the Carpal-tunnel.net questionnaire and further examinations by neurologists. Variables involved in this study were the subject characteristics. Results: Out of the 90 subjects, 22 stated having symptoms related to CTS (prevalence, 24.4%. On further clinical examination, 3 were diagnosed of suffering from CTS (prevalence, 3.3%. Conclusions: Carpal tunnel syndrome is found among the administrative staff at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung  and the prevalence is lower than in the general population. A further study is required to reveal ther specific division in the hospital with the most prevalent CTS case. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1077

  16. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  17. Analysis of hospitalization rates by electoral ward: relationship to accessibility and deprivation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R; Ferguson, B; Ryder, S

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relevance of access to hospital services in explaining utilization rates at a District Health Authority level in the UK. In order to test the hypothesis that access is important, it is necessary to develop a means of scoring access factors and then combining these scores with other more recognized influences on hospitalization rates e.g. deprivation measures. Acknowledging that hospitalization rates are not merely products of a population's socio-economic characteristics, the effect of accessibility to hospital services for the resident population is investigated through the derivation of an access score using both private and public transport from electoral ward of residence. Deprivation and accessibility to services were both found to be significant factors in determining hospitalization rates at electoral ward level. The chosen supply variable--number of GPs--was not found to be significant in any of the models developed using linear regression techniques. To conclude, it appears that access plays an important role in determining hospitalization rates within a given population. If high hospitalization rates are accepted as an indicator of effectively met demand then policy makers may have to consider increasing the accessibility of hospital services.

  18. PREVALENCE OF GDM AND THEIR RISK FACTORS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    S. Ishwarya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Detecting the evidence of gestational diabetes mellitus is a major challenge as the condition is associated with diverse range of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome. Also, women detected with gestational diabetes mellitus have an increased incidence of diabetes especially type 2 diabetes mellitus in the later life and future development of obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Studies conducted in different populations and with different methodologies consistently reported an increase in GDM prevalence. A true increase in the prevalence of GDM aside from its adverse consequences for the infant and newborn period might reflect or contribute to the ongoing pattern of increasing diabetes and obesity. 1&2 The aim of the study is to1. Validate the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group of India (DIPSI recommended 75 grams glucose test for the diagnosis of gestational mellitus by comparing with the WHO criteria and ADA criteria. 2. Study the prevalence of gestational diabetes in antenatal population attending Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital. 3. Study the prevalence of following risk factors in GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in 350 antenatal women of 24-28 weeks gestational age who attended antenatal clinic in Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital, Chennai. This study was done after getting clearance from ethical committee of Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital. RESULTS Incidence of GDM was 4%. DIPSI criteria had a diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 98.86%, 100% and 98.82%. WHO criteria had a diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 99.43%, 100% and 99.41%. In both, the negative predictive value was 100%. From binary logistic regression, the associated risk factors were previous history of GDM, polyhydramnios and recurrent pregnancy loss evolved as significant risk factors. Polyhydramnios has an odds ratio of 13, previous history of GDM has an odds ratio of

  19. Prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in licensed premises that are associated with alcohol-related harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Justine B; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Wiggers, John H; Considine, Robyn J

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in a group of licensed premises associated with alcohol-related harm. During March 1999, 108 licensed premises with one or more police-identified alcohol-related incidents in the previous 3 months received a visit from a police officer. A 30-item audit checklist was used to determine the responsible hospitality policies being undertaken by each premises within eight policy domains: display required signage (three items); responsible host practices to prevent intoxication and under-age drinking (five items); written policies and guidelines for responsible service (three items); discouraging inappropriate promotions (three items); safe transport (two items); responsible management issues (seven items); physical environment (three items) and entry conditions (four items). No premises were undertaking all 30 items. Eighty per cent of the premises were undertaking 20 of the 30 items. All premises were undertaking at least 17 of the items. The proportion of premises undertaking individual items ranged from 16% to 100%. Premises were less likely to report having and providing written responsible hospitality documentation to staff, using door charges and having entry/re-entry rules. Significant differences between rural and urban premises were evident for four policies. Clubs were significantly more likely than hotels to have a written responsible service of alcohol policy and to clearly display codes of dress and conditions of entry. This study provides an indication of the extent and nature of responsible hospitality policies in a sample of licensed premises that are associated with a broad range of alcohol related harms. The finding that a large majority of such premises appear to adopt responsible hospitality policies suggests a need to assess the validity and reliability of tools used in the routine assessment of such policies, and of the potential for harm from licensed premises.

  20. Investigation of the prevalent fall-related risk factors of fractures in elderly referred to Tehran hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A Jamebozorgi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: Prevalence of fall-related mortality is rising in the elderly population. Falling is one of the causes of the murderous and non-murderous injuries in the elderly population which can lead to disability, dependence and decline of quality of life. Fractures constitute a major part of the fall-related injuries. The present study is designed to investigate the prevalence of fall-related risk factors of fractures in the Iranian elderly population. Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 240 elderly adults (aged 72.24±8.81 years referred to Tehran hospitals in 2011 with wrist, femoral and proximal humeral fractures, using a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Results: Ninety four (39.2% cases were males and 146 (60.8% were females. Slipping was the most prevalent mechanism of falling with the rate of 26.9% followed by falling from height and falling outdoors. Femur was the most frequently injured site (57.5% while wrist and humerus were the next sites to be injured. Only 7.5% of the cases lived in a safe environment while in 37.2% and 55.2% cases, home environment was partly safe and non-safe, respectively. Conclusion: Fall-related fractures in the studied population is related to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders, low level of physical activity and ignorance of safety principles but, the prevalence of neurologic diseases and drug and alcohol abuse, which have been mentioned as relevant risk factors in some studies, was very low in this population. 

  1. Prevalence rate and influencing factors of preoperative anxiety and depression in gastric cancer patients in China: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Pan, Qiong; Lin, Renqin

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate and influencing factors of preoperative anxiety and depression in patients with gastric cancer, in China. Patients with gastric cancer who were diagnosed by gastroscopy and would accept laparoscopic surgery were eligible for the study. Each participant completed self-administered questionnaires, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ), Social Support Rating Scale, and Type D personality scale before surgery. Routine blood tests were undertaken within 7 days before surgery, to calculate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Based on HADS, patients were divided into an anxiety/depression group and a nonanxiety/depression group. Fifty-three patients with gastric cancer were included in the study. The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and/or depression was 20.75% (11/53). Factors influencing preoperative anxiety and depression were a resigned dimension of coping style, type D personality and NLR. Logistic regression analysis showed that a higher score for the resigned dimension of coping style on the MCMQ and a higher NLR were significantly associated with preoperative anxiety and depression. The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and depression in Chinese patients with gastric cancer may be influenced by both the coping mode and NLR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Prevalence and incidence rate of injuries in runners at a local athletic club in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hendricks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.

  3. High Survival Rates and Associated Factors Among Ebola Virus Disease Patients Hospitalized at Donka National Hospital, Conakry, Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Chughtai, Morad; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Béavogui, Kézély; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Malik, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anecdotal reports suggesting that survival rates among hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in Guinea are higher than the 29.2% rate observed in the current epidemic in West Africa. Methods Survival after symptom onset was determined using Kaplan Meier survival methods among patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease treated in Conakry, Guinea from March 25, 2014, to August 5, 2014. We analyzed the relationship between survival and patient factors, including demographics and clinical features. Results Of the 70 patients analyzed [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 34 ± 14.1; 44 were men], 42 were discharged alive with a survival rate among hospitalized patients of 60% (95% confidence interval, 41.5–78.5%). The survival rate was 28 (71.8%) among 39 patients under 34 years of age, and 14 (46.7%) among 30 patients aged 35 years or greater (p = 0.034). The rates of myalgia (3 of 42 versus 7 of 28, p = 0.036) and hiccups (1 of 42 versus 5 of 28, p = 0.023) were significantly lower among patients who survived. Conclusions Our results provide insights into a cohort of hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in whom survival is prominently higher than seen in other cohorts of hospitalized patients. PMID:25992182

  4. Spatial analysis of drug-related hospital admissions: an auto-Gaussian model to estimate the hospitalization rates in Italy

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    Emanuela Colasante

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate, even if partially, how much the drug use phenomenon impacts on the Italian National Heatlh System throughout the estimation at local level (Local Health Unit of the hospitalization rate caused by substance use and abuse such as opiates, barbiturates-sedativeshypnotics, cocaine and cannabis, and keeping in mind the phenomenon distribution in the space and so the fact that what happens in a specific area depends on what is happening in the neighbourhoods close to it (spatial autocorrelation.

    Methods: Data from hospital discharge database were provided by the Ministry of Health and an auto- Gaussian model was fitted. The spatial trend can be a function of other explanatory variables or can simply be modeled as a function of spatial location. Both models were fitted and compared using the number of subjects kept in charge by Drug Addiction Services and the number of beds held by hospitals as covariates.

    Results: Concerning opiates use related hospitalizations, results show areas where the phenomenon was less prominent in 2001 (Lombardy, part of Liguria, Umbria, part of Latium, Campania, Apulia and Sicily. In the following years, the hospitalization rates increased in some areas, such as the north of Apulia, part of Campania and Latium. A dependence of the opiates related hospitalization rates on the rate of subjects kept in charge by the Drug Addiction Services is highlighted. Concerning barbiturates-sedatives-hypnotics consumption, the best model is the one without covariates and estimated hospitalization rates are lower then 3 per thousand. The model with only the covariate “rate of subjects kept in charge by Drug Addiction Services” has been used both for cocaine and cannabis. In these two cases, more than a half of the Local Health Units report hospitalization rates lower than 0.5 per thousand

  5. Impact of Discharge Components on Readmission Rates for Children Hospitalized with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Kavita; Hall, Matt; Kenyon, Chén C; Teufel, Ronald J; Mussman, Grant M; Montalbano, Amanda; Gold, Jessica; Antoon, James W; Subramony, Anupama; Mittal, Vineeta; Morse, Rustin B; Wilson, Karen M; Shah, Samir S

    2018-01-29

    To describe hospital-based asthma-specific discharge components at children's hospitals and determine the association of these discharge components with pediatric asthma readmission rates. This is a multicenter retrospective cohort study of pediatric asthma hospitalizations in 2015 at children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System. Children ages 5 to 17 years were included. An electronic survey assessing 13 asthma-specific discharge components was sent to quality leaders at all 49 hospitals. Correlations of combinations of asthma-specific discharge components and adjusted readmission rates were calculated. The survey response rate was 92% (45 of 49 hospitals). Thirty-day and 3-month adjusted readmission rates varied across hospitals, ranging from 1.9% to 3.9% for 30-day readmissions and 5.7% to 9.1% for 3-month readmissions. No individual or combination discharge components were associated with lower 30-day adjusted readmission rates. The only single-component significantly associated with a lower rate of readmission at 3 months was having comprehensive content of education (P components in bundles was associated with reduced adjusted 3-month readmission rates, but this did not reach statistical significance. This was seen in a 2-discharge component bundle including content of education and communication with the primary medical doctor, as well as a 3-discharge component bundle, which included content of education, medications in-hand, and home-based environmental mitigation. Children's hospitals demonstrate a range of asthma-specific discharge components. Although we found no significant associations for specific hospital-level discharge components and asthma readmission rates at 30 days, certain combinations of discharge components may support hospitals to reduce healthcare utilization at 3 months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF JOB STRESS AMONG JUNIOR DOCTORS IN THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeolu, J O; Yussuf, O B; Popoola, O A

    2016-12-01

    Doctors respond differently to their complex work environment, some find it stimulating while others find it stressful. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional survey of all junior doctors employed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan was carried out. Information was collected with a structured pretested questionnaire from 253 doctors. Descriptive statistics were generated. T-test, chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 16. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Mean age of respondents was 29.9 (±4.1) years, 61.3% were males, 59% had spent less than 5 years in medical practice, and 34.8% were married. Majority (79.4%) were resident doctors. Prevalence of stress, job dissatisfaction and poor mental health were 31.6%, 15.4% and 9.9% respectively. Age, gender, years of medical practice, religion, ethnicity and marital status were not significantly associated with job stress (p>0.05). Doctors who were stressed were more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs (OR=2.33; CI=1.08-4.04) and to have poor mental health (OR=3.82; CI=1.47-9.95) than those who were not stressed. The prevalence of stress in this study is high, and job dissatisfaction and poor mental health have been implicated as determinants of stress. As such, there should be an improvement in doctors' welfare, health care facilities and delivery.

  7. Prevalence of domestic violence among antenatal women attending a Nigerian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuse, A N I; Ushie, A P; Etukidem, A

    2009-01-01

    Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and not just the absence of disease. Domestic violence (synonyms: spouse abuse, partner or intimate violence, family violence) is a public health problem which is defined as any intentional abuse of a family member (mostly females but not exclusive) by his/her partner that causes pain or injury. There is paucity of data on domestic violence mainly because of under-reporting by the victims. However, domestic violence is said to be a more frequent occurrence than other recognized pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, twin pregnancy or gestational diabetes for which women are routinely screened during the antenatal period. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a local Nigerian mission hospital in Jos, Plateau state. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of women attending antenatal clinic at ECWA Evangel Hospital, Jos over a six month period using the Abuse Assessment Screen developed by McFarlane to detect the prevalence of domestic violence. The data were analysed using Epi Info Version 2002. Three hundred and forty pregnant women were studied. Majority of them were married and were mostly aged between 20 and 39 years. Domestic violence prevalence was 12.6% (43) in the current pregnancy and 63.2% (215) previously. The study establishes that women in our environment experience domestic violence during pregnancy and majority of them also have a previous history of abuse. There is the need to routinely screen for domestic violence in pregnant women so as to prevent potential adverse pregnancy outcomes and to interrupt existing abuse.

  8. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Hundaol Girma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic and associated risk factors data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Stool and finger-nail specimens were screened for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration sedimentation techniques. Data were edited, cleaned, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 20. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 94 food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital were participated in the study. From the total 148 samples (94 stool and 54 fingernails content examined, 31 (33% were positive for one or more parasites. Over all eight types of intestinal parasites were identified. The most prevalent parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (16% followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.3%. There was significant association between parasitic infection and food handlers who did not practice hand washing after defecation and before serving food. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites is detected indicating poor hygiene practice of the food-handlers at the study site. The study also identified finger-nail status, hand washing after defecation and before serving food as determinants of intestinal parasitic infection. It is crucial for provision of regular training on strict adherence to good personal hygiene and hygienic food-handling practices as well as regular inspection and medical checkup of food-handlers.

  9. Prevalence of HIV-related thrombocytopenia among clients at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Mbarara, southwestern Uganda

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    Taremwa IM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivan M Taremwa,1 Winnie R Muyindike,2 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Yap Boum II,1,3 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, 2Immune Suppression Syndrome Clinic, Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, 3Epicentre Mbarara Research Centre, Mbarara, Uganda Aims/objectives: We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of thrombocytopenia among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and to assess occurrence of antiplatelet antibodies, among thrombocytopenic HIV clients at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, southwestern Uganda.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of hematologic results at enrollment to HIV care from 2005 to 2013. The prevalence and correlates of thrombocytopenia were estimated based on the Immune Suppressed Syndrome (ISS Clinic electronic database. A cross-sectional study determined the occurrence of antiplatelet antibodies, using the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA technique.Results: We reviewed 15,030 client records. The median age was 35.0 (range 18–78; interquartile range [IQR] 28–42 years, and there were 63.2% (n=9,500 females. The overall prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 17.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.8%–18.0%. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 17.8% (95% CI: 17.1%–18.4% among antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve clients (n=2,675 and was 13.0% (95% CI: 0.3%–21.9% for clients who were on ART (n=6. The study found a significant association between thrombocytopenia and other cytopenias, CD4 counts, ART, and deteriorating HIV stage (P<0.05. Two of the 40 participants (5.0% had antiplatelet antibodies.Conclusion: This study has showed a high prevalence of HIV-related thrombocytopenia. Antiplatelet antibodies were found in 5.0% of HIV-infected thrombocytopenic participants. Our study shows a significant association of

  10. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Imam Reza Hospital blood bank samples, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddel, M; Mirzaii Dizgah, I; Sharif, F

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (T.g) infection in blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products. A total of 223 blood products (101 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 122 packed cells (PC)) in Imam Reza hospital blood bank, Tehran, Iran were tested for specific T.g antibodies (IgG and IgM) by ELISA method. Positive IgG anti-T.g samples were further tested for IgM anti-T.g. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis respectively. Of 223 samples 38.6% and 0.45% were positive for IgG anti-T.g and IgM anti-T.g levels respectively. Therefore, one and 85 samples were involved acute and chronic toxoplasmosis respectively. Twenty-six of fresh frozen plasma samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g and one of them was positive for IgM anti-T.g. Sixty packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g. Our study showed that there were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T.g antibodies may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variations in hospitalization rates among nursing home residents: the role of facility and market attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary W; Porell, Frank W

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the contribution of facility-level and area market-level attributes to variations in hospitalization rates among nursing home residents. Three years (1991-1994) of state quarterly Medicaid case-mix reimbursement data from 527 nursing homes (NH) in Massachusetts were linked with Medicare Provider Analysis and Review hospital claims and nursing facility attribute data to produce a longitudinal, analytical file containing 72,319 person-quarter observations. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of facility-level and market-level factors on hospital use, after controlling for individual-level resident attributes, including: NH diagnoses, resident-level quality of care indicators, and diagnostic cost grouping classification from previous hospital stays. Multivariate findings suggest that resident heterogeneity alone does not account for the wide variations in hospitalization rates across nursing homes. Instead, facility characteristics such as profit status, nurse staffing patterns, NH size, chain affiliation, and percentage of Medicaid and Medicare reimbursed days significantly influence NH residents' risk of hospitalization. Broader area market factors also appear to contribute to variations in hospitalization rates. Variations in hospitalization rates may reflect underutilization, as well as overutilization. Continued efforts toward identifying medically necessary hospitalizations are needed.

  12. Antimicrobial usage among hospitalized children in Latvia: a neonatal and pediatric antimicrobial point prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviestina, Inese; Mozgis, Dzintars

    2014-01-01

    The point prevalence survey was conducted as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) Project. The study aimed at analyzing pediatric and neonatal antimicrobial prescribing patterns in Latvian hospitals, to identify targets for quality improvement. A one day cross-sectional point prevalence survey on antibiotic use in hospitalized children was conducted in November 2012 in 10 Latvian hospitals, using a previously validated and standardized method. The survey included all inpatient pediatric and neonatal beds and identified all children receiving an antimicrobial treatment on the day of survey. Overall 549 patients were included in the study; 167 (39%) patients admitted to pediatric wards and 25 (21%) patients admitted to neonatal wards received at least one antimicrobial. Pediatric top three antibiotic groups were third-generation cephalosporins (55 prescriptions, 28%), extended spectrum penicillins (n=32, 16%) and first-generation cephalosporins (n=26, 13%). Eleven pediatric patients (85%) received surgical prophylaxis more than 1 day; 143 pediatric patients (86%) received antibiotics intravenously. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most common indications for antibiotic use both in pediatric (n=60, 35.9%) and neonatal patients (n=9, 36%). The most used antibiotics for neonatal patients were benzylpenicillin (n=12, 32%), and gentamicin (n=9, 24%). We identified a few problematic areas, which need improvement: the high use of third-generation cephalosporins for pediatric patients, prolonged surgical prophylaxis, predominant use of parenteral antibiotics and an urgent need for local antibiotic guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Prevalence of Cerebrovascular Disease in Hospitalized Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

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    Kim, Sarasa T; Cloft, Harry; Flemming, Kelly D; Kallmes, David F; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Brinjikji, Waleed

    2017-08-01

    Small studies have suggested that Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is associated with a number of cerebrovascular complications. We sought to determine whether a clinical diagnosis of EDS is associated with a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than the general population by performing a case-control study of hospitalized patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Using the 2000-2012 NIS, we performed a case-control study matching cases of EDS to controls without such a diagnosis. The prevalence of various cerebrovascular diseases between the 2 groups was compared, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for suspected comorbidities. Between 2000 and 2012, there were a total of 9067 discharges carrying a diagnosis of EDS. On univariate analysis, patients with EDS were more likely to be hospitalized for carotid dissection (.2% versus .01%, odds ratio [OR] = 18.0, confidence interval [CI] = 2.41-135.12, P cerebrovascular malformation (.1% versus .02%, OR = 5, CI = 1.10-22.85, P = .021), compared to the controls. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, race, and comorbidities, EDS patients had significantly higher odds of carotid dissection (OR = 15.02, CI = 3.08-270.87, P cerebrovascular malformation (OR = 4.67, CI = 1.20-30.87, P = .0243). Carotid and vertebral dissections, cervical and cerebral aneurysms, as well as other cerebrovascular malformations are more common in hospitalized patients with EDS compared to controls. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endoscopic Perforation Rates at a Canadian University Teaching Hospital

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    Tarun Misra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in training, operative techniques and endoscopic technology, upper and lower endoscopic procedures continue to have potential for intestinal perforation. Perforation rates provided to patients at the time of consent have frequently been derived from historical cohorts and survey datasets.

  15. The influence of teamwork culture on physician and nurse resignation rates in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Burgess, James F; Young, Gary J

    2008-02-01

    Employee turnover is a critical concern, particularly for hospitals, because they face a very tight labour market for hiring replacements, and high turnover itself may have substantial negative effects on the continuity and quality of patient care. Hospitals with a stronger teamwork culture may experience lower turnover but this has not been formally studied. Research on determinants of employee turnover has not separated out resignations from the larger, more inclusive definition of turnover that includes retirement. This study investigated the relationship between the teamwork culture of hospitals and physician and nurse resignation rates. The study setting was the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Each hospital was assessed on teamwork culture based on a survey of current employees. Hospital-level resignation rates were obtained for physicians and nurses. Separate multivariate regression models on physicians and nurses were employed. The models included hospital-level characteristics and labour market variables. Analysis of covariance was also performed to attempt to further reveal effects in high versus low teamwork culture hospitals. Teamwork culture was negatively associated with nurse and physician resignation rates, but was statistically significant in the nurse resignation model only. Additional analyses indicated a 0.47 standard deviation (SD) difference in nurse resignation rates and a 0.40 SD difference in physician resignation rates between hospitals in the top and bottom quartiles of the distribution for teamwork culture. In conclusion, these results suggest that developing and emphasizing a teamwork culture may facilitate greater retention of health-care employees, especially nurses.

  16. Malnutrition prevalence and precision in nutritional care differed in relation to hospital volume – a cross-sectional survey

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    Klevsgård Rosemarie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the point prevalence of the risk of malnutrition and the targeting of nutritional interventions in relation to undernutrition risk and hospital volume. Methods A cross-sectional survey performed in nine hospitals including 2 170 (82.8% patients that agreed to participate. The hospitals were divided into large, middle, and small sized hospitals. Undernutrition risk and overweight (including obesity were assessed. Results The point prevalence of moderate/high undernutrition risk was 34%, 26% and 22% in large, middle and small sized hospitals respectively. The corresponding figures for overweight were 38%, 43% and 42%. The targeting of nutritional interventions in relation to moderate/high undernutrition risk was, depending on hospital size, that 7–17% got Protein- and Energy Enriched food (PE-food, 43–54% got oral supplements, 8–22% got artificial nutrition, and 14–20% received eating assistance. Eating assistance was provided to a greater extent and artificial feeding to a lesser extent in small compared to in middle and large sized hospitals. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition risk and the precision in provision of nutritional care differed significantly depending on hospital volume, i.e. case mix. It can be recommended that greater efforts should be taken to increase the use of PE-food and oral supplements for patients with eating problems in order to prevent or treat undernutrition. A great effort needs to be taken in order to also decrease the occurrence of overweight.

  17. Hospitalization Rate and Population-Based Incidence of Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Children in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Shi, Ting; Zhang, Xiyan; Xue, Jian; Wang, Yin; Yu, Jia; Huang, Yukai; Lin, Sheng; Zhao, Genming; Tian, Jianmei; Zhang, Tao

    2018-03-22

    Data on hospitalization burden of CAP in children is very limited in China. This study aimed to estimate the hospitalization rate and population-based incidence of hospitalization of CAP for children <15 years of age in Suzhou, China. This was a retrospective study of children hospitalized in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from January 2010 to December 2014. Children who were residents of downtown Suzhou, 29 days to <15 years of age, with discharge diagnosis codes (ICD-10) including J09 to J18 and J20 to J22 were included. All-cause clinical community-acquired pneumonia (CCAP) and radiographically confirmed pneumonia (RCAP) were identified based on individual medical chart review. The hospitalization rate (HR) and population-based cumulative incidence of hospitalization (HI) were calculated. Among 184,734 children <15 years old admitted to SCH during the study period, 31,302 children were identified as having CCAP, and 24,218 (77.4%) children confirmed as having RCAP. CCAP hospitalization occurred year round and peaked during winter and early spring. The overall HRs for CCAP and RCAP were 189.0 (95%CI, 187.1-190.9) and 146.2 (95%CI, 144-148) per 1,000 hospitalizations respectively, and the HIs per 100,000 children annually were CCAP, 3,235.8 (95%CI, 3207.3-3264.2) and RCAP, 2,503.5 (95%CI, 2,478.3-2,528.6). For children <5 years old, the HR for CCAP was 248.4 (95%CI, 245.9-250.9) and RCAP 194.0 (95%CI, 191.4-196.3) per 1,000 hospitalizations; the HI for CCAP was 6,956.2 (95%CI: 6,892.8-7,019.6) and 5,431.9 (95%CI: 5,375.4-5,488.4) per 100,000 children for RCAP. The highest HR and HI were observed in children 29 days to <6 months old: HR for CCAP was 407.4 (95%CI: 400.9-413.9) per 1,000 hospitalizations and HI for CCAP was 11,203.7 (95%CI: 11,026.8-11,380.6) per 100,000 children annually. There is a considerable burden of CAP among children <15 years of age in Suzhou, particularly among children 29 days to <6 months of age and during winter

  18. Prevalence of Recognised and Unrecognised Depression among Medical and Surgical Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A. S.; Jamal, Q.; Riaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the prevalence of recognised and unrecognised depression among in-patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, and comprised patients admitted in the Medicine and Surgical departments at the time. Patients with known history of depression or on anti-depressants or on anti-psychotics, or with suicidal attempt were excluded. The prevalence of unrecognised depression was then perceived using Patient Health Qurstionnaire-9. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20. Results: Of the 1180 patients, 432(36.6 percent) either had history of depression or on were on anti-depressants. The study sample, as such, comprised 748(65 percent), and of them 399(53 percent) were from the Medicine and 349(47 percent) patients were from Surgery department. Prevalence of recognised depression was 36.6 percent; 48 percent in Medical and 14 percent in Surgical patients. Unrecognised depression was 51.2 percent; 45.3 percent in Medical and 53.6 in Surgical patients. Overall prevalence was 87.9 percent; 93.4 percent in Medical and 53 percent in Surgical patients. Gender was not found to be significantly associated with depression in Medical (p= 0.367) and Surgical (p=0.606) patients. No depression was found in 48(12 percent) Medical patients and 131(37.5 percent) Surgical patients. Conclusion: More than one-third of in-patients had co-morbid depression diagnoses, mostly unrecognised by their clinicians. (author)

  19. Intimate partner violence among female drug users admitted to the general hospital: screening and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldentey, Clara; Tirado Muñoz, Judit; Ferrer, Tessie; Fonseca Casals, Francina; Rossi, Paola; Mestre-Pintó, Juan Ignacio; Torrens Melich, Marta

    2017-06-28

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Several factors have been found to be associated with an increased prevalence of IPV, such as substance use. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of IPV among women entering Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) for any medical/surgical reason, and who had a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Secondly, it was intended to psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with Harm, Screamed (HITS) questionnaire. All patients were assessed by two IPV questionnaires, the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) and HITS. Out of 52 patients interviewed, 46 answered both questionnaires. According to the CAS questionnaire, 23 patients (50%) experienced IPV at some point in their lives and 11 (23.9%) in the last year. Cannabis consumption was also associated with an increased severity of IPV (95% CI 3.5-28.9, p = .013).According to the HITS questionnaire, there was a prevalence of 39.1% (18 patients) in the last 12 months. HITS had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 78% relative to the CAS questionnaire. A cut-off score x∈ [6.7], derived through ROC analysis, correctly discriminated 91% of the victims and 100% of the non-victims. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of IPV was very high among women who suffered from more than one substance use disorder. Therefore, it is highly recommended to systematically screen for IPV victimization by putting the HITS questionnaire into practice.

  20. Prevalence of hyperglycaemia first detected during pregnancy and subsequent obstetric outcomes at St. Francis Hospital Nsambya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabuye, Betty; Bahendeka, Silver; Byaruhanga, Romano

    2017-05-02

    Women with hyperglycaemia detected during pregnancy are at greater risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data on hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty and varied depending on the populations studied and the methodologies used to define hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. With the recent 2013 World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic criteria and classification, there is yet no sufficient data on the prevalence of hyperglycaemia in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective was to determine the prevalence of Hyperglycaemia first detected during pregnancy and subsequent obstetric outcomes among patients attending antenatal care (ANC) at St. Francis Hospital Nsambya. A prospective cohort study. All women with no history of diabetes mellitus attending at or after 24 weeks gestation were eligible to participate in the study. Participants underwent a standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after an informed written consent. The primary outcome was diagnosis of hyperglycaemia. Enrolled participants were followed up to delivery to assess obstetric outcomes (secondary outcomes were birth weight, neonatal admission, maternal genital trauma, delivery mode, neonatal and maternal status at discharge). 251 women were screened between December 2013 and February 2014. The prevalence of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy was 31.9%. We found 23.8 % of women with hyperglycaemia had no known risk factor. Macrosomia was the only obstetric outcome that was significantly associated with hyperglycaemia. The prevalence of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy was high in the studied population. Clinicians, therefore, should become more vigilant to screen for the condition. Selective screening may miss 23.8% of pregnant women with hyperglycaemia. However the cost/benefit implications of screening strategy and the recent 2013 WHO diagnostic criteria need to be studied in our setting.

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species: A Hospital-Based Study in China

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    Wei Jia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species isolated from a university hospital, and explore the mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance, so as to provide clinical evidence for the inappropriate clinical use of antimicrobial agents and the control and prevention of enterococcal infections. Methods: a total of 1,157 enterococcal strains isolated from various clinical specimens from January 2010 to December 2012 in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were identified to species level with a VITEK-2 COMPACT fully automated microbiological system, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus species was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates were screened from the clinical isolates of Enterococcus species from the burns department. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin was determined with the agar dilution method, and the changes in the MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones following reserpine treatment were evaluated. The β-lactam, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, macrolide, glycopeptide resistance genes and the efflux pump emeA genes were detected in the enterococcal isolates using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Results: the 1,157 clinical isolates of Enterococcus species included 679 E. faecium isolates (58.7%, 382 E. faecalis isolates (33%, 26 E. casseliflavus isolates (2.2%, 24 E. avium isolates (2.1%, and 46 isolates of other Enterococcus species (4%. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance varied significantly between E. faecium and E. faecalis, and ≤1.1% of these two Enterococcus species were found to be resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. In addition, the Enterococcus species isolated from different departments of the hospital

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species: A Hospital-Based Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Li, Gang; Wang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species isolated from a university hospital, and explore the mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance, so as to provide clinical evidence for the inappropriate clinical use of antimicrobial agents and the control and prevention of enterococcal infections. Methods: a total of 1,157 enterococcal strains isolated from various clinical specimens from January 2010 to December 2012 in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were identified to species level with a VITEK-2 COMPACT fully automated microbiological system, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus species was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates were screened from the clinical isolates of Enterococcus species from the burns department. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin was determined with the agar dilution method, and the changes in the MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones following reserpine treatment were evaluated. The β-lactam, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, macrolide, glycopeptide resistance genes and the efflux pump emeA genes were detected in the enterococcal isolates using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results: the 1,157 clinical isolates of Enterococcus species included 679 E. faecium isolates (58.7%), 382 E. faecalis isolates (33%), 26 E. casseliflavus isolates (2.2%), 24 E. avium isolates (2.1%), and 46 isolates of other Enterococcus species (4%). The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance varied significantly between E. faecium and E. faecalis, and ≤1.1% of these two Enterococcus species were found to be resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. In addition, the Enterococcus species isolated from different departments of the hospital exhibited various

  3. Prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mokuolu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, over 900,000 children under the age of five years die every year. Early neonatal death is responsible for a little over 20% of these deaths. Prematurity remains a significant cause of these early neonatal deaths. In some series, it is reported to be responsible for 60-70% of these deaths. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. This was a prospective cohort study conducted over a 9-month period at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Records of deliveries and data on maternal socio-biological and antenatal variables were collected during this period in order to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries. Out of the 2,489 deliveries that took place over a 9-month period, there were 293 pre-terms, giving a pre-term delivery rate of 120 per 1,000 deliveries. Of the total deliveries, 1,522 singleton deliveries that satisfied inclusion criteria were recruited; 185 of them were pre-term deliveries giving a case:control ratio of 1:7. Significant determinants of pre-term delivery identified were previous pre-term delivery (P=0.001; OR=3.55; 95% CI=1.71-7.30, antepartum hemorrhage (P=0.000; OR=8.95; 95%CI=4.06-19.78, premature rupture of the membranes (P=0.000; OR=6.48; 95%CI=4.33-9.67, maternal urinary tract infection (P=0.006; OR=5.89; 95%CI=1.16-27.57, pregnancy induced hypertension (P=0.007; OR=3.23; 95%CI=2.09-4.99, type of labor (P=0.000; OR=6.44; 95%CI=4.42-9.38 and booking status (P=0.000; OR=4.67; 95%CI=3.33-6.56. The prevalence of pre-term delivery was 120 per 1,000 live births. Factors significantly associated with pre-term delivery were low socio-economic class, previous pre-term delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of fetal membranes, urinary tract infection, pregnancy induced hypertension, induced labor, and booking elsewhere outside the teaching hospital.

  4. Prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in hospital patients over 75 years of age admitted for hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevet, S; Bioteau, C; Mazière, S; Couturier, P; Merloz, P; Tonetti, J; Gavazzi, G

    2014-10-01

    One percent of falls in over-75 years old cause hip fracture (HF). Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is associated with falls and fracture. PEM screening and perioperative nutritional management are recommended by the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, yet data on nutritional status in elderly HF patients are sparse. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score is presently the most effective screening tool for PEM in over-75 years old. The principal objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence on MNA of PEM in patients aged over 75 years admitted for HF. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with PEM and its role as a factor of evolution. A prospective observational epidemiological study included 50 patients aged over 75 years admitted for HF in an 8-bed orthopedic surgery department with a geriatric follow-up unit. PEM was defined by MNA<17/30. Assessment systematically comprised associated comorbidity (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric [CIRS-G]), cognitive status on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), functional status on activities of daily life (ADL), and mean hospital stay (MHS). Scores were compared on quantitative tests (Student t) with the significance threshold set at P<0.05. Mean age for the 50 patients was 86.1 years (range, 77-94 years). Prevalence of PEM was 28%; a further 58% of patients were at risk for PEM. PEM was associated with elevated CIRS-G (P<0.006), greater numbers of severe comorbidities (P=0.006), more severe cognitive disorder (P=0.005) and functional dependence (P=0.002), and 8 days' longer MHS (P=0.012). The present study confirmed the high prevalence of PEM in HF patients aged over 75 years, supporting longer hospital stay. MNA is a diagnostic gold standard, not to be replaced by albuminemia or body-mass index in this perioperative clinical situation. Given the present economic stakes relating to geriatric trauma patients' hospital stay, it is essential to prevent

  5. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. What are key determinants of hospital admissions, readmission rate and day case rate within the South African medical schemes population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nondumiso Gugu Khumalo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  BACKGROUND: In South Africa, private hospitals absorb a high proportion of the total health expenditure on private health care. Between 2008-2010 private hospital expenditure which includes ward fees, theatre fees, consumables, medicines and per diem arrangements consumed between 40.5% and 40.9% of the total benefits paid by medical schemes from the risk pool, whilst in-hospital managed care fees ranged between 1.8% and 2.8% for the equivalent years.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to highlight key factors contributing to utilisation of hospital services within the medical schemes population and to recommend “appropriate” and cost effective strategies on hospital utilisation management.METHODS: A cross sectional survey informed by retrospective analysis of quantitative data was used. Researchers also triangulated quantitative data with systematic review of literature.RESULTS: The results show that demographic indicators such as age profile, dependency ratio, pensioner ratio and prevalence of chronic conditions are not the only key factors influencing hospital admissions, but rather the effectiveness of each medical scheme in containing hospital admissions is also influenced by available technical capacity on utilisation review and audit as well as the managed care methodology including the philosophy underpinning benefit option design.CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of “value based” managed care programs linked to benefit option design in health care utilisation management. The choice of one managed care program over the other often leads to tradeoffs whereby unintended consequences emanate. Medical schemes are therefore encouraged to continuously review their managed care programs to ensure value for money as well as better access and health outcomes.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v13i2.207

  7. [Changes in Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases according to Improvement of Helicobacter pylori Prevalence Rate in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Heon

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause variety of upper gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma, and gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection has significantly decreased in Korea since 1998 owing to active eradication of H. pylori. Along with its decrease, the prevalence of peptic ulcer has also decreased. However, the mean age of gastric ulcer increased and this is considered to be due to increase in NSAID prescription. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Korea and Japan, and IARC/WHO has classified H. pylori as class one carcinogen of gastric cancer. Despite the decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection, the total number of gastric cancer in Korea has continuously increased from 2006 to 2011. Nevertheless, the 5 year survival rate of gastric cancer patients significantly increased from 42.8% in 1993 to 67% in 2010. This increase in survival rate seems to be mainly due to early detection of gastric cancer and endoscopic mucosal dissection treatment. Based on these findings, the prevalence of peptic ulcer is expected to decrease even more with H. pylori eradication therapy and NSAID will become the main cause of peptic ulcer. Although the prevalence of gastric cancer has not changed along with decreased the prevalence of H. pylori, gastric cancer is expected to decrease in the long run with the help of eradication therapy and endoscopic treatment of precancerous lesions.

  8. Prevalência de infecção congênita por citomegalovírus em recém-nascidos de uma unidade de tratamento intensivo de um hospital público The prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborn infants at an intensive care unit in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Schreiner Miura

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da infecção congênita por citomegalovírus em recém-nascidos internados na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal de um hospital público de Porto Alegre. METODOS: Estudo transversal, incluindo 261 recém-nascidos que nasceram em um hospital público da cidade de Porto Alegre no ano de 2003 e foram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. Foi coletada amostra de urina nos primeiros 7 dias de vida e realizado o teste de reação em cadeia da polimerase para a pesquisa do DNA do citomegalovírus. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de infecção congênita por citomegalovírus na população estudada foi de 0,8% (IC 95%: 0,097-2,86. Devido à baixa prevalência, não foi possível associar fatores de risco. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção congênita por citomegalovírus em uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal de um hospital público de Porto Alegre não foi considerada elevada, sendo semelhante à prevalência encontrada em outros estudos realizados.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborn infants admitted to an intensive care unit in a public hospital in Porto Alegre. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 261 newborn infants born at a public hospital in the city of Porto Alegre in 2003 and admitted to the intensive care ward. Urine samples were collected within 7 days of birth and a polymerase chain reaction-PCR performed to test for cytomegalovirus DNA. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection among the study population was 0.8% (95% CI: 0.097%-2.86%. It was not possible to assess risk factors because this prevalence was so low. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in an intensive care unit at a public hospital in Porto Alegre was not considered elevated and was comparable with prevalence rates found by other studies.

  9. Hospital Infection Society prevalence survey of Healthcare Associated Infection 2006: comparison of results between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, F

    2008-07-01

    As part of the Third Healthcare Associated Infection (HCAI) Prevalence Survey of the United Kingdom and Ireland, HCAI point prevalence surveys were carried out in Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Here we explore the potential benefits of comparing results from two countries with different healthcare systems, which employed similar methodologies and identical HCAI definitions. Forty-four acute adult hospitals in the RoI and 15 in NI participated with a total of 11 185 patients surveyed (NI 3644 patients and RoI 7541). The overall HCAI prevalence was 5.4 and 4.9 in NI and the RoI, respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence rates of HCAI, device-related HCAI or HCAI associated with bloodstream infection but there was a difference in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-related HCAI (P = 0.02) between the two countries. There were significantly more urinary tract infections and Clostridium difficile infections recorded in NI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001). HCAIs were more prevalent in patients aged >65 years and in the intensive care unit in both countries. HCAIs were also more prevalent if patients were mechanically ventilated, had had recent non-implant surgery (RoI) or had more recorded HCAI risk factors. This is the first time that HCAI prevalence rates have been directly compared between NI and the RoI. By closely examining similarities and differences between HCAI prevalence rates in both countries it is hoped that this will influence healthcare planning and at the same time reassure the public that HCAI is important and that measures are being taken to combat it.

  10. Wide variation in hospital and physician payment rates evidence of provider market power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2010-11-01

    Wide variation in private insurer payment rates to hospitals and physicians across and within local markets suggests that some providers, particularly hospitals, have significant market power to negotiate higher-than-competitive prices, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Looking across eight health care markets--Cleveland; Indianapolis; Los Angeles; Miami; Milwaukee; Richmond, Va.; San Francisco; and rural Wisconsin--average inpatient hospital payment rates of four large national insurers ranged from 147 percent of Medicare in Miami to 210 percent in San Francisco. In extreme cases, some hospitals command almost five times what Medicare pays for inpatient services and more than seven times what Medicare pays for outpatient care. Variation within markets was just as dramatic. For example, the hospital with prices at the 25th percentile of Los Angeles hospitals received 84 percent of Medicare rates for inpatient care, while the hospital with prices at the 75th percentile received 184 percent of Medicare rates. The highest-priced Los Angeles hospital with substantial inpatient claims volume received 418 percent of Medicare. While not as pronounced, significant variation in physician payment rates also exists across and within markets and by specialty. Few would characterize the variation in hospital and physician payment rates found in this study to be consistent with a highly competitive market. Purchasers and public policy makers can address provider market power, or the ability to negotiate higher-than-competitive prices, through two distinct approaches. One is to pursue market approaches to strengthen competitive forces, while the other is to constrain payment rates through regulation.

  11. The value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections for evaluating infection control interventions at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, N; Emary, K; Soklin, S; Peng An, K; Sophal, S; Chhomrath, S; Day, N P J; Limmathurotsakul, D; Nget, P; Pangnarith, Y; Sona, S; Kumar, V; Moore, C E; Chanpheaktra, N; Parry, C M

    2013-04-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and infection control in low-income countries. We describe the value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys for monitoring HCAI and evaluating infection control interventions in a Cambodian paediatric hospital. Hospital-wide, point-prevalence surveys were performed monthly in 2011. Infection control interventions introduced during this period included a hand hygiene programme and a ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) care bundle. Overall HCAI prevalence was 13.8/100 patients at-risk, with a significant decline over time. The highest HCAI rates (50%) were observed in critical care; the majority of HCAIs were respiratory (61%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated and antimicrobial resistance was widespread. Hand hygiene compliance doubled to 51.6%, and total VAP cases/1000 patient-ventilator days fell from 30 to 10. Rates of HCAI were substantial in our institution, and antimicrobial resistance a major concern. Point-prevalence surveys are effective for HCAI surveillance, and in monitoring trends in response to infection control interventions.

  12. Accounting For Patients' Socioeconomic Status Does Not Change Hospital Readmission Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Susannah M; Parzynski, Craig S; Horwitz, Leora; Lin, Zhenqiu; Araas, Michael J; Ross, Joseph S; Drye, Elizabeth E; Suter, Lisa G; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-08-01

    There is an active public debate about whether patients' socioeconomic status should be included in the readmission measures used to determine penalties in Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). Using the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services methodology, we compared risk-standardized readmission rates for hospitals caring for high and low proportions of patients of low socioeconomic status (as defined by their Medicaid status or neighborhood income). We then calculated risk-standardized readmission rates after additionally adjusting for patients' socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that hospitals caring for large proportions of patients of low socioeconomic status have readmission rates similar to those of other hospitals. Moreover, readmission rates calculated with and without adjustment for patients' socioeconomic status are highly correlated. Readmission rates of hospitals caring for patients of low socioeconomic status changed by approximately 0.1 percent with adjustment for patients' socioeconomic status, and only 3-4 percent fewer such hospitals reached the threshold for payment penalty in Medicare's HRRP. Overall, adjustment for socioeconomic status does not change hospital results in meaningful ways. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Rates of TBI-related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2001 – 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In general, total combined rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths have increased over the past...

  14. Prevalence of alcohol problems among adult somatic in-patients of a Copenhagen hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Storgaard, H; Moesgaard, F

    1994-01-01

    of the following criteria was fulfilled: (1) a self-reported daily alcohol consumption for at least 2 years of at least 60 g of ethanol in men and 36 g in women, (2) a Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) score of or above 5, (3) an alcohol-related discharge diagnosis. In total, 692 patients fulfilled......The adult patients of somatic departments of a Copenhagen hospital were screened on a randomly selected day during a 14 day period by interviewers who examined them using a structured questionnaire regarding life-style. A patient was considered having an alcohol problem if one or more...... of the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol problem. Only 14 patients (3.2%; 95%-confidence limits 1.8-5.3%) had an alcohol-related discharge diagnosis. The prevalence of patients with alcohol problems was significantly (P

  15. A prevalence study of pulmonary tuberculosis in hospital visited diabetes patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ho Keun; Lee, Hang Young; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Kun Sang

    1983-01-01

    We reviewed the records of randomly selected 320 diabetic out-patients at EuiJi Hospital from April 1981 through March 1983. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) of 140 mg/dl or more was taken as a criteria of diabetes according to the report of National Diabetes Data Group. The results are as follows: 1. Mean age of study group was 50.8 years-old and the FBS mean value was 222.4 mg/dl. 2. There was no significant difference of FBS values of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis patients. 3. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis evaluated by chest films was 13.4 percent in diabetes patients. This value is lower than those of other studies but higher than that of urban population in Korea (p<0.05)

  16. High prevalence of missed opportunities for secondary fracture prevention in a regional general hospital setting in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Linsey; Reddy, Saripalli K; Alsuwaigh, Rayan; Khoo, Joan; King, Thomas F J

    2017-12-01

    This study aims at assessing the gap in secondary fracture prevention at a regional general hospital setting in Singapore. Male patients have significantly lower rate of being investigated and treated for osteoporosis than their female counterparts. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in our population. Secondary fracture prevention services are not routine in Singapore; we seek to assess the treatment gap that exists in the lack of diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in fragility fracture patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of all admissions for fragility fractures between December 2013 and December 2014. Demographic data, rates of BMD performance, serum vitamin D investigation and calcium and vitamin D supplementation as well as antiresorptive initiation 1 year post admission were analysed. There were 125 fragility fractures in patients below 65 and 615 fractures in older patients. There was a slightly higher proportion of males in the younger population, whereas females predominated in the older population. Median vitamin D levels were low in both younger (19.1 μg/L) and older (22.0 μg/L) groups, but supplementation was lower in younger patients (4.8 versus 16.6%, p = 0.003). Rate of BMD performance was lower in younger patients (34.4 versus 64.6%, p Singapore. Male osteoporosis remains inadequately investigated and treated in both age groups.

  17. Predictors and Prevalence of Pain and Its Management in Four Regional Cancer Hospitals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Doyle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More than 1 million new occurrences of cancer are diagnosed in India annually. Among patients with cancer, pain is a common and persistent symptom of the disease and its treatment. However, few studies to date have evaluated the prevalence of pain and the adequacy of pain management in Indian hospitals. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic patterns of cancer pain and pain management among a sample of inpatients and newly registered outpatients at four large regional cancer centers in India. Methods: A sample of 1,600 patients with cancer who were current inpatients or newly registered outpatients were recruited and administered a questionnaire that was based on the Brief Pain Inventory. The survey tool included questions on demographics, medical history, and extent of clinical pain experienced. In addition, a pain management index score was created to link the severity of cancer pain with medication prescribed to treat it. Results: A total of 88% of patients reported pain in the past 7 days, and approximately 60% reported that their worst pain was severe. Several demographic and medical characteristics of the study population predicted severe pain, including the following: lower educational level, outpatient status, and debt incurred as a result of illness. A total of 67% of patients were inadequately treated with analgesics. Inadequate pain management was associated with both treatment hospital and patient type, and patients who reported debt as a result of their illness were more likely to have inadequate pain management. Conclusion: A majority of Indian patients with cancer experience significant pain and receive inadequate pain management. Improvement of pain management for Indian patients with cancer is needed urgently.

  18. Burden of type 2 diabetes in Mexico: past, current and future prevalence and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in Mexico: Past, Current and Future Prevalence and Incidence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. Methods We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960–2012), and birth-cohort (1920–1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010–2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Results Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65–68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57–59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960–2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7–22.5% by 2050, affecting 15–25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. PMID:26546108

  20. Hospital waste: Generation rates in Bogotá, 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez-Miranda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The generation of waste by hospital activities in large urban areas requires comprehensive management, which involves knowing its production characteristics. Objective: To establish performance indicators for the management of hospital waste based on generation rates and hospital waste classification in Bogotá D.C. in the period 2012 - 2015. Materials and methods: Qualitative descriptive-prospective study, with cross-sectional design performed based on secondary information obtained from hospitals in Colombia. Results: According to the information analyzed, between 2012 and 2015 2 727 947 tons of hospital waste were generated in Bogotá D.C; 45% of waste corresponded to non-hazardous waste (recyclable and ordinary and 55% to hazardous waste (infectious, chemical and dangerous administrative waste. Conclusions: The waste generation rates observed exceed by 40% the calculation presented by the Ministry of Environment and other sources reporting a percentage of 10-15% for hazardous waste.

  1. Prevalence of xerostomia on type 2 diabetes mellitus in Hajj Hospital Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kus Harijanti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. A defective or deficient of the insulin secretory, which is translated into impaired carbohydrate (glucose use, is characteristic feature of DM, as the resultant is hyperglycemia. There is variability among patients, however, morphologic changes are likely found in arteries (atherosclerosis, basement membrane of the blood vessel wall tissues (micro angiopathy, kidneys (diabetic nephropathy, retina (retinopathy, nerves (neuropathy and other tissues. If it involves salivary glands, the clinical sign is xerostomia. The type 2 of DM is caused by a combination of peripheral resistance to insulin action and an inadequate secretory response of the pancreatic b-cell. Approximately 80% to 90% of patients have type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of xerostomia and its relation with level of blood glucose in type 2 DM. The data was taken using cross sectional method on the diabetic patients of Internal Medicine clinic, Hajj Hospital Surabaya from February to March 2006. The result that showed among 50 samples of the type 2 DM, the prevalence of xerostomia were 38 patients (76%. Most of the patients (32 patients = 84% on bad regulation of DM with level of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl and level of post prandial glucose ≥ 180 mg/dl. The study showed that bad regulation of type 2 DM could develop complication on salivary glands, with xerostomia as the clinical sign.

  2. prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among health care workers in Ain Shams university hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-fouly, A.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    exposure to blood borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCW), since the transmission of viral hepatitis B and C to health care workers has became of worldwide concern. hepatitis B and C viruses are the most frequent occupational disease in health care service workers, HCW are defined as persons (doctors, nurses, employees, students, contractors, attending clinicians, public-safety workers, or volunteers) whose activities involve contact with patients or with blood or other body fluids from patients in a health - care, laboratory, or public-safety setting . the potential exists for blood and body fluid exposure to other workers, and the same principle of exposure management could be applied to other setting.in the united states, the prevalence of HBV and HCV among HCWs range between (6-30%) and (2.7-10%) respectively . in spain HBV prevalence is 11.6% and HCV is 28.8%. while in taiwan 16.7% of HCWs were seropositive to HBsAG and 12.7% were seropositive for HCV. In Egypt, screening of 1485 HCWs in the Ministry of health hospitals, 35% were exposed to needle sticks

  3. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup in Assam, India: A hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajanta; Dutta, Bornali Sarmah; Rasul, Elmy Samsun; Barkataki, Dipa; Saikia, Anjanamoyee; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Although cholera remains to be an important public health problem, studies on reliable population-based estimates of laboratory confirmed cholera in endemic areas are limited worldwide. The aim of this hospital-based study was to evaluate the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae serogroup in Assam, India, during 2003-2013. Stool samples/rectal swabs were collected from acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) cases during 2003-2013 and processed by standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Year-wise epidemiological trend of cholera was analyzed. Cholera contributed to 3.93 per cent of AWD cases. In Assam, cholera was found to be more prevalent in the rural areas (6.7%) followed by the tea gardens (5.06%), urban slum (1.9%) and urban areas (1.4%). Highest proportion of cholera (13.7%) was observed in 0-10 yr age group. Of them, 11.5 per cent belonged to 0-5 yr age group. V. cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa was the predominant isolate. Multiple drug-resistant isolates of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were reported in the study. Emergence of resistance amongst V. cholerae towards many antibiotics is a matter of concern. Hence, continuous surveillance for diarrhoeal disorders is necessary to control the future outbreaks of cholera in this region.

  4. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae in Algiers hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iabadene, Hassen; Messai, Yamina; Ammari, Houria; Alouache, Souhila; Verdet, Charlotte; Bakour, Rabah; Arlet, Guillaume

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and diversity of plasmid-mediated AmpC cephalosporinases (PAcBLs) in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected between 2003 and 2007 from three Algiers hospitals. Antibiograms were determined on Mueller-Hinton agar plates using the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by Etest. Isolates resistant to cefoxitin or ceftazidime were screened for bla(CMY), bla(DHA), bla(FOX) and bla(ACC) as well as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were sequenced by the Sanger method. Plasmid incompatibility grouping was conducted by PCR-based replicon typing. The prevalence of PAcBLs was 2.18% (11/505), comprising 8 CMY-2 and 3 DHA-1 enzymes. CTX-M-15 was co-produced with CMY-2 in three isolates and with DHA-1 in one isolate; the two remaining DHA-1-producers co-expressed SHV-12 ESBL. This is the first report of plasmid-mediated AmpC from Algeria, with the first detection of DHA-1 in Enterobacter cloacae.

  5. Back pain in the working population: Prevalence rates in Dutch trades and professions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, V.H.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of three health surveys in the Dutch working population is described, aimed at the identification of Dutch trades and professions with relative high and low prevalence rates of back pain. The sample was representative of the working population in the Netherlands and consisted of 5840 men

  6. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  7. Prevalence of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals in Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Shelley S.; Hellinger, Walter; Cohen, Jessica; Kay, Robyn; Bailey, Christine; Boland, Bonnie; Carey, Darlene; de Guzman, Jessica; Dominguez, Karen; Edwards, Jonathan; Goraczewski, Lori; Horan, Teresa; Miller, Melodee; Phelps, Marti; Saltford, Rebecca; Seibert, Jacquelyn; Smith, Brenda; Starling, Patricia; Viergutz, Bonnie; Walsh, Karla; Rathore, Mobeen; Guzman, Nilmarie; Fridkin, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevalence in nine Jacksonville, FL hospitals, evaluate the performance of proxy indicators for HAIs, and refine methodology in preparation for a multi-state survey. Design Point prevalence survey. Patients Acute care inpatients of any age. Methods HAIs were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. In each facility a trained Primary Team (PT) of infection prevention (IP) staff performed the survey on 1 day, reviewing records and collecting data on a random sample of inpatients. PTs assessed patients with ≥1 proxy indicator (abnormal white blood cell count, abnormal temperature, or antimicrobial therapy) for the presence of HAIs. An external IP expert team collected data from a subset of patient records reviewed by PTs to assess proxy indicator performance and PT data collection. Results Of 851 patients surveyed by PTs, 51 had ≥1 HAI (6.0%, 95% confidence interval 4.5–7.7%). Surgical site infections (n=18), urinary tract infections (n=9), pneumonia (n=9), and bloodstream infections (n=8) accounted for 75.8% of 58 HAIs detected by PTs. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen, causing 9 HAIs (15.5%). Antimicrobial therapy was the most sensitive proxy indicator, identifying 95.5% of patients with HAIs. Conclusions HAI prevalence in this pilot was similar to that reported in the 1970s from CDC’s Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control. Antimicrobial therapy was a sensitive screening variable with which to identify higher-risk patients and reduce data collection burden. Additional work is needed on validation and feasibility to extend this methodology to a national scale. PMID:22314066

  8. [Prevalence and associated factors of low birth weight in the provincial hospital of Mohammedia--Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoune, Samira; Bassel, Said; Nani, Samira; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2015-07-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) constitutes a major public health problem, both in developed than in developing countries, due to its extent and its strong association with childhood morbidity and mortality. to estimate prevalence of low birth weight and determine its related factors in the Prefectoral Hospital in Mohammedia. We carried out a cross sectional study from May to July 2012 which concerned 713 newborns and theirs mothers. We collected information about socioeconomic and anthropometric factors and characteristics of pregnancy. A multivariate analysis was performed. Among the 713 studied newborns, 38 had LBW; the prevalence of LBW was 5,3% (95% CI: 3,7%-6,9%). Factors significantly associated with LBW in multivariate analysis were: mother age ( OR 9,27; IC95%:2,15-39,85), prematurity (OR 9,34; IC95%:1,29-67,32), twin pregnancy (OR 195,07; IC 95%:30,38-125,39) and gender of new born (OR 5,26; IC 95%:1,61-17,18). Well-balanced diet (OR 0,12; IC 95%:0,04-0,34) and hours of sleep equal or more than 8 per day (OR 0,20; IC 95%:0,07-0,58) were protector factors. Actions of education, screening and treatment of the diseases occurred in the pregnancy are necessary. Facilitating the access of pregnant women to high quality antenatal care, promoting a healthy lifestyle as a balanced diet, fighting against the active and passive smoking and offering a psychological support to the pregnant woman is necessary to reduce the prevalence of LBW and to improve the maternal and child health.

  9. STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF MICROALBUMINURIA AND RETINOPATHY IN PREDIABETES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a chronic disease that has a prolonged prediabetic phase. Indians develop diabetes 10 years earlier tha n other ethnic groups (mean age 42.5 years . 1 Diet, environment, genetics play a major role in development of diabetes. Complications of diabetes are directly proportional to the duration of diabetes and dysglycemia. Prediabetes is a condition is which glucose levels are high to be considered as normal, eventhough they do not meet the criteria for diabetes. 10% - 50% of prediabetics may develop diabetes in 3 - 10 year period. Components of prediabetes include either an isolated impai red fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance or both. Microvascular complications can begin is the prediabetic stage itself. Present study has been done to know the prevalence of microalbuminuria and retinopathy is prediabetic stage and correlation of both in prediabetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in a tertiary care Hospital from June 2013 to May 2014. Screening was done and patients recruited into the study after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. American Diabetes Association Criteria 2 was used for screening and results were correlated using various parameters to know the prevalence of microalbuminuria and retinopathy in prediabetes. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences(spss version 20.0 . RESULTS: In this study, 500 patients were screened for diabetes. 100 patients were included in the study. Prevalence of prediabetes was seen in 20% of patients screened. 19% of prediabetics had microalbuminuria and 8% had retinopathy. Association of both conditions was seen is 7% of patients. CONCLUSION: Diabetic Microvascular complications like retinopathy and nephropathy in the form of microalbuminuria starts even in the prediabetic stage in a significant number of patients. Screening high risk individu als for diabetes and screening of prediabetics for microvascular

  10. Prevalence of digestive tract colonization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljindan, Reem; Bukharie, Huda; Alomar, Amer; Abdalhamid, Baha

    2015-04-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a major health problem worldwide, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). This study aimed to detect the prevalence of A. baumannii colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of patients admitted to the ICU in two hospitals in Saudi Arabia. In addition, it aimed to characterize the molecular mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in these isolates. From January to June 2014, 565 rectal swab specimens were screened for Acinetobacer strains and carbapenem resistance using CHROMagar Acinetobacter and CHROMagar KPC agar plates, respectively. Organism identification and susceptibility were detected using the Vitek 2 system. A total of 47 Acinetobacter spp. were detected, and 35 were resistant to carbapenem, making the prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. 8.3% (47/565) and carbapenem resistance (6.2%, 35/565). The 47 strains showed remarkable clonal diversity as revealed by PFGE. Using PCR, OXA-51, a chromosomal marker for A. baumannii, was detected in 46 strains. OXA-23 β-lactamase was detected in all 35 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. No IMP, VIM, SPM, SIM, GIM, KPC or NDM β-lactamases were detected in these isolates. Thus, OXA-23 was the main mechanism of carbapenem resistance in these isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to detect the prevalence of Acinetobacter colonization in the digestive tract of ICU patients in Saudi Arabia. This study revealed the importance of having well-established protocols for early identification of these multidrug-resistant organisms, optimizing infection-control strategies and having active surveillance studies to reduce morbidity, mortality and cost. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Teenage Pregnancy in Rajavithi Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Chaovarindr, Udom; Kaoien, Surasak; Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Kovavisarach, Ekachai

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral and social changes in the modern era have triggered an increase in the incidence of early sexual contact and teenage pregnancy. Since there is no routine Gonococcal & Chlamydial (GC & CT) screening in teens in antenatal clinics in Thailand, the present study was performed to find the prevalence of STI, especially Chlamydial infection, in teenage pregnancy. To evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially Chlamydial infection (CT), in teenage pregnancy and its related factors. One hundred and twenty-one teenage pregnancies were recruited at the ANC in Rajavithi Hospital from October 2006 to May 2007. After signing informed consent forms, they were asked to answer questionnaires about baseline data, sexual information and risk factors, after which urine specimens were collected for screening for GC and CT using the PCR technique (AMPLICOR by Roche). Later, pelvic examination was per formed by the gynecologist at the STD (sexually transmitted disease) clinic. All the data and LAB results were recorded and analyzed by the SPSS program. Numbers, percentages, means with SD, Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and odds ratio were used. Potential risk factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of STI in pregnant teenagers was 28.1% (CT = 19.8%, GC = 1.7%, hepatitis B = 3.3%, trichomoniasis 1.7%, Herpes simplex = 0.8% and condyloma acuminata = 0.8%). No Syphilis, chancroid or HIV were found in the present study Other non-STI like candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis were found in 45.5% of participants (candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis at 19.0% and 24.8%, respectively). The risk of CT infection was significantly related (6.9 times higher) to having previous sexual contact before the current partner (95% CI, 1.8-27.0). STI, especially Chlamydial infection, was found in a significant number of teenage pregnancies. Measures should be taken to prevent this resulting in complicated outcomes in the future.

  12. A retrospective prevalence study of malaria in an aborigine hospital in Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Nissapatorn, V; Mohamad Azlan, H; Nor Adli, A R; Shahrul Rizan, I; Anez, A; Jasmin, B

    2006-01-01

    This was a five-year retrospective study (1999-2004) on the prevalence of malaria at the Aborigine Hospital, Gombak, Malaysia. A total of 94 malaria cases was analysed. The highest case reports were for the year 2000, with 32 cases (34%), and the lowest was in 2004, with only 1 (1%). The majority of cases reported were among the Semai tribe (44%), followed by the Temiar tribe (34%) and the unspecified tribe (s) (20%). Females (53%) were more commonly affected than males (47%). The majority of cases were within the age group 1-5 years (51%). Plasmodium falciparum was the most common species reported in this study, at 57%, followed by Plasmodium vivax (38%) and 5% mixed infection of P. falciparum and P. vivax. Most patients (27%) stayed for more than one month in hospital. Most patients came from Kuala Lipis, Pahang, (78%). The most common complication was anemia (38%) followed by splenomegaly (18%); only 2% had cerebral malaria. All patients were treated with the standard anti-malarial drugs. No deaths were reported in this study.

  13. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in pregnancy: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among the hospitalized pregnant females at a tertiary care center. Methods A prospective, hospital-based study involving 1000 pregnant women in the age group of 18-45 years (mean 28.12+4.07 years. Diagnostic possibility of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA was established on the basis of Berlin Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Score. Random blood sugar estimation was done in every subject of the study group in addition to the baseline demographic profile. Results Major portion of the study group belonged to elderly age group (mean 28- 12+4.07 years. Body mass index was more in subjects having OSA as evidenced by the Berlin Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness score. Again arterial blood pressure (146.82+12.48mmHg was more associated with subjects having OSA that was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001. Conclusion: A significant proportion (13.4% of pregnant females in our study are at high risk for OSA. Keeping in view the importance of sleep disordered breathing in causing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, as well as the mortality risk from anesthesia for cesarean section, we strongly recommend screening of all pregnant females for the presence of OSA so that treatment at the appropriate time period of pregnancy may improve the maternal and fetal outcome.

  14. Changing prevalence and the risk factors for antenatal obstetric hospitalizations in Denmark 2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendix J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jane Bendix,1 Hanne Kristine Hegaard,2 Jens Langhoff-Roos,3 Thomas Bergholt3 1Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Nordsjaellands Hospital Hillerod, University of Copenhagen, Hillerod, Denmark; 2The Research Unit of Women’s and Children’s Health, The Juliane Marie Centre for Women, Children and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Obstetrics, The Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Population-based studies evaluating the use and extent of antenatal obstetric hospitalizations (AOH are sparse. The objective of the present study was to describe the prevalence, time trend, and risk factors for AOH in Denmark. Materials and methods: A retrospective national register-based cohort study was conducted that included all pregnancies with delivery after 22 gestational weeks in Denmark from 2003 to 2012. The outcomes were AOH and the diagnoses leading to these hospitalizations. AOH was defined as an antenatal hospitalization for at least 1 day with at least one obstetric International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis and admission date more than 3 days before delivery. Results: The study included 617,906 pregnancies; 48,366 (7.8% pregnancies were associated with 64,072 AOH before delivery. The percentage of pregnancies with AOH decreased from 8.6% to 7.1%. The median length of stay decreased from 3 to 2 days, and admission for at least 7 days was almost halved. Threatened preterm delivery was the most frequent diagnostic category for AOH. A decline was seen in all diagnostic categories except maternal diseases. Significant risk factors for AOH were multiple pregnancies, low or high maternal age and body mass index, nulliparity, lower educational levels, unemployment or being outside the workforce, single partner status, and smoking. The relative risk of very preterm delivery before gestational age of 34 weeks was higher in

  15. Can use of an administrative database improve accuracy of hospital-reported readmission rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, James R; Herbert, Morley A; Hamman, Baron L; Ring, W Steves

    2017-12-05

    Readmission rates after cardiac surgery are being used as a quality indicator; they are also being collected by Medicare and are tied to reimbursement. Accurate knowledge of readmission rates may be difficult to achieve because patients may be readmitted to different hospitals. In our area, 81 hospitals share administrative claims data; 28 of these hospitals (from 5 different hospital systems) do cardiac surgery and share Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) clinical data. We used these 2 sources to compare the readmissions data for accuracy. A total of 45,539 STS records from January 2008 to December 2016 were matched with the hospital billing data records. Using the index visit as the start date, the billing records were queried for any subsequent in-patient visits for that patient. The billing records included date of readmission and hospital of readmission data and were compared with the data captured in the STS record. We found 1153 (2.5%) patients who had STS records that were marked "No" or "missing," but there were billing records that showed a readmission. The reported STS readmission rate of 4796 (10.5%) underreported the readmission rate by 2.5 actual percentage points. The true rate should have been 13.0%. Actual readmission rate was 23.8% higher than reported by the clinical database. Approximately 36% of readmissions were to a hospital that was a part of a different hospital system. It is important to know accurate readmission rates for quality improvement processes and institutional financial planning. Matching patient records to an administrative database showed that the clinical database may fail to capture many readmissions. Combining data with an administrative database can enhance accuracy of reporting. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence Rates of the Incubus Phenomenon: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Molendijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe incubus phenomenon is a paroxysmal sleep-related disorder characterized by compound hallucinations experienced during brief phases of (apparent wakefulness. The condition has an almost stereotypical presentation, characterized by a hallucinated being that exerts pressure on the thorax, meanwhile carrying out aggressive and/or sexual acts. It tends to be accompanied by sleep paralysis, anxiety, vegetative symptoms, and feelings of suffocation. Its prevalence rate is unknown since, in prior analyses, cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis with/without an incubus phenomenon have been pooled together. This is unfortunate, since the incubus phenomenon has a much greater clinical relevance than isolated sleep paralysis.MethodsPubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for prevalence studies of the incubus phenomenon, and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsOf the 1,437 unique records, 13 met the inclusion criteria, reporting on 14 (k independent prevalence estimates (total N = 6,079. The pooled lifetime prevalence rate of the incubus phenomenon was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI = 0.14–0.25, k = 14, N = 6,079] with heterogeneous estimates over different samples. In selected samples (e.g., patients with a psychiatric disorder, refugees, and students, prevalence rates were nearly four times higher (0.41, 95% CI = 0.25–0.56, k = 4, n = 1,275 than in the random samples (0.11, 95% CI = 0.08–0.14, k = 10, n = 4,804. This difference was significant (P < 0.001.ConclusionThis review and meta-analysis yielded a lifetime prevalence of the incubus phenomenon in the general population of 0.11 and, in selected samples, of 0.41. This is slightly higher than the prevalence rates in previous analyses that included cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis without an incubus phenomenon. Based on the condition’s robust clinical presentation and the relatively high prevalence rates, we advocate

  17. Prevalence and pattern of congenital malformations among neonates in the neonatal unit of a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Sabir, M.; Tarar, S. H.; Mushtaq, R.; Asghar, I.; Chattha, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of congenital malformations among neonates in a teaching hospital. Methods: The prospective hospital-based study was conducted over a period of 18 months in the neonatal unit of Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, from September 2011 to February 2013. All neonates from newborn to 28 days of age admitted to the unit irrespective of their condition comprised the study population. Neonatal examination was done by the Registrar at the time of admission followed by neonatologist/paediatrician. Information regarding gender, weight, gestational age, mode of delivery, consanguinity, maternal age, antenatal visit record and family history were recorded on a predesigned proforma. After clinical examination, if required, relevant investigations like ultrasonography, radiology, echocardiography, laboratory and genetic studies were done to confirm diagnosis. Data was statistically analysed by using SPSS 20. Results: Out of 3,210 total admissions, 226 (7%) neonates were congenitally malformed. Of them, 130 (57.52 %) were male and 96 (42.47 %) females. Among different body systems affected, anomalies related to the central nervous system were 46(20.35%) musculoskeletal 42(18.58%), genitourinary 34 (15.04%), cardiovascular system 30 (13.27%), ear, eye, face, neck 27(11.94%), digestive system 19 (8.40%), syndromes and skin 14 (6.19%) each. Conclusion: Congenital Malformations are not rare in our community and central nervous system is the most commonly affected system. Healthcare managers must stress upon primary prevention in the form of vaccination, nutrition and drugs to decrease preventable share of congenital malformations. (author)

  18. Prevalence and Antibiogram Pattern of Some Nosocomial Pathogens Isolated from Hospital Environment in Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrinius Hammuel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many ordinary surfaces and hands of healthcare givers in hospitals are sometimes inadequately decontaminated with routine disinfection techniques. It is necessary to determine the distribution of these pathogens in the hospitals. In this study 160 swab samples were collected from ten different surfaces including nurses’ hand swab, Nurses’ table top, door knob/handle, toilet seat, operation table, sink, stretcher, floor, bedrail, and cupboard. Biochemical tests were used to identify the bacteria. Kirby-Bauer-Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI modified single disc diffusion technique was used to determine the antibiogram profile of the pathogens at 0.5 scale McFarland’s standard (1.5 × 108 cells/ml. The total percentage prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 50.80%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.60% and Escherichia coli 20.60%. Out of 20.60% of E. coli isolates7.7% were found to be E. coli O157:H7. S. aureus isolates were highly resistant to ampcillin and cefoxitin P. aeruginosa and E. coli were resistant to tetracycline. The multiple antibiotic resistance indexes of the pathogens were more than 0.2. Among the isolates, S. aureus showed more multidrug resistance (31.30% and E. coli had the least multidrug. Frequently touched surfaces within the hospital environment are contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These pathogens can be transfer from surfaces to patients and to surfaces again through healthcare workers. The widespread use of antimicrobials, especially over- or inappropriate use of antibiotics, has contributed to an increased incidence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms.

  19. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Children and Associated Co-morbidities - A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, H; Pokharel, A

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance status and prevalence rates of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL producers isolated from a mixed human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Afunwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the increasing epidemiological and therapeutic challenges associated with infections due to ESBL producers, ESBL prevalence rate among some bacteria isolates from healthy and non-healthy human population in a metropolitan Nigerian setting was evaluated.A total of one hundred and forty-five (145 bacteria strains were isolated from a total of four hundred and sixty (460 samples collected from urine, wound, throat and anal swabs of 220 healthy volunteers in the community and from 240 patients in 2 secondary and 2 tertiary hospitals (altogether, 4 in Enugu metropolis. The presumptive confirmatory test used for ESBL detection was the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST method. Conjugation and plasmid curing studies were also done for resistance factor determination.Of the 145 isolates, 20 were ESBL producers with 35% of these ESBL producers being of community origin and 65% from hospitals. This translates to 4.8% and 9% incidences (comparably higher than established prevalence of 4.4% and 7.5 respectively for community and hospital infections respectively. The ESBL isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Augmentin® (Amoxicilin and clavulanic acid combination. Conjugation studies for Resistance plasmid transfer showed non-transference of resistance determinants between the ESBL transconjugants and recipient strains. Correspondingly, the plasmid curing studies revealed that the acridine orange could not effect a cure on the isolates as they still retained high resistance to the antibiotics after the treatment.This study confirms the growing incidences/pool of ESBL strains in Nigeria and call for widespread and continuous monitoring towards an effective management of the potential therapeutic hurdle posed by this trend.

  1. Poor Self-Rated Health Influences Hospital Service Use in Hospitalized Inpatients With Chronic Conditions in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; McLachlan, Craig S; Baune, Bernhard T; Huang, Chun-Ta; Wu, Chia-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between self-rated health (SRH) and use of hospital services (ie, medical outpatient department, emergency department, and general ward. admissions). Cross-sectional study data were collected from 230 consecutive patients admitted to medical departments of a 2000-bed academic medical center in Taiwan using standardized operating procedures for data collection of SRH (ie, a single-item question inquiring overall perceived health status), medical disorders, depressive symptoms, and combined service utilization over a 1-year period (ie, number of visits to outpatient department, number of visits to emergency department, and number of hospitalizations). Electronic medical records were retrieved, with self-reported external medical visits added to in-hospital frequencies of service use to provide better estimation of health service utilization. Fifty-two percent of study patients rated their health as poor or very poor. Poor SRH was associated with more visits to medical outpatient department, emergency department, and hospital admission. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated an independent association between poor SRH and services utilization after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, metastatic cancer, number of chronic illness, life-threatening event, life-time suicidal ideation, and depression. SRH may be a useful research tool to model medical service use for inpatients with chronic conditions.

  2. Prevalence of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Nurses Working in Hospitals of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ping; Li, Fuye; Zhang, Li; Yang, Yi; Huang, Amei; Wang, Yanan; Yao, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the status of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in nurses working in the hospitals in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Methods. The prevalence of WMSDs since working and in the previous 12 months was evaluated using self-administrated modified musculoskeletal questionnaire based on North European questionnaire. In this cross-sectional study, 6674 nurses involved in the nursing profession were selected from 16 hospitals using the stratified cluster sampl...

  3. INVESTIGATING THE PREVALENCE OF ABNORMAL PATHOLOGIES IN EVACUATIVE CURETTAGE PRODUCTS IN AMIR-ALMOMENIN HOSPITAL IN ZABOL, 2013 TO 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijeh Rezaie Keikhaie and Zohreh Mahmoodi*

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic curettage, endometrial biopsy, and hysteroscopy are some diagnostic methods for patients who are hospitalized with abnormal uterine bleeding. In fact, curettage is implemented to diagnose uterine complications, treat forgotten abortions, and determine the cause of infertility. The main objective of the present study is investigating the prevalence of abnormal pathologies in evacuative curettage products in Amiralmomenin Hospital in Zabol from 2013 to 2016. The present descriptive s...

  4. The prevalence of mental health problems among older adults admitted as an emergency to a general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Sarah E.; Whittamore, Kathy H.; Harwood, Rowan H.; Bradshaw, Lucy E.; Gladman, John R. F.; Jones, Rob G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: a high prevalence of co-morbid mental health problems is reported among older adults admitted to general hospitals. Setting: an 1,800 bed teaching hospital. Design: consecutive general medical and trauma orthopaedic admissions aged 70 or older were screened for mental health problems. Those screening positive were invited to undergo further assessment, and were interviewed to complete a battery of health status measurements. Results: of 1,004 patients screened, 36% had no mental h...

  5. Complications and 30-day hospital readmission rates of patients undergoing tracheostomy: A prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Emily; Durakovic, Nedim; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2017-12-01

    To determine inpatient and outpatient tracheostomy complication rates and 30-day hospital readmission rates, and to assess patient and procedural risk factors associated with complications and readmissions. Prospective cohort study. Adult patients undergoing tracheostomy at a single academic hospital performed by any service, for any indication, were enrolled in this study over the course of 1 year. All patients had complete 30-day follow-up after discharge to determine complication and hospital readmission rates. Logistic regression was used to assess patient and procedural risk factors associated with these events. One hundred patients were enrolled in this study from June 1, 2015, to June 1, 2016. The overall inpatient tracheostomy complication rate was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-57%). Inpatient complications were associated with location in the medical intensive care unit and increased length of hospitalization. The outpatient tracheostomy complication rate was 15% (95% CI, 8%-22%). Outpatient complications were associated with having a previous tracheostomy or an awake tracheostomy under local anesthesia. The all-cause 30-day hospital readmission rate was 33% (95% CI, 24%-42%), and the tracheostomy-specific readmission rate was 13% (95% CI, 6%-20%). All-cause readmissions were associated with diabetes, length of hospitalization after tracheostomy, and outpatient complications. The overall mortality rate during the study period was 11% (95% CI, 5%-17%), with one tracheostomy-related death. Patients undergoing tracheostomies are at high risk for both inpatient and outpatient complications, as well for 30-day hospital readmission. Understanding patient and procedural risk factors associated with these events will help guide interventions for quality improvement. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:2746-2753, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Prevalence of malnutrition at the time of admission among patients admitted to a Canadian tertiary-care paediatric hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jo-Anna B; Al-Madhaki, Fatma Ibrahim; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition among hospitalized children is known to negatively influence their response to therapy and to prolong their admission. It also has short- and long-term consequences for growth, development and well-being. It is commonly regarded as a condition affecting children in low-income countries; however, malnutrition has been found to be variably prevalent among hospitalized children in higher-income countries. At the time the present study was conducted, it had been >30 years since the nutritional status of Canadian hospitalized children was last published. OBJECTIVES: To determine and communicate the prevalence of malnutrition among children in a Canadian tertiary-care paediatric hospital at the time of their admission. METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study, anthropometric measures were obtained from 322 children admitted to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario. Nutritional indexes (BMI for age, weight for age, weight for length/height and length/height for age) were generated from anthropometric measures using the WHO igrowup software, and summarized according to WHO definitions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of malnutrition using BMI for age was 39.6% (95% CI 33% to 46%), of which 8.8% and 30.8% of participants were under- and overnourished, respectively. Furthermore, 6.9% (95% CI 3% to 13%) were determined to be acutely malnourished (weight for length/height hospital admission so that patients can receive appropriate nutrition-specific care. PMID:25382997

  7. Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.

  8. Impact of Discharge Timings of Healthy Newborns on the Rates and Etiology of Neonatal Hospital Readmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of early hospital discharge after initial birth hospitalization on the rate and etiology of hospital readmissions during the neonatal period. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from October 2008 to September 2011. Methodology: Full-term normal newborns were included in this study, and all infants showing any features that would increase the chances of readmission were excluded. Initial birth hospitalization and readmission in the neonatal period were analyzed. Data was collected from the Discharge Abstract Database. Results: Overall, 12,728 normal newborns were delivered during the study period. Vaginally delivered infants were discharged early (within 48 hours), while those delivered via caesarean section had longer hospital stays (mean length of stay: 1.1 and 2.8 days, respectively). There were 166 readmissions, wherein the leading cause was neonatal sepsis (37.3%) followed by neonatal jaundice (26.5%). The readmission rate in early discharged (142 out of 9927) was significantly higher (p = 0.017) as compared to newborns who were discharged late after birth (24 out of 2801). Etiology of readmissions was not affected by discharge timings. Conclusion: Hospital discharge of neonates within 48 hours after delivery is counterproductive and significantly increases the risk for hospital readmission during the neonatal period. The pre-dominance of sepsis-related cases observed here indicates the need to explore its causes and determine an optimal prevention and management strategy. (author)

  9. Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina EK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Esayas Kebede Gudina,1 Yadani Michael,1 Sahilu Assegid2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a common medical condition worldwide. It is an important public health challenge because of the associated morbidity, mortality, and the cost to the society. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among attendants of adult outpatient departments at Jimma University Specialized Hospital in southwest Ethiopia. Materials and methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 734 participants aged 15 years or older from May 2012 to June 2012. A pretested structured questionnaire consisting of characteristics related to sociodemographic profiles and risk factors for hypertension was used for data collection. Three separate measurements of blood pressure and relevant anthropometric evaluation were taken according to current recommended standards. Chi-square test and other statistical analyses were done to employ appropriate interpretations of the findings. P-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 42.3 ± 13.2 years and 71.7% of them were 35 years and older; 58% of them were females. Overall prevalence of hypertension – defined by systolic blood pressure ≥140 and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 or reporting history of hypertension – was found to be 13.2%. Only 35.1% of them were aware of their hypertension and only 23.7% were on treatment. The overall control rate was 15.5%. Family history of hypertension, having diabetes mellitus, being overweight, and oral contraceptive use were associated with high blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension was found to be prevalent; morbidity, awareness, treatment, and control in those with hypertension were low. Hence, intervention measures should be undertaken

  10. The association between patient-reported incidents in hospitals and estimated rates of patient harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjertnaes, Oyvind; Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Skudal, Kjersti Eeg; Iversen, Hilde Hestad; Bjerkan, Anne Mette

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test the association between the rates of patient-reported incidents and patient harm documented in the patient record. The study was a secondary analysis of two national hospital assessments conducted in 2011. Hospital services in Norway. The patient survey was a standard national patient-experience survey conducted at the hospital level for all 63 hospitals in Norway. The medical record review was performed by 47 Global Trigger Tools (GTTs) in all 19 hospital trusts and 4 private hospitals. The two data sets were matched at the unit level, yielding comparable patient experiences and GTT data for 7 departments, 16 hospitals and 11 hospital trusts. No intervention. The correlation at the unit level between the patient-reported incident in hospital instrument (PRIH-I) and estimated rates of patient harm from the GTT. The PRIH-I index was significantly correlated with all patient-reported experience indicators at the individual level, with estimates for all patient harm events (Categories E-I) at the unit level (r = 0.62, P < 0.01), and with estimates of more serious harm events in Categories F-I (r = 0.42, P < 0.05). Patient-reported incidents in hospitals, as measured by the PRIH-I, are strongly correlated with patient harm rates based on the GTT. This indicates that patient-reported incidents are related to patient safety, but more research is needed to confirm the usefulness of patient reporting in the evaluation of patient safety. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  11. PREVALENCE OF CARDIAC ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH HIV IN THANJAVUR MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, THANJAVUR

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    C. Sundararajan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND HIV infection has become a global pandemic with more than 36 million people infected throughout the world. HIV related cardiac involvement has been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. The above study was undertaken to study the prevalence of cardiac abnormalities in HIV infected individuals and to correlate the cardiac abnormalities with stage of infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS We have conducted a cross-sectional study in the Department of Internal Medicine, Thanjavur Medical College and Hospital on the prevalence of cardiac manifestations among the parents living with HIV/ AIDS on ART. The duration of study was for a period of 6 months, August 2016 to January 2017. A total of 100 patients who were seropositive and who fit the inclusion criteria were chosen and an attempt was made out to find the prevalence of cardiac manifestations among them. All patients diagnosed to have HIV infection/ AIDS after ELISA test being positive were included in the study. RESULTS In our study among 100 patients, 30 patients (32.60% had cardiac abnormalities either in the form of ECG or Echocardiography abnormality. It is observed that 1 patient out of 13 patients (7.69% in Stage I, 7 patients out of 27 (25.92% patients in Stage II, 11 patients out of 33 (33.33% patients in Stage III and 11 patients out of 27 (40.74% patients in Stage IV had cardiac abnormalities. There was a statistically significant correlation between cardiac abnormalities and CD4 count (P value was 0.02. As the stage of infection increases, the cardiac abnormalities increase proportionally. Cardiac abnormalities are directly proportional to the stage of infection. CONCLUSION Prevalence of cardiac abnormalities was 32.60% in our study. Diastolic dysfunction was the most common echocardiographic abnormality. Poor progression of R waves was the most common electrocardiographic abnormality. Cardiac abnormalities specifically correlated with stage of infection. People

  12. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D.; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10...... community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.......2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects...

  13. Plastic surgeons' self-reported operative infection rates at a Canadian academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wendy Ky; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection rates are of great interest to patients, surgeons, hospitals and third-party payers. While previous studies have reported hospital-acquired infection rates that are nonspecific to all surgical services, there remain no overall reported infection rates focusing specifically on plastic surgery in the literature. To estimate the reported surgical site infection rate in plastic surgery procedures over a 10-year period at an academic hospital in Canada. A review was conducted on reported plastic surgery surgical site infection rates from 2003 to 2013, based on procedures performed in the main operating room. For comparison, prospective infection surveillance data over an eight-year period (2005 to 2013) for nonplastic surgery procedures were reviewed to estimate the overall operative surgical site infection rates. A total of 12,183 plastic surgery operations were performed from 2003 to 2013, with 96 surgical site infections reported, corresponding to a net operative infection rate of 0.79%. There was a 0.49% surgeon-reported infection rate for implant-based procedures. For non-plastic surgery procedures, surgical site infection rates ranged from 0.04% for cataract surgery to 13.36% for high-risk abdominal hysterectomies. The plastic surgery infection rate at the study institution was found to be site infection rates. However, these results do not report patterns of infection rates germane to procedures, season, age groups or sex. To provide more in-depth knowledge of this topic, multicentre studies should be conducted.

  14. Prostate cancer trends in Latvia during 1990-2012: incidence, prevalence, mortality, and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonis, Juris; Bokums, Kristaps; Cauce, Vinita; Miklasevics, Edvins; Vaganovs, Peteris; Irmejs, Arvids; Gardovskis, Janis; Vjaters, Egils

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common form of cancer in males worldwide. One of the highest PCa-related mortality rates in the world is observed in Latvia. Our study included male patients diagnosed with PCa between 1990 and 2012. We analyzed incidence, prevalence and mortality trends using joinpoint analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates. A total of 14,083PCa patients with a mean age of initial PCa diagnosis being 70.1 (SD 8.6) was registered. The standardized incidence rates (per 100,000) increased from 18.9 in 1990 to 74.7 in 2012, while the standardized prevalence rates (per 100,000) increased from 69.9 in 1990 to 437.6 in 2012. Standardized PCa mortality rates (per 100,000) also rose from 13.2 in 1990 to 27.2 in 2006 followed by statistically insignificant decrease continuing up to 2012. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rates increased from 43.6% in 1990 to 70.7% in 2007, and the mean 10-year cancer-specific survival rates from 32.9% in 1990 to 40.5% in 2001. This study revealed that the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates increased between 1990 and 2012, and although the 5- and 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates improved over the reviewed period they still needed to get better. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. The prevalence of very preterm deliveries, risk factors, and neonatal complications in Arash women hospital: a brief report

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    Abootaleb Beigi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very preterm birth (26-32 weeks has an important effect on infant morta-lity and disability of infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of very preterm delivery and early neonatal morbidity (the first 28 days after birth.Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, among 4393 delivery in Arash Women's Hospital in Tehran, 59 deliveries were very preterm that resulted in 79 very preterm neonate births. We assessed maternal risk factors and neonatal complications in women who were admitted for delivery from March 2009 to March 2010.Results: Among 59 pregnant women, 17 (12/27% had multiple pregnancies and 17 (12/27% had premature rupture of fetal membranes. Caesarean section method was more common than normal vaginal delivery (46 cases- 97/77%. Women aged 18 to 35 had the highest rate of preterm delivery (45/86%. Among 79 very preterm neonates about half of them were very low birth weight, 74 neonates (93/67% suffered from respiratory distress syndrome and 13 deaths were reported.Conclusion: Premature birth is a multi-factorial phenomenon. Identifying maternal risk factors and increasing knowledge about it can decrease the rate of preterm labor. The prevention of premature labor is better than cure. Further prospective studies with large number of patients and long-term follow-up are recommended for better understanding of the phenomenon.

  16. The Prevalence of Pemphigus (Razi Hospital and Department of Oral Pathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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    Eshghyar N

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective statistical study was to determine the prevalcence and frequency of"nage and sex distributions of pemphigus disease. Pemphigus disease classified as autoimmune bullous"ndermatoses which is a chronic mucocutaneous disease."nThis study was performed in Razi Hospital and department of oral pathology of dental school, Tehran"nUniversity of Medical Sciences. The most frequently effected area was buccal moucosa of oral cavity. The"nmost rate of recurrence was found in oral cavity which being more common in middle age females (25-44"nyears.

  17. High mortality in adults hospitalized for active tuberculosis in a low HIV prevalence setting.

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    Grace Lui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of adults hospitalized for tuberculosis in a higher-income region with low HIV prevalence. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all adults hospitalized for pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary tuberculosis in an acute-care hospital in Hong Kong during a two-year period. Microscopy and solid-medium culture were routinely performed. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by: (1 positive culture of M. tuberculosis, (2 positive M. tuberculosis PCR result, (3 histology findings of tuberculosis infection, and/or (4 typical clinico-radiological manifestations of tuberculosis which resolved after anti-TB treatment, in the absence of alternative diagnoses. Time to treatment ('early', started during initial admission; 'late', subsequent periods, reasons for delay, and short- and long-term survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Altogether 349 patients were studied [median(IQR age 62(48-77 years; non-HIV immunocompromised conditions 36.7%; HIV/AIDS 2.0%]. 57.9%, 16.3%, and 25.8% had pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and pulmonary-extrapulmonary tuberculosis respectively. 58.2% was smear-negative; 0.6% multidrug-resistant. 43.4% developed hypoxemia. Crude 90-day and 1-year all-cause mortality was 13.8% and 24.1% respectively. 57.6% and 35.8% received 'early' and 'late' treatment respectively, latter mostly culture-guided [median(IQR intervals, 5(3-9 vs. 43(25-61 days]. Diagnosis was unknown before death in 6.6%. Smear-negativity, malignancy, chronic lung diseases, and prior exposure to fluoroquinolones (adjusted-OR 10.6, 95%CI 1.3-85.2 delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis. Failure to receive 'early' treatment independently predicted higher mortality (Cox-model, adjusted-HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1-3.0. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality of hospitalized tuberculosis patients is high. Newer approaches incorporating methods for rapid diagnosis and initiation of anti-tuberculous treatment are urgently required to improve outcomes.

  18. The bacterial contamination rate of glucose meter test strips in the hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Saeb, Amr T. M.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra M.; AlQumaidi, Hamed M.; AlMogbel, Turki A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of the multi-use vial and single-use packed glucose meter strips, and to identify the type and frequency of various bacterial contamination in different hospital wards. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted by a team from the Strategic Center for Diabetes Research in 7 general hospitals in the Central region of Saudi Arabia during the period from August to September 2014 to assess the bacterial contamination rate of the unused strips. A total of 10,447 strips were cultured using proper agar media and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically. Results: The total bacterial contamination rate for the multi-use vials glucose strips was 31.7%, while single-use packed strips were not contaminated at all. Ministry of Health hospitals had the highest contamination rates compared with other hospitals. Critical, obstetric, and surgical wards had the highest bacterial isolates number, where most were in the risk group 3 according to the National Institute of Health guidelines. Staphylococcus species were the most common bacteria found. Conclusion: Glucose meter strips should be recognized as a source of bacterial contamination that could be behind serious hospital acquired infections. The hospital infection control team should adopt proper measures to implement protocols for glucose meter cleaning and glucose strips handling. PMID:27570855

  19. Bombay blood group: Is prevalence decreasing with urbanization and the decreasing rate of consanguineous marriage

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    Sujata Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombay blood group although rare is found to be more prevalent in the Western and Southern states of India, believed to be associated with consanguineous marriage. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the Bombay blood group (Oh in the urban population of Puducherry. To find the effect of urbanization on consanguineous marriage and to establish whether consanguinity plays a part in the prevalence of Oh group. To compare Oh group prevalence with that of other neighboring states, where population is not predominantly urban. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, over a period of 6 years. Materials and Methods: All blood samples showing ′O′ group were tested with anti-H lectin. Specialized tests like Adsorption Elution Technique, inhibition assay for determination of secretor status were performed on Oh positive cases. Any history of consanguineous marriage was recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: All variables were categorical variable and percentage and proportions were calculated manually. Results: Analysis of the results of 35,497 study subjects showed that the most common group was ′O′ group constituting 14,164 (39.90% of subjects. Only three "Oh" that is, Bombay phenotype (0.008% were detected. Consanguinity was observed in two cases (66.66%. Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of Bombay blood group representing the urban population of Puducherry, to be high (0.008% and associated with consanguineous marriage (66.66%. Thus, consanguinity is still an important risk factor present, even in an urban population in Southern India.

  20. Determination of Rate and Causes of Wastage of Blood and Blood Products in Iranian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mohebbi Far

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and causes of wastage of blood and blood products (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate in Qazvin hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted in all hospitals in Qazvin, including 5 teaching hospitals, 2 social welfare hospitals, 3 private hospitals, 1 charity hospital, and 1 military hospital. This descriptive study was based on available data from hospital blood banks in the province of Qazvin. The research instrument was a 2-part questionnaire. The first part was related to demographic characteristics of hospitals and the second part elicited information about blood and blood component wastage. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistic methods and SPSS 11.5. RESULTS: Blood wastage may occur for a number of reasons, including time expiry, wasted imports, blood medically or surgically ordered but not used, stock time expired, hemolysis, or miscellaneous reasons. Data indicated that approximately 77.9% of wasted pack cell units were wasted for the reason of time expiry. Pack cell wastage in hospitals is reported to range from 1.93% to 30.7%. Wastage at all hospitals averaged 9.8% among 30.913 issued blood products. Overall blood and blood product (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate wastage was 3048 units and average total wastage per participant hospital for all blood groups was 254 units per year. CONCLUSION: Blood transfusion is an essential part of patient care. The blood transfusion system has made significant advancements in areas such as donor management, storage of blood, cross-matching, rational use of blood, and distribution. In order to improve the standards of blood banks and the blood transfusion services in Iran, comprehensive standards have been formulated to ensure better quality control in collection, storage, testing, and distribution of blood and its components for the identified major factors

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital in India: a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Monika; Jindal, Tarun; Hazarika, Anjali

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important transfusion-transmissible infections. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV seropositivity among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital-based blood bank in India. The blood donation records over 5 years (2005-2009) were reviewed, retrospectively, for the prevalence and yearly trends of HBV and HCV seropositivity. A total of 94,716 donations were received. The overall number of HBV-seropositive donations was 1353 and that for HCV was 537, with the prevalence rates of 1.43% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.57% for HCV. The seropositivity rate was higher in the replacement donors compared to the voluntary donors. The annual rates showed decreasing trends in case of HBsAg, but in case of HCV, there was a linear increase. Our study raises serious concerns regarding the HBV and HCV prevalence in our country. Although HBV showed decreasing trends, it cannot be relied upon because the donors were screened only for HBsAg. HCV is clearly on the rise. Stringent measures need to be taken on urgent basis including dissemination of information, strict screening of blood, inclusion of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and other sensitive markers to the screening protocol, and better donor recruitment. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. [High prevalence of community- and hospital-acquired infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene in Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antri, K; Rouzic, N; Boubekri, I; Dauwalder, O; Beloufa, A; Ziane, H; Djennane, F; Neggazi, M; Benhabyles, B; Bes, M; Tazir, M; Etienne, J; Ramdani-Bouguessa, N

    2010-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of community acquired and hospital methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Seven hundred S. aureus strains were collected during 21 months period in Mustapha Bacha hospital. Bacterial identification was based on standard methods and susceptibilities were tested by disk diffusion method. Molecular study (toxins, mecA gene and agr alleles) were determined for 221 S. aureus isolates by multiplex PCR. The global MRSA prevalence was 42 %, 35 % in the community and 49 % in hospital setting. The frequency of strains containing PVL genes (PVL+) was 36 %, their molecular profile was: agr3, mecA+, etd, edin, which correspond to the C-MRSA major ST80 clone in Europe and the Maghreb. The H-MRSA-PVL+ were multidrug resistant. Among the MSSA, 13 strains contained the tst gene and five contained the exfoliatine genes ETA and ETB. Our results show a high rate of MRSA-PVL+ in the community and the hospital setting. The H-MRSA-PVL+ were multidrug resistant complicating their antibiotic treatment options. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Transfusion transmitted virus prevalence rate in IDU patients: a cross sectional study

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    Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make

  4. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Anemia Rate Assessment in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Bacterial Infection in Qom Hospitals, Qom, Iran, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ghanuni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesImmunosuppression is regarded among the risk factors for bacterial infection. But in recent studies, anemia was considered a predisposing factor for bacterial infections. The main goals of this study was to assess the rate of anemia in hospitalized patients with acute bacterial infection and to determine the relationship between anemia and bacterial infection as a predisposing factor.Methods 311 hospitalized patients whose bacterial infection was well documented based on the files present in Kamkar, Arabnia, Fatemi, and Sahamieh hospitals in Qom, Iran, were selected for the present study. They were categorized into various age groups from newborns to the elderly. The data included, age, sex, Hb of the patients the first, third and discharge day, HCT in the first, third and discharge day, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBC in the first, third, fourth day, Diff in the first and fourth days, ESR, CRP, maximum of fever and disease, chronic disease, smoking. A P<0.05 was considered as being significant.Results On the basis of hemoglobin rate, 43.9 % of patients had anemia as a co-disease. There was no anemia among newborns, but 57% of infants had it. Patients who had pyorrheal lymphadenitis had maximum rate of anemia among other patients. ConclusionOn the average, the rate of anemia in this study was 2.1 times more than that of general population in Qom, as well as in any of the age groups. This difference indicates that anemia rate in patients with acute bacterial infections is more common than general population. However, more studies are needed for the assessment of the relationship between anemia and bacterial infection as a predisposing factor. But it seems that the hemoglobin level and severity of disease have direct effects on each other. Keywords: Anemia; Bacterial Infections; Patients; Qom, Iran.

  6. Variations in 30-day hospital readmission rates across primary care clinics within a tertiary referral center.

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    Tang, Ning; Maselli, Judith H; Gonzales, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Reducing hospital readmissions is a national healthcare priority. Little is known about how readmission rates vary across unique primary care practices. To calculate all-cause 30-day hospital readmission rates at the level of individual primary care practices and identify factors associated with variations in these rates. Retrospective analysis Seven primary care clinics affiliated with the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Adults ≥18 years old with a primary care provider (PCP) at UCSF MEASUREMENTS: All-cause 30-day readmission rates were calculated for primary care clinics for discharges between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2012. We built a model to identify demographic, clinical, and hospital factors associated with variation in rates. There were 12,564 discharges for patients belonging to the 7 clinics, with 8685 index discharges and 1032 readmissions. Readmission rates varied across practices, from 14.9% in Human Immunodeficiency Virus primary care and 7.7% in women's health. In multivariable analyses, factors associated with variation in readmission rates included: male gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.40), Medicare insurance (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.64; Ref = private), Medicare-Medicaid dual eligible (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.01-1.56), multiple comorbidities, and admitting services. Patients with a departed PCP awaiting transfer assignment to a new PCP had an OR of 1.59 (95% CI: 1.16-2.17) compared with having a current faculty PCP. Primary care practices are important partners in improving care transitions and reducing hospital readmissions, and this study introduces a new way to view readmission rates. PCP turnover may be an important risk factor for hospital readmissions. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  7. Trends in hospital admission rates for anorexia nervosa in Oxford (1968-2011) and England (1990-2011): database studies.

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    Holland, Josephine; Hall, Nick; Yeates, David G R; Goldacre, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To report on long-term trends in hospital admission rates for anorexia nervosa using two English datasets. We used data on hospital day-case and inpatient care across five decades in the Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS), and similar data for all England from 1990. We analysed rates of admission for anorexia nervosa in people aged 10-44 years, using hospital episodes (counting every admission) and first-recorded admissions (counting only the first record for each person). Former Oxford NHS Region; and England. None; anonymous statistical records were used. In the longstanding ORLS, the age-standardised first-recorded admission rate for women was 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.6-3.8) per 100,000 female population aged 10-44 years in 1968-1971; 2.7 (2.1-3.3) in 1992-1996; and 6.3 (5.5-7.2) in 2007-2011. Male rates were zero in the 1960s; 0.07 (0.0-0.1) per 100,000 men in 1992-1996; and 0.4 (0.2-0.6) in 2007-2011. In England, female rates increased from 4.2 (4.0-4.4) in 1998-2001 to 6.9 (6.7-7.1) in 2007-2011; and the corresponding male rates were 0.2 (0.1-0.3) and 0.5 (0.4-0.6). Episode-based admission rates rose more than person-based rates. The highest rates by far were in girls and women aged 15-19 years. In recent years, anorexia nervosa has become a greater burden on secondary care: not only have admission rates increased but so too have multiple admissions per person with anorexia nervosa. The increase in admission rates might reflect an increase in prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa in the general population, but other explanations, including lower clinical thresholds for admission, are possible and are discussed. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  8. Trends in hospital admission rates for anorexia nervosa in Oxford (1968–2011) and England (1990–2011): database studies

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    Holland, Josephine; Hall, Nick; Yeates, David GR

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To report on long-term trends in hospital admission rates for anorexia nervosa using two English datasets. Design We used data on hospital day-case and inpatient care across five decades in the Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS), and similar data for all England from 1990. We analysed rates of admission for anorexia nervosa in people aged 10–44 years, using hospital episodes (counting every admission) and first-recorded admissions (counting only the first record for each person). Setting Former Oxford NHS Region; and England. Participants None; anonymous statistical records were used. Results In the longstanding ORLS, the age-standardised first-recorded admission rate for women was 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.6–3.8) per 100,000 female population aged 10–44 years in 1968–1971; 2.7 (2.1–3.3) in 1992–1996; and 6.3 (5.5–7.2) in 2007–2011. Male rates were zero in the 1960s; 0.07 (0.0–0.1) per 100,000 men in 1992–1996; and 0.4 (0.2–0.6) in 2007–2011. In England, female rates increased from 4.2 (4.0–4.4) in 1998–2001 to 6.9 (6.7–7.1) in 2007–2011; and the corresponding male rates were 0.2 (0.1–0.3) and 0.5 (0.4–0.6). Episode-based admission rates rose more than person-based rates. The highest rates by far were in girls and women aged 15–19 years. Conclusions In recent years, anorexia nervosa has become a greater burden on secondary care: not only have admission rates increased but so too have multiple admissions per person with anorexia nervosa. The increase in admission rates might reflect an increase in prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa in the general population, but other explanations, including lower clinical thresholds for admission, are possible and are discussed. PMID:26609127

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Low Back Pain Among Health Care Providers in a District Hospital

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    TS Wong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study among health care providers working at one hospital. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, the consequences and the risk factors associated with low back pain (LBP among hospital staff. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 931 health care providers who answered a pre-established questionnaire including 30 items in two languages. RESULTS: The cumulative life-prevalence of LBP was 72.5% and the yearly prevalence was 56.9%. Chronic LBP prevalence was noted 5.1% of the cases. Treatment was sought in 34.1% of LBP sufferers and 7.3% required sick leave or absence from work due to LBP. Risk factors associated with LBP were professional categories, bad body posture, lifting objects or patients and the increased levels of lifting, levels of job satisfaction and stressful job demands. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of LBP among hospital staff, resulting in significant medical and socio-professional consequences. Many risk factors were identified that would necessitate multidisciplinary involvement to reduce the LBP incidence and related costs.

  10. Prevalence rates and epidemiological risk factors for astigmatism in Singapore school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.

  11. Increased Prevalence of Cerebrovascular Disease in Hospitalized Patients with Marfan Syndrome.

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    Kim, Sarasa T; Cloft, Harry; Flemming, Kelly D; Kallmes, David F; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Brinjikji, Waleed

    2018-02-01

    Small studies have suggested that Marfan syndrome is associated with a number of cerebrovascular complications. We sought to determine whether a clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome is associated with a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than the general population by performing a case-control study of hospitalized patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Using the 2000-2012 NIS, we performed a case-control study matching cases of Marfan syndrome to controls without such a diagnosis. The prevalence of various cerebrovascular diseases between the 2 groups were compared, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for suspected comorbidities. Between 2000 and 2012, there were a total of 13,883 discharges carrying a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. On univariate analysis, patients with Marfan syndrome were more likely to have a primary or secondary diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke (0.5% versus 0.3%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.29, P = 0.02) as well as intracranial hemorrhage (subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] and hemorrhagic stroke) (0.3% versus 0.2%, OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05-2.82, P = 0.03). Patients hospitalized with Marfan syndrome were significantly more likely to have carotid dissection (0.3% versus 0.0%, OR = 11.69, 95% CI = 3.60-38.08, P Marfan syndrome had significantly higher odds of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02-1.43, P = 0.03), hemorrhagic stroke (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.18-2.63, P = 0.005), carotid artery dissection (OR = 11.94, 95% CI = 4.23-50.03, P Marfan syndrome when compared with controls. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relation of parental alcoholism to the prevalence of suicide attempts among hospitalized psychiatric adolescents

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    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the third cause of death at the age group 10–19 in the world. There are inter multiple risk factors of suicidal behaviours. In the case of children of alcoholics the increased number of suicide attempts is explained by genetic predisposition and accumulation of environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to check whether parental alcoholism is associated with the number and repetition of suicide attempts and the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred among hospitalized psychiatric adolescents. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis – based on medical documentation – of 119 patients aged 13–18, treated during 2013–2014 at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź for: schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. The exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnoses, incomplete family history and lack of information about intended self-harm behaviours. The patients were selected at random. The number and repetition of suicide attempts, the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred, parental alcoholism and family history of suicidal behaviours were examined. Analyses were carried out using Statistica 9.1. Results: Parental alcoholism did not statistically significantly affect (p > 0.05the prevalence or repetition of suicide attempts among psychiatrically treated adolescents. The first suicide attempts were not made by adolescents – also considering the gender, diagnosis, and familial suicidal behaviours. Conclusions: In almost half of the examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents at least one parent met the parental alcoholism criteria. Suicide attempts occurred in over 50% of the examined patients, with somewhat higher incidence in girls whose parents met the parental alcoholism criteria, as compared to those without parental alcoholism

  13. New onset of insomnia in hospitalized patients in general medical wards: incidence, causes, and resolution rate

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    Ho, An; Raja, Bronson; Waldhorn, Richard; Baez, Valentina; Mohammed, Idiris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Insomnia is common in hospitalized patients. However, no study has examined new onset of insomnia in patients without a prior history of insomnia. Objectives: Incidence of new onset of insomnia in inpatients, associated factors and resolution rate after 2 weeks. Method: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a community hospital. We used the Insomnia Severity Index questionnaire to screen for insomnia in all patients located in the general medical floors f...

  14. From intermittent antibiotic point prevalence surveys to quality improvement: experience in Scottish hospitals

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    Malcolm William

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG was established to coordinate a national antimicrobial stewardship programme. In 2009 SAPG led participation in a European point prevalence survey (PPS of hospital antibiotic use. We describe how SAPG used this baseline PPS as the foundation for implementation of measures for improvement in antibiotic prescribing. Methods In 2009 data for the baseline PPS were collected in accordance with the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption [ESAC] protocol. This informed the development of two quality prescribing indicators: compliance with antibiotic policy in acute admission units and duration of surgical prophylaxis. From December 2009 clinicians collected these data on a monthly basis. The prescribing indicators were reviewed and further modified in March 2011. Data for the follow up PPS in September 2011 were collected as part of a national PPS of healthcare associated infection and antimicrobial use developed using ECDC protocols. Results In the baseline PPS data were collected in 22 (56% acute hospitals. The frequency of recording the reason for treatment in medical notes was similar in Scotland (75.9% and Europe (75.7%. Compliance with policy (81.0% was also similar to Europe (82.5% but duration of surgical prophylaxis Conclusions The baseline PPS identified priorities for quality improvement. SAPG has demonstrated that implementation of regularly reviewed national prescribing indicators, acceptable to clinicians, implemented through regular systematic measurement can drive improvement in quality of antibiotic use in key clinical areas. However, our data also show that the ESAC PPS method may underestimate the proportion of surgical prophylaxis with duration

  15. Development of a behaviour rating system for rural/remote pre-hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Deirdre; Swanson, Vivien; Cachia, Philip; Beasant, Beverley; Laird, Colville

    2017-01-01

    Remote and Rural pre-hospital care practitioners manage serious illness and injury on an unplanned basis, necessitating technical and non-technical skills (NTS). However, no behaviour rating systems currently address NTS within these settings. Informed by health psychology theory, a NTS-specific behaviour rating system was developed for use within pre-hospital care training for remote and rural practitioners. The Immediate Medical Care Behaviour Rating System (IMCBRS), was informed by literature, expert advice and review and observation of an Immediate Medical Care (IMC) course. Once developed, the usability and appropriateness of the rating system was tested through observation of candidates' behaviour at IMC courses during simulated scenarios and rating their use of NTS using the IMCBRS. Observation of training confirmed rating system items were demonstrated in 28-62% of scenarios, depending on context. The IMCBRS may thus be a useful addition to training for rural and practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence, features and risk factors for malaria co-infections amongst visceral leishmaniasis patients from Amudat Hospital, Uganda.

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    Erika van den Bogaart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: Due to geographic overlap of malaria and visceral leishmaniasis (VL, co-infections may exist but have been poorly investigated. To describe prevalence, features and risk factors for VL-malaria co-infections, a case-control analysis was conducted on data collected at Amudat Hospital, Uganda (2000-2006 by Médecins sans Frontières. Cases were identified as patients with laboratory-confirmed VL and malaria at hospital admission or during hospitalization; controls were VL patients with negative malaria smears. A logistic regression analysis was performed to study the association between patients' characteristics and the occurrence of the co-infection. RESULTS: Of 2414 patients with confirmed VL, 450 (19% were positively diagnosed with concomitant malaria. Most co-infected patients were males, residing in Kenya (69%. While young age was identified by multivariate analysis as a risk factor for concurrent VL and malaria, particularly the age groups 0-4 (odds ratio (OR: 2.44; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.52-3.92 and 5-9 years (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.45-3-45, mild (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32-0.88 and moderate (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.27-0.77 anemia negatively correlated with the co-morbidity. VL patients harboring skin infections were nearly three times less likely to have the co-infection (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.17-0.72, as highlighted by the multivariate model. Anorexia was slightly more frequent among co-infected patients (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 0.96-3.03. The in-hospital case-fatality rate did not significantly differ between cases and controls, being 2.7% and 3.1% respectively (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.46-1.63. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent malaria represents a common condition among young VL patients living in the Pokot region of Kenya and Uganda. Although these co-morbidities did not result in a poorer prognosis, possibly due to early detection of malaria, a positive trend towards more severe symptoms was identified, indicating that routine

  17. Cognitive aging and rate of hospitalization in an urban population of older people.

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    Wilson, Robert S; Rajan, Kumar B; Barnes, Lisa L; Hebert, Liesi E; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Evans, Denis A

    2014-04-01

    The association of age-related cognitive change with hospitalization is not well understood. At 3-year intervals for a mean of 8.7 years, 2,273 older residents of a geographically defined urban community underwent cognitive testing from which a global measure was derived. Hospitalization data were obtained from Part A Medicare beneficiary records. The association of level of cognitive function and rate of cognitive decline in each 3-year interval with subsequent rate of hospitalization was assessed using mixed-effects count regression models. There were 9,091 hospitalizations involving 1,810 of the 2,273 individuals in the cohort (79.6%). Rate of hospitalization increased by 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.2, 12.3) with each additional study year; by 32.7% (95% CI: 26.8, 38.0) for each 1 point lower on the global cognitive measure at the beginning of an observation interval; and by 24.3% (95% CI: 16.6, 32.6) for each 1-point decrease in the global cognitive measure during the previous observation period. These associations persisted after adjustment for comorbidities and exclusion of those with a Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 26. Individual differences in trajectories of cognitive aging are associated with subsequent risk of hospitalization.

  18. Prevalence of invasive fungal disease in hematological patients at a tertiary university hospital in Singapore

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    Koh Liang-Piu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of newer azoles as prophylaxis in hematological patients undergoing stem cell transplantation or immunosuppressive chemotherapy has been shown to decrease the risk of developing invasive fungal disease (IFD. However, the cost-effectiveness of such a strategy is dependent on the local epidemiology of IFD. We conducted an audit of hematological patients with IFD in our institution in order to derive the prevalence and types of IFD that occur locally. Findings We conducted a retrospective chart review of all hematological patients who developed possible, probable or definite IFD according to EORTC/MSG criteria in the period from Oct 2007 to Apr 2010. The prevalence of IFD was determined via correlation with institutional database records of all hematological patients treated at our institution over the same time period. There were 39 cases of IFD diagnosed during the study period, with 8 (20.5% possible, 19 (48.7% probable and 12 (30.8% definite cases of IFD. Aspergillus spp. accounted for 83.9% of all probable and definite infections. There was 1 case each of Rhinocladelia spp., Coprinopsis cinerea, Exserohilum spp. sinusitis and Rhizopus spp. sinusitis. IFD occurred in 12 of 124 (9.7% AML and 4 of 103 (3.9% ALL patients treated at our institution respectively. There were 10 (16.1% infections among 62 allogeneic HSCT recipients, six of whom were having concurrent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Five other cases occurred after allogeneic HSCT failure, following salvage chemotherapy for disease relapse. The prevalence of IFD during induction chemotherapy was 8.9% (11 of 124 cases for AML and 1.0% (1 of 103 cases for ALL. Fluconazole prophylaxis had been provided for 28 out of the 39 (71.8% cases, while 4 (10.3% were on itraconazole prophylaxis. The in-hospital mortality was 28.2% (11 of 39 cases, of which 5 (12.8% deaths were attributed to IFD. Conclusions The burden of IFD is high in our institution, especially in

  19. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENT TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AT INTERNAL MEDICINE POLICLINIC SANGLAH HOSPITAL

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    Ni Made Sintia Anggia Sari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE One of the complications that can occur in microvaskular diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy. This research was carried out to know the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients type 2 diabetes mellitus at internal divison of Sanglah Hospital. The method used is cross sectional by collecting data from the questionnaire and secondary data of medical record patient's type 2 DM. On this research acquired 111 patients (35.1% with diabetic retinopathy and (64,9% nonretinopathy. In the group with good level of HbA1c (<6.5% the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy obtained 53.2%, in the group of patients with moderate level of HbA1c (6.5-8% as much as 22.5%, and in the group of patients with HbA1c bad level (>8% as much as 24.3%. The prevalence of the occurrence of DM complications in the diabetic retinopathy is still high, and a good level of HbA1c does not guarantee a person can’t have complication because the complication can also happens are affected by hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and duration of DM. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  20. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review

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    Maki Hirose

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. Data source: We identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. Data synthesis: 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4%–99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years, 6–14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995, with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1–4 years in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1–4 years in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1–4 years in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1–4 years in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7%–73.8% decrease (general population, coverage of 60%–95%. Conclusions: The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between

  1. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Maki; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta

    2016-09-01

    to describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. we identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination) in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or) "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4% -99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years after 6-14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995), with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1-4 years) in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years) in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7% -73.8% decrease (general population), coverage of 60%-95%. The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between data. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por

  2. Major Placenta Previa: Rate, Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes Experience at a Tertiary Maternity Hospital, Sohag, Egypt: A Prospective Study

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    Ahmed, Salah Roshdy; Aitallah, Abdusaeed; Abdelghafar, Hazem M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major degree placenta is a serious health issue and is associated with high fetal-maternal morbidity and mortality. Literature from developing countries is scant. Aim To determine the prevalence and maternal and neonatal outcomes among women with major placenta previa (PP). Materials and Methods A prospective descriptive study of 52 singleton pregnancies with PP was evaluated in this study. The study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt from January through June 2014. Outcome measures, including the prevalence of PP, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and case-fatality rate. Results The total number of deliveries performed during the study period was 3841, of them, 52 cases were placenta previa. Thus, the prevalence of PP was 1.3%. The mean of previous cesarean scars was 2.2±1.4. Of women with PP, 26.4% (n=14) had placenta accreta. In total, 15.1% (n=8) of women underwent an obstetric hysterectomy. From the total no. of babies, 13.2% (n=7) were delivered fresh stillborn babies. Of the surviving babies (n=45), 20% (n=9) required admission to NICU. The frequencies of bowel and bladder injuries were 3.8% (n=2) and 13.2% (n=7) respectively. There was no maternal death in this study. Conclusion The rate of PP is comparable to previous studies, however, the rate of placenta accreta is high. Also, there are high rates of neonatal mortality and intraoperative complications which can be explained by accreta. The study highlights the need to revise maternity and child health services. PMID:26674539

  3. Higher Calorie Diets Increase Rate of Weight Gain and Shorten Hospital Stay in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

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    Garber, Andrea K.; Mauldin, Kasuen; Michihata, Nobuaki; Buckelew, Sara M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current recommendations for refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, beginning around 1,200 calories to avoid refeeding syndrome. We previously showed poor weight gain and long hospital stay using this approach and hypothesized that a higher calorie approach would improve outcomes. Methods Adolescents hospitalized for malnutrition due to AN were included in this quasi-experimental study comparing lower and higher calories during refeeding. Participants enrolled between 2002 and 2012; higher calories were prescribed starting around 2008. Daily prospective measures included weight, heart rate, temperature, hydration markers and serum phosphorus. Participants received formula only to replace refused food. Percent Median Body Mass Index (% MBMI) was calculated using 50th percentile body mass index for age and sex. Unpaired t-tests compared two groups split at 1,200 calories. Results Fifty-six adolescents with mean (±SEM) age 16.2 (±.3) years and admit %MBMI 79.2% (±1.5%) were hospitalized for 14.9 (±.9) days. The only significant difference between groups (N = 28 each) at baseline was starting calories (1,764 [±60] vs. 1,093 [±28], p calories had faster weight gain (.46 [±.04] vs. .26 [±.03] %MBMI/day, p calorie advances (122 [±8] vs. 98 [±6], p = .024), shorter hospital stay (11.9 [±1.0] vs. 17.6 [±1.2] days, p calorie diets produced faster weight gain in hospitalized adolescents with AN as compared with the currently recommended lower calorie diets. No cases of the refeeding syndrome were seen using phosphate supplementation. These findings lend further support to the move toward more aggressive refeeding in AN. PMID:24054812

  4. The prevalence and reliability of self-reported penicillin allergy in a community hospital

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    Khasawneh FA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisal A Khasawneh,1 Megan A R Slaton,2 Stephen L Katzen,2 Ashley A Woolbert,2 Sean D Anderson,2 Michelle B Parker,2 Rachel M Anderson,2 Krystal K Haase,3 Roger D Smalligan41Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USABackground: Penicillin (PCN accounts for most cases of antibiotic allergies. Reported PCN allergy deprives the patient from this class of antibiotics and creates hesitancy in using other beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of self-reported PCN allergy among adult patients admitted to the hospital and to examine the probable validity of these reports.Methods: A questionnaire was conducted among 192 patients with self-reported PCN allergy who were admitted to a community hospital between July 25, 2011 and January 25, 2012. Patients admitted with an infection and treated with a beta-lactam were also followed until hospital discharge.Results: The mean age of patients at the time of their self-reported allergic reaction was 20.3 years. The most common allergic symptoms reported in decreasing order of frequency were itchy rash, angioedema, and urticaria. Based on analysis of the questionnaires, 121 patients (63.0% had probable PCN allergy, 54 (28.1% had possible PCN allergy, and 17 (8.9% were unlikely to have a PCN allergy. Fifty-one participants (26.6% had self-reported subsequent exposure to PCN in their life. This subsequent exposure was well tolerated in 86.3% of the participants. Fifty participants (25.9% had self-reported subsequent exposure to a first generation cephalosporin and it was well tolerated in 78.4% of them.Conclusion: Taking a detailed history from patients with self-reported PCN allergy can help to distinguish a true PCN allergy from a false positive report of allergy and hence allow clinicians to use this important class

  5. The prevalence, prevention and multilevel variance of pressure ulcers in Norwegian hospitals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, Ida Marie; Bjøro, Karen; Gunningberg, Lena; Hofoss, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are preventable adverse events. Organizational differences may influence the quality of prevention across wards and hospitals. To investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers, patient-related risk factors, the use of preventive measures and how much of the pressure ulcer variance is at patient, ward and hospital level. A cross-sectional study. Six of the 11 invited hospitals in South-Eastern Norway agreed to participate. Inpatients ≥18 years at 88 somatic hospital wards (N=1209). Patients in paediatric and maternity wards and day surgery patients were excluded. The methodology for pressure ulcer prevalence studies developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel was used, including demographic data, the Braden scale, skin assessment, the location and severity of pressure ulcers and preventive measures. Multilevel analysis was used to investigate variance across hierarchical levels. The prevalence was 18.2% for pressure ulcer category I-IV, 7.2% when category I was excluded. Among patients at risk of pressure ulcers, 44.3% had pressure redistributing support surfaces in bed and only 22.3% received planned repositioning in bed. Multilevel analysis showed that although the dominant part of the variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers was at patient level there was also a significant amount of variance at ward level. There was, however, no significant variance at hospital level. Pressure ulcer prevalence in this Norwegian sample is similar to comparable European studies. At-risk patients were less likely to receive preventive measures than patients in earlier studies. There was significant variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers at ward level but not at hospital level, indicating that although interventions for improvement are basically patient related, improvement of procedures and organization at ward level may also be important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

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    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary 10-Fold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality, Cost Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732

  8. Do Avoidable Hospitalization Rates among Older Adults Differ by Geographic Access to Primary Care Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2017-06-28

    To investigate the association between older adults' potentially avoidable hospitalization rates and both a geographic measure of primary care physician (PCP) access and a standard bounded-area measure of PCP access. State physician licensure data from the Virginia Board of Medicine. Patient-level hospital discharge data from Virginia Health Information. Area-level data from the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Virginia Information Technologies Agency road network data. US Census Bureau TIGER/Line boundary files. We use enhanced two-step floating catchment area methods to calculate geographic PCP accessibility for each ZIP Code Tabulation Area in Virginia. We use spatial regression techniques to model potentially avoidable hospitalization rates. Geographic accessibility was calculated using ArcGIS. Physician locations were geocoded using TAMU GeoServices and ArcGIS. Increased geographic access to PCPs is associated with lower rates of potentially avoidable hospitalization among older adults. This association is robust, allowing for spatial spillovers in spatial lag models. Compared to bounded-area density measures, unbounded geographic accessibility measures provide more robust evidence that avoidable hospitalization rates are lower in areas with more PCPs per person. Results from our spatial lag models reveal the presence of positive spatial spillovers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Missing Clinical Information in NHS hospital outpatient clinics: prevalence, causes and effects on patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy Krishna

    2011-05-01

    to their care and 20% had a risk of harm. In over half of cases the doctor relied on the patient for the information, making a clinical decision despite the information being missing in 20% of cases. Hospital mergers, temporary staff and non-integrated IT systems were contributing factors. Conclusions If these findings are replicated across the NHS then almost 10 million outpatients are seen each year without key clinical information, creating over a million unnecessary appointments, and putting nearly 2 million patients at risk of harm. There is a need for a systematic, regular audit of the prevalence of missing clinical information. Only then will we know the impact on clinical decision making and patient care of new technology, service reorganisations and, crucially given the present financial climate, temporary or reduced staffing levels. Further research is needed to assess the relationship between missing clinical information and diagnostic errors; to examine the issue in primary care; and to consider the patients perspective.

  10. PREVALENCE OF COEXISTING DIABETES MELLITUS AND HYPERTENSION AMONG DENTAL PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opeodu, O I; Adeyemi, B F

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are quite important in dental settings as may present as an emergency during dental treatment or may necessitate a modification in the patient's management. To determine the prevalence of coexistence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among a group of dental outpatients and to assess the relationship between these medical conditions and a cross-section of factors. A cross sectional survey of 203 outpatients presenting in a Dental Clinic within a Tertiary hospital was undertaken. The capillary blood glucose of respondents was measured using a glucometer. Patients with a random blood glucose (RBS) ≥ 200 mg/dl were considered diabetic. Their blood pressure (BP) was assessed using a digital sphygmomanometer and a systolic BP of diabetes. There was a co-existence of high blood glucose and diastolic blood pressure in 6 (3.0%) of the respondents and statistically significant association (p = .000) between the blood glucose and diastolic blood pressure. Dentists should note that co-existence of diabetes mellitus and diabetes in a dental patient is an index of increased morbidity and mortality and should always screen for these medical conditions.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  12. [Prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Aïoun hospital (Hodh El Garbi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushab, B M; Savadogo, M; Sow, M S

    2016-08-01

    In this retrospective study in the regional hospital Aioun from 1st January 2010 to 31st April 2014, the objective was to determine the prevalence of smear-positive PTB. In total, 320 cases have been identified giving a proportion of 9%. The male subjects (74%) were three times higher than for female subjects with a sex-ratio man/woman of 2.8. The average age of patients was 41±16 years with extremes of 15 and 90 years and the most affected age group was 15-30 years (41%). The majority of our patients (85%) came from rural areas. No patient had been screened for HIV infection. There was a statistically significant relationship between gender, age group (P=0.005) and resistant cases after 6months of anti-TB treatment (P=0.04). Tuberculosis remains a public health problem in our country. Many efforts will still be provided for screening and epidemiological surveillance for a good control of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections among patients referred for endoscopy at Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim

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    Ranita Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection according to age, gender, ethnicity, and endoscopic finding and to study the association between smoking and alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection. Methods: A retrospective observational study on 582 consecutive patients referred for endoscopy with H. pylori tested was conducted in Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim from 1st of January 2013 till 31st of December 2013. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression with SPSS version 16. Results: Out of the 582 patients, 74 (12.7% were positive for H. pylori infection. Among those with H. pylori infection, 42 (56.8% were female. Infection was highest in the age group of 51 to 60 years old, 25 (33.8% with the mean (SD age of 52.9 (14.9 years. From the endoscopic finding, erosions, 38 (51.4% had the highest H. pylori positive cases. H. pylori infection was commonly found among Indians (36.3%; 41/113 followed by Chinese (17.6%, 18/102 and Malays (4.1%; 15/367 (P 0.05. Conclusions: The increased risk of H. pylori infection in Indians might be due to the unusual socio-cultural practices and difference in diet which may be responsible for the transmission of the infection. Therefore, further studies are warranted.

  14. Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension among diabetic patients in a community hospital of Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.U.; Ahmad, R.; Aamir, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    background: The postural drop in blood pressure caused by autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension and its relation with hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Two hundred indoor diabetic patients were assessed. Lying and standing blood pressure of each patient was determined using standard procedure for determination of orthostatic hypotension. Patients having orthostatic hypotension were compared with those having no orthostatic hypotension for different clinical and biochemical parameters using statistical program for social sciences. Results: Twenty-six percent of the patients were found to have orthostatic hypotension. Fifty two percent of the total patients showed hypertension. Proportion of hypertension in the patients having orthostatic hypotension was more than those without orthostatic hypotension while other parameters showed no difference. Conclusion: Orthostatic hypotension is a common phenomenon in our diabetic patients admitted to tertiary care facilities. Diabetic hypertensive patients are more likely to have postural drop in blood pressure as compared to diabetic normotensive patients. (author)

  15. People with epilepsy who use multiple hospitals; prevalence and associated factors assessed via a health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspan, Zachary M; Abramson, Erika L; Banerjee, Samprit; Kern, Lisa M; Kaushal, Rainu; Shapiro, Jason S

    2014-05-01

    Hospital crossover occurs when people seek care at multiple hospitals, creating information gaps for physicians at the time of care. Health information exchange (HIE) is technology that fills these gaps, by allowing otherwise unaffiliated physicians to share electronic medical information. However, the potential value of HIE is understudied, particularly for chronic neurologic conditions like epilepsy. We describe the prevalence and associated factors of hospital crossover among people with epilepsy, in order to understand the epidemiology of who may benefit from HIE. We used a cross-sectional study design to examine the bivariate and multivariable association of demographics, comorbidity, and health service utilization variables with hospital crossover, among people with epilepsy. We identified 8,074 people with epilepsy from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, obtained from an HIE that linked seven hospitals in Manhattan, New York. We defined hospital crossover as care from more than one hospital in any setting (inpatient, outpatient, emergency, or radiology) over 2 years. Of 8,074 people with epilepsy, 1,770 (22%) engaged in hospital crossover over 2 years. Crossover was associated with younger age (children compared with adults, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7), living near the hospitals (Manhattan vs. other boroughs of New York City, adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8), more visits in the emergency, radiology, inpatient, and outpatient settings (p Hospital crossover is common among people with epilepsy, particularly among children, frequent users of medical services, and people living near the study hospitals. HIE should focus on these populations. Further research should investigate why hospital crossover occurs, how it affects care, and how HIE can most effectively mitigate the resultant fragmentation of medical records. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against

  16. Comparison of Salmonella Prevalence Rates in Bovine Lymph Nodes across Feeding Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belk, A D; Arnold, A N; Sawyer, J E; Griffin, D B; Taylor, T M; Savell, J W; Gehring, K B

    2018-04-01

    Peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) located in the fatty tissues of beef carcasses have been shown to harbor Salmonella and, thus, potentially contaminate ground beef. Salmonella prevalence within LNs is known to differ among feedlots. Two South Texas feeding operations (identified as locations A and B) known to harbor salmonellae in the feedlot environment, while historically producing cattle with opposing rates (one "high" and one "low") of Salmonella prevalence in LNs, were used in this study. To determine whether this difference was due to cattle source or factors associated with different stages of feeding, weanling steers of common and known origin were followed through normal feeding stages at both operations. Eighty Angus-sired beef steers were harvested at each of four feeding stages: 1, postweaning; 2, background or stocker; 3, 60 days on feed; and 4, 120 days on feed. Left and right subiliac and superficial cervical LNs ( n = 304) were collected from each carcass, and similar node types were pooled by animal ( n = 152). Results showed a difference ( P < 0.05) in prevalence of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes between location A and location B and among feeding stages in location B. Salmonella was not isolated from any feeding stage 1 (postweaning) or location A LN samples. Within location B, there was an increase in Salmonella prevalence as cattle moved into later stages of feeding: at 22.2% (4 of 18), 77.8% (14 of 18), and 94.4% (17 of 18) for feeding stages 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Although the reasons for the differences seen between feeding operations and for increased Salmonella prevalence in LNs at later feeding stages remain unexplained, these results indicate that factors other than cattle source are likely influencing Salmonella prevalence in LNs.

  17. Prevalence of respiratory diseases in hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: A 5 years study 1996-2000

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    Alamoudi Omer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To determine the prevalence of respiratory diseases and the length of stay among hospitalized patients with respiratory disorders 2 To detect the medical disorders commonly associated with respiratory diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was done for 810 patients hospitalized with respiratory diseases in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over 5 years (January 1996 to December 2000. A special form was used to collect information from patient medical records including demographic data (such as age, sex and nationality, discharge diagnosis with other associated diseases and length of stay during hospitalization. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of patients were males and 56.3% were Saudis. The mostly affected age group was 46-65 years (41.8%. Asthma (38.6%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (17.2%, pneumonia (11.5%, lung cancer (8.4% and tuberculosis (TB (7.2% had the highest prevalence among hospitalized patients. Asthma was higher among females (63.3% than males (36.7%. In contrast, lung cancer, COPD and TB were higher among males (88.2, 66.9 and 74.1% than females (11.8, 33.1 and 25.9% respectively ( P P CONCLUSION: Asthma, COPD and pneumonia were the leading causes of hospitalization among patients with respiratory disorders, while diabetes and hypertension were the most commonly associated diseases.

  18. Prevalence study on potential drug-drug interaction in cancer patients in Piacenza hospital's Onco-Haematology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Stefano; Orlandi, Elena; Confalonieri, Corrado; Damonti, Enrico; Riva, Alessandra; Sartori, Alessia; Cavanna, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer patients can be a human model of potential drug interactions. Usually they receive a large number of different medications, including antineoplastic agents, drugs for comorbid illness and medication for supportive care, however information about these interactions are fragmented and poor. Objective We assessed a prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of drug interaction among patients hospitalized in the Onco-Haematology department, Hospital of Piacenza. Methods Data on drugs administered for cancer, comorbidities, or supportive care were collected from different computerized prescription software in use in the department; we compared them with a database to focus on the co-administration of drugs. A literature review was performed to identify major potential drug interaction and to classify them by level of severity and by strengths of scientific evidence. Results In this study 284 cancer patients were enrolled; patients had taken an average of seven drugs on each day of therapy plus chemotherapeutic agents, we identified 67 potential drug interactions. At least 53 patients had one potential drug interaction. Of all potential drug interactions 63 were classified as moderate severity and only four as major. In 55 cases chemotherapeutic agents were involved in possible interactions with supportive care drugs, meanwhile in 12 cases the potential drug interactions were between supportive care drugs. Conclusions In our centre, thanks to a computerized prescription software, integrated with caution alarm in case of possible interaction, we had a lower rate of potential drug interactions than the one from literature. It is possible to improve the software integrating the alarm with the potential drug interactions between chemotherapy agents and supportive care drugs.

  19. Prevalence and Antibiogram of Microbial Agents Causing Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infection in Surgical Ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashmin Afroz Binte Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections pose substantial risk to patients receiving care in hospitals. In Bangladesh, this problem is aggravated by inadequate infection control due to poor hygiene, resource and structural constraints and lack of awareness regarding nosocomial infections. Objective: We carried out this study to determine the prevalence of different microorganisms from urine in surgery ward and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern against various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka over a period of 12 months from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 urine specimens were collected from catheterized patients admitted in general surgery ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH and incubated in blood agar, MacConkey agar media and the isolates were identified by different biochemical tests – oxidase test and reaction in MIU (motility indole urease and Simmon’s citrate and TSI (triple sugar iron media. ESBL producers were detected by double-disk synergy test (DDST. Results: Bacteria were isolated from 35 specimens and Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (23, 65.71% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (17.14%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 (8.57%, Acinetobacter baumannii 2 (5.72% and Proteus vulgaris 1 (2.86% respectively. Among the isolates, 10 (28.57% ESBL producers were detected and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (8, 22.85% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (2.86% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (2.86%. The isolates were resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria poses a difficult task for physicians who have limited therapeutic options. However, the high rate of nosocomial infections and multi-resistant pathogens necessitate urgent comprehensive interventions of infection control.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Algiers hospitals (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messai, Y; Iabadene, H; Benhassine, T; Alouache, S; Tazir, M; Gautier, V; Arlet, G; Bakour, R

    2008-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and the diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in 196 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from three hospitals in Algiers. Antibiograms were done on Mueller-Hinton agar plates with the disc-diffusion method and MICs were determined by agar-dilution method. Mating experiments were performed in agar medium. Plasmid DNA was extracted by the alcalin-lysis method. Total DNA was extracted with a Qiagen mini kit and screened for bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) genes by PCR. Linkage of bla(CTX-M) genes with insertion sequence ISEcp1B and class 1 integrons was investigated by PCR. PCR products were sequenced by the Sanger method. The epidemiological relationships between ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed by ERIC-PCR. Thirty-nine (19.9%) isolates were found to produce ESBLs belonging to CTX-M-1 group and TEM penicillinases (CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15 and TEM-1). ERIC-PCR analysis showed that the isolates are genetically unrelated. The bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) genes as well as aminoglycosides and sulfonamides resistance determinants were found located in self-transferable plasmids of approximately 85 kb. The class 1 integrons and the insertion sequence ISEcp1B were present in the isolates and in their transconjugants. ISEcp1B was found genetically linked to the bla(CTX-M) genes and located 127bp upstream, with the presence of the V and W sequences. The study revealed a high rate of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Algerian hospitals, resulting from horizontal dissemination of mobile bla(CTX-M) genes.

  1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among type 2 diabetic patients in Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Ali, Dawit Simegnew; Netere, Adeladlew Kassie; Lemlemu, Eskedar; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2018-03-09

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the fact that sticking to the therapeutic regimens is becoming awkward. However, studies towards herbal medicine use by diabetic patients is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use with different sociodemographic variables among type 2 diabetes patients visiting the diabetic follow-up clinic of University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital (UOGCSH), Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross sectional study was employed on 387 T2DM patients visiting the diabetes illness follow-up care clinic of UOGCSH from October 1 to November 30, 2016. An interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding the demographic and disease characteristics as well as herbal medicine use was completed by the study subjects. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistics were performed to determine prevalence and come up with correlates of herbal medicine use. From 387 participants, 62% were reported to be herbal medicine users. The most prevalent herbal preparations used were Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (41.7%), Giesilla (Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) (39.6%), Tinjute (Otostegia integrifolia Benth) (27.2%), and Kosso (Hagenia abyssinicaa) (26.9%). Most of herbal medicine users (87.1%) didn't consult their physicians about their herbal medicine use. Families and friends (51.9%) were the frontline sources of information about herbal medicine followed by other DM patients who used herbal medicines (28.9%). The present study revealed a high rate of herbal medicine use along with a very low rate use disclosure to the health care professionals. Higher educational status, a family history of DM, duration of T2DM and presence of DM complications were identified to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, it is imperative for health

  3. Prevalence and influence of psychiatric comorbidity on rehabilitation outcome for older hospital inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Cathy; Lum, Carmel; Chong, Sinn Yuin; Borg, Cynthia; Haines, Terry P

    2011-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the psychiatric comorbidity of a group of older subacute inpatients and then determine whether their psychiatric comorbidity affected measures of rehabilitation outcomes. Eighty-eight older subacute inpatients were recruited for this prospective study. Psychiatric comorbidity was defined according to a participants' performance on four inventory scales: the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Health of the Nation Outcome Scale 65+. Rehabilitation outcome referred to the participants' length of stay and their performance at discharge on the EuroQol-5D health-related quality of life questionnaire and Barthel index. 68% of the participants scored in the clinical range on at least one of the four scales assessing psychiatric comorbidity at admission, with 51% in the clinical range for GDS and 32% for the GAI. The decrease in scores by the time of discharge was significant for all four scales. Linear regression analyses pointed to a trend for depressive symptoms at admission to be an influential but nonsignificant predictor of rehabilitation outcome. An interesting association was found between the length of the previous acute admission and the GDS score on admission to the subacute unit. A high prevalence of psychological symptoms was identified upon admission, with a significant decrease by the time of discharge. These factors did not significantly predict the selected measures of rehabilitation outcome. Opportunities for future longitudinal research on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities on patient outcomes are considered.

  4. The obsessive compulsive spectrum in schizophrenia, a meta-analysis and meta-regression exploring prevalence rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swets, Marije; Dekker, Jack; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Smid, Geert E.; Smit, Filip; de Haan, Lieuwe; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to conduct a meta-analysis and meta-regression to estimate the prevalence rates for obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in schizophrenia, and to investigate what influences these prevalence rates. Studies were identified via an

  5. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Patients with Dermatological Diseases Attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Shivakumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral cavity is a unique environment where systemic maladies may be amplified by the oral mucosa. Sometimes, oral lesions are the first indication of a systemic problem. Oral mucosal lesions may be the initial feature or the only clinical sign of mucocutaneous diseases commonly observed in a dermatologic practice. Aim and Objectives: To assess the frequency of the oral manifestations in patients who suffer from dermatologic diseases, emphasizing the aspects referring to their, sex and age of the patients. Material and Methods:A cross sectional hospital-based study was carried out focusing on patients with skin lesions, for data gathering only patients included in the research were clinically examined aiming at identifying oral and cuteneous alterations. Information was recorded in individual clinical cards, as well as personal information, health conditions, family diseases and current and previous diseases. The structured interview was done in the local language containing questions regarding socio-demographics (gender, age, education and occupation general and oral health related characteristics and lifestyle. Results: In our study, the prevalence rate of oral mucosal lesions in patients with dermatological diseases is relatively low (94/489. Our study results showed that there is a positive correlation of oral manifestations with their respective dermatological diseases Conclusion: Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseases deserve special attention, Documenting the frequency of oral mucosal lesions in dermatological diseases may alert the dental surgeons and gives scope for early diagnosis and progress for such diseases and a multidisciplinary approach

  6. User fee exemption does not affect lower rates of hospital admission of girls in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Suzuki, Motoi; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Matsubayashi, Toru; Yanai, Hideki; Tho, Le Huu; Anh, Dang Duc; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2012-10-01

    In many countries, girls have been reported to be less often admitted to hospital than boys. We studied the influence of socio-economic factors, education and access to health care on girls' and boys' admission rates for pneumonia, diarrhoea and dengue fever in south-central Vietnam. We explored whether the user fee exemption for children under 6 years introduced in 2005 had an impact on girls' admission rates. In a cohort analysis, we used data from a large census in Khanh Hoa Province conducted in 2006, linked to hospital admission records at individual level. We further analysed a cross-sectional health care utilization survey in a sample of children reported ill at the census. There were 38 731 children under 6 years among a total census population of 353 891. Overall, girls under the age of 6 years were 29% less likely to be admitted to hospital than boys. The gender differences in admission rates in children under 6 years were similar for diarrhoea, pneumonia and dengue. None of the socio-economic and educational factors appeared to affect the gender difference. The user fee exemption starting from October 2005 had no impact on the girls/boys rate ratio of admission. In conclusion, the higher hospital admission rates of boys compared with girls in Vietnam are independent of socio-economic factors and user fees. Higher susceptibility of boys to severe disease could explain part of the gender gap, but profound cultural norms and beliefs may also have contributed to the findings.

  7. Preventable Hospitalization Rates and Neighborhood Poverty among New York City Residents, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocour, Angelica; Tria, Maryellen

    2016-12-01

    Knowing which demographic groups have higher rates of preventable hospitalizations can help identify geographic areas where improvements in primary care access and quality can be made. This study assessed whether preventable hospitalization rates by neighborhood poverty decreased from 2008 to 2013 and whether the gap between very high and low poverty neighborhoods changed. We examined trends in age-adjusted preventable hospitalization rates and rate ratios by neighborhood poverty overall and by sex using JoinPoint regression. Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were applied to inpatient hospitalization data from the New York State Department of Health's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. PQIs were classified into composites. From 2008 to 2013, preventable hospitalization rates per 100,000 adults across each poverty group decreased. For very high poverty neighborhoods (ZIP codes with ≥30 % of persons living below the federal poverty level (FPL)), there were significant decreases overall (3430.56 to 2543.10, annual percent change [APC] = -5.91 %), for diabetes (676.15 to 500.83, APC = -5.75 %), respiratory (830.78 to 660.29, APC = -4.85 %), circulatory (995.69 to 701.81, APC = -7.24 %), and acute composites (928.18 to 680.17, APC = -5.62 %). The rate ratios also decreased over time; however, in 2013, the rates for very high poverty neighborhoods were two to four times higher than low poverty neighborhoods (ZIP codes with still exist. These findings underscore the need to ensure adequate access to quality and timely primary care among individuals living in high poverty neighborhoods.

  8. Trends in neurosurgical complication rates at teaching vs nonteaching hospitals following duty-hour restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Travis M; Tranmer, Bruce I; Horgan, Michael A; Rughani, Anand I

    2012-11-01

    In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented duty-hour restrictions for residents, with an unclear impact on patient care. The authors hypothesize that implementation of duty-hour restrictions is not associated with decreased morbidity for neurosurgical patients. This hypothesis was tested with the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to examine inpatient complications associated with a common elective procedure, craniotomy for meningioma. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for all patients admitted for elective craniotomy for meningioma from 1998 to 2008, excluding the year 2003. Each case was queried for common in-hospital postoperative complications. The complication rate was compared for 5-year epochs at teaching and nonteaching hospitals before (1998-2002) and after (2004-2008) the adoption of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restriction. Multivariate analysis was performed to control for the effects of age and medical comorbidities. We identified 21177 patients who met inclusion criteria. We identified an effect of age, preexisting medical comorbidity, and timing of surgery on postoperative complication rates. At teaching hospitals, the complication rate increased from 14% to 16% (P < .001). In contrast, this increase was not mirrored at nonteaching hospitals, which saw a nearly constant postoperative complication rate of 15% from 1998 to 2002 and 15% for the years 2004 to 2008 (P = .979). This effect remained significant in a multivariate analysis including age and existing comorbidities as covariates (P = .016). In patients undergoing craniotomy for meningioma, postoperative complication rates increased at teaching hospitals, but not at nonteaching hospitals over the 5-year epochs before and after 2003.

  9. Low prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus as determined by an automated identification system in two private hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuse, Geoffrey; Kabera, Beatrice; Revathi, Gunturu

    2014-12-14

    Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a major cause of both healthcare and community acquired infections. In developing countries, manual phenotypic tests are the mainstay for the identification of staphylococci with the tube and slide coagulase tests being relied upon as confirmatory tests for S. aureus. The subjectivity associated with interpretation of these tests may result in misidentification of coagulase negative staphylococci as S.aureus. Given that antibiotic resistance is more prevalent in CONS, this may result in over estimation of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) prevalence. A review of susceptibility data from all non-duplicate S.aureus isolates generated between March 2011 and May 2013 by the Vitek-2 (bioMérieux) automated system was performed by the authors. The data was generated routinely from processed clinical specimens submitted to the microbiology laboratories for culture and sensitivity at the Aga Khan University Hospital and Gertrude's children's hospital both situated in Nairobi. Antimicrobial susceptibility data from a total of 731 non-duplicate S.aureus isolates was reviewed. Majority (79.2%) of the isolates were from pus swabs. Only 24 isolates were both cefoxitin and oxacillin resistant while 3 were resistant to oxacillin but susceptible to cefoxitin giving an overall MRSA prevalence of 3.7% (27/731). None of the isolates were resistant to mupirocin, linezolid, tigecycline, teicoplanin or vancomycin. The prevalence of MRSA in this study is much lower than what has been reported in most African countries. The significant change in antibiotic susceptibility compared to what has previously been reported in our hospital is most likely a consequence of the transition to an automated platform rather than a trend towards lower resistance rates.

  10. Rates of Hospitalization for Dehydration Following Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdel, Joel N; Rhoads, George G; Cosgrove, Nora M; Kostis, John B

    2016-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy, one of the most destructive natural disasters in New Jersey history, made landfall on October 29, 2012. Prolonged loss of electrical power and extensive infrastructure damage restricted access for many to food and water. We examined the rate of dehydration in New Jersey residents after Hurricane Sandy. We obtained data from 2008 to 2012 from the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS), a repository of in-patient records from nonfederal New Jersey hospitals (N=517,355). Patients with dehydration had ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis codes for dehydration, volume depletion, and/or hypovolemia. We used log-linear modeling to estimate the change in in-patient hospitalizations for dehydration comparing 2 weeks after Sandy with the same period in the previous 4 years (2008-2011). In-patient hospitalizations for dehydration were 66% higher after Sandy than in 2008-2011 (rate ratio [RR]: 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50, 1.84). Hospitalizations for dehydration in patients over 65 years of age increased by nearly 80% after Sandy compared with 2008-2011 (RR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.58, 2.02). Sandy was associated with a marked increase in hospitalizations for dehydration. Reducing the rate of dehydration following extreme weather events is an important public health concern that needs to be addressed, especially in those over 65 years of age.

  11. Coronary artery disease prevalence and outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: an observational report from seven Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Amar M; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Aljaraallah, Mohammed; Al Faleh, Husam; Elasfar, Abdelfatah; Panduranga, Prasanth; Singh, Rajvir; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report prevalence, clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) in seven Middle Eastern countries and compare them to non-CAD patients. Data were derived from Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry), a prospective multicenter study of 5005 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute HF during February-November 2012 in 7 Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of CAD among Acute Heart Failure (AHF) patients was 60.2% and varied significantly among the 7 countries (Qatar 65.7%, UAE 66.6%, Kuwait 68.0%, Oman 65.9%, Saudi Arabia 62.5%, Bahrain 52.7% and Yemen 49.1%) with lower values in the lower income countries. CAD patients were older and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease. Moreover, CAD patients were more likely to have history of cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease when compared to non-CAD patients. In-hospital mortality rates were comparable although CAD patients had more frequent re-hospitalization and worse long-term outcome. However, CAD was not an independent predictor of poor outcome. The prevalence of CAD amongst patients with HF in the Middle East is variable and may be related to healthcare sources. Regional and national studies are needed for assessing further the impact of various etiologies of HF and for developing appropriate strategies to combat this global concern.

  12. Prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital Prevalencia del tabaquismo en funcionarios de un hospital universitario Prevalência do tabagismo em funcionários de um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Echer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of smoking among employees of a university hospital in Southern Brazil. Data collection happened in 2008, during the periodic health exam, using a questionnaire, according to the smoking status of the employees. The sample consisted of 1,475 subjects, in which 979 (66.4% were non-smokers, 295 (20% former smokers and 201 (13.6% smokers. Smoking was more prevalent among employees with lower education levels and among professionals in administrative positions. Among smokers, low dependence was identified, as well as desire and high degree of motivation to stop smoking, with health concerns as the main reason. Thus, taking into account the motivation of smokers to stop smoking, this is an appropriate time for health education and specific support to employees in the process of smoking cessation.Estudio transversal con objetivo de identificar a prevalencia del tabaquismo en funcionarios de un hospital universitario del sur de Brasil. La recolección de datos ocurrió en el año de 2008, durante el examen periódico de salud de los funcionarios, por medio de cuestionario de acuerdo con la condición de fumador de los mismos. La muestra se constituyó de 1.475 sujetos, de estos 979 (66,4% no fumaban, 295 (20% ex-fumantes y 201 (13,6% fumantes. El predominio de fumantes está entre funcionarios con menor nivel de instrucción y entre los que ejercían actividades en cargos administrativos. Se identificó entre los fumantes, dependencia leve, deseo y grado de motivación elevado para cesar el tabaquismo, siendo el principal motivo la preocupación con la salud. Así, considerándose la motivación de los funcionarios para parar de fumar, se recomienda aprovechar este momento para realizar un trabajo de educación en salud y de apoyo profesional específico para que el proceso de cesación del tabaquismo ocurra.Este é um estudo transversal, e teve como objetivo identificar a prevalência do

  13. Prevalence of mycobacterium tuberculosis among professionals in a university hospital, Mato Grosso do Sul, 2004 Existencia de la infección tuberculosis entre profesionales de un hospital universitario en Mato Grosso do Sur, 2004 Prevalência da infecção tuberculosa entre profissionais de um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated an elevated prevalence amongst professionals of mycobacterium tuberculosis, both in the rate of infections and illness. This study was carried out in a School Hospital in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, aiming to establish the prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results of the analysis of 194 subjects showed an overall positivity for the tuberculin test of 38.7%. There was a correlation with smoking (p=0.01, RP=1. 72 (1.20-2.45- Yates's correction. The conclusion is that the establishment of a program of tuberculin screening jointly with the implementation of interventions is necessary in order to reduce the risk of nosocomial transmission.Varios estudios han demostrado la alta prevalencia de infección tuberculosis, y también de la propia enfermedad, entre los profesionales de salud. Este estudio, realizado en un Hospital Universitario ubicado en la ciudad de Campo Grande-MS, tuvo como objetivo conocer la existencia de la infección causada por el Mycobacterium tuberculosis. En el análisis de 194 personas, fue encontrada la existencia de la prueba tuberculinilla del 38,7%. Fue observada una asociación con el tabaquismo (p 0,01, y RP 1,72 (1,20-2,45 corregido por yates. Concluimos que es necesario un programa de selección tuberculinilla de rutina para acompañar el viraje tuberculínico, junto a intervenciones para reducir el riesgo de transmisión nosocomial.Vários estudos têm demonstrado prevalência elevada de infecção tuberculosa, tanto quanto de adoecimento, entre os profissionais de saúde. Este estudo, realizado em um Hospital Universitário, situado na cidade de Campo Grande, MS, teve como objetivo conhecer a prevalência de infecção pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis entre esses profissionais. Na análise de 194 indivíduos, encontrou-se prevalência global de positividade da prova tuberculínica de 38,7%. Observou-se associação com o tabagismo (p 0,01, e RP 1,72 (1

  14. Chest compression rates and survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahamed H; Guffey, Danielle; Pepe, Paul E; Brown, Siobhan P; Brooks, Steven C; Callaway, Clifton W; Christenson, Jim; Davis, Daniel P; Daya, Mohamud R; Gray, Randal; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Larsen, Jonathan; Lin, Steve; Menegazzi, James J; Sheehan, Kellie; Sopko, George; Stiell, Ian; Nichol, Graham; Aufderheide, Tom P

    2015-04-01

    Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions/min. A recent clinical study reported optimal return of spontaneous circulation with rates between 100 and 120/min during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the relationship between compression rate and survival is still undetermined. Prospective, observational study. Data is from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Prehospital Resuscitation IMpedance threshold device and Early versus Delayed analysis clinical trial. Adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical service providers. None. Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings for the first five minutes of emergency medical service cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression assessed odds ratio for survival by compression rate categories (compression fraction and depth, first rhythm, and study site. Compression rate data were available for 10,371 patients; 6,399 also had chest compression fraction and depth data. Age (mean±SD) was 67±16 years. Chest compression rate was 111±19 per minute, compression fraction was 0.70±0.17, and compression depth was 42±12 mm. Circulation was restored in 34%; 9% survived to hospital discharge. After adjustment for covariates without chest compression depth and fraction (n=10,371), a global test found no significant relationship between compression rate and survival (p=0.19). However, after adjustment for covariates including chest compression depth and fraction (n=6,399), the global test found a significant relationship between compression rate and survival (p=0.02), with the reference group (100-119 compressions/min) having the greatest likelihood for survival. After adjustment for chest compression fraction and depth, compression rates between 100 and 120 per minute were associated with greatest survival to hospital discharge.

  15. Hospital-acquired urinary tract infection point prevalence in Turkey: Differences in risk factors among patient groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the point prevalence of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to investigate risk factors for pathogen type (E. coli vs. others) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positivity among nosocomial UTI patients. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 44 questions on demographic data and risk factors of UTI cases was sent to 51 tertiary care hospitals. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results The overall prevalence of UTI was 1.82% (483/26534). The prevalence of UTI was higher in intensive care units (ICUs) with 6.77% versus 1.45% outside ICUs. Hospitals of the Ministry of Health (compared to university hospitals), hospitals in less developed provinces and hospitals with bed capacity urinary catheter were more likely to have received immunosuppressive therapy, current corticosteroid use, renal transplantation and uterine prolapsus and less likely to have another infection outside the urinary tract, as compared to catheterized patients. Among the 422 culture-positive patients, the most common pathogen was E. coli (45.5%). The risk factors increasing the likelihood of E. coli in urine culture were being female, history of urinary tract operation, no use of antibiotics in the preceding three months and infection outside the urinary tract. There were 247 patients with E. coli or Klebsiella spp. positive in culture. Among these, 61% (n=151) were ESBL- positive. Among patients having E. coli/Klebsiella positive in culture, antibiotic use in the preceding three months and history of urinary tract operation were the independent risk factors significantly increasing the risk of ESBL. Conclusions The reasons underlying the high prevalence of nosocomial UTIs, and a better understanding of the risk factors might lead to improved control of these infections. PMID:24188193

  16. Risk factors associated with high prevalence rates of hepatitis C infection in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Celeste; Islam, K M

    2014-08-01

    Egypt has the highest reported prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) globally. Until now, no systematic review has been conducted to understand risk factors associated with these high prevalence rates of HCV. This study attempted to identify the various HCV risk factors in Egypt responsible for the high incidence and prevalence rates. Using systematic literature review methods, we searched databases for eligible manuscripts, selecting cohort and case-control studies published in English. Peer-reviewed papers published between 2008 and February 2013 were included. A total of 11 articles met the study selection criteria. The most examined risk factors found during our review analysis were surgery, transfusion, and age (64-82% of total articles; n = 11). Multiple risk factors held significant association with HCV infection in the included research. Based on this review, the main HCV risk factor categories are unsafe medical practices and familial risk factors. Improving medical safety and encouraging familial education on HCV may help reduce the incidence of the disease. Most risk factors for HCV transmission in Egypt are healthcare-associated. Primary prevention of HCV infection remains important to reduce HCV transmission. Further research should also focus on risk factor dynamics of HCV in Egypt to reduce transmission and HCV disease burden. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival rate and pressure ulcer prevalence in patients with and without dementia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, E; Rosenzweig, J P; Meiron, O

    2017-07-02

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in older patients with advanced dementia versus older patients without dementia but with other comorbidities, such as diabetes, ischaemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PUs were thought to be more prevalent and to present a higher risk of mortality in patients with dementia. PUs were assessed on admission using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) staging system. Patients were classified as either with or without dementia according to Reisberg's functional assessment staging test (FAST). The prevalence of PUs and the survival rates were analysed and compared in both groups. The combined effect of PUs and dementia on survival was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The median survival rate of patients with PUs and dementia was 63 days, significantly lower than in patients with PUs without dementia 117 days. Both groups had similar other comorbidities. These findings underscore the requirement for geriatricians and health professionals to be more vigilant in examining PUs as dementia progresses.

  18. Annual changes in rotavirus hospitalization rates before and after rotavirus vaccine implementation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Dahl, Rebecca M; Parashar, Umesh D; Lopman, Benjamin A

    2018-01-01

    Hospitalizations for rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) have declined in the US with rotavirus vaccination, though biennial peaks in incidence in children aged less than 5 years occur. This pattern may be explained by lower rotavirus vaccination coverage in US children (59% to 73% from 2010-2015), resulting in accumulation of susceptible children over two successive birth cohorts. Retrospective cohort analysis of claims data of commercially insured US children aged rotavirus and for AGE from the 2002-2015 rotavirus seasons were examined. Median age and rotavirus vaccination coverage for biennial rotavirus seasons during pre-vaccine (2002-2005), early post-vaccine (2008-2011) and late post-vaccine (2012-2015) years. Age-stratified hospitalization rates decreased from pre-vaccine to early post-vaccine and then to late post-vaccine years. The clearest biennial pattern in hospitalization rates is the early post-vaccine period, with higher rates in 2009 and 2011 than in 2008 and 2010. The pattern diminishes in the late post-vaccine period. For rotavirus hospitalizations, the median age and the difference in age between biennial seasons was highest during the early post-vaccine period; these differences were not observed for AGE hospitalizations. There was no significant difference in vaccination coverage between biennial seasons. These observations provide conflicting evidence that incomplete vaccine coverage drove the biennial pattern in rotavirus hospitalizations that has emerged with rotavirus vaccination in the US. As this pattern is diminishing with higher vaccine coverage in recent years, further increases in vaccine coverage may reach a threshold that eliminates peak seasons in hospitalizations.

  19. Prevalence

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    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  20. Carriage of multidrug-resistant organisms in a tertiary university hospital in Albania—a point prevalence survey

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    Falzon A. Parascandalo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance has been recognised as a serious global Public Health problem. Prevalence of Multiple-Drug-Resistant (MDR organism carriage in Albania is largely unknown since no national surveillance system is in place and few publications are accessible in the literature. Methods A 1-day point-prevalence-survey (PPS screening for nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and rectal MDR Gram-negative carriage was carried out at the high-dependency wards in the country’s only tertiary care hospital, in Tirana. Results A total of 106 nasal and 104 rectal swabs were collected. 14.2 % of patients (95 % Confidence Interval [95 CI]: 8.1–22.3 % were MRSA nasal carriers. Resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was common in these isolates (≥80 % but no resistance was identified against glycopeptides, nitrofurantoin and the relatively newer agents, tigecycline and linezolid. Fifty Enterobacteriaceae isolates were cultivated from 33 of 104 screened patients (31.7 % [95 CI: 22.9–41.6 % 95 CI]. The prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL production in Enterobacteriaceae was 41.3 % (95 CI: 31.8–51.4 %. The two more commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae were E. coli ([n = 28], 24 ESBL positive; 1 AmpC positive and 3 without an identified mechanism of resistance and Klebsiella pneumoniae ([n = 13], all ESBL positive; 1 also AmpC and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL positive. Susceptibility to carbapenems (≥98 %, fosfomycin (90 % and amikacin (70 + 20 % intermediate was high but a high level of resistance to all other agents tested was noted. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli were less commonly isolated {22 isolates: Acinetobacter baumannii (9; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5}. Conclusion Although a significant rate of MRSA carriage was identified, the main resistance challenge in Albania appears to be linked with Gram

  1. Constipation - prevalence and incidence among medical patients acutely admitted to hospital with a medical condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients.......To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients....

  2. Hospitalization Rates for Patients on Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis Compared with In-Center Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew J; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Dixon, Stephanie N; Perl, Jeffrey; Jain, Arsh K; Lavoie, Susan D; Nash, Danielle M; Paterson, J Michael; Lok, Charmaine E; Quinn, Robert R

    2016-09-07

    Assisted peritoneal dialysis is a treatment option for individuals with barriers to self-care who wish to receive home dialysis, but previous research suggests that this treatment modality is associated with a higher rate of hospitalization. The objective of our study was to determine whether assisted peritoneal dialysis has a different rate of hospital days compared to in-center hemodialysis. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study by linking a quality assurance dataset to administrative health data in Ontario, Canada. Subjects were accrued between January 1, 2004 and July 9, 2013. Individuals were grouped into assisted peritoneal dialysis (family or home care assisted) or in-center hemodialysis on the basis of their first outpatient dialysis modality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score was used to create a sample in which the baseline covariates were well balanced. The study included 872 patients in the in-center hemodialysis group and 203 patients in the assisted peritoneal dialysis group. Using an intention to treat approach, patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis had a similar hospitalization rate of 11.1 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 9.4 to 13.0) compared with 12.9 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 10.3 to 16.1) in the hemodialysis group (P=0.19). Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis were more likely to be hospitalized for dialysis-related reasons (admitted for 2.4 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.2] compared with 1.6 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.3] in the hemodialysis group; P=0.04). This difference was partly explained by more hospital days because of peritonitis. Modality switching was associated with high rates of hospital days per year. Assisted peritoneal dialysis was associated with similar rates of all-cause hospitalization compared with in-center hemodialysis. Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis who experienced peritonitis and technique failure had high rates of

  3. The U.S. Twin Delivery Volume and Association with Cesarean Delivery Rates: A Hospital-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Robinson, Julian N; Carusi, Daniela; Little, Sarah E

    2018-03-01

     The objective of this study was to test whether hospitals experienced in twin delivery have lower rates of cesarean delivery for twins.  We divided obstetric hospitals in the 2011 National Inpatient Sample by quartile of annual twin deliveries and compared twin cesarean delivery rates between hospitals with weighted linear regression. We used Pearson's coefficients to correlate a hospital's twin cesarean delivery rate to its overall cesarean delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates.  Annual twin delivery volume ranged from 1 to 506 across the 547 analyzed hospitals with a median of 10 and mode of 3. Adjusted rates of cesarean delivery were independent of delivery volume with a rate of 75.5 versus 74.8% in the lowest and highest volume hospitals ( p  = 0.09 across quartiles). A hospital's cesarean delivery rate for twins moderately correlated with the overall cesarean rate ( r  = 0.52, p  cesarean delivery rates at higher volume hospitals. Twin cesarean delivery rates correlate with other obstetric parameters such as singleton cesarean delivery and VBAC rates suggesting twin cesarean delivery rate is more closely related to a hospital's general obstetric practice than its twin delivery volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Smoking prevalence in Medicaid has been declining at a negligible rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available In recent decades the overall smoking prevalence in the US has fallen steadily. This study examines whether the same trend is seen in the Medicaid population.National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data from 17 consecutive annual surveys from 1997 to 2013 (combined N = 514,043 were used to compare smoking trends for 4 insurance groups: Medicaid, the Uninsured, Private Insurance, and Other Coverage. Rates of chronic disease and psychological distress were also compared.Adjusted smoking prevalence showed no detectable decline in the Medicaid population (from 33.8% in 1997 to 31.8% in 2013, trend test P = 0.13, while prevalence in the other insurance groups showed significant declines (38.6%-34.7% for the Uninsured, 21.3%-15.8% for Private Insurance, and 22.6%-16.8% for Other Coverage; all P's<0.005. Among individuals who have ever smoked, Medicaid recipients were less likely to have quit (38.8% than those in Private Insurance (62.3% or Other Coverage (69.8%; both P's<0.001. Smokers in Medicaid were more likely than those in Private Insurance and the Uninsured to have chronic disease (55.0% vs 37.3% and 32.4%, respectively; both P's<0.01. Smokers in Medicaid were also more likely to experience severe psychological distress (16.2% for Medicaid vs 3.2% for Private Insurance and 7.6% for the Uninsured; both P's<0.001.The high and relatively unchanging smoking prevalence in the Medicaid population, low quit ratio, and high rates of chronic disease and severe psychological distress highlight the need to focus on this population. A targeted and sustained campaign to help Medicaid recipients quit smoking is urgently needed.

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease among Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel: urbanization and increasing prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Freha, Naim; Schwartz, Doron; Elkrinawi, Jaber; Ben Yakov, Gil; Abu Tailakh, Muhammad; Munteanu, Daniela; Abu Ganim, Abdelrhman; Fich, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with genetic and environmental factors, including urban living. IBD was rare in the Israeli Bedouin community 30 years ago. Over recent decades, a large proportion of this community has undergone a transition from a nomadic to a western lifestyle. Our aim was to carry out an updated evaluation of the clinical and epidemiological features of IBD in the Bedouin sector of southern Israel. All Bedouin patients with a known diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in the retrospective study. The cohort included 31 CD patients and 31 UC patients. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 29±10.9 and 35±17.5 years for CD and UC, respectively. The prevalence rate for CD was 15.5/100,000 and the incidence rate was 0.8-3.55/100,000. Fourteen of the CD patients (45%) had ileal disease and 64.5% had inflammatory disease behavior according to the Montreal classification. Eleven of the CD patients (35%) were treated with anti-TNF-α and 26% had undergone surgery. Over the previous decade, the prevalence of UC was 14/100,000 and the incidence was 0.5-2.39/100,000. Eighteen UC patients (58%) had left-sided colitis. Three (9.7%) had undergone total colectomy for severe disease. We found an increased prevalence of IBD in the Bedouin population, associated with their change in lifestyle over previous decades. However, the prevalence is still markedly lower than that in other population groups. A high percentage of patients were treated with anti-TNF-α and/or surgery.

  6. Resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to Fluoroquinolones: Prevalence in a University Hospital and Possible Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Wang, Jiayuan; Xu, Haotong; Li, Gang

    2015-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical distribution and genotyping of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, its resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the possible mechanisms of this drug resistance. S. maltophilia isolates were collected from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Northwestern China during the period between 2010 and 2012, and were identified to the species level with a fully automated microbiological system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for S. maltophilia with the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, minocycline, ceftazidime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against S. maltophilia were assessed using the agar dilution method, and changes in the MIC of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were observed after the addition of reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor. Fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected in S. maltophilia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and the expression of efflux pump smeD and smeF genes was determined using a quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was employed to genotype identified S. maltophilia isolates. A total of 426 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from the university hospital from 2010 to 2012, consisting of 10.1% of total non-fermentative bacteria. The prevalence of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistance was 32.4%, 21.9% and 13.2% in the 114 S. maltophilia isolates collected from 2012, respectively. Following reserpine treatment, 19 S. maltophilia isolates positive for efflux pump were identified, and high expression of smeD and smeF genes was detected in two resistant isolates. gyrA, parC, smeD, smeE and smeF genes were detected in all 114 S. maltophilia isolates, while smqnr gene was found in 25.4% of total isolates. Glu-Lys mutation (GAA-AAA) was detected at the 151th amino acid of the gyrA gene, while Gly

  7. Resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to Fluoroquinolones: Prevalence in a University Hospital and Possible Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical distribution and genotyping of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, its resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the possible mechanisms of this drug resistance. Methods: S. maltophilia isolates were collected from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Northwestern China during the period between 2010 and 2012, and were identified to the species level with a fully automated microbiological system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for S. maltophilia with the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, minocycline, ceftazidime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against S. maltophilia were assessed using the agar dilution method, and changes in the MIC of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were observed after the addition of reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor. Fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected in S. maltophilia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, and the expression of efflux pump smeD and smeF genes was determined using a quantitative fluorescent (QF-PCR assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was employed to genotype identified S. maltophilia isolates. Results: A total of 426 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from the university hospital from 2010 to 2012, consisting of 10.1% of total non-fermentative bacteria. The prevalence of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistance was 32.4%, 21.9% and 13.2% in the 114 S. maltophilia isolates collected from 2012, respectively. Following reserpine treatment, 19 S. maltophilia isolates positive for efflux pump were identified, and high expression of smeD and smeF genes was detected in two resistant isolates. gyrA, parC, smeD, smeE and smeF genes were detected in all 114 S. maltophilia isolates, while smqnr gene was found in 25.4% of total isolates. Glu-Lys mutation (GAA-AAA was detected at the 151th

  8. Resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to Fluoroquinolones: Prevalence in a University Hospital and Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Wang, Jiayuan; Xu, Haotong; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical distribution and genotyping of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, its resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the possible mechanisms of this drug resistance. Methods: S. maltophilia isolates were collected from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Northwestern China during the period between 2010 and 2012, and were identified to the species level with a fully automated microbiological system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for S. maltophilia with the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, minocycline, ceftazidime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against S. maltophilia were assessed using the agar dilution method, and changes in the MIC of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were observed after the addition of reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor. Fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected in S. maltophilia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and the expression of efflux pump smeD and smeF genes was determined using a quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was employed to genotype identified S. maltophilia isolates. Results: A total of 426 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from the university hospital from 2010 to 2012, consisting of 10.1% of total non-fermentative bacteria. The prevalence of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistance was 32.4%, 21.9% and 13.2% in the 114 S. maltophilia isolates collected from 2012, respectively. Following reserpine treatment, 19 S. maltophilia isolates positive for efflux pump were identified, and high expression of smeD and smeF genes was detected in two resistant isolates. gyrA, parC, smeD, smeE and smeF genes were detected in all 114 S. maltophilia isolates, while smqnr gene was found in 25.4% of total isolates. Glu-Lys mutation (GAA-AAA) was detected at the 151th amino acid of the

  9. The prevalence and resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary care hospital in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Greta; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Bajrami, Rrezarta; Kurti, Arsim; Azizi, Elvir; Raka, Lul

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that continues to a leading cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections. The rapid increase in drug resistance in clinical isolates of this pathogen is a worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution rate, prevalence and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in clinical specimens from the University Clinical Centre of Kosovo (UCCK). During a three-year period, 553 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from patients admitted to a variety of UCCK units. The P. aeruginosa isolates were identified using standard laboratory procedures, and the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents was investigated using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (2013-2015) guidelines. P. aeruginosa was the second most frequently isolated pathogen. The isolation rate of P. aeruginosa was 7.6%, 10.1% and 8.6% in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Most clinical samples were from ICU (380, 68.7%). There was a statistically significant difference between ICU and non-ICU (pKosovo and will support the preparation of guidelines and protocols for the prudent use of antibiotics.

  10. Hypercalcemia Associated with Calcium Supplement Use: Prevalence and Characteristics in Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the “milk-alkali syndrome”. The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium intake (“calcium supplement syndrome”; or CSS in hospitalized patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective; electronic health record (EHR-based review of patients with hypercalcemia over a 3-year period. Diagnosis of CSS was based on the presence of hypercalcemia; a normal parathyroid hormone (PTH level; renal insufficiency; metabolic alkalosis; a history of calcium intake; and documented improvement with treatment. Results: Of the 72 patients with non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia; 15 (20.8% satisfied all the criteria for the diagnosis of CSS. Calcium; vitamin D; and multivitamin ingestion were significantly associated with the diagnosis (p values < 0.0001; 0.014; and 0.045 respectively; while the presence of hypertension; diabetes; and renal insufficiency showed a trend towards statistical significance. All patients received intravenous fluids; and six (40% received calcium-lowering drugs. The calcium level at discharge was normal 12 (80% of patients. The mean serum creatinine and bicarbonate levels decreased from 2.4 and 35 mg/dL on admission respectively; to 1.6 mg/dL and 25.6 mg/dL at discharge respectively. Conclusion: The widespread use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation can manifest as hypercalcemia and worsening of kidney function in susceptible individuals. Awareness among health care professionals can lead to proper patient education regarding these health risks.

  11. Hypercalcemia Associated with Calcium Supplement Use: Prevalence and Characteristics in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Maria C; Bruce-Mensah, Araba; Whitmire, Melanie; Rizvi, Ali A

    2015-03-09

    The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the "milk-alkali syndrome"). The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium intake ("calcium supplement syndrome"; or CSS) in hospitalized patients. We conducted a retrospective; electronic health record (EHR)-based review of patients with hypercalcemia over a 3-year period. Diagnosis of CSS was based on the presence of hypercalcemia; a normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) level; renal insufficiency; metabolic alkalosis; a history of calcium intake; and documented improvement with treatment. Of the 72 patients with non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia; 15 (20.8%) satisfied all the criteria for the diagnosis of CSS. Calcium; vitamin D; and multivitamin ingestion were significantly associated with the diagnosis (p values < 0.0001; 0.014; and 0.045 respectively); while the presence of hypertension; diabetes; and renal insufficiency showed a trend towards statistical significance. All patients received intravenous fluids; and six (40%) received calcium-lowering drugs. The calcium level at discharge was normal 12 (80%) of patients. The mean serum creatinine and bicarbonate levels decreased from 2.4 and 35 mg/dL on admission respectively; to 1.6 mg/dL and 25.6 mg/dL at discharge respectively. The widespread use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation can manifest as hypercalcemia and worsening of kidney function in susceptible individuals. Awareness among health care professionals can lead to proper patient education regarding these health risks.

  12. Reducing Bias in Citizens’ Perception of Crime Rates: Evidence From a Field Experiment on Burglary Prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2018-01-01

    Citizens are on average too pessimistic when assessing the trajectory of current crime trends. In this study, we examine whether we can correct this perceptual bias with respect to burglaries. Using a field experiment coupled with a large panel survey (n=4,895), we explore whether a public...... information campaign can reduce misperceptions about the prevalence of burglaries. Embedding the correct information about burglary rates in a direct mail campaign, we find that it is possible to substantially reduce citizens’ misperceptions. The effects are not short lived – they are detectable several weeks...... after the mailer was sent, but they are temporary. Eventually the perceptual bias re-emerges. Our results suggest that if citizens were continually supplied with correct information about crime rates they would be less pessimistic. Reducing bias in citizens’ perception of crime rates might therefore...

  13. Prevalence, incidence burden, and clinical impact of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial resistance: a national prevalent cohort study in acute care hospitals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsotakis EI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evangelos I Kritsotakis,1 Flora Kontopidou,2 Eirini Astrinaki,3 Maria Roumbelaki,4 Eleni Ioannidou,5 Achilles Gikas6 1School of Health and Related Research, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 2Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Office, Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, 3Infection Control Committee, University Hospital of Heraklion, 4Department of Nursing, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Rethymnon General Hospital, Rethymnon, 6Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece Background: Assessing the overall burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs is challenging, but imperative in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of infection control programs. This study aimed to estimate the point prevalence and annual incidence of HAIs in Greece and assess the excess length of stay (LOS and mortality attributable to HAIs, overall and for main infection sites and tracer antimicrobial resistance (AMR phenotypes and pathogens.Patients and methods: This prevalent cohort study used a nationally representative cross-section of 8,247 inpatients in 37 acute care hospitals to record active HAIs of all types at baseline and overall LOS and in-hospital mortality up to 90 days following hospital admission. HAI incidence was estimated using prevalence-to-incidence conversion methods. Excess mortality and LOS were assessed by Cox regression and multistate models correcting for confounding and time-dependent biases.Results: HAIs were encountered with daily prevalence of 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.8%–10.6%. The estimated annual HAI incidence was 5.2% (95% CI 4.4%–5.3%, corresponding to approximately 121,000 (95% CI 103,500–123,700 affected patients each year in the country. Ninety-day mortality risk was increased by 80% in patients

  14. Prevalence of human endogenous retroviral element associates with Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Hong Woo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retrovirus-H (HERV-H is implicated in leukaemias and lymphomas, but the precise molecular mechanism underlying HERV-mediated carcinogenesis remains unknown. We determined the prevalence of HERV-H in a cross-section of the Singapore population and explored the relationship between HERV-H positivity and incidence rates for Hodgkin's lymphoma in three major ethnic groups of Singapore. We observed that Malays were 1.11 times likely (95% CI=1.05–1.17; P<0.01, and Indians 1.12 times likely (95% CI=1.07–1.18; P<0.01 to be HERV-H positive when compared to Chinese. Interestingly, the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma for the three races positively correlated to the respective prevalence rate for HERV-H positivity (r=0.9921 for male; r=0.9801 for female, suggesting that viral inheritance in human may predispose certain racial origin unfavourably to malignancy.

  15. High prevalence and low cure rate of tuberculosis among patients with HIV in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, Rena; Zhang, Yuexin; Pan, Kejun; Mijiti, Peierdun; Wubili, Maimaitiali; Musa, Maimaitijiang; Andersson, Rune

    2017-01-05

    Tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemics are problems in many parts of the world. Xinjiang is a high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence area in China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang. In a retrospective study between 2006 and 2011, clinical and laboratory data on 333 patients with HIV and tuberculosis were compared to 2668 patients with HIV only. There were 31 HIV positive patients with no data on tuberculosis. The prevalence of tuberculosis co-infection among the HIV positive patients was 11% (95% CI 10-12%), significantly higher than the national figure in China of 2%. In most cases HIV was diagnosed late, with advanced immunodeficiency. The use of isoniazid preventive therapy was only 57.9% in patients without tuberculosis who fulfilled the criteria for receiving this prevention. The cure rate one year after diagnosis was 69.2%, which was lower than the officially reported 91.4% in all tuberculosis cases in Xinjiang in 2011. The hazard of not surviving over the five years was significantly higher in patients with HIV + tuberculosis compared to HIV only after adjusting for sex and Intravenous drug use with HR = 1.84 (95% CI 1.43-2.35; p HIV positive patients in Xinjiang was higher than in China taken as a whole, and HIV was diagnosed late, with underuse of isoniazid preventive therapy. The low cure rate and reduced survival can be due to late diagnosis of HIV and no testing for antibiotic resistance, together with insufficient control of adherence to the treatment regimens for tuberculosis and HIV.

  16. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Predicting Fluctuating Rates of Hospitalizations in Relation to Influenza Epidemics and Meteorological Factors.

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    Radia Spiga

    Full Text Available In France, rates of hospital admissions increase at the peaks of influenza epidemics. Predicting influenza-associated hospitalizations could help to anticipate increased hospital activity. The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of influenza epidemics through the analysis of meteorological data, and medical data provided by general practitioners.Historical data were collected from Meteo France, the Sentinelles network and hospitals' information systems for a period of 8 years (2007-2015. First, connections between meteorological and medical data were estimated with the Pearson correlation coefficient, Principal component analysis and classification methods (Ward and k-means. Epidemic states of tested weeks were then predicted for each week during a one-year period using linear discriminant analysis. Finally, transition probabilities between epidemic states were calculated with the Markov Chain method.High correlations were found between influenza-associated hospitalizations and the variables: Sentinelles and emergency department admissions, and anti-correlations were found between hospitalizations and each of meteorological factors applying a time lag of: -13, -12 and -32 days respectively for temperature, absolute humidity and solar radiation. Epidemic weeks were predicted accurately with the linear discriminant analysis method; however there were many misclassifications about intermediate and non-epidemic weeks. Transition probability to an epidemic state was 100% when meteorological variables were below: 2°C, 4 g/m3 and 32 W/m2, respectively for temperature, absolute humidity and solar radiation. This probability was 0% when meteorological variables were above: 6°C, 5.8g/m3 and 74W/m2.These results confirm a good correlation between influenza-associated hospitalizations, meteorological factors and general practitioner's activity, the latter being the strongest predictor of hospital activity.

  18. Prevalent Poisonings in Adolescents and Adults in Dubai: A Compendium from Rashid Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Akhtar Hameed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Profile of acute poisonings varies from country to country depending on the ease of availability of substances and socio-economic condition of people; however, very little information from the United Arab Emirates (UAE have been published, so far. This study was designed to find out the most common causes of overdose and poisoning in patients admitted to the emergency department of Rashid Hospital (RH, Dubai, UAE. Methods: In this retrospective cross sectional study, medical records of poisoned patients admitted to RH from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2012 were reviewed. Demographic data, types of substances used, intention, length of hospital stay and outcomes were recorded in pre-designed checklists. Results: Overall, 163 patients were studied that among them gender distribution was relatively equal (male: female = 1.04: 1. Mean age of patients was 30.3 ± 11.5 and most patients were in the age group of 20 to 29 years age old (41.7%. Rgarding the type of poisons, the majority of patients were poisoned with pharmaceuticals (55.8% followed by chemical substances (23.3%. In pharmaceutical poisonings, most cases were due to multi-drug ingestion (22.6%, followed by ingestion of paracetamol (14.1% and benzodiazepines (4.3%. Considering the gender distribution, women were significantly more involved with pharmaceutical poisoning (P = 0.046, while venomous envenomation occurred only in men indicating a significant difference (P = 0.004. In chemical poisoning, most cases were due to ingestion of corrosive agents (19%. Suicidal poisoning was significantly more common in women (P < 0.001, while abuse was significantly more common in men (P < 0.001. Length of hospital stay averaged on 8.1 days. Only 3 patients died during the admission (mortality rate: 1.8%. Conclusion: Study on, training for and prevention of poisoning should receive more attention in the UAE. Over-the-counter drugs especially paracetamol should be prescribed in a more

  19. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hydatidiform Mole among Patients Undergoing Uterine Evacuation at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Mulisya, Olivier; Roberts, Drucilla J.; Sengupta, Elizabeth S.; Agaba, Elly; Laffita, Damaris; Tobias, Tusabe; Mpiima, Derrick Paul; Henry, Lugobe; Augustine, Ssemujju; Abraham, Masinda; Hillary, Twizerimana; Mugisha, Julius

    2018-01-01

    Objective. We sought to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with hydatidiform molar gestations amongst patients undergoing uterine evacuation at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH), Mbarara, Uganda. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study carried out from November 2016 to February 2017. All patients admitted for uterine evacuation for nonviable pregnancy were included. The study registered 181 patients. Data were collected on sociodemographics, medical conditions, obste...

  20. Prevalence and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella and Shigella Species among Diarrheal Patients Attending Nekemte Referral Hospital, Oromia, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu Terfassa; Mulissa Jida

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study was determining the prevalence and antibiotics resistance pattern of Salmonella and Shigella sp. from diarrheal patients attending Nekemte Referral Hospital. A total of 422 patients were included in the study and their sociodemographic and clinical information was collected using questionnaire. Stool samples of the patients were collected and processed following standard bacteriological protocols. Presumptive colonies of Salmonella and Shigella species were id...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among nurses in Africa: Nigerian and Ethiopian specialized hospitals survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiru, Lamina; Shmaila, Hanif

    2009-04-01

    The mechanical hazards in the hospitals include low back pain (LBP) from manual lifting (lifting patients in particular) which makes nursing one of the occupations most affected by LBP. Nurses are required to lift and transport patients or equipments, often in difficult environment particularly in developing nations like Africa, where lifting aids are not always available or practicable. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of LBP among nurses in African. A cross-sectional study was designed and used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for LBP among nurses in a typical Nigerian (Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital [MMSHI) and Ethiopian (Jimma University Specialized Hospital [JUSH]) Specialized Hospitals. A department-to-department enquiry was conducted using a self structured valid and reliable questionnaire. Simple percentage (%) and Chi square were used to analyze variables of interest. Five hundred and eight respondents (178 [35%] males and 330 [65%] females) participated in the study. The 12 month prevalence of low back pain (LBP) was 360 (70.87%). LBP was more prevalent among female nurses (67.5%) than the male nurses (32.5%). It was also associated with occupational hazard and poor knowledge of back care ergonomics. The prevalence of LBP was highest among nurses in Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit (26.67%) and least among tutors (4.17%).There was no significant difference between Nigeria and Ethiopian nurses' responses in prevalence, etiology and knowledge of back care. However, there was a significant association between gender, knowledge of back-care ergonomics and prevalence of LBP at pwork place contrary to those reported outside Africa. Nurses only lost 202 days (0.15%) of the total working (131,400) days, this is considerably very low. Though, longer sick leaves (7563 days) were medically advised and applied for, However, only about 2.7% of the applied sick leaves was granted on technical or

  2. Breastfeeding rates and hospital breastfeeding practices in Canada: a national survey of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Beverley; Levitt, Cheryl; Heaman, Maureen; O'Brien, Beverley; Sauve, Reg; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2009-06-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative was launched by the World Health Organization and UNICEF in 1989 to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding worldwide. The objective of this study was to report breastfeeding rates and adherence to the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative of the World Health Organization and UNICEF in Canada, as reported by participants in the Maternity Experiences Survey of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. Eligible women (n = 8,244) were identified from a randomly selected sample of infants born 3 months before the May 2006 Canadian Census, and stratified by province or territory. Birth mothers living with their infants at the time of interview were invited to participate in a computer-assisted telephone interview conducted by Statistics Canada on behalf of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Interviews took approximately 45 minutes and were completed when infants were between 5 and 10 months old (between 9 and 14 months in the territories). Completed responses were obtained from 6,421 women (78% response rate). Nineteen of 309 questions concerned early mother-infant contact and breastfeeding practices. Breastfeeding intention (90.0%) and initiation (90.3%) rates were high, although exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months after birth (14.4%) were lower than desirable. The findings suggested a low adherence to several best practices advocated by the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Although breastfeeding initiation rates were relatively high in Canada, exclusive breastfeeding duration fell short of globally recommended standards.

  3. Peer-to-peer nursing rounds and hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence in a surgical intensive care unit: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Alyson Dare; Moorer, Amanda; Makic, MaryBeth Flynn

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project in order to evaluate the effect of nurse-to-nurse bedside "rounding" as a strategy to decrease hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) in a surgical intensive care unit. We instituted weekly peer-to-peer bedside skin rounds in a 17-bed surgical intensive care unit. Two nurses were identified as skin champions and trained by the hospital's certified WOC nurse to conduct skin rounds. The skin champion nurses conducted weekly peer-to-peer rounds that included discussions about key elements of our patients' skin status including current Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk score, and implementation of specific interventions related to subscale risk assessment. If a pressure ulcer was present, the current action plan was reevaluated for effectiveness. Quarterly HAPU prevalence studies were conducted from January 2008 to December 2010. Nineteen patients experienced a HAPU: 17 were located on the coccyx and 2 on the heel. Ten ulcers were classified as stage II, 3 PU were stage IV, 5 were deemed unstageable, and 1 was classified as a deep tissue injury. The frequency of preventive interventions rose during our quality improvement project. Specifically, the use of prevention surfaces increased 92%, repositioning increased 30%, nutrition interventions increased 77%, and moisture management increased 100%. Prior to focused nursing rounds, the highest HAPU prevalence rate was 27%. After implementing focused nursing rounds, HAPU rates trended down and were 0% for 3 consecutive quarters.

  4. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabob, M Nazargi; Anbuselvan, G J; Kumar, B Senthil; Raja, S; Kothari, Sucitha

    2012-08-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%). Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  5. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis

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    M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%. Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  6. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

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    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  7. Underestimated prevalence of heart failure in hospital inpatients: a comparison of ICD codes and discharge letter information.

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    Kaspar, Mathias; Fette, Georg; Güder, Gülmisal; Seidlmayer, Lea; Ertl, Maximilian; Dietrich, Georg; Greger, Helmut; Puppe, Frank; Störk, Stefan

    2018-04-17

    Heart failure is the predominant cause of hospitalization and amongst the leading causes of death in Germany. However, accurate estimates of prevalence and incidence are lacking. Reported figures originating from different information sources are compromised by factors like economic reasons or documentation quality. We implemented a clinical data warehouse that integrates various information sources (structured parameters, plain text, data extracted by natural language processing) and enables reliable approximations to the real number of heart failure patients. Performance of ICD-based diagnosis in detecting heart failure was compared across the years 2000-2015 with (a) advanced definitions based on algorithms that integrate various sources of the hospital information system, and (b) a physician-based reference standard. Applying these methods for detecting heart failure in inpatients revealed that relying on ICD codes resulted in a marked underestimation of the true prevalence of heart failure, ranging from 44% in the validation dataset to 55% (single year) and 31% (all years) in the overall analysis. Percentages changed over the years, indicating secular changes in coding practice and efficiency. Performance was markedly improved using search and permutation algorithms from the initial expert-specified query (F1 score of 81%) to the computer-optimized query (F1 score of 86%) or, alternatively, optimizing precision or sensitivity depending on the search objective. Estimating prevalence of heart failure using ICD codes as the sole data source yielded unreliable results. Diagnostic accuracy was markedly improved using dedicated search algorithms. Our approach may be transferred to other hospital information systems.

  8. [Prevalence of wheezing and associated factors in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute respiratory infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil].

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    Souza, Patrícia Gomes de; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Sant Anna, Clemax Couto

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of wheezing was studied in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, recruited by a surveillance routine established in villages from May 2007 to June 2008. Data were obtained from hospital records. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for wheezing were estimated according to categories of target variables, using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence of wheezing was 58.1% (136/234). Risk factors that remained significantly associated with wheezing in the final model were: age bracket, inversely associated (0-11 months: reference; 24-35 months: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99); hospitalization in the autumn (summer: reference; autumn: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.05-2.40); dyspnea (1.41, 95%CI: 1.09-1.83); chest indrawing (1.42, 95%CI: 1.16-1.73); crackles (1.43, 95%CI: 1.09-1.87). The results show a high disease burden related to wheezing and suggest the phenotype of early-onset persistent wheezing related to recurrence of viral respiratory infections.

  9. Modeling hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence on medical-surgical units: nurse workload, expertise, and clinical processes of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Carolyn; Donaldson, Nancy; Stotts, Nancy A; Fridman, Moshe; Brown, Diane Storer

    2015-04-01

    This study modeled the predictive power of unit/patient characteristics, nurse workload, nurse expertise, and hospital-acquired pressure ulcer (HAPU) preventive clinical processes of care on unit-level prevalence of HAPUs. Seven hundred and eighty-nine medical-surgical units (215 hospitals) in 2009. Using unit-level data, HAPUs were modeled with Poisson regression with zero-inflation (due to low prevalence of HAPUs) with significant covariates as predictors. Hospitals submitted data on NQF endorsed ongoing performance measures to CALNOC registry. Fewer HAPUs were predicted by a combination of unit/patient characteristics (shorter length of stay, fewer patients at-risk, fewer male patients), RN workload (more hours of care, greater patient [bed] turnover), RN expertise (more years of experience, fewer contract staff hours), and processes of care (more risk assessment completed). Unit/patient characteristics were potent HAPU predictors yet generally are not modifiable. RN workload, nurse expertise, and processes of care (risk assessment/interventions) are significant predictors that can be addressed to reduce HAPU. Support strategies may be needed for units where experienced full-time nurses are not available for HAPU prevention. Further research is warranted to test these finding in the context of higher HAPU prevalence. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Reduction in the Prevalence of Healthcare-Associated Infections in U.S. Acute Care Hospitals, 2015 vs 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Shelley S; Wilson, Lucy E; Thompson, Deborah L; Ray, Susan M; Nadle, Joelle; Lynfield, Ruth; Janelle, Sarah J; Kainer, Marion A; Greissman, Samantha; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Beldavs, Zintars G; Edwards, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background A 2011 prevalence survey conducted by CDC and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) showed that 1 in 25 hospital patients had ≥1 healthcare-associated infection (HAI). We repeated the survey in 2015 to assess changes in HAI prevalence.​ Methods In EIP sites (CA, CO, CT, GA, MD, MN, NM, NY, OR, TN) hospitals that participated in the 2011 survey were recruited for the 2015 survey. Hospitals selected 1 day from May–September 2015 on which a random patient sample was identified from the morning census. Trained EIP staff reviewed patient medical records using comparable methods and the same National Healthcare Safety Network HAI definitions used in 2011. Proportions of patients with HAIs were compared using chi-square tests; patient characteristics were compared using chi-square or median tests (OpenEpi 3.01, SAS 9.3). Results Data were available from 143 hospitals that participated in both surveys; data from 8954 patients in the 2011 survey were compared with preliminary data from 8833 patients in the 2015 survey. Patient characteristics such as median age, days from admission to survey, and critical care location were similar. Urinary catheter prevalence was lower in 2015 (1,589/8,833, 18.0%) compared with 2011 (2,052/8,954, 22.9%, P PNEU) and Clostridium difficileinfections (CDI) were most common (Figure); proportions of patients with PNEU and/or CDI were similar in 2015 (130/8833, 1.5%) and 2011 (133/8954, 1.5%, P = 0.94). A lower proportion of patients had surgical site (SSI) and/or urinary tract infections (UTI) in 2015 (77/8833, 0.9%) vs. 2011 (136/8954, 1.5%, P PNEU and CDI, indicating a need for increased prevention efforts in hospitals. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  11. [Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Major Psychiatric Disorders in Hospitalised Patients in Montserrat Hospital During the period March to October 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Ibañez Pinilla, Edgar Antonio; Galeano España, Alejandra; Noguera Bravo, Ana María; Milena Pantoja, Sandra; Suárez Acosta, Ana María

    Hypothyroidism results from inadequate production of thyroid hormone. It is known that there is a relationship between the major psychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism. To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients admitted due to major psychiatric disorders in Montserrat Hospital during the period from March to October 2010. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 patients admitted to Montserrat Hospital with a primary diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder (major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalised panic disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, and schizophrenia) in the aforementioned period. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was performed to assess the evidence of hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.5% (95% CI; 5%-16%). It was 12.5% in anxiety disorder, 11.1% in depressive disorder, with a lower prevalence of 10.3% for bipolar disorder, and 9.9% for schizophrenia. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be less than in the general population, which is between 4.64% and 18.5%, and hypothyroidism was found in disorders other than depression. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the nosocomial infections' rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern among the patient hospitalized in beheshti hospital during 2013

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    Manijeh Kadkhodaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Nosocomial infection is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and length of stay. Detection of infection, identify the etiology of bacterial antibiotic resistance pattern, is necessary given the widespread use of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant organisms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 288 patients admitted to the Beheshti Hospitals in Kashan based on NNIS definitions according to the state of Health and Medical education. In this study infections and antibiotic resistance symptoms were found. Data analyses were performed with Chi-square test. Results: Among the 288 patients studied, with mean out of hospital infection was 0.80%. Most cases of infection associated were pneumonia. The highest rates of infection were in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU with 51.7%. Nosocomial infection in ICU wards was associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The most common types were ventilator-associated pneumonia. Among the microorganisms, negative Gram was seen more. The common pathogens were including Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella. Antimicrobial resistance was generally increasing and had emerged from selective pressure from antibiotic use and transmission through health staff. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance of microorganisms is significant. Hence, it seems that reducing aggressive acts and conduct hygiene education and monitoring act of antibiotics is necessary to prevent antibiotic resistance.

  13. Incidence, hospital costs and in-hospital mortality rates of surgically treated patients with traumatic cranial epidural hematoma

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    Atci Ibrahim Burak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the patients who were operated in two clinics due to traumatic cranial epidural hematoma (EDH were assessed retrospectively and the factors that increase the costs were tried to be revealed through conducting cost analyses. Methods: The patients who were operated between 2010 and 2016 with the diagnosis of EDH were assessed in terms of age, sex, trauma etiology, Glasgow coma scale (GCS at admission, the period from trauma to hospital arrival, trauma-related injury in other organs, the localization of hematoma, the size of hematoma, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU, length of antibiotherapy administration, number of consultations conducted, total cost of in-hospital treatments of the patients and prognosis. Results: Distribution of GCS were, between 13-15 in 18 (36% patients, 9-13 in 23 (46% patients and 3-8 in 9 (18% patients. The reasons for emergency department admissions were fall from high in 29 (58% patients, assault in 11 (22% patients and motor vehicle accident in 10 (20% patients. The average cost per ICU stay was 2838 $ (range=343-20571 $. The average cost per surgical treatment was 314 $. ICU care was approximately 9 times more expensive than surgical treatment costs. The mortality rate of the study cohort was 14% (7 patients. Conclusion: The prolonged period of stay in the ICU, antibiotherapy and repeat head CTs increase the costs for patients who are surgically treated for EDH.

  14. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  15. Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pyogenic community and hospital acquired skin and soft tissues infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M. K.; Asrar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the percentage and frequency of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community and hospital-acquired pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dermatology Department of Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad, from June 2009 to March 2010, and comprised 144 community-acquired and 54 hospital-acquired skin and soft tissue infections. Pus swabs from the infected lesions one from each individual were sent to laboratory for culture and sensitivity tests. Methicillin resistance was detected by 1 (mu) g oxacillin disk. Organisms were labelled methicillin-resistant once the inhibition zone for oxocillin was less than 10 mm. Data analysis was done by using SPSS 20. Results: Of the 198 patients in the study, 98(49.5%) were males and 100(50.5%) were females, with an overall mean age of 33.7+-14.8144 years. There were 144(72.72%) community-acquired infections and 54(27.27%) had hospital-acquired infections. Community-acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus numbered 40(27.8%) and hospital-acquired ones numbered 26(48.1%). Conclusion: Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community and hospital-acquired pyogenic skin and soft tissue infections was high. (author)

  16. [Who is rehospitalized in a psychiatric hospital? Psychiatric hospitalization rates and social indicators in the Zurich canton (Switzerland)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüesch, P; Meyer, P C; Hell, D

    2000-03-01

    There are two approaches in the research on the relation between social conditions and mental disorder: The ecological approach is concerned with characteristics of the social composition of a certain geographical area and their relation to the frequency of disorders, whereas for the individualistic view variables of the psychosocial background of the individual are of interest. This study is on the risk for psychiatric admission (first and re-admission). While considering variables of the social context of the community as well as of the background of the individual, it tries to take into account both the ecological and the individualistic view of the relationship between social conditions and (treated) mental disorder. The sample of the study includes data of 4021 psychiatric inpatients treated in 1997 in one of the seven psychiatric hospitals of the Swiss canton of Zurich as well as data of social context of the 171 communities of the canton of Zurich. The psychiatric first and re-admission rates of the community can be predicted by the following variables of its social context: 1. pro portion of foreigners, 2. urban character of the living area, 3. population density. Two other variables are of relevance only for the prediction of first admissions: 4. proportion of one-person households and 5. local tax rate. However, further results of the study show that correlations between variables of the social context and psychiatric admission rate of the community cannot be interpreted as risks for the individual.

  17. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

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    Mohan Roy Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above, having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7% had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6% of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients.

  18. Prevalence of Food Supplements used in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Referred to Government Hospitals in Yazd

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    A Noshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease where immune system mistakenly assumes different elements of joints as exogenous and attacks it. Based on scientific findings, a wide range of complementary and alternative therapies (including herbal and food supplements are useful for RA. Methods: This Cross-sectional study was carried out on 120 patients suffered from RA whom were referred to public health centers of Yazd in 2014. Using a questionnaire, demographic characteristics and the type and rate of supplementation were evaluated in these patients. Results: out of 120 patients, 118 individuals used at least one of the questioned supplements. Patients ranged from 19 to 76 years that 71.6 percent ≥ 40 years, 85% female, 92% married, 55% earned between 1 and 2 million Tomans per month and 51.7% had high school diploma or higher education. The most prevalent consumed supplement was calcium-Vitamin D (90.7% and Folic acid (%80.5, vitamin D (%73.7, and omega-3 (%55.9 came afterward. Interestingly, majority of patients (96.5% were taking supplements under the supervision of rheumatologist. Conclusion: Based on present data obtained in patients suffering from RA, most frequently used supplement was calcium-vitamin D. Most patients were satisfied of positive effects of these supplements.