WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevailing sociocultural norms

  1. Victoria's dirty secret: how sociocultural norms influence adolescent girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Erin J; Lafrance, Adèle; Wilson, Anne E; Ethier, Nicole; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P

    2008-02-01

    The present studies tested whether the salience of sociocultural norms for ideal appearance leads women to base their self-worth more strongly on appearance, which in turn leads them to feel more concerned with others' perceptions and less satisfied with their bodies. Study 1 tested this model by manipulating the salience of the sociocultural norm among female university students. The model was supported. In Study 2 an intervention challenging the legitimacy of the sociocultural norm was delivered to female and male adolescents. Compared to controls, females who received this intervention were less accepting of the sociocultural norms for appearance, based their self-worth less strongly on appearance, and in turn were less concerned with others' perceptions and were more satisfied with their bodies. The implications for women are discussed.

  2. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  3. Shared Values and Socio-Cultural Norms: E-Learning Technologies from a Social Practice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patti; Velan, Gary M.; Shulruf, Boaz

    2017-01-01

    From a perspective of social practice, learning is a socially constituted practice that is imbued with socio-culturally significant meanings and shaped by the values and norms shared within a community of learners. This focus group study examines the role of e-learning technologies in mediating the social practice of learning among coursework…

  4. Breaking the circle: challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-06-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seventy-one college women either received norm-confirming, norm-challenging, or no information regarding the sociocultural norms for appearance. Subsequently, participants' visual attention to appearance-related and neutral advertisements was measured using an eye-tracker. The results demonstrate that when no information or norm-confirming information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid more attention to the appearance-related advertisements than women with higher self-esteem. Importantly however, when norm-challenging information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid significantly less attention to the appearance-related ads than women with lower self-esteem who did not receive this manipulation. These findings indicate that challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance can attenuate the amount of attention women give to appearance-related media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Breaking the circle: Challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem.

  6. Socio-Cultural Norms and Roles in the Use and Abuse of Alcohol among Members of a Rural Community in Southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagu, E. N.; Dibia, S. I. C.; Odo, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Social influences together with local cultural norms are central factors that can influence the use of alcohol. The study, therefore, identified socio-cultural norms and roles capable of influencing alcohol use among young people in an alcohol producing community, in Nigeria. We used qualitative technique--focused group discussions among selected…

  7. A quantitative exploration of attitudes out of line with the prevailing norms toward alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use among European students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane; Chomynova, Pavla; Miller, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The study examines groups of 15-16-year-old students whose attitudes toward drug use are out of line with the prevailing norms. It analyzes data from eight countries from the 2003 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In those countries, 22,900 15-16-year-old pupils answered the ESPAD questionnaire. Groups of subjects whose responses are far removed from the modal value are sought and studied. The aim is to explore "rare answers" compared to what is perceived by the majority of students. In order to explore what can lead a pupil to an atypical perception of risk, a cluster analysis, based on the risk perceptions of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, was run to isolate the groups in which pupils tend to answer differently. Six clusters were established classifying students into those who failed to respond, deny the risks, do not know about the risks, see any drug use as great risk, see regular use as great risk, and who see a moderate risk for most frequencies of use. The nonresponders, risk deniers, and those ignorant of the risks are infrequent making up, in all, only 16.9% of the total sample. Gender, country, alcohol use, cannabis use, tobacco use, and friends' consumption were used to describe both the individual risk perceptions and the clusters based on them. Both global context (country) and "micro" context (frequencies of drug use, peers lifestyle, and parental permissiveness) appear to play a major role in the risk perception of drug use.

  8. Norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria Meneses, Luis Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Related studies with the presence of NORMs in Costa Rica were developed. CICANUM has had equipment and personnel to perform analysis using gamma spectroscopy (for solid and liquid samples), beta spectroscopy (for liquid milk samples and water), alpha spectroscopy (water samples). These techniques are frequently used in the analysis for food purchased from stores, monitoring, export (safety certicates), directly from the farm (research and projects ARCAL), several matrices (meristems, iron, etc..). The CICANUM supported by the Universidad de Costa Rica and the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma has participated in various projects by the IAEA, in research on food, marine species, quality assurance, development of reference material. The term NORMs is used to distinguish natural radioactive elements of radioactive elements of anthropogenic origin, among which are those produced by: terrestrial, mediums cosmogenic and industrial. One conclusion is that human activity has been responsible for increasing exposure of people to ionizing radiation. This increase has resulted of the production of coal, natural gas, mining and fossil fuels, and the use of fertilizers. Radon trapped in the rocks is released when performing scans or during extraction. (author) [es

  9. Cross-cultural variations in Big Five relationships with religiosity : A sociocultural motives perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebauer, Jochen E.; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Potter, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    A sociocultural motives perspective (SMP) on Big Five relationships is introduced. According to the SMP, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness elicit assimilation to sociocultural norms, Openness elicits contrast from these norms, and Extraversion and Neuroticism are independent of sociocultural

  10. Treating Women with Bulimia from a Sociocultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Kathy

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a sociocultural perspective of bulimia. Notes that since bulimia occurs in a sociocultural context, which includes a socialized developmental path with concomittant norms and values, effective treatment must address those norms and values. Recommends group therapy. (ABB)

  11. Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Apsalone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.

  12. NORM management; Gerencia de NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio dos

    2016-07-01

    In the chapter 9 concepts and examples for helping to solve the NORM question in the industries are presented. The challenge is to handle with radioactivity questions and many industries do not know that are producing radioactivity material besides having to learn and match the nuclear concepts and legislation with the conventional pollutants. The risks associated to NORM and a methodology to handle with the question are mentioned. The need for establishing responsibilities is also highlighted. Finally, a planning to manage NORM is suggested. The equation for determination os minerals activity and concentrates in secular equilibrium is annexed in A.

  13. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  14. Theatre and social criticism in African literature: socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theatre and social criticism in African literature: socio-cultural consciousness in Alachi's “Dilemma of Oko” ... criticism with the tragedy of an individual victimized by society. Keywords: Social Criticism, Moral degeneration, Convergence of cultures, foreign phenomena, societal norms, Traditional ethics, Traditional institutions ...

  15. Cross-cultural variations in big five relationships with religiosity: a sociocultural motives perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Gosling, Samuel D; Rentfrow, Peter J; Lamb, Michael E; Potter, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    A sociocultural motives perspective (SMP) on Big Five relationships is introduced. According to the SMP, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness elicit assimilation to sociocultural norms, Openness elicits contrast from these norms, and Extraversion and Neuroticism are independent of sociocultural assimilation and contrast. Due to sociocultural assimilation, then, relationships of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness with an outcome wax (become more positive or less negative) with that outcome's increasing sociocultural normativeness. Due to sociocultural contrast, relationships of Openness with an outcome wane (become less positive or more negative) with that outcome's increasing sociocultural normativeness. We tested the SMP using religiosity as our outcome. Study 1 included 4 cross-sectional self-report data sets across 66 countries (N = 1,129,334), 50 U.S. states (N = 1,057,342), 15 German federal states (N = 20,885), and 121 British urban areas (N = 386,315). Study 2 utilized informant-report data across 37 countries (N = 544,512). Study 3 used longitudinal data across 15 German federal states (N = 14,858). Results consistently supported the SMP. Relationships of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness with religiosity were more positive in religious sociocultural contexts than in secular contexts. Relationships of Openness with religiosity were more negative in religious sociocultural contexts than in secular contexts. At a more general level, the SMP offers theory-driven explanations for cross-cultural variations in Big Five relationships with their outcomes.

  16. Socio-Cultural Norms for Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    Abstract – This paper considers the cultural resources for corporate action tied into stakeholder models, criticizes current stakeholder models, and develops a perspective based in ethics and the political model of the stakeholder. The purpose of this analysis is to lay out models which recognize...... the cultural challenges related to the blurring of the boundaries of the corporation and the needs of different cultural contexts....

  17. Quotient normed cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    general setting of the space CL(X, Y ) of all continuous linear mappings from a normed cone (X, p) to a normed cone (Y, q), extending several well-known results related to open continuous linear mappings between normed linear spaces. Keywords. Normed cone; extended quasi-metric; continuous linear mapping; bicom-.

  18. Influence of Sociocultural Practices on Food and Nutrition Security in Karamoja Subregion of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggaga, C; Ongeng, D; Mugonola, B; Okello-Uma, I; Kaaya, N A; Taylor, D

    2017-01-01

    The study determined the influence of sociocultural practices on food and nutrition security of children and women in Karamoja subregion, located in northeastern Uganda. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted among 133 participants. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings indicate that cultural norms, myths, and taboos restrict consumption of animal-sourced foods and some green vegetables by women. Sociocultural practices promoted prelacteal feeding, affecting the implementation of World Health Organization's recommendations for exclusive breast feeding. In conclusion, sociocultural practices influence food and nutrition security, exposing women and children to the risk of malnutrition and associated consequences.

  19. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  20. Teachers' Knowledge and Views on the Use of Learners' Socio-Cultural Background in Teaching Natural Sciences in Grade 9 Township Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavuru, Lydia; Ramnarain, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    This article explores teachers' knowledge and views on the role of learners' socio-cultural background when teaching Natural Sciences to Grade 9 learners at three South African township schools. Within a socio-cultural framework, the research investigated how teachers accommodate learners' cultural norms and values, religion and beliefs,…

  1. NORM - practical guide; NORM - guia pratico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio dos (ed.)

    2016-07-01

    The experience of the authors and a literature review on the evaluation of national and international regulatory guides are presented. The objective is to help understand the need to implement the best practices for NORM management in the industries that produce the NORM wastes. The book should act as a reference point, basic, friendly and useful to assist the reader in NORM management activities. The reader should be warned that management requires consultation and involvement of a significant number of stakeholders, in addition to the approval of competent authorities. A list and the technical biography of the authors are also described.

  2. Families of Norms Generated By 2-Norm

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Malčeski; Katerina Anevska

    2016-01-01

    In [1] S. Gähler proof that for any linearly independent vector a b L , ,  the equality || || || , || || , || x x a x b   , x L  defines a norm on L . This result is generalized by A. Misiak in [2], and in [3] is presented other proof of this result. Moreover, H. Gunawan in [4] generalized these results. In this paper we’ll generalize the S. Gähler’s result of 2-normed space, which can easy be generalized on n-normed space. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. ...

  3. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  4. Alcohol Makes You Macho and Helps You Make Friends: The Role of Masculine Norms and Peer Pressure in Adolescent Boys’ and Girls’ Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek K.; Smiler, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Peer pressure and general conformity to adult norms have been found to be strongly associated with alcohol use among adolescents; however there is limited knowledge about the sociocultural factors that might influence this relationship. Theory and research suggest that masculine norms might directly and indirectly contribute to alcohol use through peer pressure and general conformity to adult norms. Whereas being male is typically identified as a risk factor for alcohol use, masculine norms p...

  5. Psychological and sociocultural mechanisms of international students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Dilara seker

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Psychological and sociocultural adaptation of students are not associated with each other. As students perceived discrimination level increases, they have more sociocultural adaptation difficulties. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 504-514

  6. Psychiatric Deinstitutionalization: A Sociocultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estroff, Sue E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews experiences of psychiatric patients in the community. Argues that deinsitutionalization and community treatment of the most needy patients have failed because these movements did not address the sociocultural reasons for institutionalization. Presents economic, clinical, and social hypotheses about why failures have occurred. (Author/MJL)

  7. Socio-Cultural Factors and Intention towards Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Loon KOE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to rectify environmental degradation, government has encouraged sustainable management among businesses. In addition, researchers have also suggested a new breed of study called “sustainable entrepreneurship”, which links sustainability management to entrepreneurial activities. However, the participation of entrepreneurial firms in sustainability management is still far from satisfactory. Past studies also have found that SMEs are less active in sustainabilty initiatives and many issues related to the intention of firms for sustainability entrepreneurship is still unanswered. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the influence of socio-cultural factors on intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. A total of 404 SMEs in Malaysia were surveyed by using questionnaire. Based on the statistical analyses performed, this study found that three socio-cultural factors, namely time orientation, sustainability orientation and social norm significantly influenced intention towards sustainable entrepreneurship among SMEs. Thus, in order to develop true sustainable entrepreneurs in the country, the effects of non-economic factors such as socio-cultural factors should not be underestimated. Lastly, some recommendations for future researchers have also been put forth in this paper.

  8. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China's rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism-but may also result from increasingly 'Western' patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  9. Unraveling the mystery of Brazilian jeitinho: a cultural exploration of social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Porto, Juliana Barreiros; Pilati, Ronaldo; Milfont, Taciano L

    2012-03-01

    Two studies explore the structure and psychological makeup of jeitinho, a Brazilian indigenous construct associated with problem-solving strategies in strong hierarchies. Study 1 used a scenario approach with nonstudent participants and demonstrated that jeitinho can be described by a three-dimensional structure: corruption, creativity, and social norm breaking. Study 2 used individual and social norm scenarios in nonstudent samples and demonstrated that moral leniency is associated with more corruption and social norm breaking. Furthermore, only in the personal but not the social norm condition was greater social dominance orientation associated with more corruption and social norm breaking. Jeitinho is not a monolitical construct, but it is a complex sociocultural strategy that has distinct functional components at the personal and normative levels. Theoretical advances in the understanding of social norms and indigenous psychology by examining both culture-specific and general social-psychological processes are outlined.

  10. RxNorm

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RxNorm provides normalized names for clinical drugs and links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management and drug interaction...

  11. Quotient normed cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: o.valero@uib.es. MS received 16 December 2005. Abstract. Given a normed cone (X, p) and a subcone Y, we construct and study the quotient normed cone (X/Y, ˜p) generated by Y. In particular we characterize the bicompleteness of (X/Y, ˜p) in terms of the bicompleteness of (X, p), and prove that the dual quotient ...

  12. Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  13. Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance...

  14. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  15. Sociocultural Appearance Standards and Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Women of Various Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary school girls, 33 high school girls, 56 female students, and 50 employed women, all of whom were living in southern Poland. Participants were not diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders (including eating disorders. The variables were measured using the Polish version of Garner’s Eating Disorder Inventory and the Polish Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Physical Appearance and Body Image Inventory [based on the SATAQ-3 (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire Scale-3]. The findings revealed that the youngest Polish girls (aged 12–15 reported the highest level of risk factors for eating disorders. Among the entire study group, the internalization of appearance standards and the pressure associated with various media messages were determined to be predictors of the pursuit of thinness, regardless of age and body mass index values. The second most significant variable explained by the internalization of sociocultural standards was body dissatisfaction. The internalization of sociocultural norms provided a significant explanation of bulimic tendencies only in the youngest girls. Perfectionism proved not to be affected by the sociocultural impact of mass media. The adult women had the lowest average scores over the entire study population regarding exposure frequency to body images in mass media and regarding the experience of pressure exerted by sociocultural norms. The high level of internalization of sociocultural appearance standards seems to be

  16. Sociocultural Appearance Standards and Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Women of Various Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta; Sitnik-Warchulska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization) have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary school girls, 33 high school girls, 56 female students, and 50 employed women, all of whom were living in southern Poland. Participants were not diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders (including eating disorders). The variables were measured using the Polish version of Garner's Eating Disorder Inventory and the Polish Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Physical Appearance and Body Image Inventory [based on the SATAQ-3 (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire Scale-3)]. The findings revealed that the youngest Polish girls (aged 12-15) reported the highest level of risk factors for eating disorders. Among the entire study group, the internalization of appearance standards and the pressure associated with various media messages were determined to be predictors of the pursuit of thinness, regardless of age and body mass index values. The second most significant variable explained by the internalization of sociocultural standards was body dissatisfaction. The internalization of sociocultural norms provided a significant explanation of bulimic tendencies only in the youngest girls. Perfectionism proved not to be affected by the sociocultural impact of mass media. The adult women had the lowest average scores over the entire study population regarding exposure frequency to body images in mass media and regarding the experience of pressure exerted by sociocultural norms. The high level of internalization of sociocultural appearance standards seems to be significantly

  17. A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between Three Types of Peer Norms and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Deković, Maja

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms-descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex-and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed=.40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed=.22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed=.10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed=.11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime...... and analysing the corresponding position of women and men in paid and unpaid work, the paper contains an in-depth discussion of the short- and medium-term policy responses to the crisis. Our analysis shows that independent of the prevailing gender regime, scant public attention has been directed to gender...

  19. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI

  20. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time...

  1. Juggling with the norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2017-01-01

    ’. However, as the case of the emergency service of Niamey National Hospital suggests the interactions between civil servants and users in health facilities have little to do with a traditional culture. They are better understood through the lens of practical norms. Furthermore, as the authors demonstrates...

  2. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  3. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Ricerche Istituto Nazionale I Psicologia , Roma Italy. A different, but not unrelated, approach is to use word association norms to study other types of... Psicologia , 1961 , 55, 1,13-155. Chiari, S. 11 comportamento associative nell’eta ovolutiva, Rivista di Psicologia , 1 96 1b , 55, 175-189. Cofer, C.N

  4. Main industries generating NORM; Principais industrias geradoras de NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage; Borges, Flavia Luiza Soares; Cruz, Paulo Roberto; Matta, Luiz Ernesto Santos de Carvalho

    2016-07-01

    This chapter 5 the industrial activities related to NORM question is presented. Besides, some industries that in Brazil have higher probability of occurrence de NORM are covered. Economic activities related to mining and its processing are listed.

  5. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korejo, R.; Noorani, K.J.; Bhutta, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  6. NORM Survey in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    A survey programme was initiated several years ago with the aim of estimating the incidence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exposure for workers in the oil and gas industry, gold mining, spas, and a tourist cavern in Argentina. This work presents the procedures, methods employed, and results to date from the survey, including protection and remedial actions recommended when deemed necessary. Radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were well above the exemption values established by IAEA Standards. Elevated radon levels (above the action level established for workplaces) were detected in the gas facilities, the gold mine, and the tourist cavern. The pertinent authorities and the facilities were informed of the detected values in order to take actions to reduce concentrations. In terms of the spas, almost all values for geothermal waters were below the corresponding guidance levels. Some regulatory aspects for the management of NORM are suggested.

  7. Juggling with the norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2015-01-01

    The chapter investigates the inhospitality of Nigerien hospitals. Based on participant observation with the National Hospital of Niamey, the author describes the daily functioning of the emergency services. He points out the crucial role played by the patients' attendants in oiling the functionin...... of health facilities and the provision of care. The article explores how medical staff interact with patients and how they both contribute in producing the practical norms that shape the functioning of the emergency service....

  8. Broadening the examination of sociocultural constructs relevant to African-American colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, V L Sanders; Harris, J; Clark, E M; Purnell, J; Deshpande, A D

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sociocultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on the efforts to explore alternatives to sociocultural constructs previously associated with African-American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these sociocultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African-Americans (N = 1021), 50-75 years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Sociocultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected sociocultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism, and privacy) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was .062; 90% CI: .060-.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism, and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale

  9. National Institute of Mental Health Roundtable Discussion: Promissory Notes and Prevailing Norms in Social and Behavioral Sciences Research

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Most workshops convened by the National Institute's of Health are devoted to the puzzle-solving activities of normal science, where the puzzles themselves and the strategies available for solving them are determined largely in advance by the shared paradigmatic assumptions, frameworks, and priorities of the scientific community's research paradigm. They are designed to facilitate what Thomas Kuhn referred to as elucidating topological detail within a map whose main outlines are av...

  10. A meta-analysis of the relations between three types of peer norms and adolescent sexual behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Deković, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms–descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex–and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed = .40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed = .22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed = .10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed = .11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. PMID:25217363

  11. Variation, structure and norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    After a period when the focus was essentially on mental architecture, the cognitive sciences are increasingly integrating the social dimension. The rise of a cognitive sociolinguistics is part of this trend. The article argues that this process requires a re-evaluation of some entrenched positions...... in linguistics: those that see linguistic norms as antithetical to a descriptive and variational linguistics. Once such a re-evaluation has taken place, however, the social recontextualization of cognition will enable linguistics (including sociolinguistics as an integral part), to eliminate the cracks...

  12. Theories of Socio-Cultural Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Jean-Claude

    1986-01-01

    Examines various sociological theories of socio-cultural reproduction, devoting special attention to the role of education. Differentiates historical repetition from social reproduction and develops a social-reproduction model. (JDH)

  13. Social-cognitive and socio-cultural predictors of hepatitis B virus-screening in Turkish migrants, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Y J J; van Empelen, P; Looman, C W N; Richardus, J H

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important health problem in the Turkish Dutch. Screening is necessary for detection and prevention of HBV. We aimed to identify social-cognitive and socio-cultural determinants of HBV-screening intention among Turkish Dutch. A cross-sectional survey was carried out amongst 335 Turkish Dutch, aged 16-40 years. Respondents showed favorable scores for the potential determinants of HBV-screening. Attitude, perceived behaviour control, social support and social norm, and the level of satisfaction with Dutch health care proved to be directly associated with screening intention. Relevant socio-cultural beliefs were shame, stigma, the association of screening with sexuality and family values. Persons with lower screening intentions had lower scores for attitude, perceived behaviour control, social support and subjective norms, but scored higher for feelings of shame and stigma regarding hepatitis B. This study shows how cultural values and social-cognitive factors are related to HBV-screening intention.

  14. Tensor norms and operator ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Defant, A; Floret, K

    1992-01-01

    The three chapters of this book are entitled Basic Concepts, Tensor Norms, and Special Topics. The first may serve as part of an introductory course in Functional Analysis since it shows the powerful use of the projective and injective tensor norms, as well as the basics of the theory of operator ideals. The second chapter is the main part of the book: it presents the theory of tensor norms as designed by Grothendieck in the Resumé and deals with the relation between tensor norms and operator ideals. The last chapter deals with special questions. Each section is accompanied by a series of exer

  15. On the norm and the essential norm of weighted composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to use known properties of the associated weight to give new estimations of the norm and essential norm of the weighted composition operators acting between weighted Banach spaces of analytic functions, in terms of composition with certain special functions in these spaces.

  16. The Problems of Socio-Cultural Community in Patani and Penang: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehwae Aminoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different socio-cultural in a society. Socio-cultural is a lifestyle and civilization for some society, born from the grip and tendency of community member in various fields of life, to give satisfaction and stimulate the development of community life. Diversity of perception and socio-cultural is one of the stem that led to the conflict. This is one convention that is already known to the public equally there is a conflict with humans or nature. Everything is becoming common place of human life. But what is true in a society has received attention by the authors in exposing matters of human problems or crisis faced by the community. In this paper we will discuss the problem of socio-cultural force in Patani and Penang society in Montri Sriyong’s novel and Azmi Iskandar Merican’s novel. To discuss this problem, two novels from Thailand and Malaysia was chosen as the corpus of analysis, namely Rusni (2012 and Aci Patmabi (2012 by Azmi Iskandar Merican. Montri Sriyong is the winner of SEA WRITE AWARD in 2007 and Azmi Iskandar Merican is a new comer writer who has colored the world of creative writing in Malaysia. Both novels express Malay socio- cultural community. Various problems and chaos that has prevailed in the society so as to bring the various conflicts faced by people who are forced together in Patani and Penang. Scope of this paper will examine whether the causes that give rise to stem the outbreak of Malay socio-cultural communities in Patani and Penang. Cultural studies theory used as a platform to study these novels. The theory of cultural studies that serve as the foundation lead to cultural element in the form of literary works, as there are cultural objects, ways of life and beliefs. Acquired discussion will serve as a reference to show the reality of life truth Patani and Penang society as proposed by both the author.

  17. Broadening the examination of socio-cultural constructs relevant to African American colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, V. L.; Harris, J.; Clark, E.M.; Purnell, J.; Deshpande, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of socio-cultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on efforts to explore alternatives to constructs previously associated with African American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these socio-cultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African Americans (N=1021), 50 to 75 years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Socio-cultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected socio-cultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism and empowerment) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was 0.062; 90% CI: 0.060-0.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale development activities is discussed

  18. Farmers prevailing perception profiles regarding GM crops: A classification proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla; Massarani, Luisa

    2018-04-01

    Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate. A comparative analysis of our data and data from other studies indicate there is a complex variety of views on genetically modified organisms among farmers. Despite this diversity, we found variations in such views occur within limited parameters, concerned principally with expectations or concrete experiences regarding the advantages of genetically modified crops, perceptions of risks associated with them, and ethical questions they raise. We then propose a classification of prevailing profiles to represent the spectrum of perceptions of genetically modified organisms among farmers.

  19. 'Global' norms and 'local' agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Gusic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    in post-conflict Kosovo provides the backdrop for the theoretical discussion that identifies friction in norm diffusion processes and the different agencies that are generated through encounters between global norms and local practices. We unpack the interplay between the 'global' and the 'local...

  20. All-Norm Approximation Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azar, Yossi; Epstein, Leah; Richter, Yossi; Woeginger, Gerhard J.; Penttonen, Martti; Meineche Schmidt, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A major drawback in optimization problems and in particular in scheduling problems is that for every measure there may be a different optimal solution. In many cases the various measures are different ℓ p norms. We address this problem by introducing the concept of an All-norm ρ-approximation

  1. The influence of sociocultural factors on the eating attitudes of Lebanese and Cypriot students: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeni, N; Gharibeh, N; Katsounari, I

    2013-07-01

    The present comparative cross-cultural study aimed to explore the relationship between eating behaviour and sociocultural influences with respect to appearance and body image in female university students from two cultural contexts, namely Cyprus and Lebanon. The Dutch Eating Behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire were used to assess sociocultural influences and body image, respectively, in 200 students from each country. The results indicated that the Lebanese students were more likely to engage in emotional and external eating and their body image was impacted to a larger extent by sociocultural agents, including media influences, compared to the Cypriot students. Also, a positive relationship was found between emotional and external eating in both cultures. Finally, sociocultural influences correlated positively with external eating only in the Cypriot sample. Culture-specific factors, such as the societal values and norms, as well as the Westernisation history of each country, are discussed as underpinnings for the differences found. These findings are significant for understanding the rise of eating pathology in these two cultures and provide evidence for a need to consider cultural environment when designing public health policies addressing the negative aspects of nutrition transition. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. 77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...-AM63 Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics... for the Department of Defense's (DOD's) nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special... practice for compensating NAF automotive mechanics with current prevailing pay practices in the private...

  3. THE WORLD VIEW, IDENTITY AND SOCIOCULTUR HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yur’evna Neronova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the relationship between the phenomenon of world view and sociocultural identity both individuals and the community as a whole. The research is being carried out in the context of current crisis of world view accepted in so-called art Nouveau era. This paper also presents the identity crisis typical for modern civilized societies. A new notion of sociocultural homeostasis is introduced in connection with analyzable phenomena and their mutual relations.Purpose. Study of the relationship between the phenomenon of the world view and sociocultural identity as a structural and functional mechanism.Methodology. Phenomenological and systematic methods with the elements of historical method were employed. Cultural analysis is based on using both axiological and phenomenological approach, and also the elements of semiotic approach.Results. The dependence of identity on the world view is revealed (or is being revealed?, the phenomenon of sociocultural homeostasis is singled out (or is being singled out in the capacity of the mechanism setting up the correspondence in the contradictory unity between the world view as a subjective image and concrete reality as an objective part of this contradictory. The analysis of sociocultural homeostasis is carried out (or is being carried out and the conclusion is being drown that instability of the latter leads to serious problems in the identification of both individuals and communities as a whole. Besides, (moreover the relationship between the legitimacy level of the world view and stability of sociocultural homeostasis is established. (is being established.Practical implications: the system of education.

  4. Radioactive waste management / NORM wastes; Gerenciamento de residuos / rejeitos NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenato, Flavia; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe Jose Ruperti

    2016-07-01

    The chapter 8 presents the waste management of the mineral industries as the main problem pointed out by the inspections, due to the the inadequate deposition with consequences to the human populations and the environment. The concepts about the criteria of exemption and the related legislation are also presented. Several different technical solutions for de NORM waste deposition are mentioned. Finally, the reutilization and recycling of NORM are covered.

  5. Socio-cultural impacts of contemporary tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2011-06-01

    The topic of the paper is devoted to analysis of socio-cultural impacts of tourism, as effects on the people of host communities resulting from their direct and indirect associations with tourists. The social and cultural impacts of tourism are the ways in which tourism is contributing to changes in value systems, individual behavior, family structure and relationships, collective lifestyles, safety levels, moral conduct, traditional ceremonies and community organizations. Special attention is devoted to considering complexity of tourists/host interrelationships and discussing the techniques for appraisal of quality and quantity of socio-cultural changes which tourism provokes in local communities.

  6. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Leemput, J; Hess, J L; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks-including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes-, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Familiar units prevail over statistical cues in word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    In language acquisition research, the prevailing position is that listeners exploit statistical cues, in particular transitional probabilities between syllables, to discover words of a language. However, other cues are also involved in word discovery. Assessing the weight learners give to these different cues leads to a better understanding of the processes underlying speech segmentation. The present study evaluated whether adult learners preferentially used known units or statistical cues for segmenting continuous speech. Before the exposure phase, participants were familiarized with part-words of a three-word artificial language. This design allowed the dissociation of the influence of statistical cues and familiar units, with statistical cues favoring word segmentation and familiar units favoring (nonoptimal) part-word segmentation. In Experiment 1, performance in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task between words and part-words revealed part-word segmentation (even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities and less frequent than words). By contrast, an unfamiliarized group exhibited word segmentation, as usually observed in standard conditions. Experiment 2 used a syllable-detection task to remove the likely contamination of performance by memory and strategy effects in the 2AFC task. Overall, the results suggest that familiar units overrode statistical cues, ultimately questioning the need for computation mechanisms of transitional probabilities (TPs) in natural language speech segmentation.

  8. Civilsamfundets ABC: N for Norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til N for Norm.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til N for Norm....

  9. Branching geodesics in normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2002-01-01

    We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal

  10. Norm Emergence and Humanitarian Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    the international system that is shaping the behavior of states. Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink propose that norms develop in a three-stage...Action (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007), 66-67. 50 Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink , “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change...890. 86 Ibid., 894. 87 Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink , “Taking Stock: The Constructivist Research Program in International Relations and

  11. Risks in socio-cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition is presented of the principles of a socio-cultural risk theory based on the statement 'Risk is structured uncertainty'. It deals with hazards of human behaviour, risk as a challenge, hazards in nature and in culture, in science and enterprise, to close with a few words on today's crisis and uncertainty. (Auth.)

  12. Grace under Fire: Sociocultural Competency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Wayne W.; Bawtenheimer, Pat; Pearson, Hilary; Westwood, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Employers want employees who can communicate effectively, work as part of a team, and think on their feet. To help students acquire these qualities, the faculty of health sciences and counseling at Vancouver Community College integrated a sociocultural training model into their human relations programs. Evaluations indicate that students'…

  13. Anorexia Nervosa: Sociocultural Factors and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer

    This paper examines how the epidemiological findings of anorexia nervosa lead theorists to speculate a correlation between sociocultural factors and the development of anorexia nervosa. A section on the essential features of anorexia nervosa identifies five primary characteristics of anorexia: (1) severe weight loss; (2) a disturbance of body…

  14. Concept "Medical Museum" as a Sociocultural Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizh, Nina V.; Slyshkin, Gennady G.; Zheltukhina, Marina R.; Privalova, Irina V.; Kravchenko, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the concept "medical museum" as a sociocultural phenomenon. The register of medical museums in Russia makes the material of research. The complex methods of analysis of the concept "medical museum" are used. The philosophical, historical, cultural, structural, communicative and semantic analysis is carried…

  15. Sociocultural determiners of scientific activity transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubanov Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of modern society affects all fields. The goals and objectives of social development as well as the means to achieve them require science-based mechanisms, methodological support for studying social phenomena and their philosophical and sociological analysis. Both integrative and differential processes characterize modern scientific activity. The key reason for science institutionalization as a sociocultural phenomenon is its social inclusion. In this process science integrates with such social institutions as education, management and etc.The paper deals with research activities in higher education institutions. The importance of this study is determined by the increasing role of research activities in social, economic, political, legal and cultural development of society. In a modern society the process of institutionalization requires its dynamic development. Science has issues that should be examined. The socio-cultural basis of scientific activity changes is a key one for studying. The goal of this study is to analyze the historical validity of the characteristics of research activities in terms of sociocultural determinants. The authors carried out system and comparative analyses and a logical-historical study of the transformation of research activity phenomenon. In conclusion, sociocultural determinants of research activity formation and development are revealed in today’s changing conditions of social factors; the definitions to such concepts as “research interest” and “research needs” are given.

  16. Sport in the Sociocultural Process. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Marie

    This anthology is an introduction to the sociocultural study of sport for those in physical education, sociology, anthropology, or any other study of human behavior in the social process. Part I provides a cultural framework, a series of definitions, and some understandings of the cultural setting of sport in American society as an orientation to…

  17. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Waardes as norme en as meta-norme/beginsels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Van Niekerk

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The fruitfulness and the necessity of the distinction between values and norms and as principles are investigated by way of the theory of political development, the legal philosophical issue surrounding natural law and positivism and the views of Habermas. In political developmental theory questions centring on value gained legitimate relevancy under the influ­ ence of the post-behaviorist approach. The quest for cultural universalia or values as principles became important in this sphere because it seems to be the only way to escape from the syndrome of modernity. Through the rejection of the oppositions and one-sidedness of legal positivism and natural law and with the aid of the distinction between values, norms and principles the productive contribution of this spurious dilemma is high­ lighted and a clearer delineation is given of the concepts legal develop­ ment and structural violence. In conclusion Habermas's distinction between norms and meta-norms is investigated critically and immanent contradictions in his views are pointed out. The central place which this issue has in his thought can be seen as a confirmation of the importance of this distinction. It is relevant for all the normative disciplines which - in contrast to the natural sciences - focus on the role of linguistic, social, ethical, legal and artistic norms valid for human societies.

  19. Chinese L2 Literacy Practices: Material and Sociocultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wingyan

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been research on literacy as a sociocultural practice, L2 literacy researchers have yet to incorporate and consider how the material characteristics of a writing system interact with sociocultural factors in shaping literacy practices. Drawing on conceptions of literacy as a sociocultural practice, psycholinguistic and…

  20. Liberal Norms and Their Discontents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Deborah A

    2012-09-01

    Recent analyses of the predominance of liberals in personality and social psychology have raised the possibility that this ideological imbalance is driven in part by active discrimination against conservatives. In this article, I review empirical evidence relevant to this possibility and find little support for it. The evidence points instead to a predominance of liberal views in academia more generally, driven by multiple factors including the consonance of academic work with the goals and values of liberals. Within the field of personality and social psychology, this concentration of liberal views has fostered strong liberal norms, which both intensify and exaggerate the field's ideological homogeneity. These liberal norms have unfortunate narrowing effects on research in personality and social psychology; remedies for these effects should focus on weakening the norms. © The Author(s) 2012.

  1. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  2. Socio-cultural Impacts of Contemporary Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić, Dobrica

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the paper is devoted to analysis of socio-cultural impacts of tourism, as effects on the people of host communities resulting from their direct and indirect associations with tourists. The social and cultural impacts of tourism are the ways in which tourism is contributing to changes in value systems, individual behavior, family structure and relationships, collective lifestyles, safety levels, moral conduct, traditional ceremonies and community organizations. Special ...

  3. School bullying from a sociocultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maunder, Rachel E.; Crafter, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    School bullying is an important concern. Whilst there is growing knowledge about the nature, extent and effects of school bullying, areas of complexity in research findings remain. In this paper we develop our thinking on school bullying using a sociocultural theoretical framework. We review existing literature around three main themes: 1) The conceptualisation and interpretation of bullying; 2) The relational aspects of bullying 3) Bullying as part of someone's life trajectory. For each them...

  4. Adolescent Eating Disorders in a Sociocultural Context

    OpenAIRE

    Thurfjell, Barbro

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence means an increased risk for eating disorders (ED) and the female gender is the most important risk factor. Empirical studies of the perceptions of gender ideals—as potential mediating factors between the socio-cultural context and ED—were this thesis’ primary goals. Further aims implied evaluating the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorders Inventory for Children (EDI-C) and providing normative data for boys and girls concerning self-assessed ED symptoms and related psycho...

  5. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  6. Current approaches to norms research

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Heywood

    2000-01-01

    The dialogue session was a continuation of a debate about norms and the application of normative standards to wilderness management that has taken place throughout the 1990s at national meetings and in the research literature. Researchers who have made significant contributions to the normative approach to wilderness recreation management presented three approaches to...

  7. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  8. Weighted norm inequalities and indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Martín

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend and simplify several classical results on weighted norm inequalities for classical operators acting on rearrangement invariant spaces using the theory of indices. As an application we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized Hardy type operators to be bounded on ?p(w, ?p,8(w, Gp(w and Gp,8(w.

  9. Compilation of Pilot Personality Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Weaknesses of Typical Air Force Pilots in 1968 (Ref 5). Their compiled norms on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( MMPI ) were subsequently...often confused and have difficulty concentrating. .73 Borderline Features (BOR) Measures many elements relating to severe personality disorders...Battery-Second Edition MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory NEO PI-R Revised NEO Personality Inventory PAI Personality

  10. Sociocultural pressures and adolescent eating in the absence of hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Samantha A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Mooreville, Mira; Courville, Amber B.; Brady, Sheila M.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Parental feeding practices and sociocultural pressures theoretically influence eating behavior. Yet, whether these factors relate to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is unknown. We assessed if sociocultural pressures were associated with EAH among 90 adolescents (Mage = 15.27, SD = 1.39; 48% female). Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Adolescents completed the Perceived Sociocultural Pressures Scale, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales. On two occasions, EAH was assessed as snack food intake after adolescents ate to satiety. Controlling for body composition and demographics, parental restriction and family pressure to be thin were associated with greater EAH. Media pressure was related to more EAH in girls. Appearance orientation and preoccupation with becoming overweight mediated links between sociocultural pressures and EAH. Findings support the notion that sociocultural pressures and their links to body image may contribute to the course of disinhibited eating behaviors during adolescence. PMID:23394966

  11. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    days norms are usu- ally calculated using digital computers. The clas- sic norm calculation procedure (Cross et al 1902) and its later modifications (Washington 1917;. Johannsen 1931; Hutchison 1974; Cox et al 1979;. Le Maitre 1982; Ragland ...

  12. A SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH TO SCIENCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Tobin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available I present a sociocultural approach to research and science education that incorporates a recursive relationship between transformation and theory, acknowledges the strengths of subjectivity, and regards difference as a resource for learning. The methodology incorporates hermeneutic-phenomenology, reflexive inquiry, and event-oriented inquiry. Research on emotions contextualizes methodologies for multidisciplinary and multi-level research. Finally, a new journal that was developed as a home for cultural studies of science education is described along with the processes used in manuscript review and publication.

  13. Curing and sociocultural separatism in South Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, L

    1985-01-01

    In much of Thailand animistic curing practices have lost ground to great tradition herbal medicine and modern scientific medicine as more people achieve literacy. Especially in urbanizing areas, Buddhist and Muslim Thais hold in the highest esteem traditional curers whose knowledge derives from patient experimentation and the study of ancient texts. However, among Malay-speaking Muslims in south Thailand, the most respected therapeutic knowledge is revelatory in nature. Southern Muslim curers are generally mystics or spirit-mediums whose direct channels of communication with the supernatural convey remedies for afflictions but also provide guidelines for maintaining sociocultural separatism.

  14. Study Circles and Socio-cultural Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Malečkar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal learning and participating in study circles is a way of applying the ideas of socio-cultural animation. It is based on the assumption that within a society there are mechanisms that institutions don't comprise and therefore don't fulfil various, often urgent needs deriving from everyday life and the community. What is going on here is identifying and solving burning problems; some of them have already become an integral part of the way of living in a community. Study circles as an informal phenomenon in Slovenia create new possibilities of social activities based on common learning and participating in a community.

  15. Social and moral norms in the laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, A.; Charness, G.

    2011-01-01

    Norms involve a shared understanding about what one ought to do in certain situations. Social norms involve observation by others and external sanctions for violations, while moral norms are internal and involve introspection and internal sanctions; our design attempts to disentangle their effects

  16. When It's Okay That I Don't Play: Social Norms and the Situated Construal of Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudert, Selma C; Greifeneder, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    Being excluded and ignored has been shown to threaten fundamental human needs and cause pain. Such reflexive reactions to social exclusion have been conceptualized as direct and unmoderated (temporal need threat model of ostracism). Here, we propose an extension and argue that reflexive reactions depend on how social exclusion situations are construed. If being excluded is understood as a violation of an inclusion norm, individuals will react with pain and threat. In contrast, if being excluded is consistent with the prevailing norm, the exclusion situation is interpreted as less threatening, and negative reflexive reactions to ostracism should be attenuated. Four studies empirically support this conceptual model. Studies 3 and 4 further show that to guide situated construal, the norm has to be endorsed by the individual. In both Studies 1 and 3, the effect of the norm is mediated by the objective situation's subjective construal. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Exploration of Food Culture in Kisumu: A Socio-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Argwenge Odede

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly food culture in the context of socio-cultural dimension is becoming important for sustainable urban development. In the last four years food festivals have been held in Kisumu attracting several interests both from within and without the City. The Kisumu fish night event of 2013 marked the melting point of food culture in Kisumu. This paper thus explores the noble intention of integrating food culture in Kisumu as a socio-cultural capital for the advancement of City sustainable development agenda. To an agrarian society, life is about food from its production, the processing/preservation up to the consumption or the sharing. People connect to their cultural or ethnic background through similar food patterns.  People from different cultural backgrounds eat different foods leading to the question: Are Luos in Kisumu defined by their own food culture? This study further investigated the mode of production, and storage of food resources, examined food cuisines of the Luo community in Kisumu, and assessed the food habits, practices and beliefs associated with food cuisines, as well as, the nutritional and socio-cultural values of Luo cuisines. The research employed qualitative methods of data collection such as interviews, observation, focused group discussion and photography using purposive and snowball sampling technique. Content analysis was used to draw general universal statements in thematic areas with respect to the research objectives. The study revealed that Luo community in Kisumu has a food culture laced with rich cultural practices, rituals and societal norms that defines them as a distinct cultural identity but interacts with other cultural groups in the metropolitan city of Kisumu. Further, the study confirms that indeed food culture is vital for sustainable development of urban centre granted that Kisumu largely evolved as urban centre for exchange of goods for food.

  18. Gender as a Sociocultural Construct: A Sociolinguistic Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender as a Sociocultural Construct: A Sociolinguistic Perspective. Felicia Yieke, Josef Baumangasse. Abstract. This paper describes gender as a sociocultural construct and explores the ways in which this affects mass culture. This is discussed from a sociolinguistic perspective. The first section describes the relationship ...

  19. Articulating cultures: socio-cultural experiences of black female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilising social constructivism, case study approach and narrative inquiry, this study sets out to explore the socio-cultural experiences of Black female immigrant students in South African schools. It was found that the socio-cultural context of South African „schoolscapes‟ represented a site of contamination and shame; was ...

  20. Socio-cultural dynamics and education for development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural dynamics and education for development in Zimbabwe: Navigating the discourse of exclusion and marginalisation. ... African Journal of Social Work ... Women have either been 'excluded' from education or 'bound' by socio-cultural factors deterring their potential to contribute to the development of the ...

  1. Sociocultural context and the success of international aid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociocultural context and the success of international aid on National Agricultural Advisory Services program in eastern Uganda. ... Preliminary analysis of this data has identified interacting economic, political, geographic, and sociocultural factors at work in the implementation of this program. Determining 'what did and did ...

  2. Population change and socio-cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    The developing countries of the world in general, and those of Asia and the Pacific in particular, recognize that unplanned population growth is a stumbling block to socioeconomic development. Discussion here focuses on population growth and social, economic, and institutional forces, which are referred to as sociocultural values. Generally, sociocultural values change sluggishly over time. The rate at which a country's sociocultural values change depends on several factors such as the stage of economic development and modernization and whether a country has an open or closed door policy. "The Value of Children Study: A Crossnational Study" by Fred Arnold et al. shows that there are positive and negative values attributed to children in the Asian countries. These are: positive general values--emotional benefits, economic benefits and security, self enrichment and development, identification with children, and family cohesiveness and continuity; negative general values--emotional costs, economic costs, restrictions on opportunity costs, physical demands, and family costs; large family values--sibling relationships, sex preferences, child survival; and small family values--maternal health and societal costs. Possibly the most formidable obstacle to the success of antinatalist population policies is that of religious values. It appears that the Muslim world is divided on the issue of fertility control. Conflicting views regarding fertility control is perhaps aggravated by the fact that there is no central international religious official hierarchy that issues out edicts. Despite the presence of a centralized religious hierarchy and a network of churches from the Vatican to the village levels among the Catholics, and a clearer elucidation of the Humanae Vitae, a liberal attitude to population regulation and family planning has emerged, largely because of the declining quality of life of the people resulting from unplanned births. Economic benefits of children include

  3. Sociocultural Determinants of Female Sexual Desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Older women are seen as asexual beings, as having old bodies that cannot be an object of desire or the author of pleasure. However, no scientific research has associated specific biological climacteric factors with the end of sexual activity and sexual desire. From an analysis of the National Survey on Sexual Health and using the biopsychosocial model of sexuality proposed by DeLamater (2002 as a reference framework, the psycho-sociocultural factors of the sex drive affecting women in the different stages of menopause are analysed. The results of this research confirm that sexual desire is influenced by a range of factors dependent on age, including having a steady partner, family responsibilities, state of health and the very definition of sexuality.

  4. Learning as discourse change: A sociocultural mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof; Östman, Leif

    2002-09-01

    This paper deals with a theoretical mechanism for learning and a methodological approach for analyzing meaning making in classroom talk and action. It examines the potential of the approach for illuminating learning on a discursive level, i.e., how discourses change and how individuals become participants of new practices. Our approach involves a high-resolution analysis of how meaningful relations are built in encounters between individuals and between individuals and the world. The approach is based mainly on the work of the later Wittgenstein, but also on pragmatism and sociocultural research. To demonstrate how our approach can be used, we analyze what university students learn during a practical on insects. We specifically demonstrate how the encounters with physical pinned insects contribute to the meaning students make and how these encounters interact with other experiences during laboratory work.

  5. Sociocultural Considerations in Juvenile Arthritis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kimberly A; Brown, Sharon A; Tiziani, Stefano; Carrasco, Ruy

    Juvenile Arthritis (JA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in children. A variety of sociocultural factors that influence health outcomes in children with JA have been examined in previous research. However, clinical guidelines to guide the care of these children lack support because this research has not been systematically examined and synthesized. Primary research articles from five internet databases were included if they were peer-reviewed articles in English of studies conducted in the U.S. or Canada and referenced one or more determinants of health, quality of life, socioeconomic status, or health disparities in children with JA. The final sample included 16 articles representing 2139 children and 939 parents. Topics covered in the studies included medication compliance, electronic medical records, environmental risk factors, economic hardship, parental coping, leisure activities, and their effects on patient outcomes including disability and quality of life. Patients with Medicaid experienced more severe outcomes than patients with private insurance despite equivalent levels of healthcare utilization. Other important topics, such as effects of the physical environment and alcohol use, were missing from the literature. Five categories of health determinants were found to influence outcomes: biology, individual behaviors, social environment, physical environment, and health services. Disparities continue to exist for racial and ethnic minority children with JA and those of low socioeconomic status. Sociocultural factors should be taken into consideration when developing care plans, research studies, and policies in order to remove barriers and promote the best outcomes for this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Concave 1-norm group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many high-dimensional problems. Incorporation of such information can improve model fitting and variable selection. Existing group selection methods, such as the group Lasso, require correct membership. However, in practice it can be difficult to correctly specify group membership of all variables. Thus, it is important to develop group selection methods that are robust against group mis-specification. Also, it is desirable to select groups as well as individual variables in many applications. We propose a class of concave [Formula: see text]-norm group penalties that is robust to grouping structure and can perform bi-level selection. A coordinate descent algorithm is developed to calculate solutions of the proposed group selection method. Theoretical convergence of the algorithm is proved under certain regularity conditions. Comparison with other methods suggests the proposed method is the most robust approach under membership mis-specification. Simulation studies and real data application indicate that the [Formula: see text]-norm concave group selection approach achieves better control of false discovery rates. An R package grppenalty implementing the proposed method is available at CRAN. © Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  8. Sociocultural-Geospatial Anthropological Portal (SC-GAP): Enhancing Sociocultural Understanding Through Crowdsourced Service Member Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    military lexicon . A niche concept and core competency that had previously resided predominantly within the realm of Special Operations is now...the DOD writ large now more than ever.14 This shift and sentiment is echoed by the Strategic Landpower initiative’s final analysis stating...sociocultural information.29 Through the course of their normal duties, SOF personnel have extensive exposure to local populations. When combined with

  9. Hepatitis B screening in the Turkish-Dutch population in Rotterdam, the Netherlands; qualitative assessment of socio-cultural determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voeten Hélène ACM

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is an important health problem in the Turkish community in the Netherlands. Increased voluntary screening is necessary in this community, to detect individuals eligible for treatment and to prevent further transmission of the disease. Methods We investigated socio-cultural determinants associated with hepatitis B screening in male and female, first and second generation Turkish migrants, by means of Focus Group Discussions. Results Socio-cultural themes related to hepatitis B screening were identified; these were social norm, social support, sensitivity regarding sexuality, reputation, responsiveness to authority, religious responsibility, cleanliness and religious doctrine regarding health and disease, and the perceived efficacy of Dutch health care services. Motivating factors were the (religious responsibility for one's health, the perceived obligation when being invited for screening, and social support to get tested for hepatitis B. Perceived barriers were the association of hepatitis B screening with STDs or sexual activity, the perception of low control over one's health, and the perceived low efficacy of the Dutch health care services. Reputation could act as either a motivator or barrier. Conclusion This study identified relevant socio-cultural themes related to hepatitis B screening, which may serve to customize interventions aimed at the promotion of voluntary hepatitis B screening in the Turkish-Dutch population in the Netherlands.

  10. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study seeking to generate hypotheses about norms as psycho-social entities amongst professional producers and commissioners of legal translations, and to shed light on the reasons underlying these norms. In particular, we wish to investigate how...... training to heighten student translators’ awareness that norms are not a uniform entity, but subject to different perceptions depending on discourse community membership....

  11. Norm Attaining Arens Extensions on ℓ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Falcó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study norm attaining properties of the Arens extensions of multilinear forms defined on Banach spaces. Among other related results, we construct a multilinear form on ℓ1 with the property that only some fixed Arens extensions determined a priori attain their norms. We also study when multilinear forms can be approximated by ones with the property that only some of their Arens extensions attain their norms.

  12. Social Norms in the Ancient Athenian Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Lanni, Adriaan M.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Athens was a remarkably peaceful and well-ordered society by both ancient and contemporary standards. Scholars typically attribute Athens’ success to internalized norms and purely informal enforcement mechanisms. This article argues that the formal Athenian court system played a vital role in maintaining order by enforcing informal norms. This peculiar approach to norm enforcement compensated for apparent weaknesses in the state system of coercion. It mitigated the effects of under-e...

  13. PROSPECTIVE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOCIOCULTURAL COMPETENCE: MONITORING PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ishutina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the necessity and importance of the organization of prospective primary school teachers’ foreign language sociocultural competence monitoring in the educational process of high school. The author notes that prospective primary school teachers’ foreign language sociocultural competence is inseparably linked with linguomethodological competence. It is proved that the measurement of foreign language sociocultural competence of primary school foreign language teachers should be performed in the process of lingvomethodological training of the students as lingvomethodological competence occupies a dominant place and is a unifying and a backbone for other competencies of the future teacher’s professiogram. In this regard, the concept of “foreign language sociocultural competence of prospective primary school teacher” is clarified, the essence of lingvomethodological monitoring of foreign language sociocultural competence is revealed. It is emphasized that linguistic disciplines (“The practice of oral and written language”, “Practical grammar of a foreign language”, “Practical phonetics of a foreign language”, etc. and linguomethodological courses (“Methods of teaching English at primary school”, “ICT in learning foreign languages”, “Innovative technologies of learning foreign languages”, etc. play very important role in forming “foreign language sociocultural competence of prospective primary school teacher”. Specific principles of lingvomethodological monitoring of foreign language sociocultural competence are identified and characterized. They are complexity, lingvomethodological orientation, validity, multi-vector monitoring procedures.

  14. Norm Change in Genetic Services. How the Discourse of Choice Replaced the Discourse of Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane B. Paul

    Full Text Available Abstract In the 1960s and '70s, it was generally assumed that reproductive choices have social consequences and thus are a matter of social concern. Socially-responsible reproductive behavior, in turn, was assumed to entail minimizing the risk of transmitting grave genetic diseases. Over time, such a view came increasingly to be labelled "eugenics," a term that would in much of the world acquire strongly negative connotations. By the 1990s, the old view had been largely replaced in the West by the tenet that procreation is a private matter, and that there are no right or wrong reproductive decisions. The primary aim of this essay is to explain and interpret this transformation, which was largely a product of the 1980s. Drawing on social-norms theory, which assumes that norms are always to some degree contested, it asks how those with an interest in changing prevailing attitudes were able to achieve such apparent rapid success.

  15. Frontcountry encounter norms among three cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Robert M. Doctor; James P. Petruzzi

    1995-01-01

    Existing normative studies have focused on backcountry encounter norms reported by North Americans. This study extends previous research by comparing encounter norms reported by three different cultures - North Americans, Europeans, and Japanese - in a frontcountry day use recreation area. Data were obtained from on-site surveys distributed at the Columbia Icefield in...

  16. NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-08-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  17. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  18. Sociocultural aspects of disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediati, Annastasia; Maharani, Nani; Utari, Agustini

    2016-12-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a congenital condition in which the development of chromosomes, gonads, hormones, and reproductive structures are atypical. DSD brings with it a psychological impact on the affected individual and their families. The consensus statement on management of DSD strongly advised an integrated and multidisciplinary approach in providing care to the affected individuals. Studies have been conducted focusing on medical intervention, and more recently, there is increasing attention paid to psychological aspects of DSD. However, studies reporting cultural aspects of DSD are lacking. This review provides an overview on how culture impacts the affected individuals in coping with DSD and making decisions with regard to gender assignment or reassignment, help-seeking behavior for medical treatments, attitudes toward medical treatment, religious beliefs, and values concerning marriage and fertility. The involvement of social scientists is needed to study sociocultural aspects of DSD from more diverse cultures, to help affected individuals and their families in gaining better social acceptance. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:380-383, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Emil Kraepelin and comparative sociocultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilek, W G

    1995-01-01

    Emil Kraepelin, well known as the principal designer of modern psychiatric nosology, is less well known for his pioneering work in comparative sociocultural psychiatry. This paper is trying to document Kraepelin's role as the inaugurator of systematic investigations into culture-dependent differences in psychopathology. Despite his many responsibilities as clinician, teacher, hospital administrator and scientific author, Kraepelin considered cross-cultural comparison of such importance that he spent considerable time on the preparation of then very cumbersome overseas expeditions. His first research journey in 1904 to Southeast Asia led to the programmatic formulation of comparative psychiatry as a scientific endeavour designed to contribute to the better understanding of psychopathological processes and to a comprehensive comparative ethnopsychology ("Voelkerpsychologie"). Kraepelin's main cross-cultural research project, planned to extend to seven non-European countries and to involve many foreign colleagues, was prevented by World War I and postwar complications. One year before his unexpected death, Kraepelin conducted comparative studies with American Indian, Afro-American and Latin American patients at psychiatric institutions in the United States, Mexico and Cuba in 1925. In his writings Kraepelin commented on certain differences in the incidence and presentation of psychopathological phenomena that he considered to be due to ethnic-cultural characteristics or social conditions. This paper discusses in detail Kraepelin's observations on the pathoplastic and pathogenic effects of cultural and social factors, and demonstrates the influence of his ideas on the development of modern social and transcultural psychiatry.

  20. effects of sociocultural beliefs on science education in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cooperative goal structure' may have positive implications for science education. The following sociocultural factors that may affect science education in Zimbabwe are discussed: sex or gender bias, reverence for authority, religious ideology, ...

  1. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view...... that rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in specific contexts, and many times they need to be activated....... Such an activation process is often unconscious and once a norm has been activated, people tend to keep following the norm that has been primed. We wish to add to the social dilemma literature by suggesting what kinds of norms that are likely to be activated under different conditions such as oneshot vs. iterated...

  2. Mental Health and Sociocultural Determinants in an Asian Indian Community

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Mann, Semran K.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2016-01-01

    In a US population of adult male and female Sikh immigrant participants (N = 350), we explored sociocultural factors related to depression, giving participants a choice between English or Punjabi surveys. Language preference pointed to a subgroup with higher levels of depression and lower satisfaction with life. Underreporting of depression suggests a general reluctance to discuss depression. While multiple sociocultural variables were associated with depression bivariably, multivariate analy...

  3. Erich Fromm and the Making and Unmaking of the Sociocultural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Catherine B

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses issues of continuity and discontinuity regarding the role of the sociocultural in psychoanalysis. Starting with Freud's and Fromm's ideas on social change, the author discusses the dynamics whereby psychoanalytic culture gradually encouraged a process of delinking the psyche from the social. This disengagement from the sociocultural has encouraged dissociative mechanisms and social narcissism. Using a case study the author shows the importance of recapturing formulations that stress an analytic "Social Third."

  4. Socio-cultural impacts of construction and regulation of the waterway of Oulujoki river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsala, H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of study was to clarify the socio-cultural impacts of the regulation and construction of Oulujoki river on the everyday life of people. Changes in work and livelihood, living and living satisfaction, and leisure time and recreation are considered as variables. Quantitative and qualitative methods were combined in the study. The principal study material is composed of answers to a questionnaire and of 109 thematic interviews on the topic. The hold of the study is phenomenological-hermeneutical, with the intention to interpret the matter from the viewpoint of the attitudes and requirements of the waterway users. The theoretical frame of reference was culture-ecological point of view and adaptive process. The emphasis of the study is on sociocultural adaptation. The attitude towards waterway construction and regulation was dependent on the background of the person interviewed. The attitude was considered e.g. by various interest groups and professional groups, such as farmers, inhabitants on the shore, recreation users, fishermen, municipal elected officials. Other important variables were age, family stage and sex. Big local differences in the attitudes could also be found. While prevailing values in society and peoples' modes of living are changing, also the attitude towards waterway and changes caused by waterway construction has changed in the region studied. The impacts on the sources of livelihood are minor for the moment, the impacts on living satisfaction and recreations are significant. While leisure time is increasing the recreation value of waterway increases, too. At the construction stage of the river, the economical and productional advantages took priority, and then no attention was paid to recreational use

  5. Alcohol makes you macho and helps you make friends: the role of masculine norms and peer pressure in adolescent boys' and girls' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek K; Smiler, Andrew P

    2013-04-01

    Peer pressure and general conformity to adult norms have been found to be strongly associated with alcohol use among adolescents; however there is limited knowledge about the sociocultural factors that might influence this relationship. Theory and research suggest that masculine norms might directly and indirectly contribute to alcohol use through peer pressure and general conformity to adult norms. Whereas being male is typically identified as a risk factor for alcohol use, masculine norms provide greater specificity than sex alone in explaining why some boys drink more than others. There is growing evidence that girls who endorse masculine norms may be at heightened risk of engaging in risky behaviors including alcohol use. Data were provided by adolescents living in a rural area in the Northeastern United States and were collected in 2006. This study demonstrated that masculine norms were associated with peer pressure and general conformity and alcohol use for both adolescent girls (n = 124) and boys (n = 138), though the relationship between masculine norms and alcohol use was stronger for boys. The study's limitations are noted and theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. The Norm___ and the Pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gotkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I read The Normal and the Pathological by French philosopher Georges Canguilhem for what it can offer disability theory. I examine how the field has already taken up the text but further, I argue for The Normal and the Pathological as a keystone of disability theory (currently taken up with curiously reserved energy. I start with a précis on the text before offering a condensed citation analysis of the book. In the latter part of the paper, I suggest how the monograph might inform current conversations and I offer possibilities for it to deepen and complicate core notions about disability, including the social model, norms, normalcy, and the normate. I conclude by suggesting that Canguilhem’s philosophical intervention can be understood as "propulsive atavism" – an excavation of medical epistemology in order to map and reconfigure its legacies – and I propose this as one methodological template for disability scholarship.

  7. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  8. 78 FR 60181 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM84 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition.... Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM..., from the wage area definition. The name of the wage area will be Cobb, GA. These changes are necessary...

  9. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... association of six or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes. 656.40 Section 656.40 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION...

  10. 78 FR 60182 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of... Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to define Broward County, FL, as an area of application county to the Miami-Dade, FL...

  11. 78 FR 29658 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Management is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of application... Management (OPM) is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of...

  12. 76 FR 9640 - Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara, CA, Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing a final rule to define Tulsa... Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (75 FR 45557) to define Tulsa County, Oklahoma, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM22 Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara...

  13. "Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagle, Joseph M.

    2010-04-01

    Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to "some bitter disputes." Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be "as addictive as cocaine." Yet, such observations are not cynical commentary but motivation for a collection of social norms. These norms speak to the intentional stance and communicative behaviors Wikipedians should adopt when interacting with one another. In the following pages, I provide a survey of these norms on the English Wikipedia and argue that they can be characterized as supportive based on Jack Gibb's classic communication article "Defensive Communication."

  14. Norm based Threshold Selection for Fault Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the uncertain FDI...... problem are considered. Based on this analysis, a performance index based on norms of the involved transfer functions is given. The performance index allows us also to optimize the structure of the fault detection filter directly...

  15. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    and shopping. Also the frequency of the four behaviours was measured. The revised taxonomy has content, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The most internalized of the new norm constructs, integrated norms, is most strongly correlated with conventional...... measures of personal and moral norms. However, other constructs in the proposed taxonomy still contribute significantly to predicting conventional norm measures after controlling for integrated norms. This documents the motivational ambiguity of the conventional personal norm construct. The patterns...

  16. The consequences of the heterosexual norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Johansson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.

  17. Egalitarian norms, economic development, and ethnic polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Mouche, van P.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Economic development generally implies that traditional egalitarian norms and beliefs are replaced by modern individualistic values. Particularly when opportunities for advancement are unequally presented to people, this transformation may be accompanied by polarization and violent conflict. We

  18. Human health and stoic moral norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lawrence C

    2003-04-01

    For the philosophy of medicine, there are two things of interest about the stoic account of moral norms, quite apart from whether the rest of stoic ethical theory is compelling. One is the stoic version of naturalism: its account of practical reasoning, its solution to the is/ought problem, and its contention that norms for creating, sustaining, or restoring human health are tantamount to moral norms. The other is the stoic account of human agency: its description of the intimate connections between human health, rational agency, and moral norms. There is practical guidance to be gained from exploring those connections, whether or not one is ready to follow stoic moral theory all the way to its austere end.

  19. Residents’ Attitude toward Tourism Development: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ebrahimi Meimand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Host population support for tourism development has attracted the attention of researchers in tourism studies. Given the importance of understanding local community support for tourism development, limitations in understanding their priority and lack of a socio-cultural model of support for tourism, this study attempted to model locals’ support for tourism development based on socio-cultural factors in Malaysian Homestay program. Using extensive literature review, a tourism support model was proposed including several hypothesized paths. The proposed socio-cultural research framework predicted the impact of Islamic religiosity, locals’ knowledge about tourism, intrinsic motivation factors and community attachment on locals support for tourism development through mediating variables of perceived socio-cultural benefits and costs in Malaysian Homestays. , the model and paths were tested using structural equation modelling and partial least square algorithm (PLS-SEM with the aid of SmartPLS software. Findings reveal that locals’ support for tourism development in Homestay program is a function of perceived socio-cultural benefits and costs perceived by local community and four independent variables of Islamic religiosity, knowledge about tourism, intrinsic motivations, and community attachment.

  20. 75 FR 11935 - Technical Change to the Filing Location of Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the H-1B, H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the...

  1. Sociocultural influences on heart failure self-care among an ethnic minority black population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; McCarthy, Margaret M; Howe, Alexandra; Schipper, Judith; Katz, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) places a disproportionate burden on ethnic minority populations, including blacks, who have the highest risk of developing HF and experience poorer outcomes. Self-care, which encompasses adherence to diet, medication, and symptom management, can significantly improve outcomes. However, HF self-care is notoriously poor in ethnic minority black populations. Because culture is central to the development of self-care, we sought to describe the self-care practices and sociocultural influences of self-care in an ethnic minority black population with HF. In this mixed-methods study, 30 black patients with HF (mean [SD] age, 59.63 [15] years; 67% New York Heart Association class III) participated in interviews about self-care, cultural beliefs, and social support and completed standardized instruments measuring self-care and social support. Thematic content analysis revealed themes about sociocultural influences of self-care. Qualitative and quantitative data were integrated in the final analytic phase. Self-care was very poor (standardized mean [SD] Self-care of Heart Failure Index [SCHFI] maintenance, 60.05 [18.12]; SCHFI management, 51.19 [18.98]; SCHFI confidence, 62.64 [8.16]). The overarching qualitative theme was that self-care is influenced by cultural beliefs, including the meaning ascribed to HF, and by social norms. The common belief that HF was inevitable ("all my people have bad hearts") or attributed to "stress" influenced daily self-care. Spirituality was also linked to self-care ("the doctor may order it but I pray on it"). Cultural beliefs supported some self-care behaviors like medication adherence. Difficulty reconciling cultural preferences (favorite foods) with the salt-restricted diet was evident. The significant relationship of social support and self-care (r = 0.451, P = .01) was explicated by the qualitative data. Social norms interfered with willingness to access social support, and "selectivity" in whom individuals confided led

  2. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  3. Benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in Lucknow

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P.K.; Agrahari, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions, four stations, viz., Maa Chandrika Devi, Daliganj, Ambedkar Park and Aquaduct, were identified from upstream to downstream along the course of the river in Lucknow. Dissolved oxygen was low on many occasions at all the stations except Maa Chandrika Devi and chemical oxygen demand values were high. There was a gradual increase in mean nitrite and phosphate values from up to downstream. Bent...

  4. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...

  5. Blending genetics and sociocultural historical inquiry: ethics, culture, and human subjects protection in international cross cultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Deborah A; Caldwell, Dennis; Taylor, Andre D; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the implementation and difficulties when conducting genetics research in a rural, traditional West African culture within the frame of the United States' grounded research ethics. Research challenges are highlighted by Western researchers following U.S. Institutional Review Board (IRB) guidelines and practices in a non-Western country. IRB concepts are culture bound in Western ideals that may not have synchronicity and compatibility with non-Western cultures. Differences in sociocultural norms, traditions, language, and geography were influencing factors that can affect application of IRB principles. Suggestions for change are offered, which will potentially aid researchers considering application of IRB requirements when conducting research in non-Westernized, non-industrialized countries.

  6. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain.

  7. Mental Health and Sociocultural Determinants in an Asian Indian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Mann, Semran K; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    In a US population of adult male and female Sikh immigrant participants (N = 350), we explored sociocultural factors related to depression, giving participants a choice between English or Punjabi surveys. Language preference pointed to a subgroup with higher levels of depression and lower satisfaction with life. Underreporting of depression suggests a general reluctance to discuss depression. While multiple sociocultural variables were associated with depression bivariably, multivariate analysis identified negative religious coping and anxiety as unique predictors of depression. Community interventions should tap into the protective close-knit social fabric of this community as an opportunity to change the stigma of mental health.

  8. An exploratory study of the socio-cultural risk influences for cigarette smoking among Southern Nigerian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2014-11-22

    The increase in smoking prevalence in developing countries including Nigeria has been mainly blamed on the aggressive marketing strategies of big tobacco companies. There is a paucity of research on other socio-cultural risk factors for smoking among the youth. The main objective of this study is to explore and describe socio-cultural risk factors influencing cigarette smoking among the youth in Southern Nigeria. A total of 27 respondents (5 community leaders, 4 political analysts and 18 young cigarette smokers) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the data. Social-cultural practices fuelling early usage and exposure of children to cigarettes and the promotional activities of tobacco companies were identified as possible factors influencing youth's smoking behaviour in Southern Nigeria. Tobacco control policies should include cultural interventions to modify current traditional practices and social norms which fuel the use of tobacco in the society. Such interventions must target specific groups, subpopulations and subcultures more exposed to the cultural risk influences for smoking.

  9. Smoothing-Norm Preconditioning for Regularizing Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established for CGLS, but it does not immediately carry over to minimum-residual methods when the smoothing norm is a seminorm or a Sobolev norm. We develop a new technique which works for any smoothing norm of the form $\\|L...

  10. Local Pragmatic Norms in Students' English: An Identity to Unleash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local Pragmatic Norms in Students' English: An Identity to Unleash. Chinelo Nwokolo ... discussed the meaning and nature of pragmatic norms. Then it revealed the local pragmatic norms of various kinds, which students usually incorporate into their use of English. It further argued to what extent these local pragmatic norms ...

  11. "Boys Should Have the Courage to Ask a Girl Out": Gender Norms in Early Adolescent Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Kågesten, Anna; Mmari, Kristin; McEachran, Juliet; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Kabiru, Caroline W; Maina, Beatrice; Jerves, Elena M; Currie, Candace; Michielsen, Kristien

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas.ti, focusing on how EAs experience and perceive gender norms in romantic relationships. Across the five sites, only a few respondents described having been in love, the majority of whom were boys. Findings indicate that stereotypical gender norms about romantic relationships prevail across these cultural settings, depicting boys as romantically/sexually active and dominant, and girls as innocent with less (romantic) agency. In spite of the similarities, Nairobi was unique in that respondents referred to how sexual behavior and violence can occur within EA relationships. In all countries, heterosexuality was perceived to be the norm. Nevertheless, there were examples of EAs accepting homosexuality and expressing supportive attitudes toward equality between the sexes. While EAs across five different cultural settings seem to endorse stereotypical gender norms in romantic relationships, a few stories also illustrate more gender-equal attitudes. As stereotypical gender norms have a demonstrated negative effect on adolescent sexual and reproductive health and well-being, additional research is needed to understand which factors-at the interpersonal and structural level-contribute to the construction of these norms among EAs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  13. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not

  14. Die vraag na norme vir moraliteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Heyns

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for norms for morality This article is a short investigation of the existence and the character of norms for morality. Owing to the secularized society in which we live today the well known Martin Buber once spoke of the eclipse of the light of heaven as an eclipse of God and, we may add, an eclipse also of moral norms. A theocentric basis for moral norms should be accepted as well as the fact that the whole of creation is subject unconditionally to his cosmonomic order. Consequently there is a concrete demand or claim on man in the situation he confronts, which cannot be reduced to an application of general moral norms to the situation concerned. God does speak to us through historical situations as well. We shall have to judge the concrete historical situation in its immediate hic et nunc call on us in the light of the will and law of God, as they are revealed to us in his Word.

  15. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as 228 Ac, 214 Bi and 214 Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  16. EQ-5D Portuguese population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based measure. Normative data can be used as references to analyze the effects of healthcare, determine the burden of disease and enable regional or country comparisons. Population norms for the EQ-5D exist for other countries but have not been previously published for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to derive EQ-5D Portuguese population norms. The EQ-5D was applied by phone interview to a random sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 1,500) stratified by age, gender and region. The Portuguese value set was used to derive the EQ-5D index. Mean values were computed by gender and age groups, marital status, educational attainment, region and other variables to obtain the EQ-5D Portuguese norms. Health status declines with advancing age, and women reported worse health status than men. These results are similar to other EQ-5D population health studies. This study provides Portuguese population health-related quality of life data measured by the EQ-5D that can be used as population norms. These norms can be used to inform Portuguese policy makers, health care professionals and researchers in issues related to health care policy and planning and quantification of treatment effects on health status.

  17. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  18. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cgomes@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  19. Socio-cultural Foundations of the Development of the Education System. The Socio-cultural Situation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy Tsirul'nikov

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the method of Socio-cultural Situation (SCS) Analysis. This method is used to design development strategies and models of school education in districts and cities. Four classic types of SCS are determined: a school in a cultural center, a school in a former cultural center, a school in a potential cultural center, a school in a cultural desert. A number of intermediate complex SCS are described: a socio-cultural break, an unidentifi ed pedagogical object, a rural schoo...

  20. How norm violations shape social hierarchies : Those who stand on top block norm violators from rising up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamkou, E.; van Kleef, G.A.; Homan, A.C.; Galinsky, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Norm violations engender both negative reactions and perceptions of power from observers. We addressed this paradox by examining whether observers’ tendency to grant power to norm followers versus norm violators is moderated by the observer’s position in the hierarchy. Because norm violations

  1. The Rhetoric and Reality of Leading the Inclusive School: Socio-Cultural Reflections on Lived Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy-Anne Abawi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a cross-cultural study of inclusive leadership practices within a basic education context in each of the following countries: Australia, Canada, and Colombia. Each school was selected after district educational leaders identified the school as being inclusive of students with diverse learning needs over an extended period of time. The researchers were particularly interested in the norms and assumptions that were evident within conversations because these were viewed as indicators of the nature of the embedded school culture within each context. School leaders and teachers were interviewed to determine the link between rhetoric and reality, and what inclusion ‘looked like’, ‘felt like’, and ‘sounded like’ at each site, and whether any discernible differences could be attributed to societal culture. A refractive phenomenological case study approach was used to capture the messages within each context and the lived experiences of the participants as they sought to cater for the needs of students. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with school leaders and teaching staff. Each researcher conducted environmental observations, documenting the impressions and insights gained from the more implicit messages communicated verbally, non-verbally, and experientially from school structures, visuals, and school ground interactions. Themes were collated from the various narratives that were recounted. Both similarities and distinct socio-cultural differences emerged.

  2. Economical modelling of social and moral norms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, Karine

    2001-01-01

    Social norms and moral motivations are often ignored in economic models. It is possible, however, to model social and moral norms within the framework of economical theory. This may be useful even if the exposition is necessarily simplified. The article gives some examples. An analysis shows how the ''No Smoking Act'' may have led to a change in social norms in Norway and indirectly changed the behaviour of smokers in places where this act does not apply. Behaviour with moral motivation may also be affected by changes in regulations, economic incentives or other external conditions. For example, a more efficient collection system for source-separated waste may induce people to sharpen the moral claim on their own efforts. Indeed, interviews show that imposing a fee upon people not volunteering in communal work may cause the attendance to drop further

  3. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  4. Socio-Cultural Change in Uganda: Emerging Perceptions on Bride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda, like most other African nations, has interacted with so many forces in the last one century. These forces have had profound impact on the different aspects of people's lives and identities. Socio-cultural changes have particularly had significant effect on peoples' perceptions, beliefs, values, and subsequent ...

  5. Autoethnography: situating personal sporting narratives in socio-cultural contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    Autoethnography: situating personal sporting narratives in socio-cultural contexts Purpose: To introduce autoethnography as an innovative research approach within sport and physical culture, and consider its key tenets, strengths and weaknesses. For illustrative purposes, the chapter draws upon two specific autoethnographic research projects on distance running, one collaborative and one solo.

  6. Socio-cultural dimensions of Raditladi's poetry: Reflections from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural dimensions of Raditladi's poetry: Reflections from images and allusions from selected poems. ... This poetry speaks to this everyday struggle we call life in the post-colonial and post-apartheid setting. This work is intended to convey a new paradigm in which Setswana poetry can be analysed and interpreted.

  7. Learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment were investigated by looking at: 1) the nature of \\"cognitive border crossing\\" exhibited by the students from the traditional to the scientific worldview, and 2) whether or not three learning theories / hypotheses: border crossing, collaterality, and ...

  8. The sociocultural concept of ohia , poverty in Akan: Konadu's song ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at the concept of ohia 'poverty' from Akan sociocultural perspectives. It considers poverty from the Akan background and how the poor see themselves and the factors they believe are responsible for their poverty. Social, cultural, individualistic, fatalistic and religious explanations to poverty are explored ...

  9. Socio-cultural factors that prevent grandmothers from participating in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the socio-cultural factors that prevent grandmothers from participating in community development programmes in Nigeria.Importance of participation in community development in relation to gender issues in community development in Nigeria were discussed. Activities of grandmothers that contribute to ...

  10. Some socio-cultural determinants of urinary schistosomiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The re-emergence and persistence of the disease after the mass treatment campaign is due to socio-cultural, economic and behavioural factors. The need for more awareness, poverty reduction and educational campaign on the prevention and control of the disease in the community is discussed. Keywords: Socio-cultural ...

  11. Reading as a Sociocultural Phenomenon: Its Nature and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutina, Tatyana V.; Shuler, Irina V.; Pletyago, Tatyana Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes reading as a sociocultural phenomenon in terms of the philosophy of culture. The purpose of the study is the identification of reading functions in contemporary culture. Research concept is defined by reading comprehension as a multifunctional phenomenon. In the course of reading genesis research it is revealed that reading…

  12. Teaching for Learner Autonomy: The Teacher's Role and Sociocultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feryok, Anne

    2013-01-01

    What is the role of the teacher in developing learner autonomy? The limited research in this area is seldom situated in theory and often based on self-reported data. This study is situated in sociocultural theory and draws on two constructs, the zone of proximal development and imitation, to explain the teacher's role in developing autonomy. The…

  13. Application of the principles of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociocultural theory by Vygotsky (1896-1934) is a theory that has become popular in educational practice in recent years. It is especially important in the instruction of children in the preschool level as it is most suitable for their development and learning, which is more of social interaction. This paper discussed the ...

  14. Applications of Vygotsky's Sociocultural Approach for Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines an approach to teachers' professional development (PD) that originates in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory (SCT), arguing that what Vygotsky claimed about students' learning in the school setting is applicable to the teachers and that the developmental theories of Vygotsky resting on the notions of social origin of mental…

  15. Language Study: Language and Socio-Cultural Values: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To this extent, language is closely knit with culture as it embodies the society's value system and patterned way of life. This paper explores proverb as an embodiment of the socio-cultural values of the Ibibio people. This is done through the analysiGs of some Ibibio proverbs which reflect the ethical values and philosophy of ...

  16. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  17. Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    motor skill development. Also, significant gender differences were not {p>.05} apparent in mean rating with sociocultural variables as they influenced the athletes' motor skill development. The social situations, family and the schools were found to significantly {p<.05} predict the athletes' motor skill development.

  18. Socio-cultural influences on effective English communication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-cultural factors have come to bear heavily on effective English use of most Nigerian undergraduates. Consequently, challenges abound in the teaching and learning of English in Nigeria. This paper draws attention to such influences and elements affecting the communication process. The researcher emphasizes the ...

  19. Socio-Cultural Context of Consistent Use of Condoms among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the sexual behaviour and socio-cultural context of consistent use of condoms (male and female condoms) among female undergraduate students of the University of Lagos, Nigeria. Cross-sectional survey and key informant interview research methods were adopted to elicit information from the ...

  20. Socio-Cultural factors and ethnic group relationship in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Cultural factors and ethnic group relationship in comtemporary Nigerian society. M Ifeyinwa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aa.v10i2.46158 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  1. Socio-Cultural Perspectives on Causes and Intervention Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject of male infertility has, to a large extent, been broached from a western perspective that often insists on the biological factor. This approach has led to a narrowed and narrowing perception of male infertility in that it often neglects other possible crucial socio-cultural dimensions pertaining to the issue. The study is ...

  2. Socio-cultural Issues for Sustainable Development in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... socio-cultural issues for sustainable development in rural Africa, including the protection of the cultural heritage and social identity of rural dwellers, their access to needed facilities and services, social inclusion and equity for marginalized and vulnerable people, and capacity building of social capital in rural communities ...

  3. Sociocultural Competence as a Basis for Functional Education: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relevance of socio-cultural competence in functional education. It highlights the various roles that a good knowledge of the African cultural values can play in enhancing meaningful education of in the present Nigeria educational system. It also examines various aspects of the indigenous Nigerian ...

  4. Socio-Cultural Dimensions and Attitude of Women and Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Socio-cultural Dimensions & Attitude of Women... towards Continuation of Female Genital Mutilation ..... circumcision. However, considering the significant influence of .... This is the cognitive component. 2. Feeling emotionally about it. This is the affective component, and 3. Taking appropriate action. This is the behavioural.

  5. Socio-Cultural Problems and Maladaptive Behaviours of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through survey research design, this study investigated the socio-cultural problems and maladaptive behaviours of post-adolescents in Nigeria. Out of 379 National Youth Service Corps (N. Y. S. C.) members drawn from various parts of Nigeria for the 2010/2011 service year, deployed to Abakaliki, Ebonyi and Izzi Local ...

  6. Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article namely: "Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and abortion in Osun and Kwara states of Nigeria" by Adeleke Gbadebo Fatai has been updated with a new version bearing the author's current affiliation with significant editorial intervention. Abortion has been a social menace and its ...

  7. Socio-Cultural Conception of Albinism and Sexuality Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Cultural Conception of Albinism and Sexuality Challenges among Persons with Albinism (PWA) in South-West, Nigeria. ... For the female PWA the risk of being used for money making rituals; not knowing a sincere partner; their more fragile nature and perceived fear of societal objection and hatred in seeing a ...

  8. Socio-cultural factors Hindering Adoption of Technologies by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to ascertain the socio-cultural factors hindering adoption of technologies by Women-In-Agriculture (WIA) farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and forty (240) WIA farmers that served as the respondents. WIA farmers are the ...

  9. Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociocultural Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Constance R., Ed.; Chaney, Elsa M., Ed.

    This book comprises the following papers discussing Caribbean life in New York City: (1) The Context of Caribbean Migration (Elsa M. Chaney); (2) The Caribbeanization of New York City and the Emergence of a Transnational Socio-Cultural System (Constance R. Sutton); (3) New York City and Its People: An Historical Perspective Up to World War II…

  10. The English in Japanese University Entrance Examinations: A Sociocultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locastro, Virginia

    1990-01-01

    Sociocultural and historical examination of the kind of English used in Japanese university entrance examinations suggests that such usage mirrors and reinforces general Japanese attitudes about language, language learning, and national interests, resulting in a closed system highly resistant to change. (28 references) (Author/CB)

  11. Sociocultural Theory Revisited: What are the Educational Implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Rezaee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it was believed that to learn/teach another language, it is sufficient for a person to know the grammar of another language in detail, have a good command of its vocabulary, and be able to pronounce the words, phrases and sentences well. However, later it turned out not to be so easy since more important issues were discovered which made the learning/teaching of another language (SL/FL more challenging than what it was previously thought. These issues are the social and the cultural aspects of L2/FL, the combination of which makes the sociocultural aspects of language learning and teaching. This means that, the circumstances under which we live, together with the symbols, symbolic tools, and signs we use to mediate and regulate our relationships with others, and with ourselves which make sociocultural theory are important issues for learning L2/FL. Later, the three generations of psycholinguistics are provided, the third generation of which is sociocultural theory together with the important notions of each generation. Finally, three educational implications of sociocultural theory are provided.

  12. Out of our minds: a review of sociocultural cognition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenberg, Josh; Knobelsdorf, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Theories of mind are implicitly embedded in educational research. The predominant theory of mind during the latter half of the twentieth century has focused primarily on the individual mind in isolation, context-free problem-solving and mental representations and reasoning, what we refer to as cognitivism. Over the last two decades, CS Education researchers have begun to incorporate recent research that extends, elaborates and sometimes challenges cognitivism. These theories, which we refer to collectively as sociocultural cognition theory, view minds as cultural products, biologically evolved to be extended by tools, social interaction and embodied interaction in the world. Learning, under this perspective, is viewed as tool-mediated participation in the ongoing practices of cultural communities. In this paper, we pursue three goals. First, we provide a summary of the key principles in sociocultural cognition theory, placing this theory within a historical context with respect to the cognitive theories that it extends and challenges. Second, we integrate across different but related research efforts that all fall under the sociocultural cognition umbrella, using a uniform terminology for describing ideas represented within different discourse communities. And third, we reference a number of canonical sources in sociocultural cognition theory so as to serve as an index into this diverse literature for those wanting to explore further.

  13. Towards a Sociocultural Understanding of Children's Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybin, Janet

    2013-01-01

    While "voice" is frequently invoked in discussions of pupils' agency and empowerment, less attention has been paid to the dialogic dynamics of children's voices and the sociocultural features shaping their emergence. Drawing on linguistic ethnographic research involving recent recordings of 10- and 11-year-old children's…

  14. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the controversial Trovan study conducted by Pfizer in 1996 in Kano, Nigeria, the peculiar socio-cultural factors that researchers should consider as well as the relevance of the 2007 National Code for Health Research Ethics in enforcing researchers' compliance with ethical standards in informed ...

  15. Socio-Cultural Factors and Ethnic Group Relationships in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much has been discussed and written about ethnicity. This paper is therefore intended as a contribution to the management of interethnic/intercultural conflicts in Nigeria, with a focus on new ways of handling the basic socio-cultural institutions shaping ethnic consciousness. Furthermore, this paper highlights the basic ...

  16. The socio-cultural implications of climate change in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impact has remained a serious threat to man and more particularly in the water-stressed environment of north Cameroon where in most cases, man struggles for bare survival by eking out a living from a harsh or hostile climatic environment. In this region, the socio-cultural impacts can be devastating as has ...

  17. Traditional Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assesses the effects of traditional values (collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper or bad, undesirable and improper in a given society) and socio-cultural factors (these are models of life, human rights, value systems, customs, beliefs and arts) on human resource management ...

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  19. Modernization of Management: Social and Socio-Cultural Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Marina V.; Babakaev, Sergy V.; Larionova, Anna A.; Kobyak, Marina V.; Layko, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is determined by the new challenges faced by the Russian state in modern conditions that have a significant impact on public administration, which entails the need for its comprehensive modernization. In this regard, this article is aimed at the disclosure of social and socio-cultural aspects of the modernization of…

  20. Sociocultural Contexts for the Early Development of Semiotic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    Children constantly encounter signs during cultural practices, although many theories do not fully acknowledge sociocultural aspects of semiotic development. The author examines research on cultural practices and contexts in which children learn to produce signs involving representational drawing and pretend play. This work is contrasted with more…

  1. Socio-Cultural Dimensions and Attitude of Women and Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the socio-cultural dimensions and attitude of women and community stakeholders to the continuation of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Nigeria using Lagos metropolis as a study location. To achieve the objectives of the study, a non-experimental research design was adopted. In the design ...

  2. Careers in Industry: Pioneering Spirit Prevails at the Carlsberg Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skadhauge, Birgitte; Haldrup, Anna; Olsen, Ole

    2016-10-01

    The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoothing-norm preconditioning for GMRES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2004-01-01

    When GMRES is applied to a discrete ill-posed problem with a square matrix, then the iterates can be considered as regularized solutions. We show how to precondition GMRES in such a way that the iterations take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established...... for CGLS, but it does not apply directly to GMRES. We develop a similar technique that works for GMRES, without the need for modifications of the smoothing norm, and which preserves symmetry if the coefficient matrix is symmetric. We also discuss the efficient implementation of our algorithm, and we...

  4. Evolutionary change in continuous reaction norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Maclean, Heidi J; Diamond, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of reaction norms remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. Investigating evolutionary divergence in reaction norm shapes between populations and closely related species is one approach to providing insights. Here we use a meta-analytic approach to compare...... or species. These results show that evolutionary divergence of curvature is common and should be considered an important aspect of plasticity, together with slope. Biological details about traits and environments, including cryptic variation expressed in novel environmental conditions, may be critical...

  5. Making Norms to Tackle Global Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    by mandates, moral standing and technical expertise, IGOs act in two ways: operating with high level of political support, these organisations guide priority setting and norm development through the definition of collective problems and solutions, including STI aspects, establishing a shared vision; involving...... public and private actors, IGOs implement and protect novel practices that reinforce the new norms, from legally binding agreements to the creation of new spaces for international collaboration. These processes are examined here in the field of global health, where outside pressure directed...

  6. NORM and the Risk of Internal Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaifudin, Mukh; Iin Kurnia; Yanti Lusiyanti; Siti Nurhayati; Iwiq Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The earth and its atmosphere contain various natural radioactive materials known as NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) as sources of external and internal radiation exposures to human. The main radionuclides of NORM are uranium and thorium chairs and their progenies. In this paper, it will be discussed briefly about effects of internal contamination these elements which could enter into the body through inhalation and ingestion as well as absorption on the skin. The distribution, excretion and decontamination methods of the radionuclide incorporated in the body are also discussed. (author)

  7. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNĂTESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.

  8. MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below. The sequence of calculation used here differs from that of the standard CIPW norm calculation, but the results are very similar. The use of MS-Excel macro programming and other high-level programming languages has been deliberately avoided for simplicity.

  9. Modeling socio-cultural processes in network-centric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Korah, John; George, Riya; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keumjoo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh

    2012-05-01

    The major focus in the field of modeling & simulation for network centric environments has been on the physical layer while making simplifications for the human-in-the-loop. However, the human element has a big impact on the capabilities of network centric systems. Taking into account the socio-behavioral aspects of processes such as team building, group decision-making, etc. are critical to realistically modeling and analyzing system performance. Modeling socio-cultural processes is a challenge because of the complexity of the networks, dynamism in the physical and social layers, feedback loops and uncertainty in the modeling data. We propose an overarching framework to represent, model and analyze various socio-cultural processes within network centric environments. The key innovation in our methodology is to simultaneously model the dynamism in both the physical and social layers while providing functional mappings between them. We represent socio-cultural information such as friendships, professional relationships and temperament by leveraging the Culturally Infused Social Network (CISN) framework. The notion of intent is used to relate the underlying socio-cultural factors to observed behavior. We will model intent using Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs), a probabilistic reasoning network, which can represent incomplete and uncertain socio-cultural information. We will leverage previous work on a network performance modeling framework called Network-Centric Operations Performance and Prediction (N-COPP) to incorporate dynamism in various aspects of the physical layer such as node mobility, transmission parameters, etc. We validate our framework by simulating a suitable scenario, incorporating relevant factors and providing analyses of the results.

  10. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-09-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy.

  11. Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Rachel I; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2013-01-01

    Norms have a pervasive influence on behavior, yet previous research has not addressed that people often face conflicting norms from multiple ingroups. The current research addresses this gap in the context of proenvironmental behavior and demonstrates two effects predicted by the novel theoretical position we offer: People can be de-motivated by norm-conflict, or conversely, norm-conflict can encourage people to take action. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that norm-conflict is associated with increased perceived effectiveness for those with positive attitudes to the issue and reduced perceived effectiveness for those with moderate attitudes, and effectiveness perceptions mediated an indirect effect on behavioral intentions. Study 3 found that perceived effectiveness also moderates the effects of norm-conflict such that norm-conflict only influences intentions when perceived effectiveness is high. Norm-conflict is both positively and negatively related to behavioral decision making, suggesting additional considerations in the design of social norms-based interventions.

  12. Consumer Preferences for Local Food: Testing an Extended Norm Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Wenzig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer attitudes toward consuming and buying locally produced food are well studied. By contrast, the topic of consumer preferences for local food, with a special emphasis on the role of norms, still lacks empirical evidence. To study the influence of norms and morals on the intention to buy local food products, a quantitative study (N = 327 focusing on external social and internalized moral norms was conducted using the constructs of the theory of planned behavior in combination with an extended norm taxonomy and the perceived consumer effectiveness measure. The norm constructs consisted of two different personal norms, integrated and introjected, and two social norms, descriptive and injunctive. In a factor analysis, two factors for social norms but only one for personal norms were obtained. Multiple regressions explained 50 percent of the variance in intentions and 29 percent of the variance in past behavior. Norm constructs were proven important in the model, as personal norms had the largest effect among all constructs on intentions, and descriptive norms strongly influenced past behavior. An additional mediation analysis showed that personal norms were internalized social injunctive norms and that intentions mediated the relationship between all constructs. The implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are given accordingly.

  13. Problems on triangular norms and related operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klement, E.P.; Mesiar, Radko; Pap, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 145 (2004), s. 471-479 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : triangular norm * triangular conorm * aggregation operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004

  14. Norms and the Conservation of Biodiversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Biodiversity, conservation biol- ogy, habitat, environmental eth- ics, endangered species. The aim of this article is to discuss the various ways in which norms enter into discussions of biodiversity and its conserva- tion. It will treat both conservation policy and the science behind biodiversity. Introduction. Twenty years ago, the ...

  15. Differential Calculus in Normed Linear Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Differential Calculus in Normed Linear Spaces. Harish Seshadri. Book Review Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 90-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/02/0090-0091 ...

  16. Functional equations in matrix normed spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cauchy additive functional equation and the quadratic functional equation in matrix normed spaces. Keywords. Operator space; fixed point; Hyers–Ulam stability; Cauchy additive functional equation; quadratic functional equation. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 47L25, 47H10, 39B82, 46L07, 39B52. 1.

  17. Norms and the Conservation of Biodiversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 7. Norms and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Sahotra Sarkar. General Article Volume 13 Issue 7 July 2008 pp 627-637. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/07/0627-0637 ...

  18. Social Norms Theory and Concussion Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed…

  19. Group Norms, Threat, and Children's Racial Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith

    2005-01-01

    To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…

  20. Norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); T. Fokkema (Tineke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we examine to what extent norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands are shaped by group value patterns, family constellation, possibilities for helping others, and actual experiences of support exchange. The data are drawn from the first wave of the combined main and

  1. Norms on unitizations of Banach algebras revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arhippainen, J.; Müller, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 2 (2007), s. 201-204 ISSN 0236-5294 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular norm * unitization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2007

  2. Norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, P.A.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we address the fi lial obligations espoused by people in the Netherlands, a country with well-developed systems of public care, where there is a clear expectation that the state should provide care for ageing family members (Daatland et al., 2009) and where cultural norms tend to be

  3. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    , though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...

  4. Environmental impact of NORM in Israeli dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeman, E.; Steiner, V.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade the construction of public dwellings in Israel has been intensified. New construction sites are being created and new construction materials, local or imported, are being used. Since the origin of the building materials is essentially the soil, they inherit the radioactive properties of the environment. The level of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM),from the decay chains of the ubiquitous radio nuclides U 238 ,Th 232 ,U 235 and K 40 ,as well as artificial radioisotopes like Cs 137 ,in building materials needs to be controlled, in order to limit the gamma and Radon radiation dose of the general public in dwellings. The Ministry of the Environment collaborates with other institutions to evaluate, document and control the NORM content in our environment, based on international standards. The operation of quarries is controlled to ensure a low NORM content in raw building materials. The use of bottom and fly ash, abundantly produced in electrical power stations, in constructions is also being controlled. A new Israeli standard controls the NORM content in building materials such as to limit the radiation dose in dwellings from this practice to 0.45 mSv /year. Special construction solutions are developed and used in areas with high Radon concentration in the soil. The aim is to maintain the Radon concentration in dwellings below the Action Limit of 200 Bq/m 3

  5. Management of NORM/TENORM Waste from Non Nuclear Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djarot S Wisnubroto

    2003-01-01

    Management of NORM/TENORM waste is now to be an issue and discussed in many international conferences and seminars. This paper describes the status of the management of NORM/TENORM waste including the origin of the waste, regulations and assessment of waste disposal. Several countries have established the regulation for NORM/TENORM waste; however the IAEA has not yet published guideline for management of NORM/TENORM. There are many options for disposal of NORM/TENORM waste based on standard of the radioactive waste disposal. The decision and policy on management of NORM/TENORM waste must be conducted carefully due to the social and economical impacts. (author)

  6. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  7. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  8. Preparing towards Preventing and Containing an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak: What Socio-cultural Practices May Affect Containment Efforts in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a condition with high fatality. Though the disease is deadly, taking precautions to reduce contact with infected people and their secretions can prevent cross- infection. In the 2014 EVD outbreak, socio-cultural factors were identified to be responsible for the spread of the disease in the three most affected countries in West Africa. In this light, we undertook this study to identify socio-cultural factors that may influence the prevention and containment of EVD in Ghana and ways to address such practices. Methods We conducted a descriptive qualitative study in five regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (5 in each region) with community members (4 in each region) and nurses (1 in each region) were conducted. In addition, forty (40) in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders and opinion leaders; eight in each region. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and transcribed. With the aid of Nvivo 10 for windows, we analyzed the data using framework analysis. Results We found that socio-cultural practices, such as care of the body of dead and burial practices, widowhood rites and anointing children with water used to rinse the dead, were common. These practices require individuals coming into direct contact with either the dead or items used to take care of the dead. Social norms also require frequent handshakes in all social gatherings such as funeral, and religious congregations. We also found that self-medication (using herbs and orthodox medications) was a common practice. People use both biomedical and non-orthodox health outlets either simultaneously or in sequence in times of ill-health. Conclusion The study concludes that high risk socio-cultural practices were common among Ghanaians and generally perceived as indispensable. These high risk practices may hinder containment efforts in the event of an outbreak. Community leaders should be engaged in any social

  9. [Sexual development in the light of socio-cultural changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes central components of theories of sexual development and outlines that these components depend largely on socio-cultural factors. A cultural change of human sexuality is reflected by several phenomena such as the public debate about sexual violence and its consequences, a diminuation of gender differences and a turn away from monosexuality, tremendous changes within the world of partner relationships and a mediatization of sexuality. This mediatization is paralleled by a public sexualization as well as a de-sexualization of the private sphere together with an increase of a loss of sexual desire reflecting well-known problems of human sexuality. Finally, it has to be stated that sexuality has experienced a demystification as a consequence of socio-cultural changes following the sexual liberalization.

  10. Sociocultural contexts for the early development of semiotic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S

    2006-11-01

    Children constantly encounter signs during cultural practices, although many theories do not fully acknowledge sociocultural aspects of semiotic development. The author examines research on cultural practices and contexts in which children learn to produce signs involving representational drawing and pretend play. This work is contrasted with more individualistic views of semiotic development that fail to adequately address sociocultural aspects of semiotic functioning to varying degrees. The author also presents a theoretical model for understanding the structure of any sign system and for comparing semiotic systems, using examples from the drawing and pretense literatures. It is proposed that the sign-making practices in which children participate are shaped by a complex hierarchy of conventions. (c) 2006 APA, All Rights Reserved.

  11. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.

  12. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work.

  13. The Neural Basis of Changing Social Norms through Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Madoka; Aoki, Ryuta; Sugiura, Ayaka; Phillips, Adam N; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-11-24

    Social norms regulate behavior, and changes in norms have a great impact on society. In most modern societies, norms change through interpersonal communication and persuasive messages found in media. Here, we examined the neural basis of persuasion-induced changes in attitude toward and away from norms using fMRI. We measured brain activity while human participants were exposed to persuasive messages directed toward specific norms. Persuasion directed toward social norms specifically activated a set of brain regions including temporal poles, temporo-parietal junction, and medial prefrontal cortex. Beyond these regions, when successful, persuasion away from an accepted norm specifically recruited the left middle temporal and supramarginal gyri. Furthermore, in combination with data from a separate attitude-rating task, we found that left supramarginal gyrus activity represented participant attitude toward norms and tracked the persuasion-induced attitude changes that were away from agreement.

  14. Sociocultural Factors and Bureaucratic Practices in Universities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLOMON KOFI AMOAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Max Weber, one of the pioneers in bureaucratic organisational studies believes in the ultimate triumph of bureaucracy over the collegial culture of universities. This paper argues that rather than ultimate triumph of bureaucracy over the collegial culture of universities (Weber 1947, the interests of universities would be better served when the bureaucratic culture is designed to accommodate some core socio-cultural expectations of organizational members, without compromising productivity.  The research examined the implications of some selected sociocultural factors for bureaucratic practices in selected universities in Ghana through a mix method approach. The findings show that, the authority structures of the two universities typify the Weberian Ideal type bureaucracy with   hierarchical culture and standardized rules and procedures for carrying out every task. This notwithstanding, the societal culture was found to be influential in shaping the bureaucratic behaviour and conducts of organizations’ members. The paper aims at bringing to the fore the strength of the informal structures in reshaping bureaucratic culture and work behaviour, and the need to consider socio-cultural contexts in designing bureaucratic organizations.

  15. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental con...

  16. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    How internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures are norms guiding environmentally desirable behavior? In two surveys (N = 206 and N = 200), subjective social norms and personal norms for a specific behavior (the purchase of organic food or recycling) as well as self-reported...... of really low-cost behaviors (e.g., recycling in many contexts), environmentally responsible behavior is guided by what seems to be truly internalized and integrated (personal) norms....

  17. Early childhood development in Africa: interrogating constraints of prevailing knowledge bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan R; Marfo, Kofi

    2008-04-01

    The past two decades have been characterized by renewed attention to the importance of early childhood development (ECD) policies and services in the world's richest and most industrialized countries. During the same period, we have witnessed unprecedented efforts to place ECD policies on the national development planning agenda of the economically less advantaged countries of the Majority World. This paper is premised on the concern that the purposes that have led bilateral and multilateral international agencies to promote and support ECD services in Africa may also be paving the way for uncritical adoption of program and service delivery models grounded in value systems and knowledge bases that may not be appropriate for the continent. We present two critiques to highlight the dangers of ignoring the sociocultural contexts of the knowledge bases that inform ECD policies and practices. We describe one capacity-building effort, under the auspices of the Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU), to promote culturally relevant knowledge and prepare leadership personnel for Africa's emerging ECD movement. Finally, based on an exercise designed for an ECDVU cohort to engage and reflect on critiques of mainstream research and theorizing on child development, we share insights that are suggestive of the ways in which African perspectives can contribute to and enrich a global knowledge base on child development.

  18. Esquisse d’une philosophie des normes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ruby

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La demande vient de l’éditeur et il a eu raison de solliciter la remise en public des cinq articles rédigés, par Pierre Macherey, ce vieux dinosaure de la philosophie (cf. Macherey, 1998, sur Georges Canguilhem et Michel Foucault. Car la question brassée autant par ces auteurs que par les textes de Macherey ici présentés demeure actuelle 1  : qu’est-ce que vivre et vivre en société, sous des normes ? Pourquoi l’existence humaine est-elle confrontée à des normes ? D’où ...

  19. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  20. Institutions, Social Norms, and Bargaining Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Stratton, VCU, Leslie

    We exploit time use data from Denmark and the United States to examine the impact institutions and social norms have on individuals’ bargaining power within a household, hypothesizing that the more generous social welfare system and more egalitarian social norms in Denmark will mitigate the impact...... standard economic power measures have upon couples’ time use. Further we posit that leisure time will be more sensitive to power considerations than housework time which may be more influenced by preferences regarding household public goods, to gendered notions of time use, and to censoring. Our results...... are generally supportive of these hypotheses, with leisure time on non-work days in the US being particularly responsive to economic power. In addition, we find some evidence that institutions matter as women in the US who are more likely to receive welfare benefits enjoy more leisure time than would...

  1. Behaviour norms for nuclear energy peaceful uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1996-01-01

    After making a brief history on the nuclear law, the author shows that ethical aspects got involved in nuclear matters at three levels: security of nuclear supplies, radioactive waste management, and potential human failures. Then a list of ''good conduct norms'' which should be the link between law and ethics is given. They correspond to different issues of nuclear development: technological quality, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, public information, international cooperation, non-proliferation. (TEC)

  2. Affective Norms for 362 Persian Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bagheri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past two decades, a great deal of research has been conducted on developing affective norms for words in various languages, showing that there is an urgent need to create such norms in Persian language, too. The present study intended to develop a set of 362 Persian words rated according to their emotional valence, arousal, imageability, and familiarity so as to prepare the ground for further research on emotional word processing. This was the first attempt to set affective norms for Persian words in the realm of emotion.  Methods: Prior to the study, a multitude of words were selected from Persian dictionary and academic books in Persian literature. Secondly, three independent proficient experts in the Persian literature were asked to extract the suitable words from the list and to choose the best (defined as grammatically correct and most often used. The database normalization process was based on the ratings by a total of 88 participants using a 9-point Likert scale. Each participant evaluated about 120 words on four different scales.  Results: There were significant relationships between affective dimensions and some psycholinguistic variables. Also, further analyses were carried out to investigate the possible relationship between different features of valences (positive, negative, and neutral and other variables included in the dataset.  Conclusion: These affective norms for Persian words create a useful and valid dataset which will provide researchers with applying standard verbal materials as well as materials applied in other languages, e.g. English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, etc.

  3. Lagrange, central norms, and quadratic Diophantine equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Diophantine equation of the form x2−Dy2=c, where c=±1,±2, and provide a generalization of results of Lagrange with elementary proofs using only basic properties of simple continued fractions. As a consequence, we achieve a completely general, simple, and elegant criterion for the central norm to be 2 in the simple continued fraction expansion of D.

  4. The enhancement of social norm compliance: Prospects and caveats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Civai, C.; Ma, I.

    2017-01-01

    Societies are characterized by a shared system of social norms, which promotes cooperation among people. However, following social norms often means going against self-interest - imagine, for example, being required to choose whether or not to get richer from an unfair deal; ignoring social norms,

  5. Growth, financial development, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses whether societal norms help to explain cross-country differences in financial development. We analyze whether societal norms in addition to legal institutions have an impact on financial development. We address the implications of the inclusion of societal norms for the analysis

  6. Research report on South African university mental skills norms for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous research has recommended establishment of local sport code norms. The aim of this study was to establish preliminary South African university norms for rugby, cricket, soccer, athletics, hockey and netball. The sample consisted of 121 university students from a South African institution. Norms are presented in ...

  7. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  8. Socio-cultural context of eating disorders in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Sałapa, Kinga; Józefik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between sociocultural factors and clinical eating disorders during the intensive process of Westernisation in Poland that occurred after 1989. The study population included girls diagnosed with an eating disorder according to DSM-IV criteria (n = 47 anorexia nervosa restrictive type [ANR], n = 16 anorexia binge/purge type [ANBP], n = 34 bulimia nervosa [BN], n = 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified [EDNOS]) who received consultation for the first time between 2002 and 2004 in the Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital, Kraków, Poland. The study included an age-matched normal control group [NOR] of 85 schoolgirls from Kraków. Relationships between two given qualitative features were investigated using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Correspondence analysis was applied to graphically explore the relationship. The Kruskal-Wallis test with the Bonferroni was performed to compare quantitative results across groups. Objective sociodemographic variables and responses to the 62-item Questionnaire of Socio-cultural Context were measured. The mothers of ANBP and BN patients were less professionally active than mothers of ANR patients and NOR subjects. Subjective socio-cultural factors were more relevant for the BN group than the ANR group. Questionnaire responses in the ANBP group were more similar to those in the BN group than to those in the ANR group. The most unambiguous and specific characteristic of the ANR group was a sense of belonging to the middle class. Variables that differentiated the BN group from the NOR group included the importance attached to thinness treated as an expression of power and control over one's self, as well as a multifaceted negative evaluation of one's own family, including a negative assessment of the position of women and parental lack of concern for appearance and principles of nutrition. All patients, regardless

  9. Regulatory framework for NORM residues in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepin, S.; Dehandschutter, B.; Poffijn, A.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC), Rue Ravenstein 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC) has published in March 2013 a decree regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by nonradioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation is based on the concept of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' in the sense of article 40 of the 96/29/EURATOM directive. The disposal or processing facilities which accept NORM residues with an activity concentration above a generic exemption level will be considered as 'work activities' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria for the different types of processing/ disposal of the residues (disposal on landfill, recycling into building materials, etc.) are imposed. FANC has drafted guidelines for these acceptance criteria. A methodological guide for the operators of the concerned facilities was also published. Moreover, sites where significant quantities of NORM residues are or have been disposed, are subjected to an environmental monitoring in the framework of the national program of radiological surveillance of FANC. FANC also introduced in its regulations the concept of anthropogenic radon-prone areas: e.g. former phosphogypsum stacks have been defined as anthropogenic radon-prone areas, which allows some form of regulatory control of these sites. (authors)

  10. Molecular-based mechanisms of Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension: questioning the prevailing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; Dominiczak, Anna F; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Morris, R Curtis

    2015-05-01

    This critical review directly challenges the prevailing theory that a transient increase in cardiac output caused by genetically mediated increases in activity of the ENaC in the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron, or of the NCC in the distal convoluted tubule, accounts entirely for the hemodynamic initiation of all Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Figure 1). The prevailing theory of how genetic mutations enable salt to hemodynamically initiate Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension in humans (Figure 1) depends on the results of salt-loading studies of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in nongenetic models of hypertension that lack appropriate normal controls. The theory is inconsistent with the results of studies that include measurements of the initial hemodynamic changes induced by salt loading in normal, salt-resistant controls. The present analysis, which takes into account the results of salt-loading studies that include the requisite normal controls, indicates that mutation-induced increases in the renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC that lead to transient increases in cardiac output will generally not be sufficient to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP that characterizes Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Table). The present analysis also raises questions about whether mutation-dependent increases in renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC are even necessary to account for increased risk for salt-dependent hypertension in most patients with such mutations. We propose that for the genetic alterations underlying Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP, they must often cause vasodysfunction, ie, an inability to normally vasodilate and decrease systemic vascular resistance in response to increases in salt intake within dietary ranges typically observed in most modern societies. A subnormal ability to vasodilate in

  11. ‘As soon as the umbilical cord gets off, the child ceases to be called a newborn’: sociocultural beliefs and newborn referral in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine K. Nalwadda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first week of life is the time of greatest risk of death and disability, and is also associated with many traditional beliefs and practices. Identifying sick newborns in the community and referring them to health facilities is a key strategy to reduce deaths. Although a growing area of interest, there remains a lack of data on the role of sociocultural norms and practices on newborn healthcare-seeking in sub-Saharan Africa and the extent to which these norms can be modified. Objective: This study aimed to understand the community's perspective of potential sociocultural barriers and facilitators to compliance with newborn referral. Method: In this qualitative study, focus group discussions (n=12 were conducted with mothers and fathers of babies aged less than 3 months. In addition, in-depth interviews (n=11 were also held with traditional birth attendants and mothers who had been referred by community health workers to seek health-facility-based care. Participants were purposively selected from peri-urban and rural communities in two districts in eastern Uganda. Data were analysed using latent content analysis. Results: The community definition of a newborn varied, but this was most commonly defined by the period between birth and the umbilical cord stump falling off. During this period, newborns are perceived to be vulnerable to the environment and many mothers and their babies are kept in seclusion, although this practice may be changing. Sociocultural factors that influence compliance with newborn referrals to seek care emerged along three sub-themes: community understanding of the newborn period and cultural expectations; the role of community health actors; and caretaker knowledge, experience, and decision-making autonomy. Conclusion: In this setting, there is discrepancy between biomedical and community definitions of the newborn period. There were a number of sociocultural factors that could potentially affect compliance

  12. Une industrie normée ? Gouvernement par les normes, jeu sur les normes et internationalisation des chaînes de valeur dans le secteur pharmaceutique

    OpenAIRE

    Labrousse, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Dans le secteur pharmaceutique, les normes sont présentes à chaque maillon de la chaîne de valeur. Ces normes, loin d’être de simples énoncés scientifiques ou techniques socialement inertes sont des construits politiques et sociaux dont se saisissent des acteurs divers au pouvoir variable. Est examiné ici, dans une perspective d’économie politique des normes, le cycle des normes pharmaceutiques (bonnes pratiques cliniques, de laboratoire et de fabrication), de leur négociation à leur mise en ...

  13. Assessment of the prevailing motivation within the sports teams from the city of Iasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana RUSU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several factors, and the contribution of each member of the group's performance is different. We aim to assess the level of motivation of the members of sports groups. The research sample was composed of athletes (N=158, 55 females, 103 males from the sports groups within the city of Iasi, part of the first and second sports divisions (basketball, football, handball, rugby, and volleyball. The respondents answered to a adapted to the Romanian population 32-item questionnaire; the items were grouped into four factors: leadership (power needs, expertise / performance (achievement needs, bonding (affiliation needs, subsistence (existence needs. The homogeneity instrument was assessed for the entire scale, as well as independently for each factor. The lack of variance homogeneity made it impossible to get outcomes for the interaction of the independent variables such as the type of club and the status. No gender-based differences were found regarding the power needs. If the type of club does not influence the expert/performance factor, have identified a partial influences of this variable over the bonding factor. Professional athletes are more motivated to achieve the performance than semi professional athletes.

  14. Influencia del contexto sociocultural en la percepción del riesgo y la negociación de protección en hombres homosexuales pobres de la costa peruana Influence of socio-cultural context on risk perception and negotiation of protection among poor homosexual males on the Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Salazar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo utiliza un enfoque del riesgo concebido, no como una acción individual, sino tomando su dimensión social. Busca analizar las diferentes formas en que el contexto sociocultural, relacionado a la homofobia internalizada y a las normas de género hegemónicas, permite la construcción de barreras en la percepción del riesgo. Estas barreras impiden la negociación de protección entre hombres homosexuales que han asumido una identidad de género femenina y habitan en barrios pobres de Lima y Trujillo, Peru. El análisis de la percepción del riesgo desde el plano sociocultural, nos va a permitir explicar las razones por las cuales la capacidad de negociación en esta población se ve restringida, no obstante, posee, más que otras, un mayor conocimiento del VIH/SIDA y sus consecuencias.This paper focuses on risk, conceived not as an individual action, but considering its social dimension, analyzing the various forms in the socio-cultural context related to internalized homophobia and hegemonic gender norms that allow barriers to be constructed in risk perception. Such barriers hinder negotiation and protection among homosexual men that have adopted a female gender identity, living in low-income barrios of Lima and Trujillo, Peru. Risk perception is analyzed on the socio-cultural plane, allowing one to explain the limited negotiating capacity of this population, even though they have extensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its consequences.

  15. Characterisation of NORM Contaminated Objects: Reliable and Efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breddam, Kresten; Hou, Xiaolin; Koufakis, Markos

    characterization in order to ensure safe reuse or recycling as well as safe NORM waste handling.The procedures and measurement techniques may significantly affect the amount of mate-rial that is categorized as NORM contaminated equipment and NORM waste. At present, different procedures are used for categorization......The predominant contributors to the production of Technologically En-hanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) and NORM-waste in the Nordic countries are the on- and offshore oil and gas produc-ers. In oil and gas production processes, host rock formation water con-taining low...... concentrations of NORM is mixed with seawater containing high concentrations of sulphate. This leads to precipitation of NORM (Ra, Pb, Po)SO4, which is deposited as either scale or sludge in the production equipment. NORM contaminated pipes, tubes, pumps and tanks, etc. are therefore subject to radiological...

  16. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Students’ Socio-cultural Competence Development, Using English and Russian Phraseological Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit I. Kopzhasarova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of socio-cultural competence development on the basis of using English and Russian phraseological units. The authors specify the essence of the socio-cultural competence, define socio-cultural component of foreign language teaching. The authors justify their viewpoint that phraseological units, being the most valuable source of cultural information, exposing background knowledge and culture specific vocabulary, are the effective means of socio-cultural competence development. The set of exercises on socio-cultural competence development on the material of English and Russian phraseological units, developed by authors, include language and speech tasks; tasks based on project and creative research activity methods, which are the basis of development of the main socio-cultural skills that are necessary in intercultural communication

  18. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  19. Prevailing practices in airway management: a prospective single-centre observational study of endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Geraldine Pei Chin; Kannan, Anusha; Koh, Kwong Fah; Venkatesan, Kumaresh; Seet, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    Airway management during anaesthesia has potential difficulties and risks. We aimed to investigate the utility of routine airway assessment for predicting difficult tracheal intubation, review the prevailing practice of videolaryngoscope use amongst anaesthetists in a teaching hospital and determine the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative airway-related complications. A prospective observational study of 1,654 patients undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation over a seven-month period was performed. Data regarding airway and anaesthetic management was collected and analysed. Videolaryngoscopes were used as the first-choice equipment in 60.5% of the cohort. The incidence of difficult intubation was 2.1%, of which 45.7% of cases were unanticipated. The sensitivity of airway assessment was 54.3%, with a positive predictive value of 8.1%. When difficult intubation was anticipated, more videolaryngoscopes were used as the first equipment of choice compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.001). In the Macintosh group, more patients required a change of airway equipment (p = 0.015), but the number of intubation attempts was similar (p = 0.293). The incidence of intraoperative (p = 0.920) and postoperative complications (p = 0.380) were similar in both groups. Using the current predictors of difficult intubation, half of the difficult airways we encountered were unanticipated. Videolaryngoscopes were preferred when difficulty was anticipated and were also used in routine tracheal intubation. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  20. Appreciation of the nature of light demands enhancement over the prevailing scientific epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2011-09-01

    Based on attempts to resolve the problem of various self contradictory assumptions behind the prevailing belief on single photon interference, we have analyzed the process steps behind our experimental measurements and named the process as the Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E). This has helped us recognize that the quantum mechanical Measurement Problem has a much universal and deeper root in nature. Our scientific theorization process suffers from a Perpetual Information Challenge (PIC), which cannot be overcome by elegant and/or sophisticated mathematical theories alone. Iterative imaginative application of IPM-E needs to be used as a metaphorical analytical continuation to fill up the missing information gaps. IPM-E has also guided us to recognize the generic NIW-principle (Non-Interaction of Waves) in the linear domain, not explicitly recognized in current books and literature. Superposition effects become manifest through light-matter interactions. Detecting dipoles gets stimulated by multiple superposed beams; it sums the simultaneous multiple stimulations into a single resultant undulation, which then guides the resultant energy exchange. The consequent transformation in the detector corresponds to observed fringes. They neither represent interference of light; nor represent selective arrival or non-arrival of photons on the detector. Photons do not possess any force of mutual interaction to generate their redistribution. Implementation of IPM-E requires us to recognize our subjective interpretation propensity with which we are burdened due to our evolutionary successes.

  1. Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    Full Text Available An updated empirical climatic zonally averaged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (70-110 km, extending from 80°N to 80°S is presented. The model is constructed from the fitting of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed over the globe. The height-latitude contour plots of monthly mean zonal and meridional winds for all months of the year, and of annual mean wind, amplitudes and phases of annual and semiannual harmonics of wind variations are analyzed to reveal the main features of the seasonal variation of the global wind structures in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Some results of comparison between the ground-based wind models and the space-based models are presented. It is shown that, with the exception of annual mean systematic bias between the zonal winds provided by the ground-based and space-based models, a good agreement between the models is observed. The possible origin of this bias is discussed.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (general circulation; middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics

  2. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-11-14

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.

  3. Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E; Garrison, Nicole L; Hamilton, Chris A; Godwin, Rebecca L; Hedin, Marshal; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2014-08-04

    Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider "backbone" phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis of spiders including taxa representing all major spider lineages. Our robust phylogenetic hypothesis recovers some fundamental and uncontroversial spider clades, but rejects the prevailing paradigm of a monophyletic Orbiculariae, the most diverse lineage, containing orb-weaving spiders. Based on our results, the orb web either evolved much earlier than previously hypothesized and is ancestral for a majority of spiders or else it has multiple independent origins, as hypothesized by precladistic authors. Cribellate deinopoid orb weavers that use mechanically adhesive silk are more closely related to a diverse clade of mostly webless spiders than to the araneoid orb-weaving spiders that use adhesive droplet silks. The fundamental shift in our understanding of spider phylogeny proposed here has broad implications for interpreting the evolution of spiders, their remarkable biomaterials, and a key extended phenotype--the spider web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cuticle Structure in Relation to Chemical Composition: Re-assessing the Prevailing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Guzmán-Delgado, Paula; Graça, José; Santos, Sara; Gil, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The surface of most aerial plant organs is covered with a cuticle that provides protection against multiple stress factors including dehydration. Interest on the nature of this external layer dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and since then, several studies facilitated a better understanding of cuticular chemical composition and structure. The prevailing undertanding of the cuticle as a lipidic, hydrophobic layer which is independent from the epidermal cell wall underneath stems from the concept developed by Brongniart and von Mohl during the first half of the 19th century. Such early investigations on plant cuticles attempted to link chemical composition and structure with the existing technologies, and have not been directly challenged for decades. Beginning with a historical overview about the development of cuticular studies, this review is aimed at critically assessing the information available on cuticle chemical composition and structure, considering studies performed with cuticles and isolated cuticular chemical components. The concept of the cuticle as a lipid layer independent from the cell wall is subsequently challenged, based on the existing literature, and on new findings pointing toward the cell wall nature of this layer, also providing examples of different leaf cuticle structures. Finally, the need for a re-assessment of the chemical and structural nature of the plant cuticle is highlighted, considering its cell wall nature and variability among organs, species, developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic factors during plant growth.

  5. Socio-Cultural Problems and Maladaptive Behaviours of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    interactions with peoples outside their culture, religion, values, norms and morality which differ across culture. ... (and marriage); and improvement in the ability to make personal decisions at this stage of life. A post-adolescent is a young .... Career choice is a problem among youths. Emotional outburst is a youth problem.

  6. New approaches for the asessment and education of children under socio-cultural disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegría Majluf

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantagesand the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning are stressed.

  7. Analysis of Acculturative Stress and Sociocultural Adaptation Among International Students at a Non-Metropolitan University

    OpenAIRE

    Hajara Mahmood; Monica Galloway Burke

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative descriptive study analyzed levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university in the United States related to certain demographic characteristics. Surveys were used to measure international students’ levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation, including five subscales of sociocultural adaptation (N = 413). Demographic questions included gender, age, and country of origin, length of stay i...

  8. Flat norm decomposition of integral currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currents represent generalized surfaces studied in geometric measure theory. They range from relatively tame integral currents representing oriented compact manifolds with boundary and integer multiplicities, to arbitrary elements of the dual space of differential forms. The flat norm provides a natural distance in the space of currents, and works by decomposing a $d$-dimensional current into $d$- and (the boundary of $(d+1$-dimensional pieces in an optimal way.Given an integral current, can we expect its at norm decomposition to be integral as well? This is not known in general, except in the case of $d$-currents that are boundaries of $(d+1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$ (following results from a corresponding problem on the $L^1$ total variation ($L^1$TV of functionals. On the other hand, for a discretized at norm on a finite simplicial complex, the analogous statement holds even when the inputs are not boundaries. This simplicial version relies on the total unimodularity of the boundary matrix of the simplicial complex; a result distinct from the $L^1$TV approach.We develop an analysis framework that extends the result in the simplicial setting to one for $d$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$, provided a suitable triangulation result holds. In $\\mathbb{R}^2$, we use a triangulation result of Shewchuk (bounding both the size and location of small angles, and apply the framework to show that the discrete result implies the continuous result for $1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ .

  9. Evaluative Research in the Contexts of Sociopolitical and Sociocultural Movements: Methodological Challenges and the Urgency of Public Health Actions in Remote Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Laperrière

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative evaluation research project concerning peer-education among sex workers was carried out in a remote region of Brazil. The project focused on the impact of unpredictable factors on evaluation results, the importance attached to collective forms of experiential learning and the active participation of local social actors in public health actions (i.e. prevention. The evaluation combined a community inquiry perspective (participant observation, individual and group interviews with an ethnographic emphasis, using prevailing Latin American views on popular education in the search for cultural meanings. The study revealed the project's unanticipated "secondary impacts," such as the development of mutual help practices and changes in personal and collective life trajectories, and changes in collective meaning attributions derived from the recovery of a collective history. Working in close proximity to the setting in which the program was implemented permitted access to the socio-cultural and socio-political movements in force at the time of implementation. Proximity to the local settings enabled the researcher to insert herself into the program's socio-cultural and socio-political context. The research might better deal with unpredictable factors in the qualitative and participatory perspective. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060464

  10. Contexto sociocultural y alimentario de mujeres con embarazos de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Sámano Sámano; Estela Godinez Martínez; Irma Romero Pérez; Georgina Sánchez Miranda; José Manuel Espíndola Polis; Mayra Lilia Chávez Courtois

    2014-01-01

    Para favorecer una alimentación correcta la orientación alimentaria debe considerar factores socioculturales que condicionen patrones y preferencias del consumo de alimentos propios de cada población. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir el contexto sociocultural del embarazo y su alimentación en el ámbito doméstico, mediante un enfoque cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a 6 mujeres con embarazo de alto riesgo bajo la técnica de saturación de la información. Las ...

  11. A sociocultural study of koro epidemics in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, W S; Mo, K M; Hsu, J; Li, L S; Ou, L W; Chen, G Q; Jiang, D W

    1988-12-01

    Koro, a culture-related psychiatric disorder characterized by panic due to fear of genital retraction, occurred as the rare phenomenon of koro epidemics in a remote region of Guangdong, China, in 1984-1985 and 1987. The sociocultural and historical backgrounds of the area are described. The life pattern and attitudes toward supernatural beings and the commonly shared folk belief of evil-induced genital retraction were considered grounds for the panic, while the community's anxious reaction and hysterical atmosphere facilitated the intensification and recurrence of the episodes. Geographic seclusion associated with localism in folk beliefs and practices may have kept the epidemics confined to the region.

  12. Etiology of eating disorders: biological, psychological and sociocultural determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Christina Marcondes [UNIFESP; Vecchiatti, Ilka Ramalho [UNIFESP; Negrão, André Brooking [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Os transtornos alimentares possuem uma etiologia multifatorial, composta de predisposições genéticas, socioculturais e vulnerabilidades biológicas e psicológicas. Entre os fatores predisponentes, destacam-se a história de transtorno alimentar e (ou) transtorno do humor na família, os padrões de interação presentes no ambiente familiar, o contexto sociocultural, caracterizado pela extrema valorização do corpo magro, disfunções no metabolismo das monoaminas centrais e traços de personalidade. A...

  13. How did Trade Norms Evolve in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    in the world today, we argue that one possible historical root of social trust may be the long-distance trade practices of the Viking age. To manage the risk of being cheated, trade between strangers in an oral world required a strong informal institution of trust-based trade norms out of necessity to deal...... with the risk of being cheated. In contrast to similar cases like the famous medieval Maghribi traders, who counted on writing (Greif, 1989), the punishment of cheaters could not be supported by written documents such as legal documents and letters, as the large majority of Vikings were non...

  14. Mobility, contact and an accent norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will focus on various facets of RP as an accent norm. In the first part of the paper I will set the stage for a renewed sociolinguistic view of RP, and examine some of the effects of social and geographical mobility and contact on RP. At the same time, one of my concerns will be to bring....... The phonetic data have been gleaned from sociolinguistic interviews, while the attitudinal data derive from interviews, subjective evaluation questionnaires and the popular press. By thus exploring the current and changing status of RP in the wider sociolinguistic landscape of Britain, the discussion will also...

  15. Prevailing theories of consciousness are challenged by novel cross-modal associations acquired between subliminal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ryan B; Samaha, Jason; Chrisley, Ron; Dienes, Zoltan

    2018-06-01

    While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities. First, pairs of subliminal stimuli were presented and then their association assessed by examining the ability of the first stimulus to prime classification of the second. In Experiments 1-4 the stimuli were word-pairs consisting of a male name preceding either a creative or uncreative profession. Participants were subliminally exposed to two name-profession pairs where one name was paired with a creative profession and the other an uncreative profession. A supraliminal task followed requiring the timed classification of one of those two professions. The target profession was preceded by either the name with which it had been subliminally paired (concordant) or the alternate name (discordant). Experiment 1 presented stimuli auditorily, Experiment 2 visually, and Experiment 3 presented names auditorily and professions visually. All three experiments revealed the same inverse priming effect with concordant test pairs associated with significantly slower classification judgements. Experiment 4 sought to establish if learning would be more efficient with supraliminal stimuli and found evidence that a different strategy is adopted when stimuli are consciously perceived. Finally, Experiment 5 replicated the unconscious cross-modal association achieved in Experiment 3 utilising non-linguistic stimuli. The results demonstrate the acquisition of novel cross-modal associations between stimuli which are not

  16. The networked minority: How a small group prevailed in a local windfarm conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explain through a qualitative case study how a small protest group prevailed during a local windfarm conflict in south-eastern Australia. A social capital analytical framework was developed to analyse the data. The analysis found that two communities inhabited the area for which the windfarm development was proposed. The public participation process failed to address the concerns of both communities and led to the emergence of a social network of resistance. The network had high stocks of bridging social capital, which enabled an effective protest that led to the abandonment of the development. Their effectiveness was inadvertently aided by the windfarm supporters who were unable to act collectively to defend their interests because socio-economic changes in the community among other factors had led to a depletion of their social capital. In this context, different democratic participatory processes were needed to address the concerns of the two communities. Guidance and tools for researching and developing the types of participatory processes needed for vulnerable communities with low social capital and those similar to the social network with high social capital are provided. These will inform community-appropriate public participation processes and participatory planning policy. - Highlights: ► A case study of a local social network's resistance to a windfarm is undertaken. ► The link between high social capital and resistance is confirmed. ► Successful protest groups can be aided by passive windfarm supporters. ► Protesters are likely to participate in well-designed participatory processes. ► Guidance for developing community-specific participatory processes is provided

  17. Prevailing trends of climatic extremes across Indus-Delta of Sindh-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Farhat; Rehman, Iqra; Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salik, Muhammad Raza

    2018-02-01

    This study examines the variability and change in the patterns of climatic extremes experienced in Indus-Delta of Sindh province of Pakistan, comprising regions of Karachi, Badin, Mohenjodaro, and Rohri. The homogenized daily minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation data for a 36-year period were used to calculate 13 and 11 indices of temperature and precipitation extremes with the help of RClimDex, a program written in the statistical software package R. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates were used to determine the statistical significance and magnitude of the calculated trend. Temperatures of summer days and tropical nights increased in the region with overall significant warming trends for monthly maximum temperature as well as for warm days and nights reflecting dry conditions in the study area. The warm extremes and nighttime temperature indices showed greater trends than cold extremes and daytime indices depicting an overall warming trends in the Delta. Historic decrease in the acreage of major crops and over 33% decrease in agriculture credit for Sindh are the indicators of adverse impacts of warmer and drier weather on Sindh agriculture. Trends reported for Karachi and Badin are expected to decrease rice cultivation, hatching of fisheries, and mangroves forest surrounding these cities. Increase in the prevailing temperature trends will lead to increasingly hotter and drier summers resulting to constraints on cotton, wheat, and rice yield in Rohri and Mohenjodaro areas due to increased crop water requirements that may be met with additional groundwater pumping; nonetheless, the depleted groundwater resources would have a direct impact on the region's economy.

  18. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  19. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H.; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-01

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth’s energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  20. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-29

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth's energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  1. Prevailing negative soil biota effect and no evidence for local adaptation in a widespread Eurasian grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Wagner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns.We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10-80 km and between (ca. 3300 km regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their 'home soil' was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations.Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant--soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified.

  2. Facial Anthropometric Norms among Kosovo - Albanian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staka, Gloria; Asllani-Hoxha, Flurije; Bimbashi, Venera

    2017-09-01

    The development of an anthropometric craniofacial database is a necessary multidisciplinary proposal. The aim of this study was to establish facial anthropometric norms and to investigate into sexual dimorphism in facial variables among Kosovo Albanian adults. The sample included 204 students of Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pristina. Using direct anthropometry, a series of 8 standard facial measurements was taken on each subject with digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm (Boss, Hamburg-Germany). The normative data and percentile rankings were calculated. Gender differences in facial variables were analyzed using t- test for independent samples (p0.05).The highest index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) was found for the lower facial height 1.120, for which the highest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 12.01%., was also found. The lowest ISD was found for intercanthal width, 1.022, accompanied with the lowest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 2.23%. The obtained results have established the facial anthropometric norms among Kosovo Albanian adults. Sexual dimorphism has been confirmed for each facial measurement.

  3. Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-08-17

    In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.

  4. Facial Anthropometric Norms among Kosovo - Albanian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Staka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of an anthropometric craniofacial database is a necessary multidisciplinary proposal. Aim: The aim of this study was to establish facial anthropometric norms and to investigate into sexual dimorphism in facial variables among Kosovo Albanian adults. Materials and Methods: The sample included 204 students of Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pristina. Using direct anthropometry, a series of 8 standard facial measurements was taken on each subject with digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm (Boss, Hamburg-Germany. The normative data and percentile rankings were calculated. Gender differences in facial variables were analyzed using t- test for independent samples (p0.05.The highest index of sexual dimorphism (ISD was found for the lower facial height 1.120, for which the highest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 12.01%., was also found. The lowest ISD was found for intercanthal width, 1.022, accompanied with the lowest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 2.23%. Conclusion: The obtained results have established the facial anthropometric norms among Kosovo Albanian adults. Sexual dimorphism has been confirmed for each facial measurement.

  5. Perceptual dehumanization of faces is activated by norm violations and facilitates norm enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2016-02-01

    This article uses methods drawn from perceptual psychology to answer a basic social psychological question: Do people process the faces of norm violators differently from those of others--and, if so, what is the functional significance? Seven studies suggest that people process these faces different and the differential processing makes it easier to punish norm violators. Studies 1 and 2 use a recognition-recall paradigm that manipulated facial-inversion and spatial frequency to show that people rely upon face-typical processing less when they perceive norm violators' faces. Study 3 uses a facial composite task to demonstrate that the effect is actor dependent, not action dependent, and to suggest that configural processing is the mechanism of perceptual change. Studies 4 and 5 use offset faces to show that configural processing is only attenuated when they belong to perpetrators who are culpable. Studies 6 and 7 show that people find it easier to punish inverted faces and harder to punish faces displayed in low spatial frequency. Taken together, these data suggest a bidirectional flow of causality between lower-order perceptual and higher-order cognitive processes in norm enforcement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Implantation of licensing norm for industrial radiography installations - Norm CNEN-NE-604 Rev.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Oliveira, S.M.V. de.

    1988-04-01

    The results of audits carried out by DIN/CNEN (Department of Nuclear Installations) in firms of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, Brazil, that use industrial radiography for implantation of the norm of installation licensing, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) with emphasis on NORM disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.

    1995-01-01

    Regulation of radioactive material can occur at the Federal, State, and sometimes local level. In addition to regulations at the federal and state level, there are guidelines and standards that do not carry the weight of law, yet are often referenced. Neither the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) categorically regulates NORM at this time. However, many of the existing regulations and guidelines for licensed radioactive material can be applied by states and other regulatory agencies to NORM. The primary regulations covering radioactive materials and exposures were promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) or 1954, as amended. NRC licenses and regulates civilian use of nuclear materials to protect public health and safety and the environment. NRC makes rules and sets standards for licensees and inspects the activities of licensees to insure that they do not violate safety rules. OSHA regulations for worker protection from exposures to radioactivity are contained in 29CFR1910.96. These standards are designed to protect workers from exposure to radiation in programs other than those regulated by OSHA. The Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act, with implementing regulations found in 40CFR192 were promulgated by the EPA for cleanup of uranium mill tailings. These standards are often used by states and other agencies in regulating cleanup of NORM. EPA is currently considering regulation of NORM on NRC and DOE facilities under 40CFR195

  8. L’influenza delle norme e delle sanzioni sui fenomeni di consumo e dipendenza da droga / L’influence des normes et des sanctions sur les phénomènes de consommation de drogues et de dépendance / The influence of norms and sanctions on drug abuse and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelli Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the relationship between norms and sanctions, on the one hand, and drug addiction, on the other. It highlights three implications for: a the weakness of the deterrent value of the rules prohibiting the use of drugs in the current socio-cultural context; b the therapeutic issue that engages in the framework in the execution of the sentence for the drug addicted offender; c assessment of the effectiveness of rehabilitation of drug addicts in the execution of sentence. Particular attention is given to socio-cultural perspectives and social policy. The importance of evaluation is established in order to implement effective preventive and rehabilitative programs.Questo contributo analizza il rapporto fra norme e sanzioni, da un lato, e stati di tossicodipendenza, dall’altro, cogliendo tre implicazioni concernenti: a la debolezza del valore deterrente delle norme che vietano il consumo di droghe nell’attuale contesto socio-culturale; b la questione terapeutica che si innesta nel quadro coercitivo della privazione della libertà per il tossicodipendente autore di reato; c la valutazione dei differenti percorsi riabilitativi del tossicodipendente che entra nel circuito penale. In chiave critica viene data particolare attenzione agli aspetti socio-culturali e alle prospettive di politica sociale. E’ sottolineata l’importanza della ricerca valutativa al fine di implementare programmi, sia di tipo preventivo che riabilitativo, che possano garantire livelli soddisfacenti di efficienza e di efficacia.Cet article analyse la relation entre les normes et les sanctions, d’un côté, et la toxicomanie, de l’autre. Le texte met en évidence trois implications concernantes : a la faiblesse de la valeur dissuasive des règles qui interdisent la consommation des drogues; b la question thérapeutique qui s'engage pour le délinquant toxicomane dans le contexte de la privation de liberté; c l'évaluation des différentes démarches de r

  9. Contexto sociocultural y alimentario de mujeres con embarazos de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano Sámano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Para favorecer una alimentación correcta la orientación alimentaria debe considerar factores socioculturales que condicionen patrones y preferencias del consumo de alimentos propios de cada población. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir el contexto sociocultural del embarazo y su alimentación en el ámbito doméstico, mediante un enfoque cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a 6 mujeres con embarazo de alto riesgo bajo la técnica de saturación de la información. Las entrevistas se transcribieron y analizaron de acuerdo a Bardín con ayuda del programa Atlas TI. Se identificó: incertidumbre por el embarazo no planeado y poco apoyo de la pareja; ciertos cambios en la alimentación para mejorar la salud; percepción de una mala y buena alimentación, aunque ésta no cumplía con las características de una dieta correcta; omisión de la cena y del grupo de verduras y frutas. Las encargadas de preparar y servir los alimentos no siempre fueron las mujeres embarazadas; los alimentos percibidos peligrosos fueron consumidos y los benéficos presentaron consumo escaso. Resaltó la necesidad de capacitar a los profesionales de la salud para considerar al contexto sociocultural en la orientación alimentaria que proporcionen.

  10. Sociocultural factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2017-06-01

    This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.

  11. Socio-Cultural Impacts in the Formation of Urban Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Indonesia, a group of village people tends to move from one place to another and develops a living space to create a settlement. This research is conducted by taking an example of a particular ethnic group that leaves the forestry area to a new place in the city. After some time, this group of people creates a similar or adapted socio-cultural system adapted from their origin place. The purpose of this research is to examine the socio-cultural aspects that significantly influence the emergence of urban village. This influence is interpreted as social and cultural relations with the establishment of space and significance of urban village. By focusing on this issue, this research will trace the process of how a new and unplanned settlement could emerge. The process and elements are indispensable from social and cultural factors. Essentially, the shape of bulit space is a non-physical manifestation of local people, which is established from time to time. In this case, the research’s challenge lies on the circumstance in Indonesia where society and culture influence the emergence of urban village. Physical appearance can be identified as a tipology of settlement and morphology of urban village.

  12. Socio-Cultural and Ideological Preconditions of Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviytlana Storozhuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the factors that have led to the contradiction between a legislated principle of gender equality and, broadcast from pre-modern by a number of social institutions a social differentiation by gender and discrimination generated by it, existing in modern outlook and socio-cultural life. The article shows that the concepts of natural equality of people and social consensus together with the process of secularization and desecration, developed during the modern period, transformed a social reality, but they usually do not apply to a person who is still viewed through the prism of axiological and ideological premodern paradigm. Thus, the concept of natural equality has extrapolated only to men who were considered carriers of social activity in premodern culture. It is emphasized that despite the radical changes of socio-cultural and political life of European society that occurred as a result of implementation of social modern program, a family, remaining a decentralized nucleus, was living by premodern values that gained social significance at a time when a woman acquired her social activity.

  13. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. © 2013.

  14. PROCEDURAL NORMS AND SUBSTANTIVE NORMS: THE PRIMACY OF JUS COGENS NORMS AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Resende Bueno Da Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the procedural rule of State immunity and substantive rule of jus cogens prohibiting torture and slave labor in the case Germany v. Italy judged by the International Court of Justice in 2012. Notwithstanding the recognized superiority of peremptory norms, in the case, its analysis was impeded by application of the procedural rule of immunity. The suppression of the rule that expresses the higher values of the international community resulted in manifest injustice and impunity. Through detailed analysis of the characteristics and effects substantive rules of jus cogens, as well as its distinction of rules of procedural character, and considering the theoretical framework humanization of international law, this work states that the contemporary international law does not allow a procedural rule prevents the application of a substantive rule of jus cogens, exactly by the supreme value this last protects: the human being.

  15. "Nothing special, everything is maamuli": socio-cultural and family practices influencing the perinatal period in urban India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    Full Text Available Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting.Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women's experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of 'hot' and 'cold' foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events.A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate

  16. Correlation between the norm and the geometry of minimal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, I. L.

    2017-05-01

    The paper is concerned with the inverse problem of the minimal Steiner network problem in a normed linear space. Namely, given a normed space in which all minimal networks are known for any finite point set, the problem is to describe all the norms on this space for which the minimal networks are the same as for the original norm. We survey the available results and prove that in the plane a rotund differentiable norm determines a distinctive set of minimal Steiner networks. In a two-dimensional space with rotund differentiable norm the coordinates of interior vertices of a nondegenerate minimal parametric network are shown to vary continuously under small deformations of the boundary set, and the turn direction of the network is determined. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  17. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC will...

  18. Determination of Tweed's cephalometric norms in Bengali population

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Lalima; Das, Anuranjan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish Tweed's cephalometric norms for Indian Bengali population and to compare it with Caucasian norms. Materials and Methods: The participants were of 50 adults with normal occlusion and pleasant profile. Lateral cephalograms were taken in natural head position, and cephalometric norms were established using Tweeds diagnostic triangle. Results: The study showed more proclined lower incisors in comparison with Caucasians. The result of the study...

  19. Closed graph and open mapping theorems for normed cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A quasi-normed cone is a pair (X, p) such that X is a (not necessarily cancellative) cone and q is a quasi-norm on X. The aim of this paper is to prove a closed graph and an open mapping type theorem for quasi-normed cones. This is done with the help of appropriate notions of completeness, continuity and ...

  20. Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the Arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic MLT wind regime parameters measured at the ground-based network of MF and meteor radar stations (Andenes 69° N, Tromsø 70° N, Esrange 68° N, Dixon 73.5° N, Poker Flat 65° N and Resolute Bay 75° N are discussed and compared with those observed in the mid-latitudes. The network of the ground-based MF and meteor radars for measuring winds in the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere provides an excellent opportunity for study of the main global dynamical structures in this height region and their dependence from longitude. Preliminary estimates of the differences between the measured winds and tides from the different radar types, situated 125-273km apart (Tromsø, Andenes and Esrange, are provided. Despite some differences arising from using different types of radars it is possible to study the dynamical wind structures. It is revealed that most of the observed dynamical structures are persistent from year to year, thus permitting the analysis of the Arctic MLT dynamics in a climatological sense. The seasonal behaviour of the zonally averaged wind parameters is, to some extent, similar to that observed at the moderate latitudes. However, the strength of the winds (except the prevailing meridional wind and the diurnal tide amplitudes in the Arctic MLT region is, in general, less than that detected at the moderate latitudes, decreasing toward the pole. There are also some features in the vertical structure and seasonal variations of the Arctic MLT winds which are different from the expectations of the well-known empirical wind models CIRA-86 and HWM-93. The tidal phases show a very definite longitudinal dependence that permits the determination of the corresponding zonal wave numbers. It is shown that the migrating tides play an important role in the dynamics of the Arctic MLT region. However, there are clear indications with the presence in some months of non-migrating tidal modes of significant appreciable amplitude.

  1. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, upper Indus Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Hasson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Largely depending on the meltwater from the Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus Basin (UIB contribute half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use, and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, this study assesses the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, diurnal temperature range and precipitation from 18 stations (1250–4500 m a.s.l. for their overlapping period of record (1995–2012 and, separately, from six stations of their long-term record (1961–2012. For this, a Mann–Kendall test on serially independent time series is applied to detect the existence of a trend, while its true slope is estimated using the Sen's slope method. Further, locally identified climatic trends are statistically assessed for their spatial-scale significance within 10 identified subregions of the UIB, and the spatially (field- significant climatic trends are then qualitatively compared with the trends in discharge out of corresponding subregions. Over the recent period (1995–2012, we find warming and drying of spring (field-significant in March and increasing early melt season discharge from most of the subregions, likely due to a rapid snowmelt. In stark contrast, most of the subregions feature a field-significant cooling within the monsoon period (particularly in July and September, which coincides well with the main glacier melt season. Hence, a decreasing or weakly increasing discharge is observed from the corresponding subregions during mid- to late melt season (particularly in July. Such tendencies, being largely consistent with the long-term trends (1961–2012, most likely indicate dominance of the nival but suppression of the glacial melt regime

  2. Human rights – local value or universal norm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Gutner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article argues for the universal character of human rights. It is demonstrated that they are not of specific value of Western culture but are a universal norm. This norm is valid not only for political practices but, first of all, for the morality and practice of argumentation. Human rights are strictly correlated with Kantian Categorical Imperative and can be substantiated by means of transcendental­pragmatic argument (K.­O. Apel. The difference between values and norms are also considered. It is demonstrated that values are always subjective and arbitrary meanwhile final justification is possible for norms.  

  3. Norms and customs: causally important or causally impotent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that norms and customs, despite frequently being described as being causes of behavior in the social sciences and ordinary conversation, cannot really cause behavior. Terms like "norms" and the like seem to refer to philosophically disreputable disjunctive properties. More problematically, even if they do not, or even if there can be disjunctive properties after all, I argue that norms and customs still cannot cause behavior. The social sciences would be better off without referring to properties like norms and customs as if they could be causal.

  4. NORM management in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, general public and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management which aim towards enhancing: NORM monitoring; Control of NORM contaminated equipment; Control over NORM waste handling and disposal; Workers protection, awareness, and training. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice and, experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry. (author)

  5. Challenging the norm? International election accompaniment in Nicaragua and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley MCCONNEL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available International election monitoring has been touted as a regional norm in the Western hemisphere, but recent reforms in Venezuela and Nicaragua substituted a diminished international role of electoral accompaniment. This article traces the initial acceptance and later limitation of international election monitoring in those countries to explore whether the change constitutes norm localization or norm defection. It concludes that the norm is not as well institutionalized in the hemisphere as conventionally thought, and that models need to assess together national and international monitoring capacities.

  6. Educating for Financial Literacy: A Case Study with a Sociocultural Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprow Forte, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the teaching and learning in an adult financial literacy education program aimed specifically at Latina single mothers to understand the influence of sociocultural factors in this setting. Informed by critical and Latina feminist sociocultural adult learning perspectives and the transtheoretical model of behavior change,…

  7. The Development of Sociocultural Competence with the Help of Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimova, Alina E.; Yashina, Marianna E.; Mukhamadiarova, Albina F.; Sharipova, Astrid V.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the description of the process of development sociocultural knowledge and competences using computer technologies. On the whole the development of modern computer technologies allows teachers to broaden trainees' sociocultural outlook and trace their progress online. Observation of modern computer technologies and estimation…

  8. Socio-Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: A Case Study of Adventurous Adult Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Machtmes, Krisanna L.; Demir, Husamettin

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural theories consider language learning as a social practice examines students as active participants in the construction of learning processes. This study investigates sociocultural theories' central concepts, which includes peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy. The present study is a case study of twenty…

  9. Analysis Testing of Sociocultural Factors Influence on Human Reliability within Sociotechnical Systems: The Algerian Oil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbaki Laidoune

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The explored sociocultural factors influence the human reliability both in qualitative and quantitative manners. The proposed model shows how reliability can be enhanced by some measures such as experience feedback based on, for example, safety improvements, training, and information. With that is added the continuous systems improvements to improve sociocultural reality and to reduce negative behaviors.

  10. Analysis of Acculturative Stress and Sociocultural Adaptation among International Students at a Non-Metropolitan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hajara; Burke, Monica Galloway

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative descriptive study analyzed levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university in the United States related to certain demographic characteristics. Surveys were used to measure international students' levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation,…

  11. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language in Taiwan: A Socio-Cultural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Fan-Wei

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context in Taiwan based on Vygotsky's (1978) socio-cultural framework. The historical context is provided after some delineations of the educational system in Taiwan with regard to its foreign language instruction policy and development. Based upon the proposed socio-cultural framework,…

  12. Applying Sociocultural Theory to Teaching Statistics for Doctoral Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Reeves, Michael G.; Charter, Mollie Lazar

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of two doctoral-level multivariate statistics courses utilizing sociocultural theory, an integrative pedagogical framework. In the first course, the implementation of sociocultural theory helps to support the students through a rigorous introduction to statistics. The second course involves students…

  13. Muscle Dysmorphia, Gender Role Stress, and Sociocultural Influences: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdy, Tucker; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the contribution of gender role stress (GRS) and sociocultural appearance demands to symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) in a college sample of 219 women and 154 men. For women, five GRS subscales, sociocultural appearance demands, age, and frequency of aerobic exercise predicted MD symptoms (model R[superscript 2] = 0.33;…

  14. The socio-cultural significance of the diagnostic label "neurasthenia" in Japan's mental health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, T

    1989-06-01

    This paper is an attempt to explore the socio-cultural significance of deliberately disguising schizophrenia as neurasthenia, neurosis or malfunction of autonomic nervous system. To understand its significance, the socio-cultural background of Japanese attitudes toward mental illness and Japan's mental health care system is also examined from a non-Western standpoint.

  15. Taking an Active Stance: How Urban Elementary Students Connect Sociocultural Experiences in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; Maruyama, Geoffrey; Albrecht, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    In this interpretive case study, we draw from sociocultural theory of learning and culturally relevant pedagogy to understand how urban students from nondominant groups leverage their sociocultural experiences. These experiences allow them to gain an empowering voice in influencing science content and activities and to work towards…

  16. Chinese Students' Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustments to Britain: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Oatey, Helen; Xiong, Zhaoning

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical study of the psychological and sociocultural adjustments of two cohorts of Chinese students taking a foundation course in English language at a British university. Using Zung's (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale and a modification of Ward and Kennedy's (1999) Sociocultural Adaptation Scale, quantitative data were…

  17. Sociocultural Paradoxes and Issues in E-Learning Use in Higher Education Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, James Kariuki

    2018-01-01

    Sociocultural issues are major contributing factors in mass acceptance and effective use of technology. These issues are often perceived to contradict the benefits the technology brings about. E-learning use in higher education in Africa, as a technology, faces some sociocultural barriers that contradict its promise and benefits. This paper…

  18. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  19. Socio-cultural competence in ESL education: a focus on Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For functional education in Nigeria, English as a Second language (ESL) pedagogy requires developing socio-cultural competence in the learners. This paper examined the components of socio-cultural competence in the English language which should form a significant part of ESL teaching with the aim of achieving ...

  20. Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-cultural Change and Fraud in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537.......Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537....

  1. Differential calculus in normed linear spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjea, Kalyan

    2007-01-01

    This book presents Advanced Calculus from a geometric point of view: instead of dealing with partial derivatives of functions of several variables, the derivative of the function is treated as a linear transformation between normed linear spaces. Not only does this lead to a simplified and transparent exposition of "difficult" results like the Inverse and Implicit Function Theorems but also permits, without any extra effort, a discussion of the Differential Calculus of functions defined on infinite dimensional Hilbert or Banach spaces.The prerequisites demanded of the reader are modest: a sound understanding of convergence of sequences and series of real numbers, the continuity and differentiability properties of functions of a real variable and a little Linear Algebra should provide adequate background for understanding the book. The first two chapters cover much of the more advanced background material on Linear Algebra (like dual spaces, multilinear functions and tensor products.) Chapter 3 gives an ab ini...

  2. MORALNE NORME KAO REGULATOR SPORTSKIH ODNOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasoje Bjelica

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Moral is one of the very old forms of social conscience, which have been progressively interiorized in the way of living of the community, as well as of the individuals. There are different comprehensions of the notion of moral. Here we will not let us involve into interpretation of these concepts, but, holding to the most acceptable concept of moral, we will emphasize that by moral one can consider the collection of norms, which determine behavior of people, as well as their notion of good and evil. Moral is a normative conscience, as well as a value attitude. Values represent standards, which govern our behavior, and the permanent belief that the specific way of behavior and existence is socially or personally desirable. Prof. dr

  3. The Cultural Transmission of Cooperative Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue eZhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab subjects to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  4. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  5. Moral traditions and norms of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauhar ALDAMBERGENOVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses moral and political, moral and economic, moral and business, moral and pragmatic, hygienic and other relations. The concept of " ethical tradition" includes not only moral values but also a set of core components associated with the development of ethical and moral qualities that characterize it against the backdrop of life events. Here it is pertinent to note that it is very important to assess personality according to his deeds. Each person has the vision of the concept of " value", which is not formed by itself it is made on the basis of norms , concepts , moral relations , transmitted from generation to generation through the h istorical experience. Monitoring of normative behavior of personality is not a reckless submission standards , it examines the various forms of behavior within a framework . Personality does not simply follow moral standards; on the contrary , it is active an d inquisitive in mastering and applying them in practice.

  6. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo

    2014-01-01

    responses from adults in East Asian (Chinese) and Western (Danish) cultural contexts during judgments of social, mental, and physical attributes of themselves and public figures to assess cultural influences on self-referential processing of personal attributes in different dimensions. We found......Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional MRI, we monitored neural......) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e., interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self...

  7. Handicrafts production: documentation and audiovisual dissemination as sociocultural appreciation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alvarenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of scientific research, technology and innovation project in the creative economy sector, conducted from January 2014 to January 2015 that aimed to document and disclose the artisans and handicraft production of Vila de Itaúnas, ES, Brasil. The process was developed from initial conversations, followed by planning and conducting participatory workshops for documentation and audiovisual dissemination around the production of handicrafts and its relation to biodiversity and local culture. The initial objective was to promote expression and diffusion spaces of knowledge among and for the local population, also reaching a regional, state and national public. Throughout the process, it was found that the participatory workshops and the collective production of a virtual site for disclosure of practices and products contributed to the development and socio-cultural recognition of artisan and craft in the region.

  8. Creating opportunities to learn in mathematics education: a sociocultural perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Merrilyn

    2014-09-01

    The notion of `opportunities to learn in mathematics education' is open to interpretation from multiple theoretical perspectives, where the focus may be on cognitive, social or affective dimensions of learning, curriculum and assessment design, issues of equity and access, or the broad policy and political contexts of learning and teaching. In this paper, I conceptualise opportunities to learn from a sociocultural perspective. Beginning with my own research on the learning of students and teachers of mathematics, I sketch out two theoretical frameworks for understanding this learning. One framework extends Valsiner's zone theory of child development, and the other draws on Wenger's ideas about communities of practice. My aim is then to suggest how these two frameworks might help us understand the learning of others who have an interest in mathematics education, such as mathematics teacher educator-researchers and mathematicians. In doing so, I attempt to move towards a synthesis of ideas to inform mathematics education research and development.

  9. Sociocultural and economic dimensions of Rift Valley fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Geoffrey Otieno; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sang, Rosemary; Affognon, Hippolyte

    2015-04-01

    Health researchers have advocated for a cross-disciplinary approach to the study and prevention of infectious zoonotic diseases, such as Rift Valley Fever. It is believed that this approach can help bring out the social determinants and effects of the zoonotic diseases for the design of appropriate interventions and public health policy. A comprehensive literature review using a systematic search strategy was undertaken to explore the sociocultural and economic factors that influence the transmission and spread of Rift Valley Fever. Although the findings reveal a paucity of social research on Rift Valley Fever, they suggest that livestock sacrificial rituals, food preparation and consumption practices, gender roles, and inadequate resource base for public institutions are the key factors that influence the transmission. It is concluded that there is need for cross-disciplinary studies to increase the understanding of Rift Valley Fever and facilitate appropriate and timely response and mitigation measures. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Connections Between Nuclear-Norm and Frobenius-Norm-Based Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Lu, Canyi; Yi, Zhang; Tang, Huajin

    2018-01-01

    A lot of works have shown that frobenius-norm-based representation (FNR) is competitive to sparse representation and nuclear-norm-based representation (NNR) in numerous tasks such as subspace clustering. Despite the success of FNR in experimental studies, less theoretical analysis is provided to understand its working mechanism. In this brief, we fill this gap by building the theoretical connections between FNR and NNR. More specially, we prove that: 1) when the dictionary can provide enough representative capacity, FNR is exactly NNR even though the data set contains the Gaussian noise, Laplacian noise, or sample-specified corruption and 2) otherwise, FNR and NNR are two solutions on the column space of the dictionary.

  11. Burn mortality: recent trends and sociocultural determinants in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Anil K

    2003-05-01

    In 1998, India was the only country in the world where fire (burns) was classified among the 15 leading causes of death. High mortality in young married women from burns has already become an alarming and contentious medical problem in rural India. The incidences of burn mortality by age, sex, residence, marital status; manner and reasons have been reported only infrequently from the rural parts of India. From a total of 4042 medicolegal deaths reported at an Apex medical centre of a rural health district, over a period of 5 years 1997-2001, 942 deaths (23.3%) were due to burns; with mortality rate of 15.1 per year per 100,000 population. Of all burn death cases, 80.8% were females, 82.4% married ones, 71.9% belonged to the young age group of 21-40 years and 75.0% came from the rural parts of the district. Out of all burn deaths, 50.7% were accidental, 47.8% suicidal and 1.5% were homicidal in manner. In all female suicides, burns was the commonest method adopted by over 60% females. Torture by in-laws (32.1%) was the commonest reason for committing suicide by burns in married women. The present study has tried to identify the high-risk group and reasons for high burn mortality in this rural area. Religious and sociocultural reasons prevalent in the area are discussed, which play the determinant role in such a high mortality rate in burns in rural India. Further studies in India into psychodynamics of sociocultural, religious and family life are advised.

  12. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  13. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Ahmed S., E-mail: a.habib@surrey.ac.u [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A.; Regan, P.H. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey (United Kingdom); Shutt, A.L. [Centre for Radiation Chemical and Environmental Hazards (CRCE), Health Protection Agency (HPA), Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  14. Negotiating Use, Norm and Authority in Online Language Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Antonio; Bonnin, Juan Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The acquisition of a particular language and its standard norms of use have been traditionally channeled through education, dictionaries and institutional publications, but more and more, the internet has become a recurrent platform to consult norms and rules, through different forms of electronically mediated communication in which language users…

  15. Women in Corrections: Competence, Competition, and the Social Responsibility Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowersox, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated male and female officers' attitudes toward women employed as correctional officers in a male penitentiary. Confirmed the hypothesis, that men enact the social responsibility norm in the presence of women, and that women find the social responsibility norm groundless. Suggests expansion of women's limited correctional role. (Author)

  16. Social Norms and Adolescents' Sexual Health: An Introduction for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Keywords: Health Interventions; Health Promotion; Social Norms; Low-income countries; Adolescents; Sexual and. Reproductive ... Scholars and practitioners from high-income countries are increasingly integrating social norms strategies to address a variety of health-related behaviours. ..... them, and less on health risk.

  17. Variation in reaction norms : Statistical considerations and biological interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrissey, Michael B.; Liefting, Maartje

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of reaction norms, the functions by which the phenotype produced by a given genotype depends on the environment, is critical to studying many aspects of phenotypic evolution. Different techniques are available for quantifying different aspects of reaction norm variation. We examine what

  18. Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

  19. Morality salience increases adherence to salient norms and values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gailliot, M.T.; Stillman, T.F.; Schmeichel, B.J.; Maner, J.K.; Plant, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Four studies indicate that mortality salience increases adherence to social norms and values, but only when cultural norms and values are salient. In Study 1, mortality salience coupled with a reminder about cultural values of egalitarianism reduced prejudice toward Blacks among non-Black

  20. Workability of the norms of transparency and accountability against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the workability of the existing norms of transparency and accountability in the battle against corruption in Nigeria. Incontrovertibly, high level corruption pervades every nook and cranny of the country to the detriment of its citizens. Although anti-corruption norms exist in the Nigerian legal order, high ...

  1. Nearly Radical Quadratic Functional Equations in p-2-Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some stability results in 2-normed spaces for the radical quadratic functional equation (∑=1(+2+(∑=1(−2=2∑=1((+( and then use subadditive functions to prove its stability in -2-normed spaces.

  2. CLEX: A cross-linguistic lexical norms database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard; Dale, Philip; Bleses, Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words...

  3. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  4. Grip and Pinch Strength Norms for Michigan Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Phillips M.S., OTRL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a norm reference of current grip and pinch strength norms for working-age Michigan adults. This normative study included a convenience sample of 179 volunteers who were employees at car plants in South East Michigan or hospital sites in West Michigan. Participants’ ages ranged from between 20 and 62 years of age with a mean age of 49.15 years. There were 78 females (44% and 101 males (56%. Subjects were classified by gender and in the age categories of ages 20 to 49 years and ages 50-62 years. Grip and pinch strength norms were collected following the American Society of Hand Therapy protocol. The norms from these working adults were calculated with descriptive statistics for males and females in two age classifications: ages 20 to 49 and ages 50 to 62 years. Standard Errors (SE are better than the 1985 norms for both males and females ages 20 to 49 years. SEs are higher than the ages 20 to 49 years’ norms for the ages 50 to 62 years age categories in both males and females. These norms offer a point of comparison for clinicians to use for clients in Michigan who are ages 20 to 62 years and who have a goal to improve their grip strength. Clients’ grip and pinch strength could be compared to their age level or gender norms using the comparison for one standard deviation above, below, or at the means.

  5. Norms and Varieties of English and TESOL Teacher Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Zhu, Lingyan; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The growing recognition of the plurality of English underlying the World Englishes (WE) paradigm has problematised the conventional second language acquisition (SLA) views of errors. If English use in emerging English-speaking contexts is to be judged by local norms, as argued by WE scholars, applying exocentric norms in these contexts can be…

  6. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  7. Understanding the roles of signs and norms in organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, R.K.; Liu, Kecheng; Liu, Kecheng; Hafkamp, Mark; Ades, Y.; Ades, Yasser

    2000-01-01

    To apply semiotics to organizational analysis and information systems design, it is essential to unite two basic concepts: the sign and the norm. A sign is anything that stands for something else for some community. A norm is a generalized disposition to the world shared by members of a community.

  8. Part-Time Work and Work Norms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielers, Rudi; Raven, Dennis

    We argue that in the Netherlands, due to the growth of part-time work, work norms have declined. The mechanism behind this norm change is in the changed organization of family life. The increased labour market participation of women has put the traditional organization of family life under pressure.

  9. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M

    2000-01-01

    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....

  10. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...

  11. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Responsible Communication between the Judicial and Deontological Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Popa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Confronting with numerous problems related to moral judgment, the responsibility and irresponsibility in what concerns the vast domain of communication, we are interested in forming a correct and complete vision that crosses the judicial and deontological domain of the profession. The deontological norms are meant to guarantee, by their freely consented acceptance, the good fulfillment of the mission of the journalists, recognized as being indispensable for the god functioning of any human society. The laws do not expressly refer to the deontological norms, but these norms exist according to the law order and are necessary for its guarantee in this social context, which is chaotic from the point of view of the legislation in communication. The aspects analyzed here aremeant to indicate the manner in which passing from deontological norm to the judicial norm creates an external constraint for the communicator which brings more responsibility in view of avoiding the journalistic conflicts.

  13. Dissolution -- A new approach to NORM processing and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeLeux, D.E.

    1995-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has become a significant issue for regulatory agencies and oil companies in recent years. With oil and gas production, Radium 226 and Radium 228 are carried to the surface dissolved in the produced saltwater. NORM is formed when these radioactive isotopes are precipitated from the produced waters in the form of metal scales in tubulars and production equipment. One NORM disposal technique, developed by AMBAR, Inc., of Lafayette, Louisiana, employs a dissolution process using proprietary chemistry which dissolves scales, releasing the radioactive isotopes back into their natural liquid state. The resulting by products of the process are solids and liquids which meet regulatory requirements for non-hazardous oilfield waste (NOW) disposal. This article will present: A NORM description; Problems associated with NORM; Solutions to the problems; The dissolution method and chemistry; Field operational procedures, and future regulator impact.

  14. Norms and Interfirm Governance in Client-Architectural Firm Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to establish connections between governance structures, norms, and relationship types in architectural firm-client relationships. Due to the complex, intangible, knowledge intensive, and artistic nature of these professional services, both individual architectural project orders...... and relationships to clients are achieved by making credible promises (Løwendahl, 2000). This, in turn, requires profound understanding of existing norms and norms dynamics in architectural fields. An analytical framework of possible governance structures, possible relationship types, and norms is built...... conditions influence interfirm governance. Finally eight general hypothesis concerning the relationship between governance structures, norms, and relationship types in the professional services are presented on the basis of the analysis and related to existing theoretical contributions....

  15. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1......BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...

  16. Norms and practices within marriage which shape gender roles, HIV/AIDS risk and risk reduction strategies in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandali, S

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasing HIV/AIDS rates among married individuals, minimal research has been conducted on how men and women respond to risk in a marriage. This paper examines strategies used by married individuals to combat HIV/AIDS risk against prevailing gender norms. Qualitative data were gathered in four villages of Cabo Delgado province, Mozambique. Group discussions were held with 160 men and women to explore gender norms, HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk determinants. From the group discussions, 29 individuals were selected for further in-depth interviews to explore relationships between gender norms and risk reduction efforts within marriages. Findings illustrate how infidelity and social limitations placed on condom use not only increase HIV/AIDS risk but also entrench gender disparities. Although power differences between genders can make it difficult to negotiate safe sex, men and women are taking measures to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk in their marriage. Married men are reconstructing norms and taking responsibility to protect their family from HIV/AIDS by remaining faithful. For women, responses to HIV/AIDS risk in a marriage are more closely related to their ability to generate an income. Financially dependent women tend to leave a risky marriage altogether in contrast to financially autonomous women who will negotiate condom use with their husband. Factors such as experience with a risky partner, the desire to maintain a good social standing, fear of HIV/AIDS acquisition and parental guidance and support influence men and women to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk, despite constraining gender norms and power imbalances in a marriage. Nuanced understandings of the ways in which men and women are already taking measures to decrease noted HIV/AIDS risk, despite gender norms that make this a challenge, should be incorporated into localised responses.

  17. Sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain: a replication and path analytic extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of 249 sojourning Malaysian undergraduates in Britain. One-hundred and ten Malay and 139 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment and socio-demographics. Overall, Malay students reported significantly poorer sociocultural adjustment than Chinese students, as well as more negative outcomes on a range of predictors. Path analysis for the total sample showed that higher family income led to greater sociocultural adjustment, but partially because it led to more contact with host and conationals, better language proficiency, lower perceived cultural differences and less perceived discrimination. Moreover, participants with higher English proficiency were better adapted, but partially because they perceived less cultural differences as well as having more contact with host nationals. Additionally, individuals reporting better sociocultural adjustment also reported better health statuses. The same model was equally useful at predicting sociocultural adjustment for both Malay and Chinese participants. These results are discussed in terms of the role played by income in buffering against the negative aspects of sociocultural adjustment.

  18. Perceived injunctive norms and cannabis-related problems: The interactive influence of parental injunctive norms and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Dean, Kimberlye E; Buckner, Julia D; Foster, Dawn W

    2017-07-05

    Cannabis use among college students is associated with negative consequences, including those that can negatively affect academic functioning. Perceived descriptive and injunctive norms are among the strongest predictors of college cannabis use and related problems, and perceived norms differentially relate to cannabis outcomes depending on the reference group (e.g., close friends, family members). However, no known studies have examined the effect of race on these relationships. Yet, given that African American students are more strongly affected by parental influence than Caucasian students and that they endorse more social motives for cannabis use, African American students may be affected by perceived norms regarding parents and friends differentially from Caucasian students. The current study tested the moderational role of race on the relationship between perceived norms and cannabis use and related problems. Cannabis-using undergraduates (N = 103; 78.6% female) completed an online survey. Race moderated the relationship between injunctive norms regarding parents and cannabis-related problem severity such that among African American students (but not Caucasian students), endorsement of more permissive perceived parental injunctive norms was related to greater cannabis-related problem severity (but not cannabis use frequency). Interactions were not significant between race and descriptive norms or between race and peer injunctive norms. African American students who perceive that their parents are more accepting of cannabis use may be especially at risk for cannabis-related problems. Results underscore the importance of considering cultural factors in identification of vulnerability factors related to cannabis problems.

  19. Investigating Shared Norms in Multicultural Teams: Exploring How Team Member Scripts and Cognitive Adjustment Strategies Impact the Norm Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurrin, Daniel Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how shared norms are developed in the early phase of multicultural team (MCT) formation. The development of shared norms is recognized as critical to MCTs' contributions to organizations, and they are a result of the cognitive adjustment of the team members in recognition of their differences (Brandl…

  20. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2016-02-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women's representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men.

  1. Norms concerning the programmable automatic control devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourmentraux, G.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation is a report of the studies carried out by the Work Group on Functioning Safety of Programmable Automatic Control Devices and by the Group for Prevention Studies (GEP) from the CEA. The objective of these groups is to evaluate the methods which could be used to estimate the functioning safety of control and instrumentation systems involved in the Important Elements for Safety (EIS) of the Basic Nuclear Installations (INB) of the CEA, and also to carry out a qualification of automatic control devices. Norms, protocols and tools for the evaluation are presented. The problem comprises two aspects: the evaluation of fault avoidance techniques and the evaluation of fault control techniques used during the conceiving. For the fault avoidance techniques, the quality assurance organization, the environment tests, and the software quality plans are considered. For the fault control techniques, the different available tools and fault injection models are analysed. The results of an analysis carried out with the DEF.I tool from the National Institute for Research and Safety (INRS) are reported. (J.S.). 23 refs

  2. Healthy eating norms and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W C; Worsley, A

    2014-05-01

    Beliefs about what people think they ought to eat to be healthy ('healthy eating norms (HENs)') may be important influences on food consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive roles of normative expectations and demographics, personal values, substance use behaviours and body weight on reported food consumption among middle-aged Australians. A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' beliefs about what should they eat to be healthy, what actually they ate, their personal values, smoking and alcohol use, as well as self-reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Respondents' reported food consumption did not match their HENs. Demographics, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and personal values, and HENs were associated with reported consumption but the relationships differed among men and women. Generally, high energy-dense, nutrition-poor (EDNP) food consumption was negatively associated with age. Fruit and vegetable HEN and consumption was positively linked to universalist values but negatively related to smoking status among men. In contrast in women, fruit and vegetable HENs were positively related to income and education while EDNP HEN was negatively associated with age and income but positively linked to body weight and power values. Reported food consumption was associated with HEN, personal values, demographics, smoking and BMI through different pathways among men and women. The implications for nutrition promotion are discussed.

  3. Cotation de fabrication avec les normes ISO

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmetti, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    La cotation ISO en production impose de nouvelles méthodologies pour élaborer les documents de maîtrise de la qualité géométrique des produits : les dessins de phase, du brut et d'états intermédiaires pour la conformité des pièces et les fiches de production, de réglage, de contrôle et de surveillance pour la conformité des moyens de production. Une méthode de transfert unidirectionnelle simple permet d'établir des dessins de phase en normes ISO et d'optimiser la répartition des tolérances à isocapabilité. Cette cotation est déclinée en cotation d'état intermédiaire, de production et de réglage. Une méthode tridimensionnelle est proposée pour prendre en compte les effets des défauts angulaires. Une maquette montre les fonctionnalités envisageables pour les futurs outils d'aides au tolérancement de fabrication au sein de la CFAO. De nombreux exercices illustrent les différentes démarches. Ce Manuel de tolérancement est principalement destiné aux préparateurs méthodes et aux c...

  4. Russian Speech in Radio: Norm and Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Nefedov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available National radio, like television, is called upon to bring to the masses not only relevant information, but also a high culture of language. There were always serious demands to oral public speech from the point of view of the correctness and uniformity of the pronunciation. However, today the analysis of the language practice of broadcasting often indicates a discrepancy between the use of linguistic resources in existing literary norms. The author of the article from the end of December 2016 to early April 2017 listened and analyzed from the point of view of language correctness the majority of programs on the radio Komsomolskaya Pravda (KP. In general, recognizing the good speech qualification of the workers of this radio, as well as their «guests» (political scientists, lawyers, historians, etc., one can not but note the presence of a significant number of errors in their speech. The material presented in the article allows us to conclude that at present, broadcasting is losing its position in the field of speech culture. Neglect of the rules of the Russian language on the radio «Komsomolskaya Pravda» negatively affects the image of the Russian language, which is formed in the minds of listeners. The language of radio should strive to become a standard of cleanliness and high culture for the population, since it has the enormous power of mass impact and supports the unity of the cultural and linguistic space.

  5. Attitudes and norms affecting scientists' data reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curty, Renata Gonçalves; Crowston, Kevin; Specht, Alison; Grant, Bruce W; Dalton, Elizabeth D

    2017-01-01

    The value of sharing scientific research data is widely appreciated, but factors that hinder or prompt the reuse of data remain poorly understood. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we test the relationship between the beliefs and attitudes of scientists towards data reuse, and their self-reported data reuse behaviour. To do so, we used existing responses to selected questions from a worldwide survey of scientists developed and administered by the DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group (thus practicing data reuse ourselves). Results show that the perceived efficacy and efficiency of data reuse are strong predictors of reuse behaviour, and that the perceived importance of data reuse corresponds to greater reuse. Expressed lack of trust in existing data and perceived norms against data reuse were not found to be major impediments for reuse contrary to our expectations. We found that reported use of models and remotely-sensed data was associated with greater reuse. The results suggest that data reuse would be encouraged and normalized by demonstration of its value. We offer some theoretical and practical suggestions that could help to legitimize investment and policies in favor of data sharing.

  6. Attitudes and norms affecting scientists’ data reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curty, Renata Gonçalves; Specht, Alison; Grant, Bruce W.; Dalton, Elizabeth D.

    2017-01-01

    The value of sharing scientific research data is widely appreciated, but factors that hinder or prompt the reuse of data remain poorly understood. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we test the relationship between the beliefs and attitudes of scientists towards data reuse, and their self-reported data reuse behaviour. To do so, we used existing responses to selected questions from a worldwide survey of scientists developed and administered by the DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group (thus practicing data reuse ourselves). Results show that the perceived efficacy and efficiency of data reuse are strong predictors of reuse behaviour, and that the perceived importance of data reuse corresponds to greater reuse. Expressed lack of trust in existing data and perceived norms against data reuse were not found to be major impediments for reuse contrary to our expectations. We found that reported use of models and remotely-sensed data was associated with greater reuse. The results suggest that data reuse would be encouraged and normalized by demonstration of its value. We offer some theoretical and practical suggestions that could help to legitimize investment and policies in favor of data sharing. PMID:29281658

  7. Norms and values in sociohydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobavannan, Mahendran; van Emmerik, Tim H. M.; Elshafei, Yasmina; Kandasamy, Jaya; Sanderson, Matthew R.; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Pande, Saket; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable water resources management relies on understanding how societies and water systems coevolve. Many place-based sociohydrology (SH) modeling studies use proxies, such as environmental degradation, to capture key elements of the social component of system dynamics. Parameters of assumed relationships between environmental degradation and the human response to it are usually obtained through calibration. Since these relationships are not yet underpinned by social-science theories, confidence in the predictive power of such place-based sociohydrologic models remains low. The generalizability of SH models therefore requires major advances in incorporating more realistic relationships, underpinned by appropriate hydrological and social-science data and theories. The latter is a critical input, since human culture - especially values and norms arising from it - influences behavior and the consequences of behaviors. This paper reviews a key social-science theory that links cultural factors to environmental decision-making, assesses how to better incorporate social-science insights to enhance SH models, and raises important questions to be addressed in moving forward. This is done in the context of recent progress in sociohydrological studies and the gaps that remain to be filled. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges and opportunities in terms of generalization of SH models and the use of available data to allow future prediction and model transfer to ungauged basins.

  8. Norms and values in sociohydrological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roobavannan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water resources management relies on understanding how societies and water systems coevolve. Many place-based sociohydrology (SH modeling studies use proxies, such as environmental degradation, to capture key elements of the social component of system dynamics. Parameters of assumed relationships between environmental degradation and the human response to it are usually obtained through calibration. Since these relationships are not yet underpinned by social-science theories, confidence in the predictive power of such place-based sociohydrologic models remains low. The generalizability of SH models therefore requires major advances in incorporating more realistic relationships, underpinned by appropriate hydrological and social-science data and theories. The latter is a critical input, since human culture – especially values and norms arising from it – influences behavior and the consequences of behaviors. This paper reviews a key social-science theory that links cultural factors to environmental decision-making, assesses how to better incorporate social-science insights to enhance SH models, and raises important questions to be addressed in moving forward. This is done in the context of recent progress in sociohydrological studies and the gaps that remain to be filled. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges and opportunities in terms of generalization of SH models and the use of available data to allow future prediction and model transfer to ungauged basins.

  9. Brunel mood scale: South African norm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Van Wijk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS has proved useful to assess mood states in a range of clinical settings. Its local utility is restricted by the lack of normative data from South Africa. This paper presents preliminary normative data for the use of the BRUMS in the South African health care setting. Method: Participants (N=2200, ranging from 18 to 59 years, employed in the public sector, and were recruited during routine occupational health surveillance, completed the 24-item self-report BRUMS. They came from all South African race and language groups, and from all nine provinces. Results: Significant differences were found between the scores of women and men, and their results are reported separately. Due to the language dependant nature of the BRUMS, results are also reported separately for respondents with English as first language, and those who have other South African languages as mother tongue. Norm tables with T-scores are presented for the full sample, and per gender X language groups. Conclusion: This study presents normative data for a sample of educated and employed South Africans from various backgrounds. Its brevity, and provisionally language friendly nature makes it a useful measure for screening psychological distress in the SA clinical health care context.

  10. Attitudes and norms affecting scientists' data reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves Curty

    Full Text Available The value of sharing scientific research data is widely appreciated, but factors that hinder or prompt the reuse of data remain poorly understood. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we test the relationship between the beliefs and attitudes of scientists towards data reuse, and their self-reported data reuse behaviour. To do so, we used existing responses to selected questions from a worldwide survey of scientists developed and administered by the DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group (thus practicing data reuse ourselves. Results show that the perceived efficacy and efficiency of data reuse are strong predictors of reuse behaviour, and that the perceived importance of data reuse corresponds to greater reuse. Expressed lack of trust in existing data and perceived norms against data reuse were not found to be major impediments for reuse contrary to our expectations. We found that reported use of models and remotely-sensed data was associated with greater reuse. The results suggest that data reuse would be encouraged and normalized by demonstration of its value. We offer some theoretical and practical suggestions that could help to legitimize investment and policies in favor of data sharing.

  11. Comparing sociocultural features of cholera in three endemic African settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cholera mainly affects developing countries where safe water supply and sanitation infrastructure are often rudimentary. Sub-Saharan Africa is a cholera hotspot. Effective cholera control requires not only a professional assessment, but also consideration of community-based priorities. The present work compares local sociocultural features of endemic cholera in urban and rural sites from three field studies in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC), western Kenya and Zanzibar. Methods A vignette-based semistructured interview was used in 2008 in Zanzibar to study sociocultural features of cholera-related illness among 356 men and women from urban and rural communities. Similar cross-sectional surveys were performed in western Kenya (n = 379) and in SE-DRC (n = 360) in 2010. Systematic comparison across all settings considered the following domains: illness identification; perceived seriousness, potential fatality and past household episodes; illness-related experience; meaning; knowledge of prevention; help-seeking behavior; and perceived vulnerability. Results Cholera is well known in all three settings and is understood to have a significant impact on people’s lives. Its social impact was mainly characterized by financial concerns. Problems with unsafe water, sanitation and dirty environments were the most common perceived causes across settings; nonetheless, non-biomedical explanations were widespread in rural areas of SE-DRC and Zanzibar. Safe food and water and vaccines were prioritized for prevention in SE-DRC. Safe water was prioritized in western Kenya along with sanitation and health education. The latter two were also prioritized in Zanzibar. Use of oral rehydration solutions and rehydration was a top priority everywhere; healthcare facilities were universally reported as a primary source of help. Respondents in SE-DRC and Zanzibar reported cholera as affecting almost everybody without differentiating much for gender, age

  12. Sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils and professional qualification of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Zachová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented text shows the results of research carried out within the dissertation thesis. The main topic is the phenomenon of sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The research is based on the expert belief that integration of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue into Czech schools and the training of teachers in this field is still somewhat marginal, even though there is a growing debate about increasing cultural diversity, increasing heterogeneity of schools and introduction of inclusive measures. The aim of the research was to analyze professional training of teachers in relation to the sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The goal was refined by the formulation of research questions: What possible problems (difficulties reflect teachers in the teaching process of foreign pupils? What procedures and strategies do teachers use to help these pupils to be integrated successfully? How do teachers assess their professional readiness for education of foreign pupils (whether they were sufficiently prepared to work with foreign pupils in the course of their undergraduate studies, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? How do students assess their undergraduate education for foreign-pupil teaching (whether they were ready to work with foreign pupils in their previous undergraduate education, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? The research used questionnaire survey techniques for teachers and students and semi-structured interviews for teachers. The partial technique was the analysis of study subjects focused on the education of foreign pupils at the Faculty of Education at West Bohemian University in Pilsen (hereinafter WBU. The research group was made up of teachers of the 1st grade of primary schools of the Pilsen and Karlovy Vary regions and students of the 4th grade of the field of Teaching for the

  13. Effects of Eye Images and Norm Cues on Charitable Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Oda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field experiments have shown that people are more likely to be prosocial in the presence of watching eyes images. This “watching eyes effect” may be explained by the reputation-based partner choice model or a norm-compliance model suggesting that eye images elicit conformity to locally specific behavioral norms. A previous laboratory study that investigated the effects of local norms on charitable donations by using watching eye images and manipulating money visible in a collection box found that the presence of eye images significantly increased overall donations; however, the images did not make people more likely to conform to the apparent local norm. Here, we report the results of a field study examining the effects of watching eyes and the amount of money in transparent collection boxes on charitable giving in an izakaya (a Japanese-style tavern setting. Contrary to the previous study, we found that the amount donated increased more under the large- than the small-norm treatment. The presence of eye images increased the overall amount donated but was more salient under the small-norm treatment. We found that participants were more likely to increase the amount of money in the box than to conform to the local norm of a small donation when the eye images were present. The results of this study suggest that an appropriate combination of eye images and normative information can alter people’s behavior without changing their economic incentives.

  14. Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta

    2013-02-01

    Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently.

  15. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  16. Sex work, drug use and sexual health risks: Occupational norms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that alcohol and drugs use among sex workers is shaped by the social organization of sex work, including normative expectations, social pressures, negative societal attitudes towards sex work and threats arising from the socio-cultural context of their lives and work. Drugs occupy an ambiguous position in the ...

  17. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  18. Humor norms for 4,997 English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelthaler, Tomas; Hills, Thomas T

    2017-07-14

    Humor ratings are provided for 4,997 English words collected from 821 participants using an online crowd-sourcing platform. Each participant rated 211 words on a scale from 1 (humorless) to 5 (humorous). To provide for comparisons across norms, words were chosen from a set common to a number of previously collected norms (e.g., arousal, valence, dominance, concreteness, age of acquisition, and reaction time). The complete dataset provides researchers with a list of humor ratings and includes information on gender, age, and educational differences. Results of analyses show that the ratings have reliability on a par with previous ratings and are not well predicted by existing norms.

  19. Logical, algebraic, analytic and probabilistic aspects of triangular norms

    CERN Document Server

    Klement, Erich Peter

    2005-01-01

    This volume gives a state of the art of triangular norms which can be used for the generalization of several mathematical concepts, such as conjunction, metric, measure, etc. 16 chapters written by leading experts provide a state of the art overview of theory and applications of triangular norms and related operators in fuzzy logic, measure theory, probability theory, and probabilistic metric spaces.Key Features:- Complete state of the art of the importance of triangular norms in various mathematical fields- 16 self-contained chapters with extensive bibliographies cover both the theoretical ba

  20. The Sociocultural Significance of Court Institutions in Colonial Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Vostrikov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the sociocultural significance of courts in colonial Virginia. Virginia was agrarian “tobacco” colony, where the settlements of urban type did not get proper development. In this connection, court days were very important occasions for social gatherings, when colonists not only might participate in court hearings, but became involved in various social interactions such as news exchange, business transactions, cockfighting, horse racing and attending taverns. If not found in rare towns court buildings weresituated at road junctions and other convenient places to be more easily accessible for inhabitants of the colony. The author also provides a glimpse into the issues of law and order, crime and punishment as well as the general state of the colonial system of justice. During the colonial period the differences between judicial, executive and legislative branches of government were not distinct yet and the institution of the county court had immense importance as it combined all the three types of power on a local level. The court of oyer and terminer dealt with criminal offences. The General court in Williamsburg, the colonial capital, was the main court in Virginia which considered the most crucial cases. The colonial legal system was initially based on English traditions and precedents but it was constantly modified largely due to the singularities of the colony such as abundance of free land and chattel slavery.

  1. Beyond Population Distribution: Enhancing Sociocultural Resolution from Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Rose, A.

    2017-12-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, since late 1990s, we have focused on developing high resolution population distribution and dynamics data from local to global scales. Increasing resolutions of geographic data has been mirrored by population data sets developed across the community. However, attempts to increase temporal and sociocultural resolutions have been limited given the lack of high resolution data on human settlements and activities. While recent advancements in moderate to high resolution earth observation have led to better physiographic data, the approach of exploiting very high resolution (sub-meter resolution) imagery has also proven useful for generating accurate human settlement maps. It allows potential (social and vulnerability) characterization of population from settlement structures by exploiting image texture and spectral features. Our recent research utilizing machine learning and geocomputation has not only validated "poverty mapping from imagery" hypothesis, but has delineated a new paradigm of rapid analysis of high resolution imagery to enhance such "neighborhood" mapping techniques. Such progress in GIScience is allowing us to move towards the goal of creating a global foundation level database for impervious surfaces and "neighborhoods," and holds tremendous promise for key applications focusing on sustainable development including many social science applications.

  2. Socio-cultural factors and youth entrepreneurship in rural regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Araujo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to demonstrate the impact of two important socio-cultural factors on the level of the entrepreneurial activity of young individuals in rural regions. Design/methodology/approach – Our empirical study is based on a sample collected from an adult population survey, and analyzed using a logit model that controls for territorial and aging sources of heterogeneity. Our theoretical framework is anchored on a contingency perspective that emphasizes the unique influences of the contextual environment in driving entrepreneurial behavior. Findings – The main findings of our study is that in Spain the likelihood of being entrepreneurially active is no different for young and old individuals, and between rural and urban regions. Surprisingly, unlike shown in most studies, entrepreneurial role models do not have any effect on the entrepreneurship by young individuals in rural regions of Spain, while the negative impact of fear of failure in the entrepreneurship on young individuals in rural regions is much higher compared to the rest of the population. Originality/value – Our findings reveal that the context (regional has a more significant impact on entrepreneurship for some segments (younger individuals of the population than for others.

  3. Religion as dialogical resource: a socio-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucal, Aleksandar; Zittoun, Tania

    2013-06-01

    William James proposed a psychological study of religion examining people's religious experiences, and to see in what sense these were good for them. The recent developments of psychology of religion moved far from that initial proposition. In this paper, we propose a sociocultural perspective to religion that renews with that initial stance. After recalling Vygtotsky's core ideas, we suggest that religion, as cultural and symbolic system, participates to the orchestration of human activities and sense-making. Such orchestration works both from within the person, through internalized values and ideas, and from without, through the person's interactions with others, discourses, cultural objects etc. This leads us to consider religions as supporting various forms of dialogical dynamics-intra-psychological dialogues, interpersonal with present, absent or imaginary others, as well as inter-group dialogues-which we illustrate with empirical vignettes. The example of religious tensions in the Balkans in the 90's highlights how much the historical-cultural embeddedness of these dynamics can also lead to the end of dialogicality, and therefore, sense-making.

  4. Sociocultural factors in puerperal infectious morbidity among Navajo women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, W T; Schaefer, C; Harrison, H R; Haffner, W H; Lewis, M; Wright, A L

    1989-03-01

    From 1980 to 1982, a sample of 968 pregnant Navajo women in New Mexico was enrolled in a prospective study of biologic and sociocultural factors in puerperal infectious morbidity. Past studies have independently implicated both genital infection and psychosocial stressors in perinatal complications, but, to the authors' knowledge, no previous work has concurrently investigated the interactive effects of genital pathogens and psychosocial processes. Endocervical cultures for Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis were obtained during prenatal visits, and structured interviews were conducted assessing social support and the degree of cultural traditionality, in this context a proxy measure of acculturative stress. The incidences of postpartum fever, endometritis, and premature rupture of membranes were significantly associated with the concurrence of two factors: the presence of genital tract M. hominis and a highly traditional cultural orientation. When demographic and conventional obstetric risk factors were controlled for, women with both M. hominis and high traditionality experienced infectious complications at a rate twice that of women with either factor alone. Among the plausible explanations for this result is the possibility that acculturative stress undermines physiologic resistance to infectious genital tract disease.

  5. Expressed Emotion and Sociocultural Moderation in the Course of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; López, Steven R.; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Kopelowicz, Alex; Zarate, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the sociocultural context moderates the relationship between families' expressed emotion and clinical outcomes in schizophrenia. In a sample of 60 Mexican-American caregivers and their ill relatives, we first assessed whether expressed emotion (EE), and its indices (criticism, EOI and warmth), relate to relapse. Secondly, we extended the analysis of EE and its indices to a longitudinal assessment of symptomatology. Last, we tested whether bidimensional acculturation moderates the relationship between EE (and its indices) and both relapse and symptom trajectory over time. Results indicated that EOI was associated with increased relapse and that criticism was associated with increased symptomatology. Additionally as patients' Mexican enculturation (Spanish language and media involvement) decreased, EE was increasingly related to relapse. For symptomatology, as the patient's U.S. acculturation (English language and media involvement) increased, EE was associated with increased symptoms longitudinally. Our results replicate and extend past research on how culture might shape the way family factors relate to the course of schizophrenia. PMID:21090883

  6. Sociocultural and Familial Factors Associated with Weight Bias Internalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Pearl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Sociocultural and familial factors associated with weight bias internalization (WBI are currently unknown. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal sources of weight stigma, family weight history, and WBI. Methods: Participants with obesity (N = 178, 87.6% female, 71.3% black completed questionnaires that assessed the frequency with which they experienced weight stigma from various interpersonal sources. Participants also reported the weight status of their family members and completed measures of WBI, depression, and demographics. Participant height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Results: Linear regression results (controlling for demographics, BMI, and depression showed that stigmatizing experiences from family and work predicted greater WBI. Experiencing weight stigma at work was associated with WBI above and beyond the effects of other sources of stigma. Participants who reported higher BMIs for their mothers had lower levels of WBI. Conclusion: Experiencing weight stigma from family and at work may heighten WBI, while having a mother with a higher BMI may be a protective factor against WBI. Prospective research is needed to understand WBI's developmental course and identify mechanisms that increase or mitigate its risk.

  7. Expressed emotion and sociocultural moderation in the course of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; López, Steven R; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Kopelowicz, Alex; Zarate, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    This study examined whether the sociocultural context moderates the relationship between families' expressed emotion (EE) and clinical outcomes in schizophrenia. In a sample of 60 Mexican American caregivers and their ill relatives, we first assessed whether EE and its indices (criticism, emotional overinvolvement [EOI], and warmth) related to relapse. Second, we extended the analysis of EE and its indices to a longitudinal assessment of symptomatology. Last, we tested whether bidimensional acculturation moderated the relationship between EE (and its indices) and both relapse and symptom trajectory over time. Results indicated that EOI was associated with increased relapse and that criticism was associated with increased symptomatology. Additionally, as patients' Mexican enculturation (Spanish language and media involvement) decreased, EE was increasingly related to relapse. For symptomatology, as patients' U.S. acculturation (English language and media involvement) increased, EE was associated with increased symptoms longitudinally. Our results replicate and extend past research on how culture might shape the way family factors relate to the course of schizophrenia. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Socio-cultural sustainability of pig production: Citizen perceptions in the Netherlands and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boogaard, B.K.; boekhorst, L.J.S.; Oosting, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Many sustainability studies of animal production consider three pillars: the economic, environmental and socio-cultural. Farmers and animal scientists tend to put most emphasis on the economic and environmental pillar and largely ignore the socio-cultural pillar. Socio-cultural sustainability...... refers to social perceptions of animal farming, including social appreciations and concerns of animal production systems. Integration of social demands and values in the production sector is a prerequisite to justify animal production within a society. The objective of the present study was therefore...... to gain further insights into socio-cultural sustainability of pig production. Many citizens may not know what contemporary pig production actually entails. To give people a real life experience with pig production, we conducted farm visits with citizen panels with 18 respondents in the Netherlands and 8...

  9. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Partner dependency and intimate partner abuse: A sociocultural grounding of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext...

  11. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys...

  12. Contested Norms in the Process of EU Enlargement: Non-Discrimination and Minority Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Antje Wiener; Guido Schwellnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the adoption of EU conditions regarding non-discrimination and minority protection in three applicant countries: Romania, Hungary and Poland. While non-discrimination is a well established EU norm, minority rights are a contested norm and not enshrined in the acquis communautaire. It is argued that contestation over norm meaning highlights the importance of norm resonance and domestic norm construction in processes of norm diffusion, and that the conceptual tension between...

  13. Male genital self-mutilation with special emphasis on the sociocultural meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Naseem A

    2009-04-01

    Complete genital self-mutilation (GSM), mostly a non-suicidal behavior, is a rare occurrence among patients with psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. This case report is on a patient who, in the shadow of severe psychotic manifestations with overwhelming socio-cultural contents, completely self-mutilated his external genitals. Emergency surgical and psychiatric management improved his condition over 4 weeks. In the light of this case, the psychodynamic and socio-cultural meanings of GSM are discussed.

  14. Hyperemesis gravidarum, socio-cultural factors and maternal short psychiatric status

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Mehmet; Turan, Kasim; Cakmak, Yusuf; Budak, Mehmet Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to investigate the associations between Hyperemesis Gravidarum and both sociocultural factors and psychiatric status.Material and Methods: A prospective non-randomized cohort design was employed. A total of 79 patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum and 71 healthy pregnant women were enrolled. The study and control groups were compared according to results on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and sociocultural factors specific to the region.Results: Anxiety, somatic...

  15. The psychological well-being and sociocultural adaptation of short-term international students in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although international students had high levels of social support and low levels of loneliness and stress, students were experiencing high levels of sociocultural ...

  16. Types of analysis of trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the types of analysis of Trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry. Descriptive research was performed, with quantitative and qualitative approach, using a multiple case study. Data were collected through interviews with the controller of the companies. In the four basic culture types suggested by Trompenaars (1994, it is concluded that there isn´t a pure kind, but there is a strong presence of family culture among the companies surveyed in dimensions relationship between employees, attitude in relation to the ways of change, forms of motivation and reward

  17. Assorted interactions of amino acids prevailing in aqueous vitamin C solutions probed by physicochemical and ab-initio contrivances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Koyeli; Roy, Milan Chandra; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular interaction prevailing in tyrosine and tryptophan in aqueous solution of vitamin C have been probed by thermophysical properties. The apparent molar volume (ϕV), viscosity B-coefficient, molal refraction (RM) of tyrosine and tryptophan have been studied in aqueous vitamin C solutions at diverse temperatures via Masson equation which deduced solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. Spectroscopic study along with physicochemical and computational techniques provides lots of interesting and highly significant insights of the model biological systems. The overall results established strong solute-solvent interactions between studied amino acids and vitamin C mixture in the ternary solutions.

  18. Regulatory controls for NORM contamination: Emerging issues and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennerberg, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NORM) faces the increasing likelihood of federal or state regulatory control. Public concern and limited preliminary survey data fuel the debate over the necessity, approach, and jurisdiction of a NORM regulatory strategy. This debate requires the resolution of technical controversies and potentially competing state and federal agency interests. An additional facet of the debate is the impact of regulation upon traditionally non-nuclear industries, such as oil and gas production. Regulatory response has been initiated in several states, such as Louisiana's controls on equipment used in oil and gas production, to control specific industrial activities which generate NORM. A more comprehensive, generic federal strategy to control NORM contamination is also under review by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper will detail the emerging technical issues, federal and state regulatory strategies under consideration, and evaluate the efficacy of selected regulatory approaches. (author)

  19. Almost normed spaces of functions with polynomial asymptotic behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, L D

    2003-01-01

    We consider a linear space of functions asymptotically approaching polynomials of degree not higher than a fixed one as the independent variable approaches infinity. Such a space cannot be normed if the functions in it possess a certain smoothness. For this reason the concept of almost normed space is introduced and the spaces in question, namely, spaces of functions asymptotically or strongly asymptotically approaching polynomials, are shown to be almost normed. The completeness of these spaces in the metric generated by their almost norm is also proved, the connection between the asymptotic approach and the strong asymptotic approach of functions to polynomials is studied, and a new (and shorter) proof of the criterion for the asymptotic approach of functions to polynomials is presented

  20. The Hilbertian tensor norm and entangled two-prover games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukaric, Dejan D, E-mail: ddukaric@ethz.ch [Institute of Theoretical Computer Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-15

    We study tensor norms over Banach spaces and their relation to quantum information theory, in particular their connection with two-prover games. We consider a version of the Hilbertian tensor norm {gamma}{sub 2} and its dual {gamma}{sub 2}{sup *} that allow us to consider games with arbitrary output alphabet sizes. We establish direct-product theorems and prove a generalized Grothendieck inequality for these tensor norms. Furthermore, we investigate the connection between the Hilbertian tensor norm and the set of quantum probability distributions, and show two applications to quantum information theory: firstly, we give an alternative proof of the perfect parallel repetition theorem for entangled XOR games; and secondly, we prove a new upper bound on the ratio between the entangled and the classical value of two-prover games.

  1. PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS’ NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that norms vary by gender and individual- and neighborhood-level race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). In multivariate analyses, neighborhood-level racial/ethnic associations with embarrassment are explained by neighborhood-level SES. Embarrassment is associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy but does not mediate racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic influences, underscoring the importance of both norms and structural factors for understanding teenage fertility. PMID:21921969

  2. Changing norms about gender inequality in education: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels-Hugo Blunch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While norms are important for educational attainment, especially in the developing world, there are relatively few studies on this topic. This paper, which explores attitudes toward gender equality in education among Bangladeshis, should therefore be of interest to both academics and policymakers. Objective: In this paper, we seek to identify which factors affect the norms regarding the education of girls and boys, as well as of women and men, across two cohorts of married women in Bangladesh. In particular, we look at the relative importance of an individual woman's own educational background and those of her spouse and other family members in shaping her attitudes toward gender equality in education. Methods: We analyze a rich household dataset for Bangladesh from the World Bank Survey on Gender Norms in Bangladesh, which was conducted in 2006. We use linear probability models to examine the determinants of gender education norms. We also decompose the intergenerational gender norms gap using the Oaxaca-Blinder composition (total and detailed, taking into account several technical issues related to the computation of standard errors and the use of dummy variables in detailed decompositions. Results: Education norms were found to differ substantially across cohorts, with women from the younger cohort expressing far more positive views than older female respondents regarding education for both girls and women. The effect of education on norms could be found among both the respondents and their husbands, as well as among the older women in the household. This suggests that educational norms are shared both within married couples and across generations. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the far-reaching changes in female education in Bangladesh have had equally far-reaching effects on the perceived value of education for girls relative to education for boys.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL NORMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Jasminka Lažnjak

    1992-01-01

    In the article the relationship between system of technical and system of social norms in ecological project has been considered from constructivist standpoint in sociology of technology. For adequate solution of technological problem of enviromental pollution by hydrocarbons is necessary to define beside technical also system of social norms. Sociological analysis of accidents in transportation of hydrocarbons is suggested in purpose of clear definition of responsibilities of certain social ...

  4. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-12-31

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  5. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  6. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Karspinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First, information on the age norms and stereotypes was collected. Secondly, profiles of hypothetical retired job applicants were presented to the employers, who were asked to make a specific hiring deci...

  7. Competition and norms: A self-defeating combination?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, Genevieve; Gurguc, Zeynep; Koutroumpis, Pantelis; Martin, Ralf; Muûls, Mirabelle; Napp, Tamaryn

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of information feedback mechanisms on electricity and heating usage at a student hall of residence in London. In a randomised control trial, we formulate different treatments such as feedback information and norms, as well as prize competition among subjects. We show that information and norms lead to a sharp – more than 20% - reduction in overall energy consumption. Because participants do not pay for their energy consumption this response cannot be driven by cost saving incentives. Interestingly, when combining feedback and norms with a prize competition for achieving low energy consumption, the reduction effect – while present initially – disappears in the long run. This could suggest that external rewards reduce and even destroy intrinsic motivation to change behaviour. - Highlights: •We investigate the effect of information feedback on residential energy consumption. •A RCT tests whether norms affect the decisions of price-indifferent participants. •Feedback mechanisms and norms reduce energy consumption by 22% on average. •Introducing prize competition dissipates the impact of information feedback and norms.

  8. Model Selection in Continuous Test Norming With GAMLSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voncken, Lieke; Albers, Casper J; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2017-06-01

    To compute norms from reference group test scores, continuous norming is preferred over traditional norming. A suitable continuous norming approach for continuous data is the use of the Box-Cox Power Exponential model, which is found in the generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape. Applying the Box-Cox Power Exponential model for test norming requires model selection, but it is unknown how well this can be done with an automatic selection procedure. In a simulation study, we compared the performance of two stepwise model selection procedures combined with four model-fit criteria (Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, generalized Akaike information criterion (3), cross-validation), varying data complexity, sampling design, and sample size in a fully crossed design. The new procedure combined with one of the generalized Akaike information criterion was the most efficient model selection procedure (i.e., required the smallest sample size). The advocated model selection procedure is illustrated with norming data of an intelligence test.

  9. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  10. Peer punishment promotes enforcement of bad social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Klaus; Gangadharan, Lata; Handfield, Toby; Thrasher, John

    2017-09-20

    Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs. A second experiment confirmed that, independently of whether punishment is available, a majority of subjects regard the efficient behaviour of non-contribution as socially inappropriate. The results show that simply providing a punishment opportunity does not guarantee that punishment will be used for socially beneficial ends, because the social norms that influence punishment behaviour may themselves be destructive.Punishment by peers can enforce social norms, such as contributing to a public good. Here, Abbink and colleagues show that individuals will enforce norms even when contributions reduce the net benefit of the group, resulting in the maintenance of wasteful contributions.

  11. Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J A

    2011-03-01

    Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity.

  12. Explanations on nomenclature and number of material for steels in accordance with DIN norm - (Deutsch Industrie Norm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, S.D.; Silva, T.C.V. da; Bittencourt, M.S.Q.

    1980-01-01

    The materials specified by DIN norm are identified by its nomenclature and corresponding DIN number. The characters (numbers and letters) aim to classify the material and provide indication on main alloy properties and elements. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. El desarrollo local desde una perspectiva sociocultural de la competitividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén D. Echeverry Romero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo sintetiza una perspectiva sociocultural de la competitividad, como resultado del trabajo de investigación aplicada en ejercicios de asesoría a gobiernos municipales, específicamente en Palmira y Buenaventura que hizo el Grupo de Investigación en Negocios Internacionales y Comercio Exterior, en alianza con el Instituto de Prospectiva, Innovación y Gestión del Conocimiento de la Universidad del Valle. Esta perspectiva se materializa en un esquema metodológico que parte de la realización de un perfil competitivo regional, identifica núcleos temáticos que facilitan la profundización de las problemáticas y el tratamiento de las mismas y define un escenario óptimo para la construcción consensuada de estrategias de desarrollo. En su aplicación ha sido posible comprobar que tanto los núcleos temáticos como las categorías de los problemas identificados resultaron comunes en ambos municipios en sus componentes más genéricos. A pesar del carácter heterogéneo de las experiencias, ha sido posible formular un conjunto de estrategias indispensables en las agendas de desarrollo local para municipios similares en los países en desarrollo. Este artículo constituye un aporte fundamental al conjunto de experiencias de construcción de procesos de desarrollo regional con base en el reconocimiento de las particularidades de una localidad

  14. Sociocultural Dimension of Hidden Content in a Professional Language Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina E. Shishlova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: studying curriculum as a pedagogical problem has traditionally been reduced to the analysis of its explicit content, set in official educational documents. However, a much less studied hidden content plays a significant role in education. So, what is the role of the hidden curriculum during professional language training? The purpose of the article is to determine the potential impact of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Comparing the worldview presented in textbooks with students’ one has allowed us to estimate the rate of influence of hidden curr iculum. Materials and Methods: the methodological basis of the work is the cultural concept of personalityoriented education. The methodology for studying the role of hidden curriculum includes four stages: at the first stage, the authors set the criteria for selecting textbooks for analysis and do the selection; at the second stage, the authors select sociocultural concepts for analysis; at the third stage, the scheme of analysis is designed and the analysis of textbooks is done; at the fourth stage, the authors identify the potential influence of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Results: the structure of hidden curriculum has been determined and the scheme for analysing its subject component has been developed. The authors have identified a significant influence of hidden curriculum on students’ worldview, which represents the scientific novelty of the article. Discussion and Conclusions: the article gives the definition of a hidden curriculum which is new for Russian pedagogy and presents a methodology for its analysis in EFL textbooks. That analysis is recommended to be conducted when selecting teaching materials both i n languages and other humanities.

  15. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  16. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  17. Age norms, family relationships, and home leaving in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has shown that social norms have an influence on young adults' life course transitions. However, few studies have explicitly and directly tested the idea that perceived age norms affect the decision to leave the parental home. Objective: I ask whether normative factors are correlated with the decision to leave the family nest in Italy, and whether this association depends on a system of perceived costs and benefits, parental approval of their children's decisions, and the quality of parent-child relationships. Methods: Using the panel component of Family and Social Subjects data (2003 and 2007, logit and multinomial logit models were adopted to analyze the connection between perceived norms and behavior. The Karlson, Holm, and Breen (2012 decomposition method was used to test the relevance of confounding and mediating factors. Results: The findings show that young adults who consider themselves as too young to leave the parental home are less likely to move out of the family nest in order to marry. The interaction between a 'stay' norm, the perceived benefits of leaving home, and parental approval significantly affects the transition to independence. Contribution: In Italy, decision-making about leaving home and getting married is shaped by age norms concerning extended coresidence. Young adults tend to comply with age norms when they perceive that their decision implies benefits and/or a violation will lead to penalties. Perceived parental disapproval reduces the influence of normative factors on individual actual behaviors, which suggests that young adults adhere to norms that are supported by parents.

  18. The Influence of Social Norms in Consumer Decision Making: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although social norms can substantially impact consumer decision making, understanding of how the specification of the norm determines its impact is limited. This meta-analysis (200 independent studies, 659 effect sizes) examines how aspects of social norm specification determine the effect of norms

  19. Seismic noise suppression using weighted nuclear norm minimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Daixiang; Ji, Shuo; Li, Yue; Qian, Zhihong

    2017-11-01

    The weighted nuclear norm minimization method as an extension of nuclear-norm minimization was applied to image denoising originally. It is a kind of low rank matrix approximation method that can estimate the noiseless matrix from its noise version. The effective structures of image have a certain degree of repeatability and the weighted nuclear norm minimization method just utilizes this property to construct an approximate low rank matrix. Taking into account the spatial characteristics of seismic data and the redundancies of valid information, we propose to adopt the weighted nuclear norm minimization method to suppress seismic random noise. In this method the block matching algorithm is helpful for the recovery of seismic events because the texture blocks sharing the same reflection events are the most similar. Even when the signal to noise ratio is - 10 dB, this novel method still be able to clearly recover signals. Experiments on both synthetic and real seismic data show that the weighted nuclear norm minimization method can not only suppress the random noise but also better preserves the valid information of seismic signal when compared to the common seismic denoising methods such as the Wavelet and Time Frequency Peak Filter.

  20. Local Residents’ Perceptions of Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism in Mangochi, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix G. BELLO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine residents’ perceptions of the socio-cultural impacts of tourism in Mangochi, Malawi. This paper is based on results of a survey of 196 households together with ten key informant interviews. A concurrent triangulation mixed method was used to ensure well-validated and substantiated findings. The study findings indicate that local residents perceive specific positive and negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism in their community. Some of the positive sociocultural impacts of tourism include the provision of jobs; improved personal incomes; stimulation of the local economy and improved security in the destination area. However, the study also revealed two major negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism: the migration of people to the area in search of jobs; and the influence of Western visitors on local culture and “the way of life” of local people due to the demonstration effect. The paper indicates the degree to which local residents perceive different socio-cultural impacts of tourism development in an African local community setting. Therefore, the paper will assist tourism planners and local government in the planning and implementation of tourism development strategies for the area aiming at consolidating local residents’ support for tourism.

  1. The Effectiveness of Urban Green Spaces and Socio-Cultural Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Faruk Altunkasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a theoretical approach for mapping and determining the effectiveness of green spaces and socio-cultural facilities as providers of urban ecosystem services and urban services in the case of Adana, Turkey. Firstly, green spaces and socio-cultural facilities per capita have been determined and indexed for the neighbourhoods in the city. Then, a distance-based method for estimating the effectiveness of these facilities was used. The distances between the various neighbourhoods and between a given facility and the farthest threshold have been measured and these values have been used to determine the facility effectiveness change value for each neighbourhood. Then, effective values have been calculated and indexed by incorporating the green space and socio-cultural facility values and the effectiveness change values for the neighbourhoods. Finally, point-based effective green spaces and socio-cultural facilities index values have been converted to continuous surface values in a GIS (geographic information system environment in order to utilize as a base map for urban physical planning purposes. According to the outcomes of this study, the distribution of green spaces and socio-cultural facilities of the neighbourhoods are imbalanced and index values of these facilities range in between 45 and 84 out of 100.

  2. Approach to assessing local socio-cultural impacts using projections of population growth and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Poetsch, R.

    1977-08-01

    All assessment of future domestic development projects assumes that the problems to be examined have been properly identified and defined before the application of a projection technique. An attempt is made to codify socio-cultural problems mentioned in literature and clarify how existing demographic projection techniques can be applied to assessing the problems. The relationship between changes in local population size and composition induced by in-migration and the potential for socio-cultural incompatibilities is described heuristically. For simplification, the problems expected to emerge from differences in demographic composition are classified into three categories: (1) service needs, such as those for housing, recreation, and education; (2) types of social organizations related to capacities for, or constraints on, reaping the benefits of rapid economic development and social changes (e.g., employment and income); and (3) attitudes, values, and cultural perspectives. These areas of concern are very broad, and quantitative projections of population size and composition are more easily related to the first than to the third. Although demographic projection provides a valuable tool for estimating future social change, the knowledge about cause and effect is not sufficient to support the quantification of socio-cultural impact. Therefore, the projections are used only as relative indicators and the assessments of socio-cultural impact based on them are qualitative only. Therefore, identification and assessment of socio-cultural impacts are a means of developing plans to overcome the expected problems.

  3. Body Dissatisfaction in Early Adolescence: The Coactive Roles of Cognitive and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jessica F; Frazier, Leslie D

    2017-06-01

    The sociocultural influences of the media, friends, and family on body dissatisfaction in young girls are well documented, yet further increasing our comprehension of the coaction of cognitive processes with sociocultural factors is crucial to understanding the dynamic emergence of body dissatisfaction in early adolescence. The current study examined the roles of appearance related messages and expectations from friends and family and selective attention biases in the development of body dissatisfaction. An ethnically and racially diverse sample of girls (72 % Hispanic White, 17.8 % African-American, 8.5 % non-Hispanic White, and 1.7 % Asian-American) between the ages of 9 and 13 (N = 118) completed multiple measures of attention, sociocultural attitudes toward weight and shape, and body dissatisfaction. The data from these measures were examined using path analysis. The final model fit well, and demonstrated the coactive effect of selective attention and sociocultural factors on body dissatisfaction. These findings will be instrumental in designing future body dissatisfaction intervention and prevention programs that incorporate cognitive factors, augmenting the existing sociocultural and psycho-educational frameworks.

  4. Relationship between Prevailing Redox Conditions, Water Type, Topographic Location and Methane Concentrations in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, L. J.; McHugh, T. E.; Connor, J. A.; Richardson, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Historical occurrence of methane in residential water wells in parts of the Appalachian basin (Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia) has long been recognized as a natural phenomenon. The recent increase in shale gas extraction activities in these areas has highlighted the need to distinguish between baseline methane concentrations and those that may results from gas extraction activities. For the first time, this study shows that natural dissolved methane in Northeastern Pennsylvania exhibits a relationship with prevailing redox conditions of groundwater, though this relationship is not entirely as predicted. Specifically, methane concentrations in 806 pre-drill samples from residential water wells in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania, were found to be highest in samples with low SO4 concentrations but low Fe(II) concentrations. This is opposite from what would be expected if high methane concentrations were associated with a reduction of insoluble Fe(III)-minerals resulting in the release of soluble Fe(II) (and therefore, an increase in measurable dissolved iron). The water type (i.e., Na-rich vs. Ca-rich), and topographic location (i.e., valley vs. upland) was also evaluated for each of the prevailing redox states to identify associations and potential driving factors. Based on this information, this talk identifies a combination of easily identifiable natural environmental "risk" factors (i.e., advanced redox state, Na-rich water type, and valley setting) that are highly predictive of naturally elevated methane concentrations in water wells. These findings highlight simple and meaningful relationships that may be used to infer whether methane in residential water sources is natural or associated with stray gas migration.

  5. Radiographic progression with nonrising PSA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: post hoc analysis of PREVAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, A H; Alumkal, J J; Armstrong, A; Higano, C S; Iversen, P; Sternberg, C N; Rathkopf, D; Loriot, Y; de Bono, J; Tombal, B; Abhyankar, S; Lin, P; Krivoshik, A; Phung, D; Beer, T M

    2017-06-01

    Advanced prostate cancer is a phenotypically diverse disease that evolves through multiple clinical courses. PSA level is the most widely used parameter for disease monitoring, but it has well-recognized limitations. Unlike in clinical trials, in practice, clinicians may rely on PSA monitoring alone to determine disease status on therapy. This approach has not been adequately tested. Chemotherapy-naive asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic men (n=872) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were treated with the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide in the PREVAIL study were analyzed post hoc for rising versus nonrising PSA (empirically defined as >1.05 vs ⩽1.05 times the PSA level from 3 months earlier) at the time of radiographic progression. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were compared between the rising and nonrising PSA groups. Of 265 PREVAIL patients with radiographic progression and evaluable PSA levels on the enzalutamide arm, nearly one-quarter had a nonrising PSA. Median progression-free survival in this cohort was 8.3 months versus 11.1 months in the rising PSA cohort (hazard ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.23); overall survival was similar between the two groups, although less than half of patients in either group were still at risk at 24 months. Baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar. Non-rising PSA at radiographic progression is a common phenomenon in mCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide. As restaging in advanced prostate cancer patients is often guided by increases in PSA levels, our results demonstrate that disease progression on enzalutamide can occur without rising PSA levels. Therefore, a disease monitoring strategy that includes imaging not entirely reliant on serial serum PSA measurement may more accurately identify disease progression.

  6. Immediate occlusal loading of NanoTite PREVAIL implants: a prospective 1-year clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Pär-Olov; Wennerberg, Ann; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2010-03-01

    Recently, a new implant surface texture, featuring application of nanometer-scale calcium phosphate has been shown to enhance early bone fixation and formation in preclinical studies and in human histomorphometric studies, which may be beneficial in immediate loading situations. The purpose of the present prospective clinical study was to, during 1 year, clinically and radiographically evaluate a nanometer scale surface modified implant placed for immediate loading of fixed prostheses in both maxillary and mandibular regions. Thirty-five out of 38 patients who needed implant treatment and met inclusion criteria agreed to participate in the study and were consecutively enrolled. Surgical implant placement requirements consisted of a final torque of a least 25 Ncm prior to final seating and an implant stability quotient above 55. A total of 102 NanoTite PREVAIL (NTP) implants (BIOMET 3i, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA) (66 maxillary and 36 mandibular) were placed by one investigator, and the majority of these were placed in posterior regions (65%) and in soft bone (69%). A total of 44 prosthetic constructions were evaluated consisting of 14 single-tooth restorations, 26 fixed partial dentures, and four complete fixed restorations. All provisional constructions were delivered within 1 hour, and the final constructions placed after 4 months. Implants were monitored for clinical and radiographic outcomes at follow-up examinations scheduled for 3, 6, and 12 months. Of the 102 study implants, one implant failed. The simple cumulative survival rate value at 1 year was 99.2%. The average marginal bone resorption was 0.37 mm (SD 0.39) during the first year in function. According to the success criteria of Albrektsson and Zarb, success grade 1 was found with 93% of the implants. Although limited to the short follow-up, immediate loading of NanoTite Prevail implants seems to be a viable option in implant rehabilitation, at least when a good initial fixation is achieved.

  7. When politics prevails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven mor...... significant in defining the terrain of the debate than lobby group influence where a cross section of United Kingdom (UK) lobby groups are either actively or passively in favour of remaining within the EU ahead of the referendum....

  8. Can Cooler Heads Prevail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The significant correlation between dropping temperatures throughout the Pliocene and the concomitant explosive expansion of the Hominid brain has led a number of workers to postulate climate change drove human evolution. Our brain (that of Homo sapiens), comprises 1-2 percent of our body weight but consumes 20 -25 percent of the body's caloric intake. We are "hotheads". Brains are extremely sensitive to overheating but we are endowed with unparalleled thermal regulation, much of it given over to protecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Will there be reversed trends with global warming? The human brain has been shrinking since the end of the Ice Ages, losing about 150cc over the past 10,000 years. Polar bear skulls have been downsizing as well. Almost all mass extinctions or evolutionary upheavals are attributed to global warming: e.g. the Permian/Triassic (P/T) event, i.e., "The Great Dying", 250 million years ago (~90% of all life forms wiped out); the Paleocene/ Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 55 million years ago. They may be analogs for what might await us. Large creatures, whose body size inhibits cooling, melted away during the PETM. Horses, initially the size of dogs then, reduced to the size of cats. An unanticipated hazard for humans that may attend extreme global warming is dumbing down or needing to retreat to the Poles as did those creatures that survived the P/T event (some references: http://johnhawks.net/research/hawks-2011-brain-size-selection-holocene; Kandel, E. et al Principles of Neural Science 4th ed. New York (US): McGraw-Hill, 2000; Selective Brain Cooling in Early Hominids:phylogenetic and evolutionary implications, Reeser, H., reeser@flmnh.ufl.edu; How the body controls brain temperature; the temperature shielding effect of cerebral blood flow, Mingming Z. et al. J Appl Physiol. 2006 November; 101(5): 1481-1488; news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2014/03/140327-climate-change-shrinks-salamanders-global-warming-science/; Heat illness and heat stroke, www.ozemedicine.com/wiki/doku.php?id=heat illness 7/3/2010)

  9. Where the signs prevail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo Scavino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show in our paper that through his semiotic theory, Barthes developed a theory of subjectivity and society continued with the anti-utilitarian tradition of the Collège de Sociologie where George Bataille, Carl Einstein or Michel Leiris had favored the mythical and ritual dimension of collective life.

  10. Stabilities of Cubic Mappings in Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rassias(2001 introduced the pioneering cubic functional equation in the history of mathematical analysis: and solved the pertinent famous Ulam stability problem for this inspiring equation. This Rassias cubic functional equation was the historic transition from the following famous Euler-Lagrange-Rassias quadratic functional equation: to the cubic functional equations. In this paper, we prove the Ulam-Hyers stability of the cubic functional equation: in fuzzy normed linear spaces. We use the definition of fuzzy normed linear spaces to establish a fuzzy version of a generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability for above equation in the fuzzy normed linear space setting. The fuzzy sequentially continuity of the cubic mappings is discussed.

  11. Image Superresolution Based on Locally Adaptive Mixed-Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Omer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a typical superresolution algorithm, fusion error modeling, including registration error and additive noise, has a great influence on the performance of the super-resolution algorithms. In this letter, we show that the quality of the reconstructed high-resolution image can be increased by exploiting proper model for the fusion error. To properly model the fusion error, we propose to minimize a cost function that consists of locally and adaptively weighted L1- and L2-norms considering the error model. Binary weights are used so as to adaptively select L1- or L2-norm, based on the local errors. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed algorithm can overcome disadvantages of using either L1- or L2-norm.

  12. Injunctive norms and problem gambling among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W; Whiteside, Ursula; Fossos, Nicole; Walker, Denise D; Larimer, Mary E

    2007-09-01

    Two studies examined the relationships among injunctive norms and college student gambling. In study 1 we evaluated the accuracy of perceptions of other students' approval of gambling and the relationship between perceived approval and gambling behavior. In study 2 we evaluated gambling behavior as a function of perceptions of approval of other students, friends, and family. In study 1, which included 2524 college students, perceptions of other students' approval of gambling were found to be overestimated and were negatively associated with gambling behavior. The results of study 2, which included 565 college students, replicated the findings of study 1 and revealed positive associations between gambling behavior and perceived approval of friends and family. Results highlight the complexity of injunctive norms and the importance of considering the reference group (e.g., peers, friends, family members) in their evaluation. Results also encourage caution in considering the incorporation of injunctive norms in prevention and intervention approaches.

  13. Millon Behavioral Health Inventory norms for chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, E E; Goldberg, M; Fishbain, D; Rosomoff, H; Steele-Rosomoff, R

    1989-05-01

    The Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI) is being used more widely in pain treatment settings; however, normative data on a large sample of chronic pain patients have not been published. In the present study, norms were established for 247 chronic pain patients. The chronic pain patient norms then were compared statistically to norms for non-medical population. Overall, the results showed that the score distributions for chronic pain patients and normals were similar on most MBHI scales. The differences that were found are consistent with other research on pain patients and indicate that chronic pain patients are more likely to be depressed and anxious. Differences in scales between chronic pain patients and controls may be explained by state vs. trait factors. In evaluating chronic pain patients by personality tests, one needs to keep in mind state-trait problems and their potential influence on test results.

  14. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-01-01

    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modeled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored.

  15. An embedding norm and the Lindqvist trigonometric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Bennewitz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We shall calculate the operator norm $|T|_p$ of the Hardy operator $Tf = int_0^x f $, where $1le ple infty$. This operator is related to the Sobolev embedding operator from $W^{1,p}(0,1/mathbb{C}$ into $W^p(0,1/mathbb{C}$. For $1norm gives the operator norm $|T|_p$, is expressed in terms of the function $sin_p$ which is a generalization of the usual sine function and was introduced by Lindqvist [6]. Submitted September 12, 2002. Published October 9, 2002. Math Subject Classifications: 46E35, 33D05. Key Words: Sobolev embedding operator; Volterra operator.

  16. Difference equations in normed spaces stability and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Difference equations appear as natural descriptions of observed evolution phenomena because most measurements of time evolving variables are discrete. They also appear in the applications of discretization methods for differential, integral and integro-differential equations. The application of the theory of difference equations is rapidly increasing to various fields, such as numerical analysis, control theory, finite mathematics, and computer sciences. This book is devoted to linear and nonlinear difference equations in a normed space. The main methodology presented in this book is based on a combined use of recent norm estimates for operator-valued functions with the following methods and results: The freezing methodThe Liapunov type equationThe method of majorantsThe multiplicative representation of solutionsDeals systematically with difference equations in normed spaces Considers new classes of equations that could not be studied in the frameworks of ordinary and partial difference equationsDevelops ...

  17. Robust L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Na; Shao, Yuan-Hai; Deng, Nai-Yang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (L1-2DLDA) with robust performance. Different from the conventional two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with L2-norm (L2-2DLDA), where the optimization problem is transferred to a generalized eigenvalue problem, the optimization problem in our L1-2DLDA is solved by a simple justifiable iterative technique, and its convergence is guaranteed. Compared with L2-2DLDA, our L1-2DLDA is more robust to outliers and noises since the L1-norm is used. This is supported by our preliminary experiments on toy example and face datasets, which show the improvement of our L1-2DLDA over L2-2DLDA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts of geographical locations and sociocultural traits on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan Hoang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new results obtained from investigating the data from a 2015 Vietnamese entrepreneurs' survey, containing 3071 observations. Evidence from the estimations using multinomial logits was found to support relationships between several sociocultural factors and entrepreneurship-related performance or traits. Specifically, those relationships include: (a) Active participation in entrepreneurs' social networks and reported value of creativity; (b) CSR-willingness and reported entrepreneurs' perseverance; (c) Transforming of sociocultural values and entrepreneurs' decisiveness; and, (d) Lessons learned from others' failures and perceived chance of success. Using geographical locations as the control variate, evaluations of the baseline-category logits models indicate their varying effects on the outcomes when combined with the sociocultural factors that are found to be statistically significant. Empirical probabilities that give further detail about behavioral patterns are provided; and toward the end, the paper offers some conclusions with some striking insights and useful explanations on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship processes.

  19. La promoción sociocultural como habilidad profesional en la carrera Estudios Socioculturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousy Baby Ramírez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La formación de habilidades profesionales deviene actualmente en tema que exige una respuesta desde la ciencia. La promoción sociocultural es concebida como metodología para el trabajo comunitario, sistema de acciones y proceso sociocultural; la presente investigación la asume como habilidad profesional en la formación académica del graduado de la carrera Estudios Socioculturales a través de una invariante funcional desarrollada desde el trabajo científico metodológico. El objetivo es elaborar una invariante funcional que contribuya a la preparación de los docentes para el desarrollo de la promoción sociocultural como habilidad profesional en la carrera Estudios Socioculturales.

  20. Bringing Technology to Students’ Proximity: A Sociocultural Account of Technology-Based Learning Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evode Mukama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper depicts a study carried out in Rwanda concerning university students who participated in a contest to produce short documentary films. The purpose of this research is to conceptualize these kinds of technology-based learning projects (TBLPs through a sociocultural perspective. The methodology included focus-group discussions and field notes to collect empirical data. The findings reveal that the more educational technologies capture objects of learning positioned in the students’ sociocultural proximity, the more focused the learners’ attention is on these objects. The study shows also that a change in learning projects may depend to a large extent on whether the technology relates to the students’ sociocultural proximity, that is, taking into consideration students’ physical, cultural, and contextual real world. The study recommends a community of learning/inquiry embedded in a collaborative, problem-solving dynamic involving cognitive support from peers, teachers, external specialists, and the wider community.

  1. THE SOCIOCULTURAL DIMENSION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE SKILLS OF PRE - SERVICE TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunaisi Pérez Vázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches some reflections on a pedagogic strategy for the development of the communicative abilities, from the sociocultural dimension in the teacher training process. The methods and technical that are applied they demonstrate the inadequacies that persist. consequence there are carried out reflections about the pedagogic str ategy, which is characterized by the projection, appropriation and communicative systematizing, where the performance contexts and the demands of the school environment, have singular importance. With their implementation it is achieved the derivation of the objectives and abilities for the interdisciplinary work of the teaching staff, that makes possible a system of pedagogic actions that impact positively to improve the communicative abilities, keeping in mind the incorporation of sociocultural elements in order to contribute the personal and professional development in the pedagogic context as in other sociocultural environment.

  2. The Effect of Sociocultural Factors on Maternal Short Psychiatric Status and Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Baki Şentürk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the associations between Hyperemesis Gravidarum and both sociocultural factors and psychiatric status. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective non-randomized cohort design was employed. A total of 79 patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum and 71 healthy pregnant women were enrolled. The study and control groups were compared according to results on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and sociocultural factors specific to the region. RESULTS: Anxiety, somatic concern, tension, depressive mood, hostility, motor retardation, uncooperativeness and blunted effect were found to be statistically significantly higher in patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum(p<0.01 and p<0.05. Furthermore, pregnant women living in extended families had statistically higher anxiety scores than those residing in nuclear families (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric status as well as sociocultural factors specific to the society in which the individuals live should be taken into account in assessments of patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum.

  3. Economic and socio-cultural impacts of Mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisa Piuchan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the economic and socio-cultural impacts from the burgeoning mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents. Ten individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect Hong Kong residents' views. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results showed that the socio-cultural aspects were reported negatively with regard to culture, shopping and dining, and transportation but conversely, it had a positive impact on education and infrastructure. The economic aspect showed that residents accepted and appreciated the economic benefits brought by the inflow of mainland Chinese tourists. The Hong Kong government should consider these impacts, and then provide better solutions for residents' lives and plans to cope with the upcoming scenario which might arise regarding Hong Kong's economic boom and more tourists traveling to Hong Kong. Recommendations are also suggested in this study for further development. Keywords: Chinese tourists, economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts, tourism impacts

  4. MODERN SLAVERY IN INDONESIA: BETWEEN NORMS AND IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savira Dhanika Hardianti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People now in the 21st century are still sold like objects, forced to work for little or no pay and at the complete mercy of their 'employers'. The Global Slavery Index (GSI 2013 shows that there are estimated 29.8 million people are living in a modern slavery. In Indonesia there are 210,970 people living in slavery. Although Indonesia has some laws regulating about modern slavery that is included in Anti-Trafficking Law. This paper tries to figure the norms and the implementations in modern slavery practice. How the norms are implemented by the government and what are the obstacles to enforce the law.

  5. Social norms and family planning decisions in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is key to developing and implementing locally appropriate public health responses. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the state of Western Bahr el Ghazal (WBeG in South Sudan to explore the social norms shaping decisions about family planning among the Fertit community. Data were collected through five focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel. Results Among the Fertit community, the social norm which expects people to have as many children as possible remains well established. It is, however, under competitive pressure from the existing norm which makes spacing of pregnancies socially desirable. Young Fertit women are increasingly, either covertly or overtly, making family planning decisions themselves; with resistance from some menfolk, but also support from others. The social norm of having as many children as possible is also under competitive pressure from the emerging norm that equates taking good care of one’s children with providing them with a good education. The return of peace and stability in South Sudan, and people’s aspirations for freedom and a better life, is creating opportunities for men and women to challenge and subvert existing social norms, including but not limited to those affecting reproductive health, for the better. Conclusions The sexual and reproductive health programmes in WBeG should work with and leverage existing and emerging social norms on spacing in their health promotion activities. Campaigns should focus on promoting a family ideal in which children become the object of parental investment, rather than

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL NORMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Lažnjak

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the relationship between system of technical and system of social norms in ecological project has been considered from constructivist standpoint in sociology of technology. For adequate solution of technological problem of enviromental pollution by hydrocarbons is necessary to define beside technical also system of social norms. Sociological analysis of accidents in transportation of hydrocarbons is suggested in purpose of clear definition of responsibilities of certain social actors and for modification of existing laws for enviromental protection (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Radioactivity of and exposure by the consumer's goods containing NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Ohhata, T.; Sato, S.; Ohyama, R.; Furuya, H.

    2005-01-01

    It is so important from the view of point of regulation to know the radioactive concentration or radioactivity in the consumer's goods containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and the radiation exposure when they are used in the daily living life. In this study, 20 consumer's goods containing NORM were collected. After chemically processing them, the radioactive concentrations in them were measured by an inductively coupled plasma attached with mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and a γ-ray spectrometer of Ge(li). In addition, the radiation exposures were calculated in four typical cases where the consumer' goods are generally used in the daily living life. (J.P.N.)

  8. Jakarta socio-cultural ecology: a sustainable architecture concept in urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaksono, Sigit; Sasmoko; Indrianti, Y.; Widhoyoko, SA

    2017-12-01

    As a metropolitan city with densely populated and fast residential development Jakarta should be able to implement a concept that is Jakarta socio-cultural ecology Architecture as the basis of settlement development. The concept of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology architecture is characterized by residential development capabilities that reflect and express the indigenous culture, the settlements built by linking the social and economic activities of the people of Jakarta and the settlements built by maintaining the building with the value of existing heritage. The objectives of this research are 1) to find a relevant construct to housing condition in Jakarta which then called Jakarta socio-cultural ecology, and 2) to see the tendency of complex condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology settlement. This research uses Neuroresearch method, which is one of mix-method research method as a mixture research method between qualitative research (exploration) and quantitative research method (explanatory and confirmatory). The population of research as well as unit analysis are all settlements in Jakarta. Sampling technique using probability sampling that is with multistage sampling. The results show that nowadays the Jakarta residential complex tends to lead to socio-cultural ecology and rather reflects and expresses the indigenous culture, the residential complex in Jakarta tends to form the building has been linked fully with the social and economic activities of Jakarta society but tends to occasionally maintain buildings with existing heritage values. This study also found that indigenous culture is a significant determinant of the formation of the condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology.

  9. Environmental factors and teenagers' personalities: The role of personal and familial Socio-Cultural Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-05-15

    Environmental (e.g., socio-cultural context), individual (e.g., genetic makeup), and interpersonal (e.g., caregiver-children relationships) factors can play a crucial role in shaping the development of the teenagers' personality. In this study, we focused on the Socio-Cultural Level that designates the set of preferences, knowledge, and behaviors that characterize an individual's way of life and depend on his or her cultural, social, and economic resources. We studied the relationship between Socio-Cultural Level (personal, maternal, and paternal) and Big Five personality traits of 191 teenagers living in the same geographical area. Results showed that Socioeconomic Status (i.e., parental education level and occupational prestige), which is the only dimension generally measured in investigations on Socio-Cultural Level, was not related with personality. In contrast, Cultural Capital and Social Capital were associated with different personality traits. Personal Cultural Capital was related to Openness to experience of boys and girls and to Extraversion of girls; personal Social Capital was related to Extraversion of girls, Emotional stability of boys, and Agreeableness of both boys and girls; maternal Cultural Capital was associated with Openness to experience of daughters. Overall, the personality of teenagers was more related to their own Cultural and Social Capital than to the Cultural and Social Capital of their parents. Moreover, the relationship between Cultural Capital and Social Capital of boys/girls and of fathers/mothers was moderate in strength. It seems that parents influence the development of personality of their teenagers indirectly, their Socio-Cultural Level shaping the Socio-Cultural Level of their sons and daughters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-02

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group.

  11. A New European COST Network 'NORM4Building' (TU1301) for the Reuse of NORM Containing Residues in Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.

    2014-01-01

    The new COST action was initiated on the 1st of January 2014 and runs for four years. COST is supported by the EU RTD Framework Program. In the presentation more information on how to participate in the network will be provided. In the presentation the new approach and new initiatives of the NORM4BUILDING network, that has its first meeting here in the DEAD SEA Hotel on the 12-13/02/2014, will be introduced. The NORM4Building materials network will be an open network of researchers. An Advisory Board consisting mainly from NORM processing and construction industries and relevant associations and regulators are invited to work in collaboration with the scientists that will populate the various working groups and the management committee of the new COST action

  12. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier...... than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research notes is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption...

  13. Prevailing hyperglycemia is critical in the regulation of glucose metabolism during exercise in poorly controlled alloxan-diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Michael J; Rantzau, Christian; McConell, Glenn; Kemp, Bruce E; Alford, Frank P

    2005-03-01

    The separate impacts of the chronic diabetic state and the prevailing hyperglycemia on plasma substrates and hormones, in vivo glucose turnover, and ex vivo skeletal muscle (SkM) during exercise were examined in the same six dogs before alloxan-induced diabetes (prealloxan) and after 4-5 wk of poorly controlled hyperglycemic diabetes (HGD) in the absence and presence of approximately 300-min phlorizin-induced (glycosuria mediated) normoglycemia (NGD). For each treatment state, the approximately 15-h-fasted dog underwent a primed continuous 150-min infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose, followed by a 30-min treadmill exercise test (approximately 65% maximal oxygen capacity), with SkM biopsies taken from the thigh (vastus lateralis) before and after exercise. In the HGD and NGD states, preexercise hepatic glucose production rose by 130 and 160%, and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCRg) fell by 70 and 37%, respectively, compared with the corresponding prealloxan state, but the rates of glucose uptake into peripheral tissues (Rd(tissue)) and total glycolysis (GF) were unchanged, despite an increased availability of plasma free fatty acid in the NGD state. Exercise-induced increments in hepatic glucose production, Rd(tissue), and plasma-derived GF were severely blunted by approximately 30-50% in the NGD state, but increments in MCRg remained markedly reduced by approximately 70-75% in both diabetic states. SkM intracellular glucose concentrations were significantly elevated only in the HGD state. Although Rd(tissue) during exercise in the diabetic states correlated positively with preexercise plasma glucose and insulin and GF and negatively with preexercise plasma free fatty acid, stepwise regression analysis revealed that an individual's preexercise glucose and GF accounted for 88% of Rd(tissue) during exercise. In conclusion, the prevailing hyperglycemia in poorly controlled diabetes is critical in maintaining a sufficient supply of plasma glucose for SkM glucose

  14. Organizational Culture and Socio-Cultural Values: Perceptions of Managers and Employees in Five Economies in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Maria; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Gasparishvili, Alexander; Krisztian, Bela; Nemeskeri, Zsolt

    2004-01-01

    This survey-based study compared socio-cultural values and perceptions of organizational culture characteristics held by more than 3,300 managers and employees in twelve business organizations in Hungary, Russia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. Significant differences were found between the five countries on all socio-cultural and…

  15. How do women at risk of HIV/AIDS in Iran perceive gender norms and gendered power relations in the context of safe sex negotiations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Razieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Merghati Khoei, Effat; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Dworkin, Shari L

    2013-07-01

    Sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among women is growing in the Middle East region. Despite the fact that there are numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influencing HIV/AIDS protective behaviors, little gender-specificity is carried out in HIV prevention in Iran. In order to close this gap, we aimed to provide preliminary work that explored the perceptions that women at risk of HIV had about gender norms and gendered power and their ability to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS. Twenty-five semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with women at risk of HIV/AIDS, aged 21-49 years, at Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers or Drop in Centers in Tehran, Iran. Results showed that perceived gender norms were essential barriers of protective behavior through sexual socialization, male control over condom use and sexual decision-making, male pleasure predominating in sexual encounters and sexual double standards, and economic dependencies. In the conclusions, we consider how HIV/AIDS preventive programs can be structured to be gender-sensitive and empowering in Iran.

  16. Evolving Norms at the Intersection of Health and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policymaking as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them – particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO) – have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance – the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly 25 years. Our analytic framework particularly focuses on the actors that advance, defend and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively in their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol. PMID:24603086

  17. Successive Over Relaxation Method Which Uses Matrix Norms for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An algorithm for S.O.R functional iteration which uses matrix norms for the Jacobi iteration matrices rather than the usual Power method, feasible in Newton Operator for the solution of nonlinear system of equations is proposed. We modified the S.O.R. iterative method known as Multiphase S.O.R. method for Newton ...

  18. Zero-reconstructible Triangular Norms as Universal Approximators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan; Sarkoci, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-67 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD401/09/H007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : zero-reconstructible strict triangular norm * approximation * multiplicative generator * reconstruction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  19. The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Irwin A.

    1971-01-01

    Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

  20. Phenotypic plasticity and reaction norms of abdominal bristle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The phenotypic plasticity of abdominal bristle number (segments 3 and 4 in females) was investigated in 10 iso- female lines from a French population, grown at 7 constant temperatures, ranging from 12° to 31°C. Overall concave reaction norms were obtained with a maximum around 20°–21°C. Intraclass correlation ...

  1. Adolescent substance use, aggressive behaviors, and peer context behavioral norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There

  2. Adolescent Substance Use, Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Context Behavioral Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There

  3. Students' Concern about Indebtedness: A Rank Based Social Norms Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Wood, Alex M.; Maltby, John; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new model of students' concern about indebtedness within a rank-based social norms framework. Study 1 found that students hold highly variable beliefs about how much other students will owe at the end of their degree. Students' concern about their own anticipated debt--and their intention of taking on a part-time job during…

  4. Hiring retirees: impact of age norms and stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karspinska, K.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the role of managers in the re-employment of early retirees and focuses on the effect of managers' age norms and stereotypes on managers' employment decisions. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of a factorial study and a survey was conducted. First,

  5. Discretization and antidiscretization of rearrangement-invariant norms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Pick, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2003), s. 311-358 ISSN 0214-1493 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/0333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : discretizing sequence * Hilbert norm * classical Lorentz space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.322, year: 2003

  6. Uncodified safety norms and procedural compliance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of procedural compliance in operational teams is analysed. It is investigated the interrelationship between codified (institutional or officials) rules and uncodified safety norm and their influence on the job performance, social behaviour and social interaction of the operational personnel

  7. Classic Conversational Norms in Modern Computer-Mediated Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; Moskaliuk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether conversational norms that have been observed for face-to-face communication also hold in the context of a specific type of computer-mediated communication: collaboration (such as in Wikipedia). Specifically, we tested adherence to Grice's (1975) maxim of relation--the implicit demand to contribute information that is…

  8. Dairy intake-related intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition professionals perceived themselves to be in control of the target behaviour, yet their clients significantly less so (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Nutrition professionals' attitudes, subjective norms and behavioural control can aid responsive empowerment to support dairy-related nutrition education of South Africans.

  9. Children's Judgments of Inequitable Distributions That Conform to Gender Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether distributions by sex are judged to be unfair, children at ages 6, 8, and 10, and adults (N = 96), judged an authority distributing items to children by using different methods (i.e., randomly or by sex), types of items (i.e., related or unrelated to gender norms), and differences in the equivalency of the items (i.e.,…

  10. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  11. The Twist Tensor Nuclear Norm for Video Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenrui; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Wensheng; Xie, Yuan; Yang, Yehui

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new low-rank tensor model based on the circulant algebra, namely, twist tensor nuclear norm (t-TNN). The twist tensor denotes a three-way tensor representation to laterally store 2-D data slices in order. On one hand, t-TNN convexly relaxes the tensor multirank of the twist tensor in the Fourier domain, which allows an efficient computation using fast Fourier transform. On the other, t-TNN is equal to the nuclear norm of block circulant matricization of the twist tensor in the original domain, which extends the traditional matrix nuclear norm in a block circulant way. We test the t-TNN model on a video completion application that aims to fill missing values and the experiment results validate its effectiveness, especially when dealing with video recorded by a nonstationary panning camera. The block circulant matricization of the twist tensor can be transformed into a circulant block representation with nuclear norm invariance. This representation, after transformation, exploits the horizontal translation relationship between the frames in a video, and endows the t-TNN model with a more powerful ability to reconstruct panning videos than the existing state-of-the-art low-rank models.

  12. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van’t Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason. F.

    2014-01-01

    people feel internal pressure (“guilt”) from causing harm to the environment (e.g., emitting carbon dioxide) as well as external pressure to conform to the social norm for pro-environmental behavior (e.g., offsetting carbon emissions). Our model predicts that people may benefit from avoiding information...

  13. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van 't Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason

    people feel guilt from causing harm to the environment (e.g., emitting carbon dioxide) and from deviating from the social norm for pro-environmental behavior (e.g., offsetting carbon emissions). Our model predicts that people may benefit from avoiding information on their harm to the environment...

  14. post-jomtien policy dilutions: infrastructural & quality norms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Operation Blackboard norms diluted – from 3 teachers-3 rooms per primary school to 2 teachers-2 rooms per primary school. Regular teacher replaced by under-qualified, untrained, under-paid Para-teachers appointed on short-term contracts. EGS – No provision for school buildings or teaching aids. Multi-grade Teaching ...

  15. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  16. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  17. Local Pragmatic Norms in Students' English: An Identity to Unleash

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    even African and Asia—norms and values of culture) and therefore tolerated and accepted. But the teacher should explain that it is not commonly spoken by native speakers of English. The teacher should continue explaining that educated native speakers of English will understand it and students should therefore not feel ...

  18. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are 'allowed' to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a

  19. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  20. Motor Performance Norms for Georgia Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, I. David, Comp.; And Others

    In a study of 2,546 Georgia children, researchers have established state norms for 8 measures of physical fitness at 3 grade levels. Motor test score percentile rankings for boys and girls in the second, fourth, and sixth grades are given (in 22 tables) for the following tests: (1) jump and reach; (2) sit ups; (3) shape-o-ball (measuring shape…

  1. The implications of the National Norms and Standards for School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords:access, equity, financial management, funding, inequality, National Norms and Standards, no-fee schools, policy, school fees, social justice .... capita spending; the largest disparities being accounted for in the 'skewed' distribution ... lation of “third-generation activity theory”, also called the cultural-historical activity ...

  2. Descriptive and injunctive norms of waterpipe smoking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L S; Brett, Emma I; Morgan, Taylor L; Lopez, Susanna V; Shaikh, Raees A; Leffingwell, Thad R; Wagener, Theodore L

    2018-02-01

    Smoking tobacco via a waterpipe (WP) is on the rise, particularly among college students. One reason for this may be normative perceptions of WP tobacco smoking (WTS) among this population. The current study examined the perceived and actual descriptive and injunctive norms of WTS among a college student sample. Participants were 894 college students enrolled at a large, Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of WTS frequency and quantity and perceived/actual descriptive and injunctive norms of WTS. Over one-third of the sample reported ever trying WTS, while only 2% reported current (past month) use. When comparing ever and never WP smokers, ever smokers reported greater perceived peer approval of WTS. Both males and females overestimated WTS frequency of same-sex students at their university. The current study is one of the first to investigate descriptive and injunctive norms of WTS among college students. Students who report WTS are more likely to overestimate descriptive norms of WTS among their peers, suggesting corrective normative feedback regarding actual use by peers may be an important target for WTS intervention among college students. Future research should investigate the temporal association between normative perceptions and WTS behaviors among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social norms and family planning decisions in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Kok, Maryse; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline EW

    2016-01-01

    Background: With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is

  4. Methods and manners of interpretation of criminal norms | Assefa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The criminal justice system is constituted of criminal norms, institutions and methods, among others. Interpretation of the criminal law is a process that transforms the text of the law into reality. The process is influenced by various factors, such as, the courts' conception of the criminal law, the concept and practice of ...

  5. A natural Galois connection between generalized norms and metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Száz Árpád

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind a well-known connection between norms and metrics on vector spaces, for an additively written group X, we establish a natural Galois connection between functions of X to ℝ and X2 to ℝ.

  6. Structures of generalized 3-circular projections for symmetric norms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with a locally compact Hausdorff space (not necessarily connected) and X a Banach space with trivial centralizer. Similar characterization also holds for GBPs on Lp-spaces. (1 < p < ∞,p = 2) [14], minimal norm ideal of operators [5], spaces of Lipschitz functions [6], JB∗-triples [9] and certain Hardy spaces [12]. We note that if ...

  7. Reactivating Nigerian norms and values through religious studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Societal norms and values play important roles in the social lives of individuals and society at large. This is because they deal with values, behaviours and attitudes exhibited and encouraged by members of the society. Thus Religious Education is essential for activating Nigerian moral values in order to infuse sanity into ...

  8. Norms for the sport competition anxiety test (SCAT) | Potgieter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) is a useful consultation tool for sport psychologists. A shortcoming of its use is the lack of norms for sport codes not popular in North America, for example, rugby, cricket, field hockey and netball. In this investivation the SCAT was admnistered to 1799 athletes over a period of ...

  9. Peremptory Norms of International Law and Invocation of International Responsibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, nemá (2017), s. 4-22 ISSN 1805-0565. E-ISSN 1805-0999 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : peremptory norms * Jus cogens * general international law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law http://www.cyil.eu/

  10. On Incremental Condition Estimators in the 2-norm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Tůma, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2014), s. 174-197 ISSN 0895-4798 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : condition number estimation * matrix inverses * incremental condition estimator * incremental norm estimator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.590, year: 2014

  11. Values and Norms of Proof for Mathematicians and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Paul Christian; Weber, Keith

    2017-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, we present a framework for conceptualizing proof in terms of mathematical values, as well as the norms that uphold those values. In particular, proofs adhere to the values of establishing a priori truth, employing decontextualized reasoning, increasing mathematical understanding, and maintaining consistent standards for…

  12. Comment: Risk Allocation Norms of Civil Construction Contracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment discusses risk allocation under Ethiopian construction law and examines risks in civil construction contracts. The comment highlights the gaps in risk allocation norms under the standard format of construction contract that was issued by the Ethiopian Ministry of Work and Urban Development (MoWUD) in 1994 ...

  13. End-of-Life Decisions: Ethics, Cultural Norms, and Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing role of technology in prolonging life in severely debilitated patients, with no possibility of restoring health, is on a collision course with moral norms in many societies. Patients have a limited say on when to initiate these complex treatments and when to stop them in the absence of advance directives or living ...

  14. THE INTRODUCTION MODEL OF PRODUCTIVE NORMS IN BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Herasymova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issues of setting norms for levels of economic efficiency depending on ratios of variables (prime price, constant and variable costs, estimate cost of works performed for providing a control of cost and dates of realization of build projects.

  15. International organizations, advocacy coalitions, and domestication of global norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukkonen, Anna; Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Swarnakar, Pradip; Broadbent, Jeffrey; Lahsen, Myanna; Stoddart, Mark C.J.

    2018-01-01

    National climate policies are shaped by international organizations (IOs) and global norms. Drawing from World Society Theory and the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), we develop two related arguments: (1) one way in which IOs can influence national climate policy is through their engagement in

  16. Dairy intake-related intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations with cancer development, diabetes and the environment were believed to be least likely. Professional ... subjective norms and behavioural control can aid responsive empowerment to support dairy-related nutrition education of ..... for the nutrition likely that maas consumption is largely characteristic of cultural.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity and reaction norms of abdominal bristle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic correlations; growth temperature; heritability; isofemale lines; phenotypic correlation; reaction norms. Abstract. The phenotypic plasticity of abdominal bristle number (segments 3 and 4 in females) was investigated in 10 isofemale lines from a French population, grown at 7 constant temperatures, ranging from 12° to ...

  18. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  19. Challenging the Strength of the Anti-Mercenary Norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan; Kinsey, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    capable of accounting for the same observations. From a theoretical perspective, more consideration needs to be given to international restrictions placed upon mercenaries that are the tangential expressions of more basic and pervasive international norms, namely those of state neutrality, the right...

  20. Soft tissue cephalometric norms in Iranian normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue analysis has been proposed by many authors as a reliable guide in treatment planning. Thus establishing population norms is an important issue in orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the mean values of some of the soft tissue facial traits in Iranian subjecsts as determined by Bergman. Lateral cephalograms of 120 Iranian subjects (60 males and 60 females in five age groups (n= 24 with well balanced face and normal occlusion were used.statistical analyses were done by means of unpaired student’s t-test and one way AOVA. The associations of variables with age and also with each other were assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The norms valuesfor Iranian subjects differ from those of Bergman in upper and lower lip thicknesses, facial profile angle and upper lip length (in males.sexual dimorphism was determined in lower facial height, upper lip length, upper lip thickness and lower lip thickness. All of the variables were significantly correlated with age except for facial profile angle. Iranian norms differ from those of other population which are usually used. Therefore, when planning a treatment for this population their own norms should be employed