Varshney, P.K.; Agrahari, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Jain, A.K.
To evaluate the benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions, four stations, viz., Maa Chandrika Devi, Daliganj, Ambedkar Park and Aquaduct, were identified from upstream to downstream along the course of the river in Lucknow. Dissolved oxygen was low on many occasions at all the stations except Maa Chandrika Devi and chemical oxygen demand values were high. There was a gradual increase in mean nitrite and phosphate values from up to downstream. Bent...
Molofsky, L. J.; McHugh, T. E.; Connor, J. A.; Richardson, S. D.
Historical occurrence of methane in residential water wells in parts of the Appalachian basin (Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia) has long been recognized as a natural phenomenon. The recent increase in shale gas extraction activities in these areas has highlighted the need to distinguish between baseline methane concentrations and those that may results from gas extraction activities. For the first time, this study shows that natural dissolved methane in Northeastern Pennsylvania exhibits a relationship with prevailing redox conditions of groundwater, though this relationship is not entirely as predicted. Specifically, methane concentrations in 806 pre-drill samples from residential water wells in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania, were found to be highest in samples with low SO4 concentrations but low Fe(II) concentrations. This is opposite from what would be expected if high methane concentrations were associated with a reduction of insoluble Fe(III)-minerals resulting in the release of soluble Fe(II) (and therefore, an increase in measurable dissolved iron). The water type (i.e., Na-rich vs. Ca-rich), and topographic location (i.e., valley vs. upland) was also evaluated for each of the prevailing redox states to identify associations and potential driving factors. Based on this information, this talk identifies a combination of easily identifiable natural environmental "risk" factors (i.e., advanced redox state, Na-rich water type, and valley setting) that are highly predictive of naturally elevated methane concentrations in water wells. These findings highlight simple and meaningful relationships that may be used to infer whether methane in residential water sources is natural or associated with stray gas migration.
Marcella Castells i Sanabra
Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.
Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M
The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed.
Behaviour of lactic acid bacteria populations in Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese samples submitted to environmental conditions prevailing in the gastrointestinal tract: evaluation by means of a polyphasic approach.
Ricciardi, Annamaria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Succi, Mariantonietta; Aponte, Maria
The survival of the autochthonous microflora, of samples collected during Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese manufacturing, was evaluated along the passage through a model mimicking the gastro-intestinal tract. The aim was the selection of lactic acid bacteria potentially able to arrive alive and metabolically active to the colon. The dynamics of lactic microbiota, throughout simulated digestion of cheese samples, were evaluated by means of an approach PCR-DGGE-based. Dominant species after cheese digestion could be related to the Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei groups. Sixty-three strains, which survived to simulated gastro-intestinal transit, were further evaluated for technological features and tolerance to human digestion in several experimental conditions, according to routinely used protocols. Bacterial survival appeared to be, more than strain-specific, strongly affected by experimental conditions, i.e. some strains showed an acceptable survival when resuspended in skim milk but not in ewe milk and vice versa. Nevertheless according to data, one gram of fresh Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese may convey to human colon about the same amount of viable LAB of a probiotic drink. Although it cannot be assumed that lactobacilli introduced with Pecorino have beneficial effects on the host, the healthy impact of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria of naturally fermented food has a broad consensus in the current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo
Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.
Wynn C Stirling
Full Text Available Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.
Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Pailhez, Guillem; Farré, Magí; Andión, Oscar; Perez, Víctor; Torrubia, Rafael
Although enhanced fear conditioning has been implicated in the origins of social anxiety disorder (SAD), laboratory evidence in support of this association is limited. Using a paradigm employing socially relevant unconditioned stimuli, we conducted two separate studies to asses fear conditioning in individuals with SAD and non-clinical individuals with high social anxiety (subclinical social anxiety [SSA]). They were compared with age-matched and gender-matched individuals with another anxiety disorder (panic disorder with agoraphobia) and healthy controls (Study 1) and with individuals with low social anxiety (Study 2). Contrary to our expectations, in both studies, self-report measures (ratings of anxiety, unpleasantness and arousal to the conditioned stimuli) of fear conditioning failed to discriminate between SAD or SSA and the other participant groups. Our results suggest that enhanced fear conditioning does not play a major role in pathological social anxiety. We used a social conditioning paradigm to study fear conditioning in clinical and subclinical social anxiety. We found no evidence of enhanced fear conditioning in social anxiety individuals. Enhanced fear conditioning may not be a hallmark of pathological social anxiety. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.
This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.
Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana
Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.
Yusufishaq, Shabana; Rosenkranz, J Amiel
Many mammals can utilize social information to learn by observation of conspecifics (social learning). Social learning of fear is expected to be especially advantageous for survival. However, disruption of social development in early life can impair social cognition and might also be expected to disrupt social learning. Social isolation during a critical period of adolescence disrupts social development. The purpose of this study was to determine whether disruption of social development through post-weaning social isolation leads to impairments of social fear learning. Rats were reared in isolation or pair-housed from immediately post-weaning, for 3 weeks. Social fear learning in rats was acquired by observation of tone-footshock pairings administered to a conspecific. Isolation-reared rats displayed less conditioned freezing than pair-housed rats when tested the next day. This reduction of conditioned freezing was correlated with conspecific-oriented behaviors during conditioning, was measured despite similarities in demonstrator behaviors, and occurred despite a manipulation that equalized freezing during conditioning between the pair-housed and isolation-reared rats. The results could not be explained by abnormal sensitization to a repeated tone or deficits in freezing or direct fear conditioning. These results demonstrate that observational fear conditioning is impaired by social isolation, and provide a model to study impaired social affective learning. Impaired social cognition, manifested as inability to recognize or appropriately interpret social cues, is a symptom of several psychiatric disorders. Better understanding of the mechanisms of impaired social fear learning can lead to novel treatments for social cognition symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rhonda Mazza; Linda E. Kruger
In 1997, scientists at the Pacific Northwest Research Station initiated several social science studies in response to information gaps identified while developing the Tongass Land Management Plan. Results presented here summarize findings from studies of demographic trends and tourism trends in the region based on data available through 2002. Demographic...
These needs differ from one society to another, and are guided by the social and cultural conditions of the society in which the children live. An experienced author of children's literature will always consider the social and cultural backgrounds of the children for whom the book is to be written. Not so fast Songololo (Daly, ...
Meek, Kayla P; Bergeron, Caroline D; Towne, Samuel D; Ahn, SangNam; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee
Background : Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods : Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results : Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44-64) and older adults (age 65+) with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions : Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population.
Kayla P. Meek
Full Text Available Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results: Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44–64 and older adults (age 65+ with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions: Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population.
Debele, Meskerem; Plevyak, Linda
The purpose of the authors in this review is to examine how teacher-related, context-related, and project-related conditions interact in successful cases of technology integration projects in social studies classrooms. A close examination of different dimensions of these conditions in the implementation of 33 successful cases of…
Full Text Available Social communication is heavily affected in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, mouse models designed to study the mechanisms leading to these disorders are tested for this phenotypic trait. Test conditions vary between different models, and the effect of these test conditions on the quantity and quality of social interactions and ultrasonic communication is unknown. The present study examines to which extent the habituation time to the test cage as well as the shape/size of the cage influence social communication in freely interacting mice. We tested 8 pairs of male mice in free dyadic social interactions, with two habituation times (20 min and 30 min and three cage formats (rectangle, round, square. We tested the effect of these conditions on the different types of social contacts, approach-escape sequences, follow behavior, and the time each animal spent in the vision field of the other one, as well as on the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations and their contexts of emission. We provide for the first time an integrated analysis of the social interaction behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations. Surprisingly, we did not highlight any significant effect of habituation time and cage shape/size on the behavioral events examined. There was only a slight increase of social interactions with the longer habituation time in the round cage. Remarkably, we also showed that vocalizations were emitted during specific behavioral sequences especially during close contact or approach behaviors. The present study provides a protocol reliably eliciting social contacts and ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice. This protocol is therefore well adapted for standardized investigation of social interactions in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...
The elderly should be encouraged by the nutritionists and dieticians to take fruits and vegetable regularly, while policy makers in Nigeria should render adequate welfare support to improve the standard of living and the quality of life of the elderly. Key words: Social support, Environmental condition, Nutritional status, elderly ...
Ji, Xiang; Ae Chun, Soon; Geller, James
Many patients suffer from comorbidity conditions, for example, obese patients often develop type-2 diabetes and hypertension. In the US, 80% of Medicare spending is for managing patients with these multiple coexisting conditions. Predicting potential comorbidity conditions for an individual patient can promote preventive care and reduce costs. Predicting possible comorbidity progression paths can provide important insights into population heath and aid with decisions in public health policies. Discovering the comorbidity relationships is complex and difficult, due to limited access to Electronic Health Records by privacy laws. In this paper, we present a collaborative comorbidity prediction method to predict likely comorbid conditions for individual patients, and a trajectory prediction graph model to reveal progression paths of comorbid conditions. Our prediction approaches utilize patient generated health reports on online social media, called Social Health Records (SHR). The experimental results based on one SHR source show that our method is able to predict future comorbid conditions for a patient with coverage values of 48% and 75% for a top-20 and a top-100 ranked list, respectively. For risk trajectory prediction, our approach is able to reveal each potential progression trajectory between any two conditions and infer the confidence of the future trajectory, given any observed condition. The predicted trajectories are validated with existing comorbidity relations from the medical literature.
Martin, Loren; Iceberg, Erica
In this protocol, social motivation is measured in mice through a pair of operant conditioning paradigms. To conduct the experiments, two-chambered shuttle boxes were equipped with two operant levers (left and right) and a food receptacle in one chamber, which was then divided from the second chamber by an automated guillotine door covered by a wire grid. Different stimulus mice, rotated across testing days, served as a social stimulus behind the wire grid, and were only visible following the opening of the guillotine door. Test mice were trained to lever press in order to open the door and gain access to the stimulus partner for 15 sec. The number of lever presses required to obtain the social reward progressively increased on a fixed schedule of 3. Testing sessions ended after test mice stopped lever pressing for 5 consecutive minutes. The last reinforced ratio or breakpoint can be used as a quantitative measure of social motivation. For the second paradigm, test mice were trained to discriminate between left and right lever presses in order to obtain either a food reward or the social reward. Mice were rewarded for every 3 presses of each respective lever. The number of food and social rewards can be compared as a measurement of the value placed upon each reward. The ratio of each reward type can also be compared between mouse strains and the change in this ratio can be monitored within testing sessions to measure satiation with a given reward type. Both of these operant conditioning paradigms are highly useful for the quantification of social motivation in mouse models of autism and other disorders of social behavior.
Empirical research on happiness took off in the 1970s and accelerated after the emergence of positive psychology by 2000. Today this has resulted in some 23,000 research findings. In this article, I take stock of the findings on social conditions for happiness and distinguish between conditions at the macro level of society, the meso level of organisations and the micro level of individual conditions. A new review technique is applied, an online findings archive is used, in which research findings on happiness are described in a uniform way and sorted by subject. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a complex phenomenon that involves not only economic activity but also social mechanisms. The intention to become an entrepreneur is a matter not only of one’s individual personality but also of one's interaction with the social environment. This study has three main objectives: predicting the existence of entrepreneurial behavioural intentions in different socio-economic conditions; examining how entrepreneurial behavioural intentions formulate entrepreneurial behaviour; and identifying how social capital influences this relationship. It also aims to reveal the differences between entrepreneurs in a relatively mature free market economy (Taiwan and a newly emerging free market economy (Mongolia. The analysis shows that socio-economic conditions affect the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. There are different approaches to building social capital in a relatively mature market and its newly emerging counterpart. The tendency of having high trust and social ties was found in Taiwanese entrepreneurs, while monitoring is commonly found among Mongolian entrepreneurs.
Alan E. Watson
âSocial conditions in wildernessâ refers to all aspects of human use of the wilderness that pose the possibility of impact to the resource and visitor experiences. The reasons for monitoring (1) use levels and use trends (including characteristics of use and users) and (2) the quality of the recreation experiences provided (ability to provide naturalness, privacy, and...
Hilal Ozen; Ismail Kaya
The present article is based on a 175-nation, 26 standard predictor variables study on the determinants of seven important indicators of social conditions on a global scale. The standard predictors cover all major development accounting theories today, including a) Demographic factors, b) Dependency and world systems approaches, c) Feminist paradigms, d) Geographic factors, e) Human capital formation, f) Integration into the European Union and the European Monetary Union, g) Migration, h) Mil...
Maksimova, T M; Gaenko, O N; Belov, V B
Results of social-and-hygienic research of the health condition of children belonging to different social-and-economic population categories are under discussion. The material family status is shown to directly affect the child's life quality, i.e. family life mode, psychological climate, scope and variety of food-stuffs, the possibility to have a regular and valuable recreation, educational regime, and the possibility to satisfy the spiritual demands of a child etc. The morbidity goes up among children as the family income decreases. The social-and-economic conditions are the uttermost and often decisive risk factor that provokes the development of deviations in children's health. The material stratification of society conditions, for children, differing degrees of access to public benefits that are involved in shaping the children's health, thus, entailing the disequilibrium in their health. A realistic pattern of children's health is needed as a data base to define an objective necessity of children in medical care of different types as well as their necessity in medical drugs and equipment.
Hu, Yanqing; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.
A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up "new ideas." Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through "viral" influence spreading, producing cascades of followers and fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the rise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the rise of Facebook to the detriment of Myspace. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex-correlated graph with hidden "influence links." Analytical solutions predict percolation-phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers, as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of the local correlation function between multilayers, which we also confirm empirically. Ultimately, the theory predicts the conditions for viral cascading in a large class of multiplex networks ranging from social to financial systems and markets.
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Medical social services....34 Condition of participation: Medical social services. If the agency furnishes medical social services, those services are given by a qualified social worker or by a qualified social work assistant...
O. V. Antonov
Full Text Available Socialphilosophical analysis had displayed the next conditions of state power legitimacy: 1 realistic progressiveness – definition of social unacceptable innovations; 2 absorption in national consciousness – policy, which conforms to local culturalhistorical peculiarities of such predisposition; 3 moderate liberal views – balance between insufficient and excessive harshness; 4 observance of contractual discipline – socialcontractual essence of relationships between direction of a country and its population; 5 pretended accountability, which shows oneself in dual nature of state power, that must look clear for retention of legitimacy, on the one hand, and has to make a secret of ones immoral practices, on the other hand; 6 democratic policy, which conquers recognition of majority by means of execution of their will; 7 scientific integration – countercollision, system making factor for state power and, through state power, for whole society; 8 openness, which provides intrasystem synthesis of all other factors thanks to incessant renewal of state power stuff by the best cadres; 9 absolute meritocracy – stuffing of state elite by figures, who have professional characteristics, which conform to people’s txpectations; 10 observance of natural rights – is based on knowing of this permanent principle of socialstate relations and on empathy of its temporal modifications; 11 actualization of natural low idea in concrete acts of transindividual interplay; 12 dosated noninterference into privacy – preventive satisfaction of human individualism; 13 organization of power instinct sublimation – policy, which fund oneself on knowing of the fact, that this aspiration is an all people’s way, and which consists in peacemaking management of aspiration realization.
Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin
In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641
Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald
In language acquisition research, the prevailing position is that listeners exploit statistical cues, in particular transitional probabilities between syllables, to discover words of a language. However, other cues are also involved in word discovery. Assessing the weight learners give to these different cues leads to a better understanding of the processes underlying speech segmentation. The present study evaluated whether adult learners preferentially used known units or statistical cues for segmenting continuous speech. Before the exposure phase, participants were familiarized with part-words of a three-word artificial language. This design allowed the dissociation of the influence of statistical cues and familiar units, with statistical cues favoring word segmentation and familiar units favoring (nonoptimal) part-word segmentation. In Experiment 1, performance in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task between words and part-words revealed part-word segmentation (even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities and less frequent than words). By contrast, an unfamiliarized group exhibited word segmentation, as usually observed in standard conditions. Experiment 2 used a syllable-detection task to remove the likely contamination of performance by memory and strategy effects in the 2AFC task. Overall, the results suggest that familiar units overrode statistical cues, ultimately questioning the need for computation mechanisms of transitional probabilities (TPs) in natural language speech segmentation.
Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.
Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... test session was recorded. All horses could access all three types of social contact in a cross-over design, and an empty arena was used as control. Motivational strength was assessed using elasticity of demand functions, which were estimated based on the number of rewards earned and FR. Elasticities...... the restriction on social contact (full > head > muzzle). However, the finding that horses showed a similar and high motivation for all three types of social contact suggests that they are valued equally highly in a situation where the alternative is no social contact....
Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of trait social anxiety on cardiovascular, emotional and behavioral responses to active performance situations representing social and cognitive demands. Thirty-six male and thirty-six female students categorized as either high or low in trait social anxiety performed a mental arithmetic task and two interpersonal tasks requiring persuasive behavior: Preparation and Performance of a Speech, Role-played Interpersonal Interactions. The cardiovascular effects of social anxiety varied over experimental stressors and appear to reflect differences in effort or task engagement rather than differential affective experiences. During Role-played Interactions high socially anxious subjects displayed lower increases in systolic blood pressure compared to low anxious participants. This effect was partially mediated by behavioral indicators of social competence and suggests a more inhibited coping approach of socially anxious participants. Findings for Mental Arithmetic were in the opposite direction, high socially anxious subjects displayed greater heart rate effects. In the absence of group differences in state anxiety this effect might result from stronger audience effects on effort or task motivation in socially anxious participants. These findings strengthen the view that active performance situations elicit cardiovascular effects that are largely attributable to differences in task engagement. The data also indicate the importance of considering situational factors in social anxiety research.
Barba, M C; de Martos, M V; da Fonseca, R M
The study aimed at reviewing the history of the genesis and social formation of nurses work in Peru in order to understand it according to women's social situation in the context of a masculine society organized under capitalism. Thus, nursing formation was influenced by the Nightingale School and the exercise of the Peruvian nurses was characterized by the reproduction of social functions that are historically feminine, with a knowledge and practice subordinated to medical knowledge, that is mainly directed by a masculine ideology.
Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain
The study investigates the economic, ethnic and social background of teenagers before becoming teenage mothers or before having an induced abortion for the first time in order to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation or ethnicity are causes of teen...... were at the same level for ethnic minorities as for ethnic Danes, this was not the case for teen motherhood, when controlling for social disadvantage and poverty....
Mogens Nygaard Christoffersen
Conclusion: Disadvantage during adolescence is a precursor for teenage child bearing while parental unemployment and poverty are precursors of lifetime childlessness. While social disadvantage is a precursor for first time late abortion among 32 to 37 years old women, the teenage mothers are in a more disadvantage position than teenagers who choose induced abortions. Social disadvantages inflict at the same time early motherhood and childlessness because social disadvantages influence young women differently than elder women.
S. Gloppen (Siri)
textabstractThis article commends the concise and useful analysis of courts and the legal enforcement of economic, social and cultural rights given in Christian Courtis’ book, Courts and the Legal Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Comparative Experiences of Justiciability. Yet, in
Full Text Available The paper analyses the topic of social dualism through religion, morality and science. The paper refers to one of the most original works uncovering the social roots of religion – The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life by Emile Durkheim (1858–1917 who is considered to be the founder of modern sociology. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life develops the coherent theory of religion as well as ventilates different aspects of the religious life. The message of the paper is: is religion the generative essence of social aspect, does a state of constant dependence stimulate a sense of religious piety, is a moral social order able to stabilize dualism of human energy. The paper proposes an assertion that science as a social phenomenon reflects knowledge and the values of its perception which are impacted by imagination and classified codes of cultural forms. As a result a thesis is proposed – a cultural (influenced by environment and a personal (influenced by internal factors desire for differentiation and its provoked conflict is of a social character. The second part of the paper deals with relation between science and social phenomena with inherent dualism. A short discussion is presented on L’ Année Sociologique (a group of scientists initiated by Durkheim representing a new sociological paradigm, the beginning of scientific social culture giving sense to cooperation of sociological theory and practice.
Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria
This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime...... and analysing the corresponding position of women and men in paid and unpaid work, the paper contains an in-depth discussion of the short- and medium-term policy responses to the crisis. Our analysis shows that independent of the prevailing gender regime, scant public attention has been directed to gender...
Beckes, Lane; Coan, James A; Morris, James P
Not much is known about the neural and psychological processes that promote the initial conditions necessary for positive social bonding. This study explores one method of conditioned bonding utilizing dynamics related to the social regulation of emotion and attachment theory. This form of conditioning involves repeated presentations of negative stimuli followed by images of warm, smiling faces. L. Beckes, J. Simpson, and A. Erickson (2010) found that this conditioning procedure results in positive associations with the faces measured via a lexical decision task, suggesting they are perceived as comforting. This study found that the P1 ERP was similarly modified by this conditioning procedure and the P1 amplitude predicted lexical decision times to insecure words primed by the faces. The findings have implications for understanding how the brain detects supportive people, the flexibility and modifiability of early ERP components, and social bonding more broadly. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Figueroa, Maria J.
and sharing space for bicycle mobility is still receiving different degrees of success and failure across cities globally given the strong dominance of motorized forms of moving across the world. The methodological approach traced the practices, influences and narratives of the social innovation to share......Societies require full integration of the potential of civil engagement and collective action of societal actors in forms of social innovation that advances creativity in problem solving. Social innovations is here understood as new forms of resolving societal problems advanced by organized civil...... societal groups in collective efforts and practices in interaction with other actors business, state, foundations etc. This paper offers reflections based on the results of a large EU project the ITSSOIN.eu project that investigated impacts of Third Sector as Social innovation in a variety of areas...
Loureiro, Paulo Roberto Amorim; Mendonça, Mário Jorge Cardoso de; Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Sachsida, Adolfo
This paper tests whether factors referring to socio-economic aspects, family heritage, social interaction, habits and customs explain differences among violent and non-violent prisoners. Some of the results of the probit estimation show that economic issues are the main factors that stimulate the practice of nonviolent crime. On the other hand, violent crimes results suggest that factors related to family heritage reduce this kind of crime. In relation to variables of social inter...
Mogens Nygaard Christoffersen; Mette Lausten
The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen chi...
Furyaeva, Tatiana V.; Markevich, Anna N.; Furyaev, Evgeniy
The relevance of the study is due to the need to overcome social exclusion of adolescents and young people caused by their health condition and restrictions on life in the context of inclusion trends in the worldwide social policy and practice. In this connection, the article aims to justify and search for hospitalsubstitute format of social and…
Terry L. Raettig; Dawn M. Elmer; Harriet H. Christensen
This atlas illustrates the spatial and temporal dimensions of social and economic changes in the social-economic assessment region in the decade since 1987/1988. Maps, interpretive text, and accompanying tables and graphs portray conditions, trends, and changes in selected social, economic, and natural resource-related indicators for the 26 counties of the diverse...
Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Sanna; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen
Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using “resident-intruder” stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In Experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, postnatal days [PND] 28–37), late adolescence (LA, PND 38–47), and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70–79) and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST), were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning (RL) on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) in adulthood but not during adolescence. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress) on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in Experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive
Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Sanna; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen
Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using "resident-intruder" stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In Experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, postnatal days [PND] 28-37), late adolescence (LA, PND 38-47), and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70-79) and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST), were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning (RL) on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) in adulthood but not during adolescence. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress) on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in Experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive function are
Antonina L. Leutina
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the problem of reflection of social norms and its impact on the process of socialization of children with a high creative potential.Methods. Processes of socialization and reflection of social norms are considered in this article on the basis of the methodology of the system and mental activity analysis developed by G. P. Schedrovitsky, the founder of the Moscow Methodological Study Group. The article provides the comparative analysis of the adaptation and activity approach to socialization of children with a high creative potential according to such parameters as the object, socialization mechanisms, characteristics of social norms, social controls, personal controls, personal qualities, level of social mobility, and nature of the process of socialization.Results and scientific novelty. The author puts forward the thesis about irrational character and «off-limits» of judgements of the majority of social norms in a modern society, and shows distinction of social and personal regulators of a reflection of these norms. One of the main conclusions is the following: rationalisation and reflection of social norms are the important conditions of social dynamics and social development.It has been found that unconscious personal acceptance of social norms that is typical of the adaptation approach leads to two opposite results: 1 successful adaptation due to uncritical acceptance of social norms by the child, which leads to decrease in the diversity of ways of activity and specificity of its products, and, as a result, failure to realize the creative potential; 2 desocialization of the child in case of keeping the level of creative abilities and the possibility of its realization.The activity approach which is based on reflexive mechanisms represents absolutely different methodological opportunities for solving the problem of socialization of children with a high creative potential. The activity approach contributes
Nicholson, Nicholas R
Social isolation is a major and prevalent health problem among community-dwelling older adults, leading to numerous detrimental health conditions. With a high prevalence, and an increasing number of older persons, social isolation will impact the health, well-being, and quality of life of numerous older adults now and in the foreseeable future. For this review, a series of literature searches of the CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Medline databases were conducted, using the key words "social isolation," "social networks," "older adults," "elderly," "belonging," "perceived isolation," "social engagement," "social contacts," and "social integration," for the period of 1995-2010. The results show that there is an overabundance of evidence demonstrating numerous negative health outcomes and potential risk factors related to social isolation. However, there is scarce evidence that public health professionals are assessing social isolation in older persons, despite their unique access to very socially isolated, homebound older adults. Additionally, few viable interventions were found; therefore, it is advisable to focus on the prevention of social isolation in older adults. Public health professionals can take steps toward increasing the early assessment of social isolation and referring at-risk individuals to available community resources in order to prevent social isolation or further isolation, which would serve to reduce the numerous negative health outcomes associated with this condition.
Lozano, S.; Arenas, A.; Sanchez, A.
We study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on two social networks substrates obtained from actual relational data. We find very different cooperation levels on each of them that cannot be easily understood in terms of global statistical properties of both networks. We claim that the result can be understood at the mesoscopic scale, by studying the community structure of the networks. We explain the dependence of the cooperation level on the temptation parameter in terms of the internal structure of the communities and their interconnections. We then test our results on community-structured, specifically designed artificial networks, finding a good agreement with the observations in both real substrates. Our results support the conclusion that studies of evolutionary games on model networks and their interpretation in terms of global properties may not be sufficient to study specific, real social systems. Further, the study allows us to define new quantitative parameters that summarize the mesoscopic structure of any network. In addition, the community perspective may be helpful to interpret the origin and behavior of existing networks as well as to design structures that show resilient cooperative behavior.
Zoicas, Iulia; Menon, Rohit; Neumann, Inga D
Neuropeptide S (NPS) has anxiolytic effects and facilitates extinction of cued fear in rodents. Here, we investigated whether NPS reverses social fear and social avoidance induced by social fear conditioning (SFC) and acute social defeat (SD), respectively, in male CD1 mice. Our results revealed that intracerebroventricular NPS (icv; 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) reversed fear of unknown con-specifics induced by SFC and dose-dependently reduced avoidance of known aggressive con-specifics induced by SD. While 50 nmol of NPS completely reversed social avoidance and reinstated social preference, 10 nmol of NPS reduced social avoidance, but did not completely reinstate social preference in socially-defeated mice. Further, a lower dose (1 nmol/2 μl) of NPS facilitated the within-session extinction of cued fear, while a higher dose (10 nmol/2 μl) reduced the expression of cued fear. We could also confirm the anxiolytic effects of NPS (1, 10 and 50 nmol/2 μl) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM), which were not accompanied by alterations in locomotor activity either on the EPM or in the home cage. Finally, we could show that icv infusion of the NPS receptor 1 antagonist D-Cys((t)Bu)(5)-NPS (10 nmol/2 μl) did not alter SFC-induced social fear, general anxiety and locomotor activity. Taken together, our study extends the potent anxiolytic profile of NPS to a social context by demonstrating the reduction of social fear and social avoidance, thus providing the framework for studies investigating the involvement of the NPS system in the regulation of different types of social behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gómez, Carmen; Redolat, Rosa; Carrasco, Carmen
The antidepressant bupropion has received increasing attention as a pharmacological tool to treat addiction although little is known about its effects on social behaviour in adolescents. The present study aimed to evaluate if environmental housing conditions influence bupropion's actions on social behaviour of adolescent mice. Mice were either group- or individually housed for 2-weeks and then randomly divided into 2 cohorts: half of the mice remained in the initial housing condition and the other half were changed to isolated conditions for further 2-weeks. The following groups were compared: isolated/isolated (ISO/ISO), isolated/group-housed (ISO/GR), group-housed/isolated (GR/ISO), and group-housed/group-housed (GR/GR). The effects of bupropion (40, 20, 10mg/kg) or saline on social interaction were assessed for each housing condition. Social encounters were evaluated using ethological analysis. Data showed significant effects of bupropion on grooming and digging. This drug diminished time mice allocated to these behavioural categories in all housing conditions. In ISO/GR and GR/ISO conditions, bupropion increased environmental exploration (non-social exploration and exploration from a distance), reduced social investigation and increased avoidance/flee and defence/submission behaviours. An augment of avoidance/flee during social interactions was observed in bupropion-treated mice in GR/GR housing condition. These results suggest that this drug exhibits anxiogenic-like properties in social encounters between adolescent mice, especially when a transition in housing conditions has been experienced during this period. Changes in housing conditions may be a useful model for evaluating the effects of bupropion on social behaviour and the role of environmental housing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
T. G. Gireev
Full Text Available In Dagestan as in Russia in general, tuberculosis situation has been stably improving for the last 15 years, which resulted in the reduction of efficiency and cost-effectiveness of regular screening in the adult population. Due to this it is necessary to relocate tuberculosis control resources from standard mass screening to activities targeted at risk groups. First of all, these risk groups include children and adolescents, the HIV infected, those exposed to infectious cases of tuberculosis, patients with remaining post-tuberculosis changes and diseases increasing the risk of tuberculosis - those addicted to alcohol and substances, suffering from diabetes, peptic ulcer, chronic non-specific pulmonary diseases as well as those living in poor conditions. It is reasonable to perform work aimed at the upgrade of TB services in the regions with favorable TB situation with the incidence below 40 per 100,000 population.
Nedospasova, Olga Pavlovna
The modern idea of human well-being involves the combination of individual and social point of view. Substantially human well-being is a result of investment in different directions of life quality and material condition. However, for sustainability of well-being over time the multi-actors investments (private and social) in different types of capital (natural, economic, social and human) are equally important. Based on critical importance of corporate investments in human capital (in knowled...
Watts, Richard E.
Presents primary source documentation highlighting the similarities between Alfred Adler's social interest construct and the counselor-oriented core conditions of Carl Rogers. Implications of the similarities are discussed. (Author)
Hull, Laura; Petrides, K. V.; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Mandy, William
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC,…
Kornreich, Charles; Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Knittel, Julian; Nerincx, Aurore; Campanella, Salvatore; Noel, Xavier; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa
To study the 'social brain' in alcoholics by investigating social contract reasoning, theory of mind and emotional intelligence. A behavioral study comparing recently detoxified alcoholics with normal, healthy controls. Emotional intelligence and decoding of emotional non-verbal cues have been shown to be impaired in alcoholics. This study explores whether these deficits extend to conditional reasoning about social contracts. Twenty-five recently detoxified alcoholics (17 men and eight women) were compared with 25 normal controls (17 men and eight women) matched for sex, age and education level. Wason selection task investigating conditional reasoning on three different rule types (social contract, precautionary and descriptive), revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (modified version) and additional control measures. Conditional reasoning was impaired in alcoholics. Performance on descriptive rules was not above chance. Reasoning performance was markedly better on social contract and precautionary rules, but this performance was still significantly lower than in controls. Several emotional intelligence measures were lower in alcoholics compared to controls, but these were not correlated with reasoning performance. Conditional reasoning, including reasoning about social contracts and emotional intelligence appear to be impaired in alcoholics. Impairment seems to be particularly severe on descriptive rules. Impairment in social contract reasoning might lead to misunderstandings and frustration in social interactions, and reasoning difficulties about precautionary rules might contribute to risky behaviors in this population. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.
Svetlana Sokolov Mladenovic, Djordje Cuzovic,
Under contemporary business conditions, market globalisation has become inevitable. Such relationships on the market make trade companies use different means to acquire and maintain long-term competitive advantage. One of them is the concept of corporate social responsibility, which is, under conditions of globalisation, seen as a redesign of the classic marketing concept. The aim of this paper is to highlight the development of corporate social responsibility in trade, in the context of mark...
Almeida, Carla; Massarani, Luisa
Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate. A comparative analysis of our data and data from other studies indicate there is a complex variety of views on genetically modified organisms among farmers. Despite this diversity, we found variations in such views occur within limited parameters, concerned principally with expectations or concrete experiences regarding the advantages of genetically modified crops, perceptions of risks associated with them, and ethical questions they raise. We then propose a classification of prevailing profiles to represent the spectrum of perceptions of genetically modified organisms among farmers.
Leonova, N G
The social economic conditions of population reproduction in the Trans-Dniester Region with the emphasis on its specifics are analyzed. The natural dynamics of population is estimated including gender and age peculiarities, marriage and divorces statistics, migration processes and population health in the region. It is shown that the population reproduction dynamics follows the natural laws and processes. The role of the post-Soviet period social economic conditions harmful to health are considered. The interdependencies between the social economic development and population reproduction are revealed. The recommendations related to the means of the further enhancement of social economic conditions as related to population reproduction in the Trans-Dniester Region are proposed.
Aleksandr V. Polukarov
Full Text Available Objective to show the capabilities of administrativelegal regulation for combating the causes and conditions determining corrupt behavior in the social sphere. Methods dialectic approach to cognition of social phenomena enabling to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods analysis synthesis comparison systematic formallegal comparativelegal methods. Results the reasons and conditions determining the corruption in the social sphere were disclosed this leads to the conclusion that corruption counteraction should be based on 1 recognition of the social sphere as the key object of protection against corruption 2 elaboration of special administrativelegal means of corruption counteraction in the social sphere. It is necessary to take into account the features of social relations in such sectors as education healthcare culture physical culture and sports etc. A number of foreign countries took the path of developing legislation on corruption counteraction taking into account the specifics of various social sphere segments functioning. This experience is quite interesting from the viewpoint of developing means of combating the causes and conditions that determine corruption in the social sphere. A number of the Russian Federation subjects also elaborate regional programs of combating corruption in education healthcare and culture. In our opinion this experience should be transferred to the federal level of legal regulation. This will help to create a fullfledged system of corruption counteraction in the social sphere taking into account different levels of its functioning. Scientific novelty for the first time in administrativelegal science the ldquolaw of torts aspect of corruption in the social sphererdquo issue is considered the work reveals the causes and conditions that determine corruption in the social
Since the 1980s, Canadian legalized gambling has undergone a massive growth, resulting in numerous social problems such as crime, political corruption, and, most importantly, pathological gambling. When it comes to theorizing gambling in Canada, pathological gambling has been the centre of the attention for two related reasons: (1) the increasing…
Full Text Available In human beings, experiments investigating fear conditioning with social stimuli are rare. The current study aims at translating an animal model for social fear conditioning (SFC to a human sample using an operant SFC paradigm in virtual reality (VR. Forty participants actively (using a joystick approached virtual male agents that served as conditioned stimuli (CS. During the acquisition phase, unconditioned stimuli (US, a combination of an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms and a female scream (95 dB, 40 ms, were presented when participants reached a defined proximity to the agent with a contingency of 75% for CS+ agents and never for CS- agents. During the extinction and the test phases, no US was delivered. Outcome variables were pleasantness ratings and physiological reactions in heart rate and fear-potentiated startle. Additionally, the influence of social anxiety, which was measured with the Social Phobia Inventory scale, was evaluated. As expected after the acquisition phase the CS+ was rated clearly less pleasant than the CS-. This difference vanished during extinction. Furthermore, the HR remained high for the CS+, while the HR for the CS- was clearly lower after than before the acquisition. Furthermore, a clear difference between CS+ and CS- after the acquisition indicated successful conditioning on this translational measure. Contrariwise extinction was not observed on the physiological variables. Importantly, at the generalization test, higher socially fearful participants rated pleasantness of all agents as low whereas the lower socially fearful participants rated pleasantness as low only for the CS+. SFC was successfully induced and extinguished confirming operant conditioning in this SFC paradigm. These findings suggest that the paradigm is suitable to expand the knowledge about the learning and unlearning of social fears. Further studies should investigate the operant mechanisms of development and treatment of social anxiety disorder.
Shiban, Youssef; Reichenberger, Jonas; Neumann, Inga D; Mühlberger, Andreas
In human beings, experiments investigating fear conditioning with social stimuli are rare. The current study aims at translating an animal model for social fear conditioning (SFC) to a human sample using an operant SFC paradigm in virtual reality. Forty participants actively (using a joystick) approached virtual male agents that served as conditioned stimuli (CS). During the acquisition phase, unconditioned stimuli (US), a combination of an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms) and a female scream (95 dB, 40 ms), were presented when participants reached a defined proximity to the agent with a contingency of 75% for CS+ agents and never for CS- agents. During the extinction and the test phases, no US was delivered. Outcome variables were pleasantness ratings and physiological reactions in heart rate (HR) and fear-potentiated startle. Additionally, the influence of social anxiety, which was measured with the Social Phobia Inventory scale, was evaluated. As expected after the acquisition phase the CS+ was rated clearly less pleasant than the CS-. This difference vanished during extinction. Furthermore, the HR remained high for the CS+, while the HR for the CS- was clearly lower after than before the acquisition. Furthermore, a clear difference between CS+ and CS- after the acquisition indicated successful conditioning on this translational measure. Contrariwise no CS+/CS- differences were observed in the physiological variables during extinction. Importantly, at the generalization test, higher socially fearful participants rated pleasantness of all agents as low whereas the lower socially fearful participants rated pleasantness as low only for the CS+. SFC was successfully induced and extinguished confirming operant conditioning in this SFC paradigm. These findings suggest that the paradigm is suitable to expand the knowledge about the learning and unlearning of social fears. Further studies should investigate the operant mechanisms of development and treatment of social anxiety
This paper aims to explain through a qualitative case study how a small protest group prevailed during a local windfarm conflict in south-eastern Australia. A social capital analytical framework was developed to analyse the data. The analysis found that two communities inhabited the area for which the windfarm development was proposed. The public participation process failed to address the concerns of both communities and led to the emergence of a social network of resistance. The network had high stocks of bridging social capital, which enabled an effective protest that led to the abandonment of the development. Their effectiveness was inadvertently aided by the windfarm supporters who were unable to act collectively to defend their interests because socio-economic changes in the community among other factors had led to a depletion of their social capital. In this context, different democratic participatory processes were needed to address the concerns of the two communities. Guidance and tools for researching and developing the types of participatory processes needed for vulnerable communities with low social capital and those similar to the social network with high social capital are provided. These will inform community-appropriate public participation processes and participatory planning policy. - Highlights: ► A case study of a local social network's resistance to a windfarm is undertaken. ► The link between high social capital and resistance is confirmed. ► Successful protest groups can be aided by passive windfarm supporters. ► Protesters are likely to participate in well-designed participatory processes. ► Guidance for developing community-specific participatory processes is provided
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the natural and social conditions for the development economy in northeastern Montenegro, in the example municipalities Berane, Andrejevica and Plav in the geographical context of its utilization and use. Spatial distribution of the economy is determined by the natural and social conditions. The natural conditions in terms of the economy are of particular significance relief, climatic and hydrographic conditions, soil... According to degree benefits of natural conditions extracted are three relatively homogeneous regions. That is, which rational production of this part of north-eastern Montenegro, can be organized taking into account the natural conditions and the level of socio-economic development. For collocation and the structure of the economy have an important role in the social conditions which the economy is formed. Our research the records clearly pointed to the forefront some very obvious problems: first, is related to the population, especially in workforce, respectively, for the aging; second, that there is a strong migration of people whose intensive processes of differentiation and left behind an unfavorable structure of the population - age and education what the any negative impact on economic development; third, the characteristics of land area, its small size, inadequate and outdated processing, low technical capacity. The natural resources of this part of north-eastern Montenegro, as well as the population as a factor of economic development need to have met: economic, social, developmental organizational and management dimension to be on benefit the present, but also future generations
Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A
Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
...-AM63 Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics... for the Department of Defense's (DOD's) nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special... practice for compensating NAF automotive mechanics with current prevailing pay practices in the private...
Oliva López Arellano
Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Mexico has faced major crises in its political, economic, and social life. These crises have affected living conditions and health. With the implementation in the 1980's of structural adjustment and economic stabilization policies, Mexico saw a rapid growth of poverty accelerating trends toward social polarization and social division. The current crisis, fueled by deregulation of the global financial markets, only deepens the tendency towards economic stagnation. It has led to an increase in unemployment, worsening income inequalities, and generalized inflation. The increase in food prices, in particular, has made life more difficult for the Mexican population. The crisis has had a palpable and concrete impact on living conditions, health status, and food security for diverse social groups.
Brand, Charlotte O; Brown, Gillian R; Cross, Catharine P
Social learning provides an effective route to gaining up-to-date information, particularly when information is costly to obtain asocially. Theoretical work predicts that the willingness to switch between using asocial and social sources of information will vary between individuals according to their risk tolerance. We tested the prediction that, where there are sex differences in risk tolerance, altering the variance of the payoffs of using asocial and social information differentially influences the probability of social information use by sex. In a computer-based task that involved building a virtual spaceship, men and women ( N = 88) were given the option of using either asocial or social sources of information to improve their performance. When the asocial option was risky (i.e., the participant's score could markedly increase or decrease) and the social option was safe (i.e., their score could slightly increase or remain the same), women, but not men, were more likely to use the social option than the asocial option. In all other conditions, both women and men preferentially used the asocial option to a similar degree. We therefore found both a sex difference in risk aversion and a sex difference in the preference for social information when relying on asocial information was risky, consistent with the hypothesis that levels of risk-aversion influence the use of social information.
Aleksandr V. Polukarov
Objective to show the capabilities of administrativelegal regulation for combating the causes and conditions determining corrupt behavior in the social sphere. Methods dialectic approach to cognition of social phenomena enabling to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods analysis synthesis comparison systematic formallegal comparativelegal me...
Aura González Serna
Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.
van de Leemput, J; Hess, J L; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M T
Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks-including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes-, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A main challenge in the therapy of drug dependent individuals is to help them reactivate interest in non-drug-associated activities. We previously developed a rat experimental model based on the conditioned place preference (CPP paradigm in which only four 15-min episodes of social interaction with a gender- and weight-matched male Sprague Dawley rat (i reversed CPP from cocaine to social interaction despite continuing cocaine training and (ii prevented the reinstatement of cocaine CPP. In the present study, we investigated which of the sensory modalities of the composite stimulus 'social interaction' contributes most to the rats’ preference for it. If touch was limited by steel bars spaced at a distance of 2 cm and running across the whole length of a partitioning, CPP was still acquired, albeit to a lesser degree. If both rats were placed on the same side of a partitioning, rats did not develop CPP for social interaction. Thus, decreasing the available area for social interaction from 750 to 375 cm² prevented the acquisition of CPP to social interaction despite the fact that animals could touch each other more intensely than through the bars of the partitioning. When touch was fully restricted by a glass screen dividing the conditioning chambers, and the only sensory modalities left were visual and olfactory cues, place preference shifted to place aversion. Overall, our findings indicate that the major rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus 'social interaction' is touch (tactition.
Mabhala, Mzwandile A; Yohannes, Asmait; Griffith, Mariska
It is increasingly acknowledged that homelessness is a more complex social and public health phenomenon than the absence of a place to live. This view signifies a paradigm shift, from the definition of homelessness in terms of the absence of permanent accommodation, with its focus on pathways out of homelessness through the acquisition and maintenance of permanent housing, to understanding the social context of homelessness and social interventions to prevent it. However, despite evidence of the association between homelessness and social factors, there is very little research that examines the wider social context within which homelessness occurs from the perspective of homeless people themselves. This study aims to examine the stories of homeless people to gain understanding of the social conditions under which homelessness occurs, in order to propose a theoretical explanation for it. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted with homeless people in three centres for homeless people in Cheshire North West of England. The analysis revealed that becoming homeless is a process characterised by a progressive waning of resilience capacity to cope with life challenges created by series of adverse incidents in one's life. The data show that final stage in the process of becoming homeless is complete collapse of relationships with those close to them. Most prominent pattern of behaviours participants often describe as main causes of breakdown of their relationships are: 1. engaging in maladaptive behavioural lifestyle including taking drugs and/or excessive alcohol drinking 2. Being in trouble with people in authorities. Homeless people describe the immediate behavioural causes of homelessness, however, the analysis revealed the social and economic conditions within which homelessness occurred. The participants' descriptions of the social conditions in which were raised and their references to maladaptive behaviours which led to them becoming homeless, led us
Tatiana V. Furyaeva,
Full Text Available The relevance of the study is due to the need to overcome social exclusion of adolescents and young people caused by their health condition and restrictions on life in the context of inclusion trends in the worldwide social policy and practice. In this connection, the article aims to justify and search for hospital-substitute format of social and pedagogical support for young people with psychophysical behavior disorders of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD type. The leading approach in the research of this issue is an integrative activity-based approach that allows comprehensive consideration of socio-political, organizational-pedagogical and technological opportunities for active inclusion of families with children and adolescents with ASD into joint activities in a social settlement. In the article, results of sociological, and psychological-pedagogical studies of the issue of social inclusion of individuals at risks of their exclusion from society are presented; various types of social integration practices are typologically disclosed; the author’s structural-functional model of a supported living arrangement is substantiated; conditions and possibilities for its implementation by a public organization of parents having children with autism in the regional context as exemplified by a rural settlement are identified and shown. The information presented in the article is of practical value for specialists in social pedagogy and work, as well as for those who are trained for concrete competences of social support of families having children with disabilities. The results of the given socio-pedagogical project may be useful for the development of the social movement of parents.
Omar Alejandro De León Palomo
Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.
Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.
Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; poral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (pOral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310
N. V. Burmaha
Full Text Available This article deals with the approach to interpretation of essence of the network community concept in which we propose to consider it as a new form of social organization that is substantiated by the specificity of how our society is functioning in conditions of Postmodern. There were explored two main approaches to network communities studying: the first approach considers social networks in a classic, traditional interpretation of modernity as a special kind of social structure, and the second one represents social networks as a specific virtual formation, a social structure of virtual Internet reality. There were revealed some common features of a social organization and a network community: presence of permanent communication between members of the group, united by certain common interests and goals, as well as presence of the certain hierarchy among all members of the community, and the rules of conduct, implementation of communication. Distinctive features: network community is more informal, offers its members considerable leeway in the implementation of their own goals and satisfying the needs, full virtualization of communication absence of direct interaction during communication, under conditions where the main resource for the interchange in network communities is information. It was shown that in the process of emergence, development and distribution of network communities, the fundamental role is played by modern communications - namely, unification them in a stable set of interconnected networks and, in particular network communities.
O. V. Cherevko
Full Text Available In this article the principal causes of youth unemployment on a labor market are investigated and some recommendations concerning the solution of this problem, which realization can improve social-and-labor adaptation of the youth in conditions of the world economic crisis, are offered.
Herbst, Chris M.
This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…
Sattoe, Jane N T; Hilberink, Sander R; van Staa, Anneloes; Bal, Roland
Typical childhood and adolescent development and acquiring self-management skills are crucial for a satisfying adult life and autonomy in social participation. The aims of this study were to identify patterns of autonomy in social participation and to explore differences between these patterns. Adolescents with various chronic conditions participating in a survey in 2006 (T0) were re-invited for a follow-up study (T1) in 2012. The young adults (18-25 years of age) assessed self-management skills, their condition's impact on school or work, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and social participation in various domains. Patterns were identified through cluster analysis. Differences between patterns were analyzed in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Compared with healthy age-mates, our sample (n = 483) generally lagged behind in social participation. Four patterns emerged: typical developers, financially secure laggers, slow developers, and outgoing laggers. The patterns differed regarding gender, educational level, attending special education, having disability benefits, and degree of physical limitations. Groups with a higher level of autonomy in social participation did not necessarily have higher HRQoL but did report higher self-efficacy and independence at both measurements. Autonomy in some participation domains can coincide with a lack of autonomy in others. In addition, better social participation does not necessarily correlate with higher HRQoL, or vice versa. Yet, more social participation was associated with more self-efficacy and independence. Our results emphasize that there is no standardized approach. Clinicians should take care to address all life areas in clinical practice to screen patients' lived experiences and the need for social and self-management support. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... years (mean age = 14.53). Results indicated that performance was significantly poorer in the group condition than in the alone condition (p. <05); and reward significantly attenuated social loafing effect in the group condition (p. <05). These observations were discussed in relation to the prevailing challenge in team work.
Arun Ranga Swamy
Full Text Available Since poverty is often believed to be a root cause of clientelism, government policies to reduce poverty should also help to reduce clientelism. However, scholars studying clientelism are more likely to view social policy as a potential resource for clientelist politicians. This article examines this paradox in the Philippine context by offering a general framework to identify when social welfare policies are likely to reduce clientelism, and by applying this framework to the Philippines, focusing on the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino conditional cash transfer programme, or Pantawid. I argue that the policies that are most likely to undercut clientelism are universal social protection policies that provide poor families with security, although these are the least acceptable to middle-class taxpayers. This is exemplified by the Philippines, which has tended to introduce social policies that increase the scope for clientelism by making discretionary allocation more likely, rather than policies that offer income security to the poor. The Pantawid programme attempts to overcome these problems by introducing a centralised targeting mechanism to identify beneficiaries and by guaranteeing the benefit to all eligible families, but like all conditional cash transfer programs falls short of guaranteed and universal social protection.
Soares, Sara; Fraga, Silvia; Delgado, Joao M P Q; Ramos, Nuno M M
Modern societies spend most of their time indoors, namely at home, and the indoor environment quality turns out to be a crucial factor to health, quality of life and well-being of the residents. The present study aims to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals' health. This study case will rely on the following assessments in both rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated social housing: i) field measurements, in social dwellings (namely temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, air velocity, air change rate, level of mould spores and energy consumption); ii) residents' questionnaires on social, demogaphic, behavioural, health characteristics and quality of life. Also, iii) qualitative interviews performed with social housing residents from the rehabilitated houses, addressing the self-perception of living conditions and their influence in health status and quality of life. All the collected information will be combined and analysed in order to achieve the main objective. It is expected to define a Predicted Human Life Quality (PHLQ) index, that combines physical parameters describing the indoor environment measured through engineering techniques with residents' and neighbourhood quality of life characteristics assessed by health questionnaires. Improvement in social housing should be related with better health indicators and the new index might be an important tool contributing to enhance quality of life of the residents. Significance for public healthThis study will contribute to understand how indoor environment relates with quality of life and how improving housing conditions impacts on individuals' health, in social housing neighbourhoods. As so, it is important to share the undertaken methodology carried out by a multidisciplinary team, in order to allow other researchers following comparable studies to adopt a similar approach. The case study results will allow
Haaker, Jan; Golkar, Armita; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas
Across the human life span, fear is often acquired indirectly by observation of the emotional expressions of others. The observational fear conditioning protocol was previously developed as a laboratory model for investigating socially acquired threat responses. This protocol serves as a suitable alternative to the widely used Pavlovian fear conditioning, in which threat responses are acquired through direct experiences. In the observational fear conditioning protocol, the participant (observer) watches a demonstrator being presented with a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). The expression of threat learning is measured as the conditioned response (CR) expressed by the observer in the absence of the demonstrator. CRs are commonly measured as skin conductance responses, but behavioral and neural measures have also been implemented. The experimental procedure is suitable for divergent populations, can be administered by a graduate student and takes ∼40 min. Similar protocols are used in animals, emphasizing its value as a translational tool for studying socioemotional learning.
Holmes, Wendy R; Joseph, Jennifer
Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Policies to address the increase in chronic non-communicable diseases
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to
Huster, E U
Good health is not distributed equally, neither in life conditions--including the individual ability to act--nor according to the supply grid. These interrelations, shown in several empirical investigations, assume more importance in view of the groving tendency to social polarisation in the countries of Europe, different in fact in the single countries, but clear in respect of tendency: social exclusion does not only mean to have less financial resources but also social disadvantages in other realms of living, especially in health. Migration, not only from East to West, but also inside and between the countries of the European Union and inside of Eastern Europe too, is only an especially dear expression that social problems have their origin in international problems and casualities, but become visible in local and regional structures and thus in the responsibility of the municipalities. Globalisation, Europe etc., terms mostly connected with positive connotations, have not only a positive side, but also another one, namely, the re-regionalisation of social problems especially in the municipalities. Normally the municipalities have to counterbalance and to regulate the negative consequences of these European--and moreover international--changes of the structures, although their financial means are declining. The municipal health service is integrated in this contradictory constellation. To prevent irrational social and/or political developments, the reasons and possible strategies of reform policy will have to be discussed carefully.
Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne
In order to better understand factors that account for the emergence and persistence of negative attitudes towards mental health problems, attributions about and stigma towards children's mental and physical illnesses were examined using National Stigma Study-Children data. Parent blame attributions were most strongly associated with attention deficit disorder, environmental causes with depression, and biology with asthma. Parent blame was more frequent for mental than physical health conditions. Child blame was associated with higher preferred social distance from the child, but no clear links were observed between social distance and attributions about genetic/biology, environment, or parent blame. Rurality was not significantly associated with attributions or social distance preference. Higher educational achievement was associated with increased endorsement of environmental stress factors and reduced odds of child blaming. The general public holds complex explanatory models of and nuanced responses to children's mental disorders that need further investigation, including effects on parents' and children's help-seeking.
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that addressing children’s social and emotional needs has a positive impact on students’ performance, their attitudes about school and the relationships that take place in educational settings. This study is focused on identifying the conditions that support teachers’ development and implementation of Social Emotional Learning (SEL programs and practices. Using a practitioner-driven methodology, action research, the staff of a high performing charter school in a disadvantaged urban community in California (United States engaged in an inductive process of reflection and action to address students’ social and emotional needs. The findings in this research highlight the positive impact that implementation of a school designed SEL intervention had on students, and on teachers’ practices. Teachers’ commitment was necessary to ensure initial engagement, while curricular and organizational resources were needed to maintain implementation in the long term.
Alexia Delclaux Gaytán de Ayala
Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of conditional cash transfers (CCT in improving social indicators during the past decade in Brazil and Peru. Barely two decades after the appearance of the first programmes, CCTs – cash transfers to families living in poverty or extreme poverty conditioned to school attendance and compulsory medical visits for children – are now one of the main policy tools in the fight against poverty in dozens of developing countries. More specifically, this paper examines the link between the CCT programme in each of these two countries – the giant Bolsa Familia in Brazil, the pioneer and largest program of this type in the world, and Juntos in Peru, smaller in terms of size and relevance, but practically identical in its design – and the evolution of social indicators relative to poverty, education and health.
Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme
Background: Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population.Methods: Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions sur...
Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter
Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kosaki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Shigeru
Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a variety of mammalian reproductive and social behaviors, and the use of intranasal OT for clinical purposes is on the rise. However, basic actions of OT, including the rewarding or reinforcing properties of the drug, are currently not fully understood. In this study, the authors investigated whether intranasally administered OT has different reinforcing properties for social and nonsocial stimuli and whether such effects are variable between male and female subjects. Conditioned social preference (CSP) and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms were used to examine social and nonsocial reinforcing properties of OT. In CSP, the presence of a same-sex unfamiliar conspecific was repeatedly paired with intranasal OT, while a different conspecific was associated with saline. The reinforcing effect of OT was assessed in a postconditioning choice test under a drug-free condition. In CPP, the 2 conspecifics were replaced with nonsocial black and white compartments. The authors found that intranasal OT (12 μg) in females supported the formation of CSP (Experiment 1) but not CPP (Experiment 3). Neither CSP (Experiment 2) nor CPP (Experiment 4) was formed in males. Extended conditioning with higher dose OT (36 μg), however, abolished the initial CSP in females and produced an aversion to the OT-paired stimulus mouse. Experiment 5 indicated that it was the repeated administrations rather than the higher dose that produced the abolition of the original preference. Overall, the current results demonstrate for the first time a sex- and stimulus-dependent reinforcing property of intranasal OT in mice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using resident-intruder stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, PND 28-37, late adolescence (LA, PND 38-47, and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70-79 and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST, were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting in adulthood but not during adolescence. In experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive function are differentially
Full text of publication follows: this study explores the connection between the perception of different societal risk, health concerns and behavioral attitudes of people in condition of social security threat. Two small and two big industrial towns were chosen in order to observe the social and psychological price of the structural changes in the industry such as unemployment and its reflection on the households and the individuals' social attitudes. Key stakeholders were interviewed and questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed high level of risk sensitivity and health concerns when people felt threatened by lack of social and economic security. The pollution was found to be important problem when it caused direct and obvious risk to human health and the environment. In the same time reverse environmental behavior like insensitiveness and neglectful attitude was observed in cases when the health consequences of the pollution were perceived to be unclear and with delayed effect. In situation of a great socio-economic threat noninvolvement helped the individuals to adapt. The research proved the influence of several risk characteristics on risk perception. It was found a connection between the risk perception and risk controllability, voluntariness of exposure and cost/benefits distribution. In the study areas respondents' judgments on these characteristics reflected directly their social status and material state. The study presented here is in progress - it i's supported by research grant from Open Society Foundation. (author)
Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji
In social animals, housing with conspecific animals after a stressful event attenuates the subsequent adverse outcomes due to the event, and this has been called housing-type social buffering. We have previously found that housing-type social buffering attenuates the enhancement of hyperthermia and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that occurs in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus in male rats. Here, we analyzed the role of physical interactions during social housing in the induction of housing-type social buffering. When a fear-conditioned subject was alone after the conditioning and then exposed to the conditioned stimulus, it showed behavioral, autonomic, and neural stress responses. However, social housing, during which physical interactions were prevented by wire mesh, attenuated these autonomic and neural stress responses, as has been seen in previous studies. These results suggested that physical interaction was not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering. With this social cohabitation model, we then found that social cohabitation increased Fos expression in the posterior complex of the anterior olfactory nucleus of the fear-conditioned subject. Social cohabitation also increased Fos expression in 11 brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the medial, lateral, basal, and cortical amygdala. These results provide information about the neural mechanisms that induce housing-type social buffering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
this article describes social maturity of the identity of seniors as a condition of successful adaptation to the modern sociocultural environment, marks out some criteria of definition of socially mature personality, gives definition to the concept «social competence of the personality».
Measurements were made of I/sub 2/ formed when aqueous cesium iodide (CsI) solutions were exposed to two temperatures, 43 and 95 0 C, with irradiation. Iodine partition coefficients were obtained from the experiments. The parameters varied were dose, CsI concentration, and Cs/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ concentration, in the presence of air-carbon dioxide and air-carbon dioxide-hydrogen mixtures, to provide information to calculate the form in which iodine released from fuel as CsI in a reactor accident might reach the environment. In a series of experiments, a two-compartment cell was used to trap the gaseous iodine produced. In this case, it was found that the quantity of gaseous iodine produced increased approximately linearly with the dose (at the dose rate used)
As Croatia is nearing its accession to the EU, it is facing a process of implementation of a number of newly introduced legal frameworks which also act to enable access to new market opportunities for certain industries. The most important Directive concerning healthcare providers is Directive 2011/24 on cross-border healthcare, which grants the patients freedom of choice of providers in another EU member state given that the necessary standards of quality and safety are met. A member state i...
Moerner, N.A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)
The conclusions from this contribution are that no bedrock repository can be considered to be safely placed in the bedrock at the event of new glaciations, which are to be expected over Sweden in 5, 23, and 60 thousand years AP (following the astronomical, natural or long-term variability). Instead, there are all reasons to expect that such a repository would be seriously damaged, and constitute a threat to the biosphere on Earth. These conclusions are based on an extensive observational network of records on the multiple glacial dynamics and the interaction of different variables. 24 refs.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Few authors are involved in home rehabilitation of amputees or their reintegration into the community. It has been remarked that there is a discontinuity between the phases of the amputee rehabilitation in Serbia. The aim of the study was to establish pain characteristics and functional status of amputees two months after the amputation and to determine their social function and the conditions of their habitation. Methods. This prospective observation study involved 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations. The patients were tested at the hospital on discharge and at their homes two months after the amputation. Pain intensity and functional status were measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS and by Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The patients’ social function was assessed using the Social Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS and conditions of their habitation by the self-created Scale of Conditions of Habitation (SCH. In statistic analysis we used the Student t test, χ2 test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. The majority of patients (63% underwent below knee amputation caused by diabetes (89%. A significant number of patients (84%, χ2 = 17.78; p < 0.01 was not visited by a physiotherapist nor an occupational therapist during two months at home. In this period, the majority of the amputees (68% had phantom pain or residual limb pain (21%. Two months after amputation the pain intensity was significantly lower (VAS = 4.07±2.19; 2.34±1.41; p < 0.001, and the functional status significantly better than on discharge (FIM = 75.13±16.52; 87.87±16.48; p < 0.001. The amputees had the average level of social dysfunction (SDRS = 62.00±11.68 and conditions of habitation (SCH = 7.81±1.97. Conclusion. A total 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations achieved significant functional improvement and reduction of pain, in spite of their social dysfunction, the absence of socio-medical support
Brown, D F; Spencer, A J; Tolliday, P D
Studies using plaster models of teeth and photographs simulating the full range of occlusal conditions have found high agreement between measures of adolescent social acceptability of these conditions and perceived need for orthodontic treatment. This study examined the association between adolescents' acceptability of their own occlusal condition, severity of malocclusion, and likelihood of undergoing orthodontic treatment. The factors predicting the acceptability of occlusal condition of 13-yr-olds, as assessed by the SASOC scale, were measurements of acceptability of general physical appearance, and the severity of occlusal condition. Variability in SASOC scores appeared to be independent of gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Gender, and severity of occlusal condition were important differences between subjects who had received, planned, or were undergoing orthodontic treatment, and those who had not. Neither SASOC scores nor perceived need for treatment accounted for a significant proportion of the variance between these groups. Although adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment had a greater severity of malocclusion than those not, little difference was observed between these groups in acceptance of occlusal condition.
Full Text Available Recent shifts in health policy direction in several countries have, on the whole, translated into self-management initiatives in the hope that this approach will address the growing impact of chronic disease. Dominant approaches to self-management tend to reinforce the current medical model of chronic disease and fail to adequately address the social factors that impact on the lives of people with chronic conditions. As part of a larger study focused on outcomes following a chronic disease, this paper explores the processes by which a chronic disease self-management (CDSM course impacted on participants. Five focus groups were conducted with participants and peer leaders of the course in both urban and rural regions of Queensland, Australia. The findings suggested that outcomes following CDSM courses depended on the complex interplay of four social factors, namely, social engagement, the development of a collective identity, the process of building collaborative coping capacity, and the establishment of exchange relationships. This study highlights the need for an approach to self-management that actively engages consumers in social relationships and addresses the context within which their lives (and diseases are enacted. This approach extends beyond the psychoeducational skills-based approach to self-management into a more ecological model for disease prevention.
Hannah Arendt is widely regarded as a political theorist who sought to rescue politics from "society," and political theory from the social sciences. This conventional view has had the effect of distracting attention from many of Arendt's most important insights concerning the constitution of "society" and the significance of the social sciences. In this article, I argue that Hannah Arendt's distinctions between labor, work, and action, as these are discussed in "The Human Condition" and elsewhere, are best understood as a set of claims about the fundamental structures of human societies. Understanding Arendt in this way introduces interesting parallels between Arendt's work and both classical and contemporary sociology. From this I draw a number of conclusions concerning Arendt's conception of "society," and extend these insights into two contemporary debates within contemporary theoretical sociology: the need for a differentiated ontology of the social world, and the changing role that novel forms of knowledge play in contemporary society as major sources of social change and order.
S. H. Zdrahat
Full Text Available The arrangement of optimal conditions for the successful social integration of individuals with disabilities is one of the important social tasks. The relevance of the topic is also growing due to the fact that in recent times there is a tendency of increase of people with functional health limitations all over the world and, particularly, in Ukraine. The absence of the enabling environment for the satisfaction of untypical children’s special needs and the limitation of their socio-cultural mobility and life chances makes the issue of development, education, social integration and adaptation of children with special needs actual. Therefore, the society must be ready now to offer the special programs of integration and self-fulfillment through education to this category of children. The objective of the article is to develop the model of evaluation being a social technology which will conceptualize the evaluation of the inclusive education for the efficient management of its quality. The areas of the educational system’s improvement for the successful realization of the social technology of the inclusive education’s evaluation have been identified. The aspects of the grounds of the inclusive education, such as the grounds of educational, social and economic nature have been defined. The purposes of the successful realization of inclusion have been described. The sociological approaches to the study of the quality of education have been pointed out: identification of the social communities which set their requirements to the quality and what these requirements are; the ways and the degree of influence of the identified interest groups on the process and the result of education, the relationship between the requirements of these groups. The social effectiveness as a complex characteristic of the school work, such as the level of interaction between educational establishments, administrating authorities and social institutions and social
Samara, Anna; Smith, Kenny; Brown, Helen; Wonnacott, Elizabeth
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups. Furthermore, artificial language learning experiments have shown that children have a tendency to eliminate variation, a process which could potentially work against their acquisition of sociolinguistic variation. The current study used a semi-artificial language learning paradigm to investigate learning of the sociolinguistic cue of speaker identity in 6-year-olds and adults. Participants were trained and tested on an artificial language where nouns were obligatorily followed by one of two meaningless particles and were produced by one of two speakers (one male, one female). Particle usage was conditioned deterministically on speaker identity (Experiment 1), probabilistically (Experiment 2), or not at all (Experiment 3). Participants were given tests of production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2, both children and adults successfully acquired the speaker identity cue, although the effect was stronger for adults and in Experiment 1. In addition, in all three experiments, there was evidence of regularization in participants' productions, although the type of regularization differed with age: children showed regularization by boosting the frequency of one particle at the expense of the other, while adults regularized by conditioning particle usage on lexical items. Overall, results
Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Vanroelen, Christophe; Vives, Alejandra; Martínez, José Miguel; Muntaner, Carles; Levecque, Katia; Benach, Joan; Louckx, Fred
Precarious employment is becoming an increasingly important social determinant of health inequalities among workers. The way in which contemporary employment arrangements and their health consequences are addressed in empirical research is mostly based on the contract-related or employment instability dimension. A broader conceptual approach including various important characteristics of the degrading of employment conditions and relations is needed. The general objective of this paper is to empirically test a new multidimensional construct for measuring precarious employment in an existing database. Special focus is on the social distribution of precarious employment. A subsample of 21,415 participants in the EU-27 from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey-2005 was analysed. A cross-sectional study of the social distribution of precarious employment was conducted through the analysis of proportional differences according to gender, social class and credentials for the European Union as a whole and within each country. The 8 dimensions of the employment precariousness construct were represented by 11 indicators. In general, women, workers without supervisory authority, those with fewer credentials, and those living in Eastern and Southern European countries suffer the highest levels of precarious employment. Exceptionally, men, workers with supervisory authority and those with the highest credentials suffer the highest levels of long working hours, schedule unpredictability and uncompensated flexible working times. This article offers the first validation for an innovative multidimensional conceptualisation of employment precariousness applied to the analysis of existing survey data, showing the unequal distribution of precarious employment across the European labour force. This set of indicators can be useful for monitoring precarious employment.
Robillard, Julie M; Roskams-Edris, Dylan; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Illes, Judy
Gene therapy research is advancing rapidly, and hopes of treating a large number of brain disorders exist alongside ethical concerns. Most surveys of public attitudes toward these ethical issues are already dated and the content of these surveys has been researcher-driven. To examine current public perceptions, we developed an online instrument that is responsive and relevant to the latest research about ethics, gene therapy, and the brain. The 16-question survey was launched with the platform Amazon Mechanical Turk and was made available to residents of Canada and the United States. The survey was divided into six themes: (1) demographic information, (2) general opinions about gene therapy, (3) medical applications of gene therapy, (4) identity and moral/belief systems, (5) enhancement, and (6) risks. We received and analyzed responses from a total of 467 participants. Our results show that a majority of respondents (>90%) accept gene therapy as a treatment for severe illnesses such as Alzheimer disease, but this receptivity decreases for conditions perceived as less severe such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (79%), and for nontherapeutic applications (47%). The greatest area of concern for the application of gene therapy to brain conditions is the fear of not receiving sufficient information before undergoing the treatment. The main ethical concerns with enhancement were the potential for disparities in resource allocation, access to the procedure, and discrimination. When comparing these data with those from the 1990s, our findings suggest that the acceptability of gene therapy is increasing and that this trend is occurring despite lingering concerns over ethical issues. Providing the public and patients with up-to-date information and opportunities to engage in the discourse about areas of research in gene therapy is a priority.
Kaiser, Sylvia; Harderthauer, Simone; Sachser, Norbert; Hennessy, Michael B
A recent study found that male guinea pigs raised in large, mixed age/sex groups exhibited an unexpected suppression of their cortisol response at 4 mo of age. The present study examined the effect of social experience around the time of puberty on cortisol response suppression and social behavior at 4 mo of age. Males reared in large, mixed age/sex groups were either pair-housed with a female or moved to another large colony at 55 days of age. When tested at 4 mo, pair-housed males exhibited much higher levels of courtship and sexual behavior than did colony-housed males, and a shorter latency to begin courtship when with an unfamiliar adult female. In addition, pair-housed males showed much higher levels of agonistic behavior and a shorter latency to escalated aggression with an unfamiliar adult male. Pair-housed males also had lower basal cortisol concentrations and exhibited a greater increment in cortisol levels when isolated in a novel cage than did colony-housed males. Finally, pair-housed males showed a smaller increment in cortisol levels when with the stimulus female or male than when isolated, but colony-housed males did not. The findings demonstrate that social housing conditions around the time of puberty can have pervasive effects on social behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in 4-mo-old males. Further, these findings are consistent with the notion that changes in HPA activity contribute to social behavior development beyond the time of sexual maturity.
Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.
Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P social behavior (F1,154 = 15.064, P < 0.001). There was no difference detected in body condition of treated versus control females (F1,154 = 0.033, P = 0.856), but females with a dependent foal had lower body condition than those without a foal (F1,154 = 4.512, P = 0.038). Herding behavior was best explained by a model of treatment and the interaction of band fidelity and foal presence (AICc weight = 0.660) which estimated no difference in rate of herding behavior directed toward control versus treated females (F1,102 = 0.196, P = 0.659), but resident females without a dependent foal were herded 50.9% more than resident females with a foal (F3,102 = 8.269, P < 0.001). Treated females received 54.5% more reproductive behaviors from stallions than control mares (F1,105 = 5.155, P = 0.025), with the model containing only treatment being the most-supported (AICc weight = 0.530). Treated and control females received harem-tending behaviors from stallions equally (F1,105 = 0.001, P = 0.969) and agonistic behaviors from stallions equally (F1,105 < 0.001, P = 0.986). Direct effects of PZP treatment on the behavior of
Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme
Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25-64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92-1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health.
Riad-Allen, Lilian; van der Kooy, Derek
Benzodiazepines have been demonstrated to have a high abuse liability in persons suffering from anxiety but have demonstrated mixed abuse liability findings in preclinical models. We hypothesized that by modeling anxiety in a male C57BL/6 mouse model it would be possible to reveal a preference for benzodiazepines within this subpopulation through negative reinforcement. Using the Tube Test of Social Dominance and the Resident/Intruder Paradigm we investigated whether animals identified as dominant or submissive/defeated would differentially display a preference for midazolam (a short acting benzodiazepine) in a conditioned place preference paradigm. Consistent with our hypotheses, benzodiazepine conditioned motivation was mediated by negative reinforcement as submissive but not dominant mice displayed a preference for midazolam. Furthermore, different neural systems mediated midazolam conditioned motivation depending on the stress status of the animal (single vs. repeated stress-as induced by the Resident/Intruder Paradigm). Singly stressed animals showed midazolam place preferences through a dopamine-independent pathway, whereas the place preferences of repeatedly stressed animals were mediated through a dopamine-dependent pathway. This demonstrates that stress is sufficient for switching the neural system mediating midazolam conditioned motivation. Finally, midazolam reinforcement in the conditioned place preference paradigm was shown to be predictive for dominance/submission status.
Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J P; Dobson, Richard J B; Dutta, Rina
The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language\\ud processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand\\ud the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professio...
Raimundo González Fernández
Full Text Available This article presents a panorama of the necessity the current Cuban society has to form high quality technicians in Computer science, and the social and historical conditions that compromise the existence of the subject “Language of Programming ”inside its study plan, as well as the necessity to upgrade teachers who teach this subject, in Computer Science's Polytechnical School "Carlos Hidalgo Díaz” in Pinar del Río province. Regarding the inadequacies there are in these programs, in the theoretical and methodological order, it is expected that with an intervention strategy consisting on an upgrading course this problem can be solved.
Opoku, Alex Akwasi; Edusei, Kwame Owusu; Ansah, Richard Kwame
This paper proposes a conditional Curie-Weiss model as a model for decision making in a stylized society made up of binary decision makers that face a particular dichotomous choice between two options. Following Brock and Durlauf (Discrete choice with social interaction I: theory, 1955), we set-up both socio-economic and statistical mechanical models for the choice problem. We point out when both the socio-economic and statistical mechanical models give rise to the same self-consistent equilibrium mean choice level(s). Phase diagram of the associated statistical mechanical model and its socio-economic implications are discussed.
Full Text Available Forming of new economic base of state building in Russia, appearance of new economic problems and new conditions of their solution – all this demands changes in state regional policy and system of its realization in the scale of the country as a whole and also country's regions. The necessary conditions for state regional policy effectiveness increasing in Russia are the development of the country's territorial development strategy as a main part of the state's social-economical development strategy. In turn, this strategy should be a synthesis of Russia macroregions development strategy on the base of federal districts development strategy. Here the "pioneer" is the Siberian federal district, where on behalf of the President of Russian Federation was developed Siberia economical development strategy, approved by the decision of Russian Federation Government. This strategies, in turn, should be coordinated with middle-term and long-term programmes of Federation subjects and most important cities development.
Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J. P.; Dobson, Richard J. B.; Dutta, Rina
The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professional impressions at the point of care. Social media platforms have become a source of ‘in the moment’ daily exchange, with topics including well-being and mental health. In this study, we analysed posts from the social media platform Reddit and developed classifiers to recognise and classify posts related to mental illness according to 11 disorder themes. Using a neural network and deep learning approach, we could automatically recognise mental illness-related posts in our balenced dataset with an accuracy of 91.08% and select the correct theme with a weighted average accuracy of 71.37%. We believe that these results are a first step in developing methods to characterise large amounts of user-generated content that could support content curation and targeted interventions.
Kauhanen, L; Lynch, J W; Lakka, H-M; Kauhanen, J; Smith, G D
Previous research has suggested that dehydration in infancy may lead to high blood pressure in later life because of sodium retention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of poor hygiene of the child, poor social and poor housing conditions at home and diarrhoea in childhood as proxies for dehydration on high blood pressure in later life. Data were from a subset of participants in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based cohort study in eastern Finland. Information on childhood factors was collected from school health records (n=952), from the 1930s to the 1950s. Adult data were obtained from baseline examinations of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort (n=2682) in 1984-1989. Men who had poor hygiene in childhood had on average 4.07 mm Hg (95% CI 0.53 to 7.61) higher systolic blood pressure than men who had good or satisfactory hygiene in childhood in the age-adjusted analysis. Reports of diarrhoea were not associated with adult blood pressure. The authors' findings suggest that poor hygiene and living in poor social conditions in childhood are associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Reported childhood diarrhoea did not explain the link between hygiene and high blood pressure in adulthood.
Full Text Available Egg-laying behaviour of bumblebee workers is highly flexible and influenced by the bees’ social status and social environment. In this study, the dependence of the starting time of ovarian development in Bombus terrestris workers was determined under four different social conditions. The purpose was to test the effect of group stimulation and the presence of a queen on ovarian development. The relationship between weight and the commencement of ovarian development in workers was also investigated. We created four test groups: (1 8 callow workers with a queen, (2 8 callow workers without a queen, (3 1 callow worker with a queen, and (4 1 callow worker without a queen. Mated and hibernated (freshly awoken B. terrestris queens made up Group 1 and 3. There was no significant difference between the starting times of ovarian development in the experimental groups composed of 8 callow workers in queenright (9.81 ± 2.44 days and queenless (9.53 ± 2.53 days conditions. However, ovaries of workers confined singly with a queen started to develop significantly earlier (11.77 ± 3.30 days than workers confined singly without a queen (14.70 ± 3.56 days. The observations indicate that the presence of a queen does not inhibit the ovarian development of workers. The Point-Biserial Correlation Coefficient between the starting of ovarian development in workers and their weight was −0.013. However, there was a positive correlation between the weight and the ovarian developmental status of workers in groups containing 8 workers.
Mooney, S J; Holmes, M M
The naked mole-rat is a subterranean colonial rodent. In each colony, which can grow to as many as 300 individuals, there is only one female and 1-3 males that are reproductive and socially dominant. The remaining animals are reproductively suppressed subordinates that contribute to colony survival through their cooperative behaviors. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that has shown relatively widespread effects on prosocial behaviors in other species. We examined whether social status affects the number of oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus by comparing dominant breeding animals to subordinate non-breeding workers from intact colonies. We also examined these regions in subordinate animals that had been removed from their colony and paired with an opposite- or same-sex conspecific for 6 months. Stereological analyses indicated that subordinates had significantly more oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus than breeders. Animals in both opposite- and same-sex pairs showed a decreased oxytocin neuron number compared to subordinates suggesting that status differences may be due to social condition rather than the reproductive activity of the animal per se. The effects of social status appear to be region specific as no group differences were found for oxytocin neuron number in the supraoptic nucleus. Given that subordinate naked mole-rats are kept reproductively suppressed through antagonism by the queen, we speculate that status differences are due either to oxytocin's anxiolytic properties to combat the stress of this antagonism or to its ability to promote the prosocial behaviors of subordinates. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tantra, M; Guo, L; Kim, J; Zainolabidin, N; Eulenburg, V; Augustine, G J; Chen, A I
Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebellar cortex. To assess the function of Cdh13 and utilize the manipulation of Cdh13 expression in Golgi cells as an entry point to examine cerebellar-mediated function, we generated mice carrying Cdh13-floxed alleles and conditionally deleted Cdh13 with GlyT2::Cre mice. Loss of Cdh13 results in a decrease in the expression/localization of GAD67 and reduces spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in cerebellar Golgi cells without disrupting spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). At the behavioral level, loss of Cdh13 in the cerebellum, piriform cortex and endopiriform claustrum have no impact on gross motor coordination or general locomotor behaviors, but leads to deficits in cognitive and social abilities. Mice lacking Cdh13 exhibit reduced cognitive flexibility and loss of preference for contact region concomitant with increased reciprocal social interactions. Together, our findings show that Cdh13 is critical for inhibitory function of Golgi cells, and that GlyT2::Cre-mediated deletion of Cdh13 in non-executive centers of the brain, such as the cerebellum, may contribute to cognitive and social behavioral deficits linked to neurological disorders. © 2018 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Penagos-Corzo, Julio C.; Pérez-Acosta, Andrés M.; Hernández, Ingrid
The experiment reported here uses a conditional self-discrimination task to examine the influence of social interaction on the facilitation of self-discrimination in rats. The study is based on a previous report (Penagos- Corzo et al., 2011) showing positive evidence of such facilitation, but extending the exposition to social interaction…
Wiggert, Nicole; Wilhelm, Frank H; Boger, Sabrina; Georgii, Claudio; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Blechert, Jens
Today's stressors largely arise from social interactions rather than from physical threat. However, the dominant laboratory model of emotional learning relies on physical stimuli (e.g. electric shock) whereas adequate models of social conditioning are missing, possibly due to more subtle and multilayered biobehavioral responses to such stimuli. To fill this gap, we acquired a broad set of measures during conditioning to negative social unconditioned stimuli, also taking into account long-term maintenance of conditioning and inter-individual differences. Fifty-nine healthy participants underwent a classical conditioning task with videos of actors expressing disapproving (US-neg) or neutral (US-neu) statements. Static images of the corresponding actors with a neutral facial expression served as CS+ and CS-, predicting US-neg and US-neu, respectively. Autonomic and facial-muscular measures confirmed differential unconditioned responding whereas experiential CS ratings, event-related potentials, and evoked theta oscillations confirmed differential conditioned responding. Conditioning was maintained at 1 month and 1 year follow-ups on experiential ratings, especially in individuals with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms, documenting the efficiency of social conditioning and its clinical relevance. This novel, ecologically improved conditioning paradigm uncovered a remarkably efficient multi-layered social learning mechanism that may represent a risk factor for anxiety and depression. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available The reorientation away from drugs of abuse and toward social interaction is a highly desirable but as yet elusive goal in the therapy of substance dependence. We could previously show that cocaine preferring Sprague-Dawley rats which engaged in only four 15 min episodes of dyadic social interaction (DSI did not reacquire and reexpress cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP after a single cocaine exposure. In the present study, we investigated how strong this preventive effect of DSI is. In corroboration of our previous findings in rats, four 15 min DSI episodes prevented the reacquisition/reexpression of cocaine CPP in mice. However, this effect was only observed if only one cocaine conditioning session (15 min was used. If mice were counterconditioned with a total of four cocaine sessions, the cocaine CPP reemerged. Interestingly, the opposite also held true: in mice that had acquired/expressed cocaine CPP, one conditioning session with DSI did not prevent the persistence of cocaine CPP, whereas four DSI conditioning sessions reversed CPP for 15 mg/kg intraperitoneal cocaine. Of note, this cocaine dose was a strong reward in C57BL/6J mice, causing CPP in all tested animals. Our findings suggest that both the reversal (reconditioning of CPP from cocaine to DSI as well as that from DSI to cocaine requires four conditioning sessions. As previously shown in C57BL/6 mice from the NIH substrain, mice from the Jackson substrain also showed a greater relative preference for 15 mg/kg intraperitoneal cocaine over DSI, whereas Sprague-Dawley rats were equally attracted to contextual stimuli associated with this cocaine dose and DSI. Also in corroboration of previous findings, both C57BL/6J mice and experimenters several generations removed from the original ones produced CPP for DSI to a lesser degree than Sprague-Dawley rats. Our findings demonstrate the robustness of our experimental model across several subject- and experimenter generations in two
Banbury, Annie; Chamberlain, Daniel; Nancarrow, Susan; Dart, Jared; Gray, Len; Parkinson, Lynne
Social support is a key component in managing long-term conditions. As people age in their homes, there is a greater risk of social isolation, which can be ameliorated by informal support networks. This study examined the relationship between changes in social support networks for older people living in a regional area following weekly videoconference groups delivered to the home. Between February and June 2014, we delivered 44 weekly group meetings via videoconference to participants in a regional town in Australia. The meetings provided participants with education and an opportunity to discuss health issues and connect with others in similar circumstances. An uncontrolled, pre-post-test methodology was employed. A social network tool was completed by 45 (87%) participants either pre- or post-intervention, of which 24 (46%) participants completed the tool pre- and post-intervention. In addition, 14 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus groups were conducted. Following the intervention, participants identified increased membership of their social networks, although they did not identify individuals from the weekly videoconference groups. The most important social support networks remained the same pre- and post-intervention namely, health professionals, close family and partners. However, post-intervention participants identified friends and wider family as more important to managing their chronic condition compared to pre-intervention. Participants derived social support, in particular, companionship, emotional and informational support as well as feeling more engaged with life, from the weekly videoconference meetings. Videoconference education groups delivered into the home can provide social support and enhance self-management for older people with chronic conditions. They provide the opportunity to develop a virtual social support network containing new and diverse social connections. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana
In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.
Guilcher, Sara J T; Casciaro, Tiziana; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Craven, Catharine; McColl, Mary Ann; Jaglal, Susan B
To describe the structure of informal networks for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in the community, to understand the quality of relationship of informal networks, and to understand the role of informal networks in the prevention and management of secondary health conditions (SHCs). Mixed-method descriptive study. Ontario, Canada Participants: Community-dwelling adults with an SCI living in Ontario Interventions/methods: The Arizona Social Support Interview Survey was used to measure social networks. Participants were asked the following open-ended questions: (1) What have been your experiences with your health care in the community? (2) What have been your experiences with care related to prevention and/or management of SHCs?, (3)What has been the role of your informal social networks (friends/family) related to SHCs? Fourteen key informant interviews were conducted (6 men, 8 women). The overall median for available informal networks was 11.0 persons (range 3-19). The informal network engaged in the following roles: (1) advice/validating concerns; (2) knowledge brokers; (3) advocacy; (4) preventing SHCs; (5) assisting with finances; and (6) managing SHCs. Participants described their informal networks as a "secondary team"; a critical and essential force in dealing with SHCs. While networks are smaller for persons with SCI compared with the general population, these ties seems to be strong, which is essential when the roles involve a level of trust, certainty, tacit knowledge, and flexibility. These informal networks serve as essential key players in filling the gaps that exist within the formal health care system.
Burton-Chase, Allison M; Parker, Wendy M; Hennig, Kelsey; Sisson, Faith; Bruzzone, Linda L
Social media is increasingly being used as a means of recruiting participants, particularly for investigators whose areas of interest involve rare conditions or hard-to-reach populations. However, much of the literature to date has focused on paid advertisement recruitment. We used Lynch syndrome (LS), a rare hereditary cancer syndrome, as a model to demonstrate the successful partnership between researchers and a Web-based patient education and advocacy organization to facilitate participant recruitment. Recruitment was undertaken in partnership with Lynch Syndrome International (LSI), an advocacy organization with a strong social media presence. After LSI published our study information, participants followed up via email or phone call. Following prescreening and consent, interested and eligible participants were then sent a secure survey link. Within 36 hours of a single Facebook post by the site administrators for LSI, over 150 individuals responded via phone or email. Sixty-five individuals were sent the survey link and 57 individuals completed the survey (88% response rate). Of note, these 57 individuals were geographically diverse within the Unites States, representing LS patients from 26 different states. This approach has several advantages, including recruitment through a trusted source outside of a clinical setting, higher response rates, and cost-effectiveness with a small research team in a relatively short amount of time. Overall, social media recruitment with a trusted online partner can be highly effective in hard-to-reach clinical populations, such as patients with LS. However, this approach requires additional effort for eligibility screening. ©Allison M Burton-Chase, Wendy M Parker, Kelsey Hennig, Faith Sisson, Linda L Bruzzone. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 23.01.2017.
Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Casciaro, Tiziana; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Craven, Catharine; McColl, Mary Ann; Jaglal, Susan B.
Objectives To describe the structure of informal networks for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in the community, to understand the quality of relationship of informal networks, and to understand the role of informal networks in the prevention and management of secondary health conditions (SHCs). Design Mixed-method descriptive study. Setting Ontario, Canada Participants Community-dwelling adults with an SCI living in Ontario Interventions/methods The Arizona Social Support Interview Survey was used to measure social networks. Participants were asked the following open-ended questions: (1) What have been your experiences with your health care in the community? (2) What have been your experiences with care related to prevention and/or management of SHCs?, (3)What has been the role of your informal social networks (friends/family) related to SHCs? Results Fourteen key informant interviews were conducted (6 men, 8 women). The overall median for available informal networks was 11.0 persons (range 3–19). The informal network engaged in the following roles: (1) advice/validating concerns; (2) knowledge brokers; (3) advocacy; (4) preventing SHCs; (5) assisting with finances; and (6) managing SHCs. Participants described their informal networks as a “secondary team”; a critical and essential force in dealing with SHCs. Conclusions While networks are smaller for persons with SCI compared with the general population, these ties seems to be strong, which is essential when the roles involve a level of trust, certainty, tacit knowledge, and flexibility. These informal networks serve as essential key players in filling the gaps that exist within the formal health care system. PMID:23031170
Raissa de Oliveira Martins Cabacinha
Full Text Available This study aimed at characterizing social demographic aspects and health conditions of men attending a Primary Family Health Care unit in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, correlating these variables with health self-perception and identifying men’s difficulty in using the health service. 115 adult men were interviewed who had attended the service in April and May, 2013. Most of them had completed high school, were married and adopted healthy practices, although they consumed alcoholic beverages. The main complaint regarding the health service was the long waiting time for attendance. The main factors that contributed for negative self-perception of health were: being married, suffering from chronic diseases and having low education; whereas those that contributed to the positive self-perception of health were: being young, being employed and not making regular use of medication (p<0.05. Those findings can subsidize policies to prevent diseases in promoting men’s health.
Carmen Helena Guerrero
Full Text Available This article aims at contributing to the ongoing discussion about how bilingualism is understood in the current National Bilingualism Plan (PNB for its initials in Spanish. Based on previous research and discussions held at academic events, it is evident that the promoters of the PNB use the term “bilingualism” in a rather indiscriminate way, without adopting a clear approach or definition. This ambiguity in conceptualization has serious consequences in the way the PNB is implemented around the country. The main contribution of this reflection article is, then, to explore from a theoretical perspective two opposite types of bilingualism: elite/folk bilingualism to show that even though on the surface the PNB seems to aim at an elite bilingualism, the educational and social conditions show otherwise.
Kopyta, Ilona; Szwed-Białozyt, Barbara; Czardybon, Magdalena; Drzyzdzyk, Kinga; Kałuzna-Czyz, Monika; Korczyk, Radosław; Kozieł, Paweł
A tic is a rapid, involuntary and stereotypical motor movement or vocalization. The exact cause of tic disorder is unknown, but it is well established that both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Tic occurence in population was estimated on 5-100/10 000. The purpose of the research was to analyze the clinical symptoms and social conditionings of tic disorder in children. The analysis was conducted on a group of 42 patients (8 girls, 34 boys) at the age of 3 to 15 years, admitted to Department of Neuropediatric of Medical University of Silesia to diagnose and treatment of tic disorder. The children's family history was analyzed. The patients were physically, neurogically, radiologically and psychologically examined. The majority group were boys and the time of the symptoms appearance was an early school age. The tics were associated with emotional and anxiety disorders, compulsive behavior, psychological obsession. 9% of patients had family history of tic disorder. Pregnancy-birth history was complicated in 24% of cases. There were not abnormalities in physical, neurological and radiological examination in most cases. The majority group (83%) lives in the cities. The most parents have vocational training. In case of appearance of twitching during suspicious behavior of child, we need to carry out a inquiring research targeted to widely understated social issues.
Full Text Available Husserl’s transcendental turn can be best regarded as a turn in his phenomenological models of intentionality. While in the Logical Investigations, he maintains a conception according to which intentionality is a structure of cognitive directedness in which objectification plays a formative role, in his later works the intentional relation is considered as a structure of consciousness founded on a sphere of purely subjective interiority. This paper 42 argues that if Husserl had extended the scope of his early phenomenological research to the problems of object formation in the domain of historical and cultural sciences (Geisteswissenschaften, the radical subjectively oriented transformation of his theory of intentionality would have been much more difficult, if not impossible. We also argue that in Simmel’s theory of historical cognition and culture one can detect the elements of a theory of intentionality that can account for what is missing in Husserl, namely the attention devoted to the specific constitution of social and cultural objects. It is precisely the objective mediation through exteriorization and symbolization deployed in social and cultural values, and in historical time that constitutes the specificity of these objects which also conditions subjective experiencing, rather than remains dependent on it.
E. F. Zeyer
Full Text Available The paper discusses the peculiarities of students’ professional identity in the context of socially conditioned conflicting realities. The individual social position is of a particular importance for the professional identity formation, so the authors carried out the research into the students professional self-determination with the reference to their socio-metric status in the academic group; the interpersonal relations were considered as conflict- generating – provoking the conflicting realities of students’ professional self- determination. The theoretical basis of the study involves the concept of personal professional growth with the emphasis on the students’ self-determination in the conflict situations. The research methodology combines the diagnostics of professional self-determination and socio-metric methods. The analysis and synthesis of the acquired empirical data reveal the differences in the expressed levels of components of the students’ professional identity according to their socio-metric status in the group. The research findings include the conformity of conflicting realities arising in interpersonal relationships in the academic process and reflected in the professional identity transformation. The above results can be used for psychological facilitation of students’ successful professional growth.
Biquand, Sylvain; Zittel, Benoit
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is now considered in large and global companies and the recent publication of the ISO 26000 standard clarifies the targets. Based on our consultancy's experience for fifteen years in ergonomics mainly in French small and medium enterprises, we developed a label to coax and value efforts of companies in dealing with health and safety at the work place as required by ISO 26000 paragraph 6.4. The formal approach of ISO describes what should be achieved but gives no cue on how actual conditions of work should be improved. The label, called Démarche T (ie Process W where W stands for work) aims the management of work conditions as a process, giving visibility and credit to companies for their continuous involvement in the matter. We describe the items and processes that are part of our assessment. We first conduct an ergonomic diagnosis including the analysis of records on health, physical and psychological well-being, observations at the workplace and interviews with the workers. This diagnosis is followed by recommendations. The fulfillment of these is assessed yearly. Items under assessment include: - ergonomics, health and safety in the companies statements and their impact in actual project management; - relations with workers through the committee for health and safety; - actual results on health, safety and work conditions. On a local level, we give the companies passing the label a competitive edge in recruiting better candidates motivated by good work conditions, and help them fulfill ISO 26000 requirements, an increasingly decisive advantage to benefit from public regional and European support. Our paper describes the diagnosis and follow-up process.
Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.
Luiz Roberto Augusto Noro
Full Text Available The scope of this study was to correlate toothache with social and economic conditions, access to oral health facilities and the lifestyle of adolescents in Sobral in the state of Ceará. It was conducted as a cross-sectional analytical study with a sample composed of 688 adolescents. The prevalence of toothache in the study group was 31.8%. A chi-square test of association was performed to measure the relationship between independent variables and toothache, estimating the prevalence ratio by Poisson regression. The factors that demonstrated the closest relationship with toothache were cavity severity, the reason for dental treatment being related to urgency, frequency of dental appointments and the distribution of toothbrushes at school. It was observed that the high prevalence of dental pain in adolescents is directly linked to the access conditions, as well as the characteristics of the actions developed by the health services. Just as there is a need for the deployment of services related to health promotion, based on equity and integration, it is necessary to introduce emergency services to intervene not just to curtail crippling pain, but also as a mechanism to stimulate the development of procedures for the prevention of oral diseases.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the general problem of territorialization and the special problems of cultural-genetical conditions in the sociological construction of social capital. The starting base is presented by the fact that a connection between the social-ecological conditions of an environment and social capital is historical, permanent and crucial. High and continuous growing level of urbanization in Vojvodina shows the prevailing of urban society inside of which the social capital is being formed. However, in the conditions of social transition also appear controversial relations which exert influence on the creation and functioning of social capital. Social-economical structure of the urban population in Vojvodina and the governing systems of values do not necessary product also the urban way of life, which therefore exerts influence on the quality of social capital. In this paper is particularly examined a connection of the spatial mobility of the urban population, institutional channels and local conditions in the social construction of social capital.
Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.
Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.
According to the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014), a Disaster event is a set of flood and landslide cases sharing the same trigger, which may have a widespread spatial extension and a certain magnitude. The Disaster event with the highest number of floods and landslides cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 was registered between 20 and 28 December 1909. This event also caused important socioeconomic impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin and in the northern section of the Tagus basin. Despite such widespread impact in western Iberia there is no scientific publication addressing the triggering conditions and the social consequences of this disastrous event. Therefore, this work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and rainfall data from Iberian meteorological stations. The historical data source used to analyse the event of December 1909 in Portugal is the Disaster Database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database contains detailed data on the spatial location and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of hydro-geomorphologic disasters (flood and landslide cases) occurred in Portugal (1865-2010) and referred in newspapers. In Spain the data collection process was supported by the systematic analysis of daily newspapers and using the same entry criteria of the Disaster database, to ensure data integrity and enable comparison with Portuguese records. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning between Lisbon, Santarém, Porto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, Palencia (in Spain). The social and economic impacts of the December 1909 disaster event were higher on the
Nigeria as a Nation is besieged with several national issues such as insecurity of life and property, kidnapping, robbery assassination etc. This problem has brought about retrogressiveness to sustainable national development. Based on this prevailing condition the paper try to examine how the knowledge of social studies ...
Abbas, Farhat; Rehman, Iqra; Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salik, Muhammad Raza
This study examines the variability and change in the patterns of climatic extremes experienced in Indus-Delta of Sindh province of Pakistan, comprising regions of Karachi, Badin, Mohenjodaro, and Rohri. The homogenized daily minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation data for a 36-year period were used to calculate 13 and 11 indices of temperature and precipitation extremes with the help of RClimDex, a program written in the statistical software package R. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates were used to determine the statistical significance and magnitude of the calculated trend. Temperatures of summer days and tropical nights increased in the region with overall significant warming trends for monthly maximum temperature as well as for warm days and nights reflecting dry conditions in the study area. The warm extremes and nighttime temperature indices showed greater trends than cold extremes and daytime indices depicting an overall warming trends in the Delta. Historic decrease in the acreage of major crops and over 33% decrease in agriculture credit for Sindh are the indicators of adverse impacts of warmer and drier weather on Sindh agriculture. Trends reported for Karachi and Badin are expected to decrease rice cultivation, hatching of fisheries, and mangroves forest surrounding these cities. Increase in the prevailing temperature trends will lead to increasingly hotter and drier summers resulting to constraints on cotton, wheat, and rice yield in Rohri and Mohenjodaro areas due to increased crop water requirements that may be met with additional groundwater pumping; nonetheless, the depleted groundwater resources would have a direct impact on the region's economy.
Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H.; O' Dowd, Colin
The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth’s energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future
Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H; O' Dowd, Colin
The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth's energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future
Scior, K.; Furnham, A.
Evidence on mental illness stigma abounds yet little is known about public perceptions of intellectual disability. This study examined causal beliefs about intellectual disability and schizophrenia and how these relate to awareness of the condition and social distance. UK lay people aged 16+(N=1752), in response to vignettes depicting intellectual disability and schizophrenia, noted their interpretation of the difficulties, and rated their agreement with 22 causal and four social distance ite...
Full Text Available The article reveals the question of using of the method of coaching in preparation of the students to the managerial activity in the sphere of preschool education in mountain areas. The necessity of preparation under the modern conditions of social-economic development of mountain areas has been proved. The content of the article generalizes basic contradictions between the necessity and reality. The definition of the main points of the research has been given. The attention is accentuated on the basic principles of management and on the notion “coaching” in the process of management of preschool education in mountain area. Coaching includes partnership, potential revealing, effectiveness. Methodology of coaching is based on the principle that the person naturally is sufficiently talented and owns great potential, which isn’t realized fully. An important condition of this approach is valuable, respectful attitude of the participants of polylogue to one another. Basic theoretical regulations of the coaching approach have been determined. In the context of selection of teching technologies on the basis of coaching approach, the method “reflexive team” has been briefly revealed. It is determined that coaching is a style of management, transformed culture: if the authoritarian style is substituted into coaching, then the hierarchy changes from the support of blaming and ridiculing to the objective evaluation, all-hands activity changes to strategic planning. Coaching approach will allow optimizing the structure of economic activity of a separate preschool educational establishment. The attention is accentuated at the fact, that using coaching with the students at the lessons as a style of management of preschool education, will let future managers of preschool educational establishments to form the skills of behavior in critical situations of mountain area, to enrich their activity with the new means of performing, to develop professional
Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K
Post-weaning social isolation rearing (SI) in rodents elicits various behavioral abnormalities including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors. In order to obtain a better understanding of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities, we herein investigated the effects of SI on social affiliation and conditioned fear memory as well as the neuronal mechanism(s) underlying these effects. Four-week-old male mice were group-housed (GH) or socially isolated for 2-4 weeks before the experiments. The social affiliation test and fear memory conditioning were conducted at the age of 6 and 7 weeks, respectively. SI mice were systemically administered saline or test drugs 30 min before the social affiliation test and fear memory conditioning. Contextual and auditory fear memories were elucidated 1 and 4 days after fear conditioning. Social affiliation and contextual and auditory fear memories were weaker in SI mice than in GH mice. Methylphenidate (MPH), an inhibitor for dopamine transporters, ameliorated the SI-induced social affiliation deficit and the effect was attenuated by SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, but not by sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist. On the other hand, tacrine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, had no effect on this deficit. In contrast, tacrine improved SI-induced deficits in fear memories in a manner that was reversed by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, while MPH had no effect on memory deficits. Neurochemical studies revealed that SI down-regulated the expression levels of the phosphorylated forms of neuro-signaling proteins, calmodulin-dependent kinase II (p-CaMKII), and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (p-CREB), as well as early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) in the hippocampus. The administration of MPH or tacrine before fear conditioning had no effect on the levels of the phosphorylated forms of the neuro-signaling proteins elucidated following completion of the auditory fear memory test; however
Full Text Available The aim of an enterprise is to increase its value. This growth can be achieved if initiated socially responsible activities improve the value drivers. The company’s specificity, type of its environment and their mutual reactions create conditions conducive to improvement of the driving forces of value by being socially responsible. Bearing this observation in mind we can formulate five strategies of creating value based on social responsibility. These are strategies of perfection, positive selection, surroundings modification, transformation and transposition.
Harper, D; Babigian, H M; Parris, R; Mills, B
Two migrant farm labor camps were observed during two summer harvesting seasons. A part of the observations consisted of interviews with 104 farm laborers, with 16 of them being interviewed intensively. Migrant farm workers were exploited by the crew boss and the farm owner, and they in turn exploited each other. Consequently, many workers left farm work. Those who remained in the camps adapted their attitudes and their views to the conditions. Though they had a begrudging respect for the crew boss, they showed an overriding concern with exploitation. They conveyed a numbness about life, themselves, and their place in society; this numbness was combined with self criticism and an attempt to maintain some self-respect. They expressed distrust for and suspicion of others, and though they could not articulate it very well, they felt great fear and anxiety. In order to diagnose and treat disorder in migrant farm workers, psychiatrists must understand the exploitive social setting of migrant farm work and the adaptations of workers to that setting.
Piatt, Jennifer A; Nagata, Shinichi; Zahl, Melissa; Li, Jing; Rosenbluth, Jeffrey P
This exploratory study describes the problematic secondary health conditions among adults with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and the impact these health concerns have on social participation and daily life. Cross-sectional survey design. A community-based rehabilitation program within the United States. Fifty-six adults (33 males and 23 females; age 18 to 73 [M = 39.4, SD = 12.7]) with SCI participating in the community-based rehabilitation program. Subjects identified the top five problematic secondary health conditions related to his/her SCI, belief about the impact these conditions have on social participation and daily life, and if they believed the secondary health condition(s) were avoidable. The top problematic areas identified were bladder control, pain, bowel control, and pressure ulcers, and 73% felt these problems were unavoidable. In addition, more than 66% had each of these problems continuously during the last 12 months. When examining the impact of the problematic secondary health conditions, 75% identified that the primary problem had a significant impact on social participation and 64% identified it significantly impacted daily life. Although the majority of the participants were actively participating in a community-based rehabilitation wellness program, it appears that they thought engagement in social participation and daily life were negatively impacted by the secondary health conditions and unavoidable. The results suggested unfulfilled goals despite the emphasized efforts of medical providers to help manage the secondary conditions. Future research should examine why individuals with SCI still have a difficult time managing secondary health conditions.
Murray W. Scown
Full Text Available A recent paradigm shift from purely biophysical towards social-ecological assessment of watersheds has been proposed to understand, monitor, and manipulate the myriad interactions between human well-being and the ecosystem services that watersheds provide. However, large-scale, quantitative studies in this endeavour remain limited. We utilised two newly developed ‘big-data’ sets—the Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI and the Human Well-Being Index (HWBI—to explore the social-ecological condition of watersheds throughout the conterminous U.S., and identified environmental and socio-economic influences on watershed integrity and human well-being. Mean county IWI was highly associated with ecoregion, industry-dependence, and state, in a spatially-explicit regression model (R2 = 0.77, 'P' < 0.001, whereas HWBI was not (R2 = 0.31, 'P' < 0.001. HWBI is likely influenced by factors not explored here, such as governance structure and formal and informal organisations and institutions. ‘Win-win’ situations in which both IWI and HWBI were above the 75th percentile were observed in much of Utah, Colorado, and New Hampshire, and lessons from governance that has resulted in desirable outcomes might be learnt from here. Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia, along with large parts of the desert southwest, had intact watersheds but low HWBI, representing areas worthy of further investigation of how ecosystem services might be utilised to improve well-being. The Temperate Prairies and Central USA Plains had widespread areas of low IWI but high HWBI, likely a result of historic exploitation of watershed resources to improve well-being, particularly in farming-dependent counties. The lower Mississippi Valley had low IWI and HWBI, which is likely related to historical (temporal and upstream (spatial impacts on both watershed integrity and well-being. The results emphasise the importance of considering spatial and temporal trade-offs when utilising the
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Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Yohannes, Asmait; Griffith, Mariska
Background It is increasingly acknowledged that homelessness is a more complex social and public health phenomenon than the absence of a place to live. This view signifies a paradigm shift, from the definition of homelessness in terms of the absence of permanent accommodation, with its focus on pathways out of homelessness through the acquisition and maintenance of permanent housing, to understanding the social context of homelessness and social interventions to prevent it. However, despite e...
Song, Shige; Burgard, Sarah A
The fundamental cause argument represents a distinctively sociological approach to explaining persistent social disparities in health across a range of sociohistorical contexts. We elaborate and test this U.S.-based argument using nationally representative survey data from China covering births from 1970 to 2001, and focusing on social disparities in infant mortality over a period of dramatic social, political, and macroeconomic change. Our results show that despite the massive changes during...
Griffith, Lauren E; Raina, Parminder; Levasseur, Mélanie; Sohel, Nazmul; Payette, Hélène; Tuokko, Holly; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Wister, Andrew; Gilsing, Anne; Patterson, Christopher
We examine the population impact on functional disability and social participation of physical and mental chronic conditions individually and in combination. Cross-sectional, population-based data from community-dwelling people aged 45 years and over living in the 10 Canadian provinces in 2008-2009 were used to estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for functional disability in basic (ADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living and social participation restrictions for individual and combinations of chronic conditions, stratified by age and gender, after adjusting for confounding variables. Five chronic conditions (arthritis, depression, diabetes, heart disease and eye disease) made the largest contributions to ADL-related and IADL-related functional disability and social participation restrictions, with variation in magnitude and ranking by age and gender. While arthritis was consistently associated with higher PARs across gender and most age groups, depression, alone and in combination with the physical chronic conditions, was associated with ADL and IADL disability as well as social participation restrictions in the younger age groups, especially among women. Compared to women, the combinations of conditions associated with higher PARs in men more often included heart disease and diabetes. Our findings suggest that in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults, the impact of combinations of mental and physical chronic conditions on functional disability and social participation restriction is substantial and differed by gender and age. Recognising the differences in the drivers of PAR by gender and age group will ultimately increase the efficiency of clinical and public health interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Berglund, Helene; Hasson, Henna; Wilhelmson, Katarina; Dunér, Anna; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
It has been shown that frailty is associated with low levels of well-being and life satisfaction. Further exploration is needed, however, to better understand which components constitute life satisfaction for frail older people and how satisfaction is related to other life circumstances. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between frail older people's life satisfaction and their socioeconomic conditions, social networks, and health-related conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted (n=179). A logistic regression analysis was performed, including life satisfaction as the dependent variable and 12 items as independent variables. Four of the independent variables made statistically significant contributions: financial situation (OR 3.53), social contacts (OR 2.44), risk of depression (OR 2.26), and self-rated health (OR 2.79). This study demonstrates that financial situation, self-rated health conditions and social networks are important components for frail older people's life satisfaction. Health and social care professionals and policy makers should consider this knowledge in the care and service for frail older people; and actions that benefit life satisfaction - such as social support - should be promoted.
Paterson, Helen L
The global growth and development of social media has had a positive impact on many individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), who use it to communicate and connect with others. Research evidence into the use of social media by adults with acquired conditions who use AAC is limited. These individuals are a heterogeneous population, who can present with a range of linguistic, cognitive and physical needs, some of which progress rapidly, making accessing social media a challenge. These issues warrant research focusing on developing interventions to support the use of social media and the impact of these interventions. For individuals with acquired conditions who have previously used social media and for those who are new to the experience, social media can offer a vital connection to friends, family and health professionals. This paper examines current gaps in knowledge in this area in the field of AAC and proposes potential methodologies for future research. These include combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies (e.g., analysis of online interactions and observational data) that would be useful tools for data collection in an under-researched field.
Turner, Niall; Ferguson, Lisa; Hill, Michele; Nesbitt, Tara; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Mahony, Paul; Clarke, Mary
Understanding social inclusion among at-risk populations will deepen our understanding of their specific needs. This study explored the level of social inclusion among people with psychotic-related conditions using a standardised interview. The Social Inclusion Interview Schedule was used in two research projects. People with psychosis participated in both studies and had been recruited as part of an Irish programme of research on psychotic conditions. Descriptive statistics were used to quantify participants' level of social exclusion. Data from 71 participants were available, 38 in one cohort and 33 in the other. The smaller cohort had a shorter mean duration of illness. Participants' mean age was 40. The majority lived in the community and were satisfied with their living arrangements. In each cohort, the same two areas of community integration emerged as problematic - having something productive to do and being close to someone in the community. There was a higher level of perceived stigma among the cohort with the longer duration of illness. While evidence of social inclusion was found among participants, there were areas of concern particularly with regard to integration into work and social connectedness.
A. M. Kamyshnyi
Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause
Ali, Moazzam; Shahab, Saqib; Ushijima, Hiroshi; de Muynck, Aime
This paper examines the social conditions and nutritional status of street children in Pakistan. Nutritional status is evaluated by an assessment of height and weight relative to age. A heterogeneous sample of 108 street children in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad was studied. One hundred and one of them were children "on the street" having regular family contact; seven were "of the street", without any family contact. Most street children came from large families which had recently moved to the city in search of economic opportunities. Their parents had low education levels and were either unemployed or employed in unskilled occupations. Poverty clearly was an important factor. The majority of the children moved to the street to augment family income. Most of the children were males (81%) and the average age at beginning life on the street was under 10 years. The majority was working 8-12 h daily with an average income of Rs. 40-60 per day (USD 1 = Rs. 60). Important issues were parental exploitation, police harassment, abuse, and the impact of other street peers in their lives. The distribution of height-for-age relative to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference standard showed that 20% were stunted and 12% had wasting. Wasting was equal between sexes, while fewer girls than boys were stunted. The study concludes that the issue of street children in Rawalpindi and Islamabad is mainly one of "children on the street," while "children of the street" are an exceptional phenomenon. It was noted that, with some exceptions, street children in other world regions share similar risk factors and backgrounds. Findings from this study will facilitate both the identification of high-risk families, i.e. those whose children are likely to take to the street, and timely preventive and rehabilitative measures.
Focussing on individuals and institutions, the economic and social condition of the people of Fort Cochin between 1781 and 1830 has been studied. This study of the Dutch East India Company's (VOC) establishment on the south west coast of India provides a detailed research into the functioning of the
Naguib, M.; Floercke, C.; Oers, van K.
Environmental conditions during early development play a crucial role in shaping an organism's phenotype. To test how social group size affects stress response and behavioral characteristics, we used great tits (Parus major) from selection lines for exploratory behavior, a proxy for an avian
Burton, Tim; Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.; Williams, Tony
1. Social status can vary considerably among individuals and has significant implications for performance. In addition to a genetic component, social status may be influenced by environmental factors including maternal effects such as prenatal hormone exposure. Maternal effects on traits determining
Ledford, Jennifer R.; King, Seth; Harbin, Emilee R.; Zimmerman, Kathleen N.
Social skills interventions designed to increase pro-social interactions for individuals with autism spectrum disorders are critical, but the relative effectiveness of these interventions is not well understood. More than 250 single-case design studies in 113 articles were reviewed and described in terms of participants, settings, arrangements,…
Sattoe, J.N.T.; Hilberink, S.R.; Staa, A. van; Bal, R.
Purpose: Typical childhood and adolescent development and acquiring self-management skills are crucial for a satisfying adult life and autonomy in social participation. The aims of this study were to identify patterns of autonomy in social participation and to explore differences between these
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper. An analysis of the national social policy in Ukraine and Japan, based on research, making recommendations for the improvement of the social policy situation in Ukraine. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological base of scientific research made of national and foreign scholars on the analysis of social policy, official statistical data of the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, reports of the NBU and central bank of Japan. To ensure the authenticity and validity of the research results to the goal, the following methods are used: induction and deduction – during theoretical generalizations and conclusions; analogy method – when comparing foreign experience of social policy; economics and statistics as methods of macroeconomic policy of Ukraine analysing; retrospective analysis, which determines social policy; methods of system analysis and synthesis. Results. In the article, social policy in Ukraine and Japan is investigated. The macroeconomic situation in each country is analysed. Reasonable steps for the further using of the investigated country experience for Ukraine are founded. A particular attention to the normative acts improvement is given. Practical implications. The results of this study can be used by public authorities, such as the Ministry of Finance, state statistical agencies. Value/originality of the results is a complex theoretical and practical analysis of social policy in Ukraine and Japan. For the first time, comparative social policy in Ukraine and Japan is analysed. Further research should relate to the construction of an own social policy model. In the process of its implementation, it is necessary to use the experience of foreign countries.
Amadeo Ramos Carranza
Full Text Available RESUMEN La arquitectura del siglo XX, con sus teorías, sus propuestas, proyectos y realidades, ha sido la que nos ha enseñado a observar con renovado interés las infraestructuras y a considerarlas como una forma de pensar nuestra disciplina. En cada nueva situación la arquitectura ha señalado y diseñado los lugares de las infraestructuras; se ha modificado el contexto y se han vuelto a generar nuevas situaciones. Se incide directamente en la organización de las estructuras urbanas y territoriales, en la movilidad interior de las ciudades y sobre todo, en la manera que las personas acaban relacionándose. Aalto nos ofrece un claro ejemplo a través de dos infraestructuras aparentemente idénticas con resultados muy diferentes; un punto de vista desde el que pueden observarse otras propuestas de infraestructuras urbanas surgidas a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, o las nuevas tendencias de movilidad del espacio en un mundo globalizado con menor presencia colectiva y social frente al carácter individual de cada persona. SUMMARY 20th century architecture, with its theories, its proposals, projects and realities have taught us to look at infrastructure with renewed interest and to consider them as another form in which to think about architecture. In each new situation architecture has pointed to and designed the locations for the infrastructures; the context has been modified and new situations have been generated. It is possible to extract from them their social component with a direct impact on the organisation of the urban and territorial structures, in the interior mobility of the city and above all, in the way that people relate to each other. Aalto offers us a clear example through two apparently identical structures with very different results; a point of view from which other proposals of urban infrastructures can be observed and which have emerged in the second half of the 20th century, or new trends of space mobility in a
Agahi, Neda; Shaw, Benjamin A; Fors, Stefan
Childhood living conditions have been found to predict health and mortality in midlife and in old age. This study examines the associations between social and economic childhood conditions and the onset and progression of functional health problems from midlife into old age, and the extent to which potential associations are mediated by educational attainment and smoking. Data from the Level of Living Survey and the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old were merged to create a longitudinal data set with five repeated measures from 1968 to 2004 (n=1765, aged 30-50 years and free from functional health problems at baseline). Multilevel regression models were used to analyse retrospective reports of social and economic conditions in childhood (eg, conflicts or economic problems in the family) in relation to the progression of functional health problems over the 36-year period. Results showed that social and economic disadvantages in childhood were associated with an earlier onset and a faster progression of functional health problems from midlife into old age. Subsequent models showed that differences in educational attainment, but not smoking, explained much of the association between childhood disadvantages and trajectories of functional health problems. According to these results, adverse social and economic conditions in childhood affect the development of functional health problems from midlife into old age indirectly through less favourable life careers, including lower education. Creating equal opportunities for educational attainment may help reduce the long-term effects of disadvantaged childhood conditions and postpone functional health problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W
The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health conditions. The study was based on a sample of 926 workers on sickness absence (6-12 weeks). The participants filled out a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed until the tenth month after listing sick. Perceived work attitude was measured with a Dutch language version of the Work Involvement Scale. Perceived social support was measured with a self-constructed standardized scale reflecting a person's perception of social support regarding RTW. Self-efficacy was measured with the standardised Dutch version of the General self-efficacy scale, assessing the subjects' expectations of their general capacities. The sample was divided into three subgroups: musculoskeletal health conditions, other physical health conditions and mental health conditions. Anova analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify differences in association between the three factors and the time to RTW between different subgroups. The associations between the perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and the time to RTW vary across different health condition subgroups, not only with regard to the strength of the association but also for the type of factor. In the multivariate model, hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75) in the musculoskeletal subgroup, and 1.26 (95% CI 0.89-1.78) in the other physical subgroup were found in perceived work attitude. With regard to perceived social support HRs of 1.39 (95% CI 1.12-1.99) respectively 1.51 (1.05-2.17) in the same subgroups were found. Only self-efficacy remained in the multivariate model in all subgroups with HRs of 1.49 (95% CI 1.12-1.99) in the musculoskeletal subgroup, 1.53 (95% CI 1
... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the...
Scior, Katrina; Furnham, Adrian
Evidence on mental illness stigma abounds yet little is known about public perceptions of intellectual disability. This study examined causal beliefs about intellectual disability and schizophrenia and how these relate to awareness of the condition and social distance. UK lay people aged 16+(N=1752), in response to vignettes depicting intellectual disability and schizophrenia, noted their interpretation of the difficulties, and rated their agreement with 22 causal and four social distance items. They were most likely to endorse environmental causes for intellectual disability, and biomedical factors, trauma and early disadvantage for schizophrenia. Accurate identification of both vignettes was associated with stronger endorsement of biomedical causes, alongside weaker endorsement of adversity, environmental and supernatural causes. Biomedical causal beliefs and social distance were negatively correlated for intellectual disability, but not for schizophrenia. Causal beliefs mediated the relationship between identification of the condition and social distance for both conditions. While all four types of causal beliefs acted as mediators for intellectual disability, for schizophrenia only supernatural causal beliefs did. Educating the public and promoting certain causal beliefs may be of benefit in tackling intellectual disability stigma, but for schizophrenia, other than tackling supernatural attributions, may be of little benefit in reducing stigma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
García-Pardo, M P; Blanco-Gandía, M C; Valiente-Lluch, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A
Previous studies have demonstrated that social defeat stress increases the rewarding effects of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine. In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) on the rewarding effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adolescent and young adult mice were exposed to four episodes of social defeat (on PND 29-40 and PND 47-56, respectively) and were conditioned three weeks later with 1.25 or 10mg/kg i.p. of MDMA (experiment 1). The long-term effects of RSD on anxiety, social behavior and cognitive processes were also evaluated in adult mice (experiment 2). RSD during adolescence enhanced vulnerability to priming-induced reinstatement in animals conditioned with 1.25mg/kg of MDMA and increased the duration of the CPP induced by the 10mg/kg of MDMA. The latter effect was also observed after RSD in young adult mice, as well as an increase in anxiety-like behavior, an alteration in social interaction (reduction in attack and increase in avoidance/flee and defensive/submissive behaviors) and an impairment of maze learning. These results support the idea that RSD stress increases the rewarding effects of MDMA and induces long-term alterations in anxiety, learning and social behavior in adult mice. Thus, exposure to stress may increase the vulnerability of individuals to developing MDMA dependence, which is a factor to be taken into account in relation to the prevention and treatment of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy
Social vulnerability due to insufficient income and earnings may come from many sources, both demographic and economic, in a globalizing world. This paper examines the problems of population aging, low wages, growing inequality, low work hours and insufficient social spending in Spain .Vulnerable groups such as children and the aged are considered. The paper will look at the United States, Canada, and Europe using the LIS (Luxembourg Income Study) database, and especially with a focus on Spai...
Peng, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiebo; Glenn, Catherine; Zhan, Jingyao; Liu, Yuhan
Sleep condition is closely related to an individual's health. Poor sleep conditions such as sleep disorder and sleep deprivation affect one's daily performance, and may also cause many chronic diseases. Many efforts have been devoted to monitoring people's sleep conditions. However, traditional methodologies require sophisticated equipment and consume a significant amount of time. In this paper, we attempt to develop a novel way to predict individual's sleep condition via scrutinizing facial ...
Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis
While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...
Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Fortes-Burgos, Andréa Cristina Garofe; Mantovani, Efigênia Passarelli; Arbex, Flávia Silva; de Souza Torres, Stella Vidal; Perracini, Mônica Rodrigues; Guariento, Maria Elena
In an aging population an increasing number of elderly caregivers will be called upon to provide care over a long period, during which time they will be burdened both by caregiving and by the physiological effects of their own aging. Among them there will be more aged male caregivers, who will probably be less prepared than women to become caregivers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between caregivers' gender, age, family income, living arrangements and social support as independent variables, and depressive symptoms, comorbidities, level of frailty, grip strength, walking speed and social isolation, as dependent variables. 176 elderly people (123 women) were selected from a sample of a population-based study on frailty (n = 900), who had cared for a spouse (79.3%) and/or parents (31.4%) in the past five years (mean age = 71.8 ± 4.86 years; mean monthly family income in minimum wages = 4.64 ± 5.14). The study used questionnaires and self-report scales, grip strength and walking speed tests. 65% of participants evaluated caregiving as being very stressful. Univariate analyses of regression showed low family income as a risk factor for depression; being female and low perceived social support as a risk for comorbidities; being 80 years of age and above for low grip strength; and being male for social isolation indicated by discontinuity of activities and social roles. In multivariate analyses of regression, poverty arose as a risk factor for depression and being female for comorbidities. Gender roles, age, income and social support interacted with physical and emotional health, and with the continuity of social participation of elderly caregivers. Special attention must be given to male caregivers.
Gómez,Luis Fernando; Mosquera,Janeth; Gómez,Olga Lucia; Moreno,José; Pinzon,Jose D.; Jacoby,Enrique; Cepeda,Magda; Parra,Diana Celmira
Abstract The Ciclovia program (CP) has emerged as an effective initiative to promote active living in urban spaces in Latin America. This study assessed the association between social conditions, the urban environment and participation in the CP among adults living in the city of Cali, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 among 719 adults aged 18 to 44. Urban environment measures were obtained using Geographic Information Systems. A multilevel logistic regression w...
Montagud-Romero, S; Montesinos, J; Pascual, M; Aguilar, M A; Roger-Sanchez, C; Guerri, C; Miñarro, J; Rodríguez-Arias, M
Social defeat (SD) induces a long-lasting increase in the rewarding effects of psychostimulants measured using the self-administration and conditioned place procedures (CPP). However, little is known about the epigenetic changes induced by social stress and about their role in the increased response to the rewarding effects of psychostimulants. Considering that histone acetylation regulates transcriptional activity and contributes to drug-induced behavioral changes, we addressed the hypothesis that SD induces transcriptional changes by histone modifications associated with the acquisition of place conditioning. After a fourth defeat, H3(K9) acetylation was decreased in the hippocampus, while there was an increase of HAT and a decrease of HDAC levels in the cortex. Three weeks after the last defeat, mice displayed an increase in histone H4(K12) acetylation and an upregulation of histone acetyl transferase (HAT) activity in the hippocampus. In addition, H3(K4)me3, which is closely associated with transcriptional initiation, was also augmented in the hippocampus three weeks after the last defeat. Inhibition of HAT by curcumin (100mg/kg) before each SD blocked the increase in the conditioned reinforcing effects of 1mg/kg of cocaine, while inhibition of HDAC by valproic acid (500mg/kg) before social stress potentiated cocaine-induced CPP. Preference was reinstated when animals received a priming dose of 0.5mg/kg of cocaine, an effect that was absent in untreated defeated mice. These results suggest that the experience of SD induces chromatin remodeling, alters histone acetylation and methylation, and modifies the effects of cocaine on place conditioning. They also point to epigenetic mechanisms as potential avenues leading to new treatments for the long-term effects of social stress on drug addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Warrington, Miyako H; Rollins, Lee Ann; Raihani, Nichola J; Russell, Andrew F; Griffith, Simon C
Mating strategies may be context-dependent and may vary across ecological and social contexts, demonstrating the role of these factors in driving the variation in genetic polyandry within and among species. Here, we took a longitudinal approach across 5 years (2006-2010), to study the apostlebird (Struthidea cinerea), an Australian cooperatively breeding bird, whose reproduction is affected by ecological "boom and bust" cycles. Climatic variation drives variation in the social (i.e., group sizes, proportion of males and females) and ecological (i.e., plant and insect abundance) context in which mating occurs. By quantifying variation in both social and ecological factors and characterizing the genetic mating system across multiple years using a molecular parentage analysis, we found that the genetic mating strategy did not vary among years despite significant variation in rainfall, driving primary production, and insect abundance, and corresponding variation in social parameters such as breeding group size. Group sizes in 2010, an ecologically good year, were significantly smaller (mean = 5.8 ± 0.9, n = 16) than in the drought affected years, between 2006 and 2008, (mean = 9.1 ± 0.5, n = 63). Overall, apostlebirds were consistently monogamous with few cases of multiple maternity or paternity (8 of 78 nests) across all years.
A recent paradigm shift from purely biophysical towards social-ecological assessment of watersheds has been proposed to understand, monitor, and manipulate the myriad interactions between human well-being and the ecosystem services that watersheds provide. However, large-scale, q...
Workplace relations like any social relation first and foremost have a moral dimension. Thus, if vocational education sees one of its major goals in helping apprentices to deal with moral issues, one of the core objectives in vocational education is the support of the apprentice's development of moral judgement competence. Since Lawrence Kohlberg…
Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.
The naturally occurring tendency to compete with other rats for territorial space has been used to study individual behavior characteristics and blood pressure reactivity to social stimuli in adult male TMD-S3 rats. The competitive characteristics of the individual rats are consistent in two
Washburn, Dustin; Wilson, Gillian; Roes, Meighen; Rnic, Katerina; Harkness, Kate Leslie
Social anxiety disorder is characterized by marked interpersonal impairment, particularly when presenting with comorbid major depression. However, the foundational social-cognitive skills that underlie interpersonal impairment in comorbid and non-comorbid manifestations of SAD has to date received very little empirical investigation. In a sample of 119 young adults, the current study examined differences in theory of mind (ToM), defined as the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states, across four groups: (a) non-comorbid SAD; (b) non-comorbid Lifetime MDD; (c) comorbid SAD and Lifetime MDD; and (d) healthy control. The non-comorbid SAD group was significantly less accurate at decoding mental states than the non-comorbid MDD and control groups. Further, both the comorbid and non-comorbid SAD groups made significantly more 'excessive' ToM reasoning errors than the non-comorbid MDD group, suggesting a pattern of over-mentalizing. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the social cognitive foundations of social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marková, Petra; Beňo, Rastislav; Hatiar, Karol
Gradually increasing pressure on companies to start to behave socially responsible is a response to social, environmental and economic requirements. The society faces a period of changes that have occurred since the beginning of the crisis and revealing weaknesses in the economy. We become witnesses of rapid changes and challenges posed by globalization, lack of resources, demographic structure and innovation. Objective necessity becomes a corporate social responsibility (CSR) already at the companies’ level, which is supported by the approach of the EU institutions and the Slovak Republic. One of the possible appliance through which we can contribute to the sustainability of CSR are sustainable ergonomic programs. When we want to talk about sustainable ergonomic program is important to focus on three key areas. The first area is the Impact of technic and technology to employees at work, the second area is the Importance and impact of socially responsible HR in ergonomics and last area is the Creation of the work environment in relation to environmental sustainability. Ergonomic programs sustainability requires to apply appropriate methods for evaluation of their cost benefit and health effect.
... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...
Horn, Philipp; Scheffler, Paul; Schiele, Holger
The purpose of this study is to explore the link between integration and global sourcing success in international operations and by doing so, to clarify the ambiguous picture that prevails in the existing literature. Specifically, this quantitative study aims at identifying the role of the buying
Social barriers in wind power implementation in The Netherlands: Perceptions of wind power entrepreneurs and local civil servants of institutional and social conditions in realizing wind power projects
Agterbosch, Susanne; Glasbergen, Pieter; Vermeulen, Walter J.V.
The primary social factors for the implementation of wind energy projects in a liberalized market are entrepreneurs willing to invest. Understanding conditions that trigger entrepreneurs to invest in these projects, and understanding conditions that determine the chance of success for entrepreneurs to implement and exploit their projects, is vital for setting up effective policies to stimulate wind electricity generation. This paper analyses the way in which wind power entrepreneurs and local civil servants experience social and institutional conditions in the operational process of realizing wind power projects, and their perceptions of policy implications. A groups support system in an electronic board room was used to analyze the perceptions. From the analysis it was concluded that wind power entrepreneurs and civil servants share the opinion that the institutionally embedded power position of local politicians, and the sensitiveness of the local political debate for the popular opinion are most critical for project realization. With regard to the proposed solutions, both groups differ in their approach. Entrepreneurs stress procedural solutions, such as limiting the possibilities to appeal, reducing the complexity of the formal authorization trajectory and using a top down planning approach. Civil servants stress more strategic solutions, such as providing more public information on the necessity of wind power for local politicians and citizens, and community involvement in planning processes. Finally, the analysis explains that steering strategies that have been developed at the national level to solve the planning problems at the operational level do not address the right problems. (author)
Иван Викторович Малышев
Full Text Available In the paper the problem of the social-psychological adaptation of the personality of sportsmen in the conditions of the riskiness of their activity is considered. In the theoretical part of the paper the actuality of the problem of the adaptation of the personality in the conditions of the uncertainty and risk and the necessity of study of the phenomenon of the social-psychological adaptation andthe socialization from the point of view of systematic-diachronic approach are proved. The main definitions are uncovered: the social-psychological adaptation of the personality, the risk in psychology, systematic-diachronic approach.Purpose. The study of the characteristics of the social-psychological adaptation and the inclination (readiness to the risk, the relationship between the present phenomenons among young people who are actively realizing themselves in the sport activity.The methods of the diagnostic research. Inquirer of the social-psychological adaptation by C.Rogers and R.Dymond, the test by R.Kettel, inquirer MMPI (the adapted version, the methods of the diagnostics of the readiness to the risk by Schubert, the inquirer of the study of the readiness to the risk by A.G.Shmelev.Statistical processing the dates: the correlational analysis (Pearson.Results. The characteristic of the social-psychological adaptation of the personality of sportsmen in the form of its integral components is represented. Among the young people the stage of the adaptation possibilities according to the most of the indices is defined as the high one. This way, among the properties of the personality of sportsmen, which reflect their adaptation possibilities, a positive emotional background, capacity for work, the permanency of the interests, the emotional steadiness, the prevalence of the assurance of success, the tendency to the self-assertion, the social activity of the personality are detected. The correlation between some indices of the social
Nina Ivanovna Lygina
Full Text Available In this paper we will present the results of a pedagogical experiment aimed at studying the level of social skills in university professors. Planning cross subject communications in an academic subject with consideration of the previous and associated knowledge and skills of students in the educational programme formed the basis of the pedagogical experiment. Problems have occurred when university professors are faced with elaborating cross subject communications. It was discovered that the problems professors had were connected to their responsiveness and to the various strategies they applied while working within small groups. We will analyze the results, provide recommendations and show the change in the level of the professors’ social skills during elaboration of cross subject communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-21
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of inclusive education of children with the special educational requirements at comprehensive rural school in a mountainous region. The author indicates that the special system of inclusive education for such students at rural schools is important at present time. The results of questionnaire of parents as to their knowledge about inclusive education are shown. Social teachers who work at rural schools in a mountainous region should conduct informatively-elucidative work among parents with the aim of support of vital functions of school, improvement of understanding and communication of all students of school, taking into account the special educational necessities of separate students, and also give an opportunity to the children with the special educational necessities to get such a social experience as well as their healthy friends.
Rosenberg, Shawn W.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the field of political psychology; like the social sciences more generally, is being challenged. New theoretical direction is being demanded from within and a greater epistemological sophistication and ethical relevance is being demanded from without. In response, direction for a reconstructed political psychology is offered here. To begin, a theoretical framework for a truly integrative political psychology is sketched. This is done in light of the appar...
Bottery, Michael; Wood, A. Jamie; Brockhurst, Michael
Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids frequently carry antibiotic resistance genes conferring qualitatively different mechanisms of resistance. We show here that the antibiotic concentrations selecting for the RK2 plasmid in Escherichia coli depend upon the sociality of the drug resistance: the selection for selfish drug resistance (efflux pump) occurred at very low drug concentrations, just 1.3% of the MIC of the plasmid-free antibiotic-sensitive strain, whereas selection for cooperative drug ...
Morris, Rebecca L; Kennedy, Anne; Sanders, Caroline
Whilst there has been a focus on the importance of social support for managing long-term conditions, there has been little specific focus on the characteristics of social networks that shape self-management. Policy emphasis is placed on individual responsibility for self-care, and this influences commissioning of health-care services. Assumptions are often made by policymakers about accessibility and preference for support and the influence of the social context on chronic illness management. To examine the social networks of individuals with long-term conditions and identify how the characteristics of their composition influences support needs. Thirty participants completed initial face-to-face in-depth interviews, telephone follow-ups and final face-to-face interviews in the north-west of England. A longitudinal qualitative design was used to elicit the subtle changes in relationships over a year. The findings suggest that the relationships which constitute a social network influence perceived support needs and attitudes to self-management. The amalgamation of relationships was characterized into three network typologies (family focused, friend focused or health-care professional focused) according to which types of relationships were dominant. In the absence of support, accounts highlighted a small number of substitutes who could provide support at times of critical need. This study challenges the notion of 'self'-management as an individual construct as many of the practices of illness management involved the support and/or negotiation of roles with others. By examining the nuances of relationships, this study has highlighted the tacit boundaries of practical and emotional support provision. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
J. Carlos Domínguez
Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo presenta un análisis comparativo de dos movimientos sociales en Latinoamérica. El primero es el movimiento de oposición a la privatización de los servicios de agua potable y alcantarillado en Cochabamba, Bolivia, en el año 2000; y el segundo es el movimiento en contra del proyecto para un nuevo aeropuerto en la Ciudad de México (2001-2002. Ambos casos de estudio ilustran la manera como el estudio de los discursos colectivos y los marcos de acción colectiva pueden servir para mejorar nuestro conocimiento de movimientos sociales que surgen en el contexto de grandes proyectos de infraestructura. El trabajo argumenta que un factor determinante en el desarrollo y tiempo de vida de un movimiento social es la medida en que distintas variables contextuales y organizacionales facilitan o impiden la relación dialógica entre los discursos colectivos y otros procesos de formación de identidad a nivel microsociológico.
Debeffe, Lucie; Poissant, Jocelyn; McLoughlin, Philip D
Costs associated with reproduction are widely known to play a role in the evolution of reproductive tactics with consequences to population and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Evaluating these costs as they pertain to species in the wild remains an important goal of evolutionary ecology. Individual heterogeneity, including differences in individual quality (i.e., among-individual differences in traits associated with survival and reproduction) or state, and variation in environmental and social conditions can modulate the costs of reproduction; however, few studies have considered effects of these factors simultaneously. Taking advantage of a detailed, long-term dataset for a population of feral horses (Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada), we address the question of how intrinsic (quality, age), environmental (winter severity, location), and social conditions (group size, composition, sex ratio, density) influence the costs of reproduction on subsequent reproduction. Individual quality was measured using a multivariate analysis on a combination of four static and dynamic traits expected to depict heterogeneity in individual performance. Female quality and age interacted with reproductive status of the previous year to determine current reproductive effort, while no effect of social or environmental covariates was found. High-quality females showed higher probabilities of giving birth and weaning their foal regardless of their reproductive status the previous year, while those of lower quality showed lower probabilities of producing foals in successive years. Middle-aged (prime) females had the highest probability of giving birth when they had not reproduced the year before, but no such relationship with age was found among females that had reproduced the previous year, indicating that prime-aged females bear higher costs of reproduction. We show that individual quality and age were key factors modulating the costs of reproduction in a capital breeder but that
Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A
In the USA, migrant farmworkers are a vulnerable group due to their low socioeconomic status, risk of occupational exposures and injury, lack of social mobility, lack of adequate access to health services and dependency on employer for provided housing. Previous reports have documented migrant farmworker housing conditions to be variable, but poor overall. This paper explores the perceptions of housing conditions among migrant farmworkers in rural North Carolina, and develops an understanding of potential impacts of their housing on health and safety. This study used qualitative descriptive data and directed content analysis to analyse semi-structured interviews and photographs that were data elements of a larger community-based participatory research study designed to document housing quality and health among North Carolina farmworkers. Many of the study participants described poor housing conditions that were reflected in the photographic analysis of the houses and camps. Specific problems described by the participants include exposure to pesticides, safety issues, pests, water supply and air quality, temperature and moisture. This study describes migrant farmworkers' perceptions of housing quality and numerous potential impacts on health and safety. Research, social policy and practice-based implications derived from this research could serve to improve the health status of these individuals and their families. This study suggests there is much room for sustained advocacy and action, given that many of the farmworkers' descriptions and photographs depicted housing conditions below accepted standards of living. Access to adequate and safe employer-provided housing for migrant farmworkers should be considered a basic human right.
Skadhauge, Birgitte; Haldrup, Anna; Olsen, Ole
The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi
Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have overlap with each other. In addition, students with better socio-economic conditions are more creative and use complex style of thinking. The study also provides some guidelines for practically implementing the results of our survey among other students.
Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin; Lundberg, Olle
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of childhood living conditions, marital status, and social class in adulthood on the risk of mortality during mid-life. Two questions were addressed: Is there an effect of childhood living conditions on mortality risk during mid-life and if so, is the effect mediated or modified by social class and/or marital status in adulthood? A nationally representative, Swedish, level of living survey from 1968 was used as baseline. The study included those aged 25-69 at baseline (n = 4082). Social conditions in childhood and adulthood were assessed using self-reports. These individuals were then followed for 39 years using registry data on mortality. The results showed associations between childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid life. Social class and familial conditions during childhood as well as marital status and social class in adulthood all contributed to the risk of mortality during mid-life. Individuals whose father's were manual workers, who grew up in broken homes, who were unmarried, and/or were manual workers in adulthood had an increased risk of mortality during mid life. The effects of childhood conditions were, in part, both mediated and modified by social class in adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that there are structural, social conditions experienced at different stages of the life course that affect the risk of mortality during mid-life.
J. Carlos Domínguez
Resumen: Este trabajo presenta un análisis comparativo de dos movimientos sociales en Latinoamérica. El primero es el movimiento de oposición a la privatización de los servicios de agua potable y alcantarillado en Cochabamba, Bolivia, en el año 2000; y el segundo es el movimiento en contra del proyecto para un nuevo aeropuerto en la Ciudad de México (2001-2002). Ambos casos de estudio ilustran la manera como el estudio de los discursos colectivos y los marcos de acción colectiva pueden servir...
Bauer, Heide-Katharina; Heller, Martin; Fink, Matthias; Maresch, Daniela; Gartner, Johannes; Gassner, Ulrich M; Al-Nawas, Bilal
The beginnings of three-dimensional (3D) printing and bioprinting can be traced to as early as 1984. From printing inorganic models for the generation of biologic scaffolds, additive manufacturing (AM) developed to the direct printing of organic materials, including specialized tissues, proteins, and cells. In recent years, these technologies have gained significantly in relevance, and there have been several innovations, especially in the field of regenerative medicine. It is becoming increasingly important to consider the economic and social aspects of AM, particularly in education and information of medical human resources, society, and politics, as well as for the establishment of homogenous, globally adapted legal regulations.
Arzamastsev, Iu N
The paper is concerned with the results and effectivity of rehabilitation of 219 schizophrenic patients with unfavourable variants of development, who worked for 1--3 years in shops of an enterprise, intended for promoting the rehabilitative treatment and employment of mental patients. with the use of special rating scales, the efficacy of rehabilitation attained in therapeutic-occupational shops (TOS) and in industrial shops. The study demonstrated that the results of rehabilitation in conditions of a shop are significantly higher than the corresponding indices in conditions of TOS.
Cortés-Majó, M; García-Gil, C; Viciana, F
The objective of this article is to study the changes that have occurred in the mortality pattern of women of fertile age in Spain throughout the 20th century, the significance of maternal mortality in the development of this pattern, and the other causes of death that have contributed most to such changes. Female mortality has most often been approached from the perspective of the genetic differences from males--particularly from the sexual-biological, basically reproductive, aspect--without considering other possible (social) differences. We have studied the female mortality pattern from the double incline of date of death (period) and of date of birth (cohort). Using the mortality theory of competing risks as our basis, we excluded in turn maternal mortality and mortality due to tuberculosis from overall mortality, and analyzed the transformations produced in the mortality pattern. Our results show that maternal mortality alone cannot be held responsible for the excess female mortality of the 1910s and 1920s, or for the mortality pattern among women of fertile age during the first half of this century. We suggest that the social discrimination against females from infancy has been responsible for most of the differences observed in mortality patterns.
Gayatri, S.; Sumarjono, D.; Satmoko, S.
The aim of the study was to explore the potential of social capital and growing income of red guava farmers in Tambahrejo Village, Pageruyung District, Kendal Regency. Interview and observation were used for data collection. Set of Questionnaire was developed to answer research’ goal. All member of farmer group I ACC (Kelompok Tani Makmur I ACC) were chosen as respondents in this research. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions. The result shows that there was significant relationship between social capital in community and the income of the red guava farmers. Farmer’ group was found as a media to improve farmers’ knowledge and networking. Farmers group facilitated farmers to market red guava product. Moreover, wife of the farmers established women group or KWT (Kelompok Wanita Tani). The result found that KWT contributed to improve family’s income. KWT also promote activities to help product’s diversification of red guava. Both farmer group and KWT provided activities such as saving and loans, it means there was trust among member of farmer group.
Alisher Fayzievich Rasulev
Full Text Available The paper discusses the main directions of the social and economic cooperation among SCO member states in trade, economic and investment spheres, and transport-communication potential of the region. On the example of The Republic of Uzbekistan, it is discussed the priorities of thesocial and economic development, such as the modernization of industry and competitiveness, theincrease of investment, the development of the transport system, as well as the project of a free industrial economic zone in the context of the SCO member states. The author shows that the equal and mutually beneficial cooperation in the SCO framework in various areas of economic cooperation has to be developed, which in fact confirms the expectations of its role as a key element of strengthening of the economic security and stability, and the harmonization of the integration processes in the region. Also, the articleexamines thelegal framework of cooperation in the SCO framework, such as the Treaty on thelong-term friendship and cooperation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which establishes the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of the borders of the SCO countries, peaceful resolution of differences and disputes, as well as mutual respect for the choice of the path of political, economic, social and cultural development, according to national circumstances of each state.
Viktor Nikolaevich Pustovoytov
Full Text Available Experience in the sphere of independent cognitive activity - cognitive competence - and the experience of communication and awareness of the significance of its activity in some field - social-communicative competence are important quality of modern man. Article considers the problem of forming the informative and social-communicative competences of students. It is shown that these competencies are key personal meta- and cross-competencies. Psycho-pedagogical strategies supporting their formation can be designed and implemented as a unified process. Effective medium formation of experience in the field of self-regulated learning, communicative experience and awareness of the personal importance of cognitive activity is learning academic subjects, and the condition and means - interactive forms of learning. The implementation of group-differentiated form of organization of students is analyzed in this context. Results of the study outlined in this article, have contributed to the problems of implementing competence-based approach to learning.
Zimin Aleksei Valerevich
Full Text Available Purpose. Study the features of the socialization of students, of the efficiency of primary school textbooks, with the introduction of the federal state educational standards of the second generation-specific institution. Methodology. Questionnaire and the study of literature and documents. Results. As a result of the original research report the presence of three groups of students, requiring consideration of ethnic features when planning learning activities. The features of the formation of ethnic socialization boarding schools. The conclusions about the lack of effectiveness of the selection and application of teaching and learning materials to meet the specific conditions of the environment of students - students of the boarding school, to work towards improving the quality of training of the teaching staff of boarding schools. Practical implications. Methodical and personnel support of the educational process in the open secondary boarding schools in the Far North.
Staats, Arthur W.; Carlson, Carl G.
This is a bibliography of 81 papers and books published in the years 1957-1970 relevant to the subject of verbally-elicited responses that are in accordance with principles of classical conditioning. Of these publications, 24 are by Staats--one of the bibliographers--and his associates. (MF)
Ong, Bie Nio; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Bower, Peter; Sanders, Tom; Morden, Andrew; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Richardson, Jane C; Stevenson, Fiona
Individual-focused self-management interventions are one response to both an ageing society and the purported increase in chronic conditions. They tend to draw on psychological theories in self-management interventions, but over-reliance on these theories can reinforce a narrow focus on specified attitudinal and behavioural processes, omitting aspects of living with a chronic condition. While advances have been made in health behaviour change theory and practice, scant attention has been paid to the social, with the question of social context remaining under-theorised and under-explored empirically. This is particularly noticeable in trials of behaviour change interventions for self-management. The common sociological critique is that these ignore context and thus no explanation can be given as to why, for whom and under what circumstances a treatment works. Conversely, sociologists are criticised for offering no positive suggestions as to how context can be taken into account and for over-emphasising context with the risk of inhibiting innovation. This article provides an overview of these issues and provides examples of how context can be incorporated into the rigid method of trials of self-management for chronic conditions. We discuss modifications to both trial interventions and design that make constructive use of the concept of context. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Environmental conditions during early life may shape phenotype in adulthood. Early adverse conditions may increase the oxidative stress in adults, which could affect their reproductive output and survival. It has also been hypothesized that the larger the reproductive investment, the higher the oxidative stress. We tested this and the potential influence of early oxidative stress on how individuals respond to a reproductive stimulation. The synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione was inhibited in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata during growth. In adulthood, the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual signal, bill redness, increased in both sexes, with females also being heavier than controls. The social context of control and glutathione-inhibited males was then manipulated to stimulate precopulatory reproductive investments. Males were individually caged in front of a female or another male. We predicted that males enduring lower early antioxidant levels and placed close to a female should pay the highest cost of a hypothetical increase in bill redness in terms of oxidative damage. However, early conditions only influenced the male’s phenotype via their partners. Males caged with females showed increases in circulating pigment (carotenoid levels, but only when females endured early low antioxidant values. This was probably related to the higher attractiveness of these females. Nevertheless, the bill redness of males did not differ during the social manipulation. Moreover, males facing females from any early condition group showed lower oxidative damage levels in plasma lipids. This result agrees with some findings in rodents, also in captivity. However, the effect may be due to increased triglyceride levels and body mass in males not facing females, as variation in these traits explained oxidative damage variability. The importance of considering housing conditions and life history when interpreting oxidative stress-related trade
Schneider, Kellie; Rainwater, Chase; Pohl, Ed; Hernandez, Ivan; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel
This paper incorporates multi-state reliability measures into the assessment of a social network in which influence is treated as a multi-state commodity that flows through the network. The reliability of the network is defined as the probability that at least a certain level of influence reaches an intended target. We consider an individual's influence level as a function of the influence levels received from preceding actors in the network. We define several communication functions which describe the level of influence a particular actor will pass along to other actors within the network. Illustrative examples are presented, and the network reliability under the various communication influence levels is computed using exhaustive enumeration for a small example and Monte Carlo simulation for larger, more realistic sized examples.
Full Text Available IntroductionChildhood cataract, congenital and traumatic, is the most common treatable cause of childhood blindness, being responsible for 10 to 30 per cent of all childhood blindness. Preventing blindness from childhood cataract requires not only high-quality paediatric surgery, but also an awareness of parents’ understanding of the eye problem, and why they might not agree to surgery for their child. Several studies have examined the medical and social aspects of childhood cataract. Foster et al.1 point out that childhood blindness has huge socio-economic costs, and restoring the sight of one child blind from cataract is considered equivalent to restoring the sight of 10 elderly adults. It is therefore crucial that we understand why parents might not take up the option of surgery.
Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Beynon, Caryl M; Uosukainen, Hanna; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Ilomäki, Jenni; Bell, J Simon; Paasolainen, Mika; Tasa, Niko; Tiihonen, Jari; Kauhanen, Jussi
Illicit drug use is an important public health problem. Identifying conditions that coexist with illicit drug use is necessary for planning health services. This study described the prevalence and factors associated with social and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use. We carried out cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of 2526 clients who sought treatment for illicit drug use at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 2001 and 2008. At the clients' first visit, trained clinicians conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with social and health problems. The mean age of the clients was 25 years, 21% (n = 519) were homeless, 54% (n = 1363) were unemployed and 7% (n = 183) had experienced threats of violence. Half of the clients (50%, n = 1258) were self-referred and 31% (n = 788) used opiates as their primary drugs of abuse. Hepatitis C (25%, n = 630) was more prevalent than other infectious diseases and depressive symptoms (59%, n = 1490) were the most prevalent psychological problems. Clients who were self-referred to treatment were most likely than others to report social problems (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.50-2.30) and psychological problems (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.23-1.85). Using opiates as primary drugs of abuse was the strongest factor associated with infectious diseases (AOR = 3.89; 95% CI = 1.32-11.46) and for reporting a combination of social and health problems (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.58-6.65). The existence of illicit drug use with other social and health problems could lead to increased utilisation and cost of healthcare services. Coexisting social and health problems may interfere with clients' treatment response. Our findings support the call for integration of relevant social, medical and mental health support
l’entrainement a tirs reels, le Ministere de Ia Defense Nationale sera en meilleure position afin de minimiser ou d’eliminer tout effet nefaste en adaptant...ete finance en partie par le directeur des forces terrestres et par un programme de financement de Ia recherche americain appele Strategic...the Queen as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2003 © Sa rnajeste Ia reine, representee par le ministre de Ia Defense nationale, 2003
Vettore, Mario V; Meira, Gabriela de F; Rebelo, Maria A B; Rebelo Vieira, Janete M; Machuca, Carolina
The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of multimorbidities of oral clinical conditions in children. The association between social position and number of oral clinical conditions, and the relationship of social position and number of oral clinical conditions with oral health-related quality of life [OHRQoL, measured using the Brazilian Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP)] were also investigated. The study analysed data on 7,208 children, 12 yr of age, from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil Project). Cluster analysis based on the observed/expected (O/E) ratios identified six significant clusters of oral clinical conditions: (i) dental caries and missing teeth; (ii) dental caries and dental trauma; (iii) dental trauma and gingivitis; (iv) dental caries, missing teeth, and dental trauma; (v) dental caries, dental trauma, and gingivitis; and (vi) all oral clinical conditions. Ordinal regression showed that poor social position was associated with a large number of oral clinical conditions. Poisson regression demonstrated that low social position and greater number of oral clinical conditions increased the likelihood of poor OHRQoL (Child-OIDP extent). The four oral clinical conditions clustered into six distinct clusters among Brazilian children. Multimorbidity of oral clinical conditions predicted poor OHRQoL. Social position was of high relevance to multimorbidity of oral clinical conditions and children's OHRQoL. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.
Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Koetsenruijter, Jan; Orlando, Rosanna; Portillo, Maria Carmen; Culliford, David
Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal network type as a policy in terms of
Full Text Available Technological utopianism seduces many people, from the very origins of Western modernity –remember Francis Bacon’s island of Bensalem in his New Atlantis–, with the temptation of complete mastery over nature (which includes human immortality. Today, the prevailing mentality in the West, which tends to become a universal worldview, has much in common with the beliefs of the ancient Gnostics. According to this mindset, science and technology can allow the human mind to escape the limitations that characterize its natural state, releasing the anchor to biological stuff and escaping the human condition. In short, we would become gods –gods thought of as Immortal Super-Engineers. We must resist these destructive illusions and delusions, which means: technical rationality has to make his own critique of utopian reason (in the sense of Franz Hinkelammert. Without this self-criticism, a judicious use of techniques and technologies will be out of reach –and they do have an enormous potential for improving the human condition–, while avoiding –if it were still possible– the exterminist, nihilistic and suicidal drift of industrial civilization.
Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina
Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).
Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Elizalde, Luciana; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina
Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. PMID:27226469
Bill D Wills
Full Text Available Resource availability can determine an organism's investment strategies for growth and reproduction. When nutrients are limited, there are potential tradeoffs between investing into offspring number versus individual offspring size. In social insects, colony investment in offspring size and number may shift in response to colony needs and the availability of food resources. We experimentally manipulated the diet of a polymorphic ant species (Solenopsis invicta to test how access to the carbohydrate and amino acid components of nectar resources affect colony investment in worker number, body size, size distributions, and individual percent fat mass. We reared field-collected colonies on one of four macronutrient treatment supplements: water, amino acids, carbohydrates, and amino acid and carbohydrates. Having access to carbohydrates nearly doubled colony biomass after 60 days. This increase in biomass resulted from an increase in worker number and mean worker size. Access to carbohydrates also altered worker body size distributions. Finally, we found a negative relationship between worker number and size, suggesting a tradeoff in colony investment strategies. This tradeoff was more pronounced for colonies without access to carbohydrate resources. The monopolization of plant-based resources has been implicated in the ecological success of ants. Our results shed light on a possible mechanism for this success, and also have implications for the success of introduced species. In addition to increases in colony size, our results suggest that having access to plant-based carbohydrates can also result in larger workers that may have better individual fighting ability, and that can withstand greater temperature fluctuations and periods of food deprivation.
Full Text Available In this work we describe for the first time the social and reproductive behavior of the Neotropical fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Heckel, 1840 [Perciformes: Cichlidae], endemic to the Paraná River basin, using a comprehensive-integral approach, including morphological and physiological features. This substrate breeding fish has biparental care of the fry and presents a dominance hierarchy that determines access to breeding territories among males, and to males with territories among females. Gregarious behavior associated with a pale body color, was observed before reproductive behaviors started. Afterwards, a dominance hierarchy was established through aggressive interactions. Territorial individuals had bright body color patterns and non territorial an opaque grey one. Black ventral coloration was associated with reproductive individuals. Courtship displays, which were similar to threatening displays, had the common effect of increasing the visible area of the individual. The dominant male was always the largest one suggesting that size is probably a major factor determining the hierarchy establishment and that these intra-sexually selected traits may have been reinforced by inter-sexual selection. Reproductive males had higher pituitary levels of β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH and somatolactin (SL than non reproductive ones, while no differences were found among females. No differences were found among male gonadosomatic indexes. Non reproductive individuals had higher plasma cortisol levels for both sexes. It is possible that dominant reproductive individuals may be inhibiting reproduction of subordinate fish through physical contact, increasing their cortisol levels and diminishing FSH and SL pituitary content. However, this was not reflected as an inhibition at the gonadal level in our experimental design.
Baker, Michael G; Zhang, Jane; Blakely, Tony; Crane, Julian; Saville-Smith, Kay; Howden-Chapman, Philippa
Despite the importance of adequate, un-crowded housing as a prerequisite for good health, few large cohort studies have explored the health effects of housing conditions. The Social Housing Outcomes Worth (SHOW) Study was established to assess the relationship between housing conditions and health, particularly between household crowding and infectious diseases. This paper reports on the methods and feasibility of using a large administrative housing database for epidemiological research and the characteristics of the social housing population. This prospective open cohort study was established in 2003 in collaboration with Housing New Zealand Corporation which provides housing for approximately 5% of the population. The Study measures health outcomes using linked anonymised hospitalisation and mortality records provided by the New Zealand Ministry of Health. It was possible to match the majority (96%) of applicant and tenant household members with their National Health Index (NHI) number allowing linkage to anonymised coded data on their hospitalisations and mortality. By December 2011, the study population consisted of 11,196 applicants and 196,612 tenants. Half were less than 21 years of age. About two-thirds identified as Māori or Pacific ethnicity. Household incomes were low. Of tenant households, 44% containing one or more smokers compared with 33% for New Zealand as a whole. Exposure to household crowding, as measured by a deficit of one or more bedrooms, was common for applicants (52%) and tenants (38%) compared with New Zealanders as whole (10%). This project has shown that an administrative housing database can be used to form a large cohort population and successfully link cohort members to their health records in a way that meets confidentiality and ethical requirements. This study also confirms that social housing tenants are a highly deprived population with relatively low incomes and high levels of exposure to household crowding and environmental
Tougas, Michelle E; Hayden, Jill A; McGrath, Patrick J; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene
Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review establishes that
Daniela Albini Pinheiro
Full Text Available The paper analyzes, from a historical perspective, conditions and characteristics of Brazilian’s software and IT services policy from the military governments to the recent period, trying to understand its conformation and connection to the industrial and science and technology policies and its participating actors. Through literature review, it was observed that, during the military period, the instruments and objectives of an industrial policy was prevalent in information technology policy. The software policy and it services in the 1990s prioritized external competitiveness and export of private enterprises. In the 2000s, except for two programs, the policy had general support measures for R&D in enterprises and university-industry relationship. Recently, the it Maior Program was created, focusing on software and it services industry, with S&T policy features and integrated with industrial policy instruments.
Guida-Johnson, Bárbara; Zuleta, Gustavo A
In the present context of global change and search for sustainability, we detected a gap between restoration and society: local communities are usually only considered as threats or disturbances when planning for restoration. To bridge this gap, we propose a landscape design framework for planning riparian rehabilitation in an urban-rural gradient. A spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the priority of riversides by considering two rehabilitation objectives simultaneously-socio-environmental and ecological-and two sets of criteria were designed according to these objectives. The assessment made it possible to identify 17 priority sites for riparian rehabilitation that were associated with different conditions along the gradient. The double goal setting enabled a dual consideration of citizens, both as beneficiaries and potential impacts to rehabilitation, and the criteria selected incorporated the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This approach can potentially be adapted and implemented in any other anthropic-natural interface throughout the world.
Full Text Available Without a solid education at home, children in institutions can develop behaviors and trauma, often impossible to mitigate. The absence of an emotional climate specific in a family, abuses of various types that can accompany the trajectory of institutionalization will mark, perhaps forever, the fate of children in institutions. The chances of these children to grow and to form independent life skills to succeed as future adults can often be reduced. Decision makers within state institutions that are meant to care and educate, are summoned to identify and implement measures that may secure the future for these disadvantaged and vulnerable children. Based on these considerations, the study conducted aims to highlight the condition of children in institutions in Arad County, the causes for their abandonment, schooling situation, contact with the family of origin.
El Rawas, Rana; Klement, Sabine; Salti, Ahmad; Fritz, Michael; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald
The worsening of drug abuse by drug-associated social interaction is a well-studied phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effect of social interaction, if offered as a mutually exclusive choice to drugs of abuse, are under-investigated. In a rat place preference conditioning (CPP) paradigm, four 15 min episodes of social interaction with a gender- and weight-matched male early-adult conspecific inhibited cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP, a model of re...
Super, Sabina; Verkooijen, Kirsten; Koelen, Maria
Sport is widely recognised as having the potential to enhance the personal development of socially vulnerable youth, yet there is very limited knowledge on how community sports coaches can create optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability. We adopt a salutogenic approach in order to study whether and how community…
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractThe use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited epidemiological research that provides insight into the complex web of causative and moderating factors that links housing conditions to a variety of poor health outcomes. This study explores the relationship between housing conditions (with a primary focus on the functional state of infrastructure and common childhood illness in remote Australian Aboriginal communities for the purpose of informing development of housing interventions to improve child health. Methods Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study. Results Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63, but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94, evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60; for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49; for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00; for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99. Conclusion These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.
Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz
Mood, as a long-term affective state, is thought to modulate short-term emotional reactions in animals, but the details of this interplay have hardly been investigated experimentally. Apart from a basic interest in this affective system, mood is likely to have an important impact on animal welfare, as bad mood may taint all emotional experience. In the present study about mood - emotion interaction, 29 sheep were kept under predictable, stimulus-rich or unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, to induce different mood states. In an experiment, the animals were confronted with video sequences of social interactions of conspecifics showing agonistic interactions, ruminating or tolerantly co-feeding as stimuli of different valences. Emotional reactions were assessed by measuring frontal brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and by recording behavioral reactions. Attentiveness of the sheep decreased from videos showing agonistic interactions to ruminating sheep to those displaying co-feeding sheep. Seeing agonistic interactions was also associated with a deactivation of the frontal cortex, specifically in animals living under predictable, stimulus-rich housing conditions. These sheep generally showed less attentiveness and locomotor activity and they had their ears in a forward position less often and in a backward position more often than the sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions. Housing conditions influenced how the sheep behaved, which can either be thought to be mediated by mood or by the animals' previous experience with stimulus-richness in their housing conditions. Frontal cortical activity may not depend on valence only, but also on the perceptual channel through which the stimuli were perceived. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Álvaro Franco G
Full Text Available Social protection includes all the economic, political and social variables that guarantee protection amidst the adversity that can damage the rights to health, employment, well-being, and quality of life. Objective: to unveil the link between the systems of social protection in Latin America and the fulfillment of social rights. Method: from the start point of documentary revision, a comparison among the different models of social protection applied in Latin America and the diverse types of citizen rights in the last decades is carried out. Several approaches of social protection are considered: social attendance, social security and social insurance; and additionally, the Minimum Networks of Social Protection (m n s p of the 80’s, and the recent social protection as social risk management of the World Bank. The classification of the human rights are again took up: civil, political and social rights.Discussion: difficulties in Latin America that condition the model of social protection according to differences among social levels, the fragmentation of the social policy and the prevailing conditions of inequity that deny the possibilities of citizen rights to be effective are pointed out. In conclusion, the total fulfillment of social rights is feasible through the development of models of social protection capable of covering all the population and all the implied risks, not only in the work by itself but in the integral human development.
Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Phillips, Anna C
Social evaluative threat is an important factor in the cardiovascular response to mental stress. This study examined whether Type D personality, characterized by social inhibition and negative affectivity, is associated with an adverse cardiovascular response to a non-social and social evaluative threat. A total of 2300 students were screened for Type D personality, and 130 were selected for a nonsocial stress exposure condition (31 Type D, 30 non-Type D: 52% female) or a condition high in social evaluative threat (35 Type D, 34 non-Type D: 55% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol were measured. Social evaluative threat resulted in higher cardiovascular responses than the nonsocial challenge (SBP, p = .001, η = 0.092;DBP, p = .006, η = 0.058;HR, p = .006, η = 0.059). The greatest cardiovascular stress reactions were exhibited by Type D participants in the high social evaluation condition; reflected in significant group by condition interactions for SBP (F(1,126) = 7.29, p = .008, η = 0.055), DBP (F(1,126) = 5.23, p = .024, η = 0.040), and HR (F(1,126) = 5.04, p = .027, η = 0.038) reactivity. Only Type Ds in the social condition mounted a positive cortisol response (F(1,33) = 5.07, p = .031, η = 0.133). Type D individuals show different stress reactions depending on the social evaluative nature of the stress exposure. These findings suggest that dysregulation of the stress response in social situations potentially increases cardiovascular disease risk.
Jakobsson, Eva; Johnsson, Tommy; Persson, Lars-Olof; Gaston-Johansson, Fannie
The objectives of this study were to identify and describe the demographics and social conditions as well as characteristics of the places of death in a randomly selected sample that died in a county in Sweden during 2001. The present study reports part of the findings from a larger study undertaken during 2003 using a survey design of retrospective reviews of death certificates, medical records, and nursing records. Among several noteworthy findings are: first, an examination of these individuals' living arrangements reveal not only a large and vulnerable group that lives alone at the end-of-life but also a group living separated from their partners near end-of-life; second, individuals differ with respect to residence prior to death, that is private homes versus residential care facilities, imparting highly different contexts of care at the end-of-life; and third, a high prevalence of institutionalized deaths demonstrates that places of death other than hospitals and residential care facilities are uncommon, if not rare. It is concluded that increased attention to the social circumstances of the time period surrounding individuals' at the end-of-life is essential. There is need to develop more integrated models of care for dying people. Contemporary services available are not designed to meet a wide range of peoples' needs at the end-of-life. Home-based care, residential care and hospital care must be adapted to the changing patterns of dying. The services available should be organized to the benefit of the users rather than around the providers. This is the first study of its kind of a Swedish sample and while the data are limited to one county in Sweden its findings may contribute to a deeper understanding of demographic and social patterns at the end-of-life in general.
Kurtz, Theodore W; Dominiczak, Anna F; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Morris, R Curtis
This critical review directly challenges the prevailing theory that a transient increase in cardiac output caused by genetically mediated increases in activity of the ENaC in the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron, or of the NCC in the distal convoluted tubule, accounts entirely for the hemodynamic initiation of all Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Figure 1). The prevailing theory of how genetic mutations enable salt to hemodynamically initiate Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension in humans (Figure 1) depends on the results of salt-loading studies of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in nongenetic models of hypertension that lack appropriate normal controls. The theory is inconsistent with the results of studies that include measurements of the initial hemodynamic changes induced by salt loading in normal, salt-resistant controls. The present analysis, which takes into account the results of salt-loading studies that include the requisite normal controls, indicates that mutation-induced increases in the renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC that lead to transient increases in cardiac output will generally not be sufficient to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP that characterizes Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Table). The present analysis also raises questions about whether mutation-dependent increases in renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC are even necessary to account for increased risk for salt-dependent hypertension in most patients with such mutations. We propose that for the genetic alterations underlying Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP, they must often cause vasodysfunction, ie, an inability to normally vasodilate and decrease systemic vascular resistance in response to increases in salt intake within dietary ranges typically observed in most modern societies. A subnormal ability to vasodilate in
Assessing the effects of global warming and local social and economic conditions on the malaria transmission Quantificando os efeitos do aquecimento global e das condições socioeconômicas locais na transmissão de malária
Hyun M Yang
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show how a mathematical model can be used to describe and to understand the malaria transmission. METHODS: The effects on malaria transmission due to the impact of the global temperature changes and prevailing social and economic conditions in a community were assessed based on a previously presented compartmental model, which describes the overall transmission of malaria. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The assessments were made from the scenarios produced by the model both in steady state and dynamic analyses. Depending on the risk level of malaria, the effects on malaria transmission can be predicted by the temperature ambient or local social and-economic conditions.OBJETIVO: Apresenta-se um modelo matemático mostrando como esse instrumento pode ser importante para descrever a transmissão de malária. MÉTODOS: Baseado no modelo proposto previamente, foram quantificados os efeitos de dois fatores que podem afetar a transmissão da malaria: a temperatura ambiente e as condições socioeconômicas locais. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A quantificação foi feita estudando o modelo proposto no estado estacionário e na sua dinâmica. Dependendo do nível de risco de malária, os principais efeitos na transmissão de malária são devidos à temperatura ambiente ou às condições socioeconômicas.
The paper presents an overview of prevailing pedagogic practices of social science at school level in India. It has been sketched with the help of social science teachers’ interviews. The analysis of teachers’ interview revealed that the teaching of social science is a reflection of teacher’s own biases and beliefs; dominated by deficit model of thinking and learning. Against this backdrop the paper tries to address the question do we have any alternative of ‘deficit model’ of tea...
Galbraith, Todd; Heimberg, Richard G; Wang, Shuai; Schneier, Franklin R; Blanco, Carlos
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are not often thought of as being comorbid. However, recent research suggests the existence of a SAD subtype with characteristics atypical of SAD but common to ASPD. Thus, we explored two competing hypotheses: (1) SAD and ASPD represent opposite ends of a single dimension, or (2) SAD and ASPD exist on two separate dimensions that may be positively correlated. Data were obtained from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. SAD-ASPD was related to greater impairment and psychiatric comorbidity than either disorder alone. The SAD-ASPD group was also more likely to seek treatment for their SAD symptoms and to drink before/during antisocial acts than the SAD only group. The presence of SAD for individuals with ASPD (and vice versa) does not appear to provide any "protective benefits." SAD and ASPD appear to be two separate but correlated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bronwen M James
Full Text Available There is evidence for both neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of nitric oxide (NO in the brain and changes in the expression of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS gene occur during aging. The current studies have investigated potential support for either a neurotoxic or neuroprotective role of NO derived from nNOS in the context of aging by comparing olfactory learning and locomotor function in young compared to old nNOS knockout (nNOS/- and wildtype control mice. Tasks involving social recognition and olfactory conditioning paradigms showed that old nNOS-/-animals had improved retention of learning compared to similar aged wildtype controls. Young nNOS-/- animals showed superior reversal learning to wildtypes in a conditioned learning task, although their performance was weakened with age. Interestingly, whereas young nNOS-/- animals were impaired in long term memory for social odors compared to wildtype controls, in old animals this pattern was reversed, possibly indicating beneficial compensatory changes influencing olfactory memory may occur during aging in nNOS-/- animals. Possibly such compensatory changes may have involved increased NO from other NOS isoforms since the memory deficit in young nNOS-/-animals could be rescued by the NO-donor, molsidomine. Both nNOS-/- and wildtype animals showed an age-associated decline in locomotor activity although young nNOS-/- animals were significantly more active than wildtypes, possibly due to an increased interest in novelty. Overall our findings suggest that lack of NO release via nNOS may protect animals to some extent against age-associated cognitive decline in memory tasks typically involving olfactory and hippocampal regions, but not against declines in reversal learning or locomotor activity.
Rabinak, Christine A; Mori, Shoko; Lyons, Maryssa; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan
Fear-based disorders, like social anxiety disorder (SAD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by an exaggerated fear response and avoidance to trigger cues, suggesting a transdiagnostic mechanism of psychopathology. Current theories suggest that abnormalities in conditioned fear is a primary contributor to the pathophysiology of these disorders. The primary goal of this study was to compare acquisition of conditioned stimulus (CS) and aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) contingencies during fear learning and extinction in individuals with SAD and PTSD. In a standard Pavlovian fear conditioning-extinction paradigm we measured subjective US expectancy ratings to different CSs in patients with SAD (n=16) compared to patients with PTSD (n=13) and healthy controls (n=15) RESULTS: Both patient groups (SAD, PTSD) acquired differential conditioning between a CS that predicted US (CS+) and a CS that never predicted the US (CS-), however, both groups reported an increased expectancy that the US would occur following the CS-. Additionally, the PTSD group overestimated that the US would occur in general. Neither patient group showed evidence of successful extinction of the CS+-US contingency nor differentiated their expectation of US occurrence between the CS+ and CS- during extinction learning. Group sample sizes were small and we did not include a trauma-exposed group without PTSD CONCLUSIONS: Both SAD and PTSD generalize expectations of an aversive outcome across CSs, even when a CS never signals an aversive outcome and PTSD may tend to over-expect threat. Fear learning and extinction abnormalities may be a core feature underlying shared symptoms across fear-based disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye
Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.
Cheong, Geraldine Pei Chin; Kannan, Anusha; Koh, Kwong Fah; Venkatesan, Kumaresh; Seet, Edwin
Airway management during anaesthesia has potential difficulties and risks. We aimed to investigate the utility of routine airway assessment for predicting difficult tracheal intubation, review the prevailing practice of videolaryngoscope use amongst anaesthetists in a teaching hospital and determine the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative airway-related complications. A prospective observational study of 1,654 patients undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation over a seven-month period was performed. Data regarding airway and anaesthetic management was collected and analysed. Videolaryngoscopes were used as the first-choice equipment in 60.5% of the cohort. The incidence of difficult intubation was 2.1%, of which 45.7% of cases were unanticipated. The sensitivity of airway assessment was 54.3%, with a positive predictive value of 8.1%. When difficult intubation was anticipated, more videolaryngoscopes were used as the first equipment of choice compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.001). In the Macintosh group, more patients required a change of airway equipment (p = 0.015), but the number of intubation attempts was similar (p = 0.293). The incidence of intraoperative (p = 0.920) and postoperative complications (p = 0.380) were similar in both groups. Using the current predictors of difficult intubation, half of the difficult airways we encountered were unanticipated. Videolaryngoscopes were preferred when difficulty was anticipated and were also used in routine tracheal intubation. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Based on attempts to resolve the problem of various self contradictory assumptions behind the prevailing belief on single photon interference, we have analyzed the process steps behind our experimental measurements and named the process as the Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E). This has helped us recognize that the quantum mechanical Measurement Problem has a much universal and deeper root in nature. Our scientific theorization process suffers from a Perpetual Information Challenge (PIC), which cannot be overcome by elegant and/or sophisticated mathematical theories alone. Iterative imaginative application of IPM-E needs to be used as a metaphorical analytical continuation to fill up the missing information gaps. IPM-E has also guided us to recognize the generic NIW-principle (Non-Interaction of Waves) in the linear domain, not explicitly recognized in current books and literature. Superposition effects become manifest through light-matter interactions. Detecting dipoles gets stimulated by multiple superposed beams; it sums the simultaneous multiple stimulations into a single resultant undulation, which then guides the resultant energy exchange. The consequent transformation in the detector corresponds to observed fringes. They neither represent interference of light; nor represent selective arrival or non-arrival of photons on the detector. Photons do not possess any force of mutual interaction to generate their redistribution. Implementation of IPM-E requires us to recognize our subjective interpretation propensity with which we are burdened due to our evolutionary successes.
Y. I. Portnyagin
Full Text Available An updated empirical climatic zonally averaged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (70-110 km, extending from 80°N to 80°S is presented. The model is constructed from the fitting of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed over the globe. The height-latitude contour plots of monthly mean zonal and meridional winds for all months of the year, and of annual mean wind, amplitudes and phases of annual and semiannual harmonics of wind variations are analyzed to reveal the main features of the seasonal variation of the global wind structures in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Some results of comparison between the ground-based wind models and the space-based models are presented. It is shown that, with the exception of annual mean systematic bias between the zonal winds provided by the ground-based and space-based models, a good agreement between the models is observed. The possible origin of this bias is discussed.
Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (general circulation; middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics
Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis
While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.
Bond, Jason E; Garrison, Nicole L; Hamilton, Chris A; Godwin, Rebecca L; Hedin, Marshal; Agnarsson, Ingi
Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider "backbone" phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis of spiders including taxa representing all major spider lineages. Our robust phylogenetic hypothesis recovers some fundamental and uncontroversial spider clades, but rejects the prevailing paradigm of a monophyletic Orbiculariae, the most diverse lineage, containing orb-weaving spiders. Based on our results, the orb web either evolved much earlier than previously hypothesized and is ancestral for a majority of spiders or else it has multiple independent origins, as hypothesized by precladistic authors. Cribellate deinopoid orb weavers that use mechanically adhesive silk are more closely related to a diverse clade of mostly webless spiders than to the araneoid orb-weaving spiders that use adhesive droplet silks. The fundamental shift in our understanding of spider phylogeny proposed here has broad implications for interpreting the evolution of spiders, their remarkable biomaterials, and a key extended phenotype--the spider web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernández, Victoria; Guzmán-Delgado, Paula; Graça, José; Santos, Sara; Gil, Luis
The surface of most aerial plant organs is covered with a cuticle that provides protection against multiple stress factors including dehydration. Interest on the nature of this external layer dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and since then, several studies facilitated a better understanding of cuticular chemical composition and structure. The prevailing undertanding of the cuticle as a lipidic, hydrophobic layer which is independent from the epidermal cell wall underneath stems from the concept developed by Brongniart and von Mohl during the first half of the 19th century. Such early investigations on plant cuticles attempted to link chemical composition and structure with the existing technologies, and have not been directly challenged for decades. Beginning with a historical overview about the development of cuticular studies, this review is aimed at critically assessing the information available on cuticle chemical composition and structure, considering studies performed with cuticles and isolated cuticular chemical components. The concept of the cuticle as a lipid layer independent from the cell wall is subsequently challenged, based on the existing literature, and on new findings pointing toward the cell wall nature of this layer, also providing examples of different leaf cuticle structures. Finally, the need for a re-assessment of the chemical and structural nature of the plant cuticle is highlighted, considering its cell wall nature and variability among organs, species, developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic factors during plant growth.
Jakub Sławomir Gąsior
Full Text Available Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV is associated with average heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RespRate, alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate.Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations seven days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences – every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001, i.e. by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent.
Richters, John E.
Most workshops convened by the National Institute's of Health are devoted to the puzzle-solving activities of normal science, where the puzzles themselves and the strategies available for solving them are determined largely in advance by the shared paradigmatic assumptions, frameworks, and priorities of the scientific community's research paradigm. They are designed to facilitate what Thomas Kuhn referred to as elucidating topological detail within a map whose main outlines are av...
Magzan, Masa Bogojeva
Approaching music from a sociological perspective, this book deals with the concept of ideology in relation to music. The focus of investigation is on the reflection of ideology and power relations in the music curriculum before and after Croatian independence. The goal of this work is to help our understanding of how and why certain musical…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the labor and social environment that prevails in the maquiladoras (assemble plants located in the northern border states of México, particularly in the state of Coahuila; also it is addressed the importance of factors contributing to improve labor conditions and productivity. The study is based in a sample of 20 firms located in the counties of Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, Monclova, Torreón, Sabinas, Piedras Negras and Ciudad Acuña. This study analizes the main socialeconomic figures of the workers, their labor conditions in regard to labor security, training, rights and duties, social security and social environment in which they live in. Conclusions and recommendations are related to improving training and labor conditions, as well as fostering a new labor culture, health, social security and social environment.
Scott, Ryan B; Samaha, Jason; Chrisley, Ron; Dienes, Zoltan
While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities. First, pairs of subliminal stimuli were presented and then their association assessed by examining the ability of the first stimulus to prime classification of the second. In Experiments 1-4 the stimuli were word-pairs consisting of a male name preceding either a creative or uncreative profession. Participants were subliminally exposed to two name-profession pairs where one name was paired with a creative profession and the other an uncreative profession. A supraliminal task followed requiring the timed classification of one of those two professions. The target profession was preceded by either the name with which it had been subliminally paired (concordant) or the alternate name (discordant). Experiment 1 presented stimuli auditorily, Experiment 2 visually, and Experiment 3 presented names auditorily and professions visually. All three experiments revealed the same inverse priming effect with concordant test pairs associated with significantly slower classification judgements. Experiment 4 sought to establish if learning would be more efficient with supraliminal stimuli and found evidence that a different strategy is adopted when stimuli are consciously perceived. Finally, Experiment 5 replicated the unconscious cross-modal association achieved in Experiment 3 utilising non-linguistic stimuli. The results demonstrate the acquisition of novel cross-modal associations between stimuli which are not
La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel
A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or
Full Text Available Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns.We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10-80 km and between (ca. 3300 km regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their 'home soil' was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations.Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant--soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified.
Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes
Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard
Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are
Full Text Available In clause the methodical approach to an estimation of influence of development of a mineral-raw complex on a social and economic condition of regions is offered. The list of indicators of the influence, including both economic and the social indicators is developed, allowing to calculate an integrated rating and to define type of the subject of Federation on a level of influence of a raw complex on its social and economic development. The decision of these problems promotes creation of spatial preconditions of steady social and economic development of regions and Russia as a whole, supports of competitiveness of regions and settlements, identical availability of subjects of managing to the economic and social resources of development.
... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC will...
Garcia-Pardo, M P; de la Rubia, J E; Aguilar, M A
Addiction to drugs is a chronic illness with severe repercussions for those that consume them and to date has no known cure. Psychostimulants, such as ecstasy, are the most widely consumed illegal drugs among adolescents and young adults. To describe and to analyse the different variables that can influence the effects of social stress and the reinforcing properties of ecstasy. Likewise, it also seeks to evaluate whether the effects of social stress on conditioned place preference (induced by ecstasy) are similar to those deriving from other psychostimulants, such as cocaine. Social defeat evaluated in the short term has an effect only on adult animals by diminishing sensitivity to the conditioned reinforcing effects of ecstasy. Conversely, long-term social stress increases the reinforcing effects of this drug in adolescent and adult animals. The dose of ecstasy employed has little influence on the effects of social defeat on conditioned place preference. In comparison to the effects of social stress on the reinforcing properties of cocaine, a different effect is only observed when defeat is evaluated in the short term. Different variables modulate the reinforcing effects of ecstasy, such as the age of the animals, the dose employed or exposure to stress. It is essential to study these variables in order to determine the neurobiological and environmental vulnerability factors that can have an influence on the development of addiction to ecstasy.
Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.
Gómez, Luis Fernando; Mosquera, Janeth; Gómez, Olga Lucia; Moreno, José; Pinzon, Jose D; Jacoby, Enrique; Cepeda, Magda; Parra, Diana Celmira
The Ciclovia program (CP) has emerged as an effective initiative to promote active living in urban spaces in Latin America. This study assessed the association between social conditions, the urban environment and participation in the CP among adults living in the city of Cali, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 among 719 adults aged 18 to 44. Urban environment measures were obtained using Geographic Information Systems. A multilevel logistic regression was used for the analysis. Slightly more than 7% of participants had participated in the CP in the previous four weekends. Being male and having a high school degree were positively associated with participation in the CP. Participation in the CP was positively associated with living in neighborhoods with Ciclovia lanes. In contrast, a negative association was found among those living in neighborhoods with a presence of traffic fatalities. This study provides new insights about a recreational program that has potential health benefits in a region marked by urban inequalities in terms of opportunities for physical activity.
Luis Fernando Gómez
Full Text Available Abstract The Ciclovia program (CP has emerged as an effective initiative to promote active living in urban spaces in Latin America. This study assessed the association between social conditions, the urban environment and participation in the CP among adults living in the city of Cali, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 among 719 adults aged 18 to 44. Urban environment measures were obtained using Geographic Information Systems. A multilevel logistic regression was used for the analysis. Slightly more than 7% of participants had participated in the CP in the previous four weekends. Being male and having a high school degree were positively associated with participation in the CP. Participation in the CP was positively associated with living in neighborhoods with Ciclovia lanes. In contrast, a negative association was found among those living in neighborhoods with a presence of traffic fatalities. This study provides new insights about a recreational program that has potential health benefits in a region marked by urban inequalities in terms of opportunities for physical activity.
Y. I. Portnyagin
Full Text Available The Arctic MLT wind regime parameters measured at the ground-based network of MF and meteor radar stations (Andenes 69° N, Tromsø 70° N, Esrange 68° N, Dixon 73.5° N, Poker Flat 65° N and Resolute Bay 75° N are discussed and compared with those observed in the mid-latitudes. The network of the ground-based MF and meteor radars for measuring winds in the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere provides an excellent opportunity for study of the main global dynamical structures in this height region and their dependence from longitude. Preliminary estimates of the differences between the measured winds and tides from the different radar types, situated 125-273km apart (Tromsø, Andenes and Esrange, are provided. Despite some differences arising from using different types of radars it is possible to study the dynamical wind structures. It is revealed that most of the observed dynamical structures are persistent from year to year, thus permitting the analysis of the Arctic MLT dynamics in a climatological sense. The seasonal behaviour of the zonally averaged wind parameters is, to some extent, similar to that observed at the moderate latitudes. However, the strength of the winds (except the prevailing meridional wind and the diurnal tide amplitudes in the Arctic MLT region is, in general, less than that detected at the moderate latitudes, decreasing toward the pole. There are also some features in the vertical structure and seasonal variations of the Arctic MLT winds which are different from the expectations of the well-known empirical wind models CIRA-86 and HWM-93. The tidal phases show a very definite longitudinal dependence that permits the determination of the corresponding zonal wave numbers. It is shown that the migrating tides play an important role in the dynamics of the Arctic MLT region. However, there are clear indications with the presence in some months of non-migrating tidal modes of significant appreciable amplitude.
S. U. Hasson
Full Text Available Largely depending on the meltwater from the Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus Basin (UIB contribute half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use, and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, this study assesses the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, diurnal temperature range and precipitation from 18 stations (1250–4500 m a.s.l. for their overlapping period of record (1995–2012 and, separately, from six stations of their long-term record (1961–2012. For this, a Mann–Kendall test on serially independent time series is applied to detect the existence of a trend, while its true slope is estimated using the Sen's slope method. Further, locally identified climatic trends are statistically assessed for their spatial-scale significance within 10 identified subregions of the UIB, and the spatially (field- significant climatic trends are then qualitatively compared with the trends in discharge out of corresponding subregions. Over the recent period (1995–2012, we find warming and drying of spring (field-significant in March and increasing early melt season discharge from most of the subregions, likely due to a rapid snowmelt. In stark contrast, most of the subregions feature a field-significant cooling within the monsoon period (particularly in July and September, which coincides well with the main glacier melt season. Hence, a decreasing or weakly increasing discharge is observed from the corresponding subregions during mid- to late melt season (particularly in July. Such tendencies, being largely consistent with the long-term trends (1961–2012, most likely indicate dominance of the nival but suppression of the glacial melt regime
Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18–80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness. PMID:26500814
Rana eEl Rawas
Full Text Available The worsening of drug abuse by drug-associated social interaction is a well-studied phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effect of social interaction, if offered as a mutually exclusive choice to drugs of abuse, are under-investigated. In a rat place preference conditioning (CPP paradigm, four 15 min episodes of social interaction with a gender- and weight matched male early-adult conspecific inhibited cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP, a model of relapse. These protective effects of social interaction were paralleled by a reduced activation, as assessed by Zif268 expression in brain areas known to play pivotal roles in drug-seeking behavior. Here we show that social interaction during extinction of cocaine CPP also reduced cocaine-CPP-stimulated FosB expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core. In addition, social interaction during cocaine CPP extinction increased pCREB (cAMP response element binding protein expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and the cingulate cortex area 1 (Cg1. Our results show that FosB and pCREB may be implicated in the protective effect of social interaction against cocaine-induced reinstatement of CPP. Thus, social interaction, if offered in a context that is clearly distinct from the previously drug-associated one, may profoundly inhibit relapse to cocaine addiction.
Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne
Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n = 300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (pnetworks. Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of social involvement with community groups and resources for producing a more desirable and cost-effective way of supporting long
Moffatt, Suzanne; Steer, Mel; Lawson, Sarah; Penn, Linda; O'Brien, Nicola
To describe the experiences of patients with long-term conditions who are referred to and engage with a Link Worker social prescribing programme and identify the impact of the Link Worker programme on health and well-being. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with thematic analysis of the data. Link Worker social prescribing programme comprising personalised support to identify meaningful health and wellness goals, ongoing support to achieve agreed objectives and linkage into appropriate community services. Inner-city area in West Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (population n=132 000) ranked 40th most socioeconomically deprived in England, served by 17 general practices. Thirty adults with long-term conditions, 14 female, 16 male aged 40-74 years, mean age 62 years, 24 white British, 1 white Irish, 5 from black and minority ethnic communities. Most participants experienced multimorbidity combined with mental health problems, low self-confidence and social isolation. All were adversely affected physically, emotionally and socially by their health problems. The intervention engendered feelings of control and self-confidence, reduced social isolation and had a positive impact on health-related behaviours including weight loss, healthier eating and increased physical activity. Management of long-term conditions and mental health in the face of multimorbidity improved and participants reported greater resilience and more effective problem-solving strategies. Findings suggest that tackling complex and long-term health problems requires an extensive holistic approach not possible in routine primary care. This model of social prescribing, which takes into account physical and mental health, and social and economic issues, was successful for patients who engaged with the service. Future research on a larger scale is required to assess when and for whom social prescribing is clinically effective and cost-effective. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless
San Sebastian, Miguel; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E
Socioeconomic inequalities in health are deemed a worldwide public health problem, but current research is lacking on key points including determinants of socioeconomic differences in health, and not the least variations of these determinants over the life course. Using a 26-year prospective Swedish community-based cohort, we aim at decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in functional somatic symptoms by social and material life circumstances, at 4 periods of the life course. Repeated cross-sectional study. Participants came from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n=1001), who completed questionnaires about occupational class, social and material living conditions, and symptoms at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic inequalities were estimated and decomposed using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis. Inequalities in symptoms between blue-collar and white-collar socioeconomic groups increased along the life course in the sample. In the decomposition analysis, a high proportion of the gap between socioeconomic groups could be explained by social and material living conditions at ages 16 (84% explained), 30 (45%) and 42 (68%), but not at age 21. Specific social (parental illness at age 16 and violence at ages 30 and 42) and material (parental unemployment at age 16, and own unemployment and financial strain at ages 30 and 42) factors contributed jointly to the health gaps. Socioeconomic inequalities in functional somatic symptoms increased along the life course in this Swedish cohort. A considerable portion of the social gaps in health was explained by concurrent social and material conditions, and the importance of specific adversities was dependent on the life course stage. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic inequalities in functional somatic symptoms may be reduced by addressing both social and material living conditions of disadvantaged families, and also that the life course stage needs to be taken into consideration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Rogers, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Susan; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Kennedy, Anne; Protheroe, Joanne; Bower, Peter; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David; Kapadia, Dharmi; Brooks, Helen; Fullwood, Catherine; Richardson, Gerry
Increasing the effective targeting and promotion of self-care support for long-term conditions requires more of a focus on patient contexts and networks. The aim of this paper is to describe how within a programme of research and implementation, social networks are viewed as being centrally involved in the mobilisation and deployment of resources in the management of a chronic condition. This forms the basis of a novel approach to understanding, designing, and implementing new forms of self-management support. Drawing on evidence syntheses about social networks and capital and the role of information in self-management, we build on four conceptual approaches to inform the design of our research on the implementation of self-care support for people with long-term conditions. Our approach takes into consideration the form and content of social networks, notions of chronic illness work, normalisation process theory (NPT), and the whole systems informing self-management engagement (WISE) approach to self-care support. The translation and implementation of a self-care agenda in contemporary health and social context needs to acknowledge and incorporate the resources and networks operating in patients' domestic and social environments and everyday lives. The latter compliments the focus on healthcare settings for developing and delivering self-care support by viewing communities and networks, as well as people suffering from long-term conditions, as a key means of support for managing long-term conditions. By focusing on patient work and social-network provision, our aim is to open up a second frontier in implementation research, to translate knowledge into better chronic illness management, and to shift the emphasis towards support that takes place outside formal health services.
Full Text Available It has been shown that frailty is associated with low levels of wellbeing and life satisfaction. Further exploration is needed, however, to better understand which components constitute life satisfaction for frail older people and how satisfaction is related to other life circumstances. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between frail older people’s life satisfaction and their socioeconomic conditions, social networks, and health-related conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted (n=179. A logistic regression analysis was performed, including life satisfaction as the dependent variable and 12 items as independent variables. Four of the independent variables made statistically significant contributions: financial situation (OR 3.53, social contacts (OR 2.44, risk of depression (OR 2.26, and selfrated health (OR 2.79. This study demonstrates that financial situation, self-rated health conditions and social networks are important components for frail older people’s life satisfaction. Health and social care professionals and policy makers should consider this knowledge in the care and service for frail older people; and actions that benefit life satisfaction − such as social support − should be promoted.
Kreager, Derek A.; Young, Jacob T.N.; Haynie, Dana L.; Bouchard, Martin; Schaefer, David R.; Zajac, Gary
Research of inmate social order is a once-vibrant area that receded just as American incarceration rates climbed and the country’s carceral contexts dramatically changed. This study reengages inmate society with an abductive mixed methods investigation of informal status within a contemporary men’s prison unit. The authors collect narrative and social network data from 133 male inmates housed in a unit of a Pennsylvania medium-security prison. Analyses of inmate narratives suggest that unit “old heads” provide collective goods in the form of mentoring and role modeling that foster a positive and stable peer environment. This hypothesis is then tested with Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) of peer nomination data. The ERGM results complement the qualitative analysis and suggest that older inmates and those who have been on the unit longer are perceived by their peers as powerful and influential. Both analytical strategies point to the maturity of aging and the acquisition of local knowledge as important for attaining informal status in the unit. In sum, this mixed methods case study extends theoretical insights of classic prison ethnographies, adds quantifiable results capable of future replication, and points to a growing population of older inmates as important for contemporary prison social organization. PMID:29540904
This study employed a multiple case study design to evaluate the perspectives of part-time faculties at three community colleges in the Northeast. The purpose of this study was to discover how needs, working conditions, and social networks influence the part-time faculties' job satisfaction. Maslow (1954), Bourdieu (1986), and Herzberg, Mausner,…
van den Wijngaard, Oscar; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim
The present article analyzes social engagement as an outcome of higher education. It can be conceived as an attitude that by definition only manifests itself over time, and should therefore not be assessed or measured during the years of study or at graduation. The argument is being made that social engagement should be understood in terms of…
Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M
-ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....
Drapela, Laurie A.; Mosher, Clayton
The effect of parental deviance on adolescent deviance has been a source of considerable debate in the criminological literature. Classic theoretical explanations of the relationships between parental and adolescent deviance posit additive effects of parental deviance on youth behavior. Proponents of the Social Development Model have hypothesized…
Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, I-Chien; Kim, Seulki; Choi, Seung-Won
Though the adverse consequences of perceived housing discrimination have been documented, little is known about whether such experience undermines one's social capital in a neighborhood and even less is about whether and how this relationship is altered by neighborhood features. We proposed a framework that simultaneously considers within-individual and between-neighborhood processes. We applied multilevel structural equation models to data from Philadelphia (n = 9987) and found that (a) perceived housing discrimination was negatively associated with one's social capital even after other confounders were considered, (b) this negative association could be partly explained by the proliferated daily stress and anxiety mechanisms, (c) differential exposures to neighborhood social disadvantage accounted for the variation in social capital across neighborhoods, and (d) the adverse association between perceived housing discrimination and social capital could be attenuated by neighborhood stability. The findings suggested that appropriate interventions should buffer the negative association of perceived housing discrimination with social capital. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez, Miguel; Watson, Richard; Bullock, Seth
Social learning, defined as the imitation of behaviors performed by others, is recognized as a distinctive characteristic in humans and several other animal species. Previous work has claimed that the evolutionary fixation of social learning requires decision-making cognitive abilities that result in transmission bias (e.g., discriminatory imitation) and/or guided variation (e.g., adaptive modification of behaviors through individual learning). Here, we present and analyze a simple agent-based model that demonstrates that the transition from instinctive actuators (i.e., non-learning agents whose behavior is hardcoded in their genes) to social learners (i.e., agents that imitate behaviors) can occur without invoking such decision-making abilities. The model shows that the social learning of a trait may evolve and fix in a population if there are many possible behavioral variants of the trait, if it is subject to strong selection pressure for survival (as distinct from reproduction), and if imitation errors occur at a higher rate than genetic mutation. These results demonstrate that the (sometimes implicit) assumption in prior work that decision-making abilities are required is incorrect, thus allowing a more parsimonious explanation for the evolution of social learning that applies to a wider range of organisms. Furthermore, we identify genotype-phenotype disengagement as a signal for the imminent fixation of social learners, and explain the way in which this disengagement leads to the emergence of a basic form of cultural evolution (i.e., a non-genetic evolutionary system).
Mukhambetov, D.G.; Kargin, D.B.; Chalaya, O. V.; Berber, N.N.
It is known, that the kinetics of oxidation of zirconium at formed heating is characterized by two consecutive stages. At the initial stage the thin protecting film will be derived. The relation of its depth from time h (t) is described predominantly by parabolic law. Some time later there can be a transition to the linear law of oxidation. The time moment divided these areas on the kinetic relation is called as a point of break. The film is formed at the second stage, has a developed grid of pores or cracks, can be flake away and be crumbled by losing its protective properties. At the oxidation of the surface shells of the heat generating elements and the technological channels of atomic boilers both stages are proceeded simultaneously. This phenomenon is called modular corrosion. Its consequences can be dangerous for the equipment. Its mechanism is not clear till now. Similar dependencies h(t), with the break point, beginning from which the thin film is transformed into the thick one were found by us at the oxidation α-Fe with prevailing cubical texture. The task of the work was to study the oxide film growth laws in order to clarify the mechanisms of transition of the thin film into the oxide layer on the α-Fe surface and Zr-Nb alloy modular corrosion emergence. Low-carbonate steel with contents 99.43 % of α-Fe was used as a model object of our research. In the texture of the steel surface planar direction  was prevalent. Its part accounted for about 40 %. The isothermal air oxidation was carried out in the interval of 450-500 deg. C . Phase composition of the film was determined with X-ray diffraction. The mathematical treatment of the dependencies h(t) obtained by experiment showed that the kinetics of the film growth can be conditionally divided into 4-stages. The initial stage is described by function logarithmic function, the other stages - by the power mode h n =A n ·t, namely, the second stage - is described by function close to cubical (n≅3
Full Text Available The paper develops a method of research called ‘ cooking as inquiry. ‘ This method seeks to add layers to the typically disembodied practices of social research that have long overlooked the body and the mundane rituals of foodmaking as sites of knowledge. Informed by autoethnography and collective biography, cooking as inquiry recognizes bodies and food as sites of knowledge and engages researchers as researcher-participants in reflexive, collaborative study that explores the ways in which the embodied self is performed relationally through foodmaking. In addition to a discussion of the epistemological and methodological frames of this method, this paper offers a case study that describes a project conducted by a colleague and the author.
Herd, Pamela; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; DiLoreto, Kerryann; Jacques, Karen; Stevenson, John; Rey, Federico; Roan, Carol
To test the feasibility of collecting and integrating data on the gut microbiome into one of the most comprehensive longitudinal studies of aging and health, the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS). The long-term goal of this integration is to clarify the contribution of social conditions in shaping the composition of the gut microbiota late in life. Research on the microbiome, which is considered to be of parallel importance to human health as the human genome, has been hindered by human studies with nonrandomly selected samples and with limited data on social conditions over the life course. No existing population-based longitudinal study had collected fecal specimens. Consequently, we created an in-person protocol to collect stool specimens from a subgroup of WLS participants. We collected 429 stool specimens, yielding a 74% response rate and one of the largest human samples to date. The addition of data on the gut microbiome to the WLS-and to other population based longitudinal studies of aging-is feasible, under the right conditions, and can generate innovative research on the relationship between social conditions and the gut microbiome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is becoming an increasingly popular area of activity of companies which are interested in not only the managers or owners, but also customers, suppliers, NGOs, administrative and other stakeholders groups. The analysis aim is to present CSR initiatives as part of deliberate strategy of the company, which is one of the key sources of competitive advantage in the market. The findings concern the scope of cooperation between companies and NGOs in the field of socially responsible activities. The analysis indicates that the expected form of cooperation of NGOs with small businesses is to provide financial assistance to social organizations. However, in the case of medium-sized enterprises, these expectations also apply to material support. Moreover, in the case of medium-sized enterprises a key determinant of cooperation with social organization is realization of the social objective, while small businesses are more guided by "goodness of the heart". Considerations based on the identification of scope of CSR, are pointing to the key aspects of this activity to the company, the environment and customers. Discussions were extended to the characteristics of the benefits, barriers and forms of the cooperation, as well as, there were presented the results of research in the field of forms and determinants of such cooperation. Considerations are based on secondary sources, from national and international journals, books, magazines and specialist reports.
Full Text Available Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective.To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time.Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD or diabetes (n = 300 randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline.Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks.Findings indicated that: (1 social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2 support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3 network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01 reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks.Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of social involvement with community
Full Text Available Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several factors, and the contribution of each member of the group's performance is different. We aim to assess the level of motivation of the members of sports groups. The research sample was composed of athletes (N=158, 55 females, 103 males from the sports groups within the city of Iasi, part of the first and second sports divisions (basketball, football, handball, rugby, and volleyball. The respondents answered to a adapted to the Romanian population 32-item questionnaire; the items were grouped into four factors: leadership (power needs, expertise / performance (achievement needs, bonding (affiliation needs, subsistence (existence needs. The homogeneity instrument was assessed for the entire scale, as well as independently for each factor. The lack of variance homogeneity made it impossible to get outcomes for the interaction of the independent variables such as the type of club and the status. No gender-based differences were found regarding the power needs. If the type of club does not influence the expert/performance factor, have identified a partial influences of this variable over the bonding factor. Professional athletes are more motivated to achieve the performance than semi professional athletes.
An immense body of literature has been published on the effects of the residential neighbourhood on individual socio-economic outcomes. Numerous studies have designated these neighbourhood effects to the socialisation and resources mechanisms. This study argues that social contacts and interactions
Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.
Background The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health
Vanderlei dos Santos
Full Text Available The study aims to identify the types of analysis of Trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry. Descriptive research was performed, with quantitative and qualitative approach, using a multiple case study. Data were collected through interviews with the controller of the companies. In the four basic culture types suggested by Trompenaars (1994, it is concluded that there isn´t a pure kind, but there is a strong presence of family culture among the companies surveyed in dimensions relationship between employees, attitude in relation to the ways of change, forms of motivation and reward
Das, Koyeli; Roy, Milan Chandra; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Roy, Mahendra Nath
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular interaction prevailing in tyrosine and tryptophan in aqueous solution of vitamin C have been probed by thermophysical properties. The apparent molar volume (ϕV), viscosity B-coefficient, molal refraction (RM) of tyrosine and tryptophan have been studied in aqueous vitamin C solutions at diverse temperatures via Masson equation which deduced solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. Spectroscopic study along with physicochemical and computational techniques provides lots of interesting and highly significant insights of the model biological systems. The overall results established strong solute-solvent interactions between studied amino acids and vitamin C mixture in the ternary solutions.
Full Text Available Este artículo pone de manifiesto las preguntas que le plantea a una perspectiva de género, las nuevas formas de pensar la protección social en la región. Para ello, se toma como ejemplo las transferencias condicionadas de ingresos (TCI puestas en marcha en Chile. Basándose en el ejemplo del programa Puente, la estrategia inicial del sistema de protección social denominado Chile Solidario, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo estas formas de protección apelan a la participación de las mujeres para salir de la pobreza. Los hallazgos indican que la política de lucha contra la pobreza en Chile se enmarca en una visión multidimensional de la pobreza que, sin embargo, termina posicionando a las mujeres como responsables de lograr el bienestar de todos los miembros de sus hogares. Este artículo concluye proponiendo que el escenario chileno constituye un extremo ejemplo de la extensión de las responsabilidades individuales de las mujeres en la gestión de pobreza, sin proporcionarles ningún componente comunitario o colectivo
Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy
In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met. PMID:26114245
Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy
In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building "learning cities" through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.
Patrick Henry Buckley
Full Text Available In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.
Jones, P E; Roelofsma, P H
This paper provides a critical review of social contextual and group biases that are relevant to team decision-making in command and control situations. Motivated by the insufficient level of attention this area has received, the purpose of the paper is to provide an insight into the potential that these types of biases have to affect the decision-making of such teams. The biases considered are: false consensus, groupthink, group polarization and group escalation of commitment. For each bias the following four questions are addressed. What is the descriptive nature of the bias? What factors induce the bias? What psychological mechanisms underlie the bias? What is the relevance of the bias to command and control teams? The analysis suggests that these biases have a strong potential to affect team decisions. Consistent with the nature of team decision-making in command and control situations, all of the biases considered tend to be associated with those decisions that are important or novel and are promoted by time pressure and high levels of uncertainty. A concept unifying these biases is that of the shared mental model, but whereas false consensus emanates from social projection tendencies, the rest emanate from social influence factors. The authors also discuss the 'tricky' distinction between teams and groups and propose a revised definition for command and control team. Finally, the authors emphasize the need for future empirical research in this area to pay additional attention to the social side of cognition and the potential that social biases have to affect team decision-making.
The contribution of housing and neighbourhood conditions to educational inequalities in non-communicable diseases in Europe: findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.
McNamara, Courtney L; Balaj, Mirza; Thomson, Katie H; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare
Social gradients have been found across European populations, where less affluent groups are more often affected by poor housing and neighbourhood conditions. While poor housing and neighbourhood quality have been associated with a range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), these conditions have rarely been applied to the examination of socioeconomic differences in NCDs. This study therefore asks ‘to what extent does adjusting for poor housing and neighbourhood conditions reduce inequalities in NCDs among men and women in Europe’? Our analysis used pooled-data from 20 European countries for women (n= 12 794) and men (n= 11 974), aged 25–75, from round 7 of the European Social Survey. Fourteen NCDs were investigated: heart/circulatory problems, high blood pressure, back pain, arm/hand pain, foot/leg pain, allergies, breathing problems, stomach/digestion problems, skin conditions, diabetes, severe headaches, cancer, obesity and depression. We used binary logistic regression models, stratified by gender, and adjusted rate ratios to examine whether educational inequalities in NCDs were reduced after controlling for poor housing and neighbourhood quality. Overall, we find that adjusting for poor housing and neighbourhood quality reduces inequalities in NCDs. While reductions were relatively small for some NCDs–for high blood pressure, reductions were found in the range of 0–4.27% among women—for other conditions reductions were more considerable. Controlling for both housing and neighbourhood conditions for example, reduced inequalities by 16–24% for severe headaches and 14–30% for breathing problems. Social gradients in poor housing and neighbourhood quality could be an important contributor to educational inequalities in some NCDs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F
Social inequalities in health are widely examined. But the reasons behind this phenomenon still remain unclear in parts. It is undisputed that the work environment plays a crucial role in this regard. However, the contribution of psychosocial factors at work is unclear and inconsistent, and most studies are limited with regard to work factors and health outcomes. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the role and contribution of various physical and psychosocial working conditions to explaining social inequalities in different self-reported health outcomes. Data from a postal survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies from diverse industries of the secondary sector in Switzerland were used and analysed. The study sample covered 1,846 employees aged 20 and 64 and included significant proportions of unskilled manual workers and highly qualified non-manual workers. Cross tabulations and logistic regression analyses were performed to study multiple associations between social status, work factors and health outcomes. Combinations of educational level and occupational position wee used as a measure of social status or class. Clear social gradients were observed for almost all adverse working conditions and poor health outcomes studied, but in different directions. While physical workloads and other typical blue-collar job characteristics not suprisingly, were found to be much more common among the lower classes, most psychosocial work demands and job resources were more prevalent in the higher classes. Furthermore, workers in lower classes, i.e. with lower educational and occupational status, were more likely to report poor self-rated health, limited physical functioning and long sickness absence, but at the same time were less likely to experience increased stress feelings and burnout symptoms showing a reversed health gradient. Finally, blue-collar job characteristics contributed substantially to the social gradient found in general and
Background Social inequalities in health are widely examined. But the reasons behind this phenomenon still remain unclear in parts. It is undisputed that the work environment plays a crucial role in this regard. However, the contribution of psychosocial factors at work is unclear and inconsistent, and most studies are limited with regard to work factors and health outcomes. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the role and contribution of various physical and psychosocial working conditions to explaining social inequalities in different self-reported health outcomes. Methods Data from a postal survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies from diverse industries of the secondary sector in Switzerland were used and analysed. The study sample covered 1,846 employees aged 20 and 64 and included significant proportions of unskilled manual workers and highly qualified non-manual workers. Cross tabulations and logistic regression analyses were performed to study multiple associations between social status, work factors and health outcomes. Combinations of educational level and occupational position wee used as a measure of social status or class. Results Clear social gradients were observed for almost all adverse working conditions and poor health outcomes studied, but in different directions. While physical workloads and other typical blue-collar job characteristics not suprisingly, were found to be much more common among the lower classes, most psychosocial work demands and job resources were more prevalent in the higher classes. Furthermore, workers in lower classes, i.e. with lower educational and occupational status, were more likely to report poor self-rated health, limited physical functioning and long sickness absence, but at the same time were less likely to experience increased stress feelings and burnout symptoms showing a reversed health gradient. Finally, blue-collar job characteristics contributed substantially to the social
Full Text Available The European Union is often considered as a prime example of a liberal regulatory state. We argue, however, that being limited to the regulatory policy does not prevent the European Commission from pursuing political aims going beyond market efficiency. We draw up two ideal-type perspectives of market regulation – being either efficiency or equality enhancing – that differ systematically in terms of rationale, degree of intervention, patterns of stakeholder access and conflict within the regulator. We trace these aspects in three financial services initiatives on the registration and supervision of reinsurers, equal treatment in financial services and the regulation of consumer credit. Our analyses suggest that there is scope for equality-enhancing re-regulation when proactive agents proceed decidedly on the basis of social-treaty concerns and frame regulatory beneficiaries as market participants as well as when they seek the redistribution of rights instead of resources.
Tatyana Alekseevna Serezhko
Full Text Available Purpose. In article the possibility of the organization of communication of teachers of the higher school with students on social networks for increase in efficiency of educational process and self-education of the teacher in aspect of pedagogical ethics and a reflection is considered. Method or methodology of carrying out work. The basis of the study is the problem-chronological and theoretical-logical methods, as well as descriptive (descriptive and problematic approaches. Results. In work the ethical aspect of a problem of use of social networks as innovative is marked out to an information and communication technology in educational practice. Modern the space is considered by media as the factor changing the place of the high school teacher in the course of training and staticizing a problem of its media competence. Range of application of results. The results of the research can be used in pedagogical activity in order to improve the communicative mobility of the teacher.
Cubitt, K Fiona; Winberg, Svante; Huntingford, Felicity A; Kadri, Sunil; Crampton, Vivian O; Overli, Oyvind
Monitoring social interactions between individuals in large, high-density groups poses several challenges. Here we demonstrate that relative concentrations of serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its principal catabolite 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain tissue of individual fish reflect social organisation in large groups of farmed Atlantic salmon. In the central nervous system of vertebrates, the monoamine neurotransmitter/neuromodulator 5-HT is critical for maintaining adaptive physiological, cognitive and emotional processes. In both teleost fish and mammals it has previously been shown that social interactions in small groups lead to elevated 5-HT release and/or metabolism in subordinate individuals, as indicated by the 5-HIAA/5-HT concentration ratio. In the current study, evidence is presented of non-linear dominance hierarchies in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept at high rearing densities. The physiological effect of these hierarchies was decreased when food resources were abundant, although some subordinate fish still showed altered brain serotonergic activity and failed to grow even feed was available in excess. The largest effect of decreased feed rations was seen in fish of intermediate size, where competition appeared to increase with reduced access to feed. The largest individuals in each rearing unit showed low 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios independent of feeding regime. A novel observation, with respect to previous studies, was that elevated brain 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios resulted from decreased 5-HT concentrations rather than elevated 5-HIAA in small fish. Thus, in light of the serotonin deficit hypothesis of depression, it cannot be excluded that social stress is important for animal welfare even in large, relatively homogenous groups of animals reared in captivity.
Full Text Available The task of examining the origins and development of social work is fraught with competing narratives. In South Africa individualist, liberal, colonial, masculine and “white” discourses prevail. The dialectical-historical perspective, rather than chronological “progress”, shows how socio-political and economic dynamics are formative of societal conditions and of social work, which in turn has a role in shaping these dynamics. The fiction of purely historical records of progress and freedom of choice is challenged, and hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses uncovered. Social workers are urged to be engaged with the full complexity of events emerging from the class and race-based antagonisms of South African society
Kondo, Naoji; Sakai, Motohiro; Kuroda, Yasukazu; Kiyota, Yoshikazu; Kitabata, Yuji; Kurosawa, Mie
The issue of hikikomori (prolonged social withdrawal) among Japanese youth has attracted attention from international experts. In previous research, the unique cultural and social factors of Japanese society have been the focus; however, in order to resolve the problem of hikikomori, individual mental health problems must be included. We examined the psychiatric background of individuals with hikikomori. We recruited 337 individuals with hikikomori; 183 subjects who utilized the centres were designated as the help-seeking group. We examined the multi-axial psychiatric diagnosis based on the DSM-IV-TR, treatment policies and treatment outcomes. We also examined 154 subjects who did not utilize the centers (non-help-seeking group). Most of the subjects in the utilization group were classified into one of the diagnostic categories. Forty-nine (33.3%) subjects were diagnosed with schizophrenia, mood disorders or anxiety disorders, and this group needed pharmacotherapy. Other subjects were diagnosed with personality disorders or pervasive developmental disorders, and they mainly needed psycho-social support. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores of the non-help-seeking group were significantly lower than the GAF scores of those who used treatments. Most hikikomori cases can be diagnosed using current diagnostic criteria. Individuals with hikikomori are much worse if they do not seek help.
Olsen, M.E.; Merwin, D.J.
The methodology proposed essentially argues that mankind is inexorably dependent on the natural environment, and that collective social life is always constrained and shaped by the basic ecological factors of natural resources, population characteristics, material and social technology, and the economic order which satisfies peoples' sustenance needs. To this ecological perspective two further assumptions are added: (1) collective social activities are generally aimed at the attainment of goals that reflect the values and interests of the participants, so that social impact assessment must reflect both the ecological conditions prevailing in a community and the values, interests, and goals of the community members; and (2) a community can be viewed as a problem-solving social system, in which (a) challenges such as new environmental or technological conditions initially disrupt existing social processes and patterns of social ordering, which (b) creates temporary problem conditions and activities, which in turn (c) generate collective responses to cope with these problems, which finally (d) act back (as either positive or negative feedback) on the initial disruptive conditions. The inputs to a general social impact model are (a) such disruptive innovations or alterations as growing resource scarcities (e.g., oil or water depletion), governmental policy decisions (e.g., emphasis on solar energy, limiting economic growth), or technological development projects (e.g., nuclear energy centers, water reservoirs); and (b) values and interests of the people in the affected area. Whatever the precise nature of the outside disruption, it can be expected to have direct and relatively immediate impacts on the basic ecological factors of the local population and economy. (MCW)
My primary research question is: can social networks assist analysts fight terrorism? My secondary research questions are as follows. First, how does...social networking create linkages? Second, how have social networks been used to solve small problems? Third, how have social networks been used to...study. My research incorporates the prevailing ideas, best practices, and real-world examples of applications of social networks to produce a desired
Vsevolod Petrovich Babushkin
Full Text Available In the article, the transport role in the decision of problems of innovative and scientifically-technological development of territory is defined. Dependence of quality, completeness and timeliness of granting of transport services on replenishment and updating of park of locomotives, cars, i.e. from a level of development of domestic transport mechanical engineering is shown. The basic problems of development given branches –low competitiveness of made production are revealed. The basic accent in the course of such analysis is made on research of competitive possibilities of the enterprises of railway mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk area. Such enterprises play the increasing role, become points of development of region’s economy and maintenance of its social and economic safety. The cooperation communications, which have developed in an industrial complex of Sverdlovsk area on the basis of development of modern manufacture on building of electric locomotives, have allowed to generate in region cluster railway mechanical engineering. The structure cluster is shown, development prospects, the estimation of its influence on the economy of Sverdlovsk area and maintenance of its social and economic security is given
The influence of early formed dietary practices on food choices and preferences during adulthood has often been assumed but rarely adequately demonstrated given the difficulty of studying the subject matter with conventional laboratory or observational research designs. This article examines this assumption by analyzing the information from 31 structured interviews on the respondents' current preferences for combinations of six side dishes with bread or mămăligă (boiled cornmeal mush, similar to polenta). All the respondents had consumed mămăligă in their childhood but in their adulthood had switched to bread following the social and economic upheavals from 1960s Romania. The results show that a) for specific combinations, physiological factors and/or cultural norms that defined bread as a 'prestigious' food have been capable of overriding the effects of early socialization with mămăligă as the accompanying food and b) that consumers continue to prefer certain side dishes with mămăligă even after decades of predominant consumption of bread although confounding factors might account for such preferences. These findings qualify the expectation that an early familiarization with healthy eating habits will promote this desired lifestyle during adulthood by showing that physiological and socio-cultural factors are capable of overriding its effects on hedonic preferences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Melloul, Abraham J; Collin, Martin L
This study focuses on the problem of most efficiently fulfilling the water requirements of society for sustainable water resources management. The goal is to coordinate effectively the social needs of the resident population with operational water resources management planning.The proposed approach consists of a pyramidal hierarchy of water resource management needs, similar to that suggested by psychologist Abraham Maslow for human social needs. The two pyramidal hierarchies can be simultaneously employed to delineate guidelines to synchronize planning for sustainable water resources development with the concerns and expectations of the resident population. In both hierarchies, higher level needs remain irrelevant and difficult to attain until lower level needs of the resident population have been fulfilled. Management planning measures employed with regard to Israel's coastal aquifer have been used to illustrate this approach. Observation of Israel's experience indicates markedly reduced effectiveness where such measures have failed to be properly synchronised with societal needs. Conversely, where hydrological management measures were successfully synchronized with societal concerns, increased efficiency towards attaining sustainable groundwater management was evident.
Leaton Gray, Sandra
This article discusses how the introduction of technology has led to a fundamental shift in the relationship between education and time. As a means of analysing the extent of such changes on pupils from different backgrounds, I use Bernstein's "conditions for democracy" as a framework for evaluating the impact new understandings of time…
Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Goldring, Ellen; Smrekar, Claire
By using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software to combine health and crime data with data from 20 schools in one Southeastern district, the study explores whether and how neighborhood conditions affect school-community arrangements. Findings show that the nature of the relationships and the strategies principals and teachers use to…
Regional inequalities in self-reported conditions and non-communicable diseases in European countries: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.
Thomson, Katie H; Renneberg, Ann-Christin; McNamara, Courtney L; Akhter, Nasima; Reibling, Nadine; Bambra, Clare
Within the European Union (EU), substantial efforts are being made to achieve economic and social cohesion, and the reduction of health inequalities between EU regions is integral to this process. This paper is the first to examine how self-reported conditions and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) vary spatially between and within countries. Using 2014 European Social Survey (ESS) data from 20 countries, this paper examines how regional inequalities in self-reported conditions and NCDs vary for men and women in 174 regions (levels 1 and 2 Nomenclature of Statistical Territorial Units, ‘NUTS’). We document absolute and relative inequalities across Europe in the prevalence of eight conditions: general health, overweight/obesity, mental health, heart or circulation problems, high blood pressure, back, neck, muscular or joint pain, diabetes and cancer. There is considerable inequality in self-reported conditions and NCDs between the regions of Europe, with rates highest in the regions of continental Europe, some Scandinavian regions and parts of the UK and lowest around regions bordering the Alps, in Ireland and France. However, for mental health and cancer, rates are highest in regions of Eastern European and lowest in some Nordic regions, Ireland and isolated regions in continental Europe. There are also widespread and consistent absolute and relative regional inequalities in all conditions within countries. These are largest in France, Germany and the UK, and smallest in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. There were higher inequalities amongst women. Using newly available harmonized morbidity data from across Europe, this paper shows that there are considerable regional inequalities within and between European countries in the distribution of self-reported conditions and NCDs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Cocca, Aldo Armando
Men may do many things, but they must never forget the human condition in any act or relation with a fellow human being. Space Law has vindicated the supreme value of man as a legal subject par excellence. The dignity of the human being is a value that rates above any scientific or technological advance. A benefit, by definition and derivation, is anything contributing to an improvement in a condition. Social benefits pertain only to human beings, who are their sole beneficiaries. Developing countries are young nations that through their international relations may, and indeed must, realize the benefits of space technology. The principle of the "common heritage of Mankind" was created to satisfy the aspirations of all peoples and to meet the needs of both industrialized and developing countries. Only a groundless fear and lack of vision of the future can induce governments to delay its implementation. We must not forget that the concept was transformed into a principle of international positive law by the unanimous decision of the international community, which enshrined it in the Moon Agreement. The social and individual responsibility of the scientist is becoming even more clearly defined, and scientists play an important role in the conduct of nations. Through education, including education in the humanities and a graduation pledge, the scientist has embarked on the road leading to an active presence in society, facing his responsibility. Inter-generational equity contributes to strengthening the concept of the human condition and the legal principle of the common heritage of mankind.
Jaganathan, Mathivannan; Mustapa, Azrain Nasyrah; Hasan, Wan Azlina Wan; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik; Alekam, Jamal Mohammed Esmail
It is an undeniable fact that penetration level and usage and sales of Smartphone dramatically increased past few years, whereby; it has increased to almost 60 percent of total population. Despite the high penetration of smartphone, previous studies have exhibited inconsistent findings towards understanding the behavioural intention to use smartphone especially among university students. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine purchasing behaviour of Smartphone among students. From the literature, five antecedents of purchasing behaviour were identified. Each variable is measured using 7-point Likert scale: convenience (10 items), social influence (6 items), self-efficacy (10 items), facilitating condition (11 items), dependency (14 items) and purchasing behaviour (4 items). Using the primary data collection method, 400 questionnaires were distributed to the target respondents of one of the public higher education in the northern region. The responses collected were 350 completed questionnaires representing 87.5 percent response rate. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS. Confirmatory factor analysis of measurement models indicates adequate goodness or fit after few items were eliminated through modification indices verifications. Therefore, goodness of fit for the generated structural model shows the adequate fit. This study has established four direct significant causal effects and two significant mediating effects: (1) convenience and dependency, (2) social influence and dependency, (3) facilitating condition and purchase behaviour, (4), dependency and purchase behaviour. The significant mediating results are: (1). Dependency mediates the relationship between convenience and purchase behaviour; (2) dependency mediates social influence and purchase behaviour. Thus, findings suggested that convenience, social influence and dependency play a role in determining students purchase behaviour of smartphone. The researchers
Full Text Available An Early childhood dance program is a way to open the door to social competence, tradition learning and cultural integration besides achieving motor skills. The past few decades have demonstrated that dance education and the use of symbolic movement in early childhood, greatly enhance young children's learning. While a great amount of attention has been devoted to understanding how a variety of learning modes function in young children, an understanding of the benefits of dance education has not received strong recognition in the equation . I suggest that movement and dance are the first communicative "language" that enables learning. Creating new contexts in and through dance for learning offers young children opportunities to understand and negotiate their community and the surrounding world.DANSUL CA CONDIŢIE ÎN FORMAREA COMPETENŢELOR SOCIALE, TRADIŢIONALE ŞI CULTURALE ÎN PERIOADA COPILĂRIEI TIMPURII Un program de dans specific copilăriei timpurii, pe lângă faptul că dezvoltă abilităţile motorii, este o modalitate de a forma competenţe sociale prin învăţarea tradiţiilor şi de integrare culturală. Ultimele decade au demonstrat că educaţia prin dans şi utilizarea mişcărilor simbolice în copilăria timpurie au un impact pozitiv asupra învăţării. În timp ce o mare parte de atenţie a fost acordată înţelegerii funcţionării variabilelor moduri de învăţare la copii, înţelegerea beneficiilor educaţiei prin dans nu s-a bucurat de aceeaşi recunoaştere din partea cercetătorilor. Sugerăm că mişcarea şi dansul sunt primele limbaje de comunicare care autorizează învăţarea. Crearea noilor contexte în şi prin dans oferă copiilor oportunităţi de a înţelege şi a negocia atât în cadrul comunităţii lor, cât şi în afara acesteia.
Bryce, A H; Alumkal, J J; Armstrong, A; Higano, C S; Iversen, P; Sternberg, C N; Rathkopf, D; Loriot, Y; de Bono, J; Tombal, B; Abhyankar, S; Lin, P; Krivoshik, A; Phung, D; Beer, T M
Advanced prostate cancer is a phenotypically diverse disease that evolves through multiple clinical courses. PSA level is the most widely used parameter for disease monitoring, but it has well-recognized limitations. Unlike in clinical trials, in practice, clinicians may rely on PSA monitoring alone to determine disease status on therapy. This approach has not been adequately tested. Chemotherapy-naive asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic men (n=872) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were treated with the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide in the PREVAIL study were analyzed post hoc for rising versus nonrising PSA (empirically defined as >1.05 vs ⩽1.05 times the PSA level from 3 months earlier) at the time of radiographic progression. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were compared between the rising and nonrising PSA groups. Of 265 PREVAIL patients with radiographic progression and evaluable PSA levels on the enzalutamide arm, nearly one-quarter had a nonrising PSA. Median progression-free survival in this cohort was 8.3 months versus 11.1 months in the rising PSA cohort (hazard ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.23); overall survival was similar between the two groups, although less than half of patients in either group were still at risk at 24 months. Baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar. Non-rising PSA at radiographic progression is a common phenomenon in mCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide. As restaging in advanced prostate cancer patients is often guided by increases in PSA levels, our results demonstrate that disease progression on enzalutamide can occur without rising PSA levels. Therefore, a disease monitoring strategy that includes imaging not entirely reliant on serial serum PSA measurement may more accurately identify disease progression.
Ostman, Pär-Olov; Wennerberg, Ann; Albrektsson, Tomas
Recently, a new implant surface texture, featuring application of nanometer-scale calcium phosphate has been shown to enhance early bone fixation and formation in preclinical studies and in human histomorphometric studies, which may be beneficial in immediate loading situations. The purpose of the present prospective clinical study was to, during 1 year, clinically and radiographically evaluate a nanometer scale surface modified implant placed for immediate loading of fixed prostheses in both maxillary and mandibular regions. Thirty-five out of 38 patients who needed implant treatment and met inclusion criteria agreed to participate in the study and were consecutively enrolled. Surgical implant placement requirements consisted of a final torque of a least 25 Ncm prior to final seating and an implant stability quotient above 55. A total of 102 NanoTite PREVAIL (NTP) implants (BIOMET 3i, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA) (66 maxillary and 36 mandibular) were placed by one investigator, and the majority of these were placed in posterior regions (65%) and in soft bone (69%). A total of 44 prosthetic constructions were evaluated consisting of 14 single-tooth restorations, 26 fixed partial dentures, and four complete fixed restorations. All provisional constructions were delivered within 1 hour, and the final constructions placed after 4 months. Implants were monitored for clinical and radiographic outcomes at follow-up examinations scheduled for 3, 6, and 12 months. Of the 102 study implants, one implant failed. The simple cumulative survival rate value at 1 year was 99.2%. The average marginal bone resorption was 0.37 mm (SD 0.39) during the first year in function. According to the success criteria of Albrektsson and Zarb, success grade 1 was found with 93% of the implants. Although limited to the short follow-up, immediate loading of NanoTite Prevail implants seems to be a viable option in implant rehabilitation, at least when a good initial fixation is achieved.
/ Managing protected areas involves balancing the enjoyment of visitors with the protection of a variety of cultural and biophysical resources. Tourism pressures in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) are creating concerns about how to strike this balance in a marine environment. Terrestrial-based research has led to conceptual planning and management frameworks that address issues of human use and resource protection. The limits of acceptable change (LAC) framework was used as a conceptual basis for a study of snorkeling at reef sites in the GBRWHA. The intent was to determine if different settings existed among tourism operators traveling to the reef and, if so, to identify specific conditions relating to those settings. Snorkelers (N = 1475) traveling with tourism operations of different sizes who traveled to different sites completed surveys. Results indicated that snorkelers who traveled with larger operations (more people and infrastructure) differed from those traveling with smaller operations (few people and little on-site infrastructure) on benefits received and in the way that specific conditions influenced their enjoyment. Benefits related to nature, escape, and family helped to define reef experiences. Conditions related to coral, fish, and operator staff had a positive influence on the enjoyment of most visitors but, number of people on the trip and site infrastructure may have the greatest potential as setting indicators. Data support the potential usefulness of visitor input in applying the LAC concept to a marine environment where tourism and recreational uses are rapidly changing.
Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly
This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven mor...... significant in defining the terrain of the debate than lobby group influence where a cross section of United Kingdom (UK) lobby groups are either actively or passively in favour of remaining within the EU ahead of the referendum....
Rice, A. R.
The significant correlation between dropping temperatures throughout the Pliocene and the concomitant explosive expansion of the Hominid brain has led a number of workers to postulate climate change drove human evolution. Our brain (that of Homo sapiens), comprises 1-2 percent of our body weight but consumes 20 -25 percent of the body's caloric intake. We are "hotheads". Brains are extremely sensitive to overheating but we are endowed with unparalleled thermal regulation, much of it given over to protecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Will there be reversed trends with global warming? The human brain has been shrinking since the end of the Ice Ages, losing about 150cc over the past 10,000 years. Polar bear skulls have been downsizing as well. Almost all mass extinctions or evolutionary upheavals are attributed to global warming: e.g. the Permian/Triassic (P/T) event, i.e., "The Great Dying", 250 million years ago (~90% of all life forms wiped out); the Paleocene/ Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 55 million years ago. They may be analogs for what might await us. Large creatures, whose body size inhibits cooling, melted away during the PETM. Horses, initially the size of dogs then, reduced to the size of cats. An unanticipated hazard for humans that may attend extreme global warming is dumbing down or needing to retreat to the Poles as did those creatures that survived the P/T event (some references: http://johnhawks.net/research/hawks-2011-brain-size-selection-holocene; Kandel, E. et al Principles of Neural Science 4th ed. New York (US): McGraw-Hill, 2000; Selective Brain Cooling in Early Hominids:phylogenetic and evolutionary implications, Reeser, H., email@example.com; How the body controls brain temperature; the temperature shielding effect of cerebral blood flow, Mingming Z. et al. J Appl Physiol. 2006 November; 101(5): 1481-1488; news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2014/03/140327-climate-change-shrinks-salamanders-global-warming-science/; Heat illness and heat stroke, www.ozemedicine.com/wiki/doku.php?id=heat illness 7/3/2010)
Full Text Available We propose to show in our paper that through his semiotic theory, Barthes developed a theory of subjectivity and society continued with the anti-utilitarian tradition of the Collège de Sociologie where George Bataille, Carl Einstein or Michel Leiris had favored the mythical and ritual dimension of collective life.
Full Text Available The article describes the results of an integral assessment of the regional social, environmental and economic systems (SEES and the quality of life (QOL in the regions of Russia’s Northwestern Federal District (NWFD. This work aims at giving an integrated assessment of SEES in the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions in comparison to the Moscow region. The authors examine the QOL in 10 NWFD regions, including the Baltic ones. The significance of the research work lies in an integrated and comprehensive assessment of the regional SEES and QOL in 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2013 in view of the effect of priorities within and between groups of assessment parameters. Another important result is the identification of ‘stability limits’, when regions retain their QOL whereas their regional environmental characteristics change. The proposed methodology is based on multi-criteria and integrated approaches, the aggregate index method, and the parameter analysis and synthesis. The assessment of SEES and QOL was performed for five classes (from ‘1 — high’ to ‘5 — poor’ based on calculating statistics for 3—6 groups of assessment criteria at two levels of convolution. The analysis of the data obtained shows an upward trend in QOL in the regions. The authors suggest assessing stability of SEES on the basis of critical values of aggregate indices, at which a given SEES maintain its characteristics and regime properties within a certain QOL class.
Gountas, Sandra; Gountas, John
Much research focuses on organizational culture and its impact on customer orientation or emotional states and their impact on job satisfaction and well-being. This study aims to combine the complex roles of nurses' emotion states and job satisfaction in a model that identifies the effects of standards for service delivery (organizational culture), supervisor and co-worker support and the development of customer orientation. A previous study examined the relationships between nurses' personal resources, job satisfaction and customer orientation. This study examines how these variables relate to organizational standards and social support. A cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire with validated, existing scales to measure standards for service delivery, supervisor and co-worker support, job satisfaction, empathic concern, emotional exhaustion and customer orientation. Nurses (159) completed the questionnaire in 2010. The data were analysed using WarpPLS, a structural equation modelling software package. The results indicate that the final model fits the data well and explains 84% of the variance in customer orientation. The findings show the importance of standard for service delivery (organizational culture), supervisor and co-worker support on customer orientation. Nurses' personal resources interact with these, particularly supervisor and co-worker support, to develop staff job satisfaction and empathy. The need for support mechanisms in stressful times is discussed. We propose that training in compassion and empathy would help leaders to model desirable attributes that contribute towards customer orientation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schneier, F R; Foose, T E; Hasin, D S; Heimberg, R G; Liu, S-M; Grant, B F; Blanco, C
To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of co-morbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD, i.e. alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data came from a large representative sample of the US population. Face-to-face interviews of 43093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001-2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV version. Lifetime prevalence of co-morbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence [odds ratio (OR) 2.8] and alcohol abuse (OR 1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of co-morbid cases, but co-morbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Co-morbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with co-morbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking. Co-morbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional co-morbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this co-morbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention.
Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul
Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Landau, Mark J.; Meier, Brian P.; Keefer, Lucas A.
Social cognition is the scientific study of the cognitive events underlying social thought and attitudes. Currently, the field's prevailing theoretical perspectives are the traditional schema view and embodied cognition theories. Despite important differences, these perspectives share the seemingly uncontroversial notion that people interpret and…
Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Vollaard, Hans
This volume examines the state of social Europe when European Union principles and policies have to be implemented in the member states while the EU legitimacy crisis and the Great Recession prevail. The volume explores diverse processes, stages and subjects of implementation in a variety of social...
Beny, Y; Kimchi, T
Female-emitted pheromonal inputs possess an intrinsic rewarding value for conspecific males, promoting approach and investigation of the potential mating partner. In mice these inputs are detected mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). We investigated the role of VNO-mediated inputs in experience-dependent plasticity of reproductive responses. We applied a sex-specific conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm on adult, wild-type (WT) male mice and on male mice impaired in VNO-mediated signal transduction (TrpC2 -/- ). We found that WT males, which underwent COA to female-soiled bedding, lost their innate preference to female odors and presented lower motivation to approach a sexually receptive female. COA also abolished the testosterone surge normally seen following exposure to female odors. Moreover, the conditioned males displayed impairments in copulatory behaviors, which lasted for several weeks. Surprisingly, these males also exhibited phobic behaviors towards receptive females, including freezing and fleeing responses. In contrast, WT males which underwent COA specifically to male pheromones showed no change in olfactory preference and only a marginally significant elevation in intermale aggression. Finally, we show that TrpC2 -/- males were able to acquire aversion to female-soiled bedding and presented similar behavioral alterations following COA in their responses to female cues. Our results demonstrate that the intrinsic rewarding value of female pheromones can be overridden through associative olfactory learning, which occurs independently of VNO inputs, probably through MOE signaling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
This dissertation focuses on wind energy for electricity generation, analysing the evolution of the wind power supply market in the Netherlands. We analysed different kind of wind power entrepreneurs (energy distributors, small private investors, wind cooperatives and new independent wind power producers), their capacity to implement wind energy and the social and institutional conditions that affected their investments over the period 1989-2004. Central in the analyses are the institutional regulatory dimension and the social context as explanatory variables for the emergence and performance of these wind power entrepreneurs. Special attention is given to the liberalisation of the electricity market. The primary social actors for the implementation of wind energy projects in a liberalised market are entrepreneurs willing to invest. Understanding conditions that trigger entrepreneurs to invest in these projects, and understanding conditions that determine the chance of success for entrepreneurs to implement and exploit their projects, is vital for setting up effective policies to stimulate wind electricity generation. The analytical perspective that we used to study investment behaviour of wind power entrepreneurs and their capacity to implement wind energy can be referred to as the 'new institutional perspective'. Based on this new institutional perspective the concept of implementation capacity has been developed. Implementation capacity indicates the feasibility for wind power entrepreneurs to adopt wind turbines, and enables to explain, comparatively, changing possibilities in time for different types of entrepreneurs. The development of the wind power supply market is divided into three successive market periods: Monopoly powers (1989-1995), Interbellum (1996-1997) and Free market (1998-2002). We conducted case studies on the implementation capacity of the four entrepreneurial groups in each of the three market periods. The case studies led to conclusions
Eugene E. Syroechkovski
Full Text Available At present (in 1999 there are approximately 1.5 million semi-domesticated and 1.3 million wild reindeer in Russia. The co-existence of these two forms remains a major problem. Reindeer herding has declined while the number of wild reindeer has increased during the last 10 years. The main causes of these changes are social and economic. The 1960s and 1970s were characterised by a deliberate attempt to eradicate the nomadic way of life of reindeer herders. It was relatively easy to introduce public (kolkhoz or sovkhoz reindeer herding in the Nenets, Chukchi and Komi-Izhem areas where large-scale reindeer herding was typical and, as a result, there were almost 1 million reindeer in collectives in the extreme north-eastern part of the USSR. At the same time reindeer herding deteriorated among the Khanty, Mansi, Evenk, Even, Selkup peoples. Perestroika in the 1990s resulted in the formation of a market economy. Collective reindeer herding declined and the number of semi-domesticated reindeer decreased during a period of gradual return to private ownership of reindeer. The largest region of reindeer herding is now the Nenets tegion in the north-west of Russia. Successful sympatric existence of wild and semi-domesticated reindeer is not possible. The Taimyr wild reindeer population numbers about 500-600 000 reindeer. From 1971 to 1981 not less than 700 000 reindeer in this population were shot. Ecological and economic control over them has now been lost. There are approximately 200 000 animals in Yakutia. The number of wild reindeer here has grown following the decline of reindeer husbandry. Yakut and Even reindeer herders believe that the decline has been due to wild reindeer drawing semi-domesticated teindeer away. At present 13 aboriginal peoples in northern Russia engage in reindeer herding. Five former reindeer herding peoples have given up herding but thete are signs of improvement in the situation among those peoples which have retained reindeer
Rosa Maria Ferreiro Pinto
Full Text Available O estudo efetuou uma aproximação com a história de mulheres residentes na região central de Santos para compreender sua condição de vida, estratégias de sobrevivência e representações sobre o papel feminino e a construção de sua identidade como mulher. Utilizou-se da história oral para captar os elementos mais significativos da trajetória vivida por nove mulheres por meio de entrevistas realizadas no domicílio. A história delas mostrou processos de rupturas e continuidades, a fragilidade da população sob o efeito dos processos de vulnerabilidade e exclusão, revelando a condição feminina de mulheres em situação de vulnerabilidade social.The study approached the history of women who live in the central region of Santos to understand their life condition, their strategies to survive and their representations of the female role and of the construction of their identity as women. Nine women were interviewed in the places where they lived to get the most significant elements of their trajectory through their oral histories. Such histories showed processes of ruptures and continuities, as well as the fragility of the population under the effect of vulnerability and exclusion processes, and they disclosed the female condition of women in situation of social vulnerability.
Christopher, Michael J; Rantzau, Christian; McConell, Glenn; Kemp, Bruce E; Alford, Frank P
The separate impacts of the chronic diabetic state and the prevailing hyperglycemia on plasma substrates and hormones, in vivo glucose turnover, and ex vivo skeletal muscle (SkM) during exercise were examined in the same six dogs before alloxan-induced diabetes (prealloxan) and after 4-5 wk of poorly controlled hyperglycemic diabetes (HGD) in the absence and presence of approximately 300-min phlorizin-induced (glycosuria mediated) normoglycemia (NGD). For each treatment state, the approximately 15-h-fasted dog underwent a primed continuous 150-min infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose, followed by a 30-min treadmill exercise test (approximately 65% maximal oxygen capacity), with SkM biopsies taken from the thigh (vastus lateralis) before and after exercise. In the HGD and NGD states, preexercise hepatic glucose production rose by 130 and 160%, and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCRg) fell by 70 and 37%, respectively, compared with the corresponding prealloxan state, but the rates of glucose uptake into peripheral tissues (Rd(tissue)) and total glycolysis (GF) were unchanged, despite an increased availability of plasma free fatty acid in the NGD state. Exercise-induced increments in hepatic glucose production, Rd(tissue), and plasma-derived GF were severely blunted by approximately 30-50% in the NGD state, but increments in MCRg remained markedly reduced by approximately 70-75% in both diabetic states. SkM intracellular glucose concentrations were significantly elevated only in the HGD state. Although Rd(tissue) during exercise in the diabetic states correlated positively with preexercise plasma glucose and insulin and GF and negatively with preexercise plasma free fatty acid, stepwise regression analysis revealed that an individual's preexercise glucose and GF accounted for 88% of Rd(tissue) during exercise. In conclusion, the prevailing hyperglycemia in poorly controlled diabetes is critical in maintaining a sufficient supply of plasma glucose for SkM glucose
Kaneko, Korehisa; Matsushima, Hajime
Chiba Prefecture, Japan, lies very near Tokyo, the capital city of Japan. It borders the sea on three sides and is banded by coastal dunes. Several sake breweries are located near these dunes. Although there are records of sake brewing along the coast of Tokyo Bay since 1925, sake breweries have completely disappeared in several areas. We believe that sake brewing in these areas benefited from the ecosystem services afforded them by their proximity to the coastal ecosystem. We investigated potential environmental factors (e.g., landscape, soil, and groundwater), as well as conditions that could have driven sake brewers away from the coastal area. Many of the sake breweries that no longer exist were located on coastal dunes (i.e., sand, sandbanks, and natural levees) and obtained their water from a freshwater layer located 3-10 m below the surface. We speculate that these sake breweries benefited from using natural ingredients found in the coastal zone. We also investigated the following factors that may have negatively impacted the breweries, driving them out of business: (1) bankruptcies and reconstruction difficulties that followed the destructive 1923 Great Kanto earthquake, (2) industrial wartime adjustments during World War II (1939-1945), (3) development of coastal industries during the period from 1960 to 1975, and (4) increasing choices for other alcoholic drinks (e.g., beer, wine, and whiskey) from the 1960s to the present.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Full Text Available The relevance of the problem under study is due to the society's requirements for the quality information training of a personality which is oriented to forming the solid fundamental knowledge as well as to developing the cognitive capacities that are needed for solving mental tasks. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the opportunities of applying the natural tools in information training of students from the standpoints of embodied and mental approaches. The main idea of these is integrated studying of an object, beginning with learning it in an "embodied" way and finishing with abstract models formed in the human memory. The leading approach to the research is the integrated one taking into account the psychological and pedagogical, didactic and methodological constituents. It allows identifying the psychological and pedagogical conditions of application of natural tools as well as the possible ways of their use. The authors describe models of natural tools of computer science training in individual sections of the school course as the main results. The materials of the paper are of practical value in methods of teaching computer science to students at various stages of education.
Schue, Mathieu; Fekete, Agnes; Ortet, Philippe; Brutesco, Catherine; Heulin, Thierry; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Achouak, Wafa; Santaella, Catherine
Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd2+) affect microbial metabolic processes. Consequently, bacteria adapt by adjusting their cellular machinery. We have investigated the dose-dependent growth effects of Cd2+ on Rhizobium alamii, an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacterium that forms a biofilm on plant roots. Adsorption isotherms show that the EPS of R. alamii binds cadmium in competition with calcium. A metabonomics approach based on ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry has showed that cadmium alters mainly the bacterial metabolism in pathways implying sugars, purine, phosphate, calcium signalling and cell respiration. We determined the influence of EPS on the bacterium response to cadmium, using a mutant of R. alamii impaired in EPS production (MSΔGT). Cadmium dose-dependent effects on the bacterial growth were not significantly different between the R. alamii wild type (wt) and MSΔGT strains. Although cadmium did not modify the quantity of EPS isolated from R. alamii, it triggered the formation of biofilm vs planktonic cells, both by R. alamii wt and by MSΔGT. Thus, it appears that cadmium toxicity could be managed by switching to a biofilm way of life, rather than producing EPS. We conclude that modulations of the bacterial metabolism and switching to biofilms prevails in the adaptation of R. alamii to cadmium. These results are original with regard to the conventional role attributed to EPS in a biofilm matrix, and the bacterial response to cadmium. PMID:22096497
Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of purposefulness of fitness yoga application for strengthening of special health groups’ girl students’ psycho-physical condition and psycho-social health at physical culture training and recreation classes. Material: trainings were practiced twice a week in 2 groups with 20 girl students in every group. Each training session lasted 60 minutes. The following indicators were registered: pressing ups in lying position; torso bending during 30 sec. from lying on back position; rising legs up to 90 degrees angle in hanging position; long jump from the spot; forward torso bending; test for coordination. Health condition was determined by express assessment of physical health. Results: in both groups girl students’ backbone mobility increased (р-0-05. First group’s girl students demonstrated higher results in pressing ups in lying position during 30 sec. (by 7.34+1.2 times and in long jump from the spot (14.2+0.4 cm. It was noticed that fitness yoga exercises render positive influence on girl students’ psycho-emotional state, general physical self-feeling and physical condition. Conclusions: targeted fitness yoga exercises’ influences on girl-students’ organism are recommended for support and correction of their health.
Wolf, van der J.M.; Haan, de E.G.; Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Haas, de B.H.; Velvis, H.; Mendes, O.; Kooman-Gersmann, M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.
In western Europe, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is emerging as a causal agent of blackleg disease. In field experiments in the Netherlands, the virulence of this pathogen was compared with strains of other Dickeya and Pectobacterium species. In 2013 and 2014, seed potato tubers were
Janine Maria Prast
Full Text Available We investigated if counterconditioning with dyadic (i.e., one-to-one social interaction, a strong inhibitor of the subsequent reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP, differentially modulates the activity of the diverse brain regions oriented along a mediolateral corridor reaching from the interhemispheric sulcus to the anterior commissure, i.e., the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, the medial septal nucleus, the major island of Calleja, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, and the medial accumbens shell and core. We also investigated the involvement of the lateral accumbens core and the dorsal caudate putamen. The anterior cingulate 1 (Cg1 region served as a negative control. Contrary to our expectations, we found that all regions of the accumbens corridor showed increased expression of the early growth response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268 in rats 2 h after reacquisition of CPP for cocaine after a history of cocaine CPP acquisition and extinction. Previous counterconditioning with dyadic social interaction inhibited both the reacquisition of cocaine CPP and the activation of the whole accumbens corridor. EGR1 activation was predominantly found in dynorphin-labeled cells, i.e., presumably D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs, with D2-MSNs (immunolabeled with an anti-DRD2 antibody being less affected. Cholinergic interneurons or GABAergic interneurons positive for parvalbumin, neuropeptide Y or calretinin were not involved in these CPP-related EGR1 changes. Glial cells did not show any EGR1 expression either. The present findings could be of relevance for the therapy of impaired social interaction in substance use disorders, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum disorders.
de Bont, P A J M; van den Berg, D P G; van der Vleugel, B M; de Roos, C; de Jongh, A; van der Gaag, M; van Minnen, A M
In patients with psychotic disorders, the effects of psychological post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment on symptoms of psychosis, depression and social functioning are largely unknown In a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) 155 outpatients in treatment for psychosis (61.3% schizophrenic disorder, 29% schizoaffective disorder) were randomized to eight sessions prolonged exposure (PE; n = 53) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) (n = 55), or a waiting-list condition (WL, n = 47) for treatment of their co-morbid PTSD. Measures were performed on (1) psychosis: severity of delusions (PSYRATS-DRS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), auditory verbal hallucinations (PSYRATS-AHRS), and remission from psychotic disorder (SCI-SR-PANSS); (2) depression (BDI-II); (3) social functioning (PSP). Outcomes were compared at baseline, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up and over all data points. Both PE and EMDR were significantly associated with less severe paranoid thoughts post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up, and with more patients remitting from schizophrenia, at post-treatment (PE and EMDR) and over time (PE). Moreover, PE was significantly associated with a greater reduction of depression at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Auditory verbal hallucinations and social functioning remained unchanged. In patients with chronic psychotic disorders PE and EMDR not only reduced PTSD symptoms, but also paranoid thoughts. Importantly, in PE and EMDR more patients accomplished the status of their psychotic disorder in remission. Clinically, these effects are highly relevant and provide empirical support to the notion that delivering PTSD treatment to patients with psychotic disorders and PTSD deserves increasing recognition and acceptance among clinicians.
Juan Manuel Cerdá
Full Text Available The Sociedad Vitícola Uruguaya (SVU was founded in March 1887. This was part of the project of modernization and diversification of the Uruguayan agriculture driven by the Asociación Rural del Uruguay (ARU, a corporation similar to the Sociedad Rural Argentina. This paper analyzes the origins of the SVU, only entity of its kind in South America, under the Uruguayan agricultural development in the late nineteenth century. The labor conditions, the labor division and the organizational structure in the origins of the SVU are also studied. The hypothesis that guides this work is that the project not only aimed to the development of the wine industry, but also to serve as a sociocultural model in order to motorize capitalist social relations in agriculture and settle the "gaucho" in the rural setting.
Versen, Christopher R.
The simplest and most widely held definition of Social Darwinism is the application of concepts of biological evolution to social and moral development. More specifically, it is social evolution through "survival of the fittest" in a "struggle for existence" in which the strong prevail and the weak are defeated and disappear.…
Pinheiro, Barbara S.; Seidl, Simon S.; Habazettl, Eva; Gruber, Bernadette E.; Bregolin, Tanja
Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric diseases, including dependence syndromes (substance use disorders). Helping the addict reorient her/his behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would be of considerable therapeutic benefit. To study the neural basis of such a reorientation, we have developed several animal models in which the attractiveness of a dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction (DSI) can be compared directly with that of cocaine as a prototypical drug of abuse. Our models are based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In an ongoing effort to validate our experimental paradigms in C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this genus, we found the following: (a) DSI with a live mouse produced CPP, whereas an interaction with an inanimate mouse-like object (i.e. a ‘toy mouse’; toy mouse interaction) led to conditioned place aversion – but only in the Jackson substrain (C57BL/6J). (b) In the NIH substrain (C57BL/6N), both DSI and toy mouse interaction produced individual aversion in more than 50% of the tested mice. (c) Four 15 min DSI episodes did not result in the development of an observable hierarchy, that is, dominance/subordination behavior in the overwhelming majority (i.e. 30 of 32) of the tested Jackson mouse pairs. Therefore, dominance/subordination does not seem to be a confounding variable in our paradigm, at least not in C57BL/6J mice. Respective data for NIH mice were too limited to allow any conclusion. The present findings indicate that (a) DSI with a live mouse produces CPP to a greater degree than an interaction with an inanimate object resembling a mouse and that (b) certain substrain differences with respect to CPP/aversion to DSI do exist between the Jax and NIH substrain of C57BL/6 mice. These differences have to be considered when choosing a proper mouse substrain model for investigating the neural basis of DSI reward
Dan Dan Sun
curtail the spread of those MRSA and MSSA clones prevailing both in hospital and the community.
Full Text Available Background: Malocclusion is problem since antiquity. But people’s perception about the problem varies with their geographical location and cultural background. The problem seems to be more acute in developing countries like Bangladesh. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness about aesthetic problem of malocclusion and treatment seeking behavior among the patients attending in orthodontic department of BSMMU. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Orthodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, BSMMU, over a period 24 months from January 2008 to December 2009. A total of 110 participants who were suffering from malocclusion and came for dental treatment were the study population. Results: The mean age of the patients was 21 years and the youngest and the oldest patients were 8 and 32 years old respectively with female to male ratio being roughly 3:2. Graduate or postgraduate level educated patients were predominant (53.6%. Over 70% of the respondents viewed malocclusion as an aesthetic problem, 50% as functional problem, 55.5% social problem and 69.1% oral problem. Two-third (67% told that malocclusion was a treatable condition. Approximately 43% of the patients identified trauma as a cause of malocclusion, 40% gingivitis or periodontitis and 35.5% dental caries. About one-third (32.7% of the respondents was of the opinion that certain habits should be avoided to prevent malocclusion, 15.5% told timely treatment of malocclusion, 30% told prevention of early loss of teeth due to caries, 12.7% were in favour of the use of a space maintainer in places of premature loss of a deciduous tooth. Over 90% of the respondents held the view that symptoms of malocclusion, its prevention and different treatment options should get the priority in educating the society about malocclusion. However, 80% of the respondents told that causative factors should discussed. Regarding ways of behaviour change
Blanca Estela Pelcastre-Villafuerte
Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo fue analizar el apoyo social y las condiciones de vida de adultos mayores en zonas urbanas empobrecidas. Estudio cualitativo con 8 grupos focales, realizado en Guerrero, Jalisco, Morelos y Sinaloa, México, durante 2005-2006. Participaron 40 varones y 63 mujeres. El principal apoyo para la vida cotidiana y la condición de salud de los adultos mayores proviene de los familiares cercanos, en algunos casos de vecinos. Los apoyos de los adultos mayores son básicamente materiales y económicos, así como cierto tipo de acompañamiento y traslado a consultas médicas. El apoyo emocional es mínimo o inexistente, igual la compañía cotidiana y la integración en la vida familiar. Se identificó una ausencia significativa de apoyo por parte del gobierno o de organizaciones religiosas o civiles. La familia continúa siendo la fuente fundamental de apoyo. Es necesario incrementar las acciones gubernamentales para la población adulta mayor y transformar la idea de que las necesidades de esta población es una responsabilidad individual más que colectiva.The aim of this paper was to analyze social support and living conditions among poor elderly people in Mexican cities. A qualitative study with eight focus groups was carried out in Guadalajara, Cuernavaca, Chilpancingo, and Culiacan, Mexico, in 2005. Forty men and 63 women participated in the study. The main support for the elderly in daily living came from their immediate family and in some cases from neighbors. Social support was basically material and economic, in addition to providing company and transportation for medical appointments. Daily emotional support, companionship, and social inclusion were minimal or absent. The study identified a significant lack of support from government and religious or civil society organizations. The family is still the main source of support for the elderly. Increased government collaboration is dramatically needed to combat the
Pintassilgo, Sónia; Carvalho, Helena
The aim of this paper is to analyse the evolution of birth conditions in Portugal and to establish a correspondence between maternity care and the socio-economic characteristics of new mothers. A multivariate quantitative analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Cluster Analysis) was used, based on official quantitative data from different surveys. There is a consistent trend to a technocratic model of birth in the Portuguese context, where socio-economic characteristics appear to influence fertility rates and birth conditions. The evolution of birth conditions in Portugal reveal the institutionalisation of birth, with a strong presence of doctors, a higher frequency of births on certain weekdays, an increase in the proportion of births in private hospitals and an increase in the frequency of caesarean sections. There is an association between higher social status and more medicalised forms of assistance in childbirth. Women with higher levels of education, aged between 30 and 39years and who were married tended to be distinguished from the population of Portuguese women as a whole by three factors: birth in a hospital, the standardisation of pregnancy duration and the presence of a doctor at the birth. Women's educational and professional status also appears to influence their adoption of alternative models of birth, however, such as home birth. Limiting the study of childbirth to its medical aspects leaves important dimensions out of the analysis: women's perception of birth-related risks associated with the medicalised offer of maternity care, and the implications of this childbirth paradigm for health outcomes and for future care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martha Quesada Concepción
Full Text Available Because of blood transfusions are one of the ways of transmitting the immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV; it constitutes warriness from the epidemiological point of view. A descriptive research was done with the objective of determining the prevailing of sensitive blood driving AIDS/HIV in the Provincial Blood Bank from Sancti Spíritus from January 1 st , 2007 to December 31 st, 2008. The sample was conformed by 312 donants with positive diagnosis to AIDS/HIV. Some variables were used such as prevailing, age, sex, race, home town. The scores of higher prevailing to AIDS/HIV were shown by the male sex (4,42, the 26-33 year old group (1,55; it prevailing volunteer blood driving (81,0 % , and Sancti Spíritus municipality gave more cases (27,5% .Just because sensibility to tests based on antibody, that is why it is important the constant checking of all processes that guarantee blood driving to be sired.
Full Text Available The article analyses the development of the relationship between social work and social pedagogy at the end of the 20th century in the Czech Republic and compares this relationship to the one in neighbouring countries (Germany, England, France, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Poland, Slovakia, Russia, Lithuania. The article further deals with various concepts of this relationship (including identification, differentiation, and convergent principle. It also compares the paradigms of social pedagogy and social work (autonomy, similarities and differences mainly in epistemological terms. Series of paradigms appear in both social work and social pedagogy during their development. A prevailing tendency towards the multi-paradigmatism can be seen. Furthermore, the article discusses the differences in professional aspirations within both fields and the number of job opportunities for the fields graduates. A conclusion of the article is dedicated to the professional career within social pedagogy and social work regarding the real life situation in both fields.
Cano G, M.A.; Castillo M, L.; Orea T, A.
The Coronary Arterial Illness (EAC) is the first cause of death of those Mexicans. Among their numerous risk factors it highlights the age with more bias starting from the 45 years. The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevailing of ischemic cardiopathy (Cl) and heart attack to the myocardium (IAM) in fellows smaller than 40 years and to identify risk factors. The study of myocardial perfusion (EPM) it is a non invasive study and of great sensibility and specificity that it allows to detect obstructive coronary lesions. The used method was retrospective-traverse Study in 125 patients smaller than 40 years. Files of patients to who EPM had been practiced with Technetium 99m-SESTAMlBI, protocol of one day, were revised, where its were analyzed the short and long axis (vertical and horizontal). General data, somatometry, emotional profile analysis, lipids and glucose profiles were gathered. Results. The population conformed it 53% women and 47% men with average of 31.9 year-old age of corporal mass index (IMC) 25.1 kg/cm 2 . 46% of abnormal studies was obtained, of which 35% was compatible with ischemic cardiopathy (Cl) and 11% with heart attack to the myocardium (IAM). The characteristics of these were: age 31.6±6 Vs 32.6±5.9 years; IMC 25.4±7.0 Vs 24.4±3.34 kg/cm 2 ; stature 161.6±9.8 Vs 165.5±9.7cm; TAS 139.1±29.2 Vs. 115±13.4 mm Hg, TAD 84.5±17.4 Vs. 75±9.4 mm Hg; civil state married 65.5% (p=0.005) Vs single 57%; bigger depression 32% Vs anxiety 28%, in the group of patients with Cl and IAM, respectively. In the IAM population it was found an additional IRC 21% (p=0.030), HAS 21% (p=0.025) and drug addiction 21% (p=0.002). The rest of the results didn't show significant differences. Conclusion: Only 6.5% of the patients that went to EPM- 99m Tc-SESTAMIBl in a 6 year-old lapse, were smaller than 40 years. 71% of them was referred by prechordal pain in who almost the half it was evidenced Cl or IAM. In this investigation besides the
Jiang, Fan; Wu, Hao; Yue, Haizhen; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Yibao
increased monitor units were associated with the model-generated objectives but independent from the optimizers, indicating higher modulation in these plans. As a summary, PO prevails over PRO algorithm for VMAT planning with or without knowledge-based technique. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova
Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is
... temporary, nonagricultural workers from abroad may petition for such workers under the H-2B nonimmigrant... employment will adversely affect the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers (i.e... market test on Guam is a determination whether the wages and working conditions offered to U.S. workers...
Violência e desigualdade social: mortalidade por homicídios e condições de vida em Salvador, Brasil Violence and social inequalities: mortality rates due to homicides and life conditions in Salvador, Brazil
Adriana C Macedo
used to define a four-category variable related to living conditions. Mortality rates due to homicide and the relative risk regarding the lowest living condition area were calculated for each social stratum. The 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Confidence Interval Analysis software. RESULTS: The highest mortality rates due to homicide were seen in the poorest areas. The relative risk due to homicide for the lowest and the highest living condition areas was statistically significant at 5% level and ranged from 2.9 to 5.1. CONCLUSIONS: The data show a strong association between social inequalities and homicide in this urban area, emphasizing the importance of crime reduction programs.
La política social y la recomposición material del consenso: la centralidad de los programas de Transferencia de Renta Condicionada: el caso argentino Social policy and the material reform of the agreement: the central character of the programs of Conditioned Income Transfer: the Argentinian case
Silvia Fernández Soto
Full Text Available En el marco de una estrategia global de recomposición material del consenso, analizamos el programa de Transferencia de Renta Condicionada, Asignación Universal por hijo para protección social (AUH en Argentina. Desde una perspectiva amplia y compleja de análisis de la política social, identificamos problemas en relación a la orientación y sentido ético político que persigue, en un contexto de disputa de las perspectivas de protección social. Analizamos algunas tensiones centrales: la relación de las condiciones y formas de organización del trabajo y las desigualdades contemporáneas con las formas de protección social; el papel de las condicionalidades y las tensiones con perspectivas universalistas.In the context of an overall strategy of material reform of the agreement, we have analyzed the program of Conditioned Income Transfer, Universal Allocation per Child for social protection (AUH - Asignación Universal per hijo in Argentina. From a broad and complex analysis of the social policy, we have identified problems related to the orientation and political ethical sense in a disputing context of the perspectives of social protection. We have analyzed some central tensions: the relationship between the conditions and forms of work organization and inequalities and the contemporary forms of social protection; the role of conditions and tensions and the universal perspective.
Diego Ricardo Xavier Silva
development index (HDI in 2000. Local empirical Bayes smoothing was applied to HNCDR. Analyses were carried out to determined correlations and differences between means (analysis of variance for a significance level of 5%. The Kernel technique was used to investigate the geographic distribution of events of interest for all the study indicators. RESULTS: A positive correlation was observed between HNCDR and total deforested area (r = 0.50; P < 0.000 and percent of households with rudimentary septic tanks (r = 0.49; P < 0.000. HDI was inversely correlated with HNCDR: the higher the HDI, the lower the HNCDR (r = -0.36; P < 0.000. Considering the entire region, proportion of households with water from wells was not associated with NCDR. CONCLUSIONS: The Hansen's disease new case detection rate, which reflects the magnitude of disease, is associated with social conditions and land settlement practices in the Brazilian Amazon.
Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Schneier, Franklin R; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos
Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are highly comorbid with social anxiety disorder (SAD), and SAD may be a risk factor for cannabis dependence. This study explored these relationships in several ways. First, we examined whether SAD was more likely to be related to cannabis dependence than abuse. Second, we examined the temporal relations between CUD and SAD. Third, we examined whether SAD was related to faster transition from age of first cannabis use to CUD onset relative to other anxiety disorders. Fourth, we tested whether having both disorders was associated with greater impairment and psychiatric comorbidity. The sample consisted of adults from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 2957 of whom had CUD and no SAD, 1643 had SAD and no CUD, and 340 had CUD-SAD. SAD was more likely to be related to cannabis dependence than abuse. This relation remained after controlling for race, sex, and some other psychiatric disorders (including some anxiety disorders). Age-of-onset data suggest SAD onset prior to CUD onset for most CUD-SAD respondents. CUD-SAD was related to greater impairment and psychiatric comorbidity than either disorder alone. Although SAD is related to CUD, it has a stronger association with cannabis dependence than abuse. This link is not better accounted for by other psychopathology measured in this study. SAD onset prior to CUD for the majority of CUD-SAD respondents. Importantly, the co-occurrence of these two disorders appears to result in greater impairment and distress than either disorder alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silvia Maria Cintra da Silva
Full Text Available Este trabalho focaliza algumas das condições sociais da produção da atividade gráfica. Os dados foram coletados através de vídeo-gravações e de desenhos de crianças pré-escolares, em situações de produção gráfica, em sala de aula, durante um ano letivo. Baseada na abordagem histórico-cultural, a análise buscou verificar as relações entre a fala e o desenho, assim como as ações das crianças com e sobre as possibilidades funcionais dos materiais empregados na atividade gráfica e as mediações entre pares e professora. De acordo com os resultados, o impacto dos eventos interativos, em especial os processos de linguagem na atividade de desenho, indicam a necessidade de revisão da ênfase maturacionista nas atuais discussões teóricas sobre o tema.This essay focuses on some of the social conditions of the production of graphic activity. The data was collected through video recordings and of drawings made by pre-school children involved in classroom graphic activities during the school year. Based on a historic-cultural approach, this analysis strives to verify the relation between speech and drawing productions as well as the childrens' interaction with eachother and with the teacher. According to the results, the impact of interactive events, especially the process of language within the graphic activities, indicates a necessity of revision of the maturacionist emphasis of the theoretical discussions about the theme.
Rose Marie Santini; Juan C. Calvi
This article analyzes the social logics underlying audiovisualconsumption on digital networks. We retrieved some data on the Internet globaltraffic of audiovisual files since 2008 to identify formats, modes of distributionand consumption of audiovisual contents that tend to prevail on the Web. Thisresearch shows the types of social practices which are dominant among usersand its relation to what we designate as “Internet culture”.
Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G
Consumer attitudes play an important role in the acceptance of new technologies. The success of food innovations depends on understanding how consumers form and change attitudes toward food technologies. Earlier post hoc explanations suggest that evaluative conditioning can change consumer...... attitudes toward food technologies. The present study tests how evaluative conditioning can affect consumer acceptance of new food technologies. Furthermore, authors investigate whether evaluative conditioning is resistant to extinction after a two-month period and whether the evaluative conditioning effect...... prevails in a product-related context. Within an evaluative conditioning paradigm including between-subjects control groups in addition to standard within-subjects control conditions, participants were presented with three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic technology) paired...
Habib, Elana L; Zimmerman, Marc A; Ostaszewski, Krzysztof
Extracurricular involvement creates an outlet for adolescents to gain skills and resources that assist them in overcoming certain risks. Resiliency theory is applied to study the promotive effects of extracurricular activity involvement as this may help Polish youth overcome risks for alcohol use. Our data include 2903, 13 and 14 year old Polish adolescents. We use regression analysis to test the main and interaction effects of extracurricular involvement after adjusting for demographics and social influences. Sex differences are examined within the resilience framework. We found protective effects of extracurricular involvement for males, but only a compensatory effect for females. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agrawal, Anirudh; Sahasranamam, Sreevas
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how corporations create social and economic value through corporate social entrepreneurial activities. Design/methodology/approach – This paper employs a multiple case study approach. The selected cases cover companies that have a clear corporate...... social enterprise model in operation and address different prevailing social problems. Findings – This study reveals that corporate social entrepreneurship (CSE) is driven by the environmental dynamics, organizational antecedents, and organizational outcomes. In addition, the authors found that CSE...... institutional and socio-economical context. Practical implications – The developed model is useful for companies operating in complex environments in developing markets as it provides recommendations on how to strengthen social and public legitimacy and earn returns on their business investments. Moreover...
Kauranen, Hannele; Ala-Honkola, Outi; Kankare, Maaria; Hoikkala, Anneli
Photoperiodic regulation of the circadian rhythms in insect locomotor activity has been studied in several species, but seasonal entrainment of these rhythms is still poorly understood. We have traced the entrainment of activity rhythm of northern Drosophila montana flies in a climate chamber mimicking the photoperiods and day and night temperatures that the flies encounter in northern Finland during the summer. The experiment was started by transferring freshly emerged females into the chamber in early and late summer conditions to obtain both non-diapausing and diapausing females for the studies. The locomotor activity of the females and daily changes in the expression levels of two core circadian clock genes, timeless and period, in their heads were measured at different times of summer. The study revealed several features in fly rhythmicity that are likely to help the flies to cope with high variation in the day length and temperature typical to northern summers. First, both the non-diapausing and the diapausing females showed evening activity, which decreased towards the short day length as observed in the autumn in nature. Second, timeless and period genes showed concordant daily oscillations and seasonal shifts in their expression level in both types of females. Contrary to Drosophila melanogaster, oscillation profiles of these genes were similar to each other in all conditions, including the extremely long days in early summer and the cool temperatures in late summer, and their peak expression levels were not locked to lights-off transition in any photoperiod. Third, the diapausing females were less active than the non-diapausing ones, in spite of their younger age. Overall, the study showed that D. montana clock functions well under long day conditions, and that both the photoperiod and the daily temperature cycles are important zeitgebers for seasonal changes in the circadian rhythm of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fabio Andrés Bonilla Sanabria
Full Text Available Admitting the theory of a company being a set of multiple interests, the first part of this article intends to give an overview of the Shareholder and Stockholders models in the Corporate Social Responsibility debate. The prevailing view in western Company Law (the cases of the UK and US are considered is that of the Shareholder Wealth Maximization model. For the author of the article, events such as the financial crisis showed that the financial conditions of companies giving its‘ extended effects should give way to calls for public accountability in company management. However there seems to be a deadlock given that the prevailing model favours shareholders.In this scenario the Reporting of Non-Financial Information is studied as a way to create socially responsible businesses. In addressing the reporting of non-financial information, the article provides a state of affairs regarding reporting and considers specific examples of disclosure of corporate information. The CSR battle has been transferred to the reporting of non-financial information but in this field there are many difficulties unresolved and challenges ahead.
Dommanget, Fanny; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Cavaillé, Paul; Evette, André
Asian knotweeds (Fallopia spp.) are considered one of the world's most invasive species. Restoring habitats dominated by these exotic species requires a better understanding of the importance of abiotic factors controlling the invasive knotweeds performance. We used observational data obtained on the embankment of the Isère River (France) to study the performance of Fallopia spp. under different soil, light, and disturbance conditions. On the Isère riverbanks, light intensity assessed by light quantity transmitted through canopy was the most important factor explaining the variability observed on knotweed performance expressed as above-ground biomass per square meter. Asian knotweeds were more productive under intensive light conditions. Alternatively other factors such as mowing (twice a year), soil fertility, soil texture, position on the bank or exposure to the sun had no significant effect on knotweed biomass production. We conclude that decreasing light resources, for example, by increasing competitive pressure on sites dominated by Asian knotweeds could be included in management plans to control the populations of this invasive taxon.
Rodela, R.; Cundill, G.; Wals, A.E.J.
This analysis is focused on research that uses a social learning approach to study natural resource issues. We map out the prevailing epistemological orientation of social learning research through the de-construction of the methodological choices reported in current social learning literature.
Knight, Carolyn; Gitterman, Alex
Clinical or micro intervention predominates in social work education and practice. The prevailing assumption in social work practice and education is that one engages in either micro or macro intervention. In this article, we describe how these interventions may be merged into an integrated whole through social work practice with groups. The…
George, Cindy M.
Solution-focused therapy is proposed as an effective strength-based model for children with social phobia. Social phobia is described along with the etiology and prevailing treatment approaches. A case illustration demonstrates the application of solution-focused therapy with a child who experienced social phobia. Implications for counseling and…
Chapman, M J; Orsoni, A; Robillard, P; Hounslow, N; Sponseller, C A; Giral, P
Statin treatment may impair glucose homeostasis and increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus, although this may depend on the statin, dose and patient population. We evaluated the effects of pitavastatin 4 mg/day on glucose homeostasis in patients with metabolic syndrome in the CAPITAIN trial. Findings were validated in a subset of patients enrolled in PREVAIL-US. Participants with a well defined metabolic syndrome phenotype were recruited to CAPITAIN to reduce the influence of confounding factors. Validation and comparison datasets were selected comprising phenotypically similar subsets of individuals enrolled in PREVAIL-US and treated with pitavastatin or pravastatin, respectively. Mean change from baseline in parameters of glucose homeostasis (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], insulin, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index [QUICKI] and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and plasma lipid profile were assessed at 6 months (CAPITAIN) and 3 months (PREVAIL-US) after initiating treatment. In CAPITAIN (n = 12), no significant differences from baseline in HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were observed at day 180 in patients treated with pitavastatin. A small (4%) increase in FPG from baseline to day 180 (P validation dataset (n = 9), no significant differences from baseline in glycemic parameters were observed at day 84 (all comparisons P > 0.05). Similar results were observed for pravastatin in the comparison dataset (n = 14). Other than a small change in FPG in the CAPITAIN study, neutral effects of pitavastatin on glucose homeostasis were observed in two cohorts of patients with metabolic syndrome, independent of its efficacy in reducing levels of atherogenic lipoproteins. The small number of patients and relatively short follow-up period represent limitations of the study. Nevertheless, these data suggest that statin-induced diabetogenesis may not represent a class effect.
Hopkinson, Branden Michael; Klitgaard, Marie Christine; Petersen, Ole William
Understanding human cancer increasingly relies on insight gained from subtype specific comparisons between malignant and non-malignant cells. The most frequent subtype in breast cancer is the luminal. By far the most frequently used model for luminal breast cancer is the iconic estrogen receptor......-positive (ERpos) MCF7 cell line. However, luminal specific comparisons have suffered from the lack of a relevant non-malignant counterpart. Our previous work has shown that transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) inhibition suffices to propagate prospectively isolated ERpos human breast luminal cells from...... reduction mammoplasties (HBEC). Here we demonstrate that transduction of these cells with hTERT/shp16 renders them immortal while remaining true to the luminal lineage including expression of functional ER (iHBECERpos). Under identical culture conditions a major difference between MCF7 and normal...
Singh, S.K.; Singh, Anoop; Rai, J.P.N.
The impact of prevailing disturbances in montane habitats of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) was studied on soil microbial population, biomass, soil respiration and enzyme activities during wet and dry seasons. The physico-chemical characteristics of soils exhibited conspicuous variation...... day− 1 and 4.8 μg g− 1 day− 1) in intact forest soil during dry season. The bacterial and fungal populations were also highest in grazed meadow soil followed by disturbed forest, residential area and lowest in intact forest soil, especially in wet season. The soil respiration and enzyme activities...
Into the Curriculum. Guidance/Social Studies: Feeling Good about Ourselves and Our Families During the Holidays [and] Health/Social Studies: Career Choices [and] Science: "Desert Day" Research [and] Science: Bird Migration [and] Social Studies: American Revolution: Living Conditions at Valley Forge [and] Social Studies: Figures of the American Revolution.
Fischer, Beth Ann; And Others
Presents six curriculum guides for guidance, social studies, health, social science, and science. Each guide has a section on library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (AEF)
Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses: yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis Westendorf f. sp. tritici and wheat stem sawfly (WSS Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae, and abiotic stresses: cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed. Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized. Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4% (yellow rust to 21.6% (cold stress for 1000-kernel weight (TKW and from 19.9 (yellow rust to 91.9% (cold stress for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.
Klak, T; Holtzclaw, M
circumstance may not be linear and evolutionary as predicted, but the pattern is not diverse enough to warrant abandoning the model. The recommendation is for a flexible model for adapting a universal model to local and global conditions.
Rudy M. Schuster; David Cole; Troy Hall; Jennifer Baker; Rebecca Oreskes
Purposes were to describe on-site social carrying capacity from the users' perspectives, provide management applications, and refi ne constructs of product shift and rationalization used by visitors as coping responses to crowding. Data were gathered using on-site exit surveys of hikers in the Great Gulf Wilderness and analyzed with descriptive statistics,...
José van Dijck; Thomas Poell
Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media log...
Andriushchenko, I V; Liubenzon, R T; Liakhov, N T
A relationship was examined between the blood pressures and the social and living conditions in 2026 female workers at a ship-repairing plant. The persons having a primary or incomplete secondary education and those periodically working at night were demonstrated to constitute an elevated blood pressure risk groups. The regression analysis indicated that the blood pressure values were significantly affected by the following variables: education, extra or overtime work, average income per household, and living conditions. The influence of social and living factors on the systolic blood pressure was 9.4% of the total number of impacts. This parameter accounted for 7.9% for diastolic blood pressure. The examination of the relationship of blood pressure to the labour pattern in the female workers demonstrated a significant increase in the mean systolic and diastolic pressures and in the incidence of systolic and diastolic arterial hypertensions in manual workers. The social and living conditions and the labour pattern can exert a substantial action on the blood pressure values in females, so they may be regarded as risk factors for arterial hypertension and borne in mind in implementing therapeutical and prophylactic measures to control arterial hypertension at the industrial enterprises.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One possible solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here......, the four Scandinavian countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland) form the top three with scores above 60 percent social trust on a ranking that covers 94 countries from all over the world....
Austin, James; Stevenson, Howard; Wei-Skillern, Jane
Entrepreneurship has been the engine propelling much of the growth of the business sector as well as a driving force behind the rapid expansion of the social sector. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key similarities and differences between these two forms of entrepreneurship and presents a framework on how to approach the social entrepreneurial proc...
Martin Èihák; Tomáš Holub
Monetary Conditions IndicatorsMartin CIHAK ? International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C.Tomas HOLUB ? Czech National Bank; Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, PragueThe article provides an overview of foreign-language (non-Czech) literature on monetary conditions indices. The authors also discuss the issues involved in the construction of a monetary conditions index for the Czech Republic. They argue that if a monetary conditions index is to have any use for practical monetary p...
Kravtsova, E.M.; Kravtsova, O.S.
The development of computerized informational-analytical system is started with the purpose to organize monitoring and to estimate radiation effect on population residing in the zone affected by MPA (1992). The data base includes a special information block containing social-economic characteristics. A specific feature of the method used to create the data base is the focus on the family connections. Currently the block meant for registration of environmental monitoring, in residential areas around Mayak plants has been developed most completely
Full Text Available the article is devoted to the problem of current importance – the recognition of the crucial role of close interaction with parents in order to achieve personal, social, cognitive development of a child. The work also describes key stages of modelling technologies for cooperation enabling parents to participate in managing children’s lives and to go deeply into the essence of educational and pedagogical trends.
Full Text Available The article considers the review of approaches for the creation of a new social paradigm in the health care system management based on the principles of humanism. The paradigms are based on responsible partnership and person-oriented approach. Major principles of the paradigm’s creation are given in details, as well as their expected impact on implementing reforms in the health care management of Ukraine.
Full Text Available Demographic interest in the explanations of the first fertility transition has receded considerably during the last decade. Despite the empirical evidence of global convergence in fertility, there is still no consensus on the factors which explain the swiftness of the change in some contexts and its deceleration in some others. From the policy perspective, it remains pivotal to locate the factors that affect the momentum of fertility transition. In this essay the fast decline to below replacement-level period Total Fertility Rate in South India will be examined as an example of fertility transition despite slow social and/or economic development. The analysis is based on a literature review of empirical studies on the determinants of regional fertility differentials in India. Some southern states, most particularly Andhra Pradesh, manifest below replacement-level fertility (TFR 1.79 despite low average age at marriage even in Indian terms, the resilience of womens universal marriage, and heavy reliance on a terminal family planning method, female sterilization. The case of Andhra Pradesh shows that below-replacement level fertility can occur despite slow social development, widespread poverty and gender asymmetries. Geographical and social diffusion effects are partly responsible of the speed of the decline, although they are difficult to measure or test in the level of fertility decision-making.
Effect of social mobility in family financial situation and housing tenure on mental health conditions among South Australian adults: results from a population health surveillance system, 2009 to 2011.
Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zumin; Goldney, Robert D; Taylor, Anne W
To assess the association of socioeconomic position (SEP), measured by family financial situation and housing tenure in childhood and adulthood, with mental health conditions in adulthood. Representative cross-sectional population data were collected using a risk factor surveillance system in South Australia, Australia. Each month, a random sample were selected from the Electronic White Pages. Participants aged 25 years and above (n = 10429) were asked about doctor diagnosed anxiety, stress or depression, suicidal ideation, psychological distress, demographic and socioeconomic factors using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Social mobility measures were derived from housing status and perceived financial situation during adulthood and at 10 years of age. The prevalence of psychological distress was 8.1 %, current diagnosed mental health condition was 14.8 % and suicidal ideation was 4.3 %. Upward mobility in family financial situation and housing tenure was experienced by 28.6 % and 19.3 %, of respondents respectively. Downward mobility was experienced by 9.4 % for housing tenure and 11.3 % for family financial situation. In the multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, childhood family structure and adult education, downward social mobility and stable low SEP (both childhood and adulthood), in terms of both housing tenure and financial situation, were positively associated with all three mental health conditions. People with low SEP in adulthood had poor mental health outcomes regardless of their socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. Policies to improve SEP have the potential to reduce mental health conditions in the population.
Rishabh Kumar Mishra
Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of prevailing pedagogic practices of social science at school level in India. It has been sketched with the help of social science teachers’ interviews. The analysis of teachers’ interview revealed that the teaching of social science is a reflection of teacher’s own biases and beliefs; dominated by deficit model of thinking and learning. Against this backdrop the paper tries to address the question do we have any alternative of ‘deficit model’ of teaching learning? If yes, what is it? How it can be designed and executed? In the present descriptive study the researcher adopts the theoretical underpinnings of Socio-cultural approach to learning and tries to design and execute constructivist pedagogic setting for teaching social science. It emerges from the analysis of these constructivists pedagogic settings that it helps to develop and sustain a culture of inquiry in the classroom where the strong interface between students’ everyday knowledge and school knowledge take place. The paper establishes the argument that for moving deficit model of teaching-learning, knowledge should be viewed as co-constructed, negotiated and situated entity, knower should have agency and the voice in process of knowing and the process learning should be dialogic.
Full Text Available Social Dominance Theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999 stress that systematic inter group discrimination is related to social ideologies that contribute to coordinate institutions and individuals behaviors. The acceptance of inequity legitimating ideologies is partially determined for individuals general desire of group based domination. This desire is captured by Social Orientation Domination construct -SDO. Pursuing the objective of exploring SDO levels and its relationship with variables such ideological positioning and values, a descriptive correlation study, with a non experimental design, was carried out based on a convenience sample composed by 254 college students from Buenos Aires city surroundings . Results show that SDO is positively associated with Power and Achievement values and negatively with Benevolence and Universalism. SDO is stronger in participants right side ideologically positioned. Participants show a low SDO, emphasize self- trascendence and openness to change values and tend to a left side ideological positioning. Age, participant’s quality of “students” and prevailed career orientation can be seen as factors conditioning a more hierarchies attenuating believes and behaviors.
Ivy Corazon B. Panelo
Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the Passion for Philippine Social Transformation in the Novel Ilustrado of Miguel Syjuco. In view of the prevailing social problems encountered in the Philippines such as social injustices, corruption, and the like, and the need for transformation or change of its societal structures, the researcher’s interest being a literature teacher is aroused or stimulated. The qualitative approach was used in this descriptive study of the novel of socio-political nature in order to project a social transformation through critical investigation on the values projected in it. Hence, the study used analytical approach, psychological approach, philosophical or moral/ethical approach, and sociological approach in analyzing its content. Results showed that social transformation in making wise preferences, having smooth family relationship, and decreasing social injustices apparently were the social transformations depicted in the novel. The author’s rejection to join politics and desiring to expose social ills were the major incidents in his life that showed his passion for social change. The structures of the society that needed to be changed were moral values of the leaders, personal interests, Filipinos culture, and the motives of the politicians to maintain their hold in power. The use of symbolism as the predominant literary device gave the readers clearer picture of the condition of the society and understanding of the author’s passion for Philippine social transformation. The moral ethical values of courage in saving other’s lives from devastation, honesty to self and to the country, devotion to Filipino writings and writers, faith in God, and forgiveness reflected in the story were made alive and real in the readers.
The fate of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus and sardine (Sardina pilchardus in relation to prevailing currents in the Bay of Biscay: Could they affect larval survival?
Full Text Available The spatial distribution of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel, horse mackerel and sardine, in the Bay of Biscay was studied in 1998, 2001 and 2004. The spatial distribution was clearly different between the years studied and corresponds quite precisely to different water circulation regimes. Mackerel and horse mackerel larvae are more affected by the prevailing currents than sardine, as their spawning grounds are located offshore, far from the shelf break where the current velocities are higher. Survival rates for mackerel and horse mackerel were higher in 2001, when the offshore larval transport was stronger. However, for sardine, the mortality rate hardly varied between years. The abundance of 25-day-old larvae, considered as an index of the survival rate, appears to be a good recruitment indicator, at least for 1998, 2001 and 2004. Our results did not support the hypothesis of Bakun (1996, which states that dispersion of early life stages towards open ocean waters should cause high larval mortality. At least under the conditions observed for the years studied, the retention of larvae offshore appears to have a positive effect on larval growth and/or survival.
Matzat, U.; Vrieling, E. M.
Research on the educational consequences of social media has led to divergent findings that are difficult to integrate and studies often examine specific courses. It remains unclear what types of social media use in classroom prevail on a broader scale and how teachers, if at all, can affect outcomes. We contribute to answering these questions by…
Merrild, Ulrik; Bak, Soeren
comprised women 50 and over, in contrast to the rest of the winter period where younger men prevailed. The investigation indicates that pedestrians have a need for prophylactic measures including (1) broadcast warnings of icy conditions both on the radio and T.V. on days of high risk, (2) more extensive...
restaurants, hotels, clubs, and other food establishments. (6). Similar epidemiologic patterns were observed in foodborne outbreaks in Poland (4). In Ethiopia, data on sanitation conditions and ensuing effects on health are very limited. Few studies conducted in Addis Ababa, Awassa, and Zeway indicate the prevailing poor ...
Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.
A survey of backcountry and wilderness campsites at Isle Royale National Park reveals that the park?s policies for managing visitor impacts have been remarkably effective in limiting the areal extent of camping-related disturbance. However, the dense spatial arrangement of designated campsites within backcountry campgrounds has also contributed to problems with visitor crowding and conflict. Only 9% of the sites had no other sites visible, while 22% had three or more other sites visible. Mean intersite distance was only 76 feet, and 34% of the sites are within 50 feet of another site. Visitor education programs and selected relocation of sites could reduce these social problems.
Loohuis, Raymond Petrus Antonius; Groen, Arend J.; von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; Hutschemaekers, B.
How, why, and under what conditions can social movements contribute to the development of social entrepreneurial process developed by embedded actors? Social entrepreneurship scholars are increasingly adopting social movement theories to explain how individual entrepreneurs develop their social
Breno de Paula Andrade Cruz
Full Text Available Purpose – Based on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR aspects, Social Boycott is presented in this paper as an amplification of the Labor Boycott concept. Design/methodology/approach – A statistical experiment with 240 individuals has been carried out, so that it could verify if consumers’ perceptions related to the Management Context of Corporate Social Responsibility (MCCSR of the fictitious Alpha company has considerable impact on the variable Boycott Efficacy (BE, and on the Boycott Intention (BI. The ANOVA has been used to show causeeffect variable relationship. Findings – MCCSR impacts on BE (H1 and BI (H2. Thus, the Social Consumer’s boycott motivation is driven by the perception of the level of CSR management orientation a company has (anti-corruption internal measures, organizational climate, labor conditions and waste management during production process. While Labor Boycott restricts its analysis to labor conditions, the concept of Social Boycott incorporates all CSR aspects. Originality/value – This study presents Social Boycott definition and its insertion on consumer boycott literature - types of boycott and boycott motivations (ideological dimension. Thus, tangential analysis such as experiential dimension and a theoretical political boycott gap are discussed.
Reader, S.M.; Lefebvre, L.
Sociality may not be a defining feature of social learning. Complex social systems have been predicted to favour the evolution of social learning, but the evidence for this relationship is weak. In birds, only one study supports the hypothesis that social learning is an adaptive
-age respondents. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS22 (logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the variables on poor SRH). Such variables as, socio-economic status, economic activity, work conditions were created by using principal component analysis.A binomial logistic regression...
Howlin, Patricia; Karpf, Janne
Increasingly, recent research has identified relatively high rates of autistic types of symptoms in a variety of genetic conditions, such as fragile X (Turk and Graham, 1997), tuberous sclerosis (Bolton and Griffiths, 1997), Angelman syndrome (Trillingsgaard and Ostergaard, this issue) and others (see Gillberg and Coleman, 2000). Detailed…
Juracy Ignez Assmann Saraiva
Full Text Available Resultados de pesquisas de diferentes órgãos que avaliam o desenvolvimento de nosso país ou que detalham a competência leitora dos brasileiros permitem afirmar que há uma correlação entre aspectos da conjuntura econômico-social e o domínio da leitura. Essacorrelação aponta para a necessidade de mudanças que visualizem a educação, alicerçada na leitura e na experiência estética, como o caminho para a humanização dos indivíduos, da qual decorre o verdadeiro desenvolvimento social. Todavia, para que esse objetivo seja alcançado, sendo redesenhada a face da realidade brasileira, é imprescindível que se proceda ao enfrentamento da crise cultural que interfere negativamente na formação de leitores e que é responsável pelo desprestígio do texto literário como espaço de aprendizagem e deconhecimento.Results of surveys from different agencies which evaluate thedevelopment of our country or which detail the reading competence of Brazilians allow us to say that there is a correlation between aspects of socioeconomic conjuncture and the mastering of reading. This correlation points to the necessity of changes which considereducation as based on reading and aesthetic experience as the way for the humanization of the persons from which springs out the true social development. However, in order to achieve this goal, having redefined the face of Brazilian reality, it is indispensable to proceed to face the cultural crisis which interferes negatively in the formation of readers and which is responsible for the disreputability of the literary text as an opportunity of learning andknowledge.
Tørning, Kristian; Jaffari, Zeshan; Vatrapu, Ravi
Social media management is an emerging field of academic research and organizational practice. It is concerned with the operational issues, managerial challenges, and comparative advantages that ensue from the adoption and use of social media platforms for organizational functions such as marketing...... and sales, customer support, product innovation etc. To investigate current social media managerial practices, we conducted a multiple case study, employing structured in-depth interviews with social media managers at some of the leading multi-national companies headquartered in Denmark (LEGO®, Mærsk......®, PANDORA®, Novo Nordisk®, and Carlsberg®). Empirical findings uncover the prevailing perceptions about social media amongst the managers, typical managerial challenges tied directly to coordinating social media productions, and uncertainty about the return of investment on social media activities....
Tørning, Kristian; Jaffari, Zeshan Ali; Vatrapu, Ravi
Social media management is an emerging field of academic research and organizational practice. It is concerned with the operational issues, managerial challenges, and comparative advantages that ensue from the adoption and use of social media platforms for organizational functions such as marketing...... and sales, customer support, product innovation etc. To investigate current social media managerial practices, we conducted a multiple case study, employing structured in-depth interviews with social media managers at some of the leading multi-national companies headquartered in Denmark (LEGO®, Mærsk......®, PANDORA®, Novo Nordisk®, and Carlsberg®). Empirical findings uncover the prevailing perceptions about social media amongst the managers, typical managerial challenges tied directly to coordinating social media productions, and uncertainty about the return of investment on social media activities....
hindered by certain socio-cultural practices, values and norms prevailing in the environment (Krueger, Liñán ... An individual's social networks and relationships may include people who play different roles such as family ... role with regard to an individual's entrepreneurial career choice, especially through exposure to ...
The study was prompted by the on - going discourse on the appropriateness of existing social welfare delivery mechanisms in the Third World which, over time, have tended to be informed by the modernization approach. The prevailing view, particularly among academics and practitioners in Africa, is essentially that the ...
Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.
We offer a social-welfare comparison of the two most prominent default options – opt in and opt out – using a two-period model of localized competition. We demonstrate that when consumers stick to the default option, the prevailing default policy shapes firms' ability to collect and use customer
McLeod, Jane D.
Evaluates the contribution of social experiences to homogamy for anxiety disorders, major depression, and alcohol or drug dependence. Five prevailing explanations for observed homogamy are evaluated: (1) primary assortive mating; (2) secondary assortive mating; (3) similarity resulting from shared experiences; (4) increasing similarity through…
This paper reveals findings from a small-scale research project which explored how university careers advisers experience their role in guiding clients within a labour market where barriers to social mobility prevail. The research discovers that advisers' daily work gives them a depth of insight into social mobility. The professional turbulence in…
Condiciones para el acceso universal a la salud en América Latina: derechos sociales, protección social y restricciones financieras y políticas Conditions for universal access to health in Latin America: social rights, social protection and financial and political constraints
Full Text Available Tras una sucinta problematización de la equidad en salud, sus determinantes sociales y sectoriales, se analizan aspectos macroeconómicos del comportamiento reciente del gasto en salud en la región. Dadas las importantes tensiones contemporáneas respecto de los derechos y la definición de prestaciones de salud, se tratan tres experiencias emblemáticas, de sistemas de salud muy diversos: Chile, Colombia y México. Ellas abarcan distintos aspectos: la garantía de las prestaciones, la reducción de formas de racionamiento implícitas y/o de barreras de entrada, o bien aspectos de calidad.After a brief review of the concept of health equity and its social and sectoral determinants, some macroeconomic aspects of health expenditure in Latin America are considered. Given the significant contemporary tensions with regard to social rights and the definition of health benefits, three emblematic experiences are analyzed in very different health systems, namely those of Chile, Colombia and Mexico. They cover different aspects, such as the guarantee of health benefits, the reduction of forms of implicit rationing and/or barriers to admission, and also aspects related to the quality of services.
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Social Phobia is a condition characterized by a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Exposure to the social or performance situation almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response. Although adolescents and adults with this disorder recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, this may not be the case in children. Most often, the social or performance situation is avoided, although it is sometimes endured with dread. In individuals younger than 18, symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months before is disorder is diagnosed. This diagnosis should not be given if the fear is reasonable given the context of the stimuli (e.g., fear of being called on in class when unprepared. The disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder is not due to a medical condition, medication, or abused substance. It is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.
Losa-Adams, E.; Gil-Lozano, C.; Bishop, J. L.; Hoser, A.; Davila, A. F.; Fairen, A. G.; Chevrier, V. F.; Gago-Duport, L.
We track the use of lithium isotopes as a proxy to understand the degree and extent of basalt weathering in aqueous mediums, providing important information about the prevailing conditions during the formation of water bodies in the past of Mars.
Barros, Thayanny Lopes do Vale; Dias, Marly de Jesus Sá; Nina, Rachel Vilela de Abreu Haickel
Congenital heart defects, cardiac malformations that occur in the embryonic period, constitute a serious health problem. They cover a proportion of 8-10 per 1000 live births and contribute to infant mortality. To identify the socioeconomic status of children undergoing cardiac surgery at the Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Maranhão, in São Luis, the existence of material elements that contribute to worsening conditions. We conducted a retrospective study with a quantitative approach, descriptive and reflective, from the interviews conducted by the Social Service Social with families of children with heart disease from January 2011 to July 2012. A total of 95 interviews, the results reveal that (75.79%) of children have elements that suggest poor socioeconomic conditions. It also shows that only 66.33% lived in brick house, while (31.73%) in mud, adobe and straw houses. With regard to income, it showed that only 4.08% received 1-2 minimum wages, while the remaining (95.9%) with benchmarks oscillating half the minimum wage (27.55%), 1/4 of the minimum wage and (24.48%) and income below 70 dollars per person, featuring extreme poverty. On the social security situation prevailing at children with no ties to 61.22%. With respect to benefits, we found that only (12.24%) of children were in the enjoyment of the Continuous Cash Benefit - CCB. Poor socioeconomic conditions listed as major obstacles in meeting the needs, resulting in the maintenance of health conditions and even allowing the aggravation of an existing pathology.
Thayanny Lopes do Vale Barros
Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart defects, cardiac malformations that occur in the embryonic period, constitute a serious health problem. They cover a proportion of 8-10 per 1000 live births and contribute to infant mortality. Objective: To identify the socioeconomic status of children undergoing cardiac surgery at the Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Maranhão, in São Luis, the existence of material elements that contribute to worsening conditions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study with a quantitative approach, descriptive and reflective, from the interviews conducted by the Social Service Social with families of children with heart disease from January 2011 to July 2012. Results: A total of 95 interviews, the results reveal that (75.79% of children have elements that suggest poor socioeconomic conditions. It also shows that only 66.33% lived in brick house, while (31.73% in mud, adobe and straw houses. With regard to income, it showed that only 4.08% received 1-2 minimum wages, while the remaining (95.9% with benchmarks oscillating half the minimum wage (27.55%, 1/4 of the minimum wage and (24.48% and income below 70 dollars per person, featuring extreme poverty. On the social security situation prevailing at children with no ties to 61.22%. With respect to benefits, we found that only (12.24% of children were in the enjoyment of the Continuous Cash Benefit - CCB. Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic conditions listed as major obstacles in meeting the needs, resulting in the maintenance of health conditions and even allowing the aggravation of an existing pathology.
Wahn, Elisabeth Hertfelt; Nissen, Eva
Among Swedish pregnant teenage girls it is unusual to continue pregnancy and to choose to have a baby. Swedish teenage mothers can therefore be expected to differ from adult mothers, at a group level. The aim of this study was to describe and compare teenage mothers who were giving birth in hospital with adult mothers as to sociodemographic background, perception of health and social support. A descriptive comparative study was conducted over one year, in a county in south-western Sweden, which comprised a group of all teenage mothers aged 15-19, who gave birth at hospital (study group n=97) and the same number of adult mothers aged 25-29, matched for parity and birth of a baby closest to the index mother (reference group). Both groups answered a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, health, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and support. Information on the mothers' pregnancy and delivery was obtained from their maternal health and delivery charts. Teenage mothers had more often been exposed to a difficult family situation, had more often experienced school failure than adult mothers, and showed health-risk behavior. Teenage mothers perceived less support, had lower self-esteem, and more depressive symptoms than adult mothers. Teenage mothers differed from adult mothers regarding family situation and health behavior as well as perception of support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms, which may negatively influence their ability to cope with parenthood. Efforts should be made early in pregnancy to meet both health and support needs of teenage mothers.
Full Text Available Introduction. The importance of socio-economic factors in differentiating the physical activities of children and teenagers keeps changing. That is why the goal of this research was to identify certain social variables amongst those listed most often which differentiate the level of targeted physical activity of urban children and youths from the Bialskie district. Material and methods. The research was conducted on 1.084 students between the ages of 10 and 18. Three age groups were chosen: 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 16 to 18. Information about the attendance of respondents in Physical Education classes and structured extra-curricular sport activities, as well as preferred forms of physical activities were collected via a diagnostic survey. The same method was used in the assessment of the socio-economic status of the families of the respondents. The relations between attendance in extra-curricular sports activities and socio-economic factors was assessed by a multifactoral logistic regression model, and the statistical relevance of the differences was calculated by the Wald test. Results. Attendance in structured extra-curricular physical activity depended mostly on income per family member. In the case of type of work performed by parents, the attendance rate in both boys and girls was higher if the parents performed intellectual work. Parents' education and number of children in the family did not have a high influence on the attendance of respondents in structured extra-curricular sport activities. Conclusions. Increasing disproportions in societal prosperity can be an important factor limiting the attendance of the poorest group of children and youths in structured physical activities. The lack of influence on physical activity of such socio-economic variables as parents' education and the number of children in the family can be connected with the change of meaning of those factors in modern society (depreciation of the importance of higher
McLeigh, Jill D; Kilmer, Ryan P
This editorial introduces this special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry . The Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice (formerly the American Orthopsychiatric Association) has developed the theme for its track at the 2016 Annual Research and Policy Conference on Child, Adolescent, and Young Adult Behavioral Health. The Global Alliance, the parent organization of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , has long sought to address prevailing social conditions by treating them as problems to be solved through multilevel, contextually grounded social interventions. Indeed, throughout the organization's history, it has advocated for focusing on the effects of social determinants of health (e.g., racism, violence, poverty, oppression, war) on behavioral health and for doing so across contexts, such as the family, community, and broader social environment. In keeping with the organization's history and the current social context, the theme for the Global Alliance's track was "Changing norms, strategies, and systems to support behavioral health and social justice." This special section includes articles that build on four of the presentations and two award addresses delivered as part of the Global Alliance's track. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Manstead, Antony S R
Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control. Working-class people score higher on measures of empathy and are more likely to help others in distress. The widely held view that working-class individuals are more prejudiced towards immigrants and ethnic minorities is shown to be a function of economic threat, in that highly educated people also express prejudice towards these groups when the latter are described as highly educated and therefore pose an economic threat. The fact that middle-class norms of independence prevail in universities and prestigious workplaces makes working-class people less likely to apply for positions in such institutions, less likely to be selected and less likely to stay if selected. In other words, social class differences in identity, cognition, feelings, and behaviour make it less likely that working-class individuals can benefit from educational and occupational opportunities to improve their material circumstances. This means that redistributive policies are needed to break the cycle of deprivation that limits opportunities and threatens social cohesion. © 2018 The Author. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane; Chomynova, Pavla; Miller, Patrick
The study examines groups of 15-16-year-old students whose attitudes toward drug use are out of line with the prevailing norms. It analyzes data from eight countries from the 2003 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In those countries, 22,900 15-16-year-old pupils answered the ESPAD questionnaire. Groups of subjects whose responses are far removed from the modal value are sought and studied. The aim is to explore "rare answers" compared to what is perceived by the majority of students. In order to explore what can lead a pupil to an atypical perception of risk, a cluster analysis, based on the risk perceptions of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, was run to isolate the groups in which pupils tend to answer differently. Six clusters were established classifying students into those who failed to respond, deny the risks, do not know about the risks, see any drug use as great risk, see regular use as great risk, and who see a moderate risk for most frequencies of use. The nonresponders, risk deniers, and those ignorant of the risks are infrequent making up, in all, only 16.9% of the total sample. Gender, country, alcohol use, cannabis use, tobacco use, and friends' consumption were used to describe both the individual risk perceptions and the clusters based on them. Both global context (country) and "micro" context (frequencies of drug use, peers lifestyle, and parental permissiveness) appear to play a major role in the risk perception of drug use.
Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Andersen, Lars L; Søndergaard, Lars; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Dideriksen, Kasper; Kruse, Anne; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Wetterslev, Jørn
To assess benefit and harms of adding an eHealth intervention to health education and individual counseling in adolescents with congenital heart disease. Randomized clinical trial. Denmark. A total of 158 adolescents aged 13-16years with no physical activity restrictions after repaired complex congenital heart disease. PReVaiL consisted of individually tailored eHealth encouragement physical activity for 52weeks. All patients received 45min of group-based health education and 15min of individual counseling involving patients' parents. The primary outcome was maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at 52weeks after randomization. The secondary outcome was physical activity. Exploratory outcomes were generic and disease-specific questionnaires. In the intervention group, 58 patients (72%) completed the final test, but of those, only 46 (57%) fulfilled the compliance criteria of using the eHealth application for at least 2 consecutive weeks. In the control group, 61 patients (79%) completed both exercise tests. Adjusted for baseline values, the difference between the intervention group and the control group in mean VO2 peak at 1year was -0.65ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (95% CI -2.66 to 1.36). Between-group differences at 1year in physical activity, generic health-related quality of life, and disease-specific quality of life were not statistically significant. Adding a tailored eHealth intervention to health education and individual counseling did not affect outcomes among adolescents with congenital heart disease. Our results do not support the use of this eHealth intervention in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease. Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT01189981. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gustafsson, Christine; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Asp, Margareta
Few research studies have focused on nurses' working conditions for caring provided at night, and these studies have mainly described nurses' work in hospital settings, not in a municipal, social-care context. In Swedish municipal care, nurses have responsibility for hundreds of older people in need of care. This working condition compromises caring encounters; instead the nurses' caring is mainly mediated through care staff (or relatives). In considering that caring based on caring encounters is fundamental to ethical nursing practice questions leads to the aim: to explore Swedish municipal night nurses' experiences of their working conditions for caring in nursing. All municipal night-duty nurses (n = 7) in a medium-sized community in Sweden participated in interviews, while six of them also wrote diaries. Thematic content analysis has been used in analysing the data. The findings revealed that the nurses experienced their working conditions for caring in nursing in the themes of Dependency in the Organisation and Other Staff, Vocational Responsibility, Deficiency in Conditions for Caring and Autonomous Caring. The findings illustrate privileged, as well as, poor working conditions for caring in nursing. The nurses' role as consultants emerge as their main function. The consultant function implies that nurses do not participate in ordinary bed-side caring, which makes it easier for them to find time for caring in situations that arise when nurses' skills, expertise and authority are called upon. Conversely the consultancy function entails short-term solution of complex caring problems, which can signify deficient caring due to prevailing working conditions. The findings also point to nurses' possible problems in fulfilling their own and vocational demands for ethics in the practice of caring in nursing related to existing working conditions.
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the engine propelling much of the growth of the business sector as well as a driving force behind the rapid expansion of the social sector. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key similarities and differences between these two forms of entrepreneurship and presents a framework on how to approach the social entrepreneurial process more systematically and effectively. We explore the implications of this analysis of social entrepreneurship for both practitioners and researchers.
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail. The remarkable advances in neurosciences, neurobiology and genetics tend to swing the emphasis towards a more biological basis. Psychosis for example is the condition often regarded as being biologically constructed and most independent of the social context. The symptoms, however, of hallucinations and delusions in psychosis have social meaning for the person experiencing them and are primarily defined socially.2 Furthermore, vulnerability is often the result of social trauma, whether in the form of recent stressors that trigger onset, or earlier circumstances that shape cognitive and emotional style. Moreover, the approved treatment and management of long term psychiatric disorders has involved interventions that are either directly social, or psychosocial. Furthermore, doubts have also been raised by the endophenotype project,3 related to the genetics of schizophrenia. Cohen4 suggested that there may be more individual genotypic patterns associated with schizophrenia than people with schizophrenia on the planet. A recent alternative interpretation (network approach) is gaining some support. It suggests that a stressor causes symptoms that activate other symptoms, in a circular, self-reinforcing way.5 This theory moves away from psychiatric disorders being traditionally conceptualised as categorical or dimensional models. While psychiatry has shifted its focus to a more biological approach, social factors still
Tian, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Yong; Song, Zhuang-Zhi; Fan, Yao-Chun; Ma, Xue-En; Wang, Wen-Rui
genotype, and the two evolutionary branchs of Coxsackie virus A16 were co-evolved and co-prevailed in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) Overview It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going ... feeling of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause ...
Ejrnæs, Morten; Gabrielsen, G.; Nørrung, Per
"Social opdrift - social arv" stiller på flere måder spørgsmål ved begrebet social arv. Bogen konkluderer blandt andet, at langt de fleste børn, der opvokser i en socialt belastet familie, bliver velfungerende voksne. Professionelle, der møder socialt belastede familier, har derfor et stort ansvar....... Naturligvis skal der tages hånd om udsatte børn, men det kræver samtidig stor opmærksomhed at sørge for, at fokuseringen på den sociale arv ikke tager overhånd, så det bliver en selvopfyldende profeti."Social opdrift - social" arv viser, hvordan forskningsresultater er blevet fremlagt på en måde, som har...... medvirket til at skabe en skæv opfattelse af, at forældrenes problemer er hovedårsag til børns sociale problemer. I selvstændige analyser vises, hvordan data, der normalt bruges som "bevis" for den sociale arvs betydning, tydeligt illustrerer, at det er en undtagelse, at børn får sociale problemer af samme...
Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C B; Pathak, Abhishek
The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness.
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to assess quantitatively social and economic factors that determine vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk, to trace the space differences of the considered factors, and to group the regions by their similarity. In order to indicate the regional differences in social and economic development, equipment condition, dangerous substances accumulation, and social trouble four the most suitable parameters were estimated, including the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP, capital consumption, volume of total toxic waste, and crime rate. Increase of the first parameter causes vulnerability reducing, the increase of the last three causes its increasing. Using multidimensional cluster analysis five types of regions were found for Russia according to similarity of the considered parameters. These types are characterized with higher value of a single (rarely two chosen parameter, which seems to be sufficient enough to affect natural risks increasing in these regions in near future. Only few regions belonging to the fifth type proved to have rather high value of GRP and relatively low values of the other parameters. The negative correlation was found between a number of natural disasters (ND and the per capita GRP in case when some parameters reached anomalously high value. The distinctions between regions by prevailing different parameters, which result in natural risk increasing, help risk management to find directions where to focus on.
This study is an attempt to assess quantitatively social and economic factors that determine vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk, to trace the space differences of the considered factors, and to group the regions by their similarity. In order to indicate the regional differences in social and economic development, equipment condition, dangerous substances accumulation, and social trouble four the most suitable parameters were estimated, including the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP), capital consumption, volume of total toxic waste, and crime rate. Increase of the first parameter causes vulnerability reducing, the increase of the last three causes its increasing. Using multidimensional cluster analysis five types of regions were found for Russia according to similarity of the considered parameters. These types are characterized with higher value of a single (rarely two) chosen parameter, which seems to be sufficient enough to affect natural risks increasing in these regions in near future. Only few regions belonging to the fifth type proved to have rather high value of GRP and relatively low values of the other parameters. The negative correlation was found between a number of natural disasters (ND) and the per capita GRP in case when some parameters reached anomalously high value. The distinctions between regions by prevailing different parameters, which result in natural risk increasing, help risk management to find directions where to focus on.
Edson Roberto Macohon
Full Text Available O International Federations of Accountants (IFAC identificou quatro estágios evolutivos da contabilidade gerencial. Este estudo objetiva investigar os estágios evolutivos da contabilidade gerencial que preponderam em um polo industrial moveleiro. Para tal realizou-se pesquisa descritiva a partir de uma survey, tendo como população as 73 indústrias associadas ao Sindicato das Indústrias da Construção e do Mobiliário de São Bento do Sul, SC, Brasil, e uma amostra não-probabilística de 15 indústrias. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que os artefatos da contabilidade gerencial com mais de 60% de indicações como projeto implantado são: simulações de rentabilidade dos produtos; custo dos produtos pelo custeio por absorção; acompanhamento da evolução dos indicadores não financeiros; índices econômico-financeiros como Return of Investment (ROI; Retorno sobre o Patrimônio Líquido (RSPL e índices de liquidez; redução do custo na fase de projeto de novo produto; planilhas de custos logísticos. Os artefatos que tiveram percentuais acima de 60% de indicações como projetos não implantados são: Custeio Baseado em Atividades (ABC; geração de relatórios por Business Inteligence (BI; Balanced Scorecard (BSC; Economic Value Added (EVA; preço de transferência e Just-in-time (JIT. The International Federations of Accountants (IFAC has identified four stages of progressive managerial accounting. This study aims at investigating the evolutionary stages of managerial accounting that prevail in a furniture industrial pole. For this, a descriptive research was carried out from a survey, having as population 73 industries associated with the Union of Industries and Construction of Furniture of São Bento do Sul, SC, Brazil, and a non-probability sample of 15 industries. The survey results have shown that the artifacts of managerial accounting that got more than 60% of indications, such as project implemented are: simulations of
Robertson, Raymond; Brown, Drusilla; Dehejia, Rajeev
A large and growing literature has identified several conditions, including exporting, that contribute to plant survival. A prevailing sentiment suggests that anti-sweatshop activity against plants in developing countries adds the risk of making survival more difficult by imposing external constraints that may interfere with optimizing behavior. Using a relatively new plant-level panel dataset from Cambodia, this paper applies survival analysis to estimate the relationship between changes in ...
Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury
Full Text Available Remittance is considered to be one of the influential sectors of the socioeconomic development of the Third World countries, particularly countries like Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, remittance contributes to the socioeconomic development, maintain foreign exchange reserves, and manage balance of payment, etc. This paper particularly explains the impacts of remittance on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. The paper is written based on secondary sources, published documents on the impacts of remittance. The paper reveals that remittance has both positive and negative impacts on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. However, the positive impacts are more influential than negative one. In Bangladesh, remittance helps people generate income, provide children advanced education, increase social status, create employment opportunities for poor, and above all empower women. People can avail material and non-material culture and can enjoy civic amenities of the modern era. Although, it creates inequality in the society and cultural lag among people, its influential aspect to the socioeconomic development of Bangladesh is more prevailing. As a result, this paper recommends for necessary initiatives from Government Organizations and Non Government Organizations to maintain both remittance and migration flow normal and congenial.
Reviewed are the relevance and limitations of work in sociolinguistics, pragmatics, and conversational analysis with respect to a central issue in the sociological study of social interaction: the taken-for-granted and inferences made therefrom. The hope is to show the arbitrariness of the line dividing microsociological studies and…
Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.
This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle
Gjerding, Allan Næs
The paper explores the concept of social capital and applies it to the Danish national system of innovation. It is argued that social capital is important to the working of the national system of innovation, and that the way in which the concept of social capital informs the study of national...... systems of innovation is in accordance with fundamental contributions in the field. Reviewing a number of approaches to social capital, the paper shows that even though different views exist there seem to be a number of common features that will facilitate research both within individual fields and cross......-disciplinary. Regarding the Danish national system of innovation, social capital plays an important role, and a number of features facilitating social capital prevail. However, a number of challenges are present and calling for political action and future research. The main argument of the paper is that social capital...
Vos, D.A.I.; Cox, N. L. J.; Kaper, L.; Spaans, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.
Aims. We study the effects of local environmental conditions affecting the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers within the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Sco OB2 association. The aim is to reveal how the still unidentified DIB carriers respond to different physical conditions prevailing in
This paper surveys research on social capital. We explore the concepts that motivate the social capital literature, efforts to formally model social capital using economic theory, the econometrics of social capital, and empirical studies of the role of social capital in various socioeconomic outcomes. While our focus is primarily on the place of social capital in economics, we do consider its broader social science context. We argue that while the social capital literature has produced many i...
Research on digital inclusion increasingly focuses on vulnerable groups, with the prevailing idea that social exclusion leads to digital exclusion. The role of the socio-spatial context is often faded into the background due to user-centric (individual) approaches. This article explores how a
Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.
Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR.
The prevailing paradigm in Internet privacy literature, treating privacy within a context merely of rights and violations, is inadequate for studying the Internet as a social realm. Following Goffman on self-presentation and Altman's theorizing of privacy as an optimization between competing pressures for disclosure and withdrawal, the author…
aspects of the new immigration law. Likewise, the article examines the fit between social policies and the prevailing immigration law, and questions the concrete possibilities of access to public policies that guarantee the daily reproduction of the immigrant population, as well as the logic grounding the criteria for the exclusion or inclusion of said population
Authors do not write in vacuum. In every age, they write to reflect the circumstances prevailing in their environment at a particular time. So, must of the young generation of African writers deal with the social, political, economic and moral decay ravaging the African society. These problems range from evils in government, ...
Bin Dong; Uwe Dulleck; Benno Torgler
We argue that the decision to bribe bureaucrats depends on the frequency of corruption within a society. We provide a behavioral model to explain this conduct: engaging in corruption results in a disutility of guilt. This implies that people observe a lower probability to be involved in corruption if on average the guilt level of others within a country is higher. We also explore whether - and to what extent - group dynamics or socialization and past experiences affect corruption. In other wo...
van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.
Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions
Rogers, Everett M.
Drawing on examples and evidence from social science research on the diffusion of ideas, social movements, and several other related fields, nine propositions dealing with the interrelationships between social structure and social change are explored. (Author/MB)
Teufel, Christoph; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth; Plaisted-Grant, Kate C; Edmonds, James J; Ayorinde, John O; Fletcher, Paul C; Davis, Greg
A growing consensus in social cognitive neuroscience holds that large portions of the primate visual brain are dedicated to the processing of social information, i.e., to those aspects of stimuli that are usually encountered in social interactions such as others' facial expressions, actions, and symbols. Yet, studies of social perception have mostly employed simple pictorial representations of conspecifics. These stimuli are social only in the restricted sense that they physically resemble objects with which the observer would typically interact. In an equally important sense, however, these stimuli might be regarded as "non-social": the observer knows that they are viewing pictures and might therefore not attribute current mental states to the stimuli or might do so in a qualitatively different way than in a real social interaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of such higher-order conceptualization of the stimulus for social perceptual processing. Here, we assess the similarity between the various types of stimuli used in the laboratory and object classes encountered in real social interactions. We distinguish two different levels at which experimental stimuli can match social stimuli as encountered in everyday social settings: (1) the extent to which a stimulus' physical properties resemble those typically encountered in social interactions and (2) the higher-level conceptualization of the stimulus as indicating another person's mental states. We illustrate the significance of this distinction for social perception research and report new empirical evidence further highlighting the importance of mental state attribution for perceptual processing. Finally, we discuss the potential of this approach to inform studies of clinical conditions such as autism.
O'reilly, Mark F.; O'Halloran, Margaret; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Cannella, Helen; Olive, Melissa
Deficiencies in social competence constitute a significant problem for aggressive children. As a result, these children often experience difficulty interacting with peers in socially acceptable ways. Such problems are particularly exacerbated in the schoolyard, where rules are less defined and low levels of supervision prevail. The present study…
A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santos, Maria Helena; Amâncio, Lígia
Research in social and political psychology contributes towards understanding the persistence of job market gender segregation prevailing in recent decades, the consequences for those involved and their reactions when having to cope with gender inequality. Within the framework of the literature on shared ideologies that justify and legitimize discrimination against women, this article focuses on Portugal and analyses the particular case of women in two highly qualified professions traditional...
Yang, Jessica Hong; Liu, Siwen
In this paper, we examine the defensive and assertive impression management strategies and the impact of firm performance on accounting narratives by investigating the earnings disclosures of FTSE 100 companies on Twitter. Social media has become the prevailing venue for organisational self-presentation because it provides firms with more control over the image they intend to establish and maintain through the communication and content they deliver online. Our findings show that firms minimis...
Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John
Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view...... that rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in specific contexts, and many times they need to be activated....... Such an activation process is often unconscious and once a norm has been activated, people tend to keep following the norm that has been primed. We wish to add to the social dilemma literature by suggesting what kinds of norms that are likely to be activated under different conditions such as oneshot vs. iterated...
Full Text Available A growing consensus in social cognitive neuroscience holds that large portions of the primate visual brain are dedicated to the processing of social information, i.e., to those aspects of stimuli that are usually encountered in social interactions such as others’ facial expressions, actions and symbols. Yet, studies of social perception have mostly employed simple pictorial representations of conspecifics. These stimuli are social only in the restricted sense that they physically resemble objects with which the observer would typically interact. In an equally important sense, however, these stimuli might be regarded as ‘non-social’: the observer knows that they are viewing pictures and might therefore not attribute current mental states to the stimuli or might do so in a qualitatively different way than in a real social interaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of such higher-order conceptualisation of the stimulus for social perceptual processing. Here, we assess the similarity between the various types of stimuli used in the laboratory and object classes encountered in real social interactions. We distinguish two different levels at which experimental stimuli can match social stimuli as encountered in everyday social settings: (i the extent to which a stimulus’ physical properties resemble those typically encountered in social interactions and (ii the higher-level conceptualisation of the stimulus as indicating another person’s mental states. We illustrate the significance of this distinction for social perception research and report new empirical evidence further highlighting the importance of mental state attribution for perceptual processing. Finally, we discuss the potential of this approach to inform studies of clinical conditions such as autism.
Full Text Available Why do some small companies in the clothing industry fail to grow while others succeed is the conundrum that this study sets out to solve. It does so by identifying and explaining four cases of enterprises with varying performance levels. On the understanding that there are structural and historical conditions that correspond to trends, these cases are explained and the question is answered. Based on the evidence, the article finds that the prevailing inequality is due to the greater or lesser presence of social capital - resources that come from networks and which are accessed through relationships - and to institutional and structural conditions that slow growth. Added to this are the differing responses of enterprises to the negative effects of poor-quality institutions. Following the approach of Nahapiet and Ghoshal, the study explains how an actor can develop certain range of capacities for participating in networks, before stalling as a result of a diversity of conditions.
Nielsen, Kjeld; Christensen, Allan
of the study that social integration depends on working environment conditions as well as cultural conditions. The social integration again is crucial for the way in which employees perceive the daily work situation and indirectly also for the well-being of the clients of the institution.......The study reported in this article is based on a combination of methods related to working environment and to organisational culture. The combination is aimed at studying the extent and meaning of the social integration of the employees in an institution for handicapped adults. It is the conclusion...
Warren E. Heilman
This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...
Table 1 Seasonal variation in body and kidney weight of adult mountain reedbuck culled at Sterkfontein. Values are ..... This leads to a decrease in nutritional quality of grazing for mountain reedbuck and a loss of condition. .... This would decrease the chances of starvation of those animals left, and allow them to build up ...
Ahjond S. Garmestani
Full Text Available Law plays an essential role in shaping natural resource and environmental policy, but unfortunately, many environmental laws were developed around the prevailing scientific understanding that there was a "balance of nature" that could be managed and sustained. This view assumes that natural resource managers have the capacity to predict the behavior of ecological systems, know what its important functional components are, and successfully predict the outcome of management interventions. This paper takes on this problem by summarizing and synthesizing the contributions to this Special Feature (Law and Social-Ecological Resilience, Part I: Contributions from Resilience 2011, focusing on the interaction of law and social-ecological resilience, and then offering recommendations for the integration of law and social-ecological resilience.
Full Text Available The object of this work focuses on characterizing research studies conducted on social leadership and community leadership, between 2004-2014, by research groups classified in Colciencias and attached to universities and research centers in Bogota city. Providing a critical and reflective social and community leadership, from the state of the art, opens up the range of possibilities to get to know what has already been researched, but it also promotes leadership training by means of getting acquainted with the methodologies undertaken by leaders. The main approaches found on to the documentary corpus are the other side of the coin, making difficult the conceptual and methodological approach. However, it can be noted that institutional agency marked by technical and specialized rationality prevails in the social leadership, while on the other hand, in the community leadership, actions directed to collective empowerment under a pragmatic rationality that is territory-and-identity based predominate.
Steven W Cole
Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.
Full Text Available La pobreza, las desigualdades sociales, la precariedad laboral y la inseguridad ciudadana entre otras, son las características que predominan en la sociedad costarricense. Ante esta realidad, la enfermería se presenta como un colectivo de profesionales que construye respuestas a las necesidades y a los problemas asociados a la salud de las personas y colectividades. Esta investigación, de tipo cualitativa, construye a través de la fenomenología hermenéutica, una mirada a la comprensión de las respuestas que la enfermería está construyendo a los problemas sociales asociados a la salud. El análisis de la información obtenida en un foro de discusión y complementada con una entrevista en profundidad, evocan a la necesidad de replantear la relación de la enfermería con las instituciones de salud hegemónicas.Poverty, social inequality, precarious work conditions and lack of safety in the streets, among others, are the prevailing characteristics of Costa Rican society. Facing this reality, nursing plays the role of an association of professionals that works in response to the needs and problems of individuals and groups of people. This research, which is of a qualitative nature, applies hermeneutic phenomenology in order to understand the different responses generated by nursing to health-related social problems. Information obtained through a discussion forum is analysed and further complemented by a detailed interview, requiring for the connection between nursing and the hegemonic health institutions to be reestablished.
In space, atoms and molecules are often placed under the extreme conditions which are very difficult to be realized on Earth. For instance, extremely hot and dense plasmas are found in and around various stellar objects (e.g., neutron stars) on one hand and extremely cold and diffuse gases prevail in interstellar space on the other. There is so strong a magnetic field that electron clouds in atoms and molecules are distorted. The study of atomic collisions under the extreme conditions is not only helpful in understanding the astrophysical environment but also reveals new aspects of the physics of atoms and molecules. This paper is an invitation to the study. (References are not exhaustive but only provide a clue with which more details can be found.) (author)
Bratolyubova Mariya Viktorovna
Full Text Available Peculiarity of the social, economic and legal status of the Don nobility influenced its political alertness and the opposition character of activity. The liberal wing supported the creation of a new world outlook system which was expected to provide the basis for transforming the political system by means of gradual transition to people’s representatives or constitutional form of government. The liberal landowners insisted on the introduction of zemstvo (district council, the solution of the Cossack issue; they strived for liberalization of the military and bureaucratic control of the Cossack troops and demanded the withdrawal of civil government agencies from the competence of the Military department. The liberal nobility actively supported the change of conditions of service for the Cossacks and pressed for easier draft obligation and releasing the Cossack troops from police duties which clashed with the military dignity. The conservative type of liberalism prevailed within the noble class of the DHR that distanced itself from both the left and the right political forces. The liberalism of the Don nobles was also a reflection of social and cultural peculiarities of the Cossacks. The social basis of the Don liberalism differed from the common Russian analogs. As the Cossack class was rather numerous at the Don, and its representatives made up quite an important part of the regional liberal corporation, they influenced its tactics and the political programming considerably.
Full Text Available Introduction: Education is a specialized form of socialization. The concept of socialization indicates the systemic effects of the old to the new generation, in order to develop those characteristics that society deems necessary for the integration of young people in this.The professional socialization is a developmental process in adult socialization and is of central importanceAim: the aim of the present study is the presentation of professional socialization in nursing educationResults: The socialization into the profession is a process of transforming a beginner to a professional and the newcomers adopt ethical standards and even lifestyle team who seek to become members. The socialization the individual adopts social group's mission, organizational goals and underpin knowledge, learning technology and language of the profession, and finally integrates the professional role in identity. The educational system is the official institution in which society disseminates-instills-perpetuates the prevailing values and conceptions, creating citizens and professionals neededfor maintenance operations and meeting its needs.Conclusions: The existence of both factors, without taking drastic measures in education and the organizational characteristics of the exercise areas of nursing, will feedback the crisis in the nursing profession and mainly will undermine any effort to change and improve the quality of the supplied project.
HAKE, D F; AZRIN, N H
Responses of pigeons were maintained by a VI schedule of food reinforcement. Conditioned punishment was programmed by having these responses concurrently produce an originally neutral stimulus. The effectiveness of this response-contingent stimulus was maintained by infrequent and prearranged stimulus-shock pairings delivered independently of responses. This conditioned punishment procedure reduced the overall response rate as long as the procedure was in effect. The extent and durability of the reduction was a function of the intensity of the shock that was paired with the stimulus. Analysis of the reduction in the overall response rate revealed: (1) a reduction of responses occurring in the absence of the response-contingent stimulus, which was designated as a "punishing" effect, and (2) a reduction of responses during the response-contingent stimulus, which was designated as a "suppressive" effect.
Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y
In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.
This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)
Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used.
A.W. van der Pennen; V. Veldheer; E. ter Borg; M. Kunst; J. Boelhouwer; F.A. Knol
Original title: Sociale vernieuwing. Social renewal began in Rotterdam in 1989, as a response to the presence of stubborn social disadvantage. The Idenburg Committee produced recommendations in that year suggesting how these social problems could best be tackled at local level. Central government adopted these ideas in 1990, since when social renewal policy has really taken off. Most municipalities have joined in, developing social renewal policy and creating an administrative apparatus for i...
Caldas, S J
Although there are fewer teenage pregnancies in the US today than was the case prior to 1970, this fact should not be used to claim that the problem of adolescent pregnancy has been exaggerated. In the earlier period, the majority of adolescent pregnancies were to married couples; moreover, early childbearing was a social norm. In the present period, the availability of effective contraception and legal abortion has enabled women to postpone marriage and childbearing into their late twenties or early thirties and to focus instead on education that enhances their marketability and wages. Under prevailing social norms, teen pregnancy represents a clear deviation. By 1990, 68% of births to women under 20 years of age involved unmarried mothers. Under current socioeconomic conditions, unmarried adolescent mothers are likely to live in poverty and their offspring are at high risk of learning disabilities, child abuse, and foster care placements. Although young people are bombarded with images of sexuality in the mass media, school-based sex education programs tend to promote abstinence and withhold information on or access to contraception. It is essential that material on human sexuality is integrated into the curriculum as early as kindergarten if the teen pregnancy rate and the intergenerational transmission of early childbearing under conditions of poverty are to be reduced.
... 32. Schneier FR, Bruce LC, Heimberg RG. Social anxiety disorder (social phobia). In: Gabbard ... by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, ...
Full Text Available This article in the short form deals with the analysis of firms’ behavior in conditions of perfect competition environment with regard to the effective operation of market mechanism depending on conditions, prevailing at the market. Single market situations are represented also graphically in order to demonstrate precisely the firms’ goals participation on the perfect competition market, and to gain maximal profit. Together with article contents the intention was to point out to the fact, that model of perfect competition environments is technically highly elaborated and in the modern businesses will definitely find out its justification.
Cardiovascular Consequences of Childhood Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Prevailing Evidence, Burden, and Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.
Raghuveer, Geetha; White, David A; Hayman, Laura L; Woo, Jessica G; Villafane, Juan; Celermajer, David; Ward, Kenneth D; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Zachariah, Justin
Although public health programs have led to a substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoke exposure are by no means a thing of the past. In the United States, 4 of 10 school-aged children and 1 of 3 adolescents are involuntarily exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), with children of minority ethnic backgrounds and those living in low-socioeconomic-status households being disproportionately affected (68% and 43%, respectively). Children are particularly vulnerable, with little control over home and social environment, and lack the understanding, agency, and ability to avoid SHS exposure on their own volition; they also have physiological or behavioral characteristics that render them especially susceptible to effects of SHS. Side-stream smoke (the smoke emanating from the burning end of the cigarette), a major component of SHS, contains a higher concentration of some toxins than mainstream smoke (inhaled by the smoker directly), making SHS potentially as dangerous as or even more dangerous than direct smoking. Compelling animal and human evidence shows that SHS exposure during childhood is detrimental to arterial function and structure, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular consequences. Childhood SHS exposure is also related to impaired cardiac autonomic function and changes in heart rate variability. In addition, childhood SHS exposure is associated with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Individualized interventions to reduce childhood exposure to SHS are shown to be at least modestly effective, as are broader-based policy initiatives such as community smoking bans and increased taxation. The purpose of this statement is to summarize the available evidence on the cardiovascular health consequences of childhood SHS exposure; this will support ongoing efforts to further reduce and eliminate SHS exposure in this
A. O. Pocelujko
In materialist epistemology image understanding from the beginning associated with the body, psyche and society, giving rise to talk about objectivism, psychological and sociological interpretations in social perception of sociological concepts that rely on this epistemology. This means that social acceptance will be investigated as a product of the social environment, its individual and social group characteristics, and of society as a whole. In idealist epistemology in the interpretation of social perception prevails fiktsionalistske understanding. This means that social acceptance is seen in his phenomenal dimension (dimension phenomena at the same time, this phenomenal dimension idealist epistemology contrasts noumenal dimension, and therefore the social acceptance is made out of true knowledge. Depending on a particular epistemological concepts differently solved the question of the source of social perception. In the rationalistic conceptions source of social perception is thinking mostly scientific. Because of this social acceptance is seen as something that allows you to categorize the various phenomena of sociality, that is, create frames like scientific certainty .. The epistemological empiricism social acceptance is considered based on the prevalence of sensory components in it, which can be either that ensures that social perception Indeed, and that is the source of various distortions.
Papaioannou, Panagiotis G.; Papaioannou, George P.; Siettos, Kostas; Stratigakos, Akylas; Dikaiakos, Christos
Liberalization of electricity markets has increasingly created the need for understanding the volatility and correlation structure between electricity and financial markets. This work reveals the existence of structural changes in correlation patterns among these two markets and links the changes to both fundamentals and regulatory conditions prevailing in the markets, as well as the current European financial crisis. We apply a Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) GARCH model to a set of ma...
George H. Stankey; Bruce. Shindler
Effective policies for management of rare and little-known species (RLKS) must be not only scientifically valid and cost-effective but also consistent with prevailing social beliefs and values. Limited public awareness of RLKS, however; constrains efforts to frame such policies. Lacking public support, resistance to RLKS programs is likely, particularly when other uses...
A.W. van der Pennen; V. Veldheer; E. ter Borg; M. Kunst; J. Boelhouwer; F.A. Knol
Original title: Sociale vernieuwing. Social renewal began in Rotterdam in 1989, as a response to the presence of stubborn social disadvantage. The Idenburg Committee produced recommendations in that year suggesting how these social problems could best be tackled at local level. Central
Orellana Zambrano, Waldo E.
Explica qué es un Proyecto social, su formulación , y la importancia de los indicadores de desarrollo humano en la formulación de proyectos sociales. Explain what a social project, its formulation, and the importance of human development indicators in the formulation of social projects.
Health vulnerabilities in adolescence: socioeconomic conditions, social networks, drugs and violence Vulnerabilidades a la salud en la adolescencia: condiciones socioeconómicas, redes sociales, drogas y violencia Vulnerabilidades à saúde na adolescência: condições socioeconômicas, redes sociais, drogas e violência
Dener Carlos dos Reis
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the health vulnerabilities in adolescence associated with socioeconomic conditions, social networks, drugs and violence from the perspective of students. METHOD: cross-sectional study with 678 students between 14-15 years old in Contagem, Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire divided into modules by subject was used. Quantitative, descriptive and stratified analyses were performed by sex. RESULTS: high percentage of adolescents (40.4% were beneficiaries of Government financial support called "Bolsa Família" and 14.6% had a job, 57.1% and 23.6% had tried alcohol and tobacco, respectively. We identified 15% of aggression and 26.7% of bullying. The majority informed they never/rarely talk to parents about the daily difficulties (64.5% and 22% reported insomnia and/or feelings of loneliness. CONCLUSION: the results indicated that there is a need to intensify educational activities that seek to develop cognitive, affective and social skills aimed at improving the way adolescents face the vulnerabilities, in these activities, nursing has a fundamental role. OBJETIVO: analizar las vulnerabilidades a la salud en la adolescencia asociadas a las condiciones socioeconómicas, redes sociales, drogas y violencia, en la perspectiva de escolares. MÉTODO: estudio transversal con una muestra de 678 escolares, con edad entre 14 y 15 años, en la ciudad de Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se utilizó un cuestionario autoaplicable dividido en módulos por asunto. Se realizaron análisis cuantitativo y descriptivo, estratificado por sexo. RESULTADOS: un porcentaje elevado de adolescentes (40,4% eran beneficiados por el Programa Bolsa Familia, 14,6% trabajaban, 57,1% y 23,6% ya habían experimentado bebida alcohólica y tabaco, respectivamente. Se identificaron 15% de relatos de agresión y 26,7% de bullying. La mayoría informó nunca/raramente conversar con los padres sobre las dificultades cotidianas (64,5% y 22% de las adolescentes
José van Dijck
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R
We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...
This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...
Cook, Karen Schweers
Networks of trust relations often emerge under conditions of uncertainty or risk to facilitate social exchange. Under some conditions, such networks represent a form of social capital that can be mobilized in support of general social cooperation in the society. Under other conditions, however, such networks may have negative effects on the degree…
R. Z. Usmanov
Full Text Available Estimation of the adaptive potential natural phytocenosis is given to soil salinization ground under natural moistening. The Studied general regularities of the operation to pasture vegetation and condition of the renewing the vegetable cover on techno-broken ground (the lands. The analysed role prevail plants in conservation balances conditions pasture.
The social policy agenda in the decades to come will be marked an ageing population on a global scale and by increased and diversified expectations from citizens in the need of work and social service. Public budgets for social service such as health, education and welfare including social work...
Kricheldorff, Cornelia; Aner, Kirsten; Himmelsbach, Ines; Thiesemann, Rüdiger
Social gerontology is seen as a science-based but application-oriented subdiscipline of gerontology. It focuses particularly on social relationships in old age, social participation of elderly and old people and the protection of their individual needs. Self-determination and autonomy are important value orientations. Central issues are the quality of life and life satisfaction from the perspective of personal resources and biographical influences and the conditions of individual aging in the sense of differential gerontology. Against this background, in the first part of this article Kirsten Aner discusses the social construction of aging and in part two Ines Himmelsbach describes the typical life events and developmental tasks in the process of aging. The article concludes with a theoretical basis in which Cornelia Kricheldorff outlines social aging theories and derives a brief description of approaches and interventions.
The aim of this paper is to examine the notion of social mechanisms by comparison with the notions of evolutionary and physical mechanisms. It is argued that social mechanisms are based on trends, and not lawlike regularities, so that social mechanisms are different from mechanisms in the natural sciences. Taking as an example of social causation the abolition of the slave trade, this paper argues that social mechanisms should be incorporated in Weber’s wider ...
The present work is a discussion of some aspects of organization and methodological substantiation of the state research programme T he Atomic Energetic and Environment . It contains the material of complex social geographical investigations in the Ignalina NPP region carried out in 1995 -1997. The discussed theme is of topical importance because the NPP infrastructure effects all spheres of environment, i. e. not only the nature but the society, way of thinking and integrated formations, occurring as a result of their interaction, as well. The main aim of investigation is to determine the impact of the functioning Ignalina NPP and its infrastructure (including the Visaginas town) on the social environment emphasizing the effect on the social territorial processes. The main tasks are - to reveal the impact of NPP on the regional economic, social, demographic, political and cultural processes in the context of ecological and psychological impact. The Ignalina NPP and Visaginas region is in the state of formation. This process is going on in a very controversial environment, under the conditions of social and cultural isolation. For the geographical situation, functional peculiarities and history this region cannot be attributed to any usual types of region. The social relations of Visaginas with the environment are poor as a result of the ex centric situation of the town, lack communication and mentioned cultural self isolation. Notwithstanding the large social potential of Visaginas it is unable to carry out the functions of regional center. In the international relation of the region the social psychological constituent prevails. For lack of ecological, cultural and, particularly, social relations the political problems of this trans national region are likely to become more acute in the future. Therefore, conditions for rational development of the region will be more difficult. Taking into account the character and development of social territorial processes it
Etter, Michael Andreas; Ravasi, Davide; Colleoni, Elanor
Social media enable millions of users to create and disseminate narratives about organizations that increase their public exposure and shape public perceptions. In this paper, we draw on the sociology of news production and research on computer-mediated communication to discuss how different...... motivational drivers and contextual conditions associated with the formation of narratives in traditional news media and social media influence their content, diffusion, and impact significantly. Our analysis suggests that current theories of media reputation may provide an incomplete representation...... of the phenomenon, and highlight theoretically relevant differences and interrelationships between reputational dynamics involving news media and social media....
Russell, Robert L
Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.
Etter, Michael Andreas; Ravasi, Davide; Colleoni, Elanor
motivational drivers and contextual conditions associated with the formation of narratives in traditional news media and social media influence their content, diffusion, and impact significantly. Our analysis suggests that current theories of media reputation may provide an incomplete representation......Social media enable millions of users to create and disseminate narratives about organizations that increase their public exposure and shape public perceptions. In this paper, we draw on the sociology of news production and research on computer-mediated communication to discuss how different...... of the phenomenon, and highlight theoretically relevant differences and interrelationships between reputational dynamics involving news media and social media....
Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette; Towers, Ann-Marie; Netten, Ann; Forder, Julien
The Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT-SCT4) is a multi-attribute utility index designed for the evaluation of long-term social care services. The measure comprises eight attributes that capture aspects of social care-related quality of life. The instrument has previously been validated with a sample of older adults who used home care services in England. This paper aims to demonstrate the instrument's test-retest reliability and provide evidence for its validity in a diverse sample of adults who use publicly-funded, community-based social care in England. A survey of 770 social care service users was conducted in England. A subsample of 100 services users participated in a follow-up interview between 7 and 21 days after baseline. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the ASCOT-SCT4 index score and the EQ-5D-3 L, the ICECAP-A or ICECAP-O and overall quality of life were used to assess convergent validity. Data on variables hypothesised to be related to the ASCOT-SCT4 index score, as well as rating of individual attributes, were also collected. Hypothesised relationships were tested using one-way ANOVA or Fisher's exact test. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient for the ASCOT-SCT4 index score at baseline and follow-up. There were moderate to strong correlations between the ASCOT-SCT4 index and EQ-5D-3 L, the ICECAP-A or ICECAP-O, and overall quality of life (all correlations ≥ 0.3). The construct validity was further supported by statistically significant hypothesised relationships between the ASCOT-SCT4 index and individual characteristics in univariate and multivariate analysis. There was also further evidence for the construct validity for the revised Food and drink and Dignity items. The test-retest reliability was considered to be good (ICC = 0.783; 95% CI: 0.678-0.857). The ASCOT-SCT4 index has good test-retest reliability for adults with physical or sensory disabilities who use social care
Refuting the view now prevailing in social anthropology, the article seeks to offer a new outlook on relations between psychoanalysis and the individualistic shaping of values that characterizes modern Western society. According to current social anthropology, psychoanalysis embodies the promise of recouping a wholeness lost as a result of the world's process of de-sanctification. The self is seen as constituting this new wholeness value, while psychoanalysis, insofar as it proposes redemption through the self, is viewed as a modern religion with individualistic effects. In questioning this vision, the article offers as a counterpoint the idea that the Lacanian formalization of the subconscious through symbolic structure overcomes the dichotomy between subject and society. This leads Lacan to assert that analysis should lead the subject to dedicate his or herself to guaranteeing the workings of the great Other, which is understood to mean that psychoanalysis should lead the subject to assume his or her responsibility for the workings of the symbolic structure.
The article presents main features of the New economy. Special consideration was given to social sphere development and social institutions restructuring in the context of the New economy. A number of social problems arisen out of this processes had been covered. In the issue author concluded that social sphere development occurred under the conditions of the New economy is fundamental process
Full Text Available Social exclusion is a wider concept than poverty and includes not only material conditions but also inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. The essence of social exclusion is social relationships (more exactly breaking off relationships, which may mean not only pushing away some members of the society, but also breaking off relationships with the society from the side of a person himself/herself. The reasons of origin of social exclusion may be legal, political, economical, social and cultural. Nowadays social exclusion is predetermined by social-economic factors. According to Poviliūnas (2001, the problems of children’s social exclusion may be solved ensuring proper education, care of public health, safety and minimal life standard. Growing aggression and violence of schoolchildren and their social exclusion are nowadays an important issue of political debate and media reports. Often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during the period of adolescence. The risk also depends on the social status of their family in the society and the relationship of the family members. The aim of the article is to identify characteristic features of schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion and analyze social support provided for them. A quantitative research was carried out to achieve the aim. The method of data collection is a questionnaire. 105 teachers working in 3 secondary schools in Lithuania participated in the research. The research results revealed that most often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during adolescence period. They are characterized as incommunicative, unsociable, passive, and shy, do not trust others, are vulnerable, have learning problems and avoid collaborative activities. These schoolchildren usually come from families of social risk or single parent families. The support provided at school by teachers to schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion
A habitação como determinante social da saúde: percepções e condições de vida de famílias cadastradas no programa Bolsa Família Habitation as a social determinant of health: perceptions and conditions of families registered under the "Bolsa Família" program
Kelly Alves Magalhães
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as condições de habitação e de saneamento de famílias cadastradas no Programa Bolsa Família (PBF, bem como analisar os significados dos sujeitos entrevistados sobre sua moradia. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de abordagem quanti-qualitativa, realizado entre agosto e setembro de 2007, no município de Paula Candido, MG. Foram entrevistados 116 indivíduos cadastrados no programa, selecionados aleatoriamente, por meio de questionário semiestruturado. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados utilizando-se o software SPSS for Windows e os qualitativos, pela técnica de análise temática. Verificou-se que ambos os grupos - beneficiário e não beneficiário - enfrentam condições adversas que limitam sua inserção e emancipação social, como baixas escolaridade e qualificação para o trabalho; trabalho informal e mal remunerado; serviços ainda insuficientes de abastecimento e tratamento da água, além de esgotamento sanitário e coleta de lixo, especialmente entre as famílias residentes na zona rural. Quanto ao significado da moradia para os entrevistados, os relatos denotam o sonho por uma casa melhor e/ou a casa própria, a aquisição de bens e eletrodomésticos básicos que possam compor o espaço da habitação, espaço este que ultrapassa a dimensão física e material, configurando-se como lugar onde se estabelecem as relações e laços sociais entre a família e de acolhimento do outro. Faz-se necessária a articulação entre as ações e políticas públicas de saúde, habitação, meio ambiente e infraestrutura, bem como com os programas de combate à pobreza - como o PBF - , tendo em vista o conjunto de vulnerabilidades às quais estão submetidas as populações mais pobres.The objective of this study was to evaluate housing and sanitation conditions of families registered in the "Bolsa Família" Program (BFP, as well as to analyze the meaning of housing for the interviewees. It is a transversal
Introduction. Individuals need communicative competence for personal fulfillment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. Materials and Methods. The meaning of the key concepts of "communicative competence" and "opportunities" is studied within the search for conditions to develop. Conclusion. The theoretical findings…
Deeming, Christopher; Smyth, Paul
The concept of the 'social investment state' refocuses attention on the productive function of social policy eclipsed for some time by the emphasis on its social protection or compensation roles. Here we distinguish between different social investment strategies, the Nordic 'heavy' and the Liberal 'light', with particular reference to the inclusive growth approach adopted in Australia. In 2007, social democrats in Australia returned to government with a clear mandate to reject the labour market deregulation and other neoliberal policies of its predecessor, and to tackle entrenched social and economic disadvantage in Australian society. For the last five years, social investment and inclusive growth has been at the centre of the Australian social policy agenda. Against this background, the article examines and critically assesses the (re)turn to 'social investment' thinking in Australia during Labor's term in office (2007-13). Analysis focuses not just on what was actually achieved, but also on the constraining role of prevailing economic and political circumstances and on the processes that were used to drive social investment reform. In many ways, the article goes some way to exposing ongoing tensions surrounding the distinctiveness of 'social investment' strategies pursued by leftist parties within the (neo)liberal state.
development and exploration of courses of action. Recent events suggest the great potential of social media as an important input for this 21st century...unrestricted data domain consisting of open source English and foreign language data of varying types, including social media Engineering to process and...Ideology identification in multiple languages Emotion analysis of social media for instability monitoring Social Radar RTA HFM-201/RSM
Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Ishida, Aya; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji
In social animals, recovery from the adverse effects of distressing stimuli is promoted by subsequent cohousing with a conspecific animal(s). This phenomenon has been termed housing-type social buffering. We previously found that social housing induced housing-type social buffering in fear-conditioned male rats. This buffering took the form of attenuated conditioned hyperthermia in response to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Here, we assessed whether this social buffering is sustained even if the subject is housed alone after a period of social housing. When fear-conditioned subjects were housed alone during a 48-h period between conditioning and re-exposure to the auditory CS, they exhibited conditioned hyperthermia in response to the CS. However, conditioned hyperthermia was not observed when the 12-h period of social housing began 24 and 36h after conditioning during the 48-h period. This was not the case when the 12-h period of social housing began 0 and 12h after the conditioning. These results suggest that housing-type social buffering is sustained for 12h after the 12-h period of social housing. We next considered whether increasing the duration of social housing would extend the period of social buffering. We observed social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia 24 and 48, but not 96h after a 24-h period of social housing. These results suggest that social buffering was extended when the duration of social housing was increased. Taken together, our findings indicate that housing-type social buffering is sustained after a period of social housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hirth, Asle
Intensive exercise may be an important part of rehabilitation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, performing regular physical exercise is challenging for many adolescent patients. Consequently, effective exercise encouragements may be needed. Little is known on the effect of e......-Health encouragements on physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life in adolescents. This trial is a nationwide interactive e-Health rehabilitation study lasting 1 year, centered on interactive use of mobile phone and Internet technology. We hypothesize that e-Health encouragements...... and interactive monitoring of intensive exercise for 1 year can improve physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life. Two hundred sixteen adolescents (age, 13-16 years) with surgically corrected complex CHD but without significant hemodynamic residual defects and no restrictions...
Adelson Fernandes da Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout Syndrome (BS consists in a reaction to excessive work-related stress. Objective: To check the prevalence and associated factors of BS in kindergarten, primary and secondary public school teachers of. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out; 462 teachers from the cities of Januária, Itacarambi, Manga, São Francisco and Pedras de Maria da Cruz were interviewed. The Preliminary Questionnaire for Burnout identification was the instrument used to classify individuals into “exhausted” and “not exhausted”. The associated factors were gender, type of education, time experience with teaching, employment in other public schools, employment bond, satisfaction with the income, weekly teaching hours, and presence of diseases. Results: Among the teachers surveyed, 24% were in stage 3, the point when BS begins; and 4.7% were in stage 4, the most critical stage of the syndrome. The BS was associated with low pay, dedication to the teaching career and time experience with teaching from one to 11 years or more. Conclusion: That the BS is highly prevalent among permanent and hired teachers of the public and free education network.