WorldWideScience

Sample records for pretreatment process technology

  1. Pretreatment Technologies of Lignocellulosic Materials in Bioethanol Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rusdi Hidayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is one type of biofuel that developed significantly. The utilization of bioethanol is not only limited for fuel, but also could be used as material for various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. With wide utilization and relatively simple production technology has made bioethanol as the most favored biofuel currently. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, microalgae, seaweeds, even GMO (Genetically modified organisms as substrates for bioethanol production has been widely tested. Differences in the materials eventually led to change in the production technology used. Pretreatment technology in the bioethanol production using lignocellulosic currently experiencing rapid development. It is a key process and crucial for the whole next steps. Based on the advantages and disadvantages from all methods, steam explotion and liquid hot water methods are the most promising  pretreatment technology available.

  2. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Murthy, Ganti S

    2011-09-05

    While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was used as a model feedstock. Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein) respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for significant ethanol cost reductions exist in increasing

  3. A review on hydrothermal pre-treatment technologies and environmental profiles of algal biomass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavish; Guo, Miao; Izadpanah, Arash; Shah, Nilay; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The need for efficient and clean biomass conversion technologies has propelled Hydrothermal (HT) processing as a promising treatment option for biofuel production. This manuscript discussed its application for pre-treatment of microalgae biomass to solid (biochar), liquid (biocrude and biodiesel) and gaseous (hydrogen and methane) products via Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC), Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) as well as the utility of HT water as an extraction medium and HT Hydrotreatment (HDT) of algal biocrude. In addition, the Solar Energy Retained in Fuel (SERF) using HT technologies is calculated and compared with benchmark biofuel. Lastly, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) discusses the limitation of the current state of art as well as introduction to new potential input categories to obtain a detailed environmental profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  5. Optimization of clean fractionation processing as a pre-treatment technology for prairie cordgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudecki, Grzegorz; Cybulska, Iwona; Rosentrater, Kurt; Julson, James

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to fractionate prairie cordgrass (PCG) obtaining the highest cellulose digestibility. Following clean fractionation (CF) processing, the PCG lignocellulosic biomass was fractionated into three main building blocks: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Effects of processing factors such as time, temperature, catalyst concentration and organic solvent mixture composition were evaluated. Organic solvent-aqueous mixture contained methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), ethanol and water in different proportions. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst. In order to evaluate the degree of pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification was employed on the cellulose fraction obtained from the CF process. Response surface methodology was used for process optimization and statistical analysis. Optimal conditions (39 min, 154°C, 0.69% catalyst and 9% MIBK) resulted in 84% glucose yield and 87% acid insoluble lignin (AIL). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integration of extrusion and clean fractionation processes as a pre-treatment technology for prairie cordgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudecki, Grzegorz; Cybulska, Iwona; Rosentrater, Kurt

    2013-05-01

    Prairie cordgrass (PCG) was pretreated by sequential extrusion and clean fractionation (CF) processing. Following CF, PCG was fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin-rich fractions. Cellulose pulp was then enzymatically hydrolyzed, producing glucose. The main purpose of this study was to produce the highest glucose yield as possible. The effects of time, temperature, catalyst concentration and solvent mixture composition on the fractionation were tested. Different proportions of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), ethanol and water with sulfuric acid as a catalyst were evaluated. Optimal conditions for sequential extrusion and clean fractionation (39 min, 129 °C, 0.69% catalyst, and 28% MIBK) resulted in higher glucose yield (92%), and more lignin (87%) and xylan (95%) removal than for clean fractionation alone. Pairwise comparison of raw PCG with extruded PCG clean fractionation revealed no difference in glucose yields, but xylan and AIL removal were higher in the case of clean fractionation of the pre-extruded PCG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance and techno-economic assessment of several solid-liquid separation technologies for processing dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, David A; Tao, Ling; Schell, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Solid-liquid separation of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass slurries is a critical unit operation employed in several different processes for production of fuels and chemicals. An effective separation process achieves good recovery of solute (sugars) and efficient dewatering of the biomass slurry. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurries were subjected to pressure and vacuum filtration and basket centrifugation to evaluate the technical and economic merits of these technologies. Experimental performance results were used to perform detailed process simulations and economic analysis using a 2000 tonne/day biorefinery model to determine differences between the various filtration methods and their process settings. The filtration processes were able to successfully separate pretreated slurries into liquor and solid fractions with estimated sugar recoveries of at least 95% using a cake washing process. A continuous vacuum belt filter produced the most favorable process economics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  9. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, Xuejun; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature.

  10. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.

    2012-01-01

    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... distribution. Therefore, an accurate temperature model is critical for observing the biomass pretreatment. More than that, the biomass is also pushed with a constant horizontal speed along the reactor in order to ensure a continuous throughput. The goal of this paper is to derive a temperature model...... that captures the environmental temperature differences inside the reactor using distributed parameters. A Kalman filter is then added to account for any missing dynamics and the overall model is embedded into a temperature soft sensor. The operator of the plant will be able to observe the temperature in any...

  11. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-08-12

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  12. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-01-01

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel

  13. Technological pretreatment of the synchysite non-oxidized ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhtsetseg, B.; Burmaa, G.

    2013-06-01

    Mongolia has rich deposits of rare, precious, and poly-metallic ores. Nowadays, it is important to research separation of rare earth elements oxides concentrates from the ores, analyze their unique physical chemical characteristics, and purified it. Our investigation on raw materials focuses on rare earth non-oxidized ores. Main mineral in this rock sample is Synchysite (LnCa(CO3)2F. We did technological and thermal pretreatment: direct sulphurization (H2SO4), sulphurization with subsequent roasting (800°C+H2SO4), sulphurization prior to roasting (H2SO4+650°C). Sulphurization method based on dissolution of rare earth mineral into sulfuric acid (93%) according to the reaction. The amount of rare earth element oxides is almost 10 times greater (29.16%) after direct sulphurization process, almost 8 times greater (21.14%) after sulphurization with subsequent roasting, and almost 20 times greater (44.62%) after sulphurization prior to roasting process. After those technological pretreatment raw material's micro elements Thorium and Uranium contents are reduced as follows: H2SO4>800°C+H2SO4>H2SO4+650°C. These results show that cerium group rare earth elements have very good solubility in water at +2°C temperature and decreasing micro elements content uranium and thorium good pretreatment condition is prior to roasting (H2SO4+650°C) of synchysite non-oxidized ore.

  14. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  15. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production: Technology and energy consumption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, X J

    2010-07-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed to significantly reduce mechanical energy consumption. Because the ultimate goal of biofuel production is net energy output, a concept of pretreatment energy efficiency (kg/MJ) based on the total sugar recovery (kg/kg wood) divided by the energy consumption in pretreatment (MJ/kg wood) is defined. It is then used to evaluate the performances of three of the most promising pretreatment technologies: steam explosion, organosolv, and sulfite pretreatment to overcome lignocelluloses recalcitrance (SPORL) for softwood pretreatment. The present study found that SPORL is the most efficient process and produced highest sugar yield. Other important issues, such as the effects of lignin on substrate saccharification and the effects of pretreatment on high-value lignin utilization in woody biomass pretreatment, are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  17. Using high pressure processing (HPP) to pretreat sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, J F; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Montero-Lagunes, M; Portilla-Arias, J; Ramírez de León, J A; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2013-10-15

    High pressure processing (HPP) technology was used to modify the structural composition of sugarcane bagasse. The effect of pressure (0, 150 and 250 MPa), time (5 and 10 min) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) as well as the addition of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and NaOH during the HPP treatment were assessed in terms of compositional analysis of the lignocellulosic fraction, structural changes and crystallinity of the bagasse. The effect of HPP pretreatment on the bagasse structure was also evaluated on the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse. Results showed that 68.62 and 45.84% of the hemicellulose fraction was degraded by pretreating at 250 MPa with sulfuric and phosphoric acids, respectively. The removal of lignin (54.10%) was higher with the HPP-NaOH treatment. The compacted lignocellulosic structure of the raw bagasse was modified by the HPP treatments and showed few cracks, tiny holes and some fragments flaked off from the surface. Structural changes were higher at 250 MPa and 50 °C. The X ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the raw bagasse showed a major diffraction peak of the cellulose crystallographic 2θ planes ranging between 22 and 23°. The distribution of the crystalline structure of cellulose was affected by increasing the pressure level. The HPP treatment combined with NaOH 2% led to the higher glucose yield (25 g/L) compared to the combination of HPP with water and acids (>5 g/L). Results from this work suggest that HPP technology may be used to pretreat sugarcane bagasse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-treatment technologies for dark fermentative hydrogen production: Current advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieenia, Razieh; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Pivato, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a clean and non-carbon fuel and it has a higher energy content compared to carbon fuels. Dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes is the most promising technology for commercialization among chemical and biological methods. Using mixed microflora is favored in terms of easier process control and substrate conversion efficiencies instead of pure cultures. However, mixed cultures should be first pre-treated in order to select sporulating hydrogen producing bacteria and suppress non-spore forming hydrogen consumers. Various inoculum pre-treatments have been used to enhance hydrogen production by dark fermentation including heat shock, acid or alkaline treatment, chemical inhibition, aeration, irradiation and inhibition by long chain fatty acids. Regarding substrate pre-treatment, that is performed with the aim of enhanced substrate biodegradability, thermal pre-treatment, pH adjustment using acid or base, microwave irradiation, sonication and biological treatment are the most commonly studied technologies. This article reviews the most investigated pre-treatment technologies applied for either inoculum or substrate prior to dark fermentation, the long-term effects of varying pre-treatment methods and the subsequently feasibility of each method for commercialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Pretreatment Technologies on Saccharification and Isopentenol Fermentation of Mixed Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian; George, Kevin W.; Sun, Ning; He, Wei; Li, Chenlin; Stavila, Vitalie; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Lee, Taek Soon; Singh, Seema

    2015-02-28

    In order to enable the large-scale production of biofuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, a consistent and affordable year-round supply of lignocellulosic feedstocks is essential. Feedstock blending and/or densification offers one promising solution to overcome current challenges on biomass supply, i.e., low energy and bulk densities and significant compositional variations. Therefore, it is imperative to develop conversion technologies that can process mixed pelleted biomass feedstocks with minimal negative impact in terms of overall performance of the relevant biorefinery unit operations: pretreatment, fermentable sugar production, and fuel titers. We processed the mixture of four feedstocks—corn stover, switchgrass, lodgepole pine, and eucalyptus (1:1:1:1 on dry weight basis)—in flour and pellet form using ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, dilute sulfuric acid (DA), and soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatments. Commercial enzyme mixtures, including cellulases and hemicellulases, were then applied to these pretreated feedstocks at low to moderate enzyme loadings to determine hydrolysis efficiency. Results show significant variations on the chemical composition, crystallinity, and enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated feedstocks across the different pretreatment technologies studied. The advanced biofuel isopentenol was produced during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of pretreated feedstocks using an engineered Escherichia coli strain. Results show that IL pretreatment liberates the most sugar during enzymatic saccharification, and in turn led to the highest isopentenol titer as compared to DA and SAA pretreatments. This study provides insights on developing biorefinery technologies that produce advanced biofuels based on mixed feedstock streams.

  20. Biomass torrefaction: A promising pretreatment technology for biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ZhiWen; Wang, Mingfeng; Ren, Yongzhi; Jiang, Enchen; Jiang, Yang; Li, Weizhen

    2018-02-01

    Torrefaction is an emerging technology also called mild pyrolysis, which has been explored for the pretreatment of biomass to make the biomass more favorable for further utilization. Dry torrefaction (DT) is a pretreatment of biomass in the absence of oxygen under atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range of 200-300 degrees C, while wet torrrefaction (WT) is a method in hydrothermal or hot and high pressure water at the tempertures within 180-260 degrees C. Torrrefied biomass is hydrophobic, with lower moisture contents, increased energy density and higher heating value, which are more comparable to the characteristics of coal. With the improvement in the properties, torrefied biomass mainly has three potential applications: combustion or co-firing, pelletization and gasification. Generally, the torrefaction technology can accelerate the development of biomass utilization technology and finally realize the maximum applications of biomass energy.

  1. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Xuejun Pan; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the...

  2. The impacts of deacetylation prior to dilute acid pretreatment on the bioethanol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Franden, Mary Ann; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Min; Kuhn, Erik; Johnson, David K; Tucker, Melvin P

    2012-02-27

    Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: 1) cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and 2) cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield.

  3. The impacts of deacetylation prior to dilute acid pretreatment on the bioethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: 1 cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and 2 cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. Results In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Conclusions Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield.

  4. Mechanical pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: towards facile and environmentally sound technologies for biofuels production

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Abdellatif; MAYER, Claire; Solhy, Abderrahim; Arancon, Rick A. D.; DE VRIES, Hugo; Luque, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels represents an interesting and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel for the near future. However, one still faces some major challenges for the technology to be fully realized including feedstock costs, novel pretreatment processes, production, transportation, and environmental impact of the full chain. The development of new technologies focused to increase the efficiency of cellulose conversion to biofuels determines successful im...

  5. Process Improvements to Biomass Pretreatment of Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Farzaneh [Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-30

    MBI, a 501c(3) company focusing on de-risking and scaling up bio-based technologies, has teamed with Michigan State University and the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate process improvements to the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment process. The logistical hurdles of biomass handling are well known, and the regional depot concept - in which small, distributed bioprocessing operations collect, preprocess, and densify biomass before shipping to a centralized refinery - is a promising alternative to centralized collection. AFEXTM (AFEX is a trademark of MBI) has unique features among pretreatments that would make it desirable as a pretreatment prior to densification at the depot scale. MBI has developed a novel design, using a packed bed reactor for the AFEX process that can be scaled down economically to the depot scale at a lower capital cost as compared to the traditional design (Pandia type reactor). Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and improve this novel design The key challenges are the recovery of ammonia, consistent and complete pretreatment performance, and the overall throughput of the reactor. In this project an engineering scale packed bed AFEX system with 1-ton per day capacity was installed at MBI’s building. The system has been operational since mid-2013. During that time, MBI has demonstrated the robustness, reliability, and consistency of the process. To date, nearly 500 runs have been performed in the reactors. There have been no incidences of plugging (i.e., inability to remove ammonia from biomass after the treatment), nor has there been any instance of a major ammonia release into the atmosphere. Likewise, the sugar released via enzyme hydrolysis has remained consistent throughout these runs. Our economic model shows a 46% reduction in AFEX capital cost at the 100 ton/day scale compared to the traditional design of AFEX (Pandia type reactor). The key performance factors were

  6. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

    2000-04-04

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

  7. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

    2000-01-01

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations

  8. Pretreatment of lignocellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.; Hazewinkel, O.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2006-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting lignocellulosic biomass with 70% sulfuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulfuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membranes

  9. Literature review of physical and chemical pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Huijgen, W.; Bermudez, L.; Bakker, R.

    2010-01-01

    Different pretreatment technologies published in public literature are described in terms of the mechanisms involved, advantages and disadvantages, and economic assessment. Pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic biomass include biological, mechanical, chemical methods and various combinations

  10. Dynamic Modeling and Validation of a Biomass Hydrothermal Pretreatment Process - A Demonstration Scale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest

    2015-01-01

    for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Several by-products are also formed, which disturb and act as inhibitors downstream. The objective of this study is to formulate and validate a large scale hydrothermal pretreatment dynamic model based on mass and energy balances, together with a complex conversion mechanism......Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a cost effective technology for second generation biorefineries. The process occurs in large horizontal and pressurized thermal reactors where the biomatrix is opened under the action of steam pressure and temperature to expose cellulose...

  11. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  12. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels.

  13. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes. Milestone Report No. C064

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Beary, M.M.; Nicholson, G.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities.

  14. Pre-treatment processes for automotive applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubach, P. [Oakite Products, Inc., Berkeley Heights, NJ (United States); Gehmecker, H. [Chemetall GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Pre-treatment processes for automotive applications in Europe are optimized firstly due to the increasing use of aluminum and coated steel for car bodies and parts and secondly due to environmental issues. Prephosphated coated steel, mainly electrogalvanized steel with a trication zinc phosphate layer applied in the steel mill is used by many car manufacturers. Several R and D projects are under way to coat aluminum sheet with inorganic or organic layers to enhance forming, welding and joining properties. Environmental aspects initiated the development of cleaners with biodegradable and alkylphenolethoxylate-free surfactants, liquid grain refiners with longer bath life-time, nickel or nitrite-free zinc phosphate products and chrome-free passivations. All of these products are in use in many automotive body lines except the nickel-free phosphating process which is being tested in OEM parts lines. Details of the processes in a phosphating line are described including a section on phosphating of aluminum.

  15. Electrochemical pretreatment of waste activated sludge: effect of process conditions on sludge disintegration degree and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Caihong; Yuan, Haiping; Dai, Xiaohu; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-11-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) requires a long digestion time because of a rate-limiting hydrolysis step - the first phase of anaerobic digestion (AD). Pretreatment can be used prior to AD to facilitate the hydrolysis step and improve the efficiency of WAS digestion. This study evaluated a novel application of electrochemical (EC) technology employed as the pretreatment method prior to AD of WAS, focusing on the effect of process conditions on sludge disintegration and subsequent AD process. A superior process condition of EC pretreatment was obtained by reaction time of 30 min, electrolysis voltage of 20 V, and electrode distance of 5 cm, under which the disintegration degree of WAS ranged between 9.02% and 9.72%. In the subsequent batch AD tests, 206 mL/g volatile solid (VS) methane production in EC pretreated sludge was obtained, which was 20.47% higher than that of unpretreated sludge. The AD time was 19 days shorter for EC pretreated sludge compared to the unpretreated sludge. Additionally, the EC + AD reactor achieved 41.84% of VS removal at the end of AD. The analysis of energy consumption showed that EC pretreatment could be effective in enhancing sludge AD with reduced energy consumption when compared to other pretreatment methods.

  16. The production of glucose from corn stalk using hydrothermal process with pre-treatment ultrasound assisted alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolanda, Dora; Prasutiyo, Indry; Trisanti, P. N.; Sumarno

    2015-12-01

    The production of glucose from corn stalk by using subcritical hydrothermal technology is studied in this work. Ultrasound-assisted alkaline delignification methods are used as pre-treatment. The corn stalk powder were pretreated with ultrasound-assisted alkaline (NaOH 2% w/w, solid to liquid ratio 1:22 w/v) at room temperature and 30 minutes. After pre-treatment, solid residue and liquid fractions are separated by filtration. Pretreated solids are further submitted to hydrothermal process for glucose production. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 Bar and 120°C in various times. The solid product was characterized by SEM and XRD. And liquid product was analysis using DNS method to determine percentage of glucose. From XRD analysis showed that crystallinity of material was lower than delignification product.

  17. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    between them using strategic alignment, Enterprise Systems and Business Process Management theories. We argue that the insights from these cases can lead to a better alignment between process and technology. Implications for practice include the direction towards a closer integration of process......Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Pro- cess Management (BPM), although highly correlated, have evolved as alternative and mutually exclusive approaches to corporate infrastruc- ture. As a result, companies struggle to nd the right balance between technology and process factors...... in infrastructure implementation projects. The purpose of this paper is articulate a need and a direction to medi- ate between the process-driven and the technology-driven approaches. Using a cross-case analysis, we gain insight into two examples of sys- tems and process implementation. We highlight the dierences...

  18. Desalination processes and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Reasons of the development of desalination processes, the modern desalination technologies, such as multi-stage flash evaporation, multi-effect distillation, reverse osmosis, and the prospects of using nuclear power for desalination purposes are discussed. 9 refs

  19. Techno-economic analysis of organosolv pretreatment process from lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva, Andrè; Errico, Massimiliano; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2018-01-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol is a promising alternative to replace liquid fossil fuels for the transportation sector in the near future. Organosolv pretreatment has been tested as a method for separating lignin from the biomass and commercializing it as a biopolymer. Based on published laboratory scale...... data, we propose a feasible process flowsheet for organosolv pretreatment. Simulation of the pretreatment process provided mass and energy balances for a techno-economic analysis, and the values were compared with the most prevalent and mature pretreatment method: diluted acid. Organosolv pretreatment...

  20. Technologies for Optical Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    The article consists of a Powerpoint presentation on technologies for optical processing. The paper concludes that the nonlinear elements based on SOA, fibers and waveguide structures have capabilities of simple processing at data rates of 100-600 Gb/s. Switching powers comparable to electronics...

  1. Improvement of Haramay Fiber by Pre-treatment of Retting Process withPhosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntari-Sasas; Neni-Rustini Eriawati

    2000-01-01

    Haramay as bast fiber contains of cellulose fiber as the main part, mixedwith hemi cellulose, pectin, and lignin as binding material for cellulosefiber to keep it together in the bundle form. For textile material, this bastfiber has to be freed from its binding material, called as retting process,before subjecting to scouring, dyeing and finishing process in textileindustry. In the retting process the dissolve of binding material can be doneeither by using enzyme in bio technology or extraction with strong alkalinecondition in common technology. Using sodium hydroxide for dissolving thebinding material can be carried out easily with good dissolving ability, butcan render the strength retention of the cellulose fiber. Pre-treatment ofthe bast fiber with phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), is expected to hydrolyze someof the binding materials that can not be dissolved in alkaline condition,including natural pigment that colored the fiber with creamy white. In thisstudy, the pre-treatment process before retting with phosphoric acid wascarried out in various condition, such as concentration of phosphoric acid (5ml/l- 25 ml/l), time and temperature of pre-treatment (1-3 hours at 50 o C or12-24 hours at room temperature), followed by neutralization in dilutealkaline. The retting process was carried out by means of scouring in variousconcentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH 38 o Be, 10 ml/l-30 m/l), and then wascontinued with bleaching process in hydrogen peroxide solution. Aftercarrying out those experiment, the bast fiber that called haramay wassubjected to testing for weight reduction, strength retention and degree ofwhiteness. From the testing results it is concluded that pre-treatment withphosphoric acid can increase the weight reduction, strength retention ortenacity and degree of whiteness of haramay fiber compared to the oneswithout pre-treatment with phosphoric acid. The best result was obtained bypre-treatment with 5 ml/l H 3 PO 4 at 50 o C for 2 hours, continued by

  2. Preliminary survey of separations technology applicable to the pretreatment of Hanford tank waste (1992--1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, W.E.; Kurath, D.E.

    1994-04-01

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to manage and dispose of radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford Site. Within this program are evaluations of pretreatment system alternatives through literature reviews. The information in this report was collected as part of this project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A preliminary survey of literature on separations recently entered into the Hanford electronic databases (1992--1993) that have the potential for pretreatment of Hanford tank waste was conducted. Separation processes that can assist in the removal of actinides (uranium, plutonium, americium), lanthanides, barium, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr,{sup 129 }I, {sup 63}Ni, and {sup 99}Tc were evaluated. Separation processes of interest were identified through literature searches, journal reviews, and participation in separation technology conferences. This report contains brief descriptions of the potential separation processes, the extent and/or selectivity of the separation, the experimental conditions, and observations. Information was collected on both national and international separation studies to provide a global perspective on recent research efforts.

  3. Preliminary survey of separations technology applicable to the pretreatment of Hanford tank waste (1992--1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, W.E.; Kurath, D.E.

    1994-04-01

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to manage and dispose of radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford Site. Within this program are evaluations of pretreatment system alternatives through literature reviews. The information in this report was collected as part of this project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A preliminary survey of literature on separations recently entered into the Hanford electronic databases (1992--1993) that have the potential for pretreatment of Hanford tank waste was conducted. Separation processes that can assist in the removal of actinides (uranium, plutonium, americium), lanthanides, barium, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 63 Ni, and 99 Tc were evaluated. Separation processes of interest were identified through literature searches, journal reviews, and participation in separation technology conferences. This report contains brief descriptions of the potential separation processes, the extent and/or selectivity of the separation, the experimental conditions, and observations. Information was collected on both national and international separation studies to provide a global perspective on recent research efforts

  4. A comparative analysis of selected wastewater pretreatment processes in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczyszyn, Katarzyna; Góra, Wojciech; Dymaczewski, Zbysław; Borowiak, Robert

    2018-02-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of the classical coagulation with the iron sulphate and adsorption on bentonite for the pretreatment of wastewater in the food industry. As a result of the studies, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) reduction were found to be comparable in both technologies, and a 29% higher total phosphorus removal efficiency by the coagulation was observed. After the coagulation and adsorption processes, a significant difference between mineral and organic fraction in the sludge was found (49% and 51% for bentonite and 28% and 72% for iron sulphate, respectively).

  5. Photon technology. Laser processing technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Survey has been conducted to develop laser processing technology utilizing the interaction between substance and photon. This is a part of the leading research on photon technology development. The photon technology development is aimed at novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photons. In the field of laser processing, high quality photons are used as tools, special functions of atoms and molecules will be discovered, and processing for functional fabrication (photon machining) will be established. A role of laser processing in industries has become significant, which is currently spreading not only into cutting and welding of materials and scalpels but also into such a special field as ultrafine processing of materials. The spreading is sometimes obstructed due to the difficulty of procurement of suitable machines and materials, and the increase of cost. The purpose of this study is to develop the optimal laser technology, to elucidate the interaction between substance and photon, and to develop the laser system and the transmission and regulation systems which realize the optimal conditions. 387 refs., 115 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Precipitation softening: a pretreatment process for seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, George M; Zayyat, Ramez M; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of membrane fouling in reverse osmosis systems and elimination of scaling of heat transfer surfaces in thermal plants are a major challenge in the desalination of seawater. Precipitation softening has the potential of eliminating the major fouling and scaling species in seawater desalination plants, thus allowing thermal plants to operate at higher top brine temperatures and membrane plants to operate at a reduced risk of fouling, leading to lower desalinated water costs. This work evaluated the use of precipitation softening as a pretreatment step for seawater desalination. The effectiveness of the process in removing several scale-inducing materials such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and boron was investigated under variable conditions of temperature and pH. The treatment process was also applied to seawater spiked with other known fouling species such as iron and bacteria to determine the efficiency of removal. The results of this work show that precipitation softening at a pH of 11 leads to complete elimination of calcium, silica, and bacteria; to very high removal efficiencies of magnesium and iron (99.6 and 99.2 %, respectively); and to a reasonably good removal efficiency of boron (61 %).

  7. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    traditional pretreatment method using a screw press. The inventory of the technologies was constructed including the mass balance, amount of biogas produced, nutrient recovery rates, and produced biomass quality. The technologies were modelled in the LCA-model EASETECH and the potential environmental impacts...

  10. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to investigate various coal pretreatment techniques and to determine the effect of these pretreatment procedures on the reactivity of the coal. Reactivity enhancement will be evaluated under both direct hydroliquefaction and co-processing conditions. Coal conversion utilizing low rank coals and low severity conditions (reaction temperatures generally less than 350{degrees}C) are the primary focus of the liquefaction experiments, as it is expected that the effect of pretreatment conditions and the attendant reactivity enhancement will be greatest for these coals and at these conditions. This document presents a comprehensive report summarizing the findings on the effect of mild alkylation pretreatment on coal reactivity under both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing conditions. Results of experiments using a dispersed catalyst system (chlorine) are also presented for purposes of comparison. IN general, mild alkylation has been found to be an effective pretreatment method for altering the reactivity of coal. Selective (oxygen) methylation was found to be more effective for high oxygen (subbituminous) coals compared to coals of higher rank. This reactivity enhancement was evidenced under both low and high severity liquefaction conditions, and for both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing reaction environments. Non-selective alkylation (methylation) was also effective, although the enhancement was less pronounced than found for coal activated by O-alkylation. The degree of reactivity enhancement was found to vary with both liquefaction and/or co-processing conditions and coal type, with the greatest positive effect found for subbituminous coal which had been selectively O-methylated and subsequently liquefied at low severity reaction conditions. 5 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Pretreatment of furfural industrial wastewater by Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate processes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D; Tang, Q

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes have been applied for the treatment of actual furfural industrial wastewater in this paper. Through the comparative study of the three processes, a suitable pretreatment technology for actual furfural wastewater treatment was obtained, and the mechanism and dynamics process of this technology is discussed. The experimental results show that Fenton technology has a good and stable effect without adjusting pH of furfural wastewater. At optimal conditions, which were 40 mmol/L H₂O₂ initial concentration and 10 mmol/L Fe²⁺ initial concentration, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate can reach 81.2% after 90 min reaction at 80 °C temperature. The PDS process also has a good performance. The COD removal rate could attain 80.3% when Na₂S₂O₈ initial concentration was 4.2 mmol/L, Fe²⁺ initial concentration was 0.1 mol/L, the temperature remained at 70 °C, and pH value remained at 2.0. The electro-Fenton process was not competent to deal with the high-temperature furfural industrial wastewater and only 10.2% COD was degraded at 80 °C temperature in the optimal conditions (2.25 mA/cm² current density, 4 mg/L Na₂SO₄, 0.3 m³/h aeration rate). For the Fenton, electro-Fenton and PDS processes in pretreatment of furfural wastewater, their kinetic processes follow the pseudo first order kinetics law. The pretreatment pathways of furfural wastewater degradation are also investigated in this study. The results show that furfural and furan formic acid in furfural wastewater were preferentially degraded by Fenton technology. Furfural can be degraded into low-toxicity or nontoxic compounds by Fenton pretreatment technology, which could make furfural wastewater harmless and even reusable.

  12. Process analysis of superheated steam pre-treatment of wheat straw and its relative effect on ethanol selling price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Barchyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing bioethanol operations rely on starch-based substrates, which have been criticized for their need to displace food crops in order to be produced. As an alternative to these first generation biofuels, the use of agricultural residues is being considered to create more environmentally-benign second generation, or cellulosic biofuels. Recalcitrance of these substrates to fermentation requires extensive pre-treatment processes, which often consume more energy than can be extracted from the ethanol that they produce, so one of the priorities in developing cellulosic ethanol is an effective and efficient pre-treatment method. This study examines the use of superheated steam (SS as a process medium by which wheat straw lignocellulosic material is pre-treated. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, it was found that 47% of the total glucose could be liberated from the substrate, and the optimal conditions for pre-treatment were 15 min in hot water (193 kPa, 119˚C followed by 2 min in SS. Furthermore, a preliminary relative economic analysis showed that the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP was comparable to that obtained from steam explosion, a similar process, while energy consumption was 22% less. The conclusion of the study is that SS treatment stands to be a competitive pre-treatment technology to steam explosion.

  13. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Xu, Guangqing; Liu, Jiaqin; Yi, Xiaofei; Wu, Yucheng; Chen, JingWu

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Zn coated NdFeB specimens pretreated with different technologies possess different adhesive strengths and anticorrosion properties. And the combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the best comprehensive performance. - Highlights: • Zn coated NdFeB specimens are achieved with different pretreating technologies. • Combined technology possesses the highest adhesive strength. • Combined technology possesses excellent anticorrosion property. - Abstract: Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm 2 ) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  14. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  15. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent, biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4 was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

  16. A novel free ammonia based pretreatment technology to enhance anaerobic methane production from primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Xie, Guo-Jun; Duan, Haoran; Wang, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    This study proposed a novel free ammonia (FA, i.e., NH 3 ) pretreatment technology to enhance anaerobic methane production from primary sludge for the first time. The solubilization of primary sludge was substantially enhanced following 24 h FA pretreatment (250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L), by which the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) (i.e., 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS added; VS: volatile solids) was approximately 10 times as much as that without pretreatment (i.e., 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS added). Then, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests demonstrated that FA pretreatment of 250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L was capable of enhancing anaerobic methane production while the digestion time was more than 7 days. Model based analysis indicated that the improved anaerobic methane production was due to an increased biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) of 8-17% (i.e., from 331 to 357-387 L CH 4 /kg VS added), with the highest B 0 achieved at 420 mg NH 3 -N/L pretreatment. However, FA pretreatment of 250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L decreased hydrolysis rate (k) by 24-38% compared with control (i.e., from 0.29 d -1 to 0.18-0.22 d -1 ), which explained the lower methane production over the first 7 days' digestion period. Economic analysis and environmental evaluation demonstrated that FA pretreatment technology was environmentally friendly and economically favorable. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2245-2252. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Selection of Pretreatment Processes for Removal of Radionuclides from Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, R.; Mauss, B. M.; Johnson, M. E.; Holton, L. K.; Wright, G. T.; Peterson, R. A.; Rueter, K. J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Office of River Protection (ORP) located at Hanford Washington has established a contract (1) to design, construct, and commission a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that will treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes for ultimate disposal. The WTP is comprised of four major elements, pretreatment, LAW immobilization, HLW immobilization, and balance of plant facilities. This paper describes the technologies selected for pretreatment of the LAW and HLW tank wastes, how these technologies were selected, and identifies the major technology testing activities being conducted to finalize the design of the WTP

  18. Effect of pretreatments and processing conditions on anti-nutritional factors in climbing bean flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mugabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for many Rwandans to utilize climbing bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris. L mainly because of longer cooking time (2 hours and the high consumption of basic fuel. Climbing beans also contain anti-nutritional factors such tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins that limit nutrient absorption. One way to solve this problem is to utilize the flour of climbing beans made from different treatments and processing methods. In this study, climbing beans were pre-treated by soaking them in water for 24 hours, soaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate solution and steam blanching for 10 minutes. After that, pre-treated climbing beans were processed into flours by processing methods such as roasting, cooking and germination where anti-nutritional factors were reduced. The pretreatments did not significantly (p>0.05 affect phytates in climbing bean flours but processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced it. Pretreatments and processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced tannin content. The pretreatments followed by different processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 decreased trypsin inhibitors content. The great significant decrease in phytohemagglutinins content was observed in pretreatment followed by different processing methods. All pretreatments and processing conditions effectively decreased anti-nutritional factors at low level. However, pretreatments or untreated followed by germination and roasting were found to be the most and the least effective respectively.  Making flour from germinated climbing bean seeds is a good option for sustainable food processing as it reduces anti-nutritional factors. It is an inexpensive method in terms of time, energy and fuel for Rwandan households, restaurants and industries where climbing bean seeds are integral part of daily meal.

  19. PRETREATMENT AND FRACTIONATION OF CORN STOVER BY AMMONIA RECYCLE PERCOLATION PROCESS. (R831645)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover was pretreated with aqueous ammonia in a flow-through column reactor,a process termed as Ammonia Recycle Percolation (ARP). The aqueous ammonia causesswelling and efficient delignification of biomass at high temperatures. The ARPprocess solubilizes abou...

  20. Synthesis, Modelling and Evaluation of Pretreatment Technologies for Biofuels Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva, Andrè

    2017-01-01

    was developed for process synthesis of a second generation bioethanol production process. The methodology was used to generate a set of alternatives for organosolv and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment methods, and to evaluate hotspots in the systems for enhanced and more integrated setups....

  1. Particle processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshio, Sakka

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also

  2. Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kalif, Mahdi; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2017-12-01

    The use of hot-water (100°C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100°C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191-344% and 115-300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of pretreatments and air-frying, a novel technology, on acrylamide generation in fried potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansano, M; Juan-Borrás, M; Escriche, I; Andrés, A; Heredia, A

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigated the effect of air-frying technology, in combination with a pretreatment based of soaking the samples in different chemical agent solutions (citric acid, glycine, calcium lactate, sodium chloride, or nicotinic acid [vitamin B3]), on the generation of acrylamide in fried potatoes. The influence of reducing sugars on the development of surface's color was also analyzed. The experiments were conducted at 180 °C by means of air-frying and deep-oil-frying, as a reference technology. Based on the evolution of color crust with frying time, it could be concluded that the rate of Maillard reaction decreased as the initial reducing sugars content increased in the raw material, and was also lower for deep-oil-frying than for air-frying regardless of pretreatments applied. Air-frying reduced acrylamide content by about 90% compared with conventional deep-oil-frying without being necessary the application of a pretreatment. However, deep-oil fried potatoes pretreated with solutions of nicotinic acid, citric acid, glycine at 1%, and NaCl at 2% presented much lower acrylamide levels (up to 80% to 90% reduction) than nonpretreated samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Energy efficacy used to score organic refuse pretreatment processes for hydrogen anaerobic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Bernardo; Luongo Malave, Andrea C; Bernardi, Milena; Fino, Debora

    2013-11-01

    The production of hydrogen through Anaerobic Digestion (AD) has been investigated to verify the efficacy of several pretreatment processes. Three types of waste with different carbon structures have been tested to obtain an extensive representation of the behavior of the materials present in Organic Waste (OW). The following types of waste were selected: Sweet Product Residue (SPR), i.e., confectionary residue removed from the market after the expiration date, Organic Waste Market (OWM) refuse from a local fruit and vegetable market, and Coffee Seed Skin (CSS) waste from a coffee production plant. Several pretreatment processes have been applied, including physical, chemical, thermal, and ultrasonic processes and a combination of these processes. Two methods have been used for the SPR to remove the packaging, manual (SPR) and mechanical (SPRex). A pilot plant that is able to extrude the refuse to 200atm was utilized. Two parameters have been used to score the different pretreatment processes: efficiency (ξ), which takes into account the amount of energy produced in the form of hydrogen compared with the available energy embedded in the refuse, and efficacy (η), which compares the efficiency obtained using the pretreated refuse with that obtained using the untreated refuse. The best result obtained for the SPR was the basic pretreatment, with η=6.4, whereas the thermal basic pretreatment gave the highest value, η=17.0 for SPRex. The best result for the OWM was obtained through a combination of basic/thermal pretreatments with η=9.9; lastly, the CSS residue with ultrasonic pretreatment produced the highest quantity of hydrogen, η=5.2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a new pulping technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Larsen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A new technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion was assessed, and its performance was compared to existing alternative pre-treatment technologies. This pre-treatment technology is based on waste pulping with water, using a specially developed...... screw mechanism. The pre-treatment technology rejects more than 95% (wet weight) of non-biodegradable impurities in waste collected from households and generates biopulp ready for anaerobic digestion. Overall, 84-99% of biodegradable material (on a dry weight basis) in the waste was recovered......-pulping technology showed higher biodegradable material recovery, lower electricity consumption and comparable water consumption. The higher material recovery achieved with the technology was associated with greater transfer of nutrients (N and P), carbon (total and biogenic) but also heavy metals (except Pb...

  6. Enhanced dark fermentative biohydrogen production from marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica by different pretreatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are promising substrates for biofuel production. Pretreating macroalgae with chemicals could remove microbial inhibitors and enhance the accessibility of the microorganisms involved in the process to the substrates leading to increased product yield. In the present study, Padina tetrastromatica a seaweed species was subjected to different chemical pretreatment in order to remove phenolic content and to enhance biohydrogen production. Different mineral acids (i.e., HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 and bases (NaOH and KOH were applied for effective pretreatment of the seaweed. Dilute sulphuric acid treatment of seaweed resulted in the highest cumulative biohydrogen production of 78 ± 2.9 mL/0.05 g VS and reduced phenolic content to 1.6 ±0.072 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g. Optimization of three variables for pretreatment (i.e., substrate concentration, acid concentration, and reaction time was examined by Response Surface Methodology. After the optimization of the pretreatment conditions, phenolic content was decreased to 0.06 mg GAE/g. and enhanced biohydrogen production was observed. Structural changes due to pretreatment was studied by FTIR and XRD analyses. The results clearly indicated that the dilute sulphuric acid pretreatment was effective in removing phenolic content and enhancing biohydrogen production.

  7. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Xu, Guangqing, E-mail: gqxu1979@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jiaqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yi, Xiaofei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, JingWu [Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Zn coated NdFeB specimens pretreated with different technologies possess different adhesive strengths and anticorrosion properties. And the combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the best comprehensive performance. - Highlights: • Zn coated NdFeB specimens are achieved with different pretreating technologies. • Combined technology possesses the highest adhesive strength. • Combined technology possesses excellent anticorrosion property. - Abstract: Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm{sup 2}) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  8. Process optimization of biogas energy production from cow dung with alkali pre-treated coffee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvankumar, T; Sudhakar, C; Govindaraju, M; Selvam, K; Aroulmoji, V; Sivakumar, N; Govarthanan, M

    2017-08-01

    Biogas production from cow dung with co-substrate agricultural waste is one of the most demanding technologies for generating energy in a sustainable approach considering eco-friendly. In the present study, coffee pulp (CP) was pre-treated with 1% NaOH and combined with various proportions of cow dung (CD) to explore its biogas producing potentiality. The optimization of the process was studied using Response surface methodology. Statistics based on 3-D plots were generated to evaluate the changes in the response surface and to understand the relationship between the biogas yield and other parameters. The highest methane production (144 mL/kg) was achieved after 90 h of incubation with 1:3 of CP and CD at 40 °C. Gas chromatography analyzes the chemical compositions of the generated biogas and its post combustion emissions. The chemical composition of the substrates before digestion and after fermentation (biogas spent sludge) were measured in terms of fiber content and the values were noted as, total solids (0.53%), ash content (9.2%), volatile fatty acid (100 mg/L), organic carbon (46%) and a total carbohydrate (179 mg/g). The results of the optimization of biogas production presented in this work found to have significance with the process parameters. The outcome of the study has supported the fact of conventional combustion technology that has to be upgraded to prevent these hazardous emissions into the atmosphere.

  9. Integration of National Laboratory and Low-Activity Waste Pre-Treatment System Technology Service Providers - 16435

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Karthik H.; Thien, Michael G.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Herman, Connie C.

    2017-03-08

    The National Laboratories are a critical partner and provide expertise in numerous aspects of the successful execution of the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste Program. The National Laboratories are maturing the technologies of the Low-Activity Waste Pre-Treatment System (LAWPS) consistent with DOE Order 413.3B “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets” expectations. The National Laboratories continue to mature waste forms, i.e. glass and secondary waste grout, for formulations and predictions of long-term performance as inputs to performance assessments. The working processes with the National Laboratories have been developed in procurements, communications, and reporting to support the necessary delivery-based technology support. The relationship continues to evolve from planning and technology development to support of ongoing operations and integration of multiple highly coordinated facilities.

  10. Evaluation of pretreatment processes for supercritical water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates processes to chemically treat US Department of Energy wastes to remove organic halogens, phosphorus, and sulfur. Chemical equilibrium calculations, process simulations, and responses from developers and licensors form the basis for comparisons. Gas-phase catalytic hydrogenation processes, strong base and base catalyzed processes, high pressure hydrolysis, and other emerging or commercial dehalogenation processes (both liquid and mixed phase) were considered. Cost estimates for full-scale processes and demonstration testing are given. Based on the evaluation, testing of a hydrogenation process and a strong base process are recommended

  11. Evaluation of pretreatment processes for supercritical water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates processes to chemically treat US Department of Energy wastes to remove organic halogens, phosphorus, and sulfur. Chemical equilibrium calculations, process simulations, and responses from developers and licensors form the basis for comparisons. Gas-phase catalytic hydrogenation processes, strong base and base catalyzed processes, high pressure hydrolysis, and other emerging or commercial dehalogenation processes (both liquid and mixed phase) were considered. Cost estimates for full-scale processes and demonstration testing are given. Based on the evaluation, testing of a hydrogenation process and a strong base process are recommended.

  12. Evaluation of a new pulping technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Larsen, Bjarne; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    A new technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion was assessed, and its performance was compared to existing alternative pre-treatment technologies. This pre-treatment technology is based on waste pulping with water, using a specially developed screw mechanism. The pre-treatment technology rejects more than 95% (wet weight) of non-biodegradable impurities in waste collected from households and generates biopulp ready for anaerobic digestion. Overall, 84-99% of biodegradable material (on a dry weight basis) in the waste was recovered in the biopulp. The biochemical methane potential for the biopulp was 469 ± 7 mL CH4/g ash-free mass. Moreover, all Danish and European Union requirements regarding the content of hazardous substances in biomass intended for land application were fulfilled. Compared to other pre-treatment alternatives, the screw-pulping technology showed higher biodegradable material recovery, lower electricity consumption and comparable water consumption. The higher material recovery achieved with the technology was associated with greater transfer of nutrients (N and P), carbon (total and biogenic) but also heavy metals (except Pb) to the produced biomass. The data generated in this study could be used for the environmental assessment of the technology and thus help in selecting the best pre-treatment technology for source separated organic household waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-treatment of ligno-cellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.W.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Bakker, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting ligno-cellulosic biomass with 70% sulphuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulphuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective

  14. A fast, continuous enzyme-based pretreatment process concept for cotton containing textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenting, H.B.M.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2004-01-01

    A fast integrated enzyme-based pretreatment process concept for cotton containing textiles has been developed for operation in the continuous mode. The total processing time for the desizing and scouring operation is 3–10 minutes for fabrics with a weight of 120–300 g/m2. Essential elements in the

  15. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  16. Technospheric Mining of Rare Earth Elements from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud): Process Optimization, Kinetic Investigation, and Microwave Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sable; Tam, Jason; Yang, Mingfan; Azimi, Gisele

    2017-11-10

    Some rare earth elements (REEs) are classified under critical materials, i.e., essential in use and subject to supply risk, due to their increasing demand, monopolistic supply, and environmentally unsustainable and expensive mining practices. To tackle the REE supply challenge, new initiatives have been started focusing on their extraction from alternative secondary resources. This study puts the emphasis on technospheric mining of REEs from bauxite residue (red mud) produced by the aluminum industry. Characterization results showed the bauxite residue sample contains about 0.03 wt% REEs. Systematic leaching experiments showed that concentrated HNO 3 is the most effective lixiviant. However, because of the process complexities, H 2 SO 4 was selected as the lixiviant. To further enhance the leaching efficiency, a novel process based on microwave pretreatment was employed. Results indicated that microwave pretreatment creates cracks and pores in the particles, enabling the lixiviant to diffuse further into the particles, bringing more REEs into solution, yielding of 64.2% and 78.7% for Sc and Nd, respectively, which are higher than the maximum obtained when HNO 3 was used. This novel process of "H 2 SO 4 leaching-coupled with-microwave pretreatment" proves to be a promising technique that can help realize the technological potential of REE recovery from secondary resources, particularly bauxite residue.

  17. Soaking pretreatment of corn stover for bioethanol production followed by anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhuang; Tian, Shen; Chen, Zebing; Li, Jia; Yang, Xiushan

    2012-08-01

    The production of ethanol and methane from corn stover (CS) was investigated in a biorefinery process. Initially, a novel soaking pretreatment (NaOH and aqueous-ammonia) for CS was developed to remove lignin, swell the biomass, and improve enzymatic digestibility. Based on the sugar yield during enzymatic hydrolysis, the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1 % NaOH+8 % NH(4)OH, 50°C, 48 h, with a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:10. The results demonstrated that soaking pretreatment removed 63.6 % lignin while reserving most of the carbohydrates. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the yields of glucose and xylose were 78.5 % and 69.3 %, respectively. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated CS using Pichia stipitis resulted in an ethanol concentration of 36.1 g/L, corresponding only to 63.3 % of the theoretical maximum. In order to simplify the process and reduce the capital cost, the liquid fraction of the pretreatment was used to re-soak new CS. For methane production, the re-soaked CS and the residues of SSF were anaerobically digested for 120 days. Fifteen grams CS were converted to 1.9 g of ethanol and 1337.3 mL of methane in the entire process.

  18. Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects

  19. Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

    1999-04-01

    The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

  20. The Effect of Pretreatments on Surfactin Production From Potato Process Effluent by Bacillus Subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neal; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

    2000-05-01

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  1. The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

    2000-05-07

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  2. Fundamentals of semiconductor processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    El-Kareh, Badih

    1995-01-01

    The drive toward new semiconductor technologies is intricately related to market demands for cheaper, smaller, faster, and more reliable circuits with lower power consumption. The development of new processing tools and technologies is aimed at optimizing one or more of these requirements. This goal can, however, only be achieved by a concerted effort between scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators in research, development, and manufac­ turing. It is therefore important that experts in specific disciplines, such as device and circuit design, understand the principle, capabil­ ities, and limitations of tools and processing technologies. It is also important that those working on specific unit processes, such as lithography or hot processes, be familiar with other unit processes used to manufacture the product. Several excellent books have been published on the subject of process technologies. These texts, however, cover subjects in too much detail, or do not cover topics important to modem tech­ n...

  3. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-05-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  5. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by chemical processes: effect of acid cracking pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande Gursoy-Haksevenler, B; Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acid cracking (pH 2.0; T 70 °C) and filtration as a pretreatment step on the chemical treatability of olive mill wastewater (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 150,000 m/L; total organic carbon (TOC) 36,000 mg/L; oil-grease 8,200 mg/L; total phenols 3,800 mg/L) was investigated. FeCl3 coagulation, Ca(OH)2 precipitation, electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes and the Fenton's reagent were applied as chemical treatment methods. Removal performances were examined in terms of COD, TOC, oil-grease, total phenols, colour, suspended solids and acute toxicity with the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri. Significant oil-grease (95%) and suspended solids (96%) accompanied with 58% COD, 43% TOC, 39% total phenols and 80% colour removals were obtained by acid cracking-filtration pretreatment. Among the investigated chemical treatment processes, electrocoagulation and the Fenton's reagent were found more effective after pretreatment, especially in terms of total phenols removal. Total phenols removal increased from 39 to 72% when pretreatment was applied, while no significant additional (≈10-15%) COD and TOC removals were obtained when acid cracking was coupled with chemical treatment. The acute toxicity of the original olive mill wastewater sample increased considerably after pretreatment from 75 to 89% (measured for the 10-fold diluted wastewater sample). An operating cost analysis was also performed for the selected chemical treatment processes.

  6. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN; Hamilton, Choo Y [Knoxville, TN

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  7. Review of technologies for the pretreatment of retrieved single-shell tank waste at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to identify and evaluate innovative processes that could be used to pretreat mixed waste retrieved from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. The information was collected as part of the Single Shell Tank Waste Treatment project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The project is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company under their SST Disposal Program

  8. Radioactive waste tank Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) technology development and selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, G.H.; Hansrote, G.

    1994-01-01

    The processing of nuclear materials at the Hanford Site has resulted in the accumulation of radioactive wastes stored in 177 single- and double-shell tanks (SSTs and DSTs). Fifty-four of the 177 tanks are currently on a tank watch list because organic chemicals and ferrocyanide compounds in the tanks present a potential fire or explosion hazard. In addition, one additional SST is under consideration for placement on the watch list because of high organic concentration. Seventeen of the watch list tanks require pretreatment, and two DST complexant concentrate waste tanks not on the watch list may also need pretreatment. The proposed Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) is expected to resolve the safety concerns by destroying the organics and ferrocyanide compounds in the tank wastes. The primary objective of the IPM is to destroy or modify constituents that cause safety concerns in the watch list tanks. A secondary objective is to enhance the cost effectiveness of processing the wastes by performing additional processing. Overall, IPM will achieve organic/ferrocyanide destruction (the primary goal) and will assist in the separation of cesium, strontium, and technetium from the tank wastes

  9. Ionizing Radiation Processing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Kamarudin Hashim; Jamaliah Sharif; Ratnam, C.T.; Keong, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    This book completely brief on the basic concept and theory of ionizing radiation in polymers material processing. Besides of that the basic concept of polymerization addition, cross-linking and radiation degradation also highlighted in this informative book. All of the information is from scientific writing based on comprehensive scientific research in polymerization industry which using the radiation ionizing. It is very useful to other researcher whose study in Nuclear Sciencea and Science of Chemical and Material to use this book as a guideline for them in future scientific esearch.

  10. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…

  11. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasan, Darsh T.; Nikolov, Alex D.; Lamber, D.P.; Calloway, T. Bond; Stone, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has reported severe foaminess in the bench scale evaporation of the Hanford River Protection - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WPT) envelope C waste. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. The antifoams used at Hanford and tested by SRNL are believed to degrade and become inactive in high pH solutions. Hanford wastes have been known to foam during evaporation causing excessive down time and processing delays

  12. Removal of oil pollutants in seawater as pretreatment of reverse osmosis desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Jian; Nishijima, Wataru; Baes, Aloysius U.; Okada, Mitsumasa [Hiroshima Univ., Environmental Science Dept., Hiroshima (Japan); Kitanaka, Atsushi [Fuji-Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Weathered oil contaminated seawater (WOCS) was used to investigate the behaviour of soluble oil components in seawater in various pretreatment processes for removal of oil pollutants in seawater. The various pretreatment processes were a reverse osmosis desalination process in combination with advanced oxidation processes, ultrafiltration, coagulation, GAC adsorption, biological treatment and separation with a low pressure RO membrane. WOCS was prepared by mixing oil, nutrients and fresh seawater which was exposed to sunlight to simulate photooxidation and microbial degradation of oil in the marine environment. It was found that WOCS contained soluble components with relatively small molecular size, which are refractory to biodegradation and difficult to remove by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UF membrane or coagulation using FeCl{sub 3} or PAC as flocculants. However, DOC in WOCS (OCWOCS) was easily adsorbed to GAC. Low pressure RO membranes with higher salt rejection rate could remove more OCWOCS compared to those of lower salt rejection rate. (Author)

  13. Removal of oil pollutants in seawater as pretreatment of reverse osmosis desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Jian; Nishijima, Wataru; Baes, Aloysius U.; Okada, Mitsumasa [Hiroshima Univ., Environmental Science Dept., Hiroshima (Japan); Kitanaka, Atsushi [Fuji-Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Weathered oil contaminated seawater (WOCS) was used to investigate the behaviour of soluble oil components in seawater in various pretreatment processes for removal of oil pollutants in seawater. The various pretreatment processes were a reverse osmosis desalination process in combination with advanced oxidation processes, ultrafiltration, coagulation, GAC adsorption, biological treatment and separation with a low pressure RO membrane. WOCS was prepared by mixing oil, nutrients and fresh seawater which was exposed to sunlight to simulate photooxidation and microbial degradation of oil in the marine environment. It was found that WOCS contained soluble components with relatively small molecular size, which are refractory to biodegradation and difficult to remove by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UF membrane or coagulation using FeCl{sub 3} or PAC as flocculants. However, DOC in WOCS (OCWOCS) was easily adsorbed to GAC. Low pressure RO membranes with higher salt rejection rate could remove more OCWOCS compared to those of lower salt rejection rate. (Author)

  14. THE ROLE OF LIQUID WASTE PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOLVING THE DOE CLEAN-UP MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, B; Sheryl Bush, S

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this report is to describe the pretreatment solutions that allow treatment to be tailored to specific wastes, processing ahead of the completion schedules for the main treatment facilities, and reduction of technical risks associated with future processing schedules. Wastes stored at Hanford and Savannah River offer challenging scientific and engineering tasks. At both sites, space limitations confound the ability to effectively retrieve and treat the wastes. Additionally, the radiation dose to the worker operating and maintaining the radiochemical plants has a large role in establishing the desired radioactivity removal. However, the regulatory requirements to treat supernatant and saltcake tank wastes differ at the two sites. Hanford must treat and remove radioactivity from the tanks based on the TriParty Agreement and Waste Incidental to Reprocessing (WIR) documentation. These authorizing documents do not specify treatment technologies; rather, they specify endstate conditions. Dissimilarly, Waste Determinations prepared at SRS in accordance with Section 3116 of the 2005 National Defense Authorization Act along with state operating permits establish the methodology and amounts of radioactivity that must be removed and may be disposed of in South Carolina. After removal of entrained solids and site-specific radionuclides, supernatant and saltcake wastes are considered to be low activity waste (LAW) and are immobilized in glass and disposed of at the Hanford Site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) or formulated into a grout for disposal at the Savannah River Site Saltstone Disposal Facility. Wastes stored at the Hanford Site or SRS comprise saltcake, supernate, and sludges. The supernatant and saltcake waste fractions contain primarily sodium salts, metals (e.g., Al, Cr), cesium-137 (Cs-137), technetium-99 (Tc-99) and entrained solids containing radionuclides such as strontium-90 (Sr-90) and transuranic elements. The sludges contain many of the

  15. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production : technology and energy consumption evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed...

  16. Plasma technology in metallurgical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haile, O.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of plasma technology and telling about metallurgical processing, particularly iron and steelmaking as well as the advantage of the unique properties of plasma. The main advantages of plasma technology in metallurgical operations is to direct utilization of naturally available raw materials and fuels without costly upgrading andlor beneficiation, improved environmental impact, improve process control, significant amplification of reactor and process equipment utilization and increased efficiency of raw materials, energy and man power. This literature survey is based on the publication `plasma technology in metallurgical processing` presents a comprehensive account of the physical, electrical, and mechanical aspects of plasma production and practical processing. The applications of plasma technology in metallurgical processing are covered in depth with special emphasis on developments in promising early stages. Plasma technology of today is mature in the metallurgical process applications. A few dramatic improvements are expected in the near future this giving an impetus to the technologists for the long range planning. (18 refs.) (author)

  17. Radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing technology is widely used in industry to enhance efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. Efforts have been made by MINT to expand the application of radiation processing technology for modification of indigenous materials such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide into new and high value added products. This paper described MINT experiences on developing products through R and D from the laboratory to the pilot plant stage and commercialization. The paper also explained some issues and challenges that MINT encountered in the process of commercialization of its R and D results. (author)

  18. Livestock Feed Production from Sago Solid Waste by Pretreatment and Anaerobic Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food needs in Indonesia is increasing, including beef. Today, Indonesia has problem to do self-sufficiency in beef. The cause of the problem is the quality of local beef is still lower compared with imported beef due to the quality of livestock feed consumed. To increase the quality of livestock is through pretreatment and fermentation. Source of livestock feed that processed is solid sago waste (Arenga microcarpa, because in Indonesia that is relatively abundant and not used optimally. Chemical pretreatment process for delignification is by using NaOH solution. The purposes of this research are to study NaOH pretreatment, the addition of Trichoderma sp, and fermentation time to improve the quality of sago solid waste as livestock feed through anaerobic fermentation. The variables used are addition or without addition (4%w NaOH solution and Trichoderma sp 1%w and fermentation time (7, 14 and 21 days, with the response of crude fiber and protein. The result of this research shows that the pretreatment with soaking of NaOH solution, addition of Trichoderma sp and 14 days of fermentation was more effective to improve the quality of solid sago waste with decrease of crude fiber from 33.37% to 17.36% and increase of crude protein from 4.00% to 7.96%.

  19. Saponification pretreatment and solids recirculation as a new anaerobic process for the treatment of slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, R; Palatsi, J; Flotats, X; Carrère, H; Steyer, J P; Battimelli, A

    2013-03-01

    Different configurations of anaerobic process, adapted to the treatment of solid slaughterhouse fatty waste, were proposed and evaluated in this study. The tested configurations are based on the combination of anaerobic digestion with/without waste saponification pretreatment (70 °C during 60 min) and with/without recirculation of the digestate solid fraction (ratio=20% w/w). After an acclimation period of substrate pulses-feeding cycles, the reactors were operated in a semi-continuous feeding mode, increasing organic loading rates along experimental time. The degradation of the raw substrate was shown to be the bottleneck of the whole process, obtaining the best performance and process yields in the reactor equipped with waste pretreatment and solids recirculation. Saponification promoted the emulsification and bioavailability of solid fatty residues, while recirculation of solids minimized the substrate/biomass wash-out and induced microbial adaptation to the treatment of fatty substrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impacts of operating parameters on oxidation-reduction potential and pretreatment efficacy in the pretreatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huifang, E-mail: whfkhl@sina.com [College of Environment, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Industrial Water-Conservation and Emission Reduction, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Shihe [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A real printing and dyeing wastewater was pretreated by Fenton process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated impacts of operating parameters on ORP and pretreatment efficacy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship among ORP, operating parameters and treatment efficacy was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment efficacy was in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated kinetics of color and COD removal and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio in solution. - Abstract: An experiment was conducted in a batch reactor for a real printing and dyeing wastewater pretreatment using Fenton process in this study. The results showed that original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration and ferrous sulfate concentration affected ORP value and pretreatment efficacy greatly. Under experimental conditions, the optimal original pH was 6.61, and the optimal hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate concentrations were 1.50 and 0.75 g L{sup -1}, respectively. The relationship among ORP, original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration, ferrous sulfate concentration, and color (COD or BOD{sub 5}/COD) was established, which would be instructive in on-line monitoring and control of Fenton process using ORP. In addition, the effects of wastewater temperature and oxidation time on pretreatment efficacy were also investigated. With an increase of temperature, color and COD removal efficiencies and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio increased, and they were in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Similarly, color and COD removal efficiencies increased with increasing oxidation time, and both color and COD removal obeyed the first-order kinetics. The BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio could be expressed by a second-degree polynomial with respect to oxidation time, and the best biodegradability of wastewater was present at the oxidation time of 6.10 h.

  1. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  2. Development of an integrated pretreatment fractionation process for fermentable sugars and lignin: Application to almond (Prunus dulcis) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Dachun; Holtman, Kevin M.; Franqui-Espiet, Diana; Orts, William J.; Zhao, Ruming

    2011-01-01

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from almond (Prunus dulcis) shells, consisting of hot water pretreatment (HWP) coupled with organic solvent (organosolv) pretreatment of water/ethanol (OWEP). This integrated pretreatment process proved more effective on the basis of yield of fermentable sugar and lignin separation compared with HWP alone, dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), ammonia pretreatment (AP), lime pretreatment LP, organosolv water/ethanol pretreatment (OWEP), and organosolv water/acetone pretreatment (OWAP). In the coupled hot water-organosolv process, hemicellulose sugars were recovered in the first residual liquid while varying amounts of cellulose was retained in the residual solid. The lignin fraction was obtained by simply adjusting the pH from the second liquid. The optimal two-stage process consisted of first HWP stage at 195 o C for 30 min, resulting in w glucose = 95.4% glucose recovery yield and w xylose = 92.2% xylose removal. The second organosolv OWEP stage was operated at 195 o C for 20 min, in ethanol in water mixtures of ethanol = 50% and resulted in nearly w glucose = 100% glucose recovery yield, w xylose = 90% xylose and w lignin = 61% lignin removal. After enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose yield was up to w glucose = 95%, compared to 61% yield from untreated almond. Images obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) highlighted the differences in almond structure from the varying pretreatment methods during biomass fractionation. -- Highlights: → Almond shells are an under-utilized agriculture byproduct available in the world. → Almond shells are particularly attractive as bioenergy feedstock. → We have developed a new fractionation process for the almond shell. → The new process combined the HWP with OWEP. → The fractionation process has potential in the utilization of almond shell.

  3. Beam Technologies for Integrated Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    magnetic media on tape to optical coatings on polymeric materials. The technologies have progressed in the area of PVD to plasma-assisted CVD ( PACVD ...evaporation of boric acid in an ammonia plasma. Enhanced CVD processes have taken the form of either thermally assisted CVD or PACVD for thermal and electron...temperature-induced irreversible structural or electrical changes. A further process improvement, known as remote PACVD , is used to protect both the

  4. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Silva, Laura J [Dublin, OH; Qiu, Dongming [Carbondale, IL; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Dublin, OH; Hickey, Thomas P [Dublin, OH; Arora, Ravi [Dublin, OH; Smith, Amanda [Galloway, OH; Litt, Robert Dwayne [Westerville, OH; Neagle, Paul [Westerville, OH

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  5. Effects of chemical-physical pre-treatment processes on hemp fibres for reinforcement of composites and textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bohn, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    Retted hemp fibres were treated using chemical-physical pre-treatments and the material was characterised chemically in order to evaluate the effect of the pre-treatments, respectively, wet oxidation (WO), hydrothermal treatment (HT) and steam explosion (STEX). Process variables were addition...

  6. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997)

  7. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-10-02

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997).

  8. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......-treatment technology. The sampled reject consisted mostly of organic matter. For cities using plastic bags for the source-separated organic waste, the expected content of plastic in the reject was up to 10% wet weight (in some cases up to 20%). Batch tests for methane potential of the biomass samples showed only minor...

  9. Pyro processing technology at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansoo; Kim, Eungho; Park, Seongwon

    2008-01-01

    KAERI has studied on the pyro processing as a spent fuel treatment method for more than decade. The process includes voloxidation, electroreduction, electrorefining with solid and liquid cathodes, and waste salt treatment. Each process has developed its own characteristics which are suitable for treating high mass flow. In the electroreduction process, a magnesia filter was used for integrated electrolytic reduction. More than 99% of reduction yield was achieved. Electrorefining process employs the continuous operation concept. Uranium deposits on the surface of graphite cathode and it is stripped off spontaneously to the bottom of the reactor, which allows continuous operation. Crystallization method was used for treating waste salt. Pure salt is recovered by Czochralski method or zone freezing method and subsequently recycled to the reactor. These advanced technologies ensure the operation of pyro processing in a larger scale

  10. Technology development life cycle processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  11. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  13. Statistical process control applied to intensity modulated radiotherapy pretreatment controls with portal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, N.; Noel, A.; Villani, N.; Gerard, K.; Marchesi, V.; Huger, S.; Noel, A.; Francois, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The first purpose of this study was to illustrate the contribution of statistical process control for a better security in intensity modulated radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) treatments. This improvement is possible by controlling the dose delivery process, characterized by pretreatment quality control results. So, it is necessary to put under control portal dosimetry measurements (currently, the ionisation chamber measurements were already monitored by statistical process control thanks to statistical process control tools). The second objective was to state whether it is possible to substitute ionisation chamber with portal dosimetry in order to optimize time devoted to pretreatment quality control. Patients and methods At Alexis-Vautrin center, pretreatment quality controls in I.M.R.T. for prostate and head and neck treatments were performed for each beam of each patient. These controls were made with an ionisation chamber, which is the reference detector for the absolute dose measurement, and with portal dosimetry for the verification of dose distribution. Statistical process control is a statistical analysis method, coming from industry, used to control and improve the studied process quality. It uses graphic tools as control maps to follow-up process, warning the operator in case of failure, and quantitative tools to evaluate the process toward its ability to respect guidelines: this is the capability study. The study was performed on 450 head and neck beams and on 100 prostate beams. Results Control charts, showing drifts, both slow and weak, and also both strong and fast, of mean and standard deviation have been established and have shown special cause introduced (manual shift of the leaf gap of the multi-leaf collimator). Correlation between dose measured at one point, given with the E.P.I.D. and the ionisation chamber has been evaluated at more than 97% and disagreement cases between the two measurements were identified. Conclusion The study allowed to

  14. Ethanol from softwood. Process development based on steam pretreatment and SSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenberg, Kerstin

    1999-05-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosics by the enzymatic hydrolysis process, which consists of a pretreatment step prior to hydrolysis, followed by fermentation and finally refining. This thesis deals with the development of the enzymatic process using softwood as raw material. The focus has not only been on how to obtain high yields, but also on how to solve problems, which can arise in an industrial process, such as inhibition and contamination. The pretreatment step was evaluated using steam-pretreatment and impregnation with an acid catalyst, either SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both impregnation methods resulted in approximately the same yield, 65% of the theoretical of fermentable sugars, i.e. glucose and mannose, after enzymatic hydrolysis. However, impregnation with SO{sub 2}, resulted in higher ethanol productivity and yield in the fermentation. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was investigated using various substrate and cellulase concentrations. An overall ethanol yield of 70% of the theoretical was obtained using the whole slurry from the pretreatment step at an insoluble dry weight content of 5%, which was shown to be optimal. SSF resulted in both higher productivity and higher ethanol yield than in separate hydrolysis and fermentation, but proved to be more sensitive to infection by lactic aid bacteria. More complex process integration, in the form of recirculation of process streams, which is desirable in an industrial process, was investigated using bench-scale equipment. A reduction in the fresh-water demand of 50%, from 3 kg/kg dry raw material to 1.5 kg/kg dry raw material, was found to be possible without any negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation. A techno-economic evaluation of different process configurations in a process applying SSF was also performed. It was found that the ethanol production cost could be reduced by 20% by internal energy integration and by another 15% by recirculation to the

  15. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response su...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  16. Evaluation of pre-treatment technologies for phosphorous removal from drinking water to mitigate membrane biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, M.; Tihomirova, K.; Mežule, L.; Rubulis, J.; Gruškeviča, K.; Juhna, T.

    2017-10-01

    Membranes are widely used for the treatment of various solutions. However, membrane fouling remains the limiting factor for their usage, setting biofouling as the most severe type of it. Therefore, the production of biologically stable water prior to membranes is important. Since lack of phosphorus may hinder the growth of microorganisms, the aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of microbially available phosphorus (MAP) removal via affordable water pre-treatment methods (adsorption, biofiltration, electrocoagulation) on bacterial growth. Four cylindrical reactors were installed at an artificially recharged groundwater station. Further temperature influence and carbon limitation were tested for biofiltration technology. The amount of MAP and total cell count was measured by flow cytometry. The results showed that at lower temperatures electrocoagulation performed the best, resulting in complete MAP removal (detection limit 6.27x10-3μg P l-1). Sorbent demonstrated MAP removal of 70-90%. Biomass did not have any noteworthy results at +8°C, however, at +19°C MAP removal of around 80% was achieved. Main conclusions obtained within this study are: (i) tested technologies effectively eliminate MAP levels; (ii) temperature has a significant effect on MAP removal in a bioreactor, (iii) multi-barrier approach might be necessary for better P limitation that might prolong operating time of a membrane.

  17. Multivariate analysis of sludge disintegration by microwave–hydrogen peroxide pretreatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya-wei, Wang; Cheng-min, Gui; Xiao-tang, Ni; Mei-xue, Chen; Yuan-song, Wei, E-mail: Yswei@rcees.ac.cn

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Investigation of TSS, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, pH and interactions on MW sludge pretreatment. • Quadratic models were drawn for 16 response variables with good predictive ability. • Models could optimize the treatment process for multiple disintegration objectives. - Abstract: Microwave irradiation (with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been shown to offer considerable advantages owing to its flexible control, low overall cost, and resulting higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD); accordingly, the method has been proposed recently as a means of improving sludge disintegration. However, the key factor controlling this sludge pretreatment process, pH, has received insufficient attention to date. To address this, the response surface approach (central composite design) was applied to evaluate the effects of total suspended solids (TSS, 2–20 g/L), pH (4–10), and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage (0–2 w/w) and their interactions on 16 response variables (e.g., SCOD{sub released}, pH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2remaining}). The results demonstrated that all three factors affect sludge disintegration significantly, and no pronounced interactions between response variables were observed during disintegration, except for three variables (TCOD, TSS{sub remaining}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} {sub remaining}). Quadratic predictive models were constructed for all 16 response variables (R{sup 2}: 0.871–0.991). Taking soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as an example, the model and coefficients derived above were able to predict the performance of microwave pretreatment (enhanced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and pH adjustment) from previously published studies. The predictive models developed were able to optimize the treatment process for multiple disintegration objectives.

  18. Technologies to support industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzi, G.; Savelli, D.

    1989-05-01

    Control and measuring techniques applied to industry have the common aim of increasing safety, reliability and plant availability. The industrial monitoring system needs a lot of sensors, whose signals, elaborated and interpreted, allow one to define the best working condition; moreover control instruments perform a diagnosis related to damages and breakages. The Experimental Engineering Division of ENEA's Thermal Reactor Department has developed sensors and measuring apparatus and has acquired advanced control techniques. All these systems, containing an original software, have been applied to industrial process problems and/or to experimental facilities both to increase reliability and to understand better process physics. Division activities are grouped in four sectors: non-destructive examinations (ultrasonic, eddy current, thermography, holographic interpherometry, penetrant liquids and magnetoscopy); innovative sensors (heated thermocouples, optical fiber sensors); advanced measuring systems (laser technology for fluidodynamic measures, nuclear radiation techniques, infrared measuring, mass spectrometer, hot-film anemometer, chromatographic apparatus); advanced technologies for diagnosis and signal analysis (digital image processing, statistical analysis). (author)

  19. Membrane processes in nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of radioactive wastes is necessary taking into account the potential hazard of radioactive substances to human health and surrounding environment. The choice of appropriate technology depends on capital and operational costs, wastes amount and their characteristics, appointed targets of the process, e.g. the values of decontamination factors and volume reduction coefficients. The conventional technologies applied for radioactive waste processing, such as precipitation coupled with sedimentation, ion exchange and evaporation have many drawbacks. These include high energy consumption and formation of secondary wastes, e.g. the sludge from sediment tanks, spent ion exchange adsorbents and regeneration solutions. There are also many limitations of such processes, i.e. foaming and drop entrainment in evaporators, loses of solvents and production of secondary wastes in solvent extraction or bed clogging in ion exchange columns. Membrane processes as the newest achievement of the process engineering can successfully supersede many non-effective, out-of-date methods. But in some instances they can also complement these methods whilst improving the parameters of effluents and purification economy. This monograph presents own research data on the application of recent achievements in the area of membrane processes for solving selected problems in nuclear technology. Relatively big space was devoted to the use of membrane processing of low and intermediate radioactive liquid wastes because of numerous applications of these processes in nuclear centres over the world and also because of the interests of the author that was reflected by her recent research projects and activity. This work presents a review on the membrane methods recently introduced into the nuclear technology against the background of the other, commonly applied separation techniques, with indications of the possibilities and prospects for their further developments. Particular attention was paid

  20. Advanced biorefinery in lower termite-effect of combined pretreatment during the chewing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Jing

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the major barrier in biomass utilization is the lack of an effective pretreatment of plant cell wall so that the carbohydrates can subsequently be hydrolyzed into sugars for fermentation into fuel or chemical molecules. Termites are highly effective in degrading lignocellulosics and thus can be used as model biological systems for studying plant cell wall degradation. Results We discovered a combination of specific structural and compositional modification of the lignin framework and partial degradation of carbohydrates that occurs in softwood with physical chewing by the termite, Coptotermes formosanus, which are critical for efficient cell wall digestion. Comparative studies on the termite-chewed and native (control softwood tissues at the same size were conducted with the aid of advanced analytical techniques such as pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The results strongly suggest a significant increase in the softwood cellulose enzymatic digestibility after termite chewing, accompanied with utilization of holocellulosic counterparts and an increase in the hydrolysable capacity of lignin collectively. In other words, the termite mechanical chewing process combines with specific biological pretreatment on the lignin counterpart in the plant cell wall, resulting in increased enzymatic cellulose digestibility in vitro. The specific lignin unlocking mechanism at this chewing stage comprises mainly of the cleavage of specific bonds from the lignin network and the modification and redistribution of functional groups in the resulting chewed plant tissue, which better expose the carbohydrate within the plant cell wall. Moreover, cleavage of the bond between the holocellulosic network and lignin molecule during the chewing process results in much better exposure of the biomass carbohydrate. Conclusion Collectively, these

  1. Dark fermentation process as pretreatment for a sustainable denaturation of asbestos containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasiano, Danilo

    2018-05-05

    A cement asbestos compound (CAC) sample was detoxified by a treatment train based on a dark fermentation (DF) process followed by a hydrothermal phase, which led to the complete degradation of the chrysotile fibers. During the biological pretreatment, the glucose was converted in biogas rich in H 2 and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The latter caused the dissolution of all the Ca-based compounds and the solubilisation of 50% brucite-like layers of chrysotile fibers contained in the CAC suspended in the bioreactor (5 g/L). XRD analysis of the solids contained in the effluents of the DF process highlighted the disappearance of the chrysotile fiber peaks. However, a complete destruction of all the asbestos fibers is hard to prove and a hydrothermal treatment was carried out to dissolve the "brucite" layers still present in solution. Due to the presence of the VFA produced during the DF, a complete destruction of chrysotile fibers was achieved by a 24 h hydrothermal process performed with a [H 2 SO 4 ]/[CAC] ratio 50% lower than that adopted in a previous finding. Consequently, the DF pre-treatment can contribute to lower the H 2 SO 4 and the energy consumption of a CAC hydrothermal treatment, due to the production of VFA and H 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impacts of operating parameters on oxidation-reduction potential and pretreatment efficacy in the pretreatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifang; Wang, Shihe

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted in a batch reactor for a real printing and dyeing wastewater pretreatment using Fenton process in this study. The results showed that original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration and ferrous sulfate concentration affected ORP value and pretreatment efficacy greatly. Under experimental conditions, the optimal original pH was 6.61, and the optimal hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate concentrations were 1.50 and 0.75 gL(-1), respectively. The relationship among ORP, original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration, ferrous sulfate concentration, and color (COD or BOD(5)/COD) was established, which would be instructive in on-line monitoring and control of Fenton process using ORP. In addition, the effects of wastewater temperature and oxidation time on pretreatment efficacy were also investigated. With an increase of temperature, color and COD removal efficiencies and BOD(5)/COD ratio increased, and they were in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Similarly, color and COD removal efficiencies increased with increasing oxidation time, and both color and COD removal obeyed the first-order kinetics. The BOD(5)/COD ratio could be expressed by a second-degree polynomial with respect to oxidation time, and the best biodegradability of wastewater was present at the oxidation time of 6.10h. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    ' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  4. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  5. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the

  6. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  7. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  8. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of pretreated biomass using glycerol thermal processing (GTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Barone, Justin R; Renneckar, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Biomass was heated (200-240°C) in the presence of glycerol, for 4-12 min, under shear to disrupt the native cell wall architecture. The impact of this method, named glycerol thermal processing (GTP), on saccharification efficiency of the hardwood Liquidambar styraciflua, and a control cellulose sample was studied as a function of treatment severity. Furthermore, the enzymatic conversion of samples with varying compositions was studied after extraction of the structural polymers. Interestingly, the sweet gum processed materials crystallinity index increased by 10% of the initial value. The experiments revealed that the residual lignin was not a barrier to limiting the digestibility of cellulose after pretreatment yielding up to 70% glucose based on the starting wood material. Further xylan removal greatly improved the cellulose hydrolysis rate, converting nearly 70% of the cellulose into glucose within 24h, and reaching 78% of ultimate glucan digestibility after 72 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of contaminant gases from an electrolytic urine pretreatment process. [in spacecraft life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The effluent gas stream from an electrolytic urine pretreatment process was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and wet chemical methods to determine its composition. The major constituents were identified as: hydrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, and chlorine. The trace impurities were chlorinated light hydrocarbons, and a number of other organic impurities in the low ppm range. Several methods of removing all of the undesirable gases to levels acceptable for return to a space cabin atmosphere were investigated experimentally. A subsystem concept comprised of the following sequential unit processes and operations was successfully demonstrated: (1) raw urine scrubbing, (2) silica gel sorption, (3) dilution with cabin air, and (4) catalytic oxidation.

  10. Torque measurements reveal large process differences between materials during high solid enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmqvist Benny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common trend in the research on 2nd generation bioethanol is the focus on intensifying the process and increasing the concentration of water insoluble solids (WIS throughout the process. However, increasing the WIS content is not without problems. For example, the viscosity of pretreated lignocellulosic materials is known to increase drastically with increasing WIS content. Further, at elevated viscosities, problems arise related to poor mixing of the material, such as poor distribution of the enzymes and/or difficulties with temperature and pH control, which results in possible yield reduction. Achieving good mixing is unfortunately not without cost, since the power requirements needed to operate the impeller at high viscosities can be substantial. This highly important scale-up problem can easily be overlooked. Results In this work, we monitor the impeller torque (and hence power input in a stirred tank reactor throughout high solid enzymatic hydrolysis (Arundo donax and spruce. Two different process modes were evaluated, where either the impeller speed or the impeller power input was kept constant. Results from hydrolysis experiments at a fixed impeller speed of 10 rpm show that a very rapid decrease in impeller torque is experienced during hydrolysis of pretreated arundo (i.e. it loses its fiber network strength, whereas the fiber strength is retained for a longer time within the spruce material. This translates into a relatively low, rather WIS independent, energy input for arundo whereas the stirring power demand for spruce is substantially larger and quite WIS dependent. By operating the impeller at a constant power input (instead of a constant impeller speed it is shown that power input greatly affects the glucose yield of pretreated spruce whereas the hydrolysis of arundo seems unaffected. Conclusions The results clearly highlight the large differences between the arundo and spruce materials, both in terms of

  11. Bioethanol production from steam-pretreated corn stover through an isomerase mediated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Isabella; Cuna, Daniela; Di Matteo, Vincenzo; Liuzzi, Federico

    2014-03-25

    Agricultural by-products such as corn stover are considered strategic raw materials for the production of second-generation bioethanol from renewable and non-food sources. This paper describes the conversion of steam-pretreated corn stover to ethanol utilising a multi-step process including enzymatic hydrolysis, isomerisation, and fermentation of mixed hydrolysates with native Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An immobilised isomerase enzyme was used for the xylose isomerisation along with high concentrations of S. cerevisiae. The objective was to assess the extent of simultaneity of the various conversion steps, through a detailed analysis of process time courses, and to test this process scheme for the conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates containing several inhibitors of the isomerase enzyme (e.g. metal ions, xylitol and glycerol). The process was tested on two types of hydrolysate after acid-catalysed steam pretreatment: (a) the water soluble fraction (WSF) in which xylose was the largest carbon source and (b) the entire slurry, containing both cellulose and hemicellulose carbohydrates, in which glucose predominated. The results indicated that the ethanol concentration rose when the inoculum concentration was increased in the range 10-75 g/L. However, when xylose was the largest carbon source, the metabolic yields were higher than 0.51g(ethanol)/g(consumed) sugars probably due to the use of yeast internal cellular resources. This phenomenon was not observed in the fermentation of mixed hydrolysates obtained from the entire pretreated product and in which glucose was the largest carbon source. The ethanol yield from biomass suspensions with dry matter (DM) concentrations of 11-12% (w/v) was 70% based on total sugars (glucose, xylose, galactose). The results suggest that xylulose uptake was more effective in mixed hydrolysates containing glucose levels similar to, or higher than, xylose. Analysis of the factors that limit isomerase activity in lignocellulosic

  12. Alginate-Based Edible Films Delivering Probiotic Bacteria to Sliced Ham Pretreated with High Pressure Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Foteini; Kovaiou, Ioanna; Apostolakopoulou, Georgia; Kapetanakou, Anastasia; Skandamis, Panagiotis; Nychas, George-John E; Tassou, Chrysoula; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2017-08-29

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of Na-alginate edible films as vehicles for delivering probiotic bacteria to sliced ham with or without pretreatment using high pressure processing (HPP). Three strains of probiotic bacteria were incorporated in Na-alginate forming solution. Ham slices (with or without pretreatment using HPP at 500 MPa for 2 min) were packed under vacuum in contact with the films and then stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C for 66, 47 and 40 days, respectively. Microbiological analysis was performed in parallel with pH and color measurements. Sensory characteristics were assessed, while the presence and the relative abundance of each probiotic strain during storage was evaluated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. In ham slices without HPP treatment, probiotic bacteria were enumerated above 10⁶ CFU/g during storage at all temperatures. Same results were obtained in cases of HPP treated samples, but pH measurements showed differences with the latter ones exhibiting higher values. Sensory evaluation revealed that probiotic samples had a more acidic taste and odor than the control ones, however these characteristics were markedly compromised in samples treated with HPP. Overall, the results of the study are promising since probiotic bacteria were successfully delivered in the products by edible films regardless of the HPP treatment.

  13. Alginate-Based Edible Films Delivering Probiotic Bacteria to Sliced Ham Pretreated with High Pressure Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foteini Pavli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of Na-alginate edible films as vehicles for delivering probiotic bacteria to sliced ham with or without pretreatment using high pressure processing (HPP. Three strains of probiotic bacteria were incorporated in Na-alginate forming solution. Ham slices (with or without pretreatment using HPP at 500 MPa for 2 min were packed under vacuum in contact with the films and then stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C for 66, 47 and 40 days, respectively. Microbiological analysis was performed in parallel with pH and color measurements. Sensory characteristics were assessed, while the presence and the relative abundance of each probiotic strain during storage was evaluated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. In ham slices without HPP treatment, probiotic bacteria were enumerated above 106 CFU/g during storage at all temperatures. Same results were obtained in cases of HPP treated samples, but pH measurements showed differences with the latter ones exhibiting higher values. Sensory evaluation revealed that probiotic samples had a more acidic taste and odor than the control ones, however these characteristics were markedly compromised in samples treated with HPP. Overall, the results of the study are promising since probiotic bacteria were successfully delivered in the products by edible films regardless of the HPP treatment.

  14. Management of Technology - a political process approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Most management of technology writings fail to address enterprise developments as political processes, where visions, coalitions and emergence are central features. The paper report of a participants observation study of management of technology processes.......Most management of technology writings fail to address enterprise developments as political processes, where visions, coalitions and emergence are central features. The paper report of a participants observation study of management of technology processes....

  15. Pretreatment of Process Condensate with Ammonia Degassing in CAN Fertilizer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the production process of calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN fertilizer, process-condensate is generated with a high content of ammonium nitrogen. Such high mass concentration of ammonium nitrogen (approximately 2 g L-1 significantly burdens the operation of the wastewater treatment plant, where the process condensate is treated by method of ion exchange. At CAN 1 Plant, a degassing system for process condensate was built. After pretreatment, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in the process condensate was reduced to less than 500 mg L-1.Before upgrading with degassing system, the process condensate from CAN 1 Plant was collected in tank TK 17 301, from which it was pumped to the wastewater treatment plant to be treated by the method of ion exchange. When CAN 1 Plant is in normal operation, 10 m3h-1 of process condensate is formed with pH around 10, and temperatures around 50 °C. The degassing system of process condensate consists of a new tank, TK 17 504, which is connected with new pipeline to the tank TK 17 301. The process condensate input was transferred from the old to the new tank, TK 17 504. A new pump was installed for regulation of process condensate and bursting above the condensate level.Additional stimulation for ammonia degassing followed, after the return of 12 bar steam condensate into the tank TK 17 504. Consequently, the process condensate temperature increased to 80 C. Degassed ammonia is introduced into the existing system for washing gases and returns into the process of fertilizer production.By degassing ammonia from the process condensate at CAN 1 Plant, 10.7 kg h-1of ammonia returns into the fertilizer production process.Additionally, there has been an improved performance of the wastewater treatment plant, so that in December 2010, the volume of treated wastewater was almost 80 000 m3 which is an increase of 86 %.

  16. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  17. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Franchi, Federica; Catina, Daniele; Cioffi, Flavio; Rodella, Nicola; Borgese, Laura; Pasquali, Michela; Depero, Laura E.; Bontempi, Elza

    2015-01-01

    A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project). The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC) was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste. PMID:28793605

  18. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  19. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  20. Development of combined nanofiltration and forward osmosis process for production of ethanol from pretreated rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Masafumi; Sasaki, Kengo; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kondo, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-07-01

    A membrane process combining nanofiltraion (NF) and forward osmosis (FO) was developed for the sugar concentration with the aim of high bio-ethanol production from the liquid fraction of rice straw. The commercial NF membrane, ESNA3, was more adequate for removal of fermentation inhibitors (such as acetic acid) than the FO membrane, whereas the commercial FO membrane, TFC-ES, was more adequate for concentration of the sugars than the NF membrane. The liquid fraction was subjected to the following process: NF concentration with water addition (NF (+H2O) )→enzymatic hydrolysis→FO concentration. This NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process generated a total sugar content of 107g·L -1 . Xylose-assimilating S. cerevisiae produced 24g·L -1 ethanol from the liquid fraction that was diluted 1.5-fold and then concentrated by the NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process. The NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process has the potential for optimized ethanol production from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD)

  2. Optical monitoring systems for thermal spray processes: droplets behavior and substrate pre-treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamagata, Y.; Miyazaki, F.; Yamasaki, M.; Tanaka, J.; Muraoka, K.

    2017-11-01

    Thermal spray is a technique to form molten droplets using either plasma- or combustion-heating, which impinge upon substrates to form coating layers for various purposes, such as anti-corrosion and anti-wear layers. Although it is an established technique having a history of more than a century, operations of spray guns together with preparing suitable substrate surfaces for obtaining good coating layers still rely on experienced technicians. Because of the necessity of meeting more and more stringent requirements for coating quality and cost from customers, there has been a strong need to try to monitor spray processes, so as to obtain the best possible spray coating layers. The basic requirements for such monitoring systems are *reasonably cheap, *easy operation for laypersons, *easy access to targets to be investigated, and *an in-situ capability. The purpose of the present work is to provide suitable optical monitoring systems for (1) droplets behavior and (2) substrate pre-treatments. For the former (1), the first result was already presented at the 17th laser-aided plasma diagnostics meeting (LAPD17) in 2015 in Sapporo, and the results of its subsequent applications into real spray environments are shown in this article in order to validate the previous proposal. Topic (2) is new in the research program, and the proof-of-principle experiment for the proposed method yielded a favorable result. Based on this positive result, an overall strategy is being planned to fulfill the final objective of the optical monitoring of substrate pre-treatments. Details of these two programs (1) and (2) together with the present status are described.

  3. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  4. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  5. Lignocellulose pretreatment technologies affect the level of enzymatic cellulose oxidation by LPMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Cannella, David; de Campos Giordano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, and wheat straw are among the most available resources for production of cellulosic ethanol. For these biomasses we study the influence of pre-treatment methods on the chemical composition, as well as on the subsequent reactions of enzymatic hydrolysis and oxidation...

  6. Developing a model for assessing biomass processing technologies within a local biomass processing depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Bryan D; Dale, Bruce E

    2012-02-01

    One solution to the supply chain challenges of cellulosic biofuels is a network of local biomass processing depots (LBPDs) that can produce stable, dense, intermediate commodities and valuable co-products prior to shipping to a refinery. A techno-economic model of an LBPD facility that could incorporate multiple technologies and products was developed in Microsoft Excel to be used to economically and environmentally evaluate potential LBPD systems. In this study, three technologies (ammonia fiber expansion or AFEX™ pretreatment, fast pyrolysis, and leaf protein processing) were assessed for profitability. Pyrolysis was slightly profitable under the base conditions, leaf protein processing was highly unprofitable, and AFEX was profitable if biomass drying was not required. This model can be adapted to multiple feedstocks and end uses, including both economic and environmental modeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 37344 - Technology Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...-NOA-0039] Technology Evaluation Process AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... evaluation process. The stakeholder comment period is being extended an additional 30 days to give potential... seeks comments and information related to a commercial buildings technology evaluation process. DOE is...

  8. Perspectives on Multienzyme Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santacoloma, Paloma A.; Woodley, John M.

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt that chemical processing of the future will involve an increasing number of biocatalytic processes using more than one enzyme. There are good reasons for developing such innovative biocatalytic processes and interesting new biocatalyst and process options will be introduced....

  9. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen values in patients with prostate cancer: 1989 patterns of care study process survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Hanlon, Alexandra M.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A Patterns of Care Study (PCS) national survey was conducted to show the national averages for processes of radiation therapy care for prostate cancer patients in 1989. In the current study we report an analysis of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by stage, grade, and ethnic origin. Methods and Materials: Process data were collected from 672 patients treated in 1989 at 71 separate institutions. Four hundred and twenty-seven (64%) of these patients had a pretreatment PSA value recorded. Three hundred and forty-three of the 427 patients were treated with external beam irradiation alone and were selected for the current analysis. The 1992 AJCC staging system was used. Results: There was a significant increase in pretreatment PSA with increasing stage. The median values of PSA were 8.3 ngm/ml in the T1 group (n = 65), 11.2 ngm/ml in the T2 group (n = 178), and 20.9 ngm/ml in the T3 group (n = 90) (p < 0.001). Ten patients were not staged. There was a significant increase in pretreatment PSA with decreasing differentiation. The median pretreatment PSA was 9.7 ngm/ml in well-differentiated tumors (n = 109), 13.0 ngm/ml in moderately differentiated tumors (n = 163), and 22.0 ngm/ml in poorly differentiated tumors. (n = 61) (p < 0.001). Ten patients had no differentiation recorded. African Americans (24) showed a significant increase in pretreatment PSA compared to Caucasians (304). The respective medians were 23.2 ng/ml and 11.9 ng/ml (p = 0.04). They also show more poorly differentiated tumors (33% vs. 17%) and more T3 tumors (46% vs. 25%). Other minorities, although small in number (n = 9) were similar to African Americans. Conclusion: Pretreatment PSA levels were established for patients treated with external beam irradiation in 1989 in the United States. They increase with stage and decreasing differentiation. African Americans and other minorities show a doubling of median values compared to Caucasians' pretreatment PSA with an increase in stage

  10. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible, and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in the research contract CNEA - IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. The objective and scope of this work is to know the advantages and disadvantages of each desalination technology, distinctive characteristics of each of them, that make them adapt better to different uses and outline conditions and analysis of related antecedents of its use in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations found in the last years for the different technologies are also included. (author)

  11. Effects of plasma pretreatment on the process of self-forming Cu-Mn alloy barriers for Cu interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Han, Dong-Suk; Kim, Kyoung-Deok; Park, Jong-Wan

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of plasma pretreatment on the process of a self-forming Cu-Mn alloy barrier on porous low-k dielectrics. To study the effects of plasma on the performance of a self-formed Mn-based barrier, low-k dielectrics were pretreated with H2 plasma or NH3 plasma. Cu-Mn alloy materials on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with H2 plasma exhibited lower electrical resistivity values and the formation of thicker Mn-based interlayers than those on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with NH3 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal stability analyses demonstrated the exceptional performance of the Mn-based interlayer on plasma-pretreated low-k substrates with regard to thickness, chemical composition, and reliability. Plasma treating with H2 gas formed hydrophilic Si-OH bonds on the surface of the low-k layer, resulting in Mn-based interlayers with greater thickness after annealing. However, additional moisture uptake was induced on the surface of the low-k dielectric, degrading electrical reliability. By contrast, plasma treating with NH3 gas was less effective with regard to forming a Mn-based interlayer, but produced a Si-N/C-N layer on the low-k surface, yielding improved barrier characteristics.

  12. Effects of plasma pretreatment on the process of self-forming Cu–Mn alloy barriers for Cu interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of plasma pretreatment on the process of a self-forming Cu–Mn alloy barrier on porous low-k dielectrics. To study the effects of plasma on the performance of a self-formed Mn-based barrier, low-k dielectrics were pretreated with H2 plasma or NH3 plasma. Cu–Mn alloy materials on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with H2 plasma exhibited lower electrical resistivity values and the formation of thicker Mn-based interlayers than those on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with NH3 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, and thermal stability analyses demonstrated the exceptional performance of the Mn-based interlayer on plasma-pretreated low-k substrates with regard to thickness, chemical composition, and reliability. Plasma treating with H2 gas formed hydrophilic Si–OH bonds on the surface of the low-k layer, resulting in Mn-based interlayers with greater thickness after annealing. However, additional moisture uptake was induced on the surface of the low-k dielectric, degrading electrical reliability. By contrast, plasma treating with NH3 gas was less effective with regard to forming a Mn-based interlayer, but produced a Si–N/C–N layer on the low-k surface, yielding improved barrier characteristics.

  13. Life cycle assessment of cellulose nanofibrils production by mechanical treatment and two different pretreatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Rickard; Nguyen, Duong; Svanström, Magdalena

    2015-06-02

    Nanocellulose is a bionanomaterial with many promising applications, but high energy use in production has been described as a potential obstacle for future use. In fact, life cycle assessment studies have indicated high life cycle energy use for nanocellulose. In this study, we assess the cradle-to-gate environmental impacts of three production routes for a particular type of nanocellulose called cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) made from wood pulp. The three production routes are (1) the enzymatic production route, which includes an enzymatic pretreatment, (2) the carboxymethylation route, which includes a carboxymethylation pretreatment, and (3) one route without pretreatment, here called the no pretreatment route. The results show that CNF produced via the carboxymethylation route clearly has the highest environmental impacts due to large use of solvents made from crude oil. The enzymatic and no pretreatment routes both have lower environmental impacts, of similar magnitude. A sensitivity analysis showed that the no pretreatment route was sensitive to the electricity mix, and the carboxymethylation route to solvent recovery. When comparing the results to those of other carbon nanomaterials, it was shown that in particular CNF produced via the enzymatic and no pretreatment routes had comparatively low environmental impacts.

  14. Processing techniques applying laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Makino Yoshinobu

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the processing of nuclear energy equipment include high precision, low distortion, and low heat input. Toshiba has developed laser processing techniques for cutting, welding, and surface heat treatment of nuclear energy equipment because the zone affected by distortion and heat in laser processing is very small. Laser processing contributes to the manufacturing of high-quality and high-reliability equipment and reduces the manufacturing period. (author)

  15. Low-temperature thermal pre-treatment of municipal wastewater sludge: Process optimization and effects on solubilization and anaerobic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Laleh; Yuan, Zhongshun; Santoro, Domenico; Sarathy, Siva; Ho, Dang; Batstone, Damien; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Ray, Madhumita B

    2017-04-15

    The present study examines the relationship between the degree of solubilization and biodegradability of wastewater sludge in anaerobic digestion as a result of low-temperature thermal pre-treatment. The main effect of thermal pre-treatment is the disintegration of cell membranes and thus solubilization of organic compounds. There is an established correlation between chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization and temperature of thermal pre-treatment, but results of thermal pre-treatment in terms of biodegradability are not well understood. Aiming to determine the impact of low temperature treatments on biogas production, the thermal pre-treatment process was first optimized based on an experimental design study on waste activated sludge in batch mode. The optimum temperature, reaction time and pH of the process were determined to be 80 °C, 5 h and pH 10, respectively. All three factors had a strong individual effect (p effect for temp. pH 2 (p = 0.002). Thermal pre-treatments, carried out on seven different municipal wastewater sludges at the above optimum operating conditions, produced increased COD solubilization of 18.3 ± 7.5% and VSS reduction of 27.7 ± 12.3% compared to the untreated sludges. The solubilization of proteins was significantly higher than carbohydrates. Methane produced in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests, indicated initial higher rates (p = 0.0013) for the thermally treated samples (k hyd up to 5 times higher), although the ultimate methane yields were not significantly affected by the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Bioconversion of Pretreated Cashew Apple Bagasse into Ethanol by SHF and SSF Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena S; de Barros, Emanuel Meneses; de Sá Brígido, Jeferson; da Silva, Winne M; Rocha, Maria Valderez P; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha B

    2016-03-01

    Ethanol production from acidic-alkaline pretreated cashew apple bagasse (CAB-OH) was investigated using separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes. First, a screening of Kluyveromyces strains was conducted by SHF and a maximum ethanol concentration of 24.1 g L(-1) was obtained using Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC36907, which presented similar profiles when compared to results obtained by a Saccharomyces strain. The effect of temperature on ethanol production conducted by SHF using K. marxianus ATCC36907 was investigated, and the maximum ethanol yield (YE/G) was obtained at 40 °C (0.46 g g(-1)) using a synthetic medium. In the SHF using CAB-OH hydrolysate, the maximum ethanol concentration obtained was 24.9 g L(-1), 5.92 g L(-1) h(-1) of productivity, and ethanol yield of 0.43 g g(-1) at 40 °C. Afterwards, K. marxianus ATCC36907 was used in the bioconversion of CAB-OH by SSF, and an ethanol concentration of 41.41 ± 0.2 g L(-1) was obtained using 10 % CAB-OH at 40 °C, 150 rpm and 24 h, resulting in a Y'E/G of 0.50 gE gG (-1) and an efficiency of 98.4 %, in the process conducted with cellobiase supplementation. SHF and SSF processes using CAB-OH and K. marxianus ATCC36907 can be used to ethanol production, but the SSF process required only one step to achieve the same production.

  17. Pretreatment and processing of field biomasses for production of precious, bulk and energy fiber fractions; Peltobiomassojen esikaesittely ja prosessointi arvo-, bulkki- ja energiakuitujakeiden tuottamiseksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilppunen, P.; Sohlo, J. [Oulu Univ., Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the research was to make a preliminary study on pretreatment and processing possibilities of different field biomasses for production of specific product fractions with dry and wet separation methods. Pretreatment processes and possible combinations, before pulping and energy production, were studied in the dry-fraction part of the research. Sieving technology, air-classifier and a collision separator were tested. Additionally, the fuel processing systems of present power/thermal plants were studied in practice. A new type of separation system, based on removal of fines with collision-separator, was designed in the sub-project. The results of the sub-project are now utilized in other researches of the Bioenergy Research Programme. Separation processes for energy and fiber fractions, predominantly those for seed flax, using traditional pulp classifiers and the new pressure classifier process were studied in the wet-separation part of the project. A combined plant fiber further-refining process, based on mechanical and biotechnical separation, operating on the basis of fiber length, was developed on the basis of dry and wet frection tests

  18. Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study

  19. Development of a pyro-partitioning process for long-lived radioactive nuclides. Process test for pretreatment of simulated high-level waste containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Masateru; Hijikata, Takatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Inoue, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    A pyro-partitioning process developed at CRIEPI requires a pre-treatment process to convert high-level liquid waste to chloride. A combination process of denitration and chlorination has been developed for this purpose. Continuous process tests using simulated high-level waste were performed to certify the applicability of the process. Test results indicated a successful material balance sufficient for satisfying pyro-partitioning process criteria. In the present study, process tests using simulated high-level waste containing uranium were also carried out to prove that the pre-treatment process is feasible for uranium. The results indicated that uranium can be converted to chloride appropriate for the pyro-partitioning process. The material balance obtained from the tests is to be used to revise the process flow diagram. (author)

  20. Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of acid detergent fiber in hydrothermally pretreated sewage sludge on anaerobic digestion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Rikiya; Yuan, Lee Chang; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Youichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Hydrothermal treatment is one of the pre-treatment method for anaerobic digestion. The application of hydrothermal treatment to sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant has been succeeded to enhance the biogas production. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on anaerobic digestion process focusing on acid detergent fiber (ADF) in sewage sludge, which is low biodegradability. The hydrothermal treatment experiment was carried out for 15 minutes between 160 °C and 200 °C respectively. The ADF content was decreased after hydrothermal treatment compared with untreated sludge. However, ADF content was increased when raising the treatment temperature from 160 °C to 200 °C. During batch anaerobic digestion experiment, untreated and treated sludge were examined for 10 days under 38 °C, and all samples were fed once based on volatile solids of samples. From batch anaerobic digestion experiment, as ADF content in sewage sludge increased, the total biogas production decreased. It was found that ADF content in sewage sludge influence on anaerobic digestion. Therefore, ADF could be one of the indicator to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment to sewage sludge on anaerobic digestion.

  2. Determinants of improved cassava processing technologies' (ICPT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of improved cassava processing technologies' (ICPT) utilization among rural processors in Oyo State. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Abstract. The study examined the factors determining the utilization of Improved Cassava Processing Technologies (ICPTs) in Oyo State, Nigeria.

  3. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  4. The Center for Environmental Technology Innovative Technology Screening Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, C.M.

    1995-02-01

    The Center for Environmental Technology's (CET) mission is to provide a fully integrated system for accelerated evaluation, development, commercialization, and public acceptance of creative environmental solutions which match the foremost demands in today's environmentally sensitive world. In short, CET will create a means to provide quick, effective solutions for environmental needs. To meet this mission objective, CET has created a unique and innovative approach to eliminating the usual barriers in developing and testing environmental technologies. The approach paves the way for these emerging, cutting-edge technologies by coordinating environmental restoration and waste management activities of industry, universities, and the government to: efficiently and effectively transfer technology to these users, provide market-driven, cost-effective technology programs to the public and DOE, and aid in developing innovative ideas by initiating efforts between DOE facilities and private industry. The central part to this mission is selecting and evaluating specific innovative technologies for demonstration and application at United States Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The methodology and criteria used for this selection, which is called the CET Innovative Technology Screening Process, is the subject of this paper. The selection criteria used for the screening process were modeled after other DOE technology transfer programs and were further developed by CET's Technology Screening and Evaluation Board (TSEB). The process benefits both CET and the proposing vendors by providing objective selection procedures based on predefined criteria. The selection process ensures a rapid response to proposing vendors, all technologies will have the opportunity to enter the selection process, and all technologies are evaluated on the same scale and with identical criteria

  5. Separation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Arora, Ravi [Dublin, OH; Qiu, Dongming [Bothell, WA; Lamont, Michael Jay [Hilliard, OH; Burwell, Deanna [Cleveland Heights, OH; Dritz, Terence Andrew [Worthington, OH; McDaniel, Jeffrey S [Columbus, OH; Rogers, Jr; William, A [Marysville, OH; Silva, Laura J [Dublin, OH; Weidert, Daniel J [Lewis Center, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Chadwell, G Bradley [Reynoldsburg, OH

    2009-03-24

    The disclosed invention relates to a process and apparatus for separating a first fluid from a fluid mixture comprising the first fluid. The process comprises: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator in contact with a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the first fluid is sorbed by the sorption medium, removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing first fluid from the sorption medium and removing desorbed first fluid from the microchannel separator. The process and apparatus are suitable for separating nitrogen or methane from a fluid mixture comprising nitrogen and methane. The process and apparatus may be used for rejecting nitrogen in the upgrading of sub-quality methane.

  6. Process Guide for Deburring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, David L.

    2012-10-25

    This report is an updated and consolidated view of the current deburring processes at the Kansas City Plant (KCP). It includes specific examples of current burr problems and the methods used for their detection. Also included is a pictorial review of the large variety of available deburr tools, along with a complete numerical listing of existing tools and their descriptions. The process for deburring all the major part feature categories is discussed.

  7. Improving anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw for methane production: Combined benefits of mechanical and sodium hydroxide pretreatment for process designing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, Leandro; Weinrich, Sören; Leite, Athaydes F.; Terzariol, Filippi K.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NaOH pretreatment was tested to improve degradation of SCS for methane production. • Low NaOH concentration accelerated AD of SCS but not increased the methane yield. • Mild and high NaOH concentrations accelerated and increased methane yield of SCS. • NaOH use increased OPEX but provided a higher profitability than the untreated SCS. • Anaerobic reactor price showed a high influence on sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkaline pretreatment method to enhance the degradation kinetics of sugarcane straw (SCS) for methane production was investigated with a special focus on the benefits for designing the anaerobic digestion process. For that, SCS was previously homogenized by milling in 2 mm particle size and pretreated in NaOH solutions at various concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 12 g NaOH/100 g SCS) and the methane yields were determined in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The obtained experimental data were used to simulate a large-scale semi-continuous process (100 ton SCS day −1 ) according to a first-order reaction model and the main economic indicators were calculated based on cash flows of each pretreatment condition. The BMP tests showed that by increasing the NaOH concentration the conversion of the fibrous fraction of the substrate to methane was not only accelerated (higher α value), but also increased by 11.9% (from 260 to 291 mL CH 4 gVS −1 ). By using the experimental data to simulate the large-scale process these benefits were translated to a reduction of up to 58% in the size of the anaerobic reactor (and consequently in electricity consumption for stirring), while the methane yield increased up to 28%, if the liquid fraction derived from the pretreatment process is also used for methane production. Although the use of NaOH for substrate pretreatment has considerably increased the operational expenditures (from 0.97 up to 1.97 € × 10 6 year −1 ), the pretreatment method was able to

  8. Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Marco A.; Juárez, Julio César González; Martínez-Gallegos, Sonia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Peralta, Ever; del Campo López, Eduardo Martin; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Miranda, Verónica Martínez; Blancas, Teresa Torres

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high conte...

  9. Optimization of pretreatment, process performance, mass and energy balance in the anaerobic digestion of Arachis hypogaea (Peanut) hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S.O.; Oranusi, S.; Efeovbokhan, V.E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas was maximally produced from the anaerobic digestion of peanut hull. • Thermo-alkaline pretreatment enhanced enormous biogas yield from the biomass. • The optimal condition for maximal biogas yield were established. • The digestate has great potentials for usage as biofertilizers/soil conditioner. • The pretreatment is economical by converting the gas to heat and electric energies. - Abstract: The potential of a major bioresource (Peanut hull) for biogas generation was evaluated. A sample was pretreated using combinations of mechanical and thermo-alkaline procedures using the Central Composite Design (CCD) for the optimization of the pretreatment temperature and time while another sample was treated without thermo-alkaline methods. The physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the A. hypogaea hull and the rumen contents were carried out using standard methods. The actual biogas yields were 1739.20 m 3 /kg TSfed and 1100.50 m 3 /kg TSfed with desirability values of 91 and 100% for the pretreated and untreated experiments respectively. The methane and carbon dioxide content of biogas from both experiments as revealed by Gas chromatography were 61.5 ± 2.5%; 24 ± 1% and 51 ± 2%; 25 ± 2% respectively. The optimization of important process parameters in the anaerobic digestion were done using CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and the optimal values for each of the five major parameters optimized are as follows: Temperature = 30.00 °C, pH = 7.50, Retention time = 30.00 day, Total solids = 12.00 g/kg and Volatile solids = 4.00 g/kg. Taking these values into account, the predicted biogas yield for RSM was 1819.89 m 3 /kg TSfed and 1743.6 m 3 /kg TSfed for ANNs in the thermo-alkaline pretreated experiment. For the experiment without pretreatment, the RSM predicted yield was 1119.54 m 3 /kg TSfed while that of ANNs was 1103.40 m 3 /kg TSfed. In all there was a 38.5% increase in

  10. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  11. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact analysis of different chemical pre-treatments on colour of apple discs during drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Lukinac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to compare colour changes of chemically pre-treated dried apple discs. Changes were observed by chromameter in L*a*b* colour model by using Minolta chromameter CR-400 and by image analysis system in RGB colour model. Apple discs variety "Gold Rush" were pre-treated and dried in laboratory tray drier at drying temperature 70 °C and at airflow velocity of 1.5 ms-1. Different chemical pre-treatments were applied on apple discs (dipping in 0.5% ascorbic acid solution; 0.3% L–cysteine solution; 0.1% 4–hexyl resorcinol solution and 1% sodium metabisulphite solution. Mean values of colour parameters, colour changes and correlation coefficients for apple discs were calculated for both colour models. The analysis showed statistically significant influence of pre-treatment method on total colour changes for both chosen colour models of dried apples. Calculated correlation coefficient between colour changes for used models was found to be 0.894. According to colour characteristics the best results were achieved when samples were pre-treated with 0.5% ascorbic acid solution. According to calculated results it was found that image analysis method as well as colorimetric method can be used to observe the colour changes on dried apple discs.

  13. Ethanol production from cotton gin trash using optimised dilute acid pretreatment and whole slurry fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Morris, S

    2014-12-01

    Cotton ginning trash (CGT) collected from Australian cotton gins was evaluated for bioethanol production. CGT composition varied between ginning operations and contained high levels of extractives (26-28%), acid-insoluble material (17-22%) and holocellulose (42-50%). Pretreatment conditions of time (4-20 min), temperature (160-220 °C) and sulfuric acid concentration (0-2%) were optimised using a central composite design. Response surface modelling revealed that CGT fibre pretreated at 180 °C in 0.8% H2SO4 for 12 min was optimal for maximising enzymatic glucose recoveries and achieved yields of 89% theoretical, whilst the total accumulated levels of furans and acetic acid remained relatively low at <1 and 2 g/L respectively. Response surface modelling also estimated maximum xylose recovery in pretreated liquors (87% theoretical) under the set conditions of 150 °C in 1.9% H2SO4 for 23.8 min. Yeast fermentations yielded high ethanol titres of 85%, 88% and 70% theoretical from glucose generated from: (a) enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated fibres, (b) enzymatic hydrolysis of whole pretreated slurries and (c) simultaneous saccharification fermentations, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermo-chemical pretreatment of rice straw for further processing for levulinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Sasikumar; Agarwal, Bhumica; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2016-10-01

    A variety of pretreatment protocols for rice straw fiber reconstruction were evaluated under mild conditions (upto 0.2%wt. and 121°C) with the object of improving polymer susceptibility to chemical attack while preserving carbohydrate sugars for levulinic acid (LA) production. Each of the protocols tested significantly enhanced pretreatment recoveries of carbohydrate sugars and lignin, and a NaOH protocol showed the most promise, with enhanced carbohydrate preservation (upto 20% relative to the other protocols) and more effective lignin dissolution (upto 60%). Consequently, post-pretreatment fibers were evaluated for LA preparation using an existing co-solvent system consisting of HCl and THF, in addition supplementation of DMSO was attempted, in order to improve final product recovery. In contrast to pretreatment response, H2SO4 protocol fibers yielded highest LA conc. (21%wt. with 36% carbohydrate conversion efficiency) under the modest reaction conditions. Apparent spectroscopic analysis witnessed for fiber destruction and delocalization of inherent constituents during pretreatment protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of SHINE Process: Design and Verification of Plant-Scale AG 1 Anion-Exchange Concentration Column and Titania Sorbent Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Abdul, Momen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a Mo-recovery and -purification system for the SHINE medical technologies process, which uses a uranyl sulfate solution for the accelerator-driven production of Mo-99. The objective of this effort is to reduce the processing time for the acidification of the Mo-99 product prior to loading onto a concentration column and concentration of the Mo-99 product solution. Two methods were investigated: (1) the replacement of the titania concentration column by an anion-exchange column to decrease processing time and increase the radioiodine-decontamination efficiency and (2) pretreatment of the titania sorbent to improve its effectiveness for the Mo-recovery and -concentration columns. Promising results are reported for both methods.

  17. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  18. Quantum information processing : science & technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David

    2010-09-01

    Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.

  19. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  20. Microwave plasma emerging technologies for chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Fuente, Javier F.; Kiss, Anton A.; Radoiu, Marilena T.; Stefanidis, Georgios D.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave plasma (MWP) technology is currently being used in application fields such as semiconductor and material processing, diamond film deposition and waste remediation. Specific advantages of the technology include the enablement of a high energy density source and a highly reactive medium,

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF EFFLUENTS DEPHENOLYSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Трачевський

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The one of the important physical factors impacting on the environmental safety of industrial wastewater generated in the production of paints and varnishes is considered. Identification wastewater formation sources, composition, its amount in a particular type of resin is an essential point for developing methods of cleaning industrial wastewater treatment design and industrial plants. Deep cleaning of wastewater from phenol is a major challenge. Studies that mostly focused on the known methods of disposal of waste waters from phenol have been analyzed. It was shown that the shortcomings of many methods of sewage treatment of phenols by condensation at atmospheric pressure are the long duration of the process, significant cost of heat, and large residual phenol concentration in water, respectively. The most effective method of reducing the concentration of phenol in waste water is its oxidation in MnO2 suspension. The interaction of manganese oxides with sulfuric acid produces oxygen, which can oxidise phenol contained in the waste water. As a result of wastewater treatment of phenolic resins by manganese oxides in acidic sulfate medium phenol concentration  was decreased by 98.6 - 99.6%.

  2. Process analytical technology (PAT) for biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glassey, Jarka; Gernaey, Krist; Clemens, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT), the regulatory initiative for building in quality to pharmaceutical manufacturing, has a great potential for improving biopharmaceutical production. The recommended analytical tools for building in quality, multivariate data analysis, mechanistic modeling, nov...

  3. Overcoming the Recalcitrance for the Conversion of Kenaf Pulp to Glucose via Microwave-Assisted Pre-Treatment Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Hurtado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the pre-treatment of cellulose from kenaf plant to yield sugar precursors for the production of ethanol or butanol for use as biofuel additives. In order to convert the crystalline cellulosic form to the amorphous form that can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond to yield sugars, kenaf pulp samples were subjected to two different pre-treatment processes. In the acid pre-treatment, the pulp samples were treated with 37.5% hydrochloric acid in the presence of FeCl3 at 50 °C or 90 °C whereas in the alkaline method, the pulp samples were treated with 25% sodium hydroxide at room temperature and with 2% or 5% sodium hydroxide at 50 °C. Microwave-assisted NaOH-treatment of the cellulose was also investigated and demonstrated to be capable of producing high glucose yield without adverse environmental impact by circumventing the use of large amounts of concentrated acids i.e., 83–85% phosphoric acid employed in most digestion processes. The treated samples were digested with the cellulase enzyme from Trichoderma reesei. The amount of glucose produced was quantified using the QuantichromTM glucose bioassay for assessing the efficiency of glucose production for each of the treatment processes. The microwave-assisted alkaline pre-treatment processes conducted at 50 °C were found to be the most effective in the conversion of the crystalline cellulose to the amorphous form based on the significantly higher yields of sugar produced by enzymatic hydrolysis compared to the untreated sample.

  4. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Processing Adipose-Rich Mohs Samples: A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Pretreatment With Liquid Nitrogen Versus Flash Freezing Spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reserva, Jeave; Kozel, Zachary; Krol, Cindy; Speiser, Jodi; Adams, William; Tung, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Processing of adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) specimens poses challenges that may preclude complete margin evaluation. In this setting, the value of additional freezing methods using various cooling agents has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the frozen section quality of high-adipose Mohs specimens processed without additional cooling treatments versus those pretreated with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (TFE) or liquid nitrogen (LN2). A set of 3 sections were each taken from 24 adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery specimens. A section from each set was subjected to either no additional cooling treatment (control), two 10-second pulse sprays of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, or three 2-second pulse sprays of LN2. After staining, 2 blinded raters evaluated slide quality based on the presence or absence of the following features: margin completeness, nuclear clearing, epidermal or adipose folding, holes, or venetian blind-like artifacts. Pretreatment of the sample with LN2 produced a significantly (P < 0.001) greater number of high-quality slides (19/24) compared to pretreatment with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (1/24) and no additional treatment (0/24). The adjunctive use of LN2 spray before tissue embedding circumvents the challenges of processing "thick" (high-adipose) specimens and facilitates the production of high-quality frozen section slides during Mohs micrographic surgery.

  6. Lignocellulosic ethanol: Technology design and its impact on process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Leona; Patakova, Petra; Branska, Barbora; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This review provides current information on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, with the main focus on relationships between process design and efficiency, expressed as ethanol concentration, yield and productivity. In spite of unquestionable advantages of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for ethanol production (availability, price, non-competitiveness with food, waste material), many technological bottlenecks hinder its wide industrial application and competitiveness with 1st generation ethanol production. Among the main technological challenges are the recalcitrant structure of the material, and thus the need for extensive pretreatment (usually physico-chemical followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) to yield fermentable sugars, and a relatively low concentration of monosaccharides in the medium that hinder the achievement of ethanol concentrations comparable with those obtained using 1st generation feedstocks (e.g. corn or molasses). The presence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the fermentation broth, the price of cellulolytic enzymes, and the presence of toxic compounds that can inhibit cellulolytic enzymes and microbial producers of ethanol are major issues. In this review, different process configurations of the main technological steps (enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hexose/and or pentose sugars) are discussed and their efficiencies are compared. The main features, benefits and drawbacks of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with delayed inoculation (dSSF), consolidated bioprocesses (CBP) combining production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass and fermentation into one step, together with an approach combining utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars are discussed and compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. The impact of individual technological steps on final process efficiency is emphasized and the potential for use

  7. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  8. Description of project for pretreatment and storage of wastes of L.P.R. (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doval, J.C.F.; Mehlich, A.M.; Quilici, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the project is to allow the start up and operation of LPR (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory) as part of the intended activities in the plant. In this paper, the pretreatment and storage of liquid wastes generated at the LPR are described. The pretreatment section will be set up inside the shielded cells already existent in the LPR, where a previous concentration through the evaporation of liquid wastes will take place. The storage section has to be constructed on purpose in order to temporarily store the concentrates. The cells of transference and preconditioning of solid wastes are also described. These cells will be mounted inside the building, allowing the handling of radioactive solids generated as effluents during the reprocessing plan. In the description, the use of non conventional materials for the boiler making and the construction of cells is specially mentioned. (Author)

  9. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Quarterly technical progress report, March--May 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The objectives of the project are to investigate various coal pretreatment techniques and to determine the effect of these pretreatment procedures on the reactivity of the coal. Reactivity enhancement will be evaluated under both direct hydroliquefaction and co-processing conditions. Coal conversion utilizing low rank coals and low severity conditions (reaction temperatures generally less than 350{degrees}C) are the primary focus of the liquefaction experiments, as it is expected that the effect of pretreatment conditions and the attendant reactivity enhancement will be greatest for these coals and at these conditions. This document presents a comprehensive report summarizing the findings on the effect of mild alkylation pretreatment on coal reactivity under both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing conditions. Results of experiments using a dispersed catalyst system (chlorine) are also presented for purposes of comparison. IN general, mild alkylation has been found to be an effective pretreatment method for altering the reactivity of coal. Selective (oxygen) methylation was found to be more effective for high oxygen (subbituminous) coals compared to coals of higher rank. This reactivity enhancement was evidenced under both low and high severity liquefaction conditions, and for both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing reaction environments. Non-selective alkylation (methylation) was also effective, although the enhancement was less pronounced than found for coal activated by O-alkylation. The degree of reactivity enhancement was found to vary with both liquefaction and/or co-processing conditions and coal type, with the greatest positive effect found for subbituminous coal which had been selectively O-methylated and subsequently liquefied at low severity reaction conditions. 5 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  11. Laser Processing Technology using Metal Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the state of laser processing technology using metal powders. In recent years, a series of research and development efforts have been undertaken worldwide to develop laser processing technologies to fabricate metal-based parts. Layered manufacturing by the laser melting process is gaining ground for use in manufacturing rapid prototypes (RP), tools (RT) and functional end products. Selective laser sintering / melting (SLS/SLM) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid prototyping techniques. This is mainly due to the processes's suitability for almost any materials, including polymers, metals, ceramics and many types of composites. The interaction between the laser beam and the powder material used in the laser melting process is one of the dominant phenomena defining feasibility and quality. In the case of SLS, the powder is not fully melted during laser scanning, therefore the SLS-processed parts are not fully dense and have relatively low strength. To overcome this disadvantage, SLM and laser cladding (LC) processes have been used to enable full melting of the powder. Further studies on the laser processing technology will be continued due to the many potential applications that the technology offers.

  12. ADEPT2 - Next Generation Process Management Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadam, P.; Rinderle, S.B.; Reichert, M.U.; Jurisch, M.; Acker, H.; Göser, K.; Kreher, U; Lauer, M.

    If current process management systems shall be applied to a broad spectrum of applications, they will have to be significantly improved with respect to their technological capabilities. In particular, in dynamic environments it must be possible to quickly implement and deploy new processes, to

  13. Optimization of processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Orthogonal design method was applied to analyze the effects of factors such as licorice concentration volume, soaking time and processing temperature on processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum; MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the inhibitory effect of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

  14. Membrane technology in chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    The technology developments in current century will mainly focus on the energy, safe and effective utilization of available natural resources and environment. Production and effective use of water resource at industrial level will directly affect the environment. Similarly the various means of energy production and its consumption will also bear a direct impact on environment. In any chemical industry a large portion of energy consumption goes to separation process which in turn affect the cost of production as well as total cost of the plant. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption, finding out new nondestructive separation technology and reutilization of all recovered process streams are the new thrust area for chemical industries. In view of this, a comparatively new separation technology, 'Membrane Science and Technology' is available to the chemical industry. The potential of this technology is immense because of its simple operation, less chemical additives requirement, less energy consumption and easy adoptability to the existing process. This technology is often considered as energy efficient, environmentally benign and clean technology

  15. Comparison of Pretreatment Methods on Vetiver Leaves for Efficient Processes of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Neurospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Dewi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material for bioethanol production. Neurospora sp. can be used to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol because of its ability to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, lignin content, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity of cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass can inhibit cellulosic-biomass digestion by Neurospora sp, so that a suitable pretreatment method of lignocellulosic biomass is needed. The focus of this research was to investigate the suitable pretreatment method for vetiver leaves (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used as a raw material producing bioethanol in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Neurospora sp.. Vetiver plants obtained from Garut are deliberately cultivated to produce essential oils extracted from the roots of this plant. Since the vetiver leaves do not contain oil, some of harvested leaves are usually used for crafts and cattle feed, and the rest are burned. This study intended to look at other potential of vetiver leaves as a source of renewable energy. Pretreatments of the vetiver leaves were conducted using hot water, dilute acid, alkaline & dilute acid, and alkaline peroxide, in which each method was accompanied by thermal treatment. The results showed that the alkaline peroxide treatment is a suitable for vetiver leaves as indicated by the increase of cellulose content up to 65.1%, while the contents of hot water soluble, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash are 8.7%, 18.3%, 6.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Using this pretreatment method, the vetiver leaves can be converted into bioethanol by SSF process using Neurospora sp. with a concentration of bioethanol of 6.7 g/L operated at room temperature.

  16. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  17. Enhanced hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rice straw pretreated by hydrothermal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Leilei; Huang, He; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Chunguang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-11-01

    This study tested the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at different peak temperatures (150 °C and 210 °C, i.e. HTT150 and HTT210, respectively) and holding time (0-30 min) on the solubilization of rice straw at total solids (TS) of 20% and then subsequent H2 production from resultant substrates. No obvious degradation was detected in lignin content under all tested HTT conditions which did open up the surface structure and have efficient solubilization effect on rice straw. Soluble carbohydrates produced from straw particles during HTT210 was found to have strongly (r=0.9987) positive correlation with the subsequent H2 yield. The maximum soluble carbohydrates, 80 mg per gram of volatile solids (VS) was achieved under HTT210 and 0 min of holding condition, correspondingly yielding the highest hydrogen production (28 ml/g-VS), about 93-fold higher than the control. Results suggest that holding time is crucial for HTT pretreatment when taking subsequent H2 production into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Colour of flax fibres in regard to different pretreatment and dyeing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fakin, Darinka; Ojstršek, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to compare the colour of different pretreated (alkaline, acidic and enzymatic) and dyed (conventional and ultrasonic-assisted) flax fibres, to establish the impact of various parameters on dyeing kinetics. Flax fibres were dyed using two direct dyes of different chemical structures and molecular mass. Diffusion profiles were established by the application of Fick's Law and dyeing behaviour was studied by means of online spectrophotometry. Finally, the dyed ...

  19. An Efficient Process for Pretreatment of Lignocelluloses in Functional Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jia Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The complex structure of the lignocelluloses is the main obstacle in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products. Ionic liquids provide the opportunities for their efficient pretreatment for biomass. Therefore, in this work, pretreatment of corn stalk was carried out in ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid including 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl, 1-H-3-methylimidazolium chloride [HMIM]Cl, and 1-(1-propylsulfonic-3-imidazolium chloride [HSO3-pMIM]Cl at 70°C for 2 h. We compared the pretreatments by ionic liquid with and without the addition of deionized water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were employed to analyze the chemical characteristics of regenerated cellulose-rich materials. Results. [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl were effective in lignin extraction to obtain cellulose-rich materials. FTIR analysis and SEM analysis indicated the effective lignin removal and the reduced crystallinity of cellulose-rich materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-rich materials was performed efficiently. High yields of reducing sugar and glucose were obtained when the corn stalk was pretreated by [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl. Conclusions. Ionic liquids provided the ideal environment for lignin extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stalk and [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl proved the most efficient ionic liquids. This simple and environmentally acceptable method has a great potential for the preparation of bioethanol for industrial production.

  20. Separation processes for the pretreatment of high-level nuclear wastes at the Savannah River site - 59291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, David; Peters, Thomas; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn; Fondeur, Fernando; Nash, Charles; Fink, Samuel; Herman, David; Marra, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Separation methods for the pretreatment of the high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for cesium and adsorption/ion exchange for the removal of cesium, strontium and alpha-emitting actinides. The CSSX process uses a calixarene extractant in combination with phase modifiers in a hydrocarbon diluent. Monosodium titanate (MST), a hydrous metal oxide, is the baseline material for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (principally Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Np-237). Two pretreatment facilities, the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility began radioactive operations at SRS in 2008. Together these facilities can treat approximately 4 million liters of waste per year. The same separation processes are also planned for the much larger Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The SWPF, which has a design throughput of about 27 million liters per year, is under construction and scheduled to begin radioactive operations in 2014. Current R and D activities for the CSSX process are focused on implementing a new solvent system and stripping flowsheet that offers enhanced extraction and stripping of cesium. This next generation solvent system features a different calixarene extractant, uses caustic instead of nitric acid

  1. Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. García-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high content of color (5952 ± 76 Pt-Co, turbidity (1648 ± 49 FAU, and COD (3608 ± 250 mg/L. Therefore, enhanced performance could be achieved by combining pretreatment techniques to increase the efficiencies of the physical, chemical, and biological treatments. In the integrated process, there was a turbidity reduction of 96.1 ± 0.2% and an increase in dissolved oxygen from 3.8 ± 0.05 mg/L (inlet sand filtration to 6.05 ± 0.03 mg/L (outlet sand filtration after 120 min of treatment. These results indicate good water quality necessary for all forms of elemental life. Color and COD removals were 98.2 ± 0.2% and 39.02 ± 2.2%, respectively, during the electrocoagulation process (0.2915 mA/cm2 current density and 120 min of treatment. The proposed integrated process could be an attractive alternative of pretreatment of real wastewater to increase water quality of conventional treatments.

  2. Business process modeling for processing classified documents using RFID technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszela Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the application of the processing approach to the functional description of the designed IT system supporting the operations of the secret office, which processes classified documents. The article describes the application of the method of incremental modeling of business processes according to the BPMN model to the description of the processes currently implemented (“as is” in a manual manner and target processes (“to be”, using the RFID technology for the purpose of their automation. Additionally, the examples of applying the method of structural and dynamic analysis of the processes (process simulation to verify their correctness and efficiency were presented. The extension of the process analysis method is a possibility of applying the warehouse of processes and process mining methods.

  3. Application of reverse osmosis membrane technology for liquid radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Juan

    2010-01-01

    Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) processing should bear an acceptable level of residual radioactivity for discharge and meet the request of energy saving and waste minimization. Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane technology has been developed as a novel process for LRW processing. Five basic operating parameters of flux, recovery factor, rejection factor, concentration factor and decontamination factor were described, and the latter two parameters were the most important. Concentration factor and decontamination factor should be as high as possible and simultaneously the operating cost for membrane filtration should be low. Technical design considerations for membrane process were discussed and optimized from the aspects of pretreatment, membrane module choice and arrangement and membrane clear out. Application and investigation of RO membrane technology for LRW processing were introduced and it should be noted that the RO membrane technology has been introduced into overseas nuclear power plants for LRW processing and interiorly in the stage of investigation. (authors)

  4. Manufacturing technology and process for BWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    Following recent advanced technologies, processes and requests of the design changes of BWR fuel, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI) has upgraded the manufacturing technology and honed its own skills to complete its brand-new automated facility in Tokai in the latter half of 1980's. The plant uses various forms of automation throughout the manufacturing process: the acceptance of uranium dioxide powder, pelletizing, fuel rod assembling, fuel bundle assembling and shipment. All processes are well computerized and linked together to establish the integrated control system with three levels of Production and Quality Control, Process Control and Process Automation. This multi-level system plays an important role in the quality assurance system which generates the highest quality of fuels and other benefits. (author)

  5. Fluidization technologies: Aerodynamic principles and process engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Rahul; Puthli, Shivanand

    2009-11-01

    The concept of fluidization has been adapted to different unit processes of pharmaceutical product development. Till date a lot of improvements have been made in the engineering design to achieve superior process performance. This review is focused on the fundamental principles of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics associated with the fluidization technologies. Fluid-bed coating, fluidized bed granulation, rotor processing, hot melt granulation, electrostatic coating, supercritical fluid based fluidized bed technology are highlighted. Developments in the design of processing equipments have been explicitly elucidated. This article also discusses processing problems from the operator's perspective along with latest developments in the application of these principles. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  6. Image processing technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Beom; Kim, Woong Ki; Park, Soon Young

    1993-05-01

    Digital image processing technique is being actively studied since microprocessors and semiconductor memory devices have been developed in 1960's. Now image processing board for personal computer as well as image processing system for workstation is developed and widely applied to medical science, military, remote inspection, and nuclear industry. Image processing technology which provides computer system with vision ability not only recognizes nonobvious information but processes large information and therefore this technique is applied to various fields like remote measurement, object recognition and decision in adverse environment, and analysis of X-ray penetration image in nuclear facilities. In this report, various applications of image processing to nuclear facilities are examined, and image processing techniques are also analysed with the view of proposing the ideas for future applications. (Author)

  7. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovanni Spelta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The information technology that supports the implementation of the business process management appproach is called Business Process Management System (BPMS. The main components of the BPMS solution framework are process definition repository, process instances repository, transaction manager, conectors framework, process engine and middleware. In this paper we define and characterize the role and importance of the components of BPMS's framework. The research method adopted was the case study, through the analysis of the implementation of the BPMS solution in an insurance company called Chubb do Brasil. In the case study, the process "Manage Coinsured Events"" is described and characterized, as well as the components of the BPMS solution adopted and implemented by Chubb do Brasil for managing this process.

  8. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of residual H 2 O 2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H 2 O 2 (MW-H 2 O 2 ) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H 2 O 2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H 2 O 2 (0.6 g H 2 O 2 /g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H 2 O 2 /g TS) pretreatment. The residual H 2 O 2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H 2 O 2 at 0.2 g H 2 O 2 /g TS was used in MW-H 2 O 2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H 2 O 2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  9. Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore,

  10. Improvisation during Process-Technology Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Mathiassen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Most software firms struggle to take advantage of the potential benefits of software process improvement (SPI) as they adopt this technology into the complex and dynamic realities of their day-to-day operation. Such efforts are therefore typically fluctuating between management's attempt to contr...

  11. Influence Processes for Information Technology Acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacherjee, Anol; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how processes of external influence shape information technology acceptance among potential users, how such influence effects vary across a user population, and whether these effects are persistent over time. Drawing on the elaboration-likelihood model (ELM), we compared two...

  12. Further development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol: Optimisation of pre-treatment processes and characterisation of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Schmidt, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    oxidation fractionated wheat straw efficiently into solubilised hemicellulose and a highly convertible cellulose fraction. High oxygen (12 bar) duringtreatment and low lignin in treated fibres resulted in highly convertible cellulose. Different optimal reaction conditions were found for different harvest......The efficiency of several processes for pre-treatment of lignocellulose has been investigated to provide suitable feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Wet oxidation (with and without alkaline) has been investigated for wheat straw,birchwood, and willow treating 60 g...

  13. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-07-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  14. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  15. Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection heating autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A

    2017-11-01

    This work describes the application of two forms of heating for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection heating and microwave heating processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave heating processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave heating processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  17. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  18. Improving drug manufacturing with process analytical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Licinia O; Alves, Teresa P; Cardoso, Joaquim P; Menezes, José C

    2006-01-01

    Within the process analytical technology (PAT) framework, as presented in the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines, the aim is to design, develop and operate processes consistently to ensure a pre-defined level of quality at the end of the manufacturing process. Three PAT implementation scenarios can be envisaged. Firstly, PAT could be used in its most modest version (in an almost non-PAT manner) to simply replace an existing quality control protocol (eg, using near-infrared spectroscopy for an in-process quality control, such as moisture content). Secondly, the use of in-process monitoring and process analysis could be integrated to enhance process understanding and operation for an existing industrial process. Thirdly, PAT could be used extensively and exclusively throughout development, scale-up and full-scale production of a new product and process. Although the first type of implementations are well known, reports of the second and third types remain scarce. Herein, results obtained from PAT implementations of the second and third types are described for two industrial processes for preparing bulk active pharmaceutical ingredients, demonstrating the benefits in terms of increased process understanding and process control.

  19. Effects of drying pretreatment and particle size adjustment on the composting process of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Hong; Yu, Yan-Ling; Zhou, Xiang-Tong; Lu, Bin-Yu; Li, Zi-Mu; Feng, Yu-Jie

    2017-05-01

    The main characteristic of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves is their high nicotine content. Aerobic composting is an effective method to decrease the nicotine level in tobacco leaves and stabilize tobacco wastes. However, high levels of nicotine in discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves complicate tobacco waste composting. This work proposes a drying pretreatment process to reduce the nicotine content in discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves and thus enhance its carbon-to-nitrogen ratio to a suitable level for composting. The effect of another pretreatment method, particle size adjustment, on composting efficiency was also tested in this work. The results indicated that the air-dried (nicotine content: 1.35%) and relatively long discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves (25 mm) had a higher composting efficiency than damp (nicotine content: 1.57%) and short discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves (15 mm). When dry/25 mm discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves mixed with tobacco stems in an 8:2 ratio was composted at a temperature above 55 °C for 9 days, the nicotine content dropped from 1.29% to 0.28%. Since the discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves was successfully composted to a fertile and harmless material, the germination index values increased to 85.2%. The drying pretreatment and particle size adjustment offered ideal physical and chemical conditions to support microbial growth and bioactivity during the composting process, resulting in efficient conversion of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves into a high quality and mature compost.

  20. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I.W.; Yoon, K.S.; Cho, B.W. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Improvisation during Process-Technology Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Mathiassen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    firm, SmallSoft, over a 10-year period (1996–2005). We found that micro-level and macro-level improvisations interacted, often in uncoordinated ways, to shape SPI technology adoption at SmallSoft. The improvisations enhanced employee creativity, motivation and empowerment, created momentum......Most software firms struggle to take advantage of the potential benefits of software process improvement (SPI) as they adopt this technology into the complex and dynamic realities of their day-to-day operation. Such efforts are therefore typically fluctuating between management's attempt to control...

  2. Brown seaweed processing: enzymatic saccharification of Laminaria digitata requires no pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk; Andersen, Stinus K.; Saake, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the effect of different milling pre-treatments on enzymatic glucose release from the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata having high glucan (laminarin) content. Wet refiner milling, using rotating disc distances of 0.1–2 mm, generated populations of differently sized pieces...... of lamina having decreasing average surface area (100–0.1 mm2) with increased milling severity. Higher milling severity (lower rotating disc distance) also induced higher spontaneous carbohydrate solubilization from the material. Due to the seaweed material consisting of flat blades, the milling did...... not increase the overall surface area of the seaweed material, and size diminution of the laminas by milling did not improve the enzymatic glucose release. Milling was thus not required for enzymatic saccharification because all available glucose was released even from unmilled material. Treatment...

  3. Control of processes using isotopic diagnostic's technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Celso; Chaverri, Oscar; Chine, Bruno; Conejo, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The Escuela de Ciencias e Ingenieria de los Materiales of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica, in cooperation with OIEA, develops a project of dowry of capacity oriented to the formation of professionals and equipment for the use of two important technologies of isotopic diagnostic. The first of them is the technology of tracers that operates the unique properties that present different radioactive isotopics like open sources. The second one well known as scanning or profile gamma, uses sealed source, of the some nature that the previous ones, to obtain profiles in different processes and thus to determine its internal condition and operation. The objective of this article is to present both technologies, its benefits and to promote the use in the country [es

  4. Evaluation of wet air oxidation as a pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production from rice husk and process optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Saumita [Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 Maharashtra (India); Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 West Bengal (India); Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 West Bengal (India); Pandey, R.A.; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Satpute, Dewanand; Giri, Balendu Shekher; Mudliar, Sandeep [Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 Maharashtra (India)

    2009-12-15

    The pretreatment of rice husk by the wet air oxidation (WAO) technique was investigated by means of a statistically designed set of experiments. Reaction temperature, air pressure, and reaction time were the process parameters considered. WAO pretreatment of rice husk increased the cellulose content of the solid fraction by virtue of lignin removal and hemicellulose solubilization. The cellulose recovery was around 92%, while lignin recovery was in the tune of 8-20%, indicating oxidation of a bulk quantity of lignin. The liquid fraction was found to be rich in hexose and pentose sugars, which could be directly utilized as substrate for ethanol fermentation. The WAO process was optimized by multi-objective numerical optimization with the help of MINITAB 14 suite of statistical software, and an optimum WAO condition of 185 C, 0.5 MPa, and 15 min was predicted and experimentally validated to give 67% (w/w) cellulose content in the solid fraction, along with 89% lignin removal, and 70% hemicellulose solubilization; 13.1 gl{sup -1} glucose and 3.4 gl{sup -1} xylose were detected in the liquid fraction. The high cellulose content and negligible residual lignin in the solid fraction would greatly facilitate subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, and result in improved ethanol yields from rice husk. (author)

  5. Waste processing building with incineration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, Wasilah; Zaldi Suradin, Muh.

    2017-12-01

    In Indonesia, waste problem is one of major problem of the society in the city as part of their life dynamics. Based on Regional Medium Term Development Plan of South Sulawesi Province in 2013-2018, total volume and waste production from Makassar City, Maros, Gowa, and Takalar Regency estimates the garbage dump level 9,076.949 m3/person/day. Additionally, aim of this design is to present a recommendation on waste processing facility design that would accommodate waste processing process activity by incineration technology and supported by supporting activity such as place of education and research on waste, and the administration activity on waste processing facility. Implementation of incineration technology would reduce waste volume up to 90% followed by relative negative impact possibility. The result planning is in form of landscape layout that inspired from the observation analysis of satellite image line pattern of planning site and then created as a building site pattern. Consideration of building orientation conducted by wind analysis process and sun path by auto desk project Vasari software. The footprint designed by separate circulation system between waste management facility interest and the social visiting activity in order to minimize the croos and thus bring convenient to the building user. Building mass designed by inseparable connection series system, from the main building that located in the Northward, then connected to a centre visitor area lengthways, and walked to the waste processing area into the residue area in the Southward area.

  6. Development of rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology for ethanol production from extractive ammonia pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingjie; Liu, Yanping; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    High enzyme loading and low productivity are two major issues impeding low cost ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This work applied rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology (RaBIT) and extractive ammonia (EA) pretreatment for conversion of corn stover (CS) to ethanol at high solids loading. Enzymes were recycled via recycling unhydrolyzed solids. Enzymatic hydrolysis with recycled enzymes and fermentation with recycled yeast cells were studied. Both enzymatic hydrolysis time and fermentation time were shortened to 24 h. Ethanol productivity was enhanced by two times and enzyme loading was reduced by 30%. Glucan and xylan conversions reached as high as 98% with an enzyme loading of as low as 8.4 mg protein per g glucan. The overall ethanol yield was 227 g ethanol/kg EA-CS (191 g ethanol/kg untreated CS). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1713-1720. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Plasma Hearth Process Technology Development Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Wolfe, P.

    1993-01-01

    The US DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) is currently evaluating the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) for potential treatment of several DOE waste types. The PHP is a high-temperature vitrification process that has potential application for a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic mixed waste categories. The PHP is being tested under both the OTD Mixed Waste Integrated Program and the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Initial testing has been completed on several different surrogate waste forms that are representative of some of the DOE mixed waste streams. Destruction of organic material exceeds that of conventional incineration technologies. The vitrified residual has leaching characteristics comparable to glass formulations produced in the high-level waste program. The first phase of the PHP demonstration project has been successfully completed, and the project is currently beginning a comprehensive second phase of development and testing

  8. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  9. Similarity search processing. Paralelization and indexing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    The next Scientific-Technical Report addresses the similarity search and the implementation of metric structures on parallel environments. It also presents the state of the art related to similarity search on metric structures and parallelism technologies. Comparative analysis are also proposed, seeking to identify the behavior of a set of metric spaces and metric structures over processing platforms multicore-based and GPU-based.

  10. Design and optimization of sustainable process technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Qin, Fen; Yamakawa, Celina Kiyomi

    The development of sustainable processes and innovative strategies that can accelerate the transition to a bio-economyis one of the main goals of the current societyin order to have a future less dependent on oil and with lower carbon emissions. The use of biomass as a feedstock for bioprocesses......, minimizing the costs and maximizing the efficiencyand productivity.Once the optimal conditions are identified, the process scale-up can be then evaluated. This could be translated in a faster time to market for newprocess technologies....

  11. Digital signal processing - growth of a technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.B.H.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid development of microelectronics has led to an increasing extent in circuits and systems for digital signal processing. This happened first in professional applications, e.g. geophysics, astronomy and space flight, and now, with the Compact Disc player, these techniques have entered the consumer field. In the near future digital TV applications will undoubtedly follow. This article outlines a number of the developments behind the advancing 'digitization' of modern technology. The article also considers the main advantages and disadvantages of digital signal processing the main modules now used and some common applications. Particular attention is paid to medical applications. (Auth.)

  12. Radiation processing: a versatile technology for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of x-ray in 1895 and radioactivity in 1896, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can modify the chemical, physical and/or biological properties of materials. However, it was only in the late 50's, when large radiation sources become available, has this unique property of radiation found industrial applications in radiation processing. Today, radiation processing has been used by industry in such diverse applications, such as radiation sterilization/decontamination of medical products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and their raw materials; radiation cross-linking of wire and cable insulation; production of heat shrinkable materials and polymer foam; and radiation curing of coatings, adhesives and inks on a wide variety of substrates. In addition to being a clean environment-friendly technology, radiation processing can also be used for the conservation of the environment by such processes as radiation treatment of flue gases to remove SO 2 and NO x and disinfection of sewage sludge. Because of the many advantages offered by radiation processing, industry is showing strong interest in the technology as evidenced by the growing number of industrial radiation facilities in many countries. (author)

  13. The Search for New Information Processing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Ralph K.

    2005-03-01

    Our society has benefited from the ‘Golden Age of Electronics’ for the last half century. The ubiquitous transistor, in its many manifestations, has enabled an explosion of capabilities in information processing, communications, and sensing that has spurred exponential growth in performance-benefit ratios. Much of the credit for this progress is due to the continued scaling of the silicon integrated circuit (IC) components and to the associated efficient fabrication processes that have made the IC affordable. There is a growing realization, from simple physics arguments, that as minimum features sizes approach the ten nanometer regime, scaling will very likely slow and eventually end. This doesn’t mean that the MOSFET will disappear, but more likely that it will need to be supplemented by other device and interconnect technologies if the exponential gains are to continue. In this talk we discuss the basis for the projected limitation of scaling of charge-based devices for logic and memory devices. We argue that a fundamental consideration for all devices, including those based on charge, relates to the capacity to manage heat generated by circuit operation. Our preference is for devices that operate at room temperature since the energy costs for cooling the devices must also be charged against the overall system energy consumption. (Cooling costs increase as a power of the difference between the ambient and the target temperature.) Therefore we seek new state variables to serve as an alternative to electrical charge for future information processing technologies. These technologies must provide the potential for sustaining exponential performance-cost benefits with time. The search must not only focus on device structures but on the underlying materials and process technologies that enable these structures. Indeed, to obtain extremely scaled CMOS, new materials and processes must also be developed. In this talk, we survey some of the candidates for

  14. Changes in feedwater organic matter concentrations based on intake type and pretreatment processes at SWRO facilities, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), natural organic matter, and bacterial concentrations in feedwater are important factors that can lead to membrane biofouling in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems. Two methods for controlling these concentrations in the feedwater prior to pretreatment have been suggested; use of subsurface intake systems or placement of the intake at a greater depth in the sea. These proposed solutions were tested at two SWRO facilities located along the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia. A shallow well intake system was very effective in reducing the algae and bacterial concentrations and somewhat effective in reducing TEP concentrations. An intake placed at a depth of 9. m below the surface was found to have limited impact on improving water quality compared to a surface intake. The algae and bacteria concentration in the feedwater (deep) was lower compared to the surface seawater, but the overall TEP concentration was higher. Bacteria and TEP measurements made in the pretreatment process train in the plant and after the cartridge filters suggest that regrowth of bacteria is occurring within the cartridge filters.

  15. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  16. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm; Giacobbo, Alexandre; Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Meneguzzi, Alvaro; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm −2 , 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment

  17. Ambient temperature contamination of process piping and the effects of pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeleye, S.A.; White, D.A.; Taylor, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of pretreatment methods as possible controls on the buildup (plateout) of cobalt and cesium activity on the inside surfaces of mild and stainless steel piping used to carry radioactive liquors. Coupon specimens of mild steel and Type 304L and 18/13/1 stainless steel piping are treated by contacting with acid and electroetching. Also, the effect on plateout of saturating steel coupons with inactive cobalt is investigated. In addition, the transient effects of pH, concentration changes, and liquid turbulence on untreated surface buildup are presented. Surface treatment is shown to delay activity buildup in certain instances bu does not affect the magnitude of overall surface activity. For untreated and treated surfaces, plateout is dependent on solution pH and isotope concentration. The higher the pH and the higher the concentration, the greater the deposition will be. The effects of turbulence cause only a marginal decrease in plateout at each pH level and concentration studied. The steel type has a major effect on the activity picked up. The mild steel specimen shows the greatest activity buildup

  18. Robotic inspection technology-process an toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, Markus [ROSEN Group (United States). R and D Dept.

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline deterioration grows progressively with ultimate aging of pipeline systems (on-plot and cross country). This includes both, very localized corrosion as well as increasing failure probability due to fatigue cracking. Limiting regular inspecting activities to the 'scrapable' part of the pipelines only, will ultimately result into a pipeline system with questionable integrity. The confidence level in the integrity of these systems will drop below acceptance levels. Inspection of presently un-inspectable sections of the pipeline system becomes a must. This paper provides information on ROSEN's progress on the 'robotic inspection technology' project. The robotic inspection concept developed by ROSEN is based on a modular toolbox principle. This is mandatory. A universal 'all purpose' robot would not be reliable and efficient in resolving the postulated inspection task. A preparatory Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis is performed prior to the decision about the adequate robotic solution. This enhances the serviceability and efficiency of the provided technology. The word 'robotic' can be understood in its full meaning of Recognition - Strategy - Motion - Control. Cooperation of different individual systems with an established communication, e.g. utilizing Bluetooth technology, support the robustness of the ROSEN robotic inspection approach. Beside the navigation strategy, the inspection strategy is also part of the QFD process. Multiple inspection technologies combined on a single carrier or distributed across interacting container must be selected with a clear vision of the particular goal. (author)

  19. Tank waste processing analysis: Database development, tank-by-tank processing requirements, and examples of pretreatment sequences and schedules as applied to Hanford Double-Shell Tank Supernatant Waste - FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.; Orth, R.J.; Aitken, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report gives the results of work conducted in FY 1993 by the Tank Waste Processing Analysis Task for the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration. The main purpose of this task, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to demonstrate a methodology to identify processing sequences, i.e., the order in which a tank should be processed. In turn, these sequences may be used to assist in the development of time-phased deployment schedules. Time-phased deployment is implementation of pretreatment technologies over a period of time as technologies are required and/or developed. The work discussed here illustrates how tank-by-tank databases and processing requirements have been used to generate processing sequences and time-phased deployment schedules. The processing sequences take into account requirements such as the amount and types of data available for the tanks, tank waste form and composition, required decontamination factors, and types of compact processing units (CPUS) required and technology availability. These sequences were developed from processing requirements for the tanks, which were determined from spreadsheet analyses. The spreadsheet analysis program was generated by this task in FY 1993. Efforts conducted for this task have focused on the processing requirements for Hanford double-shell tank (DST) supernatant wastes (pumpable liquid) because this waste type is easier to retrieve than the other types (saltcake and sludge), and more tank space would become available for future processing needs. The processing requirements were based on Class A criteria set by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Clean Option goals provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  20. Radioisotopes technology used to probe process problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With the move to a greater degree of sophistication in industrial processes has come a need for improved measurement control methods as well as for efficient techniques for investigating process problems. Radioisotope-based technology, because of its unique benefits, is playing an increasing role in assisting mining and industry to satisfy the critical needs for efficiency in investigating process problems. More than twenty years of experience in the application of radioisotope and radiation techniques to the practical problems of industry has resulted in the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa having accumulated both extensive expertise and the facilities to carry out wide-ranging investigations, and to provide a large variety of cost effective services. Some of these are described. 2 figs., 2 ills

  1. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  2. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  3. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  4. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2009-01-01

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm 2 , and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics

  5. Optimization of gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration process for seawater pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Hochstrasser, Florian; Akhondi, Ebrahim; Ambauen, Noëmi; Tschirren, Lukas; Burkhardt, Michael; Fane, Anthony G; Pronk, Wouter

    2016-04-15

    Seawater pretreatment by gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration at 40 mbar has been investigated. In this system, a beneficial biofilm develops on the membrane that helps to stabilize flux. The effects of membrane type, prefiltration and system configuration on stable flux, biofilm layer properties and dissolved carbon removal were studied. The results show that the use of flat sheet PVDF membranes with pore sizes of 0.22 and 0.45 μm in GDM filtration achieved higher stabilized permeate fluxes (7.3-8.4 L/m(2)h) than that of flat sheet PES 100 kD membranes and hollow fibre PVDF 0.1 μm membranes. Pore constriction and cake filtration were identified as major membrane fouling mechanisms, but their relative contributions varied with filtration time for the various membranes. Compared to raw seawater, prefiltering of seawater with meshes at sizes of 10, 100 and 1000 μm decreased the permeate flux, which was attributed to removal of beneficial eukaryotic populations. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed that the porosity of the biofouling layer was more significantly related with permeate flux development rather than its thickness and roughness. To increase the contact time between the biofilm and the dissolved organics, a hybrid biofilm-submerged GDM reactor was evaluated, which displayed significantly higher permeate fluxes than the submerged GDM reactor. Although integrating the biofilm reactor with the membrane system displayed better permeate quality than the GDM filtration cells, it could not effectively reduce dissolved organic substances in the seawater. This may be attributed to the decomposition/degradation of solid organic substances in the feed and carbon fixation by the biofilm. Further studies of the dynamic carbon balance are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of artificial neuronal networks for prediction of the control parameters in the process of anaerobic digestion with thermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Asis, Rita; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M; Juárez-Martínez, Ulises; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Villanueva-Vásquez, Daniel; Aguilar-Lasserre, Alberto A

    2018-04-19

    This article focuses on the analysis of the behavior patterns of the variables involved in the anaerobic digestion process. The objective is to predict the impact factor and the behavior pattern of the variables, i.e., temperature, pH, volatile solids (VS), total solids, volumetric load, and hydraulic residence time, considering that these are the control variables for the conservation of the different groups of anaerobic microorganisms. To conduct the research, samples of physicochemical sludge were taken from a water treatment plant in a poultry processing factory, and, then, the substrate was characterized, and a thermal pretreatment was used to accelerate the hydrolysis process. The anaerobic digestion process was analyzed in order to obtain experimental data of the control variables and observe their impact on the production of biogas. The results showed that the thermal pre-hydrolysis applied at 90°C for 90 min accelerated the hydrolysis phase, allowing a significant 52% increase in the volume of methane produced. An artificial neural network was developed, and it was trained with the database obtained by monitoring the anaerobic digestion process. The results obtained from the artificial neural network showed that there is an adjustment between the real values and the prediction of validation based on 60 samples with a 96.4% coefficient of determination, and it was observed that the variables with the major impact on the process were the loading rate and VS, with impact factors of 36% and 23%, respectively.

  7. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  8. Comparing composts formed by different technological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckova, B.; Mudrunka, J.; Kucerova, R.; Glogarova, V.

    2017-10-01

    The presented article compares quality of composts which were formed by different technological processes. The subject to comparison was a compost which was created in a closed fermenter where ideal conditions for decomposition and organic substances conversion were ensured, with compost which was produced in an open box of community composting. The created composts were analysed to determine whether it is more important for the final compost to comply with the composting conditions or better sorting of raw materials needed for compost production. The results of the carried out experiments showed that quality of the resulting compost cannot be determined unequivocally.

  9. Green and chemical-free process of enzymatic xylooligosaccharide production from corncob: Enhancement of the yields using a strategy of lignocellulosic destructuration by ultra-high pressure pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the pressures at 50-500MPa were evaluated at different time to pretreat and further enzyme hydrolysis. The ultra-high pressure (UHP) pretreatment at 100MPa for 10min led to improved accessibility of enzyme for conversion of xylan to xylooligosaccharide (XOS). The maximum XOS yield of 35.6mg/g substrate was achieved and firstly reported at 10% (w/v) of substrate, 100U of endo-xylanase/g corncobs and incubation time of 18h. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased by 180.3% and released a high amount of xylobiose. The UHP pretreatment relatively did not affect to the composition of corncob, but decreased 34.3% of lignin. Interestingly, antioxidant activities of XOS using UHP pretreatment were higher than untreated corncob. The UHP pretreatment improved lignocellulosic destructuration and XOS yields in a shorter time without the need of chemicals, implying that UHP could be an effective pretreatment of biomass with a chemical-free process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of pelleting process variables on physical properties and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amber N. Hoover; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Farzaneh Teymouri; Garold L. Gresham; Janette Moore

    2014-07-01

    Pelletization process variables including grind size (4, 6 mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70 degrees C) were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was >97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6 mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4 mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60 Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions.

  11. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2009-11-05

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  12. United States Department Of Energy Office Of Environmental Management Waste Processing Annual Technology Development Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  13. A combined microwave pretreatment/solvent extraction process for the production of oil from palm fruit: optimisation, oil quality and effect of prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jason Cx; Chuah, Cheng-Hock; Cheng, Sit-Foon

    2017-04-01

    Conventional palm oil milling involves multiple stages after fruit collection; in particular, oil clarification introduces water into the pressed oil, which results in a large quantity of wastewater. A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (oil had a fatty acid composition not resembling those of conventional crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil. In the pretreatment, the leached oil had 6.3% lauric acid whereas the solvent extracted oil had only 1.5% lauric acid. Among the factors affecting the oil quality, microwave pretreatment affected the oil quality significantly; however, an optimised duration that would ensure high efficiency in solvent extraction also resulted in ruptured fruitlets, although not to the extent of causing excessive oxidation. In fact, microwave pretreatment should exceed 12 min; after only 15 min, the oil had 1-methylcyclopentanol (12.96%), 1-tetradecanol (9.44%), 1-nonadecene (7.22%), nonanal (7.13%) and 1-tridecene (5.09%), which probably arose from the degradation of fibres. Microwave pretreatment represents an alternative milling process for crude palm oil compared with conventional processes in the omission of wet treatment with steam. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Process design of SSCF for ethanol production from steam-pretreated, acetic-acid-impregnated wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is an important step in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material. Using acetic acid together with steam pretreatment allows the positive effects of an acid catalyst to be retained, while avoiding the negative environmental effects associated with sulphuric acid. Acetic acid is also formed during the pretreatment and hydrolysis of hemicellulose, and is a known inhibitor that may impair fermentation at high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to ...

  15. Parameter optimization of ferro-sonication pre-treatment process for degradation of bisphenol A and biodegradation from wastewater sludge using response surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2011-05-15

    In this study, the application of response surface model in predicting and optimizing the ferro-sonication pre-treatment for degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter compound from wastewater sludge (WWS) was investigated. The ferro-sonication pre-treatment process was carried out according to central composite design (CCD) with four independent variables such as wastewater sludge solids concentration, pH, ultrasonication time and FeSO(4) concentration. The effect of ferro-sonication pre-treatment was assessed in terms of increase in sludge solids (suspended solids (SS) and volatile solids (VS)) and organic matter (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and soluble organic carbon (SOC)) solubilization and simultaneous BPA degradation from WWS. It was observed that among all the variables studied, ultrasonication time had more significantly affected the efficiency of the ferro-sonication pre-treatment process followed by FeSO(4) and solids concentration. Through this optimization process, it was found that maximum BPA degradation of 88% could be obtained with 163 min ultrasonication time, 2.71 mg/L FeSO(4) concentration, pH 2.81 with 22 g/L SS. Further, the effect of ferro-sonication pre-treatment on biodegradation of WWS was also studied. It was observed that ultrasonication time had significant effect and the higher biodegradation (32.48%) was observed at 180 min ultrasonication time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical processing of technological and radiochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodova, Zdena; Vonkova, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    The project described in this article had two goals. The main goal was to compare technological and radiochemical data from two units of nuclear power plant. The other goal was to check the collection, organization and interpretation of routinely measured data. Monitoring of analytical and radiochemical data is a very valuable source of knowledge for some processes in the primary circuit. Exploratory analysis of one-dimensional data was performed to estimate location and variability and to find extreme values, data trends, distribution, autocorrelation etc. This process allowed for the cleaning and completion of raw data. Then multiple analyses such as multiple comparisons, multiple correlation, variance analysis, and so on were performed. Measured data was organized into a data matrix. The results and graphs such as Box plots, Mahalanobis distance, Biplot, Correlation, and Trend graphs are presented in this article as statistical analysis tools. Tables of data were replaced with graphs because graphs condense large amounts of information into easy-to-understand formats. The significant conclusion of this work is that the collection and comprehension of data is a very substantial part of statistical processing. With well-prepared and well-understood data, its accurate evaluation is possible. Cooperation between the technicians who collect data and the statistician who processes it is also very important. (author)

  17. A Conversation on Data Mining Strategies in LC-MS Untargeted Metabolomics: Pre-Processing and Pre-Treatment Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Tugizimana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolomic studies generate information-rich, high-dimensional, and complex datasets that remain challenging to handle and fully exploit. Despite the remarkable progress in the development of tools and algorithms, the “exhaustive” extraction of information from these metabolomic datasets is still a non-trivial undertaking. A conversation on data mining strategies for a maximal information extraction from metabolomic data is needed. Using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic dataset, this study explored the influence of collection parameters in the data pre-processing step, scaling and data transformation on the statistical models generated, and feature selection, thereafter. Data obtained in positive mode generated from a LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic study (sorghum plants responding dynamically to infection by a fungal pathogen were used. Raw data were pre-processed with MarkerLynxTM software (Waters Corporation, Manchester, UK. Here, two parameters were varied: the intensity threshold (50–100 counts and the mass tolerance (0.005–0.01 Da. After the pre-processing, the datasets were imported into SIMCA (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden for more data cleaning and statistical modeling. In addition, different scaling (unit variance, Pareto, etc. and data transformation (log and power methods were explored. The results showed that the pre-processing parameters (or algorithms influence the output dataset with regard to the number of defined features. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the pre-treatment of data prior to statistical modeling affects the subspace approximation outcome: e.g., the amount of variation in X-data that the model can explain and predict. The pre-processing and pre-treatment steps subsequently influence the number of statistically significant extracted/selected features (variables. Thus, as informed by the results, to maximize the value of untargeted metabolomic data

  18. Lignocellulosic biomass-Thermal pretreatment with steam: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    technologies; thermal pre-treatment with steam. The Norwegian company CAMBI developed a process for treatment of sludge from waste water treatment plants, and the idea was based on the experience that cooking sludge under pressure at temperature from 150oC to 180oC improved the digestibility and at the same...

  19. Evaluation of the biodegradability and toxicity of landfill leachates after pretreatment using advanced oxidative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fabio Moraes; Daflon, Sarah Dario Alves; Bila, Daniele Maia; da Fonseca, Fabiana Valeria; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2018-02-19

    Leachate from urban solid waste landfills is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic substances that cause damage to the environment, due to the high concentration of recalcitrant organic matter and toxicity. The objective of this study was to apply advanced oxidation processes (AOP), namely the dark Fenton and solar photo-Fenton processes, to young and old landfill leachates prior to biological treatment. The leachates were obtained from the Seropedica and Gramacho landfill sites, respectively, located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. For the two Fenton processes, different conditions of pH (1.5, 3.0 and 5.0) and Fe 2+ : H 2 O 2 ratio (1:2, 1:5 and 1:10) were evaluated. Biodegradability was evaluated using the Zahn-Wellens methodology and Aliivibrio fischeri acute toxicity tests were conducted in order to predict the toxicity in the activated sludge. The best conditions for both Fenton processes were pH of 3.0 and Fe 2+ : H 2 O 2 and COD RAW :H 2 O 2 mass ratios of 1:5 and 1:1, respectively. The solar photo-Fenton process was more effective at improving the quality for both leachates, reaching COD, TOC and abs 254 nm reductions of 82%, 85% and 96.3%, respectively, for the Seropedica landfill leachate. In the case of the Gramacho landfill leachate, the corresponding reductions were 78.2, 80.7% and 91.1%, respectively. The biodegradability results for the untreated leachates from the Seropedica and Gramacho sites were 65% and 30% respectively. The biodegradability of both leachates was improved by the Fenton processes, especially the solar photo-Fenton process, which increased the leachate biodegradability to 89% (Seropedica) and 69% (Gramacho). For both leachates, a greater reduction in the acute toxicity was achieved with the solar photo-Fenton compared to the dark-Fenton process. The Seropedica landfill leachate showed high toxicity (EC50 = 33%, 15 min), after the dark Fenton and solar photo Fenton processes, with EC50 values of 81 and 91

  20. Ethanol production in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with interconnected reactors employing hydrodynamic cavitation-pretreated sugarcane bagasse as raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Ienny, João Vitor; Marcelino, Paulo Franco; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Antunes, Felipe A F; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Santos, Júlio César Dos

    2017-11-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB) pretreated with alkali assisted hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was investigated for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for bioethanol production in interconnected column reactors using immobilized Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124. Initially, HC was employed for the evaluation of the reagent used in alkaline pretreatment. Alkalis (NaOH, KOH, Na 2 CO 3 , Ca(OH) 2 ) and NaOH recycled black liquor (successive batches) were used and their pretreatment effectiveness was assessed considering the solid composition and its enzymatic digestibility. In SSF process using NaOH-HC pretreatment SCB, 62.33% of total carbohydrate fractions were hydrolyzed and 17.26g/L of ethanol production (0.48g of ethanol/g of glucose and xylose consumed) was achieved. This proposed scheme of HC-assisted NaOH pretreatment together with our interconnected column reactors showed to be an interesting new approach for biorefineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced biogas production from rice straw with various pretreatment : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriya Puspita Sari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is one of organic material that can be used for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels such as biogas (about 50-75% CH4 and 25-50% CO2. Out of all bioconversion technologies for biogas production, anaerobic digestion (AD is a most cost-effective bioconversion technology that has been implemented worldwide for commercial production of electricity, heat, and compressed natural gas (CNG from organic materials. However, the utilization of rice straw for biogas production via anaerobic digestion has not been widely adopted because the complicated structure of the plant cell wall makes it resistant to microbial attack. Pretreatment of recalcitrant rice straw is essential to achieve high biogas yield in the AD process. A number of different pretreatment techniques involving using physical pretreatment (hydrothermal and freeze, chemical pretreatment (sodium carbonate – sodium sulfite, hydrogen peroxide, NMMO, alkaline, and dilute acid and biological pretreatment (fungal pretreatment also combined pretretment (microwave irradiation and chemical approaches have been investigated, but there is no report that systematically compares the performance of these pretreatment methods for application on rice straw for biogas production. This paper reviews the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of rice straw for delignification, reducing sugar, and conversion to biogas. It describes the AD process, structural and compositional properties of rice straw, and various pretreatment techniques, including the pretreatment process, parameters, performance, and advantages vs. drawbacks.

  2. Development of Industrial Process Diagnosis and Measurement Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jin Ho

    2010-04-01

    Section 1. Industrial Gamma CT Technology for Process Diagnosis: The project is aimed to develop industrial process gamma tomography system for investigation on structural and physical malfunctioning and process media distribution by means of sealed gamma source and radioactive materials. Section 2. Development of RI Hydraulic Detection Technology for Industrial Application: The objectives in this study are to develop the evaluation technology of the hydrological characteristics and the hydraulic detection technology using radioisotope, and to analyze the hydrodynamics and pollutant transport in water environment like surface and subsurface. Section 3. Development of RT-PAT System for Powder Process Diagnosis: The objective of this project is the development of a new radiation technology to improve the accuracy of the determination of moisture content in a powder sample by using radiation source through the so-called RT-PAT (Radiation Technology-Process Analytical Technology), which is a new concept of converging technology between the radiation technology and the process analytical technology

  3. Development of industrial process diagnosis and measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sunghee; Kim, Jongbum; Moon, Jinho; Suh, Kyungsuk; Kim, Jongyun

    2012-04-01

    Section1. Industrial Gamma CT Technology for Process Diagnosis The project is aimed to develop industrial process gamma tomography system for investigation on structural and physical malfunctioning and process media distribution by means of sealed gamma source and radioactive materials. Section2. Development of RI Hydraulic Detection Technology for Industrial Application The objectives in this study are to develop the evaluation technology of the hydrological characteristics and the hydraulic detection technology using radioisotope, and to analyze the hydrodynamics and pollutant transport in water environment like surface and subsurface. Section3. Development of RT-PAT System for Powder Process Diagnosis The objective of this project is the development of a new radiation technology to improve the accuracy of the determination of moisture content in a powder sample by using radiation source through the so-called RT-PAT (Radiation Technology-Process Analytical Technology), which is a new concept of converging technology between the radiation technology and the process analytical technology

  4. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine : preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Wenyuan Zhu; Patricia OBryan; Bruce S. Dien; Shen Tian; Roland Gleisner; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-...

  5. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: a comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, C; Venditti, S; Igos, E; Klepiszewski, K; Benetto, E; Cornelissen, A

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The "conventional" cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, C.; Venditti, S.; Igos, E.; Klepiszewski, K.; Benetto, E.; Cornelissen, A.

    2012-01-01

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H 2 O 2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H 2 O 2 as AOP. The “conventional” cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  7. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C., E-mail: christian.koehler@tudor.lu [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Venditti, S.; Igos, E.; Klepiszewski, K.; Benetto, E.; Cornelissen, A. [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as AOP. The 'conventional' cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  8. Software engineering technology transfer: Understanding the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1993-01-01

    Technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this report, the mechanisms developed by NASA to transfer technology are explored and the actual mechanisms used to transfer software development technologies are investigated. Time, cost, and effectiveness of software engineering technology transfer is reported.

  9. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  10. The effect of pretreatment on the performance of membrane separation processes in the circulation water systems of paper production; Esikaesittelyiden vaikutus kalvoerotusprosessien toimintaan paperinvalmistuksen vesikierroissa - EKT 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortila-Jokinen, J.; Nystroem, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to establish an optimized membrane filtration process for internal water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In membrane filtration fouling reduces the capacity of a plant, and frequent or ineffective membrane washing reduces the membrane lifetime. These factors affect directly the feasibility of the process. Moreover, the retentates have to be economically destroyed. In this project effective pretreatment systems for membrane filtration processes will be developed. The pretreatments studied will be chemical, biological (thermophilic aerobic or anaerobic processes), oxidative (ozonation or other AOP methods) or enzymatic methods or their combinations. The target is to increase capacity and/or reduce fouling in the membrane process. In addition, the effect of the different pretreatment methods on the washability of the membranes will be studied and an optimized washing routine will be developed. The composition of the forming retentates are also affected by the pretreatment used and additionally the same methods can be used for developing a sensible and economically feasible retentate posttreatment method, which will also be developed in the project. (orig.)

  11. The design of a novel, environmentally improved cotton pre-treatment proces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit)

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this thesis of Gerrit Bouwhuis, lecturer at Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology in Enschede is the development of a new industrial applicable pre-treatment process for cotton based on catalysis. The pre-treatment generally consists of desizing, scouring and bleaching. These

  12. Application of Java technology in radiation image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weifeng; Li Zheng; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of radiation image plays an important role in modern application of civil nuclear technology. The author analyzes the rationale of Java image processing technology which includes Java AWT, Java 2D and JAI. In order to demonstrate applicability of Java technology in field of image processing, examples of application of JAI technology in processing of radiation images of large container have been given

  13. Processed milk waste recycling via thermal pretreatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Processed milk waste (MW) presents a serious problem within the dairy industries due to its high polluting load. Its chemical oxygen demand (COD) can reach values as high as 80,000 mg O 2  L -1 . This study proposes to reduce the organic load of those wastes using thermal coagulation and recover residual valuable components via fermentation. Thermal process results showed that the COD removal rates exceeded 40% when samples were treated at temperature above 60 °C to reach 72% at 100 °C. Clarified supernatants resulting from thermal treatment of the samples at the temperatures of 60 (MW 60 ), 80 (MW 80 ), and 100 °C (MW 100 ) were fermented using lactic acid bacteria strains without pH control. Lactic strains recorded important final cell yields (5-7 g L -1 ). Growth mediums prepared using the thermally treated MW produced 73% of the bacterial biomass recorded with a conventional culture medium. At the end of fermentation, mediums were found exhausted from several valuable components. Industrial scale implementation of the proposed process for the recycling of industrial MWs is described and discussed.

  14. Ozone pretreatment of process waste water generated in course of fluoroquinolone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Fares; Pelzer, David; Zuehlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    During production of active pharmaceutical ingredients, process waste water is generated at several stages of manufacturing. Whenever possible, the resulting waste water will be processed by conventional waste water treatment plants. Currently, incineration of the process waste water is the method to eliminate compounds with high biological activity. Thus, ozone treatment followed by biological waste water treatment was tested as an alternative method. Two prominent representatives of the large group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin) were investigated, focussing on waste water of the bulk production. Elimination of the target compounds and generation of their main transformation products were determined by liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The obtained results demonstrated, that the concentration of moxifloxacin and its metabolites can be effectively reduced (>99.7%) prior entering the receiving water. On the contrary, the concentration of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites remained too high for safe discharge, necessitating application of prolonged ozonation for its further degradation. The required ozonation time can be estimated based on the determined kinetics. To assure a low biological activity the ecotoxicity of the ozonated waste water was investigated using three trophic levels. By means of multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS n ) experiments several new transformation products of the fluoroquinolones were identified. Thus, previously published proposed structures could be corrected or confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  16. Process technology - rare and refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Bose, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    India has fairly rich resreves of rare and refractory metals. Abundant sources of ilmenite, rutile, zircon and rare earths are found in the placer deposits of the southern and eastern coasts of the country. Columbite-tantalite occur in mica and the mining belts of Bihar and cassiterite deposits are found in Bastar (Madhya Pradesh). Vanadium as a minor associate occurs in bauxites and in the vast deposits of titaniferrous magnetites. Over the years, research and development and pilot plant works in many research organisations in India have built up a sound technological base in the country for process metallurgy of many refractory and rare earth metals starting from their indigenous sources. The present paper provides a comprehensive view of the developments that have taken place till now on the processing of various refractory and rare earth metals with particular reference to the extensive work carried out at the Department of Atomic Energy. The coverage includes mineral benification separation of individual elements, preparation of pure intermediates, techniques of reduction to metal and final purification. The paper also reviews some of the recent developments that have been taken place in these fields and the potential application of these metals in the foreseeable future. (author). 22 refs., 18 fi g., 7 tabs

  17. High-pressure carbon dioxide/water pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse and elephant grass: Assessment of the effect of biomass composition on process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscan, Andréia; Morais, Ana Rita C; Paixão, Susana M; Alves, Luís; Andreaus, Jürgen; Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro; Lukasik, Rafal M

    2017-01-01

    The performance of two lignocellulosic biomasses was studied in high-pressure carbon dioxide/water pre-treatment. Sugarcane bagasse and elephant grass were used to produce C 5 -sugars from hemicellulose and, simultaneously, to promote cellulose digestibility for enzymatic saccharification. Different pre-treatment conditions, with combined severity factor ranging from -1.17 to -0.04, were evaluated and maximal total xylan to xylose yields of 59.2wt.% (34.4wt.% xylooligomers) and 46.4wt.% (34.9wt.% xylooligomers) were attained for sugarcane bagasse and elephant grass, respectively. Furthermore, pre-treated biomasses were highly digestible, with glucan to glucose yields of 77.2mol% and 72.4mol% for sugarcane bagasse and elephant grass, respectively. High-pressure carbon dioxide/water pre-treatment provides high total C 5 -sugars and glucose recovery from both lignocellulosic biomasses; however it is highly influenced by composition and intrinsic features of each biomass. The obtained results confirm this approach as an effective and greener alternative to conventional pre-treatment processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L -1 for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  19. Ion Implantation Processing Technologies for Telecommunications Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, T E

    2000-05-01

    The subject CRADA was a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies (formerly AT and T Bell Laboratories) to explore the development of ion implantation technologies for silicon integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing.

  20. A Design Process for Creative Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Eggink, Wouter; Bohemia, E.; Eger, A.; Eggink, W.; Kovacevic, A.; Parkinson, B; Wits, W.

    Creative Technology is a new bachelor programme at the University of Twente. Goal of Creative Technology is to design products and applications that improve the quality of daily life in its manifold aspects, building on Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The application domains range

  1. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  2. Pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater using a combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jinyou; Ou, Changjin; Zhou, Zongyuan; Chen, Jun; Fang, Kexiong; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Lianjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ZVI-Fenton process was conducted for DNAN producing wastewater pretreatment. • Transformation of nitro to amino group by ZVI overcomes the oxidative hindrance. • Subsequent Fenton process is efficient for the removal of aromatic compounds. • ABR-MBBR process is efficient for the polishing of ZVI-Fenton effluent. -- Abstract: A combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process was tested for the pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater. Operating conditions were optimized and overall performance of the combined process was evaluated. For ZVI process, almost complete reduction of nitroaromatic compounds was observed at empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8 h. For Fenton process, the optimal pH, H 2 O 2 to Fe(II) molar ratio, H 2 O 2 dosage and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were found to be 3.0, 15, 0.216 mol/L and 5 h, respectively. After pretreatment by the combined ZVI-Fenton process under the optimal conditions, aromatic organic compound removal was as high as 77.2%, while the majority of COD remained to be further treated by sequent biological process. The combined anaerobic-aerobic process consisted of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was operated for 3 months, fed with ZVI-Fenton effluent. The results revealed that the coupled ZVI-Fenton-ABR-MBBR system was significantly efficient in terms of correcting the effluent's main parameters of relevance, mainly aromatic compounds concentration, COD concentration, color and acute toxicity. These results indicate that the combined ZVI-Fenton process offers bright prospects for the pretreatment of wastewater containing nitroaromatic compounds

  3. Hybrid SSF/SHF Processing of SO2Pretreated Wheat Straw-Tuning Co-fermentation by Yeast Inoculum Size and Hydrolysis Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, B; Karhumaa, K; Sànchez I Nogué, V; Lidén, G

    2017-02-01

    Wheat straw is one of the main agricultural residues of interest for bioethanol production. This work examines conversion of steam-pretreated wheat straw (using SO 2 as a catalyst) in a hybrid process consisting of a short enzymatic prehydrolysis step and a subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) step with a xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A successful process requires a balanced design of reaction time and temperature in the prehydrolysis step and yeast inoculum size and temperature in the SSF step. The pretreated material obtained after steam pretreatment at 210 °C for 5 min using 2.5 % SO 2 (based on moisture content) showed a very good enzymatic digestibility at 45 °C but clearly lower at 30 °C. Furthermore, the pretreatment liquid was found to be rather inhibitory to the yeast, partly due to a furfural content of more than 3 g/L. The effect of varying the yeast inoculum size in this medium was assessed, and at a yeast inoculum size of 4 g/L, a complete conversion of glucose and a 90 % conversion of xylose were obtained within 50 h. An ethanol yield (based on the glucan and xylan in the pretreated material) of 0.39 g/g was achieved for a process with this yeast inoculum size in a hybrid process (10 % water-insoluble solid (WIS)) with 4 h prehydrolysis time and a total process time of 96 h. The obtained xylose conversion was 95 %. A longer prehydrolysis time or a lower yeast inoculum size resulted in incomplete xylose conversion.

  4. Oxalic acid pretreatment for mechanical pulping greatly improves paper strength while maintaining scattering power and reducing shives and triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Swaney; Masood Akhtar; Eric Horn; Michael Lentz; John Klungness; Marc Sabourin

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new technology based on a mild chemical pretreatment process prior to mechanical pulping. Chips are treated with a dilute solution of oxalic acid (OA) for only 10 minute at 130°C, in a typical example. The properties of the pulp produced by this OA process are quite different from those obtained via conventional chemical pretreatments,...

  5. Uncertainty modeling process for semantic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel N. Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of uncertainty across application domains generates a need for principled support for uncertainty management in semantically aware systems. A probabilistic ontology provides constructs for representing uncertainty in domain ontologies. While the literature has been growing on formalisms for representing uncertainty in ontologies, there remains little guidance in the knowledge engineering literature for how to design probabilistic ontologies. To address the gap, this paper presents the Uncertainty Modeling Process for Semantic Technology (UMP-ST, a new methodology for modeling probabilistic ontologies. To explain how the methodology works and to verify that it can be applied to different scenarios, this paper describes step-by-step the construction of a proof-of-concept probabilistic ontology. The resulting domain model can be used to support identification of fraud in public procurements in Brazil. While the case study illustrates the development of a probabilistic ontology in the PR-OWL probabilistic ontology language, the methodology is applicable to any ontology formalism that properly integrates uncertainty with domain semantics.

  6. Effect of pelleting process variables on physical properties and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Moore, Janette; Gresham, Garold

    2014-07-01

    Pelletization process variables, including grind size (4, 6mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70°C), were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also, the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was>97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  8. Full-scale technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Wright, S.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scale technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, was held at the Environmental and Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in September 1994. Polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous, and mixed wastes. Although originally developed for treatment of DOE-generated wastes through waste management and environmental restoration activities, polyethylene encapsulation has application within the commercial sector. A fully equipped, production-scale system, capable of processing over 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control. Following the demonstration, waste-form testing was conducted to confirm performance of the final waste form. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Adoption of improved oil palm processing technology in Umuahia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that a large percentage of the respondents were aware of the 5 improved oil palm processing technologies with friends and relatives as major source of information. Adoption was significant for 3 out of 5 technologies under study. The major constraints to improved oil palm processing technologies were high ...

  10. The Process of Accepting Technology Innovation for Rural Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovski, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In order for educational leaders to facilitate effectively the integration of technology, an understanding of the process rural teachers experience with technology integration is critical. The goal of the qualitative study was to discover and understand rural teachers' process for accepting technology innovation in order to improve the…

  11. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  12. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  13. Integrating Digital Technologies in Teaching Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R.; Velmanirajan, K.; Kanna, K. Sankesh

    2013-01-01

    India has made impressive strides in the application of information and communication technology in recent years and this has reflected in a vibrant and fast growing economy. It is now an acknowledged world leader in the knowledge industry. In this paper an attempt is made to highlight the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in…

  14. Knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology was introduced into the South African school curriculum in recognition of the need to produce more engineers, technicians and artisans and thus to be a vehicle to develop readiness for a competitive and technology-driven economy (Department of Basic Education, 2011). Bloch (2007) avers that it is due to the ...

  15. A Technology Approach to Improving Process Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Lori; Strasburger, Tom

    2013-01-01

    It is impossible to ignore how technology is infiltrating education. Interactive projectors and other technologies give teachers and students the opportunity to bring lessons to life. Some districts are replacing textbooks with digital content, allowing students to interact with content in new ways. Galion City School District in Galion, Ohio, is…

  16. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  17. Green liquor pretreatment for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Yang, Linfeng; Jin, Yongcan; Han, Qiang; Chang, Hou-min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Green liquor consists of sodium carbonate and sodium sulfide and is readily available in any kraft mills. The green liquor pretreatment process for bioethanol production was developed for wood chips. This process uses only proven technology and equipment currently used in a kraft pulp mill and has several additional advantages such as high sugar recovery and concentration, no inhibitive substances produced, as compared to acid-based pretreatment methods. The liquor was used to pretreat corn stover for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis in bioethanol production. Pulp yield of 70% with 45% lignin removal was achieved under optimized conditions (8% total titratable alkali, 40% sulfidity and 140°C). About 70% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars, using 20 FPU/g-pulp of enzyme in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The result indicates that green liquor is a feasible pretreatment to improve the enzymatic saccharification of corn stover for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decision Gate Process for Assessment of a Technology Development Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rajiv; Fishman, Julianna; Hyatt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Dust Management Project (DMP) was established to provide technologies (to TRL 6 development level) required to address adverse effects of lunar dust to humans and to exploration systems and equipment, which will reduce life cycle cost and risk, and will increase the probability of sustainable and successful lunar missions. The technology portfolio of DMP consisted of different categories of technologies whose final product is either a technology solution in itself, or one that contributes toward a dust mitigation strategy for a particular application. A Decision Gate Process (DGP) was developed to assess and validate the achievement and priority of the dust mitigation technologies as the technologies progress through the development cycle. The DGP was part of continuous technology assessment and was a critical element of DMP risk management. At the core of the process were technology-specific criteria developed to measure the success of each DMP technology in attaining the technology readiness levels assigned to each decision gate. The DGP accounts for both categories of technologies and qualifies the technology progression from technology development tasks to application areas. The process provided opportunities to validate performance, as well as to identify non-performance in time to adjust resources and direction. This paper describes the overall philosophy of the DGP and the methodology for implementation for DMP, and describes the method for defining the technology evaluation criteria. The process is illustrated by example of an application to a specific DMP technology.

  19. Effect of Ultrasonic Pretreatment on Biomethane Potential of Two-Phase Olive Mill Solid Waste: Kinetic Approach and Process Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasound (US pretreatment on two-phase olive mil solid waste (OMSW composition and subsequent anaerobic biodegradation was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand solubilization and biochemical methane potential (BMP tests. OMSW was ultrasonically pretreated at a power of 200 W and frequency of 24 kHz for time periods of 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes, corresponding to specific energies of 11367, 21121, 34072, 51284, 68557, and 106003 kJ/kg total solids, respectively. In order to evaluate the US pretreatment, a low, medium, and high exposure time, that is, 20, 90, and 180 min, were selected for BMP tests. Methane yields of 311±15, 393±14, and 370±20 mL CH4/g VSadded (VS: volatile solids were obtained for 20, 90, and 180 minutes, respectively, while the untreated OMSW gave 373±4 mL CH4/g VSadded. From a kinetic point of view, the BMP tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage. In the first stage, the kinetic constant obtained for US pretreated OMSW at 20 minutes was 46% higher than those achieved for the pretreated OMSW at 90 and 180 minutes and 48% higher than that for untreated OMSW. The maximum methane production rate achieved was 12% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSW.

  20. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using a novel indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy based on indigenous iron (in WAS) activated peroxidation to enhance methane production from WAS. Pre-treatment of WAS for 30 min at 50mg H2O2/g total solids (dry weight) and pH 2.0 (iron concentration in WAS was 7 mg/g TS) substantially enhanced WAS solubilization. Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated that methane production was improved by 10% at a digestion time of 16d after incorporating the indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment. Model-based analysis indicated that indigenous iron activated peroxidation pre-treatment improved the methane potential by 13%, whereas the hydrolysis rate was not significantly affected. The economic analysis showed that the proposed pre-treatment method can save the cost by $112,000 per year in a treatment plant with a population equivalent of 300,000. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical methane potential of two-phase olive mill solid waste: influence of thermal pretreatment on the process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, B; Bujalance, L; Fermoso, F G; Martín, A; Borja, R

    2013-07-01

    The effect of thermal pretreatment on two-phase olive mill solid waste was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand solubilisation and biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Temperatures of 100, 120, 160 and 180°C were applied during 60, 120 and 180 min for each temperature studied. The highest chemical oxygen demand solubilisation after pretreatment (42%) was found for 120 and 180°C during 180 min in both cases. These two conditions were selected for the BMP tests. BMP tests showed two different stages: a first exponential stage and a sigmoidal zone after a lag period. No influence of the pretreatment was observed on the kinetic constant of the first-stage. Clear difference was observed in the maximum methane production rate of the second stage, 76.8 mL CH4/(g VS day) was achieved after pretreatment at 180°C (180 min), value 22% and 40% higher than that obtained for the untreated and pretreated OMSW at 120°C, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine. Preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.Y. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zhu, Wenyuan [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab Pulp and Paper Engineering; OBryan, Patricia; Dien, Bruce S. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Peoria, IL (United States). National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research; Tian, Shen [Capital Normal Univ., Beijing (China). College of Life Science; Gleisner, Rolland [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Pan, X.J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    2010-05-15

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quasi-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance. (orig.)

  3. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine: preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Zhu, Wenyuan; Obryan, Patricia; Dien, Bruce S; Tian, Shen; Gleisner, Rolland; Pan, X J

    2010-05-01

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quais-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 degrees C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance.

  4. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities

  5. Multi-scale structural and chemical analysis of sugarcane bagasse in the process of sequential acid–base pretreatment and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy usage of gasoline, burgeoning fuel prices, and environmental issues have paved the way for the exploration of cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol production technologies are emerging and require continued technological advancements. One of the most challenging issues is the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the desired sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. We hypothesized that consecutive dilute sulfuric acid-dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment would overcome the native recalcitrance of sugarcane bagasse (SB) by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate after concentration by vacuum evaporation and detoxification showed 30.89 g/l xylose along with other products (0.32 g/l glucose, 2.31 g/l arabinose, and 1.26 g/l acetic acid). The recovered cellulignin was subsequently delignified by sodium hydroxide mediated pretreatment. The acid–base pretreated material released 48.50 g/l total reducing sugars (0.91 g sugars/g cellulose amount in SB) after enzymatic hydrolysis. Ultra-structural mapping of acid–base pretreated and enzyme hydrolyzed SB by microscopic analysis (scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmitted light microscopy (TLM), and spectroscopic analysis (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy) elucidated the molecular changes in hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of bagasse. The detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate was fermented by Scheffersomyces shehatae (syn. Candida shehatae UFMG HM 52.2) and resulted in 9.11 g/l ethanol production (yield 0.38 g/g) after 48 hours of fermentation. Enzymatic hydrolysate when fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 174 revealed 8.13 g/l ethanol (yield 0.22 g/g) after 72 hours of fermentation. Conclusions Multi-scale structural studies of SB after sequential acid

  6. Integrated modelling in materials and process technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2008-01-01

    Integrated modelling of entire process sequences and the subsequent in-service conditions, and multiphysics modelling of the single process steps are areas that increasingly support optimisation of manufactured parts. In the present paper, three different examples of modelling manufacturing...... processes from the viewpoint of combined materials and process modelling are presented: solidification of thin walled ductile cast iron, integrated modelling of spray forming and multiphysics modelling of friction stir welding. The fourth example describes integrated modelling applied to a failure analysis...

  7. Novel technologies for the lost foam casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian

    2018-03-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) is a green precision casting process categorized as a near net forming technology. Yet, despite its popularity, it still suffers from some technological problems, such as poor filling ability of the castings, coarse and non-dense microstructure, low mechanical properties for the Al and Mg LFC processes, and defective carburization for the low carbon steel LFC process. These drawbacks restrict the development and widespread application of the LFC process. To solve these problems, the present study developed several novel LFC technologies, namely, LFC technologies under vacuum and low pressure, vibration solidification, and pressure solidification conditions; expendable shell casting technology; and preparation technology of bimetallic castings based on the LFC process. The results showed that the LFC under vacuum and low pressure evidently improved the filling ability and solved the oxidization problem of the alloys, which is suitable for producing complex and thinwall castings. The vibration and pressure solidifications increased the compactness of the castings and refined the microstructure, significantly improving the mechanical properties of the castings. The expendable shell casting technology could solve the pore, carburization, and inclusion defects of the traditional LFC method, obtaining castings with acceptable surface quality. Moreover, the Al/Mg and Al/Al bimetallic castings with acceptable metallurgical bonding were successfully fabricated using the LFC process. These proposed novel LFC technologies can solve the current technological issues and promote the technological progress of the LFC process.

  8. Optimization of processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fundamental purpose for processing tra- ditional Chinese Medicine is to attenuate toxicity and enhance efficacy. The processing of Rhizoma Pinelliae. Praeparatum is a typical representative. Through dif- ferent approaches of processing, toxic constituents of. Rhizoma Pinelliae are reduced, thus extending its range.

  9. Optimization of processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Alum', General Records", processing with licorice and ginger in "Zhu Shi", Ming Dynasty's processing- with licorice and lime in the "Compendium of Mate- ria Medica", and processing with ethanol and ginger in the "Prescriptions for Universal Relief", Qing Dynas- ty's "Supplement to Compendium of Materia Medica".

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Office Clean Water Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-03-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)’s Advanced Manufacturing Office partners with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States.

  11. Ethanol Production from SPORL-pretreated Lodgepole Pine: Preliminary Evaluation of Mass Balance and Process Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 liters (73 gallons) per ton of wood or 72% of theoretical. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subject to the sulfite pretreatment to ...

  12. Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped porous carbon from waste tobacco by a simple pre-treatment process and their application in electrochemical capacitor and CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Yunfei; Lou, Jiaying; Bai, Shizhe; Wu, Da; Liu, Baizhan; Ling, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pre-treatment process is used to prepared N-doped carbon from waste biomass. • Waste tobaccos, which are limited for the disposal, are used as the raw materials. • The product shows a specific surface area and nitrogen content. • Its electrochemical performance is better than commercial activated carbon. • Its CO 2 sorption performance is also better than commercial activated carbon. - Abstract: Preparing nitrogen-doped porous carbons directly from waste biomass has received considerable interest for the purpose of realizing the atomic economy. In this study, N-doped porous carbons have been successfully prepared from waste tobaccos (WT) by a simple pre-treatment process. The sample calcinated at 700 °C (WT-700) shows a micro/meso-porous structures with a BET surface area of 1104 m 2 g −1 and a nitrogen content of ca. 19.08 wt.% (EDS). Performance studies demonstrate that WT-700 displays 170 F g −1 electrocapacitivity at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 (in 6 M KOH), and a CO 2 capacity of 3.6 mmol g −1 at 0 °C and 1 bar, and a selectivity of ca. 32 for CO 2 over N 2 at 25 °C. Our studies indicate that it is feasible to prepare N-enriched porous carbons from waste natural crops by a pre-treatment process for potential industrial application

  13. Further development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol: Optimisation of pre-treatment processes and characterisation of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Anette Skammelsen

    1999-03-01

    The efficiency of several processes for pre-treatment of lignocellulose has been investigated to provide feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Wet oxidation (WO) (with and without alkaline) has been investigated for wheat straw, birch wood, and willow treating 60 g/L. Three different harvest years of wheat straw were included to evaluate the effect of crop variation from year to year. Comparative studies were made using steaming and steam explosion of wheat straw. Alkaline WO fractionated wheat straw efficiently into solubilised hemicellulose and a highly convertible cellulose fraction. High oxygen (12 bar) during WO and low lignin in treated fibres resulted in highly convertible cellulose. Different optimal reaction conditions were found for different harvest years. For straw 1993 and 1997, conditions were 185 deg. C, 15 minutes resulting in 9-10 g/L solubilised hemicellulose and 63-67% cellulose convertibility. For straw 1994, conditions were 195 deg. C, 5 minutes resulting in 7.5 g/L solubilised hemicellulose and 96% cellulose convertibility. For willow, the optimal pre-treatment was WO without alkaline using 185 deg. C, 15 minutes, giving 8.2 g/L hemicellulose in solution and 50% cellulose convertibility. For birch wood, the best process conditions were hydrothermal treatment (without oxygen and alkaline). At 200 deg. C and 15 minutes, 8 g/L hemicellulose was solubilised with high recoveries for both polysaccharides, however, poor cellulose convertibility was found (<30%). Alkaline WO resulted in the highest cellulose convertibility but low contents of solubilised hemicellulose (<4 g/L). In general, formation of furfural was avoided by adding alkaline during wet oxidation. In the absence of alkaline, furfural formation was higher (up to 130 mg/100 g wheat straw) than that of steam explosion (43 mg/100 g straw). Formation of carboxylic acids was highest during alkaline wet oxidation and highest for birch wood (up to 8 g/L). Minor amounts of

  14. Radiation Evaluation and Concept Development for Analog Probability Processing Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analog probability processing technology has the ability to provide game-changing performance advances and power savings for on-board data processing applications....

  15. FY97 Materials & Processes Technology Area Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    preproduction ability. Concentrator with Refractive verdsion engines. Trimarc is "--To meet 1700*F - 2800*F Linear Element Technology). 40% lighter than...graph- can also be used as acuators for tios of 1986 engine per- ite foams for structures. ailerons, flaps and landing gear formance baseline...Aerial Aluminum Garnet SCARLET - Solar Concentrator Vehicle Ni - Nickel with Refractive Linear Ele- UHF - Ultra High Frequency NLO - Nonlinear Optical or

  16. Refining processes in the copper casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz, S.; Kranc, M.; Garbacz-Klempka, A.; Kozana, J.; Piękoś, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of technology of copper and alloyed copper destined for power engineering casts. The casts quality was assessed based on microstructure, chemical content analysis and strength properties tests. Characteristic deoxidising (Logas, Cup) and modifying (ODM2, Kupmod2) formulas were used for the copper where high electrical conductivity was required. Chosen examples of alloyed copper with varied Cr and Zr content were studied, and the optimal heat treatment parameter...

  17. Managing Technological Change: The Process is Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    performance suggestive of an electronic sweatshop or informa- and the quality of their work lives has been significantly im- tion assembly line than a...changc the rescrvations system, but without docu- systems, databases, and software applications that comprise mentation or access to the person who...and task HAS BEEN SEEN that instead of trying to minimize change. level, the technology’s inherent flexibili- AS A ITATI particularly with respect to

  18. Application of supercritical carbon dioxide extrusion in food processing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Panak-Balentić Jelena; Ačkar Đurđica; Jozinović Antun; Babić Jurislav; Miličević Borislav; Jokić Stela; Pajin Biljana; Šubarić Drago

    2017-01-01

    Extrusion process is one of the most important innovations of the 20th century applied in many industries. Extrusion is a technology that is increasingly used for the production of various food products, especially snacks and breakfast cereals. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a non-toxic, non-flammable and inexpensive, is applied in many processes, including the extrusion technology. Supercritical CO2 extrusion process (SCFX) found its application primarily in the processing and manufac...

  19. Hybrid process technologies in the financial sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Marquard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the variants of the process that are relevant to them. This paper reports on a project we undertook with such a credit institute where we investigated and addressed these issues by providing a hybrid solution, allowing processes to be modelled using our constraint-based modelling tools, but also supporting...

  20. Thermodynamics for separation-process technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    When contemplating or designing a separation process, every chemical engineer at once recognizes the thermodynamic boundary conditions that must be satisfied: when a mixture is continuously processed to yield at least partially purified products, energy and mass must be conserved and work must be done. In his daily tasks, a chemical engineer uses thermodynamic concepts as tacit, almost subconscious, knowledge. Thus, qualitative thermodynamics significantly informs process conception at its most fundamental level. However, quantitative design requires detailed knowledge of thermodynamic relations and physical chemistry. Most process engineers, concerned with flow sheets and economics, cannot easily command that detailed knowledge and therefore it is advantageous for them to maintain close contact with those specialists who do. Quantitative chemical thermodynamics provides an opportunity to evaluate possible separation processes not only because it may give support to the process engineer`s bold imagination but also because, when coupled with molecular models, it can significantly reduce the experimental effort required to determine an optimum choice of process alternatives. Six examples are presented to indicate the application of thermodynamics for conventional and possible future separation processes.

  1. Semantic Technology Recommendation Based on the Analytic Network Process

    OpenAIRE

    Radulovic, F.; García-Castro, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Semantic technologies have become widely adopted in recent years, and choosing the right technologies for the problems that users face is often a difficult task. This paper presents an application of the Analytic Network Process for the recommendation of semantic technologies, which is based on a quality model for semantic technologies. Instead of relying on expert-based comparisons of alternatives, the comparisons in our framework depend on real evaluation results. Furthermore, the recommend...

  2. Chemistry and technology of radiation processed composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1985-01-01

    Composite materials of synthetics (based on monomers, oligomers and thermoplastics) and of natural polymers (wood and other fibrous cellulosics) prepared by radiation processing, offer valuable structural materials with enhanced coupling forces between the components. The applied polymer chemistry of such composites shows several common features with that of radiation grafting, e.g. the polymerization rate of oligomer-monomer mixtures in wood remains in most cases proportional to the square-root of the initiating dose-rate, just as in the simultaneous grafting, demonstrating that the chain termination kinetics remain regularly bimolecular in the corresponding dose-rate ranges. In the processing experiences of such composites, low dose requirement, easy process-control, and good technical feasibility have been found for composites of wood with oligomer-monomer mixtures, for coconut fibres with unsaturated polyesters and for pretreated wood fibre with polypropylene. (author)

  3. A Survey on Evaluation Factors for Business Process Management Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2006-01-01

    Estimating the value of business process management (BPM) technology is a difficult task to accomplish. Computerized business processes have a strong impact on an organization, and BPM projects have a long-term cost amortization. To systematically analyze BPM technology from an economic-driven

  4. Effect of aerobic pre-treatment on hydrogen and methane production in a two-stage anaerobic digestion process using food waste with different compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieenia, Razieh; Girotto, Francesca; Peng, Wei; Cossu, Raffaello; Pivato, Alberto; Raga, Roberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic pre-treatment was applied prior to two-stage anaerobic digestion process. Three different food wastes samples, namely carbohydrate rich, protein rich and lipid rich, were prepared as substrates. Effect of aerobic pre-treatment on hydrogen and methane production was studied. Pre-aeration of substrates showed no positive impact on hydrogen production in the first stage. All three categories of pre-aerated food wastes produced less hydrogen compared to samples without pre-aeration. In the second stage, methane production increased for aerated protein rich and carbohydrate rich samples. In addition, the lag phase for carbohydrate rich substrate was shorter for aerated samples. Aerated protein rich substrate yielded the best results among substrates for methane production, with a cumulative production of approximately 351ml/gVS. With regard to non-aerated substrates, lipid rich was the best substrate for CH 4 production (263ml/gVS). Pre-aerated P substrate was the best in terms of total energy generation which amounted to 9.64kJ/gVS. This study revealed aerobic pre-treatment to be a promising option for use in achieving enhanced substrate conversion efficiencies and CH 4 production in a two-stage AD process, particularly when the substrate contains high amounts of proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A two-stage pretreatment process using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by Fenton oxidation to improve sugar recovery from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Qiaozhi; Zhang, Tingwei; Ma, Longlong; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-11-01

    A two-stage pretreatment process is proposed in this research in order to improve sugar recovery from corn stover. In the proposed process, corn stover is hydrolyzed by dilute hydrochloric acid to recover xylose, which is followed by a Fenton reagent oxidation to remove lignin. 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid is applied in the first stage pretreatment at 120°C for 40min, resulting in 81.0% xylose removal. Fenton reagent oxidation (1g/L FeSO4·7H2O and 30g/L H2O2) is performed at room temperature (about 20°C) for 12 has a second stage which resulted in 32.9% lignin removal. The glucose yield in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was 71.3% with a very low cellulase dosage (3FPU/g). This two-stage pretreatment is effective due to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the removal of lignin in the second stage, resulting in a very high sugar recovery with a low enzyme loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conjoint Management of Business Processes and Information Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur

    and improve business processes. As a consequence, there is a growing need to address managerial aspects of the relationships between information technologies and business processes. The aim of this PhD study is to investigate how the practice of conjoint management of business processes and information...... technologies can be supported and improved. The study is organized into five research papers and this summary. Each paper addresses a different aspect of conjoint management of business processes and information technologies, i.e. problem development and managerial practices on software...... and information technologies in a project environment. It states that both elements are intrinsically related and should be designed and considered together. The second case examines the relationships between information technology management and business process management. It discusses the multi-faceted role...

  7. Simultaneous determination of the protein conversion process in porcine stratum corneum after pretreatment with skin enhancers by a combined microscopic FT-IR/DSC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Duan, Kwo-Jen; Lin, Tsung-Chien

    1996-11-01

    A newly developed microscopic Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry combined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to investigate simultaneously the thermal response and IR spectral changes in protein structure in porcine stratum corneum (SC) after pretreatment with skin penetration enhancers (propylene glycol (PG), azone/PG, oleic acid (OA)/PG, vitamin C, and vitamin C+ OA/PG). The amide I and II bands of the protein were used as probes to determine its structural transformation with temperature. A reheating process was also performed. The dual effects of enhancer and temperature on the protein conformational changes of porcine SC were studied. The results indicate that the newly developed FT-IR/DSC system can continuously determine the thermoresponsive conversion process from α-helix to β-sheet in the keratin structure of porcine SC pretreated with different enhancers. The temperature-induced keratin conversion in the protein structure of porcine SC was irreversible, with or without pretreatment with skin penetration enhancers. The conformational transition in the protein during heating was found to be partially from the α-helix to a random coil structure, and partially from the α-helix to the β-sheet structure. The kinetics of this conversion for the first and second heating processes were significantly different; the conversion process for all the first-heated SC samples during the second heating process was slower than that of the samples during the first heating process. Moreover, it was found that the skin penetration enhancers were able to alter synergistically and promote keratin conversion in the protein structure of porcine SC when accompanying the heating process. PG, OA/PG and azone/PG were found to be the most effective.

  8. Recent Advances in the Application of Inorganic Salt Pretreatment for Transforming Lignocellulosic Biomass into Reducing Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loow, Yu-Loong; Wu, Ta Yeong; Tan, Khang Aik; Lim, Yung Shen; Siow, Lee Fong; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Teoh, Wen Hui

    2015-09-30

    Currently, the transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products such as reducing sugars is garnering attention worldwide. However, efficient hydrolysis is usually hindered by the recalcitrant structure of the biomass. Many pretreatment technologies have been developed to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose such that the components can be reutilized more effectively to enhance sugar recovery. Among all of the utilized pretreatment methods, inorganic salt pretreatment represents a more novel method and offers comparable sugar recovery with the potential for reducing costs. The use of inorganic salt also shows improved performance when it is integrated with other pretreatment technologies. Hence, this paper is aimed to provide a detailed overview of the current situation for lignocellulosic biomass and its physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, this review discusses some recent studies using inorganic salt for pretreating biomass and the mechanisms involved during the process. Finally, some prospects and challenges using inorganic salt are highlighted.

  9. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Gadzhieva; G. I. Kasianov

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environm...

  10. Modeling of processing technologies in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, V. G.; Sagitov, R. F.; Popov, V. P.; Bachirov, V. D.; Akhmadieva, Z. R.; TSirkaeva, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, the society is facing an urgent need to solve the problems of nutrition (products with increased nutrition value) and to develop energy-saving technologies for food products. A mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer of polymer materials in the extruder is rather successful these days. Mathematical description of movement and heat exchange during extrusion of gluten-protein-starch-containing material similar to pasta dough in its structure, were taken as a framework for the mathematical model presented in this paper.

  11. Best available technology equivalent controls for B Plant Process Condensate: Tank farm process technology section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report evaluates whether proposed controls for the B Plant Process Condensate effluent stream are equivalent to Best Available Technology (BAT) economically achievable. Methods to determine whether the proposed controls for the BCP were equivalent to BAT originated from the Guidance Document for the Hanford Site. The BAT performance standards, which originate from the Clean Water Act, are to be applied to all contaminated liquid effluent discharges currently going to the soil column at the Hanford Site. The B Plant BAT evaluation addressed pollutants that had not been regulated traditionally under Federal or State water-pollution control programs. As a result, only comparisons could be made to existing radiation and water quality standards, and a BAT determination based on the effluent guidelines method (as outlined in the BAT Guidance Document) was not possible. Due to the variability and inconsistency of factors with comparable streams, such as the effluent stream at the Savannah River Plant, a BAT determination by the technology transfer method and treatability studies method was not possible. By using the generic treatment systems method, a one-or two-stage treatment system for dissolved solids removal was concluded to be equivalent to BAT. By performing two economic achievability tests, a one-stage treatment system consisting of mixed bed ion exchange columns was considered to be cost effective and equivalent to BAT. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  13. FY-2010 Process Monitoring Technology Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Casella, Amanda J.; Hines, Wes; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; henkell, J.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Lines, Amanda M.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peterson, James M.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Christensen, Ronald N.; Peper, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    During FY 2010, work under the Spectroscopy-Based Process Monitoring task included ordering and receiving four fluid flow meters and four flow visible-near infrared spectrometer cells to be instrumented within the centrifugal contactor system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Initial demonstrations of real-time spectroscopic measurements on cold-stream simulants were conducted using plutonium (Pu)/uranium (U) (PUREX) solvent extraction process conditions. The specific test case examined the extraction of neodymium nitrate (Nd(NO3)3) from an aqueous nitric acid (HNO3) feed into a tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/ n-dodecane solvent. Demonstration testing of this system included diverting a sample from the aqueous feed meanwhile monitoring the process in every phase using the on-line spectroscopic process monitoring system. The purpose of this demonstration was to test whether spectroscopic monitoring is capable of determining the mass balance of metal nitrate species involved in a cross-current solvent extraction scheme while also diverting a sample from the system. The diversion scenario involved diverting a portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system while a continuous extraction experiment was underway. A successful test would demonstrate the ability of the process monitoring system to detect and quantify the diversion of material from the system during a real-time continuous solvent extraction experiment. The system was designed to mimic a PUREX-type extraction process with a bank of four centrifugal contactors. The aqueous feed contained Nd(NO3)3 in HNO3, and the organic phase was composed of TBP/n-dodecane. The amount of sample observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was measured to be 3 mmol (3 x 10-3 mol) Nd3+. This value was in excellent agreement with the 2.9 mmol Nd3+ value based on the known mass of sample taken (i.e., diverted) directly from the system feed solution.

  14. Dual effect of soluble materials in pretreated lignocellulose on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process for the bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Xia; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Guan, Qi-Man; Zhang, Man-Tong; Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, wash liquors isolated from ethylenediamine and dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover were used to evaluate the effect of soluble materials in pretreated biomass on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for ethanol production, respectively. Both of the wash liquors had different impacts on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzymatic conversions of glucan and xylan monotonically decreased as wash liquor concentration increased. Whereas, with low wash liquor concentrations, xylose consumption rate, cell viability and ethanol yield were maximally stimulated in fermentation without nutrient supplementary. Soluble lignins were found as the key composition which promoted sugars utilization and cell viability without nutrient supplementary. The dual effects of soluble materials on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation resulted in the reduction of ethanol yield as soluble materials increased in SSCF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of thermal technologies for processing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the various thermal technologies for processing various solid, liquid, organic and inorganic radioactive waste streams. The advantages, limitations and operating experience of various thermal technologies are explained. This publication also goes beyond previous work on thermal processes by addressing the applicability of each technology to national or regional nuclear programmes of specific relative size (major advanced programmes, small to medium programmes, and emerging programmes with other nuclear applications). The most commonly used thermal processing technologies are reviewed, and the key factors influencing the selection of thermal technologies as part of a national waste management strategy are discussed. Accordingly, the structure and content of this publication is intended to assist decision-makers, regulators, and those charged with developing such strategies to identify and compare thermal technologies for possible inclusion in the mix of available, country-specific waste management processes. This publication can be used most effectively as an initial cutting tool to identify whether any given technology will best serve the local waste management strategy in terms of the waste generated, technical complexity, available economic resources, environmental impact considerations, and end product (output) of the technology. If multiple thermal technologies are being actively considered, this publication should be instrumental in comparing the technologies and assisting the user to reach an informed decision based on local needs, economics and priorities. A detailed set of conclusions is provided in Section 7

  16. Risk calculations in the manufacturing technology selection process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, S.; O'Brien, C.

    2010-01-01

    and supports an industrial manager in achieving objective and comprehensive decisions regarding selection of a manufacturing technology. Originality/value - The paper explains the process of risk calculation in manufacturing technology selection by dividing the decision-making environment into manufacturing...... in the shape of opportunities and threats in different decision-making environments. Practical implications - The research quantifies the risk associated with different available manufacturing technology alternatives. This quantification of risk crystallises the process of technology selection decision making......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present result obtained from a developed technology selection framework and provide a detailed insight into the risk calculations and their implications in manufacturing technology selection process. Design/methodology/approach - The results illustrated...

  17. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  18. Application of membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Membrane separation processes have made impressive progress since the first synthesis of membranes almost 40 years ago. This progress was driven by strong technological needs and commercial expectations. As a result the range of successful applications of membranes and membrane processes is continuously broadening. In addition, increasing application of membrane processes and technologies lies in the increasing variations of the nature and characteristics of commercial membranes and membrane apparatus. The objective of the report is to review the information on application of membrane technologies in the processing of liquid radioactive waste. The report covers the various types of membranes, equipment design, range of applications, operational experience and the performance characteristics of different membrane processes. The report aims to provide Member States with basic information on the applicability and limitations of membrane separation technologies for processing liquid radioactive waste streams

  19. Refining processes in the copper casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of technology of copper and alloyed copper destined for power engineering casts. The casts quality was assessed based on microstructure, chemical content analysis and strength properties tests. Characteristic deoxidising (Logas, Cup and modifying (ODM2, Kupmod2 formulas were used for the copper where high electrical conductivity was required. Chosen examples of alloyed copper with varied Cr and Zr content were studied, and the optimal heat treatment parameters were tested for a chosen chromium copper content, based on the criterion of hardness and electrical conductivity tests. Searching for materials with high wear resistance, the influence of variable silicone content on the properties of CuNiSi alloy was researched.

  20. Gasification — the process and the technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1981-01-01

    Thermochemical gasification of biomass can produce low, medium and high calorific value gases. The characteristics, applications and potential of the different processes and reactor types are discussed. The introduction of biomass gasification on a large or intermediate scale for the production of

  1. Educational Design and Construction: Processes and Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas C.; Gros, Begona; Kinshuk,; Maina, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There are no one-size-fits-all steps for tackling different design challenges within the context of education. There are, however, processes and activities that are often useful. Developing a repertoire so that designers can select and use the most fruitful and fitting approaches for specific

  2. On the Benefit of Using Mobile Technologies in Business Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Deibert, Sina; Rothlauf, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The rapid technical progress in the development of mobile devices and technologies offers new possibilities for improving and streamlining the performance of business processes. However, only few successful mobile applications exist in the business area. This paper discusses the benefits an enterprise can gain by using mobile technologies in business processes. It presents general indicators to measure the performance of business processes and shows how these indicators must be adapted to be ...

  3. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retrieval And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Mendoza, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated, developed, and deployed by WRPS to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Transformational technologies are needed to complete Hanford tank waste retrieval and treatment by 12/31/2047. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated because it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans, and methods. WRPS and the DOE are developing, testing, and deploying technologies to meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) identifies the environmental management technology needs and the activities necessary to address them. The U.S. Congress then funds these activities through EM or the DOE field offices. Finally, an array of entities that include DOE site prime contractors and

  4. Selective pyrolysis of paper mill sludge by using pretreatment processes to enhance the quality of bio-oil and biochar products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckamp, Joseph M.; Garrido, Rene A.; Satrio, Justinus A.

    2014-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PMS) is a residual biomass that is generated at paper mills in large quantities. Currently, PMS is commonly disposed in landfills, which causes environmental issues through chemical leaching and greenhouse gas production. In this research, we are exploring the potential of fast pyrolysis process for converting PMS into useful bio-oil and biochar products. We demonstrate that by subjecting PMS to a combination of acid hydrolysis and torrefaction pre-treatment processes it is possible to alter the physicochemical properties and composition of the feedstock material. Fast pyrolysis of pretreated PMS produced bio-oil with significantly higher selectivity to levoglucosenone and significantly reduced the amount of ketone, aldehyde, and organic acid components. Pretreatment of PMS with combined 4% mass fraction phosphoric acid hydrolysis and 220 °C torrefaction processed prior to fast pyrolysis resulted in a 17 times increase of relative selectivity towards levoglucosenone in bio-oil product along with a reduction of acids, ketones, and aldehydes combined from 21 % to 11 %. Biochar, produced in higher yield, has characteristics that potentially make the solid byproduct ideal for soil amendment agent or sorbent material. This work reveals a promising process system to convert PMS waste into useful bio-based products. More in-depth research is required to gather more data information for assessing the economic and sustainability aspects of the process. - Highlights: • Acid hydrolysis and torrefaction reduce bio-oil yield, but improve quality. • Dilute acid conditions provide optimal treatment for bio-oil quality and yield. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces high selectivity to levoglucosenone formation. • Treated PMS produces bio-oil with reduced acid, ketone, and aldehyde content. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces biochar with low volatile matter in high yield

  5. Improvement in shelf life of minimally processed cilantro leaves through integration of kinetin pretreatment and packaging interventions: Studies on microbial population dynamics, biochemical characteristics and flavour retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitha, K; Shivashankara, K S; Sudhakar Rao, D V; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Roy, T K; Bharathamma, H

    2017-04-15

    Effect of integrating optimized combination of pretreatment with packaging on shelf life of minimally processed cilantro leaves (MPCL) was appraised through analysis of their sensory attributes, biochemical characteristics, microbial population and flavour profile during storage. Minimally pretreated cilantro leaves pretreated with 50ppm kinetin and packed in 25μ polypropylene bags showed a shelf life of 21days. Optimized combination helped in efficiently maintaining sensory parameters, flavour profile, and retention of antioxidants in MPCL until 21days. Studies conducted on the effect of optimized combination on microbial population and flavour profile revealed that among different microorganisms, pectinolysers had a significant effect on spoilage of MPCL and their population of ⩽3.59logcfu/g was found to be acceptable. Principal component analysis of headspace volatiles revealed that (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-hexadecenal, (E)-2-tetradecenal & (E)-2-tetradecen-1-ol in stored samples clustered with fresh samples and therefore, could be considered as freshness indicators for MPCL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.

  7. Innovative Pedagogical Processes Involving Educational Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    This design-based research project investigates the elements, methods, processes and practices that can contribute to the creation of reflected, innovative and motivating learning designs for teachers and students in a hybrid synchronous video-mediated teaching context, with a focus on how...... about how design and learning processes can support continuous pedagogical innovation and competence development. The objective of the learning designs was to create motivating learning experiences for the students in the hybrid synchronous video-mediated learning environment, to which end...... it experimented with gamified learning designs. This involved the students designing digital games while implementing learning goals from their curriculum. The project thus created knowledge about which learning designs and competence development models were possible in this environment, which learning designs...

  8. Hydrometallurgical Processing Technology of Titanomagnetite Ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ivanovich Sachkov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the possibility of obtaining iron and titanium-vanadium concentrates with highest contents of iron and titanium, respectively, through hydrometallurgical processing of the titanomagnetite ores of the Chineisk deposit. We varied two key parameters to determine the efficiency of the process: (a concentration of leaching solution (ammonium fluoride; and (b acidity of solution. Ammonium fluoride concentration was varied from 0.08 mol/L to 4.2 mol/L with the other fixed parameters. It was shown that optimum ammonium fluoride concentration for leaching the ore is 0.42 mol/L; at these concentrations iron and titanium contents are about 62.8 wt % and 3.5 wt % in solid phase, respectively. The acidity of solution was changed by adding of hydrofluoric acid with varied concentration (from 0.86 mol/L to 4.07 mol/L to ammonium fluoride solution with fixed concentration of 0.42 mol/L. The best results (degree of titanium extraction = 63.7% were obtained when using a solution of hydrofluoric acid with concentration 4.07 mol/L. In this case, the addition of acid makes it possible to increase the Fe/Ti ratio by 3.4 times in comparison with the original ore. Thus, we conclude that acidity and the concentration of ammonium fluoride solution significantly influences the selectivity of the hydrometallurgical process.

  9. Technology Estimating: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Reeves, John D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Greenberg, Marc; Comstock, Doug; Olds, John R.; Wallace, Jon; DePasquale, Dominic; Schaffer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investing in new technologies that include 14 primary technology roadmap areas, and aeronautics. Understanding the cost for research and development of these technologies and the time it takes to increase the maturity of the technology is important to the support of the ongoing and future NASA missions. Overall, technology estimating may help provide guidance to technology investment strategies to help improve evaluation of technology affordability, and aid in decision support. The research provides a summary of the framework development of a Technology Estimating process where four technology roadmap areas were selected to be studied. The framework includes definition of terms, discussion for narrowing the focus from 14 NASA Technology Roadmap areas to four, and further refinement to include technologies, TRL range of 2 to 6. Included in this paper is a discussion to address the evaluation of 20 unique technology parameters that were initially identified, evaluated and then subsequently reduced for use in characterizing these technologies. A discussion of data acquisition effort and criteria established for data quality are provided. The findings obtained during the research included gaps identified, and a description of a spreadsheet-based estimating tool initiated as a part of the Technology Estimating process.

  10. Performance Analyses in an Assistive Technology Service Delivery Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Karin

    Performance Analyses in an Assistive Technology Service Delivery Process.Keywords: process model, occupational performance, assistive technologiesThe Poster is about teaching students, using models and theory in education and practice. It is related to Occupational therapy process and professional...... af top-til-bund, klientcentreret og aktivitetsbaseret interventioner, ERGO/MunksgaardFisher, A. &, Griswold, L. A., 2014. Performance Skills. I: B.Schell red.2014 Occupational Therapy. Willard &Spackman’s occupational therapy. -12th ed., p.249-264Cook A.M., Polgar J.M. (2015) Assistive Technologies...

  11. FEATURES OF USING AUGMENTED REALITY TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept and technology of augmented reality, the rationale given the relevance and timeliness of its use to support educational processes. Paper is a survey and study of the possibility of using augmented reality technology in education. Architecture is proposed and constructed algorithms of the software system management QR-codes media objects. An overview of the features and uses of augmented reality technology to support educational processes is displayed, as an option of a new form of visual demonstration of complex objects, models and processes

  12. Application of image processing technology in yarn hairiness detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong ZHANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing technology is one of the new methods for yarn detection, which can realize the digital characterization and objective evaluation of yarn appearance. This paper overviews the current status of development and application of digital image processing technology used for yarn hairiness evaluation, and analyzes and compares the traditional detection methods and this new developed method. Compared with the traditional methods, the image processing technology based method is more objective, fast and accurate, which is the vital development trend of the yarn appearance evaluation.

  13. [Mechanized system for planning technological processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchenko, V S; Shapiro, A M

    1977-01-01

    A mechanized system for the production processes planning involving the use of an electronic code device for data preparation on a punched tape of the "EPECT-IT" type, at the base of which there are classifiers of standard operations and transitions to individual design members, is considered. A fragment of the classifier and a skeleton diagram of the system are presented. It is pointed out that the use of the system helps improve the quality of the design work, as well as to yield considerable economic advantages. The system is in operation at some enterprises of the medical engineering industry.

  14. [Study on baking processing technology of hui medicine Aconitum flavum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue-yan; Zhang, Bai-tong; Li, Ting-ting; Dong, Lin; Hao, Wen-jing; Yu, Liang

    2013-12-01

    To screen and optimize the processing technology of Aconitum flavum. The acute-toxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic experiments were used as indexes. Four processing methods, including decoction, streaming, baking and processing with Chebulae Fructus decoction, were compared to screen the optimum processing method for Aconitum flavum. The baking time was also optimized. The optimal baked technology was that 1-2 mm decoction pieces was baked at 105 degrees C for 3 hours. The baking method is proved to be the optimal processing method of Aconitum flavum. It is shown that this method is simple and stable.

  15. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  16. Status and prospect of radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    2001-01-01

    Radiation processing technology in Malaysia is gaining acceptance by the local industry. The technology has proven to enhance the industrial efficiency, productivity and improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been produced either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. Today, effort is being focused towards producing environmentally friendly and biodegradable materials using natural polymers. The government of Malaysia through the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed research program to utilize indigenous materials such as natural rubber, palm oil and polysaccharide. Radiation processing technology is used to process (crosslink/grafting/curing) the materials at a competitive cost. This technology can be applied in several industrial sectors such as automobile, aerospace, construction and healthcare. (author)

  17. Status and prospect of radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation processing technology in Malaysia is gaining acceptance by the local industry. The technology has proven to enhance the industrial efficiency, productivity and improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been produced either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. Today, effort is being focused towards producing environmentally friendly and biodegradable materials using natural polymers. The government of Malaysia through the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed research program to utilize indigenous materials such as natural rubber, palm oil and polysaccharide. Radiation processing technology is used to process (crosslink/grafting/curing) the materials at a competitive cost. This technology can be applied in several industrial sectors such as automobile, aerospace, construction and healthcare. (author)

  18. Dry process fuel performance technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K. (and others)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase III R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, property model development of DUPIC fuel and irradiation test was carried out in Hanaro using the instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase III are summarized as follows: Fabrication process establishment of simulated DUPIC fuel for property measurement, Property model development for the DUPIC fuel, Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in Hanaro, Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis, Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (KAOS)

  19. Process Technology for Immobilized Lipasecatalyzed Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan

    (e.g. a hydrophobic carrier for the immobilized lipase and the capabilities to provide sufficient mixing as well as stepwise/continuous feeding of ethanol to the reactor). An STR is efficient for batch operation while a PBR is efficient for a continuous production. An STR can more easily provide...... sufficient external mass transfer for a reaction, but will lead to more mechanical damage of the biocatalyst particles, than a PBR. A reactor combination of CSTR with PBR can couple the advantages of both, delivering an efficient continuous process. The second case study (esterification) shares some similar......-catalyzed transesterification is that it is multi-phasic system. The by-product glycerol can potentially impose inhibitory effects on immobilized lipases and likewise the un-dissolved ethanol can inhibit the lipase. The options for addressing these issues can be used as the basis for selecting the biocatalyst and the reactor...

  20. Dry process fuel performance technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase III R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, property model development of DUPIC fuel and irradiation test was carried out in Hanaro using the instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase III are summarized as follows: Fabrication process establishment of simulated DUPIC fuel for property measurement, Property model development for the DUPIC fuel, Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in Hanaro, Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis, Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (KAOS)

  1. Efficiency of Traditional Food Processing Technology in the Locality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identified the efficiency of traditional food processing technology which is the set of methods and techniques used for transforming raw food ingredients into food or other forms for consumption by human or animals either in the home or by the food processing industry. Food processing has also helped to create ...

  2. A Process for Technology Prioritization in a Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen; Herman, Melody; Griffin, Brand

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's process for prioritizing technology requirements where there is a competitive environment. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project is used to exemplify the process. The ISPT project focuses on the mid level Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for development. These are TRL's 4 through 6, (i.e. Technology Development and Technology Demonstration. The objective of the planning activity is to identify the current most likely date each technology is needed and create ISPT technology development schedules based on these dates. There is a minimum of 4 years between flight and pacing mission. The ISPT Project needed to identify the "pacing mission" for each technology in order to provide funding for each area. Graphic representations show the development of the process. A matrix shows which missions are currently receiving pull from the both the Solar System Exploration and the Sun-Solar System Connection Roadmaps. The timeframes of the pacing missions technologies are shown for various types of propulsion. A pacing mission that was in the near future serves to increase the priority for funding. Adaptations were made when budget reductions precluded the total implementation of the plan.

  3. Information Technologies and Globalization: New Perspectives of Teaching Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Irshad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how information technologies and globalization have opened new avenues and horizons for educators and learners. It discusses different experiences of using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in teaching learning process the world over in the age of globalization. It focuses on the ways these new trends have…

  4. Research on Implementing Big Data: Technology, People, & Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jenny Grant; Johnson, Margie; Dennis, Randall

    2015-01-01

    When many people hear the term "big data", they primarily think of a technology tool for the collection and reporting of data of high variety, volume, and velocity. However, the complexity of big data is not only the technology, but the supporting processes, policies, and people supporting it. This paper was written by three experts to…

  5. SpaceCube Technology Brief Hybrid Data Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The intent of this presentation is to give status to multiple audience types on the SpaceCube data processing technology at GSFC. SpaceCube has grown to support multiple missions inside and outside of NASA, and we are being requested to give technology overviews in various forums.

  6. Business modeling process for university’s technology transfer offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Alexandru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is devoted to analyze the appropriate recommendations to increase the effectiveness of technology transfer centers from Romanian National Network for Innovation and Technology Transfer - ReNITT, hosted by universities. The study is focused on the definition of a conceptual frame to develop specific business models, by the specialized compartments from technology/knowledge transfer entities, and using the specific instruments of business modeling process. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 8 steps scheduling of pairing the building blocks of the Business Models Canvas, corresponding to the specific technology transfer models, and taking into account the elements of the value chain of technology transfer and making connections with technology readiness level, allows a clarification of this relative “fuzzy” and complicated modeling process of university’s Technology Transfer Offices activities, gathering in a concentrated format all necessary information. According to their mission, objectives and strategies, universities decide upon a certain business model for the Technology Transfer Offices, adaptable to client segment and value proposition to attain, by the offered services portfolio. In conclusion, during their activities, Technology Transfer Offices identify, validate and exploit the opportunities originated from applicative research results, by “technology push” methods. Also, there are necessary specific competences (human and material to develop externally aware business models starting from real needs of the clients, by “market pull” techniques, that would contribute to enhance the endogenous innovation potential of firms.

  7. Information Technology in Small Medium Enterprise: Logistic and Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pighin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discuss a survey which describes how small-medium enterprises (SMEs implement and use their information system with respect to their logistic and production processes. The study first describes the rationale of the research, then it identifies the characteristics of the companies and detects their general attitude towards information technology (IT. In the following section the paper presents a set of detailed processes to verify the structure and workflow of companies and how IT supports their processes. In the last part we study the influence of some company characteristics to effective use of processes and to different technological approaches, to support defined logistic and production processes. The novelty of the study and its interest, both in academic and institutional context as in the real world, resides in the opportunity to verify and understand the different attitudes of SMEs towards information technology in defining, organizing, planning and control their processes.

  8. Innovation in Construction: Learning Processes in implementing new Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lennie

    1999-01-01

    The article is concerned with the question: How do construction firms implement new technology on construction projects? A model of the implementation process is presented based on a review of the construction innovation literature, innovation theory, and organisational learning theories....

  9. Magsonic™ Carbothermal Technology Compared with the Electrolytic and Pidgeon Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Leon H.; Haque, Nawshad

    A broad technology comparison of carbothermal magnesium production with present technologies has not been previously presented. In this paper a comparative analysis of CSIRO's MagSonic™ process is made with the electrolytic and Pidgeon processes. The comparison covers energy intensity (GJ/tonne Mg), labor intensity (person-hours/tonne Mg), capital intensity (USD/tonne annual Mg installed capacity), and Global Warming Potential (GWP, tonnes CO2-equivalent/tonne Mg). Carbothermal technology is advantageous on all measures except capital intensity (where it is roughly twice the capital cost of a similarly-sized Pidgeon plant). Carbothermal and electrolytic production can have comparatively low environmental impacts, with typical emissions one-sixth those of the Pidgeon process. Despite recent progress, the Pidgeon process depends upon abundant energy and labor combined with few environmental constraints. Pressure is expected to increase on environmental constraints and labor and energy costs over the coming decade. Carbothermal reduction technology appears to be competitive for future production.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION OF THE MASS FUNCTION CAST BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of scientifically grounded technical decisions, the whole set of which has enabled to create technological processes of production of high-quality cast bars of mass appointment is offered.

  11. Thermal food processing: new technologies and quality issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    .... The editor of Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues presents a comprehensive reference through authors that assist in meeting this challenge by explaining the latest developments and analyzing the latest trends...

  12. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  13. Process optimization of biogas production at Nemščak biogas plant by pre-treatment of the substrate and combining with waste sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Žitek, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the amount of biogas produced by pre-treatment of the substrate and combining with waste sludge. For anaerobic digestion of different substrates, we used a pilot reactor to determine the biogas potential at Nemščak biogas plant. The pilot reactor was built in 2009 for the purpose of testing new substrates in the process of biogas production. The pilot reactor has a working volume of 2000 litres; there is a gas tank above it with the volume of 500 litr...

  14. Optimization and interpretation of O3 and O3/H2O2 oxidation processes to pretreat hydrocortisone pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiju; He, Jingjing; Wang, Dandan; Meng, Panpan; Zeng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Chemical synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater must be pretreated before traditional biological treatment to improve the biodegradability of pollutants due to their high concentration and complex composition. This study investigated O3 and O3/H2O2 systems to pretreat hydrocortisone wastewater. The optimum treatment efficiency of the O3 system was achieved under pH value of 5.76, dosage of O3 of 217.5 mg/L, and reaction time of 90 min. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) was 94% and 92%, respectively. The ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and COD (B/C) increased from 0.066 to 0.310. Moreover, the optimum H2O2/O3 molar ratio was 0.3 with the optimum pH of 3, and reaction time was reduced to 15 min to reach COD removal efficiency of 67.3% in the O3/H2O2 oxidation system. Interestingly, isobutanol was assumed to be a good hydroxyl radical trapping agent due to the great decrease of Fenton reagent reaction rate constant. By comparing two different kinetic models, oxidation mechanism could be interpreted by the pseudo first-order kinetic model with the high correlation coefficient R2 above 0.9787. It can be concluded that ozonation system was controlled by both direct oxidation and free radical oxidation, and particularly the later one played a dominant role.

  15. Decommissioning of evaporation technology for processing liquid radioactive waste in UJV Rez, a. s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tous, M.; Otcovsky, T.; Podlaha, J.

    2015-01-01

    The UJV Rez, a. s. is the main leader in processing institutional radioactive waste (RAW) in the Czech Republic and the Waste Management Department has been established since the research reactor VVR-S (now LVR-15) was put in operation. Due to the large activities in nuclear research and engineering in the past, a big capacity of waste management technologies was needed. The low pressure compactor for volume reduction of solid RAW, as well as chemical pre-treatment technology of liquid RAW were installed and later the evaporation technology for effective processing the liquid RAW with the cementation and bituminization unit for final conditioning of concentrated liquid RAW were used. During the years of research reactor operation and research activities in UJV Rez, a. s. there were two installed evaporation technologies in row. After the latest evaporator lifetime, changes in liquid RAW production and together with higher decontamination factor requirements, this technology was decided to be decommissioned. The decommissioned evaporation technology was installed and put in operation in 1991. This technology was used for processing liquid aqueous RAW produced from internal research activities and of course for external producers and institutions (e.g. universities, medicine, research institutes, industry). The approved decommissioning plan was prepared and the licence for immediate decommissioning was obtained in 2012. Then the decommissioning project started. The preparing stages as dosimetric survey, expected material balance and of course initial decontamination activities were performed. Evaporation technology dismantling and processing the arising RAW were done by the internal staff of Waste Management Department. The total volume of produced RAW was 49,5 m 3 of RAW. The secondary liquid RAW (from decontamination) of amount 1,4 m 3 , contaminated sludge of amount 0,5 m 3 , solid RAW (construction steel) of amount 39,1 m 3 , solid compressible RAW (protective

  16. Radiation processing technology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyuki Hagiwara

    1997-01-01

    The address discusses the following issue - towards the 21st century, we are required more and more to create innovative technologies to solve problems about environment, energy, natural resources, materials, health care, food and others which are the great concern to human beings. For the radiation processing technology to survive, it will be required to provide answers to those problems. The use of radiation of polymer modification will remain as an important field of the radiation application. Some other promising polymer processing can be cited as those which will grow in near future; for environment technology - polymeric fibers grafted with ion exchange residues to remove toxic metals for cleaning industrial waste water; For health care technology - crosslinked polyvinylalcohol hydrogel for wound dressing (irradiation of hydrogel); For high performance materials technology - less toxic crosslinked natural rubber latex (irradiation of emulsion), abrasion resistant crosslinked PTFE (irradiation at high temperature)

  17. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reactor and process design in sustainable energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Reactor Process Design in Sustainable Energy Technology compiles and explains current developments in reactor and process design in sustainable energy technologies, including optimization and scale-up methodologies and numerical methods. Sustainable energy technologies that require more efficient means of converting and utilizing energy can help provide for burgeoning global energy demand while reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions associated with energy production. The book, contributed by an international team of academic and industry experts in the field, brings numerous reactor design cases to readers based on their valuable experience from lab R&D scale to industry levels. It is the first to emphasize reactor engineering in sustainable energy technology discussing design. It provides comprehensive tools and information to help engineers and energy professionals learn, design, and specify chemical reactors and processes confidently. Emphasis on reactor engineering in sustainable energy techn...

  19. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  20. Effect of L-Cysteine Pretreatment on the Control of Formaldehyde and Browning of the Culinary-Medicinal Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) during Drying and Canning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijie; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Fresh culinary-medicinal Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were pretreated by soaking in 0.1 mg/mL of L-cysteine solution for 1 hour; then the variation in formaldehyde content and browning degree were studied during hot air-drying and canning processes. The results indicated that L-cysteine pretreatment significantly inhibited the increase of formaldehyde content and browning during the drying process; these increases in the pretreatment groups ranged from 7.0% to 14.0% and 65.4% to 68.9%, respectively, of that of the control groups. While the L-cysteine pretreatment did not seem to have a significant effect on controlling the formaldehyde content during the canning process, the increase of the browning degree of the canned products of the pretreatment groups ranged from 64.8% to 78.5% of that of the control groups, indicating the inhibitive effect of L-cysteine on browning during the canning process of L. edodes. Overall, L-cysteine pretreatment improved the sensory quality of both dried and canned L. edodes.

  1. Stakeholder and Process Alignment in Navy Installation Technology Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    report : We have numerous technical success stories that are not fully integrated because of certain circumstances or conditions— some of which are totally...simultaneously integrate tech- nologies with existing systems, secure stakeholder support and integrate with shore planning and funding, program and...process requirements, the ARLs measure progress across three domains: technology integration , stakeholders and processes. Hurdles in any one of

  2. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  3. STUDENTS READINESS TO USE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN UNIVERSITIES EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Denysenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of readiness of students of different specialties to use information technology in the educational process of higher education. Particular attention is paid to contemporary processes of globalization and informatization of higher education as a priority trends of modern Ukrainian society. Experimental data provided in the publication are comparative characteristics of the students using different specialty areas and preparation of information technologies in education. Computerization of the educational process - one of the main priorities in the development of higher education, a new stage for the entire higher education system, promising improvements in the direction of learning in higher education

  4. Application of information and communication technology in process reengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of information communication technologies in reengineering processes. General analysis of a process will show that information communication technologies improve their efficiency. Reengineering model based on the BPMN 2.0 standard will be applied to the process of seeking internship/job by students from Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering. In the paper, after defining the technical characteristics and required functionalities, web / mobile application is proposed, enabling better visibility of traffic engineers to companies seeking that education profile.

  5. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Technology development as social process: prospects and frontiers of social scientific elucidation of technological advancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, M

    1990-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the new developments in social scientific technology research which have changed considerably as a result of public debate and reactions to the importance of advancements in technology. The shift in emphasis, away from the effects of technology to its shaping, is described and certain hypotheses and concepts of advancement in the study of the social conditions underlying technical development processes are presented.

  7. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  8. Mobile Technology and CAD Technology Integration in Teaching Architectural Design Process for Producing Creative Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Hassan, Isham Shah; Ismail, Mohd Arif; Mustafa, Ramlee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of integrating the mobile and CAD technology on teaching architectural design process for Malaysian polytechnic architectural students in producing a creative product. The website is set up based on Caroll's minimal theory, while mobile and CAD technology integration is based on Brown and…

  9. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retreival And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated since it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans and methods. WRPS and the DOE are therefore developing, testing, and deploying technologies to ensure that they can meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  10. The Impact Of Optical Storage Technology On Image Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garges, Daniel T.; Durbin, Gerald T.

    1984-09-01

    The recent announcement of commercially available high density optical storage devices will have a profound impact on the information processing industry. Just as the initial introduction of random access storage created entirely new processing strategies, optical technology will allow dramatic changes in the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of engineering drawings and other pictorial or text-based documents. Storage Technology Corporation has assumed a leading role in this arena with the introduction of the 7600 Optical Storage Subsystem, and the formation of StorageTek Integrated Systems, a subsidiary chartered to incorporate this new technology into deliverable total systems. This paper explores the impact of optical storage technology from the perspective of a leading-edge manufacturer and integrator.

  11. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  12. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  13. PROCESS CONTROL IN THE EDUCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Csontos, lstván; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics; Marosi, György; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics; Faigl, Ferenc; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory practices for demonstrating the importance of advanced process control methods in the organic chemical technologies have been elaborated. It required the development of a system tha tintegrates the advantages of a reaction calorimeter and a model system of industrial controlled reactors. The hardware and software configuration support the transfer of elaborated control programs of reactions from laboratory level to the industrial technology. General control algorithms of diazotizat...

  14. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  15. Applying Trusted Network Technology To Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhravi, Hamed; Nicol, David

    Interconnections between process control networks and enterprise networks expose instrumentation and control systems and the critical infrastructure components they operate to a variety of cyber attacks. Several architectural standards and security best practices have been proposed for industrial control systems. However, they are based on older architectures and do not leverage the latest hardware and software technologies. This paper describes new technologies that can be applied to the design of next generation security architectures for industrial control systems. The technologies are discussed along with their security benefits and design trade-offs.

  16. Image processing technologies in nuclear power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Katsumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Shimada, Hideo.

    1995-01-01

    Various monitoring activities are carried out in nuclear power plants to ensure that the high reliability requirements of such plants are met. Inspection patrols by operators are important for detecting small anomalies in equipment. Vibration, temperature, and visual images are major forms of information used in equipment inspections. We are developing remote automatic inspection technologies comprising image sensing of equipment conditions and automatic recognition of the images. This paper shows examples of image processing technologies, such as equipment monitoring using three-dimensional graphic plant models and vibration/temperature image data, and intelligent image recognition technology for detecting steam leakage. (author)

  17. Integrating pretreatment and retrieval: Results from the July 1997 Tanks Focus Area workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    If scientists and researchers working to solve the tank waste challenges, technical program office managers at the tank sites, and others understand the connection between retrieval and pretreatment activities, more efficient processes and reduced costs can be achieved. To make this possible, researchers involved in retrieval and pretreatment activities met at the Conference Center in Richland, Washington, on July 16 and 17, 1997, to discuss the connections between these activities. The purpose of the workshop was to help participants (1) gain a better understanding of retrieval and pretreatment process needs and experiences; (2) gain practical knowledge of the applications, capabilities, and requirements of retrieval and pretreatment technologies being developed and deployed; and (3) focus on identifying and troubleshooting interface issues and problems. The end product of this meeting was to create a checklist of retrieval and pretreatment parameters to consider when developing new technologies or managing work at the sites in these areas. For convenience, the information is also organized by pretreatment parameter and retrieval-pretreatment parameter in Section 5.0

  18. Process assessment associated to microbial community response provides insight on possible mechanism of waste activated sludge digestion under typical chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Aijuan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Varrone, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Current studies have employed various chemicals for disintegrating and hydrolyzing microbial cells in waste activated sludge (WAS). However, a comprehensive process assessment over the whole anaerobic digestion process has seldom been proposed. Besides, the characterization of microbial community...... responses to these chemicals is not well understood. In this study, the effects of five typical chemicals: solubilizer (β-cyclodextrin, CD), alkaline (NaOH), peroxide (peracetic-acid, PA), biological (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical (sodium dodecylsulphate, SDS) surfactants on WAS digestion were examined...... was dominated by microorganisms that anaerobically hydrolyze organics to acids, while that in NaOH and SDS was mainly associated to biogas production. This study proved that the overall performance of WAS digestion was substantially depended on the initial chemical pretreatments, which in turn influenced...

  19. Supercritical fluid technologies for ceramic-processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, D.W.; Smith, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the applications of supercritical fluid technologies for ceramic processing. The physical and chemical properties of these densified gases are summarized and related to their use as solvents and processing media. Several areas are identified in which specific ceramic processes benefit from the unique properties of supercritical fluids. The rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions provides a technique for producing fine uniform powders and thin films of widely varying materials. Supercritical drying technologies allow the formation of highly porous aerogel products with potentially wide application. Hydrothermal processes leading to the formation of large single crystals and microcrystalline powders can also be extended into the supercritical regime of water. Additional applications and potential applications are identified in the areas of extraction of binders and other additives from ceramic compacts, densification of porous ceramics, the formation of powders in supercritical micro-emulsions, and in preceramic polymer processing

  20. Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodym Oldøich

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process focuses on methods of presentation of an underground mine technologies in intranet technology. It shows usage of platform independent VRML client for presentation of static and dynamic information about technological process. Bi-directional interactions between client and process information database are solved.Based on analysis of technological process of underground mine a database structure was designed. It is skeleton for storing all information about any underground mine. This skeleton can be modified in any direction. Data in this "static model" of underground mine can be applied for visualization in VRML environment. In this way it is possible to simplify and unify a user's front-end for all kinds of tasks.All designed scenes can be interactively displayed in full view or in any detail view, so that a user is able to recognize every important part of installed equipment, its stage, technical parameters and other information. If manufacturers of mining equipment will supply VRML model of their real products everybody would be able to place it into VRML scene and learn everything about it.This work explores and tries to enlighten some of the areas and available approaches compliant with VRML 97 specification of modifying static scene by its browser. Concepts of animation pipeline, inside and outside scripting in scene displayed and authoring of VRML targeted geometry are discussed including database connectivity.

  1. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  2. Advances in fntd technology: Instrumentation, image processing and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, James Andrew

    Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs), based on Al2O 3:C,Mg single crystal material, enable diffraction limited imaging of ionization patterns. This fast, luminescent material is thermally and optically stable. This work expands and assesses the capability of FNTD technology to measure radiation dose quickly and accurately, especially neutron radition. Developments in FNTD instrumentation, software, image reconstruction, image processing and data processing improved ease of use, productivity and reliability and brought the technology into commercial viability. Descriptions of these developments are presented. Additionally, these developments were assessed and were found to comply with ANSI and ISO standards for personnel neutron dosimetry. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. Natural language processing in psychiatry. Artificial intelligence technology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, D A; Rapp, C; Evens, M

    1992-04-01

    The potential benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as a tool of psychiatry has not been well defined. In this essay, the technology of natural language processing and its position with regard to the two main schools of AI is clearly outlined. Past experiments utilizing AI techniques in understanding psychopathology are reviewed. Natural language processing can automate the analysis of transcripts and can be used in modeling theories of language comprehension. In these ways, it can serve as a tool in testing psychological theories of psychopathology and can be used as an effective tool in empirical research on verbal behavior in psychopathology.

  4. Methodology and Results of Mathematical Modelling of Complex Technological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Nataliya V.

    2018-03-01

    The methodology of system analysis allows us to draw a mathematical model of the complex technological process. The mathematical description of the plasma-chemical process was proposed. The importance the quenching rate and initial temperature decrease time was confirmed for producing the maximum amount of the target product. The results of numerical integration of the system of differential equations can be used to describe reagent concentrations, plasma jet rate and temperature in order to achieve optimal mode of hardening. Such models are applicable both for solving control problems and predicting future states of sophisticated technological systems.

  5. MODEL OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THE GRAIN PROCESSING AND MILL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Blagoveshchenskaia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the work the model of quality management of technological processes of the grain processing and mill enterprises is presented. It is shown that flour-grinding production is an important part of agro-industrial complex because it provides production of the main food product of people – flour. The analytical indicators of quality of technological process are presented. The matrix of expert estimates of i-th level of quality for the set combinations of parameters values according to the scheme of complete factorial experiment is made. Considered a model for the calculation of the raw material preparation for milling, which characterizes the main qualities of the processed raw materials. For the purpose of management of quality of technological processes of flour mill the mathematical model which includes calculation of two groups of indicators of an assessment is developed: qualities of preparation of raw materials for a grinding and qualities of conducting technological process. The algorithm of an analytical assessment of indicators of quality of technological process of the flour-grinding enterprises, including the selection of waste, selection of bran, a compliance rate of output of flour-grinding products, compliance rate of moisture products, is offered. The assessment of quality management of technological process of a high-quality grinding on the example of several leading flour-grinding enterprises of Central Federal District is carried out. The two-dimensional model of quality management of technological process based on an analytical indicators of an assessment of quality, an assessment of quality of preparation the raw materials for a grinding and an optimum effective condition of technological process is constructed. It is shown that quality management at the enterprise provides collecting, processing and the analysis of information on a condition of material streams and productions on all of their stages.

  6. New media technologies and mass media reform processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Boban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and assesses the chances for survival and development of the media in Serbia and ib the region, from the perspective of new information and communication technologies (ICT applied in media business. In the paper theoretical method is used and harmonized with the needs of describing the problems and the observed processes and phenomena, as well as empirical method which is used for collecting and interpreting concrete facts and data on the observed processes and phenomena. The starting point lies in the fact that modern media is definitely, more and more, dependent on new technologies. A part of the new technologies is used in the process of collecting, selecting and editing media content, while the other part of the technology is used in the process of dissemination and propulsion of media content to the mass audience, and also in the feedback function as well. The technology revolution, which we describe, started with mp3, jpg and avi files, and continues with internet broadcasting, social networks, cloud technologies and new digital platforms which are used by today's media for distribution of media content. The particularity of the media in the region lies in the fact that they operating in the societes with delay of political and economic transition, so all the productive resources of society, due to this backlog, are slower adapted to the new conditions of business in the digital era. The consequences that have arisen from such dynamics of development make many media in Serbia and the region quite dysfunctional, especially those who were exposed during this transition to long-standing legal, economic and program crises. That is why most of the existing media in Serbia, especially small ones, are unprepared for modernization and they are not ready for re-modeling in accordance with the new technological circumstances.

  7. Some novel concepts in radiation processing technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Search for better materials and processes has been a part of the evolution of mankind and it still continues to be so as it is being realized that earth's resources are not everlasting and effect of rapid growth on environment may adversely affect the future development. Sustainable development is the only choice for today for long term survival. Better quality and high functional materials, made by superior technologies are being demanded by the society. Radiation processing technology has significantly contributed to meet the expectation of the people in providing superior products and processes while preserving the environment. Processes are being developed where resources are fully utilized with maximum advantages and little disturbance to the environment. More than 1500 electron beam accelerators and about 500 Gamma Irradiators are presently in use and many are being deployed for radiation processing of medical supplies, pharmaceuticals and herbal materials, treat effluents and preserve food and agricultural products and several industrial products. DAE has an ambitious plan to deploy radiation technology for societal benefits in India. In the presentations some interesting applications of Radiation Processing Technology will be discussed which includes (1) Radiation Processing of Cashew Apple fruit for bio-ethanol production (2) High Energy Battery separators (3) Plant Growth Promoters and (4) Tunable biodegradability. The discussion would reveal how a waste product like cashew apple can be converted to useful materials and advanced materials like HEB separators and Tunable Biodegradable films can be made using radiation technology. Use of radiation de-polymerized polysaccharides in some experiments have shown unexpected increase in agriculture output giving new concepts to increase the productivity. (author)

  8. Wireless sensor technology for in-situ plasma process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, David

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for plasma measurement and control solutions to cope with the growing complexity of integrated circuit manufacture in the semiconductor industry. Standard plasma diagnostic instruments used in research, such as the Langmuir probe, are not suitable for use in the production environment for myriad reasons - contamination of the process being one of the main concerns. Silicon wafer based wireless sensors, which measure temperature during the process, have gained the most traction with tool manufacturers and chip makers - albeit during process development or the PM cycle rather than live production. In this presentation we will discuss two novel wireless technologies that have the potential for use in process tools. The first is an ion detector embedded in a silicon wafer. The sensor measures the average ion flux and the maximum ion energy during the process. This information is stored and is downloaded later for analysis. The second technology consists of a wireless sensor that sits inside the process and communicates data in real time to a detector installed on the rf power line. This platform is similar to RFID technology and can be combined with various sensor types to transmit data to the user during the process.

  9. Coagulation-flocculation as pre-treatment for micro-scale Fe/Cu/O3process (CF-mFe/Cu/O3) treatment of the coating wastewater from automobile manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhaokun; Cao, Jinyan; Yang, Dan; Lai, Bo; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A coagulation-flocculation as pre-treatment combined with mFe/Cu/O 3 (CF-mFe/Cu/O 3 ) process was developed to degrade the pollutants in automobile coating wastewater (ACW). In coagulation-flocculation (CF) process, high turbidity removal efficiency (97.1%) and low COD removal efficiency (10.5%) were obtained under the optimal conditions using Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·18H 2 O and CaO. The effluent of CF process (ECF) was further disposed by mFe/Cu/O 3 process, and its key operating parameters were optimized by batch experiments. Optimally, COD removal efficiency of ECF obtained by the mFe/Cu/O 3 process (i.e., 87.6% after 30 min treatment) was much higher than those of mFe/Cu alone (8.3%), ozone alone (46.6%), and mFe/Cu/air (6.1%), which confirms the superiority of the mFe/Cu/O 3 process. In addition, the analysis results of UV-vis, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra and GC/MS further confirm that the phenol pollutants of ECF had been effectively decomposed or transformed after CF-mFe/Cu/O 3 process treatment. Meanwhile, B/C ratio of ACW increased from 0.19 to 0.56, which suggests the biodegradability was improved significantly. Finally, the operating cost of CF-mFe/Cu/O 3 process was about 1.83 USD t -1 for ACW treatment. Therefore, the combined process is a promising treatment technology for the coating wastewater from automobile manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid Processing Technology: Building a Multilevel Modeling Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Mukkerikar, Amol

    2011-01-01

    of a master parameter table; iii) development of a model library consisting of new and adopted process models of unit operations involved in lipid processing technologies, validation of the developed models using operating data collected from existing process plants, and application of validated models......The aim of this work is to present the development of a computer aided multilevel modeling network for the systematic design and analysis of processes employing lipid technologies. This is achieved by decomposing the problem into four levels of modeling: i) pure component property modeling...... and a lipid-database of collected experimental data from industry and generated data from validated predictive property models, as well as modeling tools for fast adoption-analysis of property prediction models; ii) modeling of phase behavior of relevant lipid mixtures using the UNIFACCI model, development...

  11. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/nonconventional processes/technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2018-05-24

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. In addition, nonconventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  12. A Voice Processing Technology for Rural Specific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zhao, Chunshen

    Durian the promotion and applications of rural information, different geographical dialect voice interaction is a very complex issue. Through in-depth analysis of TTS core technologies, this paper presents the methods of intelligent segmentation, word segmentation algorithm and intelligent voice thesaurus construction in the different dialects context. And then COM based development methodology for specific context voice processing system implementation and programming method. The method has a certain reference value for the rural dialect and voice processing applications.

  13. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional processing technology of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhong, Ling-Yun; Xue, Xiao; Liu, Rong-Hua; Gong, Qian-Feng

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the inheritance and innovation study of Chinese medicine processing technology from three aspects: inheritance, standardization and industrial innovation development, propose "three lacks" in inheritance, "six lacks of standardization, and one lack of unity" in standardization, and "three emphasizing and three despising aspects" in industrial innovation, and propose feasible solutions for the above mentioned problems, providing a good foundation for inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Moulded Pulp Manufacturing: Overview and Prospects for the Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Saxena, Prateek; Meijer, Ellen Brilhuis

    2017-01-01

    . The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the main aspects involved in the manufacture of moulded pulp products. This includes a classification of moulded pulp products, historical and current applications, production processes, materials, mechanical properties and environmental sustainability....... Moreover, based on the latest research in the field, an innovative drying technique that utilizes concepts derived from impulse drying is presented, and the implementation of this process technology is discussed....

  15. Microscale technology and biocatalytic processes: Opportunities and challenges for synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland; Plazl, Igor; Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona

    2015-01-01

    Despite the expanding presence of microscale technology in chemical synthesis and energy production as well as in biomedical devices and analytical and diagnostic tools, its potential in biocatalytic processes for pharmaceutical and fine chemicals, as well as related industries, has not yet been ......, and the future outlook for the implementation of these key green engineering methods and the role of supporting tools such as mathematical models to establish sustainable production processes are discussed....

  16. Status of electron beam processing technology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazali, Zulkafli; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman; Aiasah, S.H.; Khomsaton, A.B.; Ting, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The electron beam processing in Malaysia starting in 1991 at MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) has been focussed on medical product sterilization, curing of surface coating and polymer modifications. Subsequent installation of accelerators by private companies promoted the development of radiation processing technologies for the use of production of heat-shrinkable products, pilot-scale flue gas purification, as well as wires, cables, tubes and hydrogels. Decomposition of a wide range of volatile organic compounds from industrial exhausts (car painting lines, volatile dioxin and furan from municipal waste incinerators) and purification of liquid wastewater and drinking water are also being under R and D work. Malaysia will continue to play an active part in the program on radiation technology to strengthen environmentally sustainable development in line with FNCA objectives. (S. Ohno)

  17. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sung Paal; Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Soo Sung; Kim, Woong Ki; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-01-01

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and has been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  18. Use of indigenous technology in processing and utilization of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information used for this paper came from both primary and secondary sources. Ten (10) respondents were interviewed from each secondary source of information. The use of indigenous technology to process these forest products to forest foods is currently limited by use of crude methods, inability to expand production ...

  19. Lipid Processing Technology: Building a Multilevel Modeling Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Mukkerikar, Amol

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the development of a computer aided multilevel modeling network for the systematic design and analysis of processes employing lipid technologies. This is achieved by decomposing the problem into four levels of modeling: i) pure component property modeling...

  20. Adoption of improved technologies in soyabean processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adequate information and limited understanding. To increase protein food intake, adoption of soyabean improved technologies should be encouraged. Efforts should be made by extension workers to create more awareness on the importance of these innovations and on methods of processing. This way, consumption of ...

  1. An assessment of oil processing methods and technology in Taraba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study assessed the various methods and technology of vegetable oil processing in Taraba State. Methods: A total of 250 questionnaires were administered to vegetable oil processors with indepth interview of 28 respondents who were randomly selected based on a preliminary study in six (6) Local ...

  2. Transition process from emerging NDT technology to production inspection application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappe, William; Wood, Nancy; Johnson, Maurice

    1995-07-01

    The successful application of emerging NDT technologies for specific aging aircraft inspections requires an integration of efforts between aircraft operators, airframe manufacturers, NDT equipment designers, and government regulators. This paper describes the development process that was followed to establish an alternate inspection technique for a DC-10 crown skin butt joint inspection. Initial investigation, intermediate development, and final evaluations are discussed.

  3. Perception of Modern Processing Technology by Shea Butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perception of Shea butter processors to modern processing technology in Kwara State. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents. Data was collected using interview schedule and analysed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that 88.3% of the ...

  4. Pellet manufacturing by extrusion-spheronization using process analytical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phase transitions occurring in nitrofurantoin and theophylline formulations during pelletization by extrusion-spheronization. An at-line process analytical technology (PAT) approach was used to increase the understanding of the solid-state behavior of ...

  5. Sustaining high energy efficiency in existing processes with advanced process integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Smith, Robin; Bulatov, Igor; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Process integration with better modelling and more advanced solution methods. ► Operational changes for better environmental performance through optimisation. ► Identification of process integration technology for operational optimisation. ► Systematic implementation procedure of process integration technology. ► A case study with crude oil distillation to demonstrate the operational flexibility. -- Abstract: To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time.

  6. Development of new processing technology for ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Zainun Said; Alias Saidali; Erwan Md Ariff

    2002-01-01

    The technology for production ruminant feed from agriculture by-product remains scare despite plentiful availability of feeding materials worldwide. Factors that prohibit the process technology development suggested that their peculiar physical make up, high cost of production and inferior product quality compared to established raw material, had consequently impeding the effort. In Malaysia, only two pilot plants exist; they demonstrate utilization of Oil Palm Frond (OPF) into feed. In the case of OPF in situ utilization as feed, farmers use chipper machine or shredder to process it. Other by-products have not been successfully exploited, except for Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) that already in commercial operation. In view of the by-product availability as feeding material in ruminant feeding system and availability of new chipper and shredder machines, the prospect of processing agriculture by-products into feed is expected to be a promising business venture. This paper describes the technology for production of new feed from oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB). It elaborates on Sterifeed Plant Operation based on plant capacity of 0.5 ton/day production. The operation aspects discuss raw materials handling and processing as well as transforming the products into marketable forms. In this process EFB is initially predigested by fungi in solid state fermentation process into feed materials; the product is ready to be fed in fresh form to animal. The operation exercise has established actual process flow, identified problems and process drawbacks. Based on this experience, availability of localized raw materials EFB at the palm oil mill and rapid development of processing machinery, it is very likely that a commercially viable feed processing plant can be established in the near future. In addition, establishing more data on product quality by further test and characterization of the new feed may contribute to success of the project. (Author)

  7. Modern processing technologies and food quality. 18th Food Technology Days '97 dedicated to prof. F. Bitenc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlender, Bozidar; Gasperlin, Lea; Hocevar, Ivica; Slemenik, Barbka; Hocevar, Polona

    1997-01-01

    Modern processing technologies and food quality. Proceedings of thematic survey of topics in food science and technology and nutrition for postgraduate students, Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Biotechnical Fac., Food Science and Technology Dept

  8. Strategies for merging microbial fuel cell technologies in water desalination processes: Start-up protocol and desalination efficiency assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, Zulema; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Ortiz, Juan Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Microbial Desalination Cells constitute an innovative technology where microbial fuel cell and electrodialysis merge in the same device for obtaining fresh water from saline water with no energy-associated cost for the user. In this work, an anodic biofilm of the electroactive bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens was able to efficiently convert the acetate present in synthetic waste water into electric current (j = 0.32 mA cm-2) able to desalinate water. .Moreover, we implemented an efficient start-up protocol where desalination up to 90% occurred in a desalination cycle (water production:0.308 L m-2 h-1, initial salinity: 9 mS cm-1, final salinity: optimized for time but also simplifies operational procedures making it a more feasible strategy for future scaling-up of MDCs either as a single process or as a pre-treatment method combined with other well established desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO) or reverse electrodialysis.

  9. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  10. Strategies for Derisking Translational Processes for Biomedical Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Duda, Georg N; Gruskin, Elliott A; Grainger, David W

    2017-02-01

    Inefficient translational processes for technology-oriented biomedical research have led to some prominent and frequent failures in the development of many leading drug candidates, several designated investigational drugs, and some medical devices, as well as documented patient harm and postmarket product withdrawals. Derisking this process, particularly in the early stages, should increase translational efficiency and streamline resource utilization, especially in an academic setting. In this opinion article, we identify a 12-step guideline for reducing risks typically associated with translating medical technologies as they move toward prototypes, preclinical proof of concept, and possible clinical testing. Integrating the described 12-step process should prove valuable for improving how early-stage academic biomedical concepts are cultivated, culled, and manicured toward intended clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Need for improvements in physical pretreatment of source-separated household food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, A; Malmquist, L; Truedsson, C; la Cour Jansen, J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency in physical pretreatment processes of source-separated solid organic household waste. The investigation of seventeen Swedish full-scale pretreatment facilities, currently receiving separately collected food waste from household for subsequent anaerobic digestion, shows that problems with the quality of produced biomass and high maintenance costs are common. Four full-scale physical pretreatment plants, three using screwpress technology and one using dispergation technology, were compared in relation to resource efficiency, losses of nitrogen and potential methane production from biodegradable matter as well as the ratio of unwanted materials in produced biomass intended for wet anaerobic digestion. Refuse generated in the processes represent 13-39% of TS in incoming wet waste. The methane yield from these fractions corresponds to 14-36Nm(3)/ton separately collected solid organic household waste. Also, 13-32% of N-tot in incoming food waste is found in refuse. Losses of both biodegradable material and nutrients were larger in the three facilities using screwpress technology compared to the facility using dispersion technology.(1) Thus, there are large potentials for increase of both the methane yield and nutrient recovery from separately collected solid organic household waste through increased efficiency in facilities for physical pretreatment. Improved pretreatment processes could thereby increase the overall environmental benefits from anaerobic digestion as a treatment alternative for solid organic household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections

  13. Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leungwattanakit, Watcharin; Artho, Cyrille; Hagiya, Masami; Tanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Mitsuharu

    2009-01-01

    Model checkers find failures in software by exploring every possible execution schedule. Java PathFinder (JPF), a Java model checker, has been extended recently to cover networked applications by caching data transferred in a communication channel. A target process is executed by JPF, whereas its peer process runs on a regular virtual machine outside. However, non-deterministic target programs may produce different output data in each schedule, causing the cache to restart the peer process to handle the different set of data. Virtualization tools could help us restore previous states of peers, eliminating peer restart. This paper proposes the application of virtualization technology to networked model checking, concentrating on JPF.

  14. Improving Logistics Processes in Industry Using Web Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jánošík Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose the concept of a system that takes advantage of web technologies and integrates them into the management process and management of internal stocks which may relate to external applications and creates the conditions to transform a Computerized Control of Warehouse Stock (CCWS in the company. The importance of implementing CCWS is in the elimination of the claims caused by the human factor, as well as to allow the processing of information for analytical purposes and their subsequent use to improve internal processes. Using CCWS in the company would also facilitate better use of the potential tools Business Intelligence and Data Mining.

  15. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  16. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityagin A. Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

  17. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS OF TRAINING MARITIME SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana Lyashenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents main questions concerning usage of the newest information-communicative technologies of maritime educational establishments in the process of training specialists of corresponding specialities; reviews the problem of training cadets of Maritime educational institutions by means of information technologies while studying professionally focused disciplines; means of implementation information technologies into the educational process and their practical usage in future professional activity on board a ship are disclosed; the importance of online communications in teaching foreign language speaking, listening comprehension, writing and test tasks implementation to control forming of cadet’s lexical, phonetic and grammar skills are proved; presentations of authentic professionally oriented materials from the newest electronic sources on lectures on disciplines «Marine diesel installations», «Power management system», «Radio-navigational devices and systems». The author of the article grounds practicability of implementation of the newest information communicative technologies into educational process in classroom and extracurricular work, cadets are given an opportunity to get authentic professionally focused information on professional discipline, to extend knowledge on these disciplines and to realize control of formation corresponding competences.

  18. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  19. Knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of Technology teachers' lesson objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mathumbu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A clearly stated lesson objective is considered an essential component of a well-planned lesson. Many teachers of Technology, a relatively new subject in South African schools, teach Technology with rather limited training both in content and methodological approaches. This study sought to investigate and classify lesson objectives framed or implied by teachers in their lesson plans according to knowledge and cognitive process dimensions. The two-dimensional Taxonomy Table introduced by Krathwohl was adapted for Technology and formed the framework for this study. It was found that most of the directly stated objectives are directed to the lower level of the cognitive process dimension and address mainly factual knowledge, while no activities or lesson components address meta-cognitive knowledge. Some lesson objectives inferred from planned assessment activities placed higher demands on learners' cognitive domain. A recommendation flowing from the study is that, during pre-service training and in-service teacher support processes, the importance of clear lesson objectives should be emphasised and that assessments planned for such lessons should closely match the lesson objectives. Further research is also needed on the reasons why low cognitive demands are made in the teaching of Technology.

  20. Application of Electro-Technologies in Processing of Flax Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibers used for various applications are obtained from flax stems. Retting followed by drying and mechanical separation leads to the production of fibers. This review article discusses the application of electro-technologies in the production of bast fibers from the flax stem. In these technologies, flax stems harvested from the field are subjected to microwave assisted retting, followed by electro–osmotic dewatering which reduces the water content of the stems. Dewatered stems are transferred to a microwave chamber for further drying, thus retted stems are obtained for further processing.

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS MODELING AIMING TO IMPROVE ITS OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mihajlović

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling procedure of one real technological system. In this study, thecopper extraction from the copper flotation waste generated at the Bor Copper Mine (Serbia, werethe object of modeling. Sufficient data base for statistical modeling was constructed using theorthogonal factorial design of the experiments. Mathematical model of investigated system wasdeveloped using the combination of linear and multiple linear statistical analysis approach. Thepurpose of such a model is obtaining optimal states of the system that enable efficient operationsmanagement. Besides technological and economical, ecological parameters of the process wereconsidered as crucial input variables.

  2. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J.; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians’ workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors. PMID:25677251

  3. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the contextualized technology adaptation process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians' workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors.

  4. Choices of capture chromatography technology in antibody manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLeo, Michael; Ley, Arthur; Nixon, Andrew E; Chen, Jie

    2017-11-15

    The capture process employed in monoclonal antibody downstream purification is not only the most critically impacted process by increased antibody titer resulting from optimized mammalian cell culture expression systems, but also the most important purification step in determining overall process throughput, product quality, and economics. Advances in separation technology for capturing antibodies from complex feedstocks have been one focus of downstream purification process innovation for past 10 years. In this study, we evaluated new generation chromatography resins used in the antibody capture process including Protein A, cation exchange, and mixed mode chromatography to address the benefits and unique challenges posed by each chromatography approach. Our results demonstrate the benefit of improved binding capacity of new generation Protein A resins, address the concern of high concentration surge caused aggregation when using new generation cation exchange resins with over 100mg/mL binding capacity, and highlight the potential of multimodal cation exchange resins for capture process design. The new landscape of capture chromatography technologies provides options to achieve overall downstream purification outcome with high product quality and process efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using CASE to Exploit Process Modeling in Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz-Olar, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    A successful business will be one that has processes in place to run that business. Creating processes, reengineering processes, and continually improving processes can be accomplished through extensive modeling. Casewise(R) Corporate Modeler(TM) CASE is a computer aided software engineering tool that will enable the Technology Transfer Department (TT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to capture these abilities. After successful implementation of CASE, it could then go on to be applied in other departments at MSFC and other centers at NASA. The success of a business process is dependent upon the players working as a team and continuously improving the process. A good process fosters customer satisfaction as well as internal satisfaction in the organizational infrastructure. CASE provides a method for business process success through functions consisting of systems and processes business models; specialized diagrams; matrix management; simulation; report generation and publishing; and, linking, importing, and exporting documents and files. The software has an underlying repository or database to support these functions. The Casewise. manual informs us that dynamics modeling is a technique used in business design and analysis. Feedback is used as a tool for the end users and generates different ways of dealing with the process. Feedback on this project resulted from collection of issues through a systems analyst interface approach of interviews with process coordinators and Technical Points of Contact (TPOCs).

  6. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindra, Navin; Dubey, Brajesh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  7. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindra, Navin [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bkdubey@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dutta, Animesh [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  8. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  9. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank waste. Organic destruction technology development task annual report -- FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.

    1993-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that can be used to destroy organics and ferrocyanide in Hanford tank waste at temperatures from 250 C to 400 C. With HTP, organics react with oxidants, such as nitrite and nitrate, already present in the waste. Ferrocyanides and free cyanide will hydrolyze at similar temperatures and may also react with nitrates or other oxidants in the waste. No air or oxygen or additional chemicals need to be added to the autogenous HTP system. However, enhanced kinetics may be realized by air addition, and, if desired, chemical reductants can be added to the system to facilitate complete nitrate/nitrate destruction. Tank waste can be processed in a plug-flow, tubular reactor, or a continuous-stirred tank reactor system designed to accommodate the temperature, pressure, gas generation, and heat release associated with decomposition of the reactive species. The work described in this annual report was conducted in FY 1993 for the Organic Destruction Technology Development Task of Hanford's Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This task is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies originally funded by TWRS to meet tank safety and waste form disposal criteria and condition the feed for further pretreatment. During FY 1993 the project completed seven experimental test plans, a 30-hr pilot-scale continuous run, over 200 hr of continuous bench-scale HTP testing, and 20 batch HTP tests; two contracts were established with commercial vendors, and a commercial laboratory reactor was procured and installed in a glovebox for HTP testing with actual Hanford tank waste

  10. Database mirroring in fault-tolerant continuous technological process control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Danel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementations of mirroring technology of the selected database systems – Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL and Caché. By simulating critical failures the systems behavior and their resilience against failure were tested. The aim was to determine whether the database mirroring is suitable to use in continuous metallurgical processes for ensuring the fault-tolerant solution at affordable cost. The present day database systems are characterized by high robustness and are resistant to sudden system failure. Database mirroring technologies are reliable and even low-budget projects can be provided with a decent fault-tolerant solution. The database system technologies available for low-budget projects are not suitable for use in real-time systems.

  11. Pretreatment of shale gas drilling flowback fluid (SGDF) by the microscale Fe0/persulfate/O3 process (mFe0/PS/O3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Xiong, Zhaokun; Ji, Fangzhou; Lai, Bo; Yang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Shale gas drilling flowback fluid (SGDF) generated during shale gas extraction is of great concern due to its high total dissolved solid, radioactive elements and organic matter. To remove the toxic and refractory pollutants in SGDF and improve its biodegradability, a microsacle Fe 0 /Persulfate/O 3 process (mFe 0 /PS/O 3 ) was developed to pretreat this wastewater obtained from a shale gas well in southwestern China. First, effects of mFe 0 dosage, O 3 flow rate, PS dosage, pH values on the treatment efficiency of mFe 0 /PS/O 3 process were investigated through single-factor experiments. Afterward, the optimal conditions (i.e., pH = 6.7, mFe 0 dosage = 6.74 g/L, PS = 16.89 mmol/L, O 3 flow rate = 0.73 L/min) were obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimal conditions, high COD removal (75.3%) and BOD 5 /COD ratio (0.49) were obtained after 120 min treatment. Moreover, compared with control experiments (i.e., mFe 0 , O 3 , PS, mFe 0 /O 3 , mFe 0 /PS, O 3 /PS), mFe 0 /PS/O 3 system exerted better performance for pollutants removal in SGDF due to strong synergistic effect between mFe 0 , PS and O 3 . In addition, the decomposition or transformation of the organic pollutants in SGDF was analyzed by using GC-MS. Finally, the reaction mechanism of the mFe 0 /PS/O 3 process was proposed according to the analysis results of SEM-EDS and XRD. It can be concluded that high-efficient mFe 0 /PS/O 3 process was mainly resulted from the combination effect of direct oxidation by ozone and persulfate, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic oxidation, Fenton-like reaction and adsorption. Therefore, mFe 0 /PS/O 3 process was proven to be an effective method for pretreatment of SGDF prior to biological treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF MAINTENANCE PROCESSES USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Arsovski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In essence, process of maintaining equipment is a support process, because it indirectly contributes to operational ability of the production process necessary for the supply chain of the new value. Taking into account increased levels of automatization and quality, this proces s becomes more and more significant and for some branches of industry, even crucial. Due to the fact that the quality of the entire process is more and more dependent on the maintenance process, these processes must be carefully designed and effectively im plemented. There are various techniques and approaches at our disposal, such as technical, logistical and intensive application of the information - communication technologies. This last approach is presented in this work. It begins with organizational goa ls, especially quality objectives. Then, maintenance processes and integrated information system structures are defined. Maintenance process quality and improvement processes are defined using a set of performances, with a special emphasis placed on effectiveness and quality economics. At the end of the work, information system for improving maintenance economics is structured. Besides theoretical analysis, work also presents results authors obtained analyzing food industry, metal processing industry an d building materials industry.

  13. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  14. Designing Robust Process Analytical Technology (PAT) Systems for Crystallization Processes: A Potassium Dichromate Crystallization Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to test and validate a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system design on a potassium dichromate crystallization process in the presence of input uncertainties using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. To this end a systematic framework for managing uncertaintie...

  15. Process of technology management in SMEs of the metal processing industry – the case study investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk-Dembicka Elżbieta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to identify the factors that influence the process of technology management in the sector of small- and medium-sized enterprises of the metal processing industry, considering the shape and course required to achieve modern operation conditions by enterprises in the market.

  16. Conversation on data mining strategies in LC-MS untargeted metabolomics: pre-processing and pre-treatment steps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tugizimana, F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available the above PCA results that data processing and treatment (prior to statistical analyses) alter not only the infographics, but also the extracted information, which might impact the interpretation thereafter. Metabolites 2016, 6, 40 8 of 17 dot plot... compliments and corroborates the above PCA results that data processing and treatment (prior to statistical analyses) alter not only the infographics, but also the extracted information, which might impact the interpretation thereafter. Figure 3. Venn...

  17. Role of health-keeping technologies in educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshin O. R.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of health-keeping technologies in educational process is considered. Theoretical methodological approaches of their interpretation are exposed. The making forming for the man of conscious motivation in relation to the maintainance of individual health is shown. Valeological and ecological values are analysed. The features of introduction of health-keeping technologies in a modern educational process are certain. The complex estimation of terms of education and studies, which allow to provide the good state of health of young people, care of high level of their self-realization, skills of healthy way of life, is resulted, to carry out monitoring of indexes of individual development, forecast the possible changes of health. It is marked on the necessity of providing of harmonious development of natural capabilities of personality: its mind, moral and aesthetically beautiful senses, requirement in activity, capture initial experience of socializing with people.

  18. Current mechanisms in silicon PIN structures processed with various technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzin, A

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a comparison of dark characteristics of PIN (p sup + -semi-intrinsic-n sup +) structures fabricated with several technologies on high-resistivity silicon wafers. The study considers the temperature dependence of the various current mechanisms. Significant and consistent differences were observed in the reverse current-voltage characteristics of the various samples, while capacitance-voltage profiles remain similar, indicating no process related variations in the effective space charge distribution. The results show that the activation energy of the reverse current in samples processed by various technologies differs, which may indicate that the Shockley Read Hall generation occurs through centers at different energies. Specifically, in some samples the reverse currents are dominated by generation-recombination centers located approx 0.2 eV from the mid-gap, while in other samples the currents are dominated by the 'standard' mid-gap generation-recombination centers. The difference is shown ...

  19. The evolution of waste management processes and technologies in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, R.W.; Fairhall, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of wastes arising from BNFL''s nuclear fuel cycle operations can be traced through a number of phases. The first was the development of vitrification and cementation for fresh arisings. Plants utilising these technologies are now in operation. To handle the mixed, heterogeneous intermediate level wastes, retrieval, segregation and robust treatment processes are at an advanced stage of development, with all plants to be operational from 2002. BNFL is focusing attention on reducing waste management lifetime costs including reducing waste volumes of source. Technologies aimed at significant reductions are now being developed. The final phase, now in progress, recognizes the need for an integrated approach to advanced fuel cycle processes which incorporates BNFL''s holistic concept. (author)

  20. The Aluminum Smelting Process and Innovative Alternative Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabløs, Per Arne

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process. Methods: This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production. Results: At present, there are two main technological challenges for the process—to reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A future step may be carbon dioxide gas capture and sequestration related to the electric power generation from fossil sources. Conclusions: Workers' health and safety have now become an integrated part of the aluminum business. Work-related injuries and illnesses are preventable, and the ultimate goal to eliminate accidents with lost-time injuries may hopefully be approached in the future. PMID:24806723

  1. Process Technology for Immobilized LipaseProcess Technology for Immobilized Lipase-catalyzed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan

    (e.g. a hydrophobic carrier for the immobilized lipase and the capabilities to provide sufficient mixing as well as stepwise/continuous feeding of ethanol to the reactor). An STR is efficient for batch operation while a PBR is efficient for a continuous production. An STR can more easily provide...... sufficient external mass transfer for a reaction, but will lead to more mechanical damage of the biocatalyst particles, than a PBR. A reactor combination of CSTR with PBR can couple the advantages of both, delivering an efficient continuous process.The second case study (esterification) shares some similar......-catalyzed transesterification is that it is multi-phasic system. The by-product glycerol can potentially impose inhibitory effects on immobilized lipases and likewise the un-dissolved ethanol can inhibit the lipase. The options for addressing these issues can be used as the basis for selecting the biocatalyst and the reactor...

  2. Studies on Separation Process and Production Technology of Boron Isotope

    OpenAIRE

    LI Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    The boron isotopes separation test was performed by chemical exchange reaction in the benzene ether -three boron fluoride system, which resulted to the boron isotopic enrichment of -10 in the liquid phase, the boron isotopic enrichment of -11 in the gas phase. After then, boron isotope separation trial production has been finished. In this process, the exchange column and complex tower normal operating parameters and the complex tower technology have been obtained, the problems of material di...

  3. Surviving security how to integrate people, process, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Andress, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    WHY DO I NEED SECURITY? Introduction The Importance of an Effective Security Infrastructure People, Process, and Technology What Are You Protecting Against? Types of Attacks Types of Attackers Security as a Competitive Advantage Choosing a Solution Finding Security Employees The Layered Approach UNDERSTANDING REQUIREMENTS AND RISK What Is Risk? Embracing Risk Information Security Risk Assessment Assessing Risk Insurance SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Internal Focus Is Key Security Awareness and Education Policy Life Cycle Developing Policies Components of a Security Policy Sample Security Po

  4. Army Information Technology Procurement: A Business Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Engineering Management...Brent Langhals, Lt Col, USAF Member John Elshaw, PhD Member Abstract The integration of Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ...the lack transparency in how resources are allocated. This thesis presents a business process analysis of the Army’s ICT procurement system. The

  5. Industrial Maturity of FR Fuel Cycle Processes and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruezière, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    FR fuel cycle processes and technologies have already been proven industrially for Oxide Fuel, and to a lesser extent for metal fuel. In addition, both used oxide fuel reprocessing and fresh oxide fuel manufacturing benefit from similar industrial experience currently deployed for LWR. Alternative fuel type will have to generate very significant benefit in reactor ( safety, cost, … ) to justify corresponding development and industrialization costs

  6. The performance of a biological aerated filter loaded with a novel non-sintered fly-ash ceramsite as pretreatment for dual membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihua; Hu, Chaowu; Dai, Xiulan; Jin, Wenjie; Hu, Cheng; Ma, Fang

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on wastewater reclamation of secondary treated ethylene chemical plant effluent, which contained high conductivity and high organic concentration. To reduce the cost and improve operation stability, a biological aerated filter-ultrafiltration-reverse osmosis (BAF-UF-RO) process was proposed. The feasibility and effectiveness of BAF loaded with a novel non-sintered fly-ash ceramsite (NSFC) as a pretreatment method of a dual membrane system were investigated in detail. The results showed that the CODCr, turbidity, NH3-N and the silt density index (SDI) in the effluent from the BAF were reduced to 24.2 mg/L, 12.17 NTU, 0.42 mg/L and 7.52, respectively, and most of the organic compounds were biodegraded. The BAF-UF-RO process was stable with a recovery rate of 75%, and the desalination rate was up to about 97.5%. Compared with the UF-RO process, the operating pressure and backwash frequency decreased from 1.12-1.26 Mpa and 3 times/d to 0.94-0.98 Mpa and 2 times/d, respectively. After continuous operation for four months, there appeared to be no need for chemical cleaning of the RO membrane. Moreover, the analysis results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved that there was only slight membrane fouling, which was mainly colloidal blocking caused by refractory organic compound.

  7. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Implementations by Information Technology Departments within United States Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, Jon F.

    2010-01-01

    This research study examined whether the overall effectiveness of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) could be predicted by measuring multiple independent variables. The primary variables studied included the number of ITIL process modules adopted and the overall ITIL "maturity level." An online survey was used to…

  9. Technology and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.; Kellman, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A workshop on the technology and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions was held April 3, 1992 in Monterey, California, as a satellite meeting of the 10th International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions. The objective was to bring together researchers working on disruption measurements in operating tokamaks, those performing disruption simulation experiments using pulsed plasma gun, electron beam and laser systems, and computational physicists attempting to model the evolution and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions. This is a brief report on the workshop. 4 refs

  10. Centralisation of informatics (more effective processes via using new technologies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocher, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with next problems of Slovenske elektrarne, Plc (SE): - Centralisation and optimisation of informatics management; - New technologies within Integrated Informatics System IIS-SE: presentation of preliminary Project of 2 nd generation IIS-SE; - Centralisation of the selected data processing. At the present the intensive process of restructuring is taking place in SE, Plc, focused on increasing of the effectiveness of the pursued activities. In connection with this the Informatics section solves two projects: More effective self-management and human resources; Change of Informatics system architecture from decentralised to the centralised ones with an aim to consolidate all information and to make new conditions for higher mobility

  11. The pretreatment cost of a pyroprocess facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Ko, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    Shale gas still has many disadvantages such as significant technological difficulties and high costs even when the fracking technology is used to extract shale gas since shale gas is dispersed widely. Moreover, it is estimated that the shale gas can be used for about 60 years, which is comparable to the period estimated for oil deposits. Another concern is that the climate may change due to the discharge of harmful gas produced during the gas extraction process. PRIDE facility producing 10 ton/year uranium ingot was set as the cost object for the cost estimation, and it was possible to increase cost calculation's accuracy level since labor cost and expenses incurred in this facility were the costs incurred in actuality. In the end, First-In, First Out process costing method was used to calculate the pretreatment cost of pyroprocess. According to the cost calculation results, the pretreatment cost was estimated as $195/kgHM and the cost share of the pretreatment of pyroprocess was calculated as 20%. Accordingly, electrochemical reduction process is the process requires most cost, followed by the cost of electro-winning process

  12. Feasibility of the UV/AA process as a pretreatment approach for bioremediation of dye-laden wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Wu, Bingdang; Li, Qiuhao; Xiong, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Haoran; Tian, Yu; Xie, Jiawen; Huang, Ping; Tan, Suo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shujuan

    2018-03-01

    Biodegradability and toxicity are two important indexes in considering the feasibility of a chemical process for environmental remediation. The acetylacetone (AA) mediated photochemical process has been proven as an efficient approach for dye decolorization. Both AA and its photochemical degradation products had a high bioavailability. However, the biocompatibility and ecotoxicology of the UV/AA treated solutions are unclear yet. In the present work, we evaluated the biocompatibility and toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions at both biochemical and organismal levels. The biodegradability of the treated solution was evaluated with the ratio of 5-d biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a 28-d activated sludge assay (Zahn-Wellens tests). The UV/AA process significantly improved the biodegradability of the tested dye solutions. Toxicity was assessed with responses of microorganisms (microbes in activated sludge and Daphnia magna) and plants (bok choy, rice seed, and Arabidopsis thaliana) to the treated solutions, which showed that the toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions was lower or comparable to that of the UV/H 2 O 2 counterparts. The results are helpful for us to determine whether the UV/AA process is applicable to certain wastewaters and how the UV/AA process could be effectively combined into a sequential chemical-biological water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer-Aided Modeling of Lipid Processing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz Tovar, Carlos Axel

    2011-01-01

    increase along with growing interest in biofuels, the oleochemical industry faces in the upcoming years major challenges in terms of design and development of better products and more sustainable processes to make them. Computer-aided methods and tools for process synthesis, modeling and simulation...... are widely used for design, analysis, and optimization of processes in the chemical and petrochemical industries. These computer-aided tools have helped the chemical industry to evolve beyond commodities toward specialty chemicals and ‘consumer oriented chemicals based products’. Unfortunately...... to develop systematic computer-aided methods (property models) and tools (database) related to the prediction of the necessary physical properties suitable for design and analysis of processes employing lipid technologies. The methods and tools include: the development of a lipid-database (CAPEC...

  14. Using pyrolytic acid leaching as a pretreatment step in a biomass fast pyrolysis plant: process design and economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, Stijn; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; van den Berg, Henderikus; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) from biomass, with pyrolytic acids, before pyrolysis leads to increased organic oil and sugar yields. These pyrolytic acids are produced and concentrated within the pyrolysis process itself. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate under which

  15. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  16. Microwave assisted acid and alkali pretreatment of Miscanthus biomass for biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyuan Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a major bioenergy crop in Europe and a potential feedstock for second generation biofuels. Thermochemical pretreatment is a significant step in the process of converting lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In this work, microwave energy was applied to facilitate NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments of Miscanthus. This was carried out at 180 ℃ in a monomode microwave cavity at 300 W. Our results show that H2SO4 pretreatment contributes to the breakdown of hemicelluloses and cellulose, leading to a high glucose yield. The maximum sugar yield from available carbohydrates during pretreatment is 75.3% (0.2 M H2SO4 20 Min, and glucose yield is 46.7% under these conditions. NaOH and water pretreatments tend to break down only hemicellulose in preference to cellulose, contributing to high xylose yield. Compared to conventional heating NaOH/H2SO4 pretreatment, 12 times higher sugar yield was obtained by using microwave assisted pretreatment within half the time. NaOH pretreatments lead to a significantly enhanced digestibility of the residue, because the effective removal of lignin and hemicellulose makes cellulose fibres more accessible to cellulases. Morphological study of biomass shows that the tightly packed fibres in the Miscanthus were dismantled and exposed under NaOH condition. We studied sugar degradation under microwave assisted H2SO4 conditions. The results shows that 6-8% biomass was converted into levulinic acid (LA during pretreatment, showing the possibility of using microwave technology to produce LA from biomass. The outcome of this work shows great potential for using microwave in the thermo-chemical pretreatment for biomass and also selective production of LA from biomass.

  17. The review of recent carbonate minerals processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihin

    2018-02-01

    Carbonate is one of the groups of minerals that can be found in relatively large amount in the earth crust. The common carbonate minerals are calcium carbonate (calcite, aragonite, depending on its crystal structure), magnesium carbonate (magnesite), calcium-magnesium carbonate (dolomite), and barium carbonate (barite). A large amount of calcite can be found in many places in Indonesia such as Padalarang, Sukabumi, and Tasikmalaya (West Java Provence). Dolomite can be found in a large amount in Gresik, Lamongan, and Tuban (East Java Provence). Magnesite is quite rare in Indonesia, and up to the recent years it can only be found in Padamarang Island (South East Sulawesi Provence). The carbonate has been being exploited through open pit mining activity. Traditionally, calcite can be ground to produce material for brick production, be carved to produce craft product, or be roasted to produce lime for many applications such as raw materials for cement, flux for metal smelting, etc. Meanwhile, dolomite has traditionally been used as a raw material to make brick for local buildings and to make fertilizer for coconut oil plant. Carbonate minerals actually consist of important elements needed by modern application. Calcium is one of the elements needed in artificial bone formation, slow release fertilizer synthesis, dielectric material production, etc. Magnesium is an important material in automotive industry to produce the alloy for vehicle main parts. It is also used as alloying element in the production of special steel for special purpose. Magnesium oxide can be used to produce slow release fertilizer, catalyst and any other modern applications. The aim of this review article is to present in brief the recent technology in processing carbonate minerals. This review covers both the technology that has been industrially proven and the technology that is still in research and development stage. One of the industrially proven technologies to process carbonate mineral is

  18. Role of BRIT in promoting radiation processing technology in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the major applications of radiation processing include: the sterilization of products such as medical devices to kill bacteria or in the case of food, hygienize the product; the treatment of export bulk commodities such as tropical fruits to extend shelf life by slowing the ripening process and inhibiting sprouting and to kill quarantine pests such as fruit flies. Radiation processing is a value addition process. Taking note of these benefits, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India constituted Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) in March 1989 by carving it out from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The mandate given to BRIT was to extend commercial applications of radioisotopes and radiation in the areas of Health, Agriculture, Industry and Research without losing sight of societal obligations. So far Department of Atomic Energy has set up three demonstration plants, namely, Isomed, RPP, Vashi and Krushak for high, medium and low dose applications of radiation respectively. The safe and business like operation of these facilities amply demonstrated the embedded safety and commercial viability of this technology

  19. New radiation technologies and methods for control of technological processes in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaykin, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation Technology of Metal and Ceramic Production with Enhanced Service Properties. Based on application of radiation technique in powder metallurgy the new technology for obtaining metals, alloys and ceramic materials with high service properties is worked out. Radiation processing of powder materials at the certain stage of the process leads to profound structure alterations at all further stages and eventually effects the properties of the resulting product. Theoretical calculation and experimental studies of electron-positron annihilation in powder-pressed samples showed that irradiation caused powder particles surface state changes favorable for further sintering and crystallization processes development. It is shown that irradiation of metal powders and powder-pressed samples by high energy electrons is technologically most efficient. The right choice of the type-and the mode of the radiation processing makes it possible to obtain metals, alloys and ceramic materials (Mo,Fe, W, Al, Ni, Cu, stainless steels, ceramics, etc.) with homogeneous structure and stable enhanced service properties. The project on radiation technology application to powder metallurgy represented by a group of authors was awarded with the diploma and the gold medal at the 22 International Exhibition of Inventions (Geneva, 1994). New Technologic Opportunities of the Chromium-Nickel Alloys Processing To obtain the required phase-structure state special methods of the chromium-nickel alloy processing for sensitive elastic devices production were worked out combining plastic deformation, thermal and radiation processing. It is shown that h-gbb phase transfer not observed before is possible in extremely non-equilibrium conditions under electron irradiation. It is established that the complex reaction of recrystallization and gb-phase deposition proceeds under electron irradiation at the room temperature when the certain threshold plastic deformation degree is reached that leads to the same

  20. Layers And Processes In The Model Of Technological Postal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madleňáková Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper include important aspects of layer model of postal technological system such as makes the possibility to define rules for regulating, technical and technological requirements and interfaces to communicate with other postal systems. The current postal reform is mainly attributable to release of network access and ensuring full interoperability between technological systems. Not only to ensure the development and protection of competition but also in respect to the conservation of requirements to provide the universal service, which is the performance of public interest. There is a space here to examine the postal system, not only from a procedural point of view, but to be viewed as an open communication system. It is possible to find there the commonalities with other communication sector branches and to handle the technological postal system in more layers; similarly as the electronic communication systems are handled. Model of layer postal system, based not only on the processes but on layers functionality, will enable to identify communication protocols and interfaces determining interoperability. It also opens the question of appropriate regulation model.

  1. A process combining hydrothermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis for sewage sludge dewatering and co-production of biogas and biochar: Pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Li, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Guangwei; Wang, Yin

    2018-04-01

    To fully dispose of/utilize sewage sludge, a process combing hydrothermal pretreatment (HTPT), anaerobic digestion (AD) and pyrolysis was developed and tested at the pilot scale. First, the improvement in sludge dewaterability by HTPT at 180 °C for 30 min was verified, and the water content decreased from 85 to 33 wt% after filter pressing. Then, the resulting filtrate underwent continuous mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) AD in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for producing biogas to compensate for the energy required for HTPT. Meanwhile, the filter cake was pyrolyzed in a rotary furnace (600 ± 50 °C) to generate biochar, and heavy metals were well immobilized in the biochar. Finally, the material/energy balance made according to the pilot data showed that the proposed process was effective for full resource reuse of sewage sludge. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Advanced modeling of management processes in information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalczuk, Zdzislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the issues of modelling management processes of information technology and IT projects while its core is the model of information technology management and its component models (contextual, local) describing initial processing and the maturity capsule as well as a decision-making system represented by a multi-level sequential model of IT technology selection, which acquires a fuzzy rule-based implementation in this work. In terms of applicability, this work may also be useful for diagnosing applicability of IT standards in evaluation of IT organizations. The results of this diagnosis might prove valid for those preparing new standards so that – apart from their own visions – they could, to an even greater extent, take into account the capabilities and needs of the leaders of project and manufacturing teams. The book is intended for IT professionals using the ITIL, COBIT and TOGAF standards in their work. Students of computer science and management who are interested in the issue of IT...

  3. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, AND ETHICALLY CONTESTED ISSUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Norman; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare technology assessment (HTA) aims to support decisions as to which technologies should be used in which situations to optimize value. Because such decisions will create winners and losers, they are bound to be controversial. HTA, then, faces a dilemma: should it stay away from such controversies, remaining a source of incomplete advice and risking an important kind of marginalization, or should it enter the controversy? The question is a challenging one, because we lack agreement on principles that are fine grained enough to tell us what choices we should make. In this study, we will argue that HTA should take a stand on ethical issues raised by the technology that is being investigated. To do so, we propose adding a form of procedural justice to HTA to arrive at decisions that the public can regard as legitimate and fair. A fair process involves deliberation about the reasons, evidence, and rationales that are considered relevant to meeting population-health needs fairly. One important way to make sure that there is real deliberation about relevant reasons is to include a range of stakeholders in the deliberative process. To illustrate how such deliberation might work, we use the case of cochlear implants for deaf children.

  4. A combinaison of UV curing technology with ATL process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbzioui, I.; Hasiaoui, B.; Barbier, G.; L'hostis, G.; Laurent, F.; Ibrahim, A.; Durand, B.

    2017-10-01

    In order to reduce the time and the cost of manufacturing composite, UV curing technology combined with automated tape placement process (ATL) based on reverse approach by working with a fixed head was studied in this article. First, a brief description of the developed head placement is presented. Mechanical properties are then evaluated by varying process parameters, including compaction force and tape placement speed. Finally, a parametric study is carried out to identify suitable materials and process parameters to manufacture a photo composite material with high mechanical performances. The obtained results show that UV curing is a very good alternative for thermal polymerization because of its fast cure speed due to less dependency on temperature.

  5. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA

  6. Feasibilities of consolidated bioprocessing microbes: from pretreatment to biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2014-06-01

    Lignocelluloses are rich sugar treasures, which can be converted to useful commodities such as biofuel with the help of efficient combination of enzymes and microbes. Although several bioprocessing approaches have been proposed, biofuel production from lignocelluloses is limited because of economically infeasible technologies for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation. Use of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microbes is the most promising method for the cost-effective production of biofuels. However, lignocelluloses are obtained from highly diverse environment and hence are heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and integrate tailor-designed pretreatment processes and efficient microbes that can thrive on many different kinds of biomass. In this review, the progress towards the construction of consolidated bioprocessing microbes, which can efficiently convert heterogeneous lignocellulosic biomass to bioenergy, has been discussed; in addition, the potential and constraints of current bioprocessing technologies for cellulosic biofuel production have been discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication.

  8. Technological Innovation: Concept, Process, Typology and Implications in the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest worldwide to boost innovation in business sector activities, especially the technology, is intended to maintain or increase national economic competitiveness, inclusively as an effect of awareness concerning the effects resulting from economic activity on consumption of resources and environment, which requires design of new patterns of production and consumption. In this paper we review the most important contributions in the literature in terms of the implications of technological innovation in the economy, at the microand macroeconomic level, viewing the organization's ability to generate new ideas in support of increasing production, employment and environmental protection, starting from the concepts of innovation, innovation process and, respectively, from the innovation typology analysis.

  9. Nuclear reactor fuel cycle technology with pyroelectrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiba, O.V.; Maershin, A.A.; Bychkov, A.V.; Zhdanov, A.N.; Kislyj, V.A.; Vavilov, S.K.; Babikov, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A group of dry technologies and processes of vibro-packing granulated fuel in combination with unique properties of vibro-packed FEs make it possible to implement a new comprehensive approach to the fuel cycle with plutonium fuel. Testing of a big number of FEs with vibro-packed U-Pu oxide fuel in the BOR-60 reactor, successful testing of experimental FSAs in the BN-600 rector, reliable operation of the experimental and research complex facilities allow to make the conclusion about a real possibility to develop a safe, economically beneficial U-Pu fuel cycle based on the technologies enumerated above and to use both reactor-grade and weapon-grade plutonium in nuclear reactors with a reliable control and accounting system [ru

  10. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  11. Evaluation of a combined brown rot decay-chemical delignification process as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from Pinus radiata wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, Antonella; Carrasco, Lissete; Reyes, Pablo; Rodríguez, Jaime; Freer, Juanita; Mendonça, Regis Teixeira

    2010-09-01

    Wood chips of Pinus radiata softwood were biotreated with the brown rot fungus (BRF) Gloeophyllum trabeum for periods from 4 and 12 weeks. Biodegradation by BRF leads to an increase in cellulose depolymerization with increasing incubation time. As a result, the intrinsic viscosity of holocellulose decreased from 1,487 cm(3)/g in control samples to 783 and 600 cm(3)/g in 4- and 12-week decayed wood chips, respectively. Wood weight and glucan losses varied from 6 to 14% and 9 to 21%, respectively. Undecayed and 4-week decayed wood chips were delignified by alkaline (NaOH solution) or organosolv (ethanol/water) processes to produced cellulosic pulps. For both process, pulp yield was 5-10% lower for decayed samples than for control pulps. However, organosolv bio-pulps presented low residual lignin amount and high glucan retention. Chemical pulps and milled wood from undecayed and 4-week decayed wood chips were pre-saccharified with cellulases for 24 h at 50 degrees C followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR2-9a at 40 degrees C for 96 h for bioethanol production. Considering glucan losses during wood decay and conversion yields from chemical pulping and SSF processes, no gains in ethanol production were obtained from the combination of BRF with alkaline delignification; however, the combination of BRF and organosolv processes resulted in a calculated production of 210 mL ethanol/kg wood or 72% of the maximum theoretically possible from that pretreatment, which was the best result obtained in the present study.

  12. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, R; Stoyanova, E; Stoychev, D; Tsanev, A

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr 6+ -containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce 3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce 3+ and Cu 2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction. (paper)

  13. Trapping technology for gaseous fission products from voloxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, G. H.; Yang, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review the different technologies for trapping the gaseous wastes containing Cs, Ru, Tc, 14 C, Kr, Xe, I and 3 H from a voloxidation process. Based on literature reviews and KAERI's experimental results on the gaseous fission products trapping, appropriate trapping method for each fission product has been selected considering process reliability, simplicity, decontamination factor, availability, and disposal. Specifically, the most promising trapping method for each fission product has been proposed for the development of the INL off-gas trapping system. A fly ash filter is proposed as a trapping media for a cesium trapping unit. In addition, a calcium filter is proposed as a trapping media for ruthenium, technetium, and 14 C trapping unit. In case of I trapping unit, AgX is proposed. For Kr and Xe, adsorption on solid is proposed. SDBC (Styrene Divinyl Benzene Copolymer) is also proposed as a conversion media to HTO for 3 H. This report will be used as a useful means for analyzing the known trapping technologies and help selecting the appropriate trapping methods for trapping volatile and semi-volatile fission products, long-lived fission products, and major heat sources generated from a voloxidation process. It can also be used to design an off-gas treatment system

  14. Staging Co-design Processes for Self-care Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    field studies in people’s homes and discuss how to stage design processes with the people who are actually going to use the self-care technologies—not only end-users, but also many other actors, such as relatives, caregivers, and municipality and company staff. Specifically, we describe how challenges......Many new healthcare technologies are currently being implemented in people’s homes in order to facilitate self-care. Socially innovative design is challenging, since it requires an intimate understanding of people’s abilities and daily practices. In this article, we highlight the need to perform...

  15. Instrument maintenance of ultrasonic influences parameters measurement in technological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomal V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The contact and non-contact vibration meters for intermittent and continuous control of the vibration amplitude in the ultrasonic technological equipment have been developed. And in order to estimate the cavitation intensity in liquids the authors have developed cavitation activity indicators and cavitation sensitivity meters, allowing to measure the magnitude of the signal level in the range of maximum spectral density of cavitation noise. The developed instruments allow to improve the quality of products, reduce the defect rate and power consumption of equipment by maintaining optimum conditions of the process.

  16. The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Li Zhengkui; Zhao Yongfu; Zhang Weidong; Jin Jie; Wu Lei; Wang Xinghai

    2003-01-01

    The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation was studied. The results demonstrated that dose heterogeneity had osculatory connection with pile height and turning, sterilization effect had positive correlation with the irradiation dose and negative correlation with colour. Compared with the CK, the content of crud protein, fat, carbohydrate, microelement and amino acid in irradiated bread crumbs had no obvious change. It is recommended that the range of best sterilization dose be 6-10 kGy and the shelf time of bread crumbs be extended to one year

  17. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a strategy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Ramos, Lucas; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2017-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a process technology with potential for application in different areas including environmental, food processing, and biofuels production. Although HC is an undesirable phenomenon for hydraulic equipment, the net energy released during this process is enough...... to accelerate certain chemical reactions. The application of cavitation energy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment is an interesting strategy proposed for integration in biorefineries for the production of bio-based products. Moreover, the use of an HC-assisted process...

  18. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated.

  19. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W.

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated

  20. Active Shop Scheduling Of Production Process Based On RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In industry 4.0 environment, intelligent technology is almost applied to all parts of the manufacturing process, such as process design, job shop scheduling, etc.. This paper presents an efficient approach to job shop scheduling actively by using RFID to collect real-time manufacturing data. Identified the workpiece by RFID which needs to be machined, it can “ask for” the resource actively for the following process. With these active asking-for strategy, a double genetically encoded improved genetic algorithm is proposed for achieving active job shop scheduling solution during the actual manufacturing process. A case was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Meanwhile, , it can effectively and actively carry out job shop scheduling and has much better convergence effect comparing with basic genetic algorithm. And the job shop scheduler in management center can use the proposed algorithm to get the satisfied scheduling result timely by reducing waiting time and making begin time earlier during transmission between manufacturing process, which makes the scheduling result feasible and accurate.