Sample records for pretreatment gases temperatures

  1. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.


    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... distribution. Therefore, an accurate temperature model is critical for observing the biomass pretreatment. More than that, the biomass is also pushed with a constant horizontal speed along the reactor in order to ensure a continuous throughput. The goal of this paper is to derive a temperature model...... that captures the environmental temperature differences inside the reactor using distributed parameters. A Kalman filter is then added to account for any missing dynamics and the overall model is embedded into a temperature soft sensor. The operator of the plant will be able to observe the temperature in any...

  2. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature (United States)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan


    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  3. Solubility of gases in water at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, R.J.; Japas, M.L.


    In the primary circuits of the PWR, it is usual to find apolar gases such as the noble gases like, nitrogen, hydrogen (deuterium) and oxygen. These gases enter into the circuit partly due to failures in the fuel elements, accidental entries of air into the system and corrosion processes and radiolisis in the coolant media. For the operation of several auxiliary systems in the primary circuit, it is important to know the solubility of these gases in the flux of the circuit and the evaluation of physicochemical processes that take place. A cell has been built that allows to carry out determinations of solubility in the range of 350 deg C and 100 Mega Pascal. Three alternative experimental techniques have been developed to determine the solubility of the gases which are compared to each other. Measures of solubility of argon in H2O and D2O have been made in a wide range of temperatures. (V.B.) [es

  4. Removal of contaminant gases from an electrolytic urine pretreatment process. [in spacecraft life support systems (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.


    The effluent gas stream from an electrolytic urine pretreatment process was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and wet chemical methods to determine its composition. The major constituents were identified as: hydrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, and chlorine. The trace impurities were chlorinated light hydrocarbons, and a number of other organic impurities in the low ppm range. Several methods of removing all of the undesirable gases to levels acceptable for return to a space cabin atmosphere were investigated experimentally. A subsystem concept comprised of the following sequential unit processes and operations was successfully demonstrated: (1) raw urine scrubbing, (2) silica gel sorption, (3) dilution with cabin air, and (4) catalytic oxidation.

  5. Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon


    The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...

  6. Experience with high-temperature filtration of incinerator flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; de Tassigny, C.


    It is always preferable to filter incinerator flue gases as close as possible to their origin, i.e. in a high-temperature zone, and means must be provided to destroy the other organic parts of the flyash resulting from these gases by in-filter combustion. The filter also traps a mineral part of the flyash, which eventually causes clogging and requires replacement or regeneration. Such filtration systems are available and can be operated on an industrial scale. They include candles made of micro-expanded refractory alloys supporting filtering media, porous ceramic candles and other devices. Research and subsequent pilot facility testing have enabled development of alumina fiber filter cartridges that offer more advantages than other equipment employed to date. Specifically, these advantages are: ultralight weight, which enables construction of systems that are relatively unaffected by creep and high-temperature deformations; excellent refractory qualities, which permit a use above 1000 degrees C; insensitivity to thermal shocks and in-situ carbon fines combustion capability; anti-acid quality of the material, which enables high-temperature filtration of acidic flue gases (chlorine and hydrochloric acid, SO x , etc.); low initial pressure drop of the cartridges; dimensional stability of the cartridges, which can be machined to a given tolerance with specific contours after casting and drying. This paper reports the results obtained during the last filtration system test campaign. Details are given for operating conditions, grain sizes and real-time monitoring of various parameters

  7. Release of gases from uranium metal at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayi, Y.S.; Ramanjaneyulu, P.S.; Yadav, C.S.; Shankaran, P.S.; Chhapru, G.C.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Venugopal, V.


    Depending on the ambient environmental conditions, different gaseous species could get entrapped in uranium metal ingots or pellets. On heating, melting or vapourising uranium metal, these get released and depending on the composition, may cause detrimental effects either within the metal matrix itself or on the surrounding materials/environment. For instance, these gases may affect the performance of the uranium metal, which is used as fuel in the heavy water moderated research reactors, CIRUS and DHRUVA. Hence, detailed investigations have been carried out on the release of gases over a temperature range 875-1500 K employing hot vacuum extraction technique, in specimen uranium pellets made from uranium rods/ingots. Employing an on-line quadrupole mass spectrometer, the analysis of released gases was carried out. The isobaric interference between carbon monoxide and nitrogen at m/e = 28 in the mass spectrometric analysis has been resolved by considering their fragmentation patterns. Since no standards are available to evaluate the results, only the reproducibility is tested. The precision (relative standard deviation at 3σ level) of the method is ±5%. The minimum detectable gas content employing the method is 5.00 x 10 -09 m 3 . About 4 x 10 -04 m 3 /kg of gas is released from uranium pellets, with hydrogen as the main constituent. The gas content increases with storage in air

  8. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature. (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  9. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.


    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  10. The effect of heat pretreatment temperature on fermentative hydrogen production using mixed cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghchehsaraee, Bita; Nakhla, George; Karamanev, Dimitre; Margaritis, Argyrios [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Reid, Gregor [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Canadian Research and Development Center for Probiotics, Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada)


    The effect of heat treatment at different temperatures on two types of inocula, activated sludge and anaerobically digested sludge, was investigated in batch cultures. Heat treatments were conducted at 65, 80 and 95 C for 30 min. The untreated inocula produced less amount of hydrogen than the pretreated inocula, with lactic acid as the main metabolite. The maximum yields of 2.3 and 1.6 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose were achieved for the 65 C pretreated anaerobically digested and activated sludges, respectively. Approximately a 15% decrease in yield was observed with increasing pretreatment temperature from 65 to 95 C concomitant with an increase in butyrate/acetate ratio from 1.5 to 2.4 for anaerobically digested sludge. The increase of pretreatment temperature of activated sludge to 95 C suppressed the hydrogen production by lactic acid fermentation. DNA analysis of the microbial community showed that the elevated pretreatment temperatures reduced the species diversity. (author)

  11. Fundamental characteristics of microwave explosion pretreatment of wood. I, Properties of temperature development (United States)

    Xian-jun Li; Ke-yang Lu; Lan-ying Lin; Yong-dong Zhou; Zhi-yong Cai; Feng Fu


    In this study, the effects of microwave radiation intensity, radiation time and initial wood moisture content (MC) on the properties of temperature development in Eucalyptus urophylla wood samples during the microwave explosion pretreatment have been investigated using a new microwave pretreatment equipment. The results show that 1) with the increase of microwave...

  12. Variation of Particle Size and Pretreatment Temperature to the Crystallinity of Leucaena Leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Safaai Nor Sharliza


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of different particle size and pretreatment temperature to the crystallinity of leucaena leucocephala. The leucaena was pretreated by ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3 methylimidazolium acetate [Emim]Ac. There were three different particle sizes that have been tested in this experiment; less than 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm. In the other hand, the pretreatment temperature tested were 30°C, 60°C and 90°C. The effect of particle size and pretreatment temperature to the crystallinity of leucaena was investigated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The crystallinity index of the sample represents the percentage of crystalline materials. A lower in the cristallinity index indicated that the material has lower crystillinity, hence give more benefit to the cellulose hydrolysis. From XRD analysis, it shows that the cristallinity index of leucaena decreased with decreasing particle size and increasing pretreatment temperature. SEM analysis also shows that the structure of leucaena has more irregular, porous and destroyed structure with decreasing particle size and increasing pretreatment temperature. Thus, the result from this experiment shows that the smaller particle size and higher pretreatment temperature would provide a more accessible surface area to enhance the cellulose hydrolysis.

  13. Heat exchangers and recuperators for high temperature waste gases (United States)

    Meunier, H.

    General considerations on high temperature waste heat recovery are presented. Internal heat recovery through combustion air preheating and external heat recovery are addressed. Heat transfer and pressure drop in heat exchanger design are discussed.

  14. Effect of Surface Pretreatment on the Underpaint Corrosion of AA2024-T3 at Various Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, D. A; Jakab, M. A; Scully, J. R


    .... The scribe-creep rate was accelerated at all temperatures especially by pretreatments that increased the concentration of surface Cu or left a high capacity for Cu-replating. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH...

  15. Molecular equilibria and condensation temperatures in carbon-rich gases (United States)

    Sharp, C. M.; Wasserburg, G. J.


    Detailed chemical equilibrium calculations were carried out using a number of different C/O ratios, in order to determine the relative condensation sequence of various phases. For C/O > 1, we calculated the condensation temperatures of graphite, TiC, and SiC, and found that the condensation temperature of graphite is strongly dependent on the C/O ratio, but insensitive to pressure, whereas for TiC and SiC, there is a strong dependence on pressure, but almost no dependence on C/O. In all cases, TiC condenses before SiC. For most regions of PC/O space when C/O > 1, graphite condenses before TiC and SiC, but for a C/O ratio of about 1.2, TiC condenses before graphite for pressures above approximately 30 dyne/cm 2, and this limiting pressure decreases with decreasing C/O ratio. We found that the main species governing the condensation of graphite, TiC, and SiC were the gas phase species H, H 2, C 2H, C 2H 2, Ti, and Si. By identifying the key equilibria involving these species, a few simple analytic formulae were found that estimate the condensation temperatures, which are generally in good agreement with the detailed calculations, with any differences being easily explained by the neglect of some minor species. These results exhibit the basic dependence of the condensation sequence on C/O, pressure, and temperature for C, TiC, and SiC. To form grains in the winds of an AGB star, the gas density must be high enough for grains to form in a reasonable timescale at or below their condensation temperature. From kinetic considerations and stellar models, we argue that grains are most likely to form in the pressure range 0.2 population found in meteorites. The nitrogen chemistry was investigated and it was found that AIN always condenses at a much lower temperature than SiC. However, Al and N are often found in substantial amounts in association with SiC. We infer that these elements must form a solid solution with SiC at higher temperatures. We note that a small amount

  16. Metal temperature monitoring in corrosive gases at high temperature and high thermal flows; Monitoreo de temperaturas de metal en gases corrosivos a alta temperatura y altos flujos termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta Espino, Mario; Martinez Flores, Marco Antonio; Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Porcayo Calderon, Jesus; Gomez Guzman, Roberto; Reyes Cervantes, Fernando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The direct measurement of metal temperatures during operation in superheater, reheater, and water wall tubes in zones exposed to high thermal flows is of great interest for the operation and analysis of the correct functioning of a steam generator. The operation temperature measurement of these zones differs very much of the monitored temperature in headers in the dead chamber, since the temperature measured in this zone is the steam temperature that does not reflect the one detected in the gas zone. For this reason, the thermocouples implant in gas zones will detect the real metal temperature and the incidence that some operation variables might have on it (Martinez et al., (1990). [Espanol] La medicion directa de temperaturas de metal durante operacion en tubos de sobrecalentador, recalentador y pared de agua en zonas expuestas a altos flujos termicos es de gran interes para la operacion y analisis del buen funcionamiento de un generador de vapor. La medicion de la temperatura de operacion de estas zonas, difiere mucho de la temperatura monitoreada en cabezales en zona de camara muerta, ya que la temperatura registrada en esta zona es la de vapor que no es un reflejo de la detectada en zona de gases. Por esta razon, la implantacion de termopares en zona de gases detectara la temperatura de metal real y la incidencia que algunas variables de operacion tengan sobre esta (Martinez et al., 1990).

  17. Comparison between microscopic methods for finite-temperature Bose gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, S.P.; Negretti, Antonio; Proukakis, N.P.


    We analyze the equilibrium properties of a weakly interacting, trapped quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas at finite temperatures and compare different theoretical approaches. We focus in particular on two stochastic theories: a number-conserving Bogoliubov (NCB) approach and a stochastic Gross-Pitaev...

  18. Observable Vortex Properties in Finite Temperature Bose Gases


    Allen, A. J.; Zaremba, E.; Barenghi, C. F.; Proukakis, N. P.


    We study the dynamics of vortices in finite temperature atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, focussing on decay rates, precession frequencies and core brightness, motivated by a recent experiment (Freilich et al. Science 329, 1182 (2010)) in which real-time dynamics of a single vortex was observed. Using the ZNG formalism based on a dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semi-classical Boltzmann equation for the thermal cloud, we find a rapid nonlinear increase of ...

  19. Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

  20. Apparatus for production, measurement and reaction studies of dissociated gases at elevated temperatures (United States)

    Christian, J. D.; Gilbreath, W. P.


    An apparatus is described which is used for the controlled production, characterization, and study of dissociated gases in a microwave discharge at elevated temperatures. A unique feature is the ability to produce and study a microwave discharge plasma in the heated zone. This allows elevated temperature reactions to be studied in high concentrations of dissociated gases. Further, the system permits weight change measurements of specimens in the plasma, thus facilitating reaction rate determinations. Included is a description of a cavity for use on a 50-mm diameter cylindrical reactor. The effects of flow rate, pressure, temperature, power, metal sample, and sampling position on dissociation percentage of oxygen in the apparatus are described as well as a technique for sample temperature measurements in the plasma which permits determination of high temperature recombination coefficients and reaction rates.

  1. Knudsen temperature jump and the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics of granular gases driven by thermal walls. (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V


    Thermal wall is a convenient idealization of a rapidly vibrating plate used for vibrofluidization of granular materials. The objective of this work is to incorporate the Knudsen temperature jump at thermal wall in the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic modeling of dilute granular gases of monodisperse particles that collide nearly elastically. The Knudsen temperature jump manifests itself as an additional term, proportional to the temperature gradient, in the boundary condition for the temperature. Up to a numerical prefactor O(1) , this term is known from kinetic theory of elastic gases. We determine the previously unknown numerical prefactor by measuring, in a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, steady-state temperature profiles of a gas of elastically colliding hard disks, confined between two thermal walls kept at different temperatures, and comparing the results with the predictions of a hydrodynamic calculation employing the modified boundary condition. The modified boundary condition is then applied, without any adjustable parameters, to a hydrodynamic calculation of the temperature profile of a gas of inelastic hard disks driven by a thermal wall. We find the hydrodynamic prediction to be in very good agreement with MD simulations of the same system. The results of this work pave the way to a more accurate hydrodynamic modeling of driven granular gases.

  2. Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes. (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kalif, Mahdi; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R


    The use of hot-water (100°C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100°C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191-344% and 115-300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of temperature on the uniform field breakdown strength of electronegative gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Mathis, R.A.; Hunter, S.R.; Carter, J.G.


    In general, the electron attachment rate constant, k/sub a/ ( ,Υ), as a function of the mean electron energy and temperature Υ for electronegative gases which attach electrons nondissociatively decreases greatly with Υ from room temperature to Υ ≤ 600K, while that for electronegative gases which attach electrons dissociatively increases with increasing Υ. Based on recent studies in our laboratory on k/sub a/ ( ,Υ), we investigated the variation with Υ (∼295-575K) of the uniform field breakdown strength, (E/N)/sub lim/, for three classes of electronegative gases: (a) gases such as c-C 4 F 8 (and c-C 4 F 6 , 1-C 3 F 6 ) which attach strongly low-energy (≤ 1 eV) electrons nondissociatively and for which k/sub a/ ( ,Υ), decreases precipitously with Υ above ambient; (b) gases such as C 2 F 6 and CF 3 Cl which attach electrons exclusively dissociatively and whose k/sub a/ ( ,Υ) increases with Υ; and (c) gases such as C 3 F 8 and n-C 4 F 10 which attach electrons both nondissociatively and dissociatively over a common low-energy range and whose k/sub a/ ( ,Υ) first decreases and then increases with Υ above ambient. The (E/N)/sub lim/(Υ) has been found to decrease significantly with Υ for (a), to decrease slowly with Υ for (c), and to increase slightly with Υ for (b). These changes in (E/N)/sub lim/ follow those in k/sub a/ ( ,Υ). A similar behavior is expected for other electronegative gaseous dielectrics in the respective three groups

  4. Glass transition temperature of dried lens tissue pretreated with trehalose, maltose, or cyclic tetrasaccharide. (United States)

    Kawata, Tetsuhiro; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Uchida, Tetsuya


    Glass transition temperature is a main indicator for amorphous polymers and biological macromolecules as materials, and would be a key for understanding the role of trehalose in protecting proteins and cells against desiccation. In this study, we measured the glass transition temperature by differential scanning calorimetry of dried lens tissues as a model of a whole biological tissue to know the effect of pretreatment by trehalose and other sugars. Isolated porcine lenses were incubated with saline, 100 or 1000 mM concentration of trehalose, maltose, or cyclic tetrasaccharide dissolved in saline at room temperature for 150 minutes. The solutions were removed and all samples were dried at room temperature in a desiccator until no weight change. The dried tissues were ground into powder and placed in a measuring pan for differential scanning calorimetry. The glass transition temperature of the dried lens tissues, as a mean and standard deviation, was 63.0 ± 6.4°C (n = 3) with saline pretreatment; 53.0 ± 0.8°C and 56.3 ± 2.7°C (n = 3), respectively, with 100 and 1000 mM trehalose pretreatment; 56.0 ± 1.6°C and 55.8 ± 1.1°C (n = 3), respectively, with 100 and 1000 mM maltose pretreatment; 60.0 ± 8.8°C and 59.2 ± 6.3°C (n = 3), respectively, with 100 and 1000 mM cyclic tetrasaccharide pretreatment. The glass transition temperature appeared lower, although not significantly, with trehalose and maltose pretreatments than with saline and cyclic tetrasaccharide pretreatments (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). The glass transition temperature of the dried lens tissues with trehalose pretreatment appeared more noticeable on the thermogram, compared with other pretreatments. The glass transition temperature was measured for the first time in the dried lens tissues as an example of a whole biological tissue and might provide a basis for tissue preservation in the dried condition.

  5. Modelling and L1 Adaptive Control of Temperature in Biomass Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Sin, Gürkan


    Biomass steam pretreatment is a key process in converting agricultural wastes to bioethanol. The pretreatment occurs in a large pressurized tank called a thermal reactor. Two key parameters influence the successfulness of the process: the reactor temperature, and the retention time. A particle pump......, and enthalpy-pressure and pressure-temperature dependencies. Nonlinear feed-forward terms are added in the control strategy. The process model, the control strategy, the application of the L1 adaptive controller and its tuning method based on minimizing a cost function represent novelties of this paper....

  6. Effects of treatment time and temperature on the DC corona pretreatment performance of waste activated sludge (United States)

    Yu, GAO; Ning, ZHAO; Yongdi, DENG; Minghang, WANG; Boxue, DU


    In order to improve the anaerobic digestion efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS), a pretreatment procedure should be carried out so as to disrupt the microbial cell structure, thus releasing intracellular organic matters. In this paper, a corona discharge triggered by a DC voltage was employed to pre-treat WAS for various time periods under different temperatures. The magnitude of the DC voltage was 4 kV at both negative and positive polarities. The changes in the soluble chemical oxygen demand, phosphorus and nitrogen content, and pH value within the WAS were utilized to estimate the pretreatment performance of the DC corona. It was found that with increasing treatment time, the pretreatment efficiency tends to be reduced. With increased temperature, the pretreatment efficiency appears to be better. It is suggested that the oxidative species and the active particles generated in the corona discharge play an important role in disrupting the microbial cell structure, which is dependent upon the treatment time and the temperature.

  7. Distinction of gases with a semiconductor sensor depending on the scanning profile of a cyclic temperature. (United States)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Okunishi, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Yusuke


    A gas-sensing system based on a dynamic nonlinear response is reported to improve the selectivity in the sensor response toward sample gases. A cyclic temperature composed of fundamental and second harmonics was applied to a SnO(2) semiconductor gas sensor and the resulting conductance of the sensor was analyzed by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). The dynamic nonlinear responses to the gas species were further characterized depending on the scanning profile of the temperature. These characteristic sensor responses under the application of second-harmonic perturbation were theoretically considered based on a reaction-diffusion model for the semiconductor surface.

  8. The impact of yeast temperature pre-treatment on bioethanol from corn mash fermentation


    Ho, Dac Hai Nam


    For commercial corn mash to ethanol production it is known that increasing temperature can maximize ethanol yield, although care must be taken to avoid causing heat shock resulting in the death of the yeast culture. Despite the potentially negative effects of high temperature, short sub-lethal stress has been reported to procure a benefit to yeast cells. However, the effect of such yeast pre-treatment on bioethanol fermentations has not previously been investigated. In order to understand ...

  9. Glutaraldehyde pretreatment blocks temperature-induced high-affinity [3H] tryptamine binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serikyaku, S.; Ishitani, R.


    The effect of glutaraldehyde (and Azure A) on temperature-sensitive high-affinity [ 3 H] tryptamine binding was investigated in rat brain synaptic plasma membranes. In the 0.01-0.1 % concentration range, the glutaraldehyde pretreatment preferentially inhibited only the above-mentioned portion of the binding, whereas the posttreatment of this reagent had no effect. On the other hand, in cases of pretreatment or posttreatment, a concentration of glutaraldehyde as high as 0.1 % was inactive on the basal [ 3 H] ligand binding capacity of the membranes. Furthermore, it was revealed that the Scatchard plot of [ 3 H] tryptamine binding in membranes pretreated with glutaraldehyde conformed to a straight line, as did a similar plot of temperature-independent binding. And, it was interesting to find that the binding parameters (K/sub D/ and B/sub max/ values) of both samples corresponded closely to each other. On the contrary, in all concentrations, Azure A affected nonspecifically both the temperature-dependent and the independent [ 3 H] tryptamine binding to the same degree, regardless of whether or not there was pretreatment or posttreatment. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  10. Influence of Ambient Temperature on the CO2 Emitted With Exhaust Gases of Gasoline Vehicles (United States)

    Chainikov, D.; Chikishev, E.; Anisimov, I.; Gavaev, A.


    This article focuses on the regulation of CO2 emitted in the exhaust gases of gasoline vehicles. Based on comparing the world practices of restrictive measures on greenhouse gas emissions with Russian legislation, we conclude that there is a need to adjust the limits of CO2 emission taking into account the negative impact of ambient temperature on CO2 emission. The climatic conditions of many countries stipulate the use of vehicles in temperatures below zero. At the same time, the existing regulations fully take into account the temperature features of the various countries, which casts doubt on the existence of uniform emission standards for all countries. Here, we conduct an experiment on one of the most popular cars in Russia: the Mitsubishi Lancer 9. We establish that lower temperatures are correlated with larger concentrations of CO2 in the exhaust gases. We draw a conclusion about the need to account for the actual operating conditions when establishing limit values on CO2 emissions of vehicles.

  11. A Laboratory Apparatus for Testing and Assessing the Effects of Hot Rocket Gases on High Temperature Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cockett, G. H; Watt, W


    .... By burning a certain mixture of ammonia and acetylene in oxygen, a stream of hot gases is produced similar in composition and temperature to the combustion products of a kerosene-nitric acid propellant...

  12. Experimental investigation on the minimum ignition temperature of hybrid mixtures of dusts and gases or solvents. (United States)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich


    Investigations on the minimum ignition temperatures (MIT) of hybrid mixtures of dusts with gases or solvents were performed in the modified Godbert-Greenwald (GG) furnace. Five combustible dusts and six flammable gases (three ideal and three real) were used. The test protocol was according to EN 50281-2-1 for dust-air mixtures whereas in the case of gases, solvents and hybrid mixtures this standard was used with slight modification. The experimental results demonstrated a significant decrease of the MIT of gas, solvent or dust and an increase in the likelihood of explosion when a small amount of dust, which was either below the minimum explosion concentration or not ignitable by itself, was mixed with gas and vice versa. For example, the MIT of toluene decreased from 540°C to 455°C when small amount of lycopodium was added. It was also confirmed that a hybrid mixture explosion is possible even when both dust and vapour or gas concentrations are respectively lower than their minimum explosion concentration (MEC) and lower explosion limit (LEL). Another example is CN4, the MEC of which of 304 g/m(3) decreased to 37 g/m(3) when propane was added, even though the concentrations of the gas was below its LEL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment. (United States)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Meyer, Anne S


    Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs.

  14. Effect of the volume concentration of a set of water droplets moving through high-temperature gases on the temperature in the wake (United States)

    Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.


    The processes of heat and mass transfer and phase transformations during motion of a set of water droplets through high-temperature gases have been studied numerically. The regimes and conditions of formation of zones of significant joint influence of the droplets on the integral characteristics of heat and mass transfer are determined. The values of the dimensionless parameters describing the dependence of the temperature of the gases in the wake of a small set droplets on their volume concentration and arrangement are calculated. The variations in these dimensionless parameters during motion of droplets through high-temperature gases are described.

  15. Effects of low-temperature pretreatment on carbonization of cellulose for the production of biocarbons (United States)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Kang, Kyu-Young


    Pretreatment of cellulose at temperatures below 300 °C prior to carbonization at 1200 °C was studied for the production of high-yield biocarbons. Filter paper as the cellulosic raw material was pyrolyzed by using heating schemes, including 16-h isothermal step at 215-270 °C under nitrogen atmosphere, followed by fast heating up to 600 °C and finally to 1200 °C. Cellulose degradation was completed in the 16-h holding isothermal step at a temperature above 250 °C, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The yield of char was increased from 11% to 21% by pretreatment of cellulose after post-treatment at 600 °C or 1200 °C. The BET surface area as the microporosity value was also significantly enhanced from 461 m2/g to 837 m2/g by straight heating of 10 °C/min. These results are thought to be caused by slow heating and stabilizing effects due to pretreatment of cellulose at the critical temperature for degradation.

  16. Positron annihilation in low-temperature rare gases. II. Argon and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, K.F.; Roellig, L.O.


    Lifetime measurements of slow-positron and ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation were made in argon and neon gases at room temperature and below. The argon experiments cover the temperature range 115 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.0356 to 0.0726 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 20 to 40 amagat). The slow-positron spectra in argon exhibit a departure from free-positron annihilation below 200 0 K. The departure becomes more marked as the temperature is lowered. No deviation from free o-Ps pickoff annihilation is observed in argon at low temperatures. The neon measurements cover the temperature range 30 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.032 to 0.89 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 35 to 980 amagat). No effect of temperature on the slow-positron spectra throughout the temperature and density ranges investigated in neon is observed. The spectra are very exponential with a corresponding decay rate which is temperature as well as time independent and is directly proportional to density over the ranges investigated. The o-Ps data are more eventful in that the o-Ps lifetime at near-liquid densities is approximately 20 nsec, a factor of nearly 4 greater than the value obtained using the pickoff-annihilation coefficient obtained at lower densities. This is evidence for positronium-induced cavities in low-temperature neon. A brief discussion of the argon and neon results is given in the context of the explanations offered for the low-temperature effects observed in helium gas

  17. Temperature influence on the fast pyrolysis of manure samples: char, bio-oil and gases production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Lopez Maria


    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis characterization of three dry manure samples was studied using a pyrolyzer. A heating rate of 600°C/s and a holding time of 10 s were selected to reproduce industrial conditions. The effect of the peak pyrolysis temperature (600, 800 and 1000°C on the pyrolysis product yield and composition was evaluated. Char and bio-oil were gravimetrically quantified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to analyse the char structure. H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were measured by means of gas chromatography (GC. A decrease in the char yield and an increase of the gas yield were observed when temperature increased. From 800°C on, it was observed that the char yield of samples Dig R and SW were constant, which indicated that the primary devolatilization reactions stopped. This fact was also corroborated by GC analysis. The bio-oil yield slightly increased with temperature, showing a maximum of 20.7 and 27.8 wt.% for samples Pre and SW, respectively, whereas sample Dig R showed a maximum yield of 16.5 wt.% at 800°C. CO2 and CO were the main released gases whereas H2 and CH4 production increased with temperature. Finally, an increase of char porosity was observed with temperature.

  18. Temperature influence on the fast pyrolysis of manure samples: char, bio-oil and gases production (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Maria; Anastasakis, Kostas; De Jong, Wiebren; Valverde, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Silva, Luz


    Fast pyrolysis characterization of three dry manure samples was studied using a pyrolyzer. A heating rate of 600°C/s and a holding time of 10 s were selected to reproduce industrial conditions. The effect of the peak pyrolysis temperature (600, 800 and 1000°C) on the pyrolysis product yield and composition was evaluated. Char and bio-oil were gravimetrically quantified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the char structure. H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were measured by means of gas chromatography (GC). A decrease in the char yield and an increase of the gas yield were observed when temperature increased. From 800°C on, it was observed that the char yield of samples Dig R and SW were constant, which indicated that the primary devolatilization reactions stopped. This fact was also corroborated by GC analysis. The bio-oil yield slightly increased with temperature, showing a maximum of 20.7 and 27.8 wt.% for samples Pre and SW, respectively, whereas sample Dig R showed a maximum yield of 16.5 wt.% at 800°C. CO2 and CO were the main released gases whereas H2 and CH4 production increased with temperature. Finally, an increase of char porosity was observed with temperature.

  19. Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.


    Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate temperatures and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to temperature change are separated by a time-series analysis using a linear trend term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The temperature changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in temperature induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the temperature change near both poles with a negative temperature change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on temperature. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to temperature change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected temperature change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a

  20. Water sorption in microfibrillated cellulose (MFC): The effect of temperature and pretreatment. (United States)

    Meriçer, Çağlar; Minelli, Matteo; Giacinti Baschetti, Marco; Lindström, Tom


    Water sorption behavior of two different microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films, produced by delamination of cellulose pulp after different pretreatment methods, is examined at various temperatures (16-65°C) and up to 70% RH. The effect of drying temperature of MFC films on the water uptake is also investigated. The obtained solubility isotherms showed the typical downward curvature at moderate RH, while no upturn is observed at higher RH; the uptakes are in line with characteristic values for cellulose fibers. Enzymatically pretreated MFC dispersion showed lower solubility than carboxymethylated MFC, likely due to the different material structure, which results from the different preparation methods The experimental results are analyzed by Park and GAB models, which proved suitable to describe the observed behaviors. Interestingly, while no significant thermal effect is detected on water solubility above 35°C, the uptake at 16 and 25°C, at a given RH, is substantially lower than that at higher temperature, indicating that, in such range, sorption process is endothermic. Such unusual behavior for a cellulose-based system seems to be related mainly to the structural characteristics of MFC films, and to relaxation phenomena taking place upon water sorption. The diffusion kinetics, indeed, showed a clear Fickian behavior at low temperature and RH, whereas a secondary process seems to occur at high temperature and higher RH, leading to anomalous diffusion behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of wood thermal pretreatments to improve wood composite properties (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Raul. Espinoza-Herrera


    The objective of this paper is to review the published literature on improving properties of wood composites through thermal pretreatment of wood. Thermal pretreatment has been conducted in moist environments using hot water or steam at temperatures up to 180 and 230 ˚C, respectively, or in dry environments using inert gases at temperatures up to 240 ...

  2. Mass loss controlled thermal pretreatment system to assess the effects of pretreatment temperature on organic matter solubilization and methane yield from food waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Minale Yeshanew


    Full Text Available The effects of thermal pretreatment (TP on the main characteristics of food waste (FW and its biochemical methane potential (BMP and distribution of volatile fatty acids (VFAs under mesophilic condition (35 ⁰C were investigated. The TP experiments were carried out at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C for 2 hour and 140 °C for 1 hour. The designed TP set-up was able to minimize the organic matter loss during the course of the pretreatments. Soluble organic fractions evaluated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD and soluble protein increased linearly with pretreatment temperature. In contrast, the carbohydrate solubilization was more enhanced (30 % higher solubilization by the TP at lower temperature (80 °C. A slight increment of soluble phenols was found, particularly for temperatures exceeding 100 °C. Thermally pretreated FW under all conditions exhibited an improved methane yield than the untreated FW, due to the increased organic matter solubilization. The highest cumulative methane yield of 442 (± 8.6 mL/gVSadded, corresponding to a 28.1 % enhancement compared to the untreated FW, was obtained with a TP at 80 °C. No significant variation in the VFAs trends were observed during the BMP tests under all investigated conditions.

  3. Impact of pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid under moderate temperature on hydrolysis of corn stover with two enzyme systems. (United States)

    Tai, Chao; Keshwani, Deepak


    Pretreatment of corn stover with dilute sulfuric acid at moderate temperature was investigated, and glucan digestibility by Cellic CTec2 and Celluclast on the pretreated biomass was compared. Pretreatments were carried out from 60 to 180 min at the temperature from 105 to 135 °C, with acid concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2% (w/v). Significant portion of xylan was removed during pretreatment, and the glucan digestibility by CTec2 was significantly better than that by Celluclast in all cases. Analysis showed that glucan digestibility by both two enzymes correlated directly with the extent of xylan removal in pretreatment. Confidence interval was built to give a more precise range of glucan conversion and to test the significant difference among pretreatment conditions. Response surface model was built to obtain the optimal pretreatment condition to achieve high glucan conversion after enzymatic hydrolysis. Considering the cost and energy savings, the optimal pretreatment condition of 1.75% acid for 160 min at 135 °C was determined, and glucan conversion can achieve the range from 72.86 to 76.69% at 95% confidence level after enzymatic hydrolysis, making total glucan recovery up to the range from 89.42 to 93.25%.

  4. Cenozoic mean greenhouse gases and temperature changes with reference to the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew


    Cenozoic greenhouse gases (GHG) variations and warming periods underscore the extreme rates of current climate change, with major implications for the adaptability and survivability of terrestrial and marine habitats. Current rise rate of greenhouse gases, reaching 3.3 ppm CO 2 per year during March 2015-2016, is the fastest recorded since the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Event (PETM) when carbon release to the atmosphere was about an order of magnitude less than at present. The ice core evidence of concentration of (GHG) and temperatures in the atmosphere/ocean/cryosphere system over the last 740 kyr suggests that the rate of rise in GHG over the last ~260 years, CO 2 rates rising from 0.94 ppm yr -1 in 1959 (315.97 ppm) to 1.62 ppm yr -1 in 2000 (369.52 ppm) to 3.05 ppm yr -1 in 2015 (400.83 ppm), constitutes a unique spike in the history of the atmosphere. The reliance of pre-740 kyr paleoclimate estimates on multiple proxies, including benthic and plankton fossils, fossil plants, residual organic matter, major and trace elements in fossils, sediments and soils, place limits on the resolution of pre-upper Pleistocene paleoclimate estimates, rendering it likely recorded mean Cenozoic paleoclimate trends may conceal abrupt short-term climate fluctuations. However, as exemplified by the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and earlier GHG and temperature spikes associated with major volcanic and asteroid impact events, the long-term residence time of CO 2 in the atmosphere extends the signatures of abrupt warming events to within detection limits of multiple paleoproxies. The mean post-1750 temperature rise rate (approximately ~0.0034 °C per yr, or ~0.008 °C per yr where temperature is not masked by sulfur aerosols) exceeds those of the PETM (approximately ~0.0008-0.0015 °C per yr) by an order of magnitude and mean glacial termination warming rates (last glacial termination [LGT] ~ 0.00039; Eemian ~0.0004 °C per yr) by near to an order of magnitude

  5. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Racanella, Gaia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marras, Roberto [Unicalce S.p.A., R and D Department, Via Tonio da Belledo 30, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Rigamonti, Lucia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Golodenko


    Full Text Available On an example of industrial production of baking yeast the way of automatic control of process of cultivation of microorganisms is stated. The way provides management of aeration of a biomass on the set speed of change of its concentration and temperatures in view of speed of change of concentration of oxygen in the fulfilled gases.

  7. Room temperature formation of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases at crystalline complex oxide interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Bovet, N.; Kasama, Takeshi


    Well-controlled sub-unit-cell layer-bylayer epitaxial growth of spinel alumina is achieved at room temperature on a TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 single-crystalline substrate. By tailoring the interface redox reaction, 2D electron gases with mobilities exceeding 3000 cm 2 V−1 s−1 are achieved at this no...

  8. Effect of particulate matter, atmospheric gases, temperature, and humidity on respiratory and circulatory diseases’ trends in Lisbon, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T.


    This study addresses the significant effects of both well-known contaminants (particles, gases) and less-studied variables (temperature, humidity) on serious, if relatively common, respiratory and circulatory diseases. The area of study is Lisbon, Portugal, and time series of health outcome (daily

  9. Critical Temperature Differences of a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Prime Mover with Various Helium-Based Binary Mixture Working Gases (United States)

    Setiawan, Ikhsan; Nohtomi, Makoto; Katsuta, Masafumi


    Thermoacoustic prime movers are energy conversion devices which convert thermal energy into acoustic work. The devices are environmentally friendly because they do not produce any exhaust gases. In addition, they can utilize clean energy such as solar-thermal energy or waste heat from internal combustion engines as the heat sources. The output mechanical work of thermoacoustic prime movers are usually used to drive a thermoacoustic refrigerator or to generate electricity. A thermoacoustic prime mover with low critical temperature difference is desired when we intend to utilize low quality of heat sources such as waste heat and sun light. The critical temperature difference can be significantly influenced by the kinds of working gases inside the resonator and stack's channels of the device. Generally, helium gas is preferred as the working gas due to its high sound speed which together with high mean pressure will yield high acoustic power per unit volume of the device. Moreover, adding a small amount of a heavy gas to helium gas may improve the efficiency of thermoacoustic devices. This paper presents numerical study and estimation of the critical temperature differences of a standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover with various helium-based binary-mixture working gases. It is found that mixing helium (He) gas with other common gases, namely argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), at appropriate pressures and molar compositions, reduce the critical temperature differences to lower than those of the individual components of the gas mixtures. In addition, the optimum mole fractions of Hegas which give the minimum critical temperature differences are shifted to larger values as the pressure increases, and tends to be constant at around 0.7 when the pressure increases more than 2 MPa. However, the minimum critical temperature differences slightly increase as the pressure increases to higher than 1.5 MPa. Furthermore, we found that the lowest

  10. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? 60.1325 Section 60.1325 Protection of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? (United States)


    ... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? 60.1815 Section 60.1815 Protection of...

  12. Effect of pretreatment temperature on catalytic performance of the catalysts derived from cobalt carbonyl cluster in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byambasuren O


    Full Text Available The monometallic cobalt-based catalysts were prepared by pretreating the catalysts derived from carbonyl cluster precursor (CO6Co2CC(COOH2 supported on γ-Al2O3 with hydrogen at 180, 220, and 260°C respectively. The temperature effect of the pretreatments on the structure evolution of cluster precursors and the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T synthesis was investigated. The pretreated catalyst at 220°C with unique phase structure exhibited best catalytic activity and selectivity among three pretreated catalysts. Moreover, the catalysts exhibited high dispersion due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the cluster precursor and γ-Al2O3 support.

  13. The effect of pressure and temperature pretreatment on the biogas output from algal biomass. (United States)

    Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Grala, Anna; Dudek, Magda; Kupczyk, Karolina; Rokicka, Magdalena


    This paper presents data on methane fermentation of algal biomass containing Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. The biomass was obtained from closed-culture photobioreactors. Before the process, the algae were subjected to low temperature and pressure pretreatment for 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 h. The prepared biomass was subjected to mesophilic methane fermentation. The amount and composition of the biogas formed in the process were determined. The amount of biogas produced was larger when the biomass was subjected to thermal preprocessing. The proportion of methane in the gas also increased. Extending the heating time beyond 1.0 h did not significantly improve the biogassing effects.

  14. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia


    BACKGROUND: Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage...... of the produced organic acids. RESULTS: Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.......5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly...

  15. Studies on the Gases Emission under High Temperature Condition from Moulding Sands Bonded by Modified Starch CMS-Na

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarska K.


    Full Text Available Emission of gases under high temperature after pouring molten metal into moulds, which contain the organic binder or other additives (solvents or curing agent, may be an important factor influencing both on the quality of the produced castings, and on the state of environment. Therefore, a comprehensive study of the emitted gases would allow to determine restrictions on the use of the moulding sands in foundry technologies, eg. the probability of occurrence of casting defects, and identify the gaseous pollutants emitted to the environment. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the amount of gases that are released at high temperatures from moulding sands bonded by biopolymer binder and the quantitative assessment of the emitted pollutants with particular emphasis on chemical compounds: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX. The water-soluble modified potato starch as a sodium carboxymethyl starch with low (CMS-NaL or high (CMS-NaH degree of substitution was a binder in the tested moulding sands. A tests of gases emission level were conducted per the procedure developed at the Faculty of Foundry Engineering (AGH University of Science and Technology involving gas chromatography method (GC. The obtained results of the determination of amount of BTEX compounds generated during the decomposition process of starch binders showed lower emission of aromatic hydrocarbons in comparison with binder based on resin Kaltharz U404 with the acidic curing agent commonly used in the foundries.

  16. Dentin pretreatment and adhesive temperature as affecting factors on bond strength of a universal adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gabrielle da Silva Sutil

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the effects of dentin pretreatment and temperature on the bond strength of a universal adhesive system to dentin. Material and Methods: Ninety-six extracted non-carious human third molars were randomly divided into 12 groups (n=8 according to Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SbU applied in self-etch (SE and etch-and-rinse (ER mode, adhesive temperature (20°C or 37°C and sodium bicarbonate or aluminum oxide air abrasion. After composite build up, bonded sticks with cross-sectional area of 1 mm2 were obtained to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS. The specimens were tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min on a testing machine until failure. Fractured specimens were analyzed under stereomicroscope to determine the failure patterns in adhesive, cohesive (dentin or resin and mixed fractures. The microtensile bond strength data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%. Results: Interaction between treatment and temperature was statistically significant for SbU applied in self-etch technique. Both dentin treatments showed higher bond strength for ER mode, regardless of adhesive temperature. When compared to control group, sodium bicarbonate increased bond strength of SbU in SE technique. Adhesive temperature did not significantly affect the μTBS of tested groups. Predominantly, adhesive failure was observed for all groups. Conclusions: Dentin surface treatment with sodium bicarbonate air abrasion improves bond strength of SbU, irrespective of adhesive application mode, which makes this approach an alternative to increase adhesive performance of Scotchbond Universal Adhesive to dentin.

  17. Low-temperature thermal pre-treatment of municipal wastewater sludge: Process optimization and effects on solubilization and anaerobic degradation. (United States)

    Nazari, Laleh; Yuan, Zhongshun; Santoro, Domenico; Sarathy, Siva; Ho, Dang; Batstone, Damien; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Ray, Madhumita B


    The present study examines the relationship between the degree of solubilization and biodegradability of wastewater sludge in anaerobic digestion as a result of low-temperature thermal pre-treatment. The main effect of thermal pre-treatment is the disintegration of cell membranes and thus solubilization of organic compounds. There is an established correlation between chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization and temperature of thermal pre-treatment, but results of thermal pre-treatment in terms of biodegradability are not well understood. Aiming to determine the impact of low temperature treatments on biogas production, the thermal pre-treatment process was first optimized based on an experimental design study on waste activated sludge in batch mode. The optimum temperature, reaction time and pH of the process were determined to be 80 °C, 5 h and pH 10, respectively. All three factors had a strong individual effect (p effect for temp. pH 2 (p = 0.002). Thermal pre-treatments, carried out on seven different municipal wastewater sludges at the above optimum operating conditions, produced increased COD solubilization of 18.3 ± 7.5% and VSS reduction of 27.7 ± 12.3% compared to the untreated sludges. The solubilization of proteins was significantly higher than carbohydrates. Methane produced in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests, indicated initial higher rates (p = 0.0013) for the thermally treated samples (k hyd up to 5 times higher), although the ultimate methane yields were not significantly affected by the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of temperature and moisture on dilute-acid steam explosion pretreatment of corn stover and cellulase enzyme digestibility. (United States)

    Tucker, Melvin P; Kim, Kyoung H; Newman, Mildred M; Nguyen, Quang A


    Corn stover is emerging as a viable feedstock for producing bioethanol from renewable resources. Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover can solubilize a significant portion of the hemicellulosic component and enhance the enzymatic digestibility of the remaining cellulose for fermentation into ethanol. In this study, dilute H2SO4 pretreatment of corn stover was performed in a steam explosion reactor at 160 degrees C, 180 degrees C, and 190 degrees C, approx 1 wt % H2SO4, and 70-s to 840-s residence times. The combined severity (Log10 [Ro] - pH), an expression relating pH, temperature, and residence time of pretreatment, ranged from 1.8 to 2.4. Soluble xylose yields varied from 63 to 77% of theoretical from pretreatments of corn stover at 160 and 180 degrees C. However, yields >90% of theoretical were found with dilute-acid pretreatments at 190 degrees C. A narrower range of higher combined severities was required for pretreatment to obtain high soluble xylose yields when the moisture content of the acidimpregnated feedstock was increased from 55 to 63 wt%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed solids from corn stover pretreated at 190 degrees C, using an enzyme loading of 15 filter paper units (FPU)/ g of cellulose, gave ethanol yields in excess of 85%. Similar SSF ethanol yields were found using washed solid residues from 160 and 180 degrees C pretreatments at similar combined severities but required a higher enzyme loading of approx 25 FPU/g of cellulose.

  19. Mechanical Stability of H3PO4-Doped PBI/Hydrophilic-Pretreated PTFE Membranes for High Temperature PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jaehyung; Wang, Liang; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PBI/PTFE membrane was prepared by porous PTFE with hydrophilic surface pretreatment. • The durability of the prepared PBI/PTFE membrane was compared with pure PBI, PBI with untreated PTFE, and PBI-Nafion with untreated PTFE membranes. • Accelerated durability tests and SEM showed improved durability based the PBI/PTFE membrane with pretreated PTFE. - Abstract: A novel polybenzimidazole (PBI)/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) composite membrane doped with phosphoric acid was fabricated for high temperature operation in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A hydrophilic surface pretreatment was applied to the porous PTFE matrix film to improve its interfacial adhesion to the PBI polymer, thereby avoiding the introduction of Nafion ionomer which is traditionally used as a coupling agent. The pretreated PTFE film was embedded within the composite membrane during solution-casting using 5wt% PBI/DMAc solution. The mechanical stability and durability of three types of MEAs assembled with PBI only, PBI with pretreated PTFE, and PBI-Nafion with untreated PTFE membranes were evaluated under an accelerated degradation testing protocol employing extreme temperature cycling. Degradation was characterized by recording polarization curves, hydrogen crossover, and proton resistance. Cross-sections of the membranes were examined before and after thermal cycling by scanning electron microscope. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified that the PBI is dispersed homogeneously in the porous PTFE matrix. Results show that the PBI composite membrane with pretreated PTFE has a lower degradation rate than the Nafion/PBI membrane with untreated PTFE. Thus, the hydrophilic pretreatment employed here greatly improved the mechanical stability of the composite membrane, which resulted in improved durability under an extreme thermal cycling regime

  20. Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases (United States)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M.


    Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (resistance of the alloy. In diesel and in normal petrol gases μ-sized MgSiN2 form in SiMo in cell boundaries where Mg segregates. This also occurs in Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

  1. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. Effect of pre-treatment at elevated temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.


    Anaerobic digestion is an appropriate technique for the treatment of sludge before final disposal and it is employed worldwide as the oldest and most important process for sludge stabilization. In general, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is more widely used compared to thermophilic...... digestion. Furthermore, thermal pre-treatment is suitable for the improvement of stabilization, enhancement of dewatering of the sludge, reduction of the numbers of pathogens and could be realized at relatively low cost especially at low temperatures. The present study investigates (a) the differences...... between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge and (b) the effect of the pretreatment at 70 degreesC on mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. The pretreatment step showed very positive effect on the methane potential and production rate upon...

  2. Pretreated Lignocellulosic Waste Mediated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Under Room Temperature (United States)

    Manjamadha, V. P.; Muthukumar, Karuppan


    The current work elucidates the utilization of biowaste as a valuable reducing agent for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. In this study, the wastewater generated during the alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes (APLW) was used as a bioreductant to reduce silver nitrate under room temperature. Synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved rapidly on addition of APLW into the silver nitrate solution (1mM). The morphological characterization of AgNPs was performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The micrograph clearly depicted the presence of spherical AgNPs. The presence of elemental silver along with biomoilties was determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) analysis. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study proved the crystalline form of stable AgNPs. The AgNPs exhibited excellent antibacterial performance against Gram negative organism. The immediate bioreduction of silver ions using APLW was well illustrated in the present study. Thus, APLW serve as an alternative source for reducing agents instead of utilizing valuable medicinal plants for nanoparticles synthesis.

  3. Equations for calculating hydrogeochemical reactions of minerals and gases such as CO2 at high pressures and temperatures (United States)

    Appelo, C.A.J.; Parkhurst, David L.; Post, V.E.A.


    Calculating the solubility of gases and minerals at the high pressures of carbon capture and storage in geological reservoirs requires an accurate description of the molar volumes of aqueous species and the fugacity coefficients of gases. Existing methods for calculating the molar volumes of aqueous species are limited to a specific concentration matrix (often seawater), have been fit for a limited temperature (below 60 °C) or pressure range, apply only at infinite dilution, or are defined for salts instead of individual ions. A more general and reliable calculation of apparent molar volumes of single ions is presented, based on a modified Redlich–Rosenfeld equation. The modifications consist of (1) using the Born equation to calculate the temperature dependence of the intrinsic volumes, following Helgeson–Kirkham–Flowers (HKF), but with Bradley and Pitzer’s expression for the dielectric permittivity of water, (2) using the pressure dependence of the extended Debye–Hückel equation to constrain the limiting slope of the molar volume with ionic strength, and (3) adopting the convention that the proton has zero volume at all ionic strengths, temperatures and pressures. The modifications substantially reduce the number of fitting parameters, while maintaining or even extending the range of temperature and pressure over which molar volumes can be accurately estimated. The coefficients in the HKF-modified-Redlich–Rosenfeld equation were fitted by least-squares on measured solution densities.The limiting volume and attraction factor in the Van der Waals equation of state can be estimated with the Peng–Robinson approach from the critical temperature, pressure, and acentric factor of a gas. The Van der Waals equation can then be used to determine the fugacity coefficients for pure gases and gases in a mixture, and the solubility of the gas can be calculated from the fugacity, the molar volume in aqueous solution, and the equilibrium constant. The

  4. Equations for calculating hydrogeochemical reactions of minerals and gases such as CO2 at high pressures and temperatures (United States)

    Appelo, C. A. J.; Parkhurst, D. L.; Post, V. E. A.


    Calculating the solubility of gases and minerals at the high pressures of carbon capture and storage in geological reservoirs requires an accurate description of the molar volumes of aqueous species and the fugacity coefficients of gases. Existing methods for calculating the molar volumes of aqueous species are limited to a specific concentration matrix (often seawater), have been fit for a limited temperature (below 60 °C) or pressure range, apply only at infinite dilution, or are defined for salts instead of individual ions. A more general and reliable calculation of apparent molar volumes of single ions is presented, based on a modified Redlich-Rosenfeld equation. The modifications consist of (1) using the Born equation to calculate the temperature dependence of the intrinsic volumes, following Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF), but with Bradley and Pitzer’s expression for the dielectric permittivity of water, (2) using the pressure dependence of the extended Debye-Hückel equation to constrain the limiting slope of the molar volume with ionic strength, and (3) adopting the convention that the proton has zero volume at all ionic strengths, temperatures and pressures. The modifications substantially reduce the number of fitting parameters, while maintaining or even extending the range of temperature and pressure over which molar volumes can be accurately estimated. The coefficients in the HKF-modified-Redlich-Rosenfeld equation were fitted by least-squares on measured solution densities. The limiting volume and attraction factor in the Van der Waals equation of state can be estimated with the Peng-Robinson approach from the critical temperature, pressure, and acentric factor of a gas. The Van der Waals equation can then be used to determine the fugacity coefficients for pure gases and gases in a mixture, and the solubility of the gas can be calculated from the fugacity, the molar volume in aqueous solution, and the equilibrium constant. The coefficients for the

  5. Investigation of Regularities of Heat and Mass Transfer and Phase Transitions during Water Droplets Motion through High-Temperature Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman S. Volkov


    Full Text Available The macroscopic regularities of heat and mass transfer and phase transitions during water droplets motion through high-temperature (more than 1000 K gases have been investigated numerically and experimentally. Water droplet evaporation rates have been established. Gas and water vapors concentrations and also temperature values of gas-vapor mixture in small neighborhood and water droplet trace have been singled out. Possible mechanisms of droplet coagulation in high-temperature gas area have been determined. Experiments have been carried out with the optical methods of two-phase gas-vapor-droplet mixtures diagnostics (“Particle Image Velocimetry” and “Interferometric Particle Imaging” usage to assess the adequateness of developed heat and mass transfer models and the results of numerical investigations. The good agreement of numerical and experimental investigation results due to integral characteristics of water droplet evaporation has been received.

  6. Transition duct system with arcuate ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.


    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include an arcuate connecting segment (36). An arcuate ceramic liner (60) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the arcuate connecting segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  7. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? (United States)


    ....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device. ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of...

  8. Seed germination of three provenances of arbutus Andrachne L. in response to different pretreatments, temperature and light


    Tilki, Fahrettin; Güner, Sinan


    Seeds of Arbutus andrachne possess a physiological dormancy that prevents synchronized and rapid germina­ tion. The seeds were subjected to different pretreatments involving hot water, concentrated sulphuric acid, gibberellic acid and cold-moist stratification to break the dormancy. To determine the effects of temperature and light on seed germination they were treated with gibberellic acid and incubated at 20 and 24°C in light or dark. Gennination ability of seeds from different sources was ...

  9. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants. (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario


    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-color laser absorption near 5 μm for temperature and nitric oxide sensing in high-temperature gases (United States)

    Almodovar, Christopher A.; Spearrin, R. Mitchell; Hanson, Ronald K.


    An infrared laser-absorption technique for in situ temperature and nitric oxide species sensing in high-temperature gases is presented. A pair of quantum cascade lasers in the mid-infrared near 5 μm were utilized to probe rovibrational transitions in nitric oxide's fundamental band. The line parameters of the selected transitions, including line strengths and collision broadening coefficients of nitric oxide with argon and nitrogen, were evaluated during controlled room-temperature static cell experiments and high-temperature shock tube experiments at temperatures between 1000 and 3000 K, and pressures between 1 and 5 atm. These studies provided new insights into the temperature dependence of nitric oxide collision broadening, highlighting the inadequacies of the power law over a broad temperature range. With an accurate spectroscopic model over a broad temperature range, the quantitative two-color temperature sensing strategy was demonstrated in non-reactive shock tube experiments from 1000 to 3000 K to validate thermometry and during a nitric oxide formation experiment near 1700 K and 4 atm to highlight capability for temporally-resolved species measurements at MHz rates. The technique has applicability for sensing in a broad range of flow fields that involve high-temperature air.

  11. Evaluation of the correlation between concentration of volatile organic compounds and temperature of the exhaust gases in motor vehicles (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Wróbel, Radosław; Andrych-Zalewska, Monika


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the group of organic compounds which are one of the most important air pollutants. One of the main sources of VOCs are combustion processes including fuel combustion is internal combustion engines. Volatile organic compounds are very dangerous pollution, because even in very low concentrations they have significant harmful effect on human health. A lot of that compounds are mutagenic and carcinogenic, in addition they could cause asthma, intoxication or allergy. The measurements of VOCs are quite problematic, because it is required using the specialist analytical apparatus, ex. chromatograph. However, not always it is need to measure the content of that compounds in engine exhaust with high precision and sometimes it is enough only to estimate the level of the concentration. Emission of the VOCs mainly depends on the combustion process in the engine and this determines the temperature of the exhaust gases. In this paper authors tried to determine if the correlation between temperature of exhaust gases and VOCs' concentration exist and is able to determine.

  12. Stabilization of Pb(II) accumulated in biomass through phosphate-pretreated pyrolysis at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Saijun; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianfa, E-mail:; Shi, Lingna; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Lü, Jinhong; Li, Yimin


    Highlights: • Phosphate-pretreated pyrolysis can stabilize Pb(II) accumulated in biomass. • More than 95% of Pb(II) in celery and wood biomass was stabilized. • Pb from biomass was almost totally retained in char. • Most Pb was transformed into phosphates according to XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. - Abstract: The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water using plant biomass is considered to be a green technological approach, although the harmless disposal of biomass accumulated with heavy metals remains a challenge. A potential solution to this problem explored in this work involves combining phosphate pretreatment with pyrolysis. Pb(II) was accumulated in celery biomass with superior sorption capacity and also in ordinary wood biomass through biosorption. The Pb(II)-impregnated biomass was then pretreated with phosphoric acid or calcium dihydrogen phosphate (CaP) and pyrolyzed at 350 or 450 °C. Pb(II) from biomass was in turn almost totally retained in chars, and the percentage of DTPA-extractable Pb(II) was reduced to less than 5% of total Pb(II) in chars through CaP pretreatment. Pb(II) stabilization was further confirmed through a sequential extraction test, which showed that more than 95% of Pb(II) was converted into stable species composed mainly of lead phosphates according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analyses. Overall, phosphate-pretreated pyrolysis can stabilize both Pb(II) and degradable biomass, so as to control efficiently the hazards of heavy metal-contaminated biomass.

  13. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.


    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  14. Paleotemperatures derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater and in relation to soil temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stute, M.; Sonntag, C.


    Measurements of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe dissolved in groundwater at two sites (Bocholt, Germany, and the Great Hungarian Plain) were taken to prove the reliability of noble gas temperatures as indicators of paleotemperatures. Noble gas temperatures of groundwater of Holocene age were found to reflect the annual mean soil temperature in the recharge are with an accuracy close to the precision of measurement (1σ approx. ±0.5 deg. C). Noble gas temperature data demonstrate the influence of vegetation cover on the soil temperature in the infiltration area. Groundwater formed in forests at the Bocholt site shows noble gas temperatures that are 2.2 deg. C lower than the groundwater formed in fields or meadows. The temperature data obtained from groundwater of the Great Hungarian Plain for the last glaciation are ≥ 8.6 deg. C lower than data from recent groundwater for maximum glaciation (approx. 18,000 years ago) and 4.7 ± 1 deg. C lower for the preceding interstadial (approx. 28,000-35,000 years ago). These data permit independent reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Collisional broadening of depolarized spectral lines of hydrogen gases at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, K.D. van den.


    Experimental results are presented for the collisional broadening and shift of H 2 , D 2 and HD rotational Raman and depolarized Rayleigh lines at various temperatures between 25 K and 300 K. These are then discussed within the context of current theoretical concepts. For a few temperatures the line broadening cross sections are also reported as a function of the ortho-para composition for H 2 and D 2 . (C.F.)

  16. Slave-particle approach to the finite-temperature properties of ultracold Bose gases in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiancong; Yu Yue; Li Jinbin


    By using slave particle (slave boson and slave fermion) techniques on the Bose-Hubbard model, we study the finite temperature properties of ultracold Bose gases in optical lattices. The phase diagrams at finite temperature are depicted by including different types of slave particles and the effect of the finite types of slave particles is estimated. The superfluid density is evaluated using the Landau second order phase transition theory. The atom density, excitation spectrum, and dispersion curve are also computed at various temperatures, and how the Mott-insulator evolves as the temperature increases is demonstrated. For most quantities to be calculated, we find that there are no qualitative differences in using the slave boson or the slave fermion approaches. However, when studying the stability of the mean field state, we find that in contrast to the slave fermion approach, the slave boson mean field state is not stable. Although the slave boson mean field theory gives a qualitatively correct phase boundary, it corresponds to a local maximum of Landau free energy and cannot describe the second order phase transition because the coefficient a 4 of the fourth order term is always negative in the free energy expansion

  17. Transition duct system with metal liners for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.


    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include a straight path segment (26) and an arcuate connecting segment (36). A respective straight metal liner (92) and an arcuate metal liner (94) may be each inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the straight path segment and the arcuate connecting segment (36) of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the respective liners in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liners can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  18. Transition duct system with straight ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.


    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include a straight path segment (26) for receiving a gas flow from a respective combustor. A straight ceramic liner (40) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the straight path segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  19. Temperature and burning history affect emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosol particles from tropical peatland fire (United States)

    Kuwata, Mikinori; Kai, Fuu Ming; Yang, Liudongqing; Itoh, Masayuki; Gunawan, Haris; Harvey, Charles F.


    Tropical peatland burning in Asia has been intensifying over the last decades, emitting huge amounts of gas species and aerosol particles. Both laboratory and field studies have been conducted to investigate emission from peat burning, yet a significant variability in data still exists. We conducted a series of experiments to characterize the gas and particulate matter emitted during burning of a peat sample from Sumatra in Indonesia. Heating temperature of peat was found to regulate the ratio of CH4 to CO2 in emissions (ΔCH4/ΔCO2) as well as the chemical composition of particulate matter. The ΔCH4/ΔCO2 ratio was larger for higher temperatures, meaning that CH4 emission is more pronounced at these conditions. Mass spectrometric analysis of organic components indicated that aerosol particles emitted at higher temperatures had more unsaturated bonds and ring structures than that emitted from cooler fires. The result was consistently confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. In addition, CH4 emitted by burning charcoal, which is derived from previously burned peat, was lower by at least an order of magnitude than that from fresh peat. These results highlight the importance of both fire history and heating temperature for the composition of tropical peat-fire emissions. They suggest that remote sensing technologies that map fire histories and temperatures could provide improved estimates of emissions.

  20. Method and system to measure temperature of gases using coherent anti-stokes doppler spectroscopy (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark


    A method of measuring a temperature of a noble gas in a chamber includes providing the noble gas in the chamber. The noble gas is characterized by a pressure and a temperature. The method also includes directing a first laser beam into the chamber and directing a second laser beam into the chamber. The first laser beam is characterized by a first frequency and the second laser beam is characterized by a second frequency. The method further includes converting at least a portion of the first laser beam and the second laser beam into a coherent anti-Stokes beam, measuring a Doppler broadening of the coherent anti-Stokes beam, and computing the temperature using the Doppler broadening.

  1. ANS-5.4 fission gas release model. I. Noble gases at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, L.D.


    A correlation to describe the release of volatile radioactive fission products has been developed by the ANS Working Group (ANS 5.4) on Fuel Plenum Activity. The model for release at higher temperatures is identical in form to conventional diffusion equations, but the effective diffusion coefficient incorporates an explicit dependence upon exposure. Because applicable radioactive release data is limited, parameters in the model were determined from stable fission measurements, and calculated or measured fuel temperatures. Although the model predicts high release, particularly at higher exposures, values for many cases of interest are considerably less than the 100% assumed in some accident analyses: providing potential for removal of unnecessary conservations

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases at elevated temperatures for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    measurements have to be done in a very aggressive and unstable in time hot gas environment which is realized, for example, in boilers, gasifires and engines. An optically based technique is beneficial because it is non-intrusive, accurate, fast and can be performed in situ for various extremely hard conditions...... to combustion (e.g. CO2, H2O, SO2, SO3 and NH3) are presented and discussed. The measurements have been performed in several high-temperature gas cells available at DTU Chemical Engineering with use of two high-resolution FTIR spectrometers. Two examples of successful industrial and academic partnerships......In situ simultaneous fast measurements of gas temperature and gas composition are of great interest in combustion/gasification research and power plant engineering and give useful information about conditions, chemical reactions and gas mixing in various industrial processes. Usually gas...

  3. The reactions of magnesium and its alloys with moist gases at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.


    The kinetics and mechanisms of the reaction of pure or low alloyed magnesium with various gas saturated by water vapor: oxygen, argon, nitrogen, air, carbon dioxide, have been studied and compared in the temperature range 350-600 deg C. After picturing the large chemical reactivity of magnesium surface, the more or less properties of the oxide film, always made of magnesia, have been shown depending on the nature of the gas carrying water vapor; in fact, metal sublimation occurs the more easily as the surrounding atmosphere is less oxidizing. Moreover, an activation energy change is systematic, but at a temperature which depends also on the latter. In the case of the alloys, the linear oxidation rate is generally obtained only after short induction periods, parabolic in nature. Two possibilities of corrosion inhibition of magnesium by water vapor are then demonstrated and explained: either by a partial superficial fluoridation, or when the carrier gas is carbon dioxide. Also, the extreme conditions of oxidation were studied, that is the ignition processes that occur at a particular temperature in every gas mixture. Finally, it is tried to evolve the fundamental and practical significance of all the results. (author) [fr

  4. Applications of low temperature CO-oxidation catalysts to breathable gases (United States)

    Noordally, Ehsan; Richmond, John R.


    Modifications of tin oxide/precious metal catalysts described for use in CO2 lasers have also been developed for use in other applications; namely, as low temperature CO oxidation components in fire escape hoods/masks for mines, aircrafts, hotels, and offices and in sealed environments, such as hyperbaric chambers and submarines. Tin oxide/precious metal catalysts have been prepared on a variety of high surface area cloth substrates for application in fire escape hoods. These show high and stable CO oxidation capability (10 to the 4th power ppm CO reduced to 10 to the 1st power ppm CO) at GHSV of 37,000 h(-1) with water saturated inlet gas at body heat (37 C) and below. Water vapor plays an important role in the surface state/performance of tin oxide catalyst. Water-resistant formulations have been produced by the introduction of transition metal promoters. Tin oxide/precious metal catalysts have also been developed for CO oxidation in the North Sea diving environment. These are currently in use in a variety of hyperbaric chambers and diving vehicles. Ambient temperature operation and resistance to atmospheric water vapor have been demonstrated, and as a result, they offer a viable alternative to hopcalite or heated catalyst systems. A new range of non-tin oxide based low temperature CO oxidation catalysts is described. They are based on reducible metal oxides promoted with previous metals. Preliminary data on selected materials in the form of both cloth artifacts and shaped pellets are presented. They are expected to be applicable both to the breathable gas application area and to CO2 lasers.

  5. Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A.; Gupta, R.; Sheluker, S.D.; Ayala, R.


    The goal of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppm in coal gas streams at temperatures in the 480 degree C to 750 degree C range and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations (fixed-, moving-, and fluidized-bed reactors), obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

  6. Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A. [and others


    The objective of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppmv in coal gas streams at temperatures in the range 400{degrees} to 750{degrees}C and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

  7. High-temperature expansion for nonequilibrium steady states in driven lattice gases. (United States)

    Lefevere, Raphael; Tasaki, Hal


    We develop a controlled high-temperature expansion for nonequilibrium steady states of the driven lattice gas, the "Ising model" for nonequilibrium physics. We represent the steady state as P(eta) alpha e(-betaH(eta)-psi(eta)) and evaluate the lowest order contribution to the nonequilibrium effective interaction psi(eta). We see that, in dimensions d > or = 2, all models with nonsingular transition rates yield the same summable psi(eta), suggesting the possibility of describing the state as a Gibbs state similar to equilibrium. The models with the Metropolis rule show exceptional behavior.

  8. Dating base flow in streams using dissolved gases and diurnal temperature changes (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Haase, Karl B.


    A method is presented for using dissolved CFCs or SF6 to estimate the apparent age of stream base flow by indirectly estimating the mean concentration of the tracer in the inflowing groundwater. The mean value is estimated simultaneously with the mean residence times of the gas and water in the stream by sampling the stream for one or both age tracers, along with dissolved nitrogen and argon at a single location over a period of approximately 12–14 h. The data are fitted to an equation representing the temporal in-stream gas exchange as it responds to the diurnal temperature fluctuation. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by collecting and analyzing samples at six different stream locations across parts of northern Virginia, USA. The studied streams drain watersheds with areas of between 2 and 122 km2 during periods when the diurnal stream temperature ranged between 2 and 5°C. The method has the advantage of estimating the mean groundwater residence time of discharge from the watershed to the stream without the need for the collection of groundwater infiltrating to streambeds or local groundwater sampled from shallow observation wells near the stream.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta


    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at

  10. A method to modify PVDF microfiltration membrane via ATRP with low-temperature plasma pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yu [School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Ningbo University of Technology, Fenghua Road 201, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Song, Shuijun [School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Zhejiang University of Science Technology, Liuhe Road 318, Hangzhou, 310023 (China); Lu, Yin, E-mail: [School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Zhu, Dongfa [School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, Ningbo, 315211 (China)


    Highlights: • We report a simple method to modify hydrophobic PVDF modification membrane. • Surface modification of PVDF membrane via ATRP with plasma pre-treatment. • ATRP grafting of SBMA onto the PVDF membrane surface form PVDF-g-SBMA membrane. • PVDF-g-SBMA membrane shows superior antifouling properties and hydrophilic. - Abstract: The hydrophilic modification of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane via pretreatment with argon plasma and direct surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. Both modified and unmodified PVDF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and pore size distribution measurements. FTIR and XPS spectra confirmed that sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) had been grafted onto the membrane surface. The initial contact angle decreased from 87.0° to 29.8° and a water drop penetrated into the modified membrane completely in 8 s. The pore size distribution of the modified membrane exhibited a smaller mean value than that of the original membrane. The antifouling properties of the modified PVDF membrane were evaluated by a filtration test using bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The results showed that the initial flux of the modified membrane increased from 2140.1 L/m{sup 2} h to 2812.7 L/m{sup 2} h and the equilibrium flux of BSA solution increased from 31 L/m{sup 2} h to 53 L/m{sup 2} h.

  11. The oxidation of Type 310S stainless steel in mixed gases at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J.S. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cavin, O.B.; DeVan, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Sheet specimens of Type 310S stainless steel were exposed to air as well as to ``lean`` and ``rich`` sulfidizing atmospheres at temperatures near 900{degrees}C to determine the relationships that exist between the scale structure, the rate of reaction, and the stresses generated during exposure. One goal of this experimental research program was to examine how these factors might be related to the breakdown of protective scales in sulfidizing atmospheres. It was found that the scales formed in air and the ``lean`` atmosphere are protective and non-spalling while those formed in the ``rich`` atmosphere spall, initially react at rates 1000 times greater than counterparts in less aggressive atmospheres, and later exhibit a ``breakaway``-type rapid reaction. Only those scales formed in air provide the cooperative, tractive interfacial forces required to produce uniform dilatation and deformation of the substrate. However, evidence exists for at least localized stresses in all of the scales examined.

  12. The oxidation of Type 310S stainless steel in mixed gases at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J.S. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Cavin, O.B.; DeVan, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    Sheet specimens of Type 310S stainless steel were exposed to air as well as to lean'' and rich'' sulfidizing atmospheres at temperatures near 900{degrees}C to determine the relationships that exist between the scale structure, the rate of reaction, and the stresses generated during exposure. One goal of this experimental research program was to examine how these factors might be related to the breakdown of protective scales in sulfidizing atmospheres. It was found that the scales formed in air and the lean'' atmosphere are protective and non-spalling while those formed in the rich'' atmosphere spall, initially react at rates 1000 times greater than counterparts in less aggressive atmospheres, and later exhibit a breakaway''-type rapid reaction. Only those scales formed in air provide the cooperative, tractive interfacial forces required to produce uniform dilatation and deformation of the substrate. However, evidence exists for at least localized stresses in all of the scales examined.

  13. Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the United States: Quantifying the Responses to Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases (United States)

    Mascioli, N. R.; Fiore, A. M.; Previdi, M. J.; Correa, G. J. P.


    Climate model outputs usually have much coarser spatial resolution than is needed by impacts models. Although higher resolution can be achieved using regional climate models for dynamical downscaling, further downscaling is often required. The final resolution gap is often closed with a combination of spatial interpolation and bias correction, which constitutes a form of statistical downscaling. We use this technique to downscale regional climate model data and evaluate its skill in reproducing extreme events. We downscale output from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) dataset from its native 50-km spatial resolution to the 4-km resolution of University of Idaho's METDATA gridded surface meterological dataset, which derives from the PRISM and NLDAS-2 observational datasets. We operate on the major variables used in impacts analysis at a daily timescale: daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, humidity, pressure, solar radiation, and winds. To interpolate the data, we use the patch recovery method from the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) regridding package. We then bias correct the data using Kernel Density Distribution Mapping (KDDM), which has been shown to exhibit superior overall performance across multiple metrics. Finally, we evaluate the skill of this technique in reproducing extreme events by comparing raw and downscaled output with meterological station data in different bioclimatic regions according to the the skill scores defined by Perkins et al in 2013 for evaluation of AR4 climate models. We also investigate techniques for improving bias correction of values in the tails of the distributions. These techniques include binned kernel density estimation, logspline kernel density estimation, and transfer functions constructed by fitting the tails with a generalized pareto distribution.

  14. Effects of low-temperature pretreatment on enhancing properties of refuse-derived fuel via microwave irradiation. (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Han-Qing; Zhou, Yue-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Jian-Wen


    The present study focuses on pretreatment of enhancing the properties of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) via low-temperature microwave irradiation. These improved properties include lower chlorine content, a more porous surface structure and better combustion characteristics. In this study, low-temperature microwave irradiation was carried out in a modified microwave apparatus and the range of temperature was set to be 220-300℃. We found that the microwave absorbability of RDF was enhanced after being partly carbonized. Moreover, with the increasing of the final temperature, the organochlorine removal ratio was greatly increased to 80% and the content of chlorine was dramatically decreased to an extremely low level. It was also interesting to find that the chlorine of RDF was mainly released as HCl rather than organic chloride volatiles. The finding is just the same as the polyvinyl chloride pyrolysis process. In addition, pores and channels emerged during the modifying operation and the modified RDF has better combustibility and combustion stability than traditional RDF. This work revealed that low-temperature modification of RDF via microwave irradiation is significant for enhancing the quality of RDF and avoiding HCl erosion of equipment substantially.

  15. Mean ocean temperature change over the last glacial transition based on heavy noble gases in the atmosphere (United States)

    Bereiter, Bernhard; Severinghaus, Jeff; Shackleton, Sarah; Baggenstos, Daniel; Kawamura, Kenji


    On paleo-climatic timescales heavy noble gases (krypton and xenon) are conserved in the atmosphere-ocean system and are passively cycled through this system without interaction with any biogeochemical process. Due to the characteristic temperature dependency of the gas solubility factors in sea water, the atmospheric noble gas content is unambiguously linked to mean global ocean temperature (MOT). Here we use this proxy to reconstruct MOT over the course of the last glacial transition based on measurements of trapped air in the WAIS Divide ice core. We analyzed 78 ice samples with a recently developed method that yields the isotopic ratios of N2, Ar, Kr and the elemental ratios of Kr/N2, Xe/N2 and Xe/Kr in the trapped air with the required precision. Based on the isotopic ratios we correct the elemental ratios for the fractionation processes in the firn column to obtain the true atmospheric values. On the basis of a 4-box model that incorporates effects of sea-level change, different saturation states of the water and different temperature distributions in the global ocean, we infer MOT based on the three elemental ratio pairs and assess its uncertainty. On average, the uncertainty of our MOT record is +/- 0.27°C, which is a significant improvement to earlier studies that reached about +/- 1°C uncertainty. This allows an unprecedented assessment of the glacial-interglacial MOT difference, as well as a direct comparison between MOT and climate change for the first time. We find a LGM-Holocene difference of 2.6°C, which is on the lower end of what earlier studies have suggested (3 +/- 1°C) and provides a new constraint on ocean heat uptake over the last glacial transition. Furthermore, we find a very close relation between MOT and Antarctic temperatures which shows for the first time the effect of Atlantic overturning circulation changes on global ocean heat uptake. Finally, our record shows a MOT warming rate during the Younger Dryas that is almost double to

  16. Determination of Optimal Temperature for Biosorption of Heavy Metal Mixture from Aqueous Solution by Pretreated Biomass of Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Yousefi


    Full Text Available Biosorption is a novel technology that uses dead and inactive biomass for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Some parameters such as temperature, contact time, solution pH, initial metal concentration, biosorbent dose and also agitating speed of solution and biosorbent mixing can affect the amount of metal sorption by biosorbent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatments of temperatures (25, 35, 45 and 55oC on biosorption of metals mixture in order to determine optimal temperature for more metals removal from aqueous solution. This study uses dead and pretreated biomass of Aspergillus niger with 0.5N NaOH for removal of Zn(II, Co(II and Cd(II. In all temperature treatments and in the case of all of heavy metals, maximum amount of metal sorption and concentration decrease was occurred in first 5 minutes and achieved to equilibrium after 20 minute. The percent of metals sorption show growth trend with temperature increase. Between 4 experimental treatments, 55oC treatment was shown maximum sorption and 25oC was shown minimum sorption amount. The percent of Cr(II sorption was increase from 28.5% in 25oC to 44.7% in 55oC. Also, this increase was from 40% to 58% for Cd(II and from 37.7% to 65.6% for Zn(II. About 60% of increase in sorption by A. niger was due to increase in temperature. Therefore the amount of metals sorption can be increase, only with temperature increase and without any biomass addition.

  17. Kinetic theory of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter


    Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.

  18. Ambient temperature contamination of process piping and the effects of pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeleye, S.A.; White, D.A.; Taylor, J.B.


    The results are presented of a study of pretreatment methods as possible controls on the buildup (plateout) of cobalt and cesium activity on the inside surfaces of mild and stainless steel piping used to carry radioactive liquors. Coupon specimens of mild steel and Type 304L and 18/13/1 stainless steel piping are treated by contacting with acid and electroetching. Also, the effect on plateout of saturating steel coupons with inactive cobalt is investigated. In addition, the transient effects of pH, concentration changes, and liquid turbulence on untreated surface buildup are presented. Surface treatment is shown to delay activity buildup in certain instances bu does not affect the magnitude of overall surface activity. For untreated and treated surfaces, plateout is dependent on solution pH and isotope concentration. The higher the pH and the higher the concentration, the greater the deposition will be. The effects of turbulence cause only a marginal decrease in plateout at each pH level and concentration studied. The steel type has a major effect on the activity picked up. The mild steel specimen shows the greatest activity buildup

  19. Analysis regarding steam generator furnace's incident heat, temperature and composition of combustion gases; Analisis de calor incidente, temperatura y composicion de gases de combustion en hornos de generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Marin, Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    In order to obtain more precise evaluations of the combustion process in the furnace of a steam generator a suction pyrometer has been integrated to measure the temperature of the combustion gases; an ellipsoidal radiometer to measure the incident heat by thermal radiation in the water walls; a water cooled probe to determine the particle concentration, as well as a water cooled probe to determine the composition of the combustion gases present. This document clarifies the form of use of these instruments and their engineering specifications, simultaneously presenting an analysis that considers, unlike others, the internal conditions of the furnace to obtain a more precise evaluation of the efficiency that the combustion process presents and bases for the taking of preventive actions in specific zones of the furnace. Thus, the present work exhibits instruments and techniques of analysis to study the phenomena occurring within a steam generator. [Spanish] Con el fin de obtener evaluaciones mas precisas del proceso de combustion en el horno de un generador de vapor, se ha integrado un pirometro de succion para medir la temperatura de los gases de combustion; un radiometro elipsoidal para medir el calor incidente por radiacion termica en las paredes del agua; una sonda enfriada con agua para determinar la concentracion de particulas, asi como una sonda refrigerada con agua para determinar la composicion de los gases de combustion presentes. Este documento aclara la forma de uso de estos instrumentos y sus especificaciones tecnicas, a la vez que presenta un analisis que considera, a diferencia de otros, las condiciones internas del horno para obtener una evaluacion mas precisa sobre la eficiencia del proceso de combustion y bases para la toma de acciones preventivas en zonas especificas del horno. Asi, el presente trabajo exhibe instrumentos y tecnicas de analisis para estudiar los fenomenos que ocurren dentro de un generador de vapor.

  20. Effect of Support Pretreatment Temperature on the Performance of an Iron Fischer–Tropsch Catalyst Supported on Silica-Stabilized Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Keyvanloo


    Full Text Available The effect of support material pretreatment temperature, prior to adding the active phase and promoters, on Fischer–Tropsch activity and selectivity was explored. Four iron catalysts were prepared on silica-stabilized alumina (AlSi supports pretreated at 700 °C, 900 °C, 1100 °C or 1200 °C. Addition of 5% silica to alumina made the AlSi material hydrothermally stable, which enabled the unusually high support pretreatment temperatures (>900 °C to be studied. High-temperature dehydroxylation of the AlSi before impregnation greatly reduces FeO·Al2O3 surface spinel formation by removing most of the support-surface hydroxyl groups leading to more effectively carbided catalyst. The activity increases more than four-fold for the support calcined at elevated temperatures (1100–1200 °C compared with traditional support calcination temperatures of <900 °C. This unique pretreatment also facilitates the formation of ε′-Fe2.2C rather than χ-Fe2.5C on the AlSi support, which shows an excellent correlation with catalyst productivity.

  1. High temperature and low acid pretreatment and agarase treatment of agarose for the production of sugar and ethanol from red seaweed biomass. (United States)

    Kim, Hee Taek; Yun, Eun Ju; Wang, Damao; Chung, Jae Hyuk; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon


    To obtain fermentable sugar from agarose, pretreatment of agarose by using acetic acid was conducted for short durations (10-30 min) at low acid concentrations (1-5% (w/v)) and high temperatures (110-130 °C). On testing the pretreated agarose by using an endo-β-agarase I (DagA), an exo-β-agarase II (Aga50D), and neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH), we observed that the addition of the endo-type agarase did not increase the sugar yield. Use of the crude enzyme of Vibrio sp. EJY3 in combination with Aga50D and NABH including acetic acid pretreatment resulted in a 1.3-fold increase in the final reducing sugar yield (62.8% of theoretical maximum based on galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose in the initial agarose), compared to those obtained using Aga50D and NABH only after acetic acid pretreatment. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated agarose yielded ethanol of 37.1% theoretical maximum yield from galactose contained in the pretreated agarose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-temperature hydrothermal pretreatment followed by dry anaerobic digestion: A sustainable strategy for manure waste management regarding energy recovery and nutrients availability. (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ziwen; Yuan, Tian; Huang, Wenli; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya


    This study evaluated the feasibility of low-temperature hydrothermal (HT) pretreatment for improving dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure (SM) and nutrient elements reclamation, with specific goals to minimize the drawbacks of conventional HT process including high energy consumption, inhibitory compounds formation and unfavorable pH/alkalinity decrease. Pretreatment at 110-130°C for holding 30min increased the soluble organic carbon (SOC) concentration in SM by 13-26%. After being mixed with inocula, the pretreated SM was applied for dry AD tests successfully without initial pH adjustment, achieving a CH 4 yield of 280.18-328.93ml/g-VS fed (14-34% increase compared to that from raw SM). Energy assessment indicated a positive net gain of 0.95kJ/g-VS by adopting HT pretreatment at 130°C. Except for increment in CH 4 yield, low-temperature HT pretreatment also promoted organic-N mineralization, increasing N fractions in the digestate available for plants. After 70days' dry AD, a high ammonia-N to total nitrogen (TN) ratio of 71% was obtained for the SM sample pretreated at 130°C, in sharp contrast to that of 38% in raw SM. P bioavailability in the final digestate was not greatly affected by the HT pretreatment since the labile organics were mostly degraded after AD, in which P existing forms were influenced by the multivalent metals content in SM. Overall, 23-27% of the total P was potentially bioavailable in all digestates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A mathematical and numerical framework for the analysis of compressible thermal convection in gases at very high temperatures (United States)

    Lappa, Marcello


    The relevance of non-equilibrium phenomena, nonlinear behavior, gravitational effects and fluid compressibility in a wide range of problems related to high-temperature gas-dynamics, especially in thermal, mechanical and nuclear engineering, calls for a concerted approach using the tools of the kinetic theory of gases, statistical physics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics and mathematical modeling in synergy with advanced numerical strategies for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. The reason behind such a need is that in many instances of relevance in this field one witnesses a departure from canonical models and the resulting inadequacy of standard CFD approaches, especially those traditionally used to deal with thermal (buoyancy) convection problems. Starting from microscopic considerations and typical concepts of molecular dynamics, passing through the Boltzmann equation and its known solutions, we show how it is possible to remove past assumptions and elaborate an algorithm capable of targeting the broadest range of applications. Moving beyond the Boussinesq approximation, the Sutherland law and the principle of energy equipartition, the resulting method allows most of the fluid properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and diffusivity, etc.) to be derived in a rational and natural way while keeping empirical contamination to the minimum. Special attention is deserved as well to the well-known pressure issue. With the application of the socalled multiple pressure variables concept and a projection-like numerical approach, difficulties with such a term in the momentum equation are circumvented by allowing the hydrodynamic pressure to decouple from its thermodynamic counterpart. The final result is a flexible and modular framework that on the one hand is able to account for all the molecule (translational, rotational and vibrational) degrees of freedom and their effective excitation, and on the other hand can guarantee adequate

  4. Electronegative gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.


    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined

  5. Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB-digester. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje


    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB-digester system. A pilot scale UASB-digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate. Co-substrate was added in the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Soluble sewage COD removal efficiency increased from 6 to 23%, which was similar to its biological methane potential (BMP). Specific methanogenic activity of the UASB and of the digester sludge at 15°C tripled to a value respectively of 43 and 39 mg CH4-COD/(g VSS d). Methane production in the UASB reactor increased by more than 90% due to its doubled methanogenic capacity. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for pretreatment of low temperature municipal sewage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Wei


    A sensor for sensitive in situ measurements of carbon monoxide and temperature in combustion gases has been developed using absorption transitions in the (v′ = 1 ← v″ = 0) and (v′ = 2 ← v″ = 1) fundamental bands of CO. Recent availability of mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) lasers provides convenient access to the CO fundamental band near 4.7 μm, having approximately 104 and 102 times stronger absorption line-strengths compared to the overtone bands near 1.55 μm and 2.3 μm used previously to sense CO in combustion gases. Spectroscopic parameters of the selected transitions were determined via laboratory measurements in a shock tube over the 1100-2000 K range and also at room temperature. A single-laser absorption sensor was developed for accurate CO measurements in shock-heated gases by scanning the line pair v″ = 0, R(12) and v″ = 1, R(21) at 2.5 kHz. To capture the rapidly varying CO time-histories in chemical reactions, two different QC lasers were then used to probe the line-center absorbance of transitions v″ = 0, P(20) and v″ = 1, R(21) with a bandwidth of 1 MHz using fixed-wavelength direct absorption. The sensor was applied in successful shock tube measurements of temperature and CO time-histories during the pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl formate, illustrating the capability of this sensor for chemical kinetic studies. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Multidiffusion mechanisms for noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) in silicate glasses and melts in the transition temperature domain: Implications for glass polymerization (United States)

    Amalberti, Julien; Burnard, Pete; Laporte, Didier; Tissandier, Laurent; Neuville, Daniel R.


    Noble gases are ideal probes to study the structure of silicate glasses and melts as the modifications of the silicate network induced by the incorporation of noble gases are negligible. In addition, there are systematic variations in noble gas atomic radii and several noble gas isotopes with which the influence of the network itself on diffusion may be investigated. Noble gases are therefore ideally suited to constrain the time scales of magma degassing and cooling. In order to document noble gas diffusion behavior in silicate glass, we measured the diffusivities of three noble gases (4He, 20Ne and 40Ar) and the isotopic diffusivities of two Ar isotopes (36Ar and 40Ar) in two synthetic basaltic glasses (G1 and G2; 20Ne and 36Ar were only measured in sample G1). These new diffusion results are used to re-interpret time scales of the acquisition of fractionated atmospheric noble gas signatures in pumices. The noble gas bearing glasses were synthesized by exposing the liquids to high noble gas partial pressures at high temperature and pressure (1750-1770 K and 1.2 GPa) in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Diffusivities were measured by step heating the glasses between 423 and 1198 K and measuring the fraction of gas released at each temperature step by noble gas mass spectrometry. In addition we measured the viscosity of G1 between 996 and 1072 K in order to determine the precise glass transition temperature and to estimate network relaxation time scales. The results indicate that, to a first order, that the smaller the size of the diffusing atom, the greater its diffusivity at a given temperature: D(He) > D(Ne) > D(Ar) at constant T. Significantly, the diffusivities of the noble gases in the glasses investigated do not display simple Arrhenian behavior: there are well-defined departures from Arrhenian behavior which occur at lower temperatures for He than for Ne or Ar. We propose that the non-Arrhenian behavior of noble gases can be explained by structural modifications

  8. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper


    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution...... to global warming from human activities, nor to rule out a sizable contribution from that source....

  9. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper


    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution...

  10. Development of a low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed incinerator for controlling heavy-metal emission in flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tzu-Huan; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wey, Ming-Yen


    This study develops a low-temperature two-stage fluidized bed system for treating municipal solid waste. This new system can decrease the emission of heavy metals, has low construction costs, and can save energy owing to its lower operating temperature. To confirm the treatment efficiency of this system, the combustion efficiency and heavy-metal emission were determined. An artificial waste containing heavy metals (chromium, lead, and cadmium) was used in this study. The tested parameters included first-stage temperature and system gas velocity. Results obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer with a differential scanning calorimeter indicated that the first-stage temperature should be controlled to at least 400 °C. Although, a large amount of carbon monoxide was emitted after the first stage, it was efficiently consumed in the second. Loss of the ignition values of ash residues were between 0.005% and 0.166%, and they exhibited a negative correlation with temperature and gas velocity. Furthermore, the emission concentration of heavy metals in the two-stage system was lower than that of the traditional one-stage fluidized bed system. The heavy-metal emissions can be decreased by between 16% and 82% using the low-temperature operating process, silica sand adsorption, and the filtration of the secondary stage. -- Graphical abstract: Heavy-metal emission concentrations in flue gases under different temperatures and gas velocities (dashed line: average of the heavy-metal emission in flue gases in the one-stage fluidized-bed incinerator). Highlights: • Low temperature two-stage system is developed to control heavy metal. • The different first-stage temperatures affect the combustion efficiency. • Surplus CO was destroyed efficiently by the secondary fluidized bed combustor. • Metal emission in two-stage system is lower than in the traditional system. • Temperature, bed adsorption, and filtration are the main control mechanisms

  11. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva. (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky


    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  12. DGGE analysis of buffalo manure eubacteria for hydrogen production: effect of pH, temperature and pretreatments. (United States)

    Carillo, Petronia; Carotenuto, Claudia; Di Cristofaro, Filomena; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Lubritto, Carmine; Minale, Mario; Morrone, Biagio; Papa, Stefania; Woodrow, Pasqualina


    Buffalo dung is a low-cost substrate with plenty of carbohydrates, an optimal carbon/nitrogen ratio, and a rich microbial flora, and could become a valuable source of biogas. Therefore, in the present study we compared the type and amount of specific eubacteria to the different configurations of pH, temperature and thermal pretreatment after fermentation in batch reactors in order to understand the suitability of buffalo manure for hydrogen production. The phylogenetic structure of the microbial community in fermentation samples was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to generate fingerprints of 16S rRNA genes. The sequences analysis revealed abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and in particular of the order Clostridiales. Very active hydrogen producing bacteria belonging to Clostridium cellulosi species were identified demonstrating the suitability of this substrate to produce hydrogen. Moreover, a large fraction of 16S-rDNA amplicons could not be assigned to lower taxonomic ranks, demonstrating that numerous microorganisms involved in anaerobic fermentation in digesters or bioreactors are still unclassified or unknown.

  13. Analysis of the decomposition gases from {alpha} and {beta}-Cd(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} synthesized by temperature controlled mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, D., E-mail: [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399 Building 238, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Zatti, M.; Vegge, T. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399 Building 238, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature controlled metathesis reaction of LiBH{sub 4} with CdCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature controlled mechanical synthesis of alpha and beta Cd(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-quantitative analysis of the decomposition gases, 1:1 H{sub 2} + B{sub 2}H{sub 6}, released by Cd(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study on the controlled phase synthesis and thermal decomposition of Cd(BH{sub 2}){sub 4}, a material for solid state hydrogen storage obtained via the metathesis reaction of LiBH{sub 4} with CdCl{sub 2}. By adjusting the stochiometry of the reactants and controlling the mechanical milling vial temperature, we have isolated the tetragonal (P4{sub 2}mn) low temperature phase and the cubic (Pn3{sup Macron }m) high temperature phase of the cadmium borohydride. Cd(BH{sub 2}){sub 4} has a low thermodynamic stability and decomposes with fast kinetic at 348 K, when heated at 1 K min{sup -1} against a backpressure of 1 bar H{sub 2}. A semi-quantitative analysis reveals that the decomposition gases are composed of 1:1 H{sub 2} + B{sub 2}H{sub 6} and that only Cd remains as solid crystalline phase.

  14. Influence of pretreatment temperature cycling on the radiating defect formation in silicon doped by samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurakhmanov, K.P.; Nazyrov, D.E.


    Full text: The raise of thermal and radiation stability as it is known, is one of actual problems of physics semiconductors. Recently it is established, that the rare-earth elements (REE) raise a stability of silicon to exterior action. In this connection the investigation of silicon doped REE by samarium and influence on its properties of heat treatments and radiation exposure is important. In sectional operation the outcomes of investigations of influence of samarium on thermal (600 degree C are reduced; 600 deg. + 900 deg. C; 900 deg. C; 900 deg. C + 600 deg. C; 1100 deg. C; 600 deg. C + 900 deg. C + 1100 deg. C; 900 deg. C + 600 deg. C + 1100 deg. C) thermal defect formation and radiation defect formation (exposure of γ-quanta 60 Co) both in beforehand wrought, and in thermally unfinished samples. After each cycle of heat treatments samples cool fast (throwing off in oil) or slowly (together with the furnace). Doping n-silicon REE by gadolinium and samarium was carried out during cultivation. The concentration of gadolinium and samarium in silicon, on sectional of a neutron-activation analysis was equaled 10 14 - 10 18 cm -3 . As control is model monocrystal silicon such as KEP-15/50. Para-meters of deep levels originating in control and doped REE samples, both past heat treatment or temperature cycling, and irradiated by the γ-quanta are defined by methods of a capacity spectroscopy: DLTS and IRC. The obtained outcomes have shown, that in irradiated with the γ-quanta 60 Co deep levels samples are formed with energies: E C -0,17 eV, E C -0,32 eV, EC-0,41 eV. Thus the parameters of deep levels vary depending on requirements of prestress heat treatment. For example heat treatment at 600 deg. C essentially increments a velocity of introduction of and centre (deep level of E C -0,17 eV), in comparison with a velocity of introduction of this level in samples with prestress heat treatment at 900 deg. C. In samples n-Si doped by samarium effectiveness of formation

  15. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.


    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  16. Experimental study on the start-up with dry gases from normal cell temperatures in self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Im Mo; Jung, Aeri; Kim, Beom Jun; Baik, Kyung Don; Kim, Min Soo


    In this study, the start-up characteristics of PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) was investigated with dry gases from normal cell temperatures above 0 °C. Firstly, the effects of flow arrangements (co-flow and counter-flow) were evaluated at a starting cell temperature of 25 °C. Then, the start-up was successful in both arrangements, but it showed better performance with counter-flow. In addition, the hydrogen concentration was measured and it showed that hydrogen crossover contributes to the membrane hydration and the first phase of dry start-up. However, although the cell temperature rose above 45 °C after start-up form 25 °C with counter-flow arrangement, the restart-up after shut-down failed at a starting cell temperature of 45 °C regardless of flow arrangements. Considering the needs of restart-up, the available starting cell temperature should be improved. For this, after first sub-step of start-up process, relatively low flow rates were maintained to retain produced water without purge so that the membrane can be hydrated sufficiently. With this modified process, denominated as WSP (water storage process) in this study, the dry start-up became successful at a starting cell temperature of 45 °C and the cell performance was remarkably improved especially with counter-flow arrangement. - Highlights: • Start-up with dry gases from normal cell temperatures was investigated. • Counter-flow arrangement showed better performance over co-flow arrangement. • Water is produced by hydrogen crossover and its direct reaction with oxygen at cathode side. • It prevents the membrane dehydration and helps the start-up during the first phase of the process. • Available starting cell temperature and cell performance could be improved with WSP.

  17. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division


    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  18. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential. (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S


    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields. (United States)

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L


    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomass pretreatment (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P


    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  1. Simulation of ideal-gas flow by nitrogen and other selected gases at cryogenic temperatures. [transonic flow in cryogenic wind tunnels (United States)

    Hall, R. M.; Adcock, J. B.


    The real gas behavior of nitrogen, the gas normally used in transonic cryogenic tunnels, is reported for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion, normal shocks, boundary layers, and interactions between shock waves and boundary layers. The only difference in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas which may limit the minimum operating temperature of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels occur at total pressures approaching 9 atm and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature. These pressure differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Alternative cryogenic test gases were also analyzed. Differences between air and an ideal diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those for nitrogen and should present no difficulty. However, differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. It is concluded that helium and cryogenic hydrogen would not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal diatomic gas.

  2. Development of Nano-crystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hai [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Dong, Junhang [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lin, Jerry [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Romero, Van [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    This is a final technical report for the first project year from July 1, 2005 to Jan 31, 2012 for DoE/NETL funded project DE-FC26-05NT42439: Development of Nanocrystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases. This report summarizes the technical progresses and achievements towards the development of novel nanocrystalline doped ceramic material-enabled optical fiber sensors for in situ and real time monitoring the gas composition of flue or hot gas streams involved in fossil-fuel based power generation and hydrogen production.

  3. Anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment for phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge: Release of carbon source and phosphorus as well as hydrogen production potential. (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Yongmei


    Releases of organic compounds and phosphorus from phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge (PGS) and phosphorus-accumulating flocculent sludge (PFS) during low-temperature thermal pretreatment and anaerobic fermentation were investigated. Meanwhile, biogas production potential and microbial community structures were explored. The results indicate that much more soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and phosphorus were released from PGS than from PFS via low-temperature thermal pretreatment because of the higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in PGS and higher ratio of phosphorus reserved in EPS. Furthermore, PGS contains more anaerobes and dead cells, resulting in much higher SCOD and volatile fatty acids release from PGS than those from PFS during fermentation. PGS fermentation facilitated the n-butyric acid production, and PGS exhibited the hydrogen production potential during fermentation due to the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria. Therefore, anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment can facilitate the recovery of carbon and phosphorus as well as producing hydrogen from PGS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Greenhouse Gases (United States)

    ... Precip, and Drought Climate at a Glance Extremes Societal Impacts Snow and Ice Teleconnections GHCN Monthly Monitoring References Introduction Water Vapor CO 2 CH 4 Ozone N 2 O CFCs CO Additional Information Introduction What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds ...

  5. Irritant gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, J

    Acute inhalation injury can result from the use of household cleaning agents (e.g. chlorine, ammonia), industrial or combustion gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) or bioterrorism. The severity of the injury is to a great extent determined by the circumstances of exposure. If exposure was

  6. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kevin P. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100°C have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800°C. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700°C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest

  7. Lattice gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boghosian, B.M.


    In recent years an important class of cellular automata known as lattice gases have been successfully used to model a variety of physical systems, traditionally modeled by partial differential equations. The 2-D and 3-D Navier Stokes equations for single-phase and multiphase flow, Burgers' equation, and various types of diffusion equations are all examples. The first section of this chapter is meant to be a survey of the different ideas and techniques used in this simulations. In the second section, using lattice gases for the diffusion equation and for Burgers' equation as examples, the discrete Chapman-Enskog method is demonstrated. Beginning with rules governing particle motion on a lattice, the lattice Boltzmann equation is derived, and the Chapman-Enskog method is used to derive hydrodynamical equations for the conserved quantities. The approximations used at each step are discussed in detail. The intent is to provide an introduction to the Chapman-Enskog analysis for simple lattice gases in order to prepare the reader to better understand that for the (generally more complicated) models proposed for the simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Industrial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.; Jackson, D.; Coeyman, M.


    Industrial gas companies have fought hard to boost sales and hold margins in the tough economic climate, and investments are well down from their 1989-'91 peak. But 'our industry is still very strong long term' says Alain Joly, CEO of industry leader L'Air Liquide (AL). By 1994, if a European and Japanese recovery follows through on one in the U.S., 'we could see major [investment] commitments starting again,' he says. 'Noncryogenic production technology is lowering the cost of gas-making possible new applications, oxygen is getting plenty of attention in the environmental area, and hydrogen also fits into the environmental thrust,' says Bob Lovett, executive v.p./gases and equipment with Air Products ampersand Chemicals (AP). Through the 1990's, 'Industrial gases could grow even faster than in the past decade,' he says. Virtually a new generation of new gases applications should become reality by the mid-1990s, says John Campbell, of industry consultants J.R. Campbell ampersand Associates (Lexington, MA). Big new oxygen volumes will be required for powder coal injection in blast furnaces-boosting a steel mill's requirement as much as 40% and coal gasification/combined cycle (CGCC). Increased oil refinery hydroprocessing needs promise hydrogen requirements


    Bench-scale studies of mercury/sorbent reactions were conducted to understand mechanistic limitations of field-scale attempts to reduce emissions of mercury from combustion processes. The effects of temperature (60 - 140 degrees C), sulfur dioxide (SO2, 1000 ppm ), hydrogen chlor...

  10. Pretreatment of a primary and secondary sludge blend at different thermal hydrolysis temperatures: Impacts on anaerobic digestion, dewatering and filtrate characteristics. (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew J; Beightol, Steven; Mandahar, Ushma; Suzuki, Ryu; Xiao, Steven; Lu, Hung-Wei; Le, Trung; Mah, Joshua; Pathak, Bipin; DeClippeleir, Haydee; Novak, John T; Al-Omari, Ahmed; Murthy, Sudhir N


    A study was performed to evaluate the effect of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) temperature on subsequent digestion performance and operation, as well as downstream parameters such as dewatering and cake quality. A blend of primary and secondary solids from the Blue Plains treatment plant in Washington, DC was dewatered to about 16% total solids (TS), and thermally hydrolyzed at five different temperatures 130, 140, 150, 160, 170 °C. The thermally hydrolyzed solids were then fed to five separate, 10 L laboratory digesters using the same feed concentration, 10.5% TS and a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. The digesters were operated over a six month period to achieve steady state conditions. The higher thermal hydrolysis temperatures generally improved the solids reduction and methane yields by about 5-6% over the temperature range. The increased temperature reduced viscosity of the solids and increased the cake solids after dewatering. The dissolved organic nitrogen and UV absorbance generally increased at the higher THP temperatures. Overall, operating at a higher temperature improved performance with a tradeoff of higher dissolved organic nitrogen and UV adsorbing materials in the return liquor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of light, temperature and different pretreatments on seed germination of gentiana boissieri schott et kotschy ex boiss. (gentianaceae) and endemic to turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erken, S.


    This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the germination characteristics of Gentiana boissieri (Gentianaceae), an endemic species. The effects of light, temperature and different pretreatments on the germination of seeds collected from nature were investigated. Two different experiments were run to determine germination characteristics of seeds and the final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT) and germination index (GI). The first experiment involved twenty different treatments including soaking in water, soaking in gibberellic acid (GA3), dry stratification, moist cold stratification, moist warm stratification + moist cold stratification, moist cold stratification + soaking in GA3 and control. The germination test was carried out at +20 degree C in dark. The highest final germination percentages were obtained from the treatments of soaking in 500, 750, 1000 ppm GA3, soaking in 250, 500 ppm GA3 + 4 weeks of moist cold stratification (89.00; 95.00; 93.50; 91.33; 94.00%, respectively). In the control group with no pretreatment, the final germination percentage of seeds was found to be 13.50%. In the second experiment, seeds treated with 750 ppm GA3 pretreatment, providing highest germination rate in the first experiment, were germinated under dark and light conditions (12/12 h; dark/light) at 15, 20, 25 and 10/20 degree C. At the end of 28 days under four different temperatures, it was found that light significantly increased the final germination percentage and the highest final germination percentages were found at 15 and 20 degree C (87.00; 89.50%, respectively). (author)

  12. Abatement of phenolic mixtures by catalytic wet oxidation enhanced by Fenton's pretreatment: Effect of H2O2 dosage and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.; Yustos, P.; Rodriguez, S.; Simon, E.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.


    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) of a phenolic mixture containing phenol, o-cresol and p-cresol (500 mg/L on each pollutant) has been carried out using a commercial activated carbon (AC) as catalyst, placed in a continuous three-phase reactor. Total pressure was 16 bar and temperature was 127 deg. C. Pollutant conversion, mineralization, intermediate distribution, and toxicity were measured at the reactor outlet. Under these conditions no detoxification of the inlet effluent was found even at the highest catalyst weight (W) to liquid flow rate (Q L ) ratio used. On the other hand, some Fenton Runs (FR) have been carried out in a batch way using the same phenolic aqueous mixture previously cited. The concentration of Fe 2+ was set to 10 mg/L. The influence of the H 2 O 2 amount (between 10 and 100% of the stoichiometric dose) and temperature (30, 50, and 70 deg. C) on phenols conversion, mineralization, and detoxification have been analyzed. Phenols conversion was near unity at low hydrogen peroxide dosage but mineralization and detoxification achieved an asymptotic value at each temperature conditions. The integration of Fenton reagent as pretreatment of the CWO process remarkably improves the efficiency of the CWO reactor and allows to obtain detoxified effluents at mild temperature conditions and relatively low W/Q L values. For a given phenolic mixture a temperature range of 30-50 deg. C in the Fenton pretreatment with a H 2 O 2 dosage between 20 and 40% of the stoichiometric amount required can be proposed

  13. Design and Application of Variable Temperature Setup for Scanning Electron Microscopy in Gases and Liquids at Ambient Conditions. (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed S; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jianbo; Potyrailo, Radislav A; Kolmakov, Andrei


    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of nanoscale objects in dry and fully hydrated conditions at different temperatures is of critical importance in revealing details of their interactions with an ambient environment. Currently available WETSEM capsules are equipped with thin electron-transparent membranes and allow imaging of samples at atmospheric pressure, but do not provide temperature control over the sample. Here, we developed and tested a thermoelectric cooling/heating setup for WETSEM capsules to allow ambient pressure in situ SEM studies with a temperature range between -15 and 100°C in gaseous, liquid, and frozen conditions. The design of the setup also allows for correlation of the SEM with optical microscopy and spectroscopy. As a demonstration of the possibilities of the developed approach, we performed real-time in situ microscopy studies of water condensation on a surface of Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly wing scales. We observed that initial water nucleation takes place on top of the scale ridges. These results confirmed earlier discovery of a preexisting polarity gradient of the ridges of Morpho butterflies. Our developed thermoelectric cooling/heating setup for environmental capsules meets the diverse needs for in situ nanocharacterization in material science, catalysis, microelectronics, chemistry, and biology.

  14. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-Temperature Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eSun


    Full Text Available Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C and exogenous spermidine (Spd root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  15. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season. (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong


    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (G s) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved P N of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of G s to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  16. Shale gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courme, Bruno


    This Power Point presentation comments the evolution of the World population, GDP and energy demand, the evolution of the nuclear mix by 2030, the oil and gas reserves. Then, the author defines the different hydrocarbon classes (conventional gas and oil, heavy oil, oil shale), describes how natural gas is trapped in low permeability rocks, the specific production techniques (horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing), and recalls the well architecture. Then, he more precisely presents the various aspects of hydraulic fracturing, outlines and comments the challenges raised by this technique regarding industry ability and means and water quality and consumption. He comments the geographical distribution of gas resources, and the share of shale gases, the impact on climate, and the European shale gas production potential

  17. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  18. Application of C/C composites to the combustion chamber of rocket engines. Part 1: Heating tests of C/C composites with high temperature combustion gases (United States)

    Tadano, Makoto; Sato, Masahiro; Kuroda, Yukio; Kusaka, Kazuo; Ueda, Shuichi; Suemitsu, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kude, Yukinori


    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite (C/C composite) has various superior properties, such as high specific strength, specific modulus, and fracture strength at high temperatures of more than 1800 K. Therefore, C/C composite is expected to be useful for many structural applications, such as combustion chambers of rocket engines and nose-cones of space-planes, but C/C composite lacks oxidation resistivity in high temperature environments. To meet the lifespan requirement for thermal barrier coatings, a ceramic coating has been employed in the hot-gas side wall. However, the main drawback to the use of C/C composite is the tendency for delamination to occur between the coating layer on the hot-gas side and the base materials on the cooling side during repeated thermal heating loads. To improve the thermal properties of the thermal barrier coating, five different types of 30-mm diameter C/C composite specimens constructed with functionally gradient materials (FGM's) and a modified matrix coating layer were fabricated. In this test, these specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of the rocket engine using nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) / monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) to evaluate the properties of thermal and erosive resistance on the thermal barrier coating after the heating test. It was observed that modified matrix and coating with FGM's are effective in improving the thermal properties of C/C composite.

  19. New State of Matter: Heavy Fermion Systems, Quantum Spin Liquids, Quasicrystals, Cold Gases, and High-Temperature Superconductors (United States)

    Shaginyan, V. R.; Stephanovich, V. A.; Msezane, A. Z.; Schuck, P.; Clark, J. W.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Japaridze, G. S.; Popov, K. G.; Kirichenko, E. V.


    We report on a new state of matter manifested by strongly correlated Fermi systems including various heavy fermion (HF) metals, two-dimensional quantum liquids such as ^3He films, certain quasicrystals, and systems behaving as quantum spin liquids. Generically, these systems can be viewed as HF systems or HF compounds, in that they exhibit typical behavior of HF metals. At zero temperature, such systems can experience a so-called fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). Combining analytical considerations with arguments based entirely on experimental grounds, we argue and demonstrate that the class of HF systems is characterized by universal scaling behavior of their thermodynamic, transport, and relaxation properties. That is, the quantum physics of different HF compounds is found to be universal, emerging irrespective of the individual details of their symmetries, interactions, and microscopic structure. This observed universal behavior reveals the existence of a new state of matter manifest in HF compounds. We propose a simple, realistic model to study the appearance of flat bands in two-dimensional ensembles of ultracold fermionic atoms, interacting with coherent resonant light. It is shown that signatures of these flat bands may be found in peculiarities in their thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties. We also show that the FCQPT, in generating flat bands and altering Fermi surface topology, is an essential progenitor of the exotic behavior of the overdoped high-temperature superconductors represented by La_{2-x}SrxxCuO_4, whose superconductivity differs from that predicted by the classical Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. The theoretical results presented are in good agreement with recent experimental observations, closing the colossal gap between these empirical findings and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like theories.

  20. Dry-air drying at room temperature - a practical pre-treatment method of tree leaves for quantitative analyses of phenolics? (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Virjamo, Virpi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta


    In ecological experiments, storage of plant material is often needed between harvesting and laboratory analyses when the number of samples is too large for immediate, fresh analyses. Thus, accuracy and comparability of the results call for pre-treatment methods where the chemical composition remains unaltered and large number of samples can be treated efficiently. To study if a fast dry-air drying provides an efficient pre-treatment method for quantitative analyses of phenolics. Dry-air drying of mature leaves was done in a drying room equipped with dehumifier (10% relative humidity, room temperature) and results were compared to freeze-drying or freeze-drying after pre-freezing in liquid nitrogen. The quantities of methanol-soluble phenolics of Betula pendula Roth, Betula pubescens Ehrh., Salix myrsinifolia Salisb., Picea abies L. Karsten and Pinus sylvestris L. were analysed with HPLC and condensed tannins were analysed using the acid-butanol test. In deciduous tree leaves (Betula, Salix), the yield of most of the phenolic compounds was equal or higher in samples dried in dry-air room than the yield from freeze-dried samples. In Picea abies needles, however, dry-air drying caused severe reductions in picein, stilbenes, condensed tannin and (+)-catechin concentrations compared to freeze-drying. In Pinus sylvestris highest yields of neolignans but lowest yields of acetylated flavonoids were obtained from samples freeze-dried after pre-freezing. Results show that dry-air drying provides effective pre-treatment method for quantifying the soluble phenolics for deciduous tree leaves, but when analysing coniferous species, the different responses between structural classes of phenolics should be taken into account. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A comparison of dilute aqueous p-toluenesulfonic and sulfuric acid pretreatments and saccharification of corn stover at moderate temperatures and pressures. (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S; Wiredu, Bernard


    Single step pretreatment-saccharification of corn stover was investigated in aqueous p-toluenesulfonic and sulfuric acid media. Dilute aqueous solution of p-toluenesulfonic acid was a better catalyst than aqueous sulfuric acid of the same H(+) ion concentration for single step pretreatment-saccharification of corn stover at moderate temperatures and pressures. For example, 100mg corn stover heated at 150°C for 1h in 0.100 M H(+) aqueous sulfuric acid produced 64 μmol of total reducing sugars (TRS), whereas the sample heated in 0.100 M H(+)p-toluenesulfonic acid produced 165 μmol of TRS under identical conditions. Glucose yield showed a similar trend, as aq. sulfuric acid and p-toluene sulfonic acid media produced 29 and 35 μmol of glucose respectively after 2.5h. Higher catalytic activity of p-toluenesulfonic acid may be due to an interaction with biomass, supported by repulsion of hydrophobic tolyl group by the aqueous phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Space-borne remote sensing with active optical instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, ozone and the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O (United States)

    Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.

    Lidar Light Detection and Ranging is regarded as an innovative component of the global observing system It offers the possibility to directly sample the four-dimensional variability of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution In Europe space-borne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations since mid 1970 s resulting in mission and instrument concepts such as ATLID a backscatter lidar for aerosol and clouds for the EarthCARE mission or ALADIN a Doppler wind lidar considered for the ADM Aeolus mission Major advances particularly in humidity profiling are expected from the space-borne Differential Absorption Lidar DIAL being the Core instrument of the WALES Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space mission which was studied up to a level of Phase A In this presentation we report on the background definition of a future lidar system capable of monitoring the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O stratospheric and tropospheric ozone O 3 and the meteorological parameter pressure p and temperature T The idea of this study which was initiated by the European Space Agency ESA was to select one or two candidate instruments for follow-on activities on sensor and mission level For each parameter appropriate performance models of active optical instruments either for range-resolved or for total column measurements were defined and implemented as computer codes for parametric analysis The sampling strategy and error characteristics for the

  3. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO2-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazejowski, J.; Gruzdiewa, L.; Rulewski, J.; Lampe, F.W.


    The absorption of three lines [P(20), 944.2 cm -1 ; P(14), 949.2 cm -1 ; and R(24), 978.5 cm -1 ] of the pulsed CO 2 laser (00 0 1--10 0 0 transition) by SiH 4 was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO 2 laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer--Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer--Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials

  4. Pretreatment of Sesame Seed (Sesamum indicum L. with Proline and its Effective on Seed Germination and Plant Physiological Defense Systems under Different Temperature Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Tavakoli


    Full Text Available To study the effects of proline and temperature on the rates of antioxidant enzymes and germination index, a factorial laboratory experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications at the Mohaghegh Ardabili University in 2014. Treatments cinsisted of three levels of proline (0, 5 and 10 mM and different temperature regimes (15, 25 and 35°C. Results showed that proline significantly increased germination index, rates of antioxidant enzymes, proline, protein and mobility of food reserves. Exogenous application of proline increased assimilates in the seedlings. However, proline synthesis was decreased at temrature regimes of 15 and35°C as compared to 25 °C. Peroxidase enzyme rate at 25°C was lowere than of 15 and 35 °C and addition of proline increased levels of enzymes at these temperature regemes. Application of 10 mM proline at 25 °C showed the highest activity of catalase and polyphenol oxidase rates. However, rates of these enzymes at 15 and 35°C decreased as compared with that of 25°C. The length of radicle increased at all temperatures regemes and the length of plumule increased by proline, but reduced at temperatures of 15 and 35°C. According to the positive effects of proline on food reserves and seed vigor index, speed and rate of germination, proline, protein and antioxidant enzymes contents of seedlings, it seems that pretreatment of seeds with proline is an appropriate method for better seed germination attributs under these temperatures regemes.

  5. Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for greenhouse gases no. 1 (ASMG1): prediction of temperature-dependent N₂O emission dynamics. (United States)

    Guo, Lisha; Vanrolleghem, Peter A


    An activated sludge model for greenhouse gases no. 1 was calibrated with data from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without control systems and validated with data from three similar plants equipped with control systems. Special about the calibration/validation approach adopted in this paper is that the data are obtained from simulations with a mathematical model that is widely accepted to describe effluent quality and operating costs of actual WWTPs, the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2). The calibration also aimed at fitting the model to typical observed nitrous oxide (N₂O) emission data, i.e., a yearly average of 0.5% of the influent total nitrogen load emitted as N₂O-N. Model validation was performed by challenging the model in configurations with different control strategies. The kinetic term describing the dissolved oxygen effect on the denitrification by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was modified into a Haldane term. Both original and Haldane-modified models passed calibration and validation. Even though their yearly averaged values were similar, the two models presented different dynamic N₂O emissions under cold temperature conditions and control. Therefore, data collected in such situations can potentially permit model discrimination. Observed seasonal trends in N₂O emissions are simulated well with both original and Haldane-modified models. A mechanistic explanation based on the temperature-dependent interaction between heterotrophic and autotrophic N₂O pathways was provided. Finally, while adding the AOB denitrification pathway to a model with only heterotrophic N₂O production showed little impact on effluent quality and operating cost criteria, it clearly affected N2O emission productions.

  6. Effect of Sample Storage Temperature and Time Delay on Blood Gases, Bicarbonate and pH in Human Arterial Blood Samples. (United States)

    Mohammadhoseini, Elham; Safavi, Enayat; Seifi, Sepideh; Seifirad, Soroush; Firoozbakhsh, Shahram; Peiman, Soheil


    Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time interval before analysis, temperature during storage and syringe type. To investigate the effects of samples storage temperature and time delay on blood gases, bicarbonate and PH results in human arterial blood samples. 2.5 mL arterial blood samples were drawn from 45 patients via an indwelling Intraarterial catheter. Each sample was divided into five equal samples and stored in multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringes. Blood gas analysis was performed on one of five samples as soon as possible. Four other samples were divided into two groups stored at 22°C and 0°C. Blood gas analyses were repeated at 30 and 60 minutes after sampling. PaO2 of the samples stored at 0°C was increased significantly after 60 minutes (P = 0.007). The PaCO2 of the samples kept for 30 and 60 minutes at 22°C was significantly higher than primary result (P = 0.04, P samples stored at 22°C, pH decreased significantly after 30 and 60 minutes (P = 0.017, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in other results of samples stored at 0°C or 22°C after 30 or 60 minutes. In samples stored in plastic syringes, overestimation of PaO2 levels should be noted if samples cooled before analysis. In samples stored in plastic syringes, it is not necessary to store samples in iced water when analysis delayed up to one hour.

  7. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schobert, Harold H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  8. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s. The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals on pyrolysis products is: 1 to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2 to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3 to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4 to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5 to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging. Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  9. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe


    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena. PMID:26978265

  10. Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB–digester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Zhang,; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Kampman, C.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.


    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB–digester system. A pilot scale UASB–digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model

  11. Decomposition of Nitrous Oxide over Fe-Ferrierites. Effect of High-Temperature Pretreatment on the Formation of Deposited Oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Jana; Schwarze, Michael; Tvarůžková, Zdenka; Sobalík, Zdeněk


    Roč. 98, 2/3 (2004), s. 123-127 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4040016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : Fe-ferrierite * high-temperature treatment * effect on N2O decomposition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2004

  12. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails for cellulose conversion. (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Diallo, Oumou; Whitmore, Allante


    The use of aquatic plant cattails to produce biofuel will add value to land and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by replacing petroleum products. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails was studied using a Dionex accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) varying acid concentration (0.1-1%), treatment temperature (140-180 °C), and residence time (5-10 min). The highest total glucose yield for both the pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis stages (97.1% of the cellulose) was reached at a temperature of 180 °C, a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.5%, and a time of 5 min. Cattails pretreated with 0.5% sulfuric acid are digestible with similar results at enzyme loadings above 15 FPU/g glucan. Glucose from cattails cellulose can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with an approximately 90% of the theoretical yield. The results in this study indicate that cattails are a promising source of feedstock for advanced renewable fuel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  14. High-temperature pretreatment of biogas substrate by using district heating to increase the biogas production; Hoegtemperaturfoerbehandling av biogassubstrat med fjaerrvaerme foer oekad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Ascue, Johnny [JTI, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Marcus; Henriksson, Gunilla; Nordman, Roger [SP, Boraas (Sweden)


    In this study, we have shown that pre-heating sludge from a waste water treatment plant can give a higher biogas production rate. However, pretreatment showed no effect on substrate from a biogas plant at the conditions tested in this study. The study has also shown that there is potential of using district heating in the biogas industry for thermal pretreatment of sludge.

  15. Effect of Seasonal Temperature on the Performance and on the Microbial Community of a Novel AWFR for Decentralized Domestic Wastewater Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanhong Li


    Full Text Available Due to environmental burden and human health risks in developing countries, the treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater has been a matter of great concern in recent years. A novel pilot-scale three-stage anaerobic wool-felt filter reactor (AWFR was designed to treat real decentralized domestic wastewater at seasonal temperature variations of 8 to 35 °C for 364 days. The results showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiencies of AWFR in summer and winter were 76 ± 7.2% and 52 ± 5.9% at one day and three days Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT, respectively. COD mass balance analysis demonstrated that even though COD removal was lower in winter, approximately 43.5% of influent COD was still converted to methane. High-throughput MiSeq sequencing analyses indicated that Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, and Methanolinea were the predominant methanogens, whereas the genus Bacillus probably played important roles in fermentation processes throughout the whole operation period. The performance and microbial community composition study suggested the application potential of the AWFR system for the pretreatment of decentralized domestic wastewater.

  16. Effects of surface nanocrystallization pretreatment on low-temperature ion sulfurization behavior of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guozheng; Xu Binshi; Wang Haidou; Si Hongjuan


    A nanocrystalline surface layer of 10 μm thickness was fabricated on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by means of supersonic fine particles bombarding (SFPB). The followed low-temperature ion sulfurizing was carried out on the original and the SFPBed (SFPB treated) surface, respectively, forming sulfide layers with certain thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the phase constituents and grain size of the nanocrystallized surface layer. The surface morphologies and compositions of the sulfide layers were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) was used to detect the valence states of the sulfide layers. Elemental distribution with depth was measured by Auger energy spectroscopy (AES). The results show that the microstructure of the surface layer is refined to nano-grains with the grain size about 30 nm and random crystallographic orientations by SFPB treatment. The surface nanocrystallization pretreatment can significantly improve the thickness, density, and the FeS content ratio of the sulfide layers. The analysis indicates that, the enhancement in efficiency of the ion sulfurization treatment by SFPB surface nanocrystallization treatment is mainly attributed to the high-density crystal defects and the increase of surface chemical activity.

  17. Influence of impurity gases and operating conditions on PAFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, K.; Iwasa, N.; Suzuki, M.; Okada, O. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [and others


    On-site Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Cogeneration system is installed at various test sites, such as at underground parking lot, within chemical plant premises and near urban streets. Since in the current PAFC system, cathode air is supplied to the cell with no particular pretreatment, impurity gases in the air might influence on cell performance. We have investigated the influence of various impurity gases in the cathode gas, on sub-scale single cells, and have found that NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and toluene affect negatively on cell performance. The results of these experiments and the conceivable mechanism of these effects on cell degradation are reported. We have also investigated the influence of other operating parameters, such as temperature, current density, fuel utilization on cell performance. From these experiments, we have found that operating temperature is a significant factor, which mainly determines cell voltage decline rate. The results of sub-scale single cell tests and a short-stack verification test are also reported.

  18. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander


    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  19. The kinetics of reaction of the by-products of ablative materials at high temperatures and the rate of heat transfer between hot surfaces and reactive gases (United States)

    Spokes, G. N.; Beadle, P. C.; Gac, N. A.; Golden, D. M.; King, K. D.; Benson, S. W.


    Research has been conducted by means of laboratory experiments to enhance understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions taking place during ablative processes that accompany the reentry or manned space vehicles into planetary atmospheres. Fundamental mechanisms of those chemical reactions believed to be important in the thermal degradation of ablative plastic heat shield materials, and the gases evolved, are described.

  20. Temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra of bilayer two-dimensional electron gases in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices: coexistence of Auger recombination and single-carrier trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Harsan Ma


    Full Text Available We report emerging photoluminescence (PL of bilayer two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO systems. A strong blue PL emerges in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO/LAO/STO which doesn’t show in LAO/STO. PL band in bilayer-2DEGs includes both nearly temperature independent Auger recombination and temperature dependent free electron trapping while it crossovers from Auger recombination to single carrier trapping in LAO/STO. The PL signal of free electron trapping appears at high temperatures and it is much stronger than Auger recombination in the conducting channel in bilayer 2DEGs. This observation shows that high mobility carriers dominate the carrier dynamics in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO superlattices.

  1. Selective noble gases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecka, S.; Jancik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.; Kubik, I.; Sevecka, S.


    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: 88 Kr(67; 22) Bq/m 3 ; 85m Kr(17; 7) Bq/m 3 ; 135m Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m 3 ; 138 Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m 3 . (J.K.)

  2. Positron diffusion in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Lee, Y.K.


    Positron diffusion in helium, neon, and argon has been observed and the lifetimes of free positrons in these gases have been calculated on the basis of assumed theoretical behavior. The results are summarized for various gas pressures at room temperature. Reported lifetimes are comparable to the extrapolated values of 1.4 μsec in He and 0.2 μsec in Ar obtained at one atmosphere by Falk. (7 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  3. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in Ultracold Fermi Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning


    Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC. Thermodyna......Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC...

  4. Controle de insetos em frutas, hortaliças e grãos armazenados com o uso de temperaturas extremas e gases Control of insects on fruits, vegetables and stored grains with high or low temperatures and gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann


    Full Text Available A utilização de temperaturas baixas e altas além de concentrações de CO2 e O2 na atmosfera do armazenamento são alternativas para a desinfestação de frutas destinadas à exportação e controle de insetos em grãos armazenados. Estas técncias não contaminantes, eliminam o uso de inseticidas que podem deixar resíduos tóxicos no produto. Este trabalho de revisão apresenta resultados de pesquisas em que foi avaliada a eficiência destas técnicas no controle de insetos em frutas, hortaliças e grãos.The use of either high or low temperatures and different CO2 and O2 concentrations on the storage atmosphere are altematives for fruit desinfestation and others agricultural goods and insect control on grains during storage. These nonchemical methods avoid the use of insecticides, without leaving toxic residues on the storage products. This review evaluate the efficiency of these different nonchemical methods of the control of insects on fruits, vegetables and grains.

  5. Handbook of purified gases

    CERN Document Server

    Schoen, Helmut


    Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. This important reference work is accompanied with a large number of Data Sheets dedicated to the most important purified gases.  

  6. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT


    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  7. Process for treating radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Yoshiyuki; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Yukio; An, Bunzai; Tsuda, Koji.


    Object: To securely perform separation and enrichment of radioactive rare gases to store safely them for a long period of time. Structure: The wastes extracted by an air extractor are processed by a heater and a recombiner and hydrogen and oxygen are changed into water thereby and it is passed through a gas and water separator to be dewatered, after which water and carbon dioxide gas are removed by passing through a delay pipe, filter, and water- and carbon dioxide gas removing device and then fed to a lower temperature adsorbing device to adsorb and remove the radioactive rare gases. This low temperature adsorbing device is composed of two towers, one of which is designed to saturate the radioactive rare gases, which are processed by a heater and passed through a recycle line to meet raw gases. Then, it is fed to the other lower temperature adsorbing device and this cycle is repeated to enrich the radioactive rare gases. Oxygen and impurities in the enriched gases are removed by the impurity removing device and thereafter are stored in a gas holder and finally sealed in a cylinder. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Temperature Measurements of Fusion Plasmas Produced by Petawatt-Laser-Irradiated D2-He3 or CD4-He3 Clustering Gases (United States)

    Bang, W.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Dyer, G.; Quevedo, H. J.; Hagel, K.; Schmidt, K.; Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Andreoli, P.; Gaul, E.; Bernstein, A. C.; Donovan, M.; Barbarino, M.; Kimura, S.; Mazzocco, M.; Sura, J.; Natowitz, J. B.; Ditmire, T.


    Two different methods have been employed to determine the plasma temperature in a laser-cluster fusion experiment on the Texas Petawatt laser. In the first, the temperature was derived from time-of-flight data of deuterium ions ejected from exploding D2 or CD4 clusters. In the second, the temperature was measured from the ratio of the rates of two different nuclear fusion reactions occurring in the plasma at the same time: D(d,He3)n and He3(d,p)He4. The temperatures determined by these two methods agree well, which indicates that (i) the ion energy distribution is not significantly distorted when ions travel in the disassembling plasma; (ii) the kinetic energy of deuterium ions, especially the “hottest part” responsible for nuclear fusion, is well described by a near-Maxwellian distribution.

  9. Shallow gas and temperature survey at San Jacinto-Tizate geothermal field, Nicaragua; Levantamiento de gases del subsuelo y temperaturas superficiales en el campo geotermico San Jacinto-Tizate, Nicaragua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapenko, Sergio [INTERGEOTERM S. A., Managua (Nicaragua); Romero Chavez, Francisco [Centro de Investigaciones Geocientificas (CIGEO), UNAN-MANAGUA, Managua (Nicaragua)


    The geothermal reservoirs generally indicate themselves on the surface not only by thermal manifestations (fumaroles, hot springs) but also by anomalies of soil gases and subsurface temperature. Soil gas CO{sub 2} and temperature surveys were conducted at the San Jacinto-Tizate geothermal field in Nicaragua. They helped to understand better the location site of the geothermal reservoir and, together with other exploration methods, to choose the best position for the wells. The results of the drilling showed that all the wells situated inside the common anomalies of soil gas (CO{sub 2}) and temperature, encountered a high temperature geothermal reservoir. [Espanol] Los yacimientos geotermicos de altas temperaturas, ademas de manifestarse en la superficie a traves de focos visibles naturales de descarga, lo hacen en forma de anomalias de valores altos de concentracion de CO{sub 2}, y de temperaturas superficiales. La realizacion del levantamiento termico y de CO{sub 2} en el campo geotermico San Jacinto-Tizate, Nicaragua permitio definir: Los sitios de descarga no visibles del sistema geotermico; Precisar la distribucion espacial del yacimiento geotermico y Recomendar, en combinacion con otros metodos de exploracion, sitios para la perforacion de pozos geotermicos. Los resultados de las perforaciones demostraron que todos los pozos ubicados dentro de los limites de las anomalias de CO{sub 2} y temperatura, intersecaron el yacimiento permeable con aguas subterraneas de altas temperaturas.

  10. The Role of Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases as Principal LW Control Knob that Governs the Global Surface Temperature for Past and Future Climate Change (United States)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E.; Russell, Gary L.; Oinas, Valdar; Jonas, Jeffrey


    The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs) that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapor and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius-Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discernible long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late 1970s. This leaves atmospheric CO2 as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO2, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO2, to increase by 2 ppm per year, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm per year. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO2 climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

  11. The role of long-lived greenhouse gases as principal LW control knob that governs the global surface temperature for past and future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Lacis


    Full Text Available The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterised by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapour and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapour and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius–Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discernable long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late 1970s. This leaves atmospheric CO2 as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO2, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO2, to increase by 2 ppm yr−1, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm yr−1. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO2 climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

  12. Phase space methods for degenerate quantum gases

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, Bryan J; Barnett, Stephen M


    Recent experimental progress has enabled cold atomic gases to be studied at nano-kelvin temperatures, creating new states of matter where quantum degeneracy occurs - Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases. Such quantum states are of macroscopic dimensions. This book presents the phase space theory approach for treating the physics of degenerate quantum gases, an approach already widely used in quantum optics. However, degenerate quantum gases involve massive bosonic and fermionic atoms, not massless photons. The book begins with a review of Fock states for systems of identical atoms, where large numbers of atoms occupy the various single particle states or modes. First, separate modes are considered, and here the quantum density operator is represented by a phase space distribution function of phase space variables which replace mode annihilation, creation operators, the dynamical equation for the density operator determines a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function, and measurable...

  13. Gases in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.; Heaton, T.H.E.


    Contributing to both economic and environmental spheres, radon and helium contained in groundwater are being used to detect uranium mineralisation and in conjunction with other gases, to locate natural gas and oil deposits; they are also helping to unravel the earth's past climatic history. Analysis of the gases dissolved in groundwater is proving useful in widely different fields ranging from uranium exploration, to earthquake prediction and the determination of palaeotemperatures [af

  14. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward


    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  15. On natural circulation in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors and pebble bed reactors for different flow regimes and various coolant gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melesed'Hospital, G.


    The use of CO 2 or N 2 (heavy gas) instead of helium during natural circulation leads to improved performance in both High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) and in Pebble Bed Reactors (PBR). For instance, the coolant temperature rise corresponding to a coolant pressure level and a rate of afterheat removal could be only 18% with CO 2 as compared to He, for laminar flow in HTGR; this value would be 40% in PBR. There is less difference between HTGR and PBR for turbulent flows; CO 2 is found to be always better than N 2 . These types of results derived from relationships between coolant properties, coolant flow, temperature rise, pressure, afterheat levels and core geometry, are obtained for HTGR and PBR for various flow regimes, both within the core and in the primary loop

  16. Paschen's law studies in cold gases (United States)

    Massarczyk, R.; Chu, P.; Dugger, C.; Elliott, S. R.; Rielage, K.; Xu, W.


    The break-through voltage behavior over small gaps has been investigated for differing gap distances, gas pressures, and gas temperatures in nitrogen, neon, argon and xenon gases. A deviation from Paschen's law at micro gap distances has been found. At lower temperatures, a significant shift of the curve relative to the results at room temperature was observed. This behavior can be explained by combining Paschen's law and the ideal gas law.

  17. Estimation of greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from no-till cropland under increased temperature and altered precipitation regime: a DAYCENT model approach (United States)

    Rafique, Rashad; Kumar, Sandeep; Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Xianli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Wei; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman


    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play an important role in regulating the Earth surface temperature. GHG emissions from soils are sensitive to climate change and land management practices. According to general circulation model (GCM) predictions, the Earth will experience a combination of increased temperature and altered precipitation regimes which may result in an increase or a decrease of GHG exchange. The effect of climate change on GHG emissions can be examined through both experiments and by applying process-based models, which have become more popular. The performance of those models can be improved significantly by appropriate calibration procedures. The objectives of this study are to: (i) calibrate the DAYCENT model using advance parameter estimation (PEST) software and to (ii) examine simulated GHG dynamics at daily and seasonal time-scales under a climate change scenario of increased temperature (2 °C) and a precipitation regime change where 40% of precipitation during the dry season was redistributed to the wet season. The algorithmic calibration improved the model performance by reducing the sum of weighted squared residual differences by up to 223% (decreased from 1635 to 505 g N2O-N ha- 1 d- 1) for N2O and 22% (decreased from 623 to 507% WFPS) for water filled pore space (WFPS) simulation results. In the altered climate scenario, total N2O and CO2 fluxes decreased by 9% (from 2.31 to 2.10 kg N2O-N ha- 1 yr- 1) and 38% (from 1134.08 to 699.56 kg CO2 ha- 1 yr- 1) respectively, whereas CH4 fluxes increased by 10% (from 1.62 to 1.80 kg CH4 ha- 1 yr- 1). Our results show a larger impact of altered climate on CO2 as compared to N2O and CH4 emissions. The main difference in all GHG emissions was observed in summer period due to drought conditions created by reduced precipitation and increased temperatures. However, the GHG dynamics can also be attributed to no-till practices which play an important role in changing the soil moisture conditions for aerobic

  18. Temperature Measurements of Fusion Plasmas Produced by Laser-Irradiated D2-3 He or CD4-3 He Clustering Gases (United States)

    Bang, W.; Ditmire, T.; Quevedo, H.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Donovan, M.; Gaul, E.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Hagel, K.; Natowitz, J. B.


    We report on experiments in which a mixture of D2 or CD4 clusters and 3He gas was irradiated by a petawatt-laser pulse, generating nuclear fusion reactions such as D(d, 3He) n, D(d, t) p , and 3He(d, p)4He. We measured the yields of fusion neutrons and protons from these reactions and found them to agree with yields based on a simple cylindrical plasma model. The plasma temperature was determined by two different methods. In the first, it was derived from time-of-flight data of deuterium ions ejected from exploding D2 or CD4 clusters. In the second, it was measured from the ratio of neutron yield to proton yield from D(d, 3He) n and 3He(d, p)4He reactions, respectively. The temperatures determined by these two methods agree well, indicating (i) the ion energy distribution is not significantly distorted when ions travel in the disassembling plasma; (ii) the kinetic energy of deuterium ions, especially the hottest part responsible for nuclear fusion, is well described by a near-Maxwellian distribution.

  19. Corrosion and hydriding behaviour of some Zr 2.5 wt% Nb alloys in water, steam and various gases at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, S.B.


    Fuel sheaths and pressure tubes in Canadian power reactors are at present made from Zircaloy-2. Mechanical properties of a suitably heat treated Zr 2.5 wt% Nb alloy are superior to those of Zircaloy-2, but any new alloy must have resistance to corrosion and hydriding by the coolant and by the gas that insulates the pressure tube from the cold moderator. Exposed to water at temperatures up to 325 o C, the Zr 2.5 wt% Nb alloy has corrosion resistance acceptable for power reactors. Resistance to air and carbon dioxide is less favourable. Addition of tin, or iron and chromium, to the base alloy have little effect on the corrosion resistance, but the addition of copper reduces corrosion in water and steam to some extent and in air and carbon dioxide to a greater extent. Studies of the effect of heat treatment suggest that the amount of niobium in a solid-solution controls the rate of oxidation and hydriding and that concentration, size and distribution of second phase is of little importance. Initial results obtained in NRX indicate that a thermal flux of 3-7 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /sec has little or no effect on oxidation and hydriding in high temperature water. (author)

  20. Hypersonics and rarefied gases (United States)

    Lengrand, Jean-Claude; Allegre, Jean; Raffin, Michel


    A molecular approach to the dynamics of rarefied gases is used to solve problems in the modeling of hypersonic asymmetric flows. The microscopic, molecular, macroscopic, continuous, and hydrodynamic approaches are compared. Application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of intermolecular collisions, the gas-surface interaction, and hypersonic flows is considered. The use of experimental methods such as wind tunnels, flow visualizations, hot-wire techniques, laser velocimetry, and electron beam sensors for the study of real phenomena related to rarefied gases and for the validation of the calculation methods is also discussed.

  1. Methods for pretreating biomass (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo


    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  2. Infrared scintillation in gases, liquids and crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belogurov, S.; Bressi, G; Carugno, G.; Conti, E; Iannuzzi, D; Meneguzzo, AT


    We report about experimental evidences of infrared scintillation in gaseous, liquid and crystal samples. We firstly studied noble gases at room temperature and near atmospheric pressure in the wavelength range between 0.7 and 1.81 mum. Ar gas emits infrared photons when irradiated by a proton beam.

  3. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    RESONANCE │ December 2008. GENERAL │ ARTICLE. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols. J Srinivasan. Keywords. Global warming, aerosols, soot, climate models. The surface temperature of the earth is controlled by the balance between the absorbed solar radiation and the emitted infrared radiation.

  4. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry


    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  5. Regenerative process for desulfurization of high temperature combustion and fuel gases. Quarterly progress report No. 12, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, M.S.; Albanese, A.S.


    Portland cement, a calcium-based sorbent, was found to have a high sulfation reactivity. Spherical pellets, formed from powdered Portland cement by granulation, had exceptional higher resistance to attrition than natural limestone or dolomite, both of which had serious attrition losses in fluidized-bed reactors. The effect of carbon addition to Portland cement type III pellets on sulfation rates has been studied. A greater percentage of burnable carbon would leave more pores, and therefore increase the sulfation ability. An evaluation between sulfation reactivity and attrition resistance will be made to obtain the best combination. Experiments have been conducted on calcination and subsequent sulfation of calcium silicates and Greer limestone in a pressurized TGA. At 10 atm, calcium silicates sulfated better than limestone. A rotary kiln, 3'' ID, has been completed and is now undergoing preliminary tests for temperature, feed rate and residence time. The effect of CO/sub 2/ concentation on the reductive decomposition of the sulfated sorbent has been investigated. Results of this study would provide the necessary information for an efficient design of sorbent regeneration processes. The mechanisms of the solid-solid reaction taking place in the regeneration: 2CaSO/sub 4/ + C ..-->.. 2CaO + 2SO/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ are being studied. It has been shown that gaseous intermediates exist in the CaSO/sub 4/-C reaction, and are most likely supplied by the CaSO/sub 4/ decomposition.

  6. Measurements on high temperature fuel cells with carbon monoxide-containing fuel gases; Messungen an Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit kohlenmonoxidhaltigen Brenngasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, Holger


    In the present work the different power density of anode-supported high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) were examined for carbon monoxide-containing fuels. In addition to wet hydrogen / carbon monoxide mixtures the cells were run with synthetic gas mixtures resembling the products of an autothermal reformer, and actual reformate generated by a 2 kW autothermal reformer. It was found that the power-voltage characteristics of an ASC depends primarily on the open circuit voltages of different gas mixtures, but is nearly independent of the hydrogen concentration of the fuel, although the reaction rates of other potential fuels within the gas mixture, namely carbon monoxide and methane, are much lower that the hydrogen reaction rate. The probable reason is that the main fuel for the electrochemical oxidation within the cell is hydrogen, while the nickel in the base layer of the anode acts as a reformer which replenishes the hydrogen by water reduction via carbon monoxide and methane oxidation.

  7. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Solubility of non-polar gases in electrolyte solutions (United States)

    Walker, R. L., Jr.


    Solubility theory describes the effects of both concentration and temperature on solute activity coefficients. It predicts the salting-out effect and the decrease in solubility of non-polar gases with increased electrolyte concentration, and can be used to calculate heats of solution, entropies, and partial molal volumes of dissolved gases

  9. Paschen's law studies in cold gases


    Massarczyk, R.; Chu, P.; Elliott, S. R.; Rielage, K.; Dugger, C.; Xu, W.


    The break-through voltage over small gaps has been investigated for differing gap distances, gas pressures, and gas temperatures in nitrogen, neon, argon and xenon gases. A deviation from Paschen's law at micro gap distances has been found. The breakthrough behavior of the fill gas in colder environments was tested as well. A significant shift of the curve relative to the results at room temperature was observed. The results can be explained by combining Paschen's law and the ideal gas law.

  10. Pretreatment of microbial sludges (United States)

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.


    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  11. Physiochemical Characterization of Lignocellulosic Biomass Dissolution by Flowthrough Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin


    Comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220-270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8-90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.

  12. Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglin, J. R.; Ketterle, W.


    The early experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three longstanding goals. First, cooling of neutral atoms into their motional state, thus subjecting them to ultimate control, limited only by Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Second, creation of a coherent sample of atoms, in which all occupy the same quantum states, and the realization of atom lasers - devices that output coherent matter waves. And third, creation of gaseous quantum fluid, with properties that are different from the quantum liquids helium-3 and helium-4. The field of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases has continued to progress rapidly, driven by the combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical advances. The family of quantum degenerate gases has grown, and now includes metastable and fermionic atoms. condensates have become an ultralow-temperature laboratory for atom optics, collisional physics and many-body physics, encompassing phonons, superfluidity, quantized vortices, Josephson junctions and quantum phase transitions. (author)

  13. Phase equilibria at low temperature for light hydrocarbons-methanol-water-acid gases mixtures: measurements and modelling; Equilibres de phases a basse temperature de systemes complexes CO{sub 2} - hydrocarbures legers - methanol - eau: mesures et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffine, L.


    The need to develop and improve natural gas treatment processes is real. The petroleum industry usually uses separation processes which require phase equilibrium phenomena. Yet, the complexity of the phase equilibria involved results in a lack of data, which in turn limits the development of thermodynamic models. The first part of this work is devoted to experimental investigations for systems containing light hydrocarbons, methanol, water and acid gases. We present a new apparatus that was developed to measure vapor-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria. It allowed us to obtain new phase composition data for the methanol-ethane binary system and different mixtures, and also to determine a part of the three phases equilibrium envelope of the same systems. In the second part of this work, we have developed a thermodynamic model based on the CPA equation of state. This choice may be justified by the presence of associating components like methanol, hydrogen sulfide and water in the systems. Such model is necessary for the design of gas treatment plants. Our model provides good results for phase equilibrium calculations for binaries systems without binary interaction parameter in many cases, and describes correctly the vapour-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria for complex mixtures. (author)

  14. Waste biomass to liquids: Low temperature conversion of sugarcane bagasse to bio-oil. The effect of combined hydrolysis treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Josilaine A.; Pereira, Marcelo M.; Valente, Ligia M.M.; Ramirez de la Piscina, Pilar; Homs, Narcis; Santos, Margareth Rose L.


    This article describes the influence of different sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis pretreatments on modifications to biomass feedstock and the characteristics of the resultant pyrolysis products. Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with acid, alkaline or sequential acid/alkaline solutions and pretreated samples were then subjected to a low temperature conversion (LTC) process under He or O 2 /He atmospheres at 350-450 o C. Both pretreated samples and sugarcane bagasse in natura were analyzed by determination of their chemical composition and by thermogravimetric, FTIR and SEM analyses. The gases yielded during LTC were monitored on-line by quadrupole mass spectrometry, and the liquid fractions obtained were characterized by FTIR and 1 H and 13 C NMR. Irrespective of the sugarcane bagasse pretreatment applied, the main bio-oil component obtained was levoglucosan. However, the LTC yield of bio-oil depended on the hydrolysis treatment of the biomass and decreased in the presence of O 2 . The acid hydrolysis pretreatment increased the LTC bio-oil yield notably. -- Highlights: → Sugarcane bagasse modified by acid, alkaline or sequential acid/alkaline hydrolysis. → LTC-pyrolysis at 350-450 o C under He or O 2 /He of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. → Yield of bio-oil depended on hydrolysis treatment and decreased in presence of O 2. → The acid hydrolysis pretreatment increased the LTC bio-oil yield notably (72% in He). → Levoglucosan was the main bio-oil component obtained.

  15. Process of radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.; Schroter, H.J.


    A method is described in which the radiation level of waste gases from nuclear power plants containing both activation and fission gases is controlled at or below limits permitted by applicable standards by passing such gases, prior to release to the atmosphere, through an adsorptive delay path including a body of activated carbon having the relation to the throughput and character of such gases. (U.S.)

  16. Sudden releases of gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaloupecká Hana


    Full Text Available Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  17. Fuel gases in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachiche, B.; Elandaloussi, H.


    For a country like Algeria, fuel gases represent an important economical challenge. To answer the increasing energy demand in the transportation sector, the use of fuel gases allows to preserve the petroleum reserves and to create specific industrial structures devoted to LPG-f (liquefied petroleum gas-fuel) and NGV (natural gas for vehicles). This paper presents the energy policy of Algeria, its reserves, production, and exportations of hydrocarbons and the internal rational use of energy sources according to its economic and environmental policy and to its internal needs. The energy consumption of Algeria in the transportation sector represents 2/3 of the petroleum products consumed in the internal market and follows a rapid increase necessary to the socio-economic development of the country. The Algerian experience in fuel gases is analysed according to the results of two successive experimentation periods for the development of NGV before and after 1994, and the resulting transportation and distribution network is described. The development of LPG-f has followed also an experimental phase for the preparation of regulation texts and a first statement of the vehicles conversion to LPG-f is drawn with its perspectives of development according to future market and prices evolutions. (J.S.)

  18. Request for Correction 10008 Endangerment Findings for Greenhouse Gases (United States)

    Request for correction by Peabody Energy Company for the EPA to correct temperature data in Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act

  19. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect. (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II


    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  20. Effect of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate pre-treatment on the volatile profile in tomato fruit subjected to chilling temperature (United States)

    Tomato fruits exposed to chilling temperatures suffer aroma loss prior to visual chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were reported to alleviate the development of visual CI, however, it is unknown if the treatments alleviate internal CI in t...

  1. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archambault-Leger Veronique


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of hydrothermal flowthrough (FT pretreatment severity on pretreatment and solubilization performance metrics was evaluated for three milled feedstocks (corn stover, bagasse, and poplar and two conversion systems (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using yeast and fungal cellulase, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum. Results Compared to batch pretreatment, FT pretreatment consistently resulted in higher XMG recovery, higher removal of non-carbohydrate carbon and higher glucan solubilization by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. XMG recovery was above 90% for FT pretreatment below 4.1 severity but decreased at higher severities, particularly for bagasse. Removal of non-carbohydrate carbon during FT pretreatment increased from 65% at low severity to 80% at high severity for corn stover, and from 40% to 70% for bagasse and poplar. Solids obtained by FT pretreatment were amenable to high conversion for all of the feedstocks and conversion systems examined. The optimal time and temperature for FT pretreatment on poplar were found to be 16 min and 210°C. At these conditions, SSF glucan conversion was about 85%, 94% of the XMG was removed, and 62% of the non carbohydrate mass was solubilized. Solubilization of FT-pretreated poplar was compared for C. thermocellum fermentation (10% inoculum, and for yeast-fungal cellulase SSF (5% inoculum, cellulase loading of 5 and 10 FPU/g glucan supplemented with β-glucosidase at 15 and 30 U/g glucan. Under the conditions tested, which featured low solids concentration, C. thermocellum fermentation achieved faster rates and more complete conversion of FT-pretreated poplar than did SSF. Compared to SSF, solubilization by C. thermocellum was 30% higher after 4 days, and was over twice as fast on ball-milled FT-pretreated poplar. Conclusions XMG removal trends were similar between feedstocks whereas glucan conversion trends were significantly

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... to, for example, atmospheric research, combustion and gasification. Some high-temperature, high-resolution IR/UV absorption/transmission measurements gases (e.g. CO2, SO2, SO3 and phenol) are presented....

  3. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of hardwoods (United States)

    G. S. Wang; X. J. Pan; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; D. Rockwood


    This study demonstrates sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust bioconversion of hardwoods. With only about 4% sodium bisulfite charge on aspen and 30-min pretreatment at temperature 180[...

  4. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.


    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  5. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau


    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  6. Waste minimization pretreatment via pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, U.K.; Choi, K.; Yang, K.H.; Park, J.K.; Song, M.J.


    Pyrolysis and/or oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins and other combustible waste may be effective pretreatment processes before vitrification. Three different methods were examined with the TGA to pretreat the resins: pyrolysis; oxidative pyrolysis; and oxidative pyrolyses of ash remaining after the pyrolysis of resin. The latter two methods were found to provide better volume reduction than the pyrolysis-only process. Between the two types of resins, cationic and anionic, the cationic exchange resin was less volatile. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of mixed resin (50% cation and 50% anion by wt.) showed volatilization at the temperatures where volatilization was observed for each of the separate resins. Because of certain limitations of the commercial TGA, tube furnace experiments were performed, generally, to examine the pyrolysis of larger quantities of cationic, anionic, and mixed resin, and to examine off-gas characteristics. The cationic resin-only and anionic resin-only gravimetric results showed good agreement with the smaller-scale TGA results. SEM pictures of the different variants of the resin (cationic, anionic, and mixed) show a different morphology for each. Off-gas data showed the presence of H 2 S, SO 2 , CO, and NO during the pyrolysis of cationic resin. CO was observed during the pyrolysis of anionic resin. The mixed resin trials showed the presence of the gases approximately at the temperatures where the gases would evolve if the results of the two different resins (cationic and anionic) were superimposed. However, the amount of hydrogen sulfide relative to the sulfur dioxide was found to increase significantly compared to the results of the cationic resin-only trials

  7. Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was investigated in pilot-scale with the aim of obtaining the highest possible sugar yield after pretreatment. The temperatures used were 155, 170, 185 and 200 C with or without addition of oxygen (0.6 MPa pressure). Enzymatic hydrolysis of washed...

  8. Removing radioactive noble gases from nuclear process off-gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofredo, A.


    A system is claimed for separating, concentrating and storing radioactive krypton and xenon in the off-gases from a boiling water reactor, wherein adsorption and cryogenic distillation are both efficiently used for rapid and positive separation and removal of the radioactive noble gases, and for limiting such gases in circulation in the system to low inventory at all times, and wherein the system is self-regulating to eliminate operator options or attention

  9. High-sensitivity β-Ga_2O_3 solar-blind photodetector on high-temperature pretreated c-plane sapphire substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Ling-Xuan


    Recently, monoclinic Ga2O3 (beta-Ga2O3) photodetectors (PDs) have been extensively studied for various commercial and military applications due to the merits of intrinsic solar rejection, high gain, and great compactness. In this work, c-plane sapphire substrates were annealed under different temperatures in a vacuum furnace prior to the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of beta-Ga2O3 thin film, which yielded a smoother surface and even a terraceand- step-like morphology on the substrate, resulting in improved crystallinity of the epitaxial film. Accordingly, both the dark and photo currents of beta-Ga2O3 metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs were increased by the enhanced carrier mobility (mu) of the more crystalline film. However, the substrate-annealing temperature must be sufficiently high to offset the rise of the dark current and thus achieve a remarkable improvement in the photodetection properties. As a result, the PD fabricated on the 1050 degrees C-annealed substrate exhibited extremely high sensitivity, for example, high responsivity (R) of 54.9 A/ W and large specific detectivity (D*) of 3.71 x 10(14) Jones. Both parameters were increased by one order of magnitude because of the combined effects of the dramatic increase in mu and the effective reduction in defect-related recombination centers. Nevertheless, the latter also prolonged the recovery time of the PD. These findings suggest another way to develop beta-Ga2O3 PD with extremely high sensitivity. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America

  10. Effect of moisture on pretreatment efficiency for anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates. (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J


    The present study evaluates the effect of moisture in low-temperature and ultrasound pretreatment on lignocellulosic substrates anaerobic biodegradability, where brewer's spent grain was used as model substrate. Besides moisture content, low-temperature pretreatment was also evaluated in terms of temperature (60-80°C) and exposure time (12-72 h). Likewise, ultrasonication was also evaluated in terms of specific energy (1000-50,000 kJ kg TS(-1)). In addition, the effect of substrate particle size reduction by milling pretreatment was also considered. The results clearly demonstrated that substrate moisture (total solid concentration) is a significant parameter for pretreatment performance, although it has been rarely considered in pretreatment optimisation. Specifically, moisture optimisation increased the methane yield of brewer's spent grain by 6% for low-temperature pretreatment (60°C), and by 14% for ultrasound pretreatment (1000 kJ kg TS(-1)) towards the control (without pretreatment). In both pretreatments, the experimental optimum total solid concentration was 100 gTS kg(-1). Thus, lowering substrate moisture, a strategy suggested attaining energetic pretreatment feasibility, needs to be analysed as another pretreatment variable since it might have limited correlation. Finally, a preliminary energetic balance of the pretreatments under study showed that the extra methane production could not cover the energetic pretreatment expenses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lignocellulose pretreatment severity – relating pH to biomatrix opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S.


    different pH values, temperatures, types of catalysts, and holding times. The consequences of the pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass are described with special emphasis on the chemical alterations of the biomass during pretreatment, especially highlighting the significance of the pretreatment pH. We...... present a new illustration of the pretreatment effects encompassing the differential responses to the pH and temperature. A detailed evaluation of the use of severity factor calculations for pretreatment comparisons signifies that the multiple effects of different pretreatment factors on the subsequent...... the hydrolysis yields (glucose, xylose) and the pretreatment pH, but no correlation with the pretreatment temperature (90–200 °C). A better recognition and understanding of the factors affecting biomatrix opening, and use of more standardized evaluation protocols, will allow for the identification of new...

  12. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripok Phitsuwan


    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.

  13. Thermodynamics of ultracold Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimbene, Sylvain


    Complex Hamiltonians from condensed matter, such as the Fermi-Hubbard model, can be experimentally studied using ultracold gases. This thesis describes a new method for determining the equation of state of an ultracold gas, making the comparison with many-body theories straightforward. It is based on the measurement of the local pressure inside a trapped gas from the analysis of its in situ image. We first apply this method to the study of a Fermi gas with resonant interactions, a weakly-interacting 7 Li gas acting as a thermometer. Surprisingly, none of the existing many-body theories of the unitary gas accounts for the equation of state deduced from our study over its full range. The virial expansion extracted from the high-temperature data agrees with the resolution of the three-body problem. At low temperature, we observe, contrary to some previous studies, that the normal phase behaves as a Fermi liquid. Finally we obtain the critical temperature for superfluidity from a clear signature on the equation of state. We also measure the pressure of the ground state as a function of spin imbalance and interaction strength - measure directly relevant to describe the crust of neutron stars. Our data validate Monte-Carlo simulations and quantify the Lee-Huang-Yang corrections to mean-field interactions in low-density fermionic or bosonic superfluids. We show that, in most cases, the partially polarized normal phase can be described as a Fermi liquid of polarons. The polaron effective mass extracted from the equation of state is in agreement with a study of collective modes. (author)

  14. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance. (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, Xuejun; Zalesny, Ronald S


    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature.

  15. Factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Chuanji; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Frankaer, Christian Grundahl


    Seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an innovative process at research stage. With respect to process optimization, factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues were studied for the first time in this paper. Pretreatment temperature (180...

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen


    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  17. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both......High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  18. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)


    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of High Solids Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M.; Jenkins, Bryan M.


    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H2O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H2O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95°C for lime pretreatment and 55°C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p delignification under the design conditions, but only alkaline loading had a significant positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment at higher temperature also improved delignification; delignification with water alone ranged from 9.9% to 14.5% for pretreatment at 95°C, but there was little effect observed at 55°C. Post-pretreatment washing of biomass was not necessary for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yields were 176.3 mg/g dried biomass (48.5% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass. PMID:20440580

  20. Canonical partition functions: ideal quantum gases, interacting classical gases, and interacting quantum gases (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng


    In statistical mechanics, for a system with a fixed number of particles, e.g. a finite-size system, strictly speaking, the thermodynamic quantity needs to be calculated in the canonical ensemble. Nevertheless, the calculation of the canonical partition function is difficult. In this paper, based on the mathematical theory of the symmetric function, we suggest a method for the calculation of the canonical partition function of ideal quantum gases, including ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases. Moreover, we express the canonical partition functions of interacting classical and quantum gases given by the classical and quantum cluster expansion methods in terms of the Bell polynomial in mathematics. The virial coefficients of ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases are calculated from the exact canonical partition function. The virial coefficients of interacting classical and quantum gases are calculated from the canonical partition function by using the expansion of the Bell polynomial, rather than calculated from the grand canonical potential.

  1. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.


    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  2. Dipolar quantum gases of erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, A.


    Since the preparation of the first Bose-Einstein condensate about two decades ago and the first degenerate Fermi gas following four years later a plethora of fascinating quantum phenomena have been explored. The vast majority of experiments focused on quantum degenerate atomic gases with short-range contact interaction between particles. Atomic species with large magnetic dipole moments, such as chromium, dysprosium, and erbium, offer unique possibilities to investigate phenomena arising from dipolar interaction. This kind of interaction is not only long-range but also anisotropic in character and imprints qualitatively novel features on the system. Prominent examples are the d-wave collapse of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate of chromium atoms realized by the group in Stuttgart, the spin magnetization and demagnetization dynamics observed by groups in Stuttgart, Paris, and Stanford, and the deformation of the Fermi surface observed by our group in Innsbruck. This thesis reports on the creation and study of the first Bose-Einstein condensate and degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms. Erbium belongs to the lanthanide group of elements and has a large magnetic moment of seven Bohr magneton. In particular, this thesis describes the experimental apparatus and the sequence for producing a dipolar quantum gas. There is an emphasis on the production of the narrow-line magneto-optical trap of erbium since this represents a very efficient and robust laser-cooling scheme that greatly simplifies the experimental procedure. After describing the experimental setup this thesis focuses on several fundamental questions related to the dipolar character of erbium and to its lanthanide nature. A first set of studies centers on the scattering properties of ultracold erbium atoms, including the elastic and the inelastic cross section and the spectrum of Feshbach resonances. Specifically, we observe that identical dipolar fermions do collide and rethermalize even at low temperatures

  3. Lignocellulosic biomass-Thermal pretreatment with steam: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica


    technologies; thermal pre-treatment with steam. The Norwegian company CAMBI developed a process for treatment of sludge from waste water treatment plants, and the idea was based on the experience that cooking sludge under pressure at temperature from 150oC to 180oC improved the digestibility and at the same...

  4. Biomass shock pretreatment (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.


    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  5. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel


    inter-grain encounters-as velocity independent is inconsistent with the mechanical point of view. An asymptotic expression for the impact velocity dependence of ε is therefore derived for visco-elastic spheres. The important inelastic Boltzmann equation is introduced in part II and the associated velocity distribution characterized for a force-free medium (so-called free cooling regime). Transport processes can then be analyzed in part III at the single particle level, and part IV from a more macroscopic viewpoint. The corresponding Chapman-Enskog-like hydrodynamic approach is worked out in detail, in a clear fashion. Finally, the tendency of granular gases to develop instabilities is illustrated in part V where the hydrodynamic picture plays a pivotal role. This book clearly sets the stage. For the sake of simplicity, the authors have discarded some subtle points, such as the open questions underlying the hydrodynamic description (why include the temperature among the hydrodynamic modes, and what about the separation of space and time scales between kinetic and hydrodynamic excitations?). Such omissions are understandable. To a certain extent however, the scope of the book is centered on previous work by the authors, and I have a few regrets. Special emphasis is put on the (variable ε) visco-elastic model, which enhances the technical difficulty of the presentation. On the other hand, the important physical effects including scaling laws, hydrodynamic behaviour and structure formation, can be understood in two steps, from the results derived within the much simpler constant ε model, allowing subsequently ε to depend on the granular temperature. The authors justify their choice with the inconsistency of the constant ε route. The improvements brought by the visco-elastic model remain to be assessed, since the rotational degrees of freedom, discarded in the book, play an important role and require due consideration of both tangential and normal restitution

  6. Injection of gases into the stratosphere by explosive volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Textor, Christiane; Graf, Hans-F.; Herzog, Michael; Oberhuber, J. M.


    Explosive eruptions can inject large amounts of volcanic gases into the stratosphere. These gases may be scavenged by hydrometeors within the eruption column, and high uncertainties remain regarding the proportion of volcanic gases, which eventually reach the stratosphere. These are caused by the difficulties of directly sampling explosive volcanic eruption columns and by the lack of laboratory studies in the extreme parameter regime characterizing them. Using the nonhydrostatic nonsteady state plume model Active Tracer High Resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM), we simulated an explosive volcanic eruption. We examined the scavenging efficiency for the climatically relevant gases within the eruption column. The low concentration of water in the plume results in the formation of relatively dry aggregates. More than 99% of these are frozen because of their fast ascent to low-temperature regions. Consideration of the salinity effect increases the amount of liquid water by one order of magnitude, but the ice phase is still highly dominant. Consequently, the scavenging efficiency for HCl is very low, and only 1% is dissolved in liquid water. However, scavenging by ice particles via direct gas incorporation during diffusional growth is a significant process. The salinity effect increases the total scavenging efficiency for HCl from about 50% to about 90%. The sulfur-containing gases SO2 and H2S are only slightly soluble in liquid water; however, these gases are incorporated into ice particles with an efficiency of 10 to 30%. Despite scavenging, more than 25% of the HCl and 80% of the sulfur gases reach the stratosphere because most of the particles containing these species are lifted there. Sedimentation of the particles would remove the volcanic gases from the stratosphere. Hence the final quantity of volcanic gases injected in a particular eruption depends on the fate of the particles containing them, which is in turn dependent on the volcanic and environmental


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seager, S.; Bains, W.; Hu, R.


    Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H 2 -dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H 2 atmospheres and habitable surface temperatures, using a model atmosphere with photochemistry and a biomass estimate framework for evaluating the plausibility of a range of biosignature gas candidates. We find that photochemically produced H atoms are the most abundant reactive species in H 2 atmospheres. In atmospheres with high CO 2 levels, atomic O is the major destructive species for some molecules. In Sun-Earth-like UV radiation environments, H (and in some cases O) will rapidly destroy nearly all biosignature gases of interest. The lower UV fluxes from UV-quiet M stars would produce a lower concentration of H (or O) for the same scenario, enabling some biosignature gases to accumulate. The favorability of low-UV radiation environments to accumulate detectable biosignature gases in an H 2 atmosphere is closely analogous to the case of oxidized atmospheres, where photochemically produced OH is the major destructive species. Most potential biosignature gases, such as dimethylsulfide and CH 3 Cl, are therefore more favorable in low-UV, as compared with solar-like UV, environments. A few promising biosignature gas candidates, including NH 3 and N 2 O, are favorable even in solar-like UV environments, as these gases are destroyed directly by photolysis and not by H (or O). A more subtle finding is that most gases produced by life that are fully hydrogenated forms of an element, such as CH 4 and H 2 S, are not effective signs of life in an H 2 -rich atmosphere because the dominant atmospheric chemistry will generate such gases abiologically, through photochemistry or geochemistry. Suitable biosignature gases in H 2 -rich atmospheres for super-Earth exoplanets transiting M stars could potentially be detected in transmission spectra with the James Webb Space Telescope

  8. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario


    ecently, macroalgal biomass is gaining wide attention as an alternative in the production of biofuels (as bioetanol and biogas) and compounds with high added value with specific properties (antioxidants, anticoagulants, anti–inflammatories) for applications in food, medical and energy industries...... in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  9. Organosolv pretreatment of olive tree biomass for fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M.J.; Cara, C.; Castro, E. [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Campus Las Lagunillas, University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain); Huijgen, W.J.J.; Van der Laan, R.R.; Reith, J.H. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)


    Olive tree pruning biomass is one of the main agricultural residues available in Mediterranean countries and is currently lacking commercial applications. To take advantage of its sugar content, a pretreatment is necessary to enhance enzyme accessibility of the cellulose fraction of the residue. This paper describes for the first time the use of organosolv pretreatment in this regard. The main process variables such as pretreatment temperature, residence time, and solvent composition (aqueous ethanol) are studied. Results show that organosolv pretreatment causes delignification and hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and improves the enzymatic digestibility of olive tree pruning biomass. A higher pretreatment severity and ethanol content of the solvent were found to increase delignification (up to 64% at 66% w/w aqueous ethanol, 210C, 60 min). By contrast, xylan hydrolysis was promoted by a lower ethanol content (maximum 92%). The highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield (90% of the structural glucan present in the raw material) has been obtained after pretreatment with 43% w/w aqueous ethanol at 210C for 15 min. Organosolv pretreatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass.

  10. temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Polt


    Full Text Available In-situ X-ray diffraction was applied to isotactic polypropylene with a high volume fraction of α-phase (α-iPP while it has been compressed at temperatures below and above its glass transition temperature Tg. The diffraction patterns were evaluated by the Multi-reflection X-ray Profile Analysis (MXPA method, revealing microstructural parameters such as the density of dislocations and the size of coherently scattering domains (CSD-size. A significant difference in the development of the dislocation density was found compared to compression at temperatures above Tg, pointing at a different plastic deformation mechanism at these temperatures. Based on the individual evolutions of the dislocation density and CSD-size observed as a function of compressive strain, suggestions for the deformation mechanisms occurring below and above Tg are made.

  11. Pulse radiolysis of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.J.


    The pulse radiolysis equipment and technique are described and its relevance to atmospheric chemistry is discussed. Pulse radiolysis of a number of different chemical systems have been used to check the validity of the proposed mechanisms: 1) The hydrogen atom yield in the pulse radiolysis of H 2 was measured by four independent calibration techniques, using reactions of H with O 2 , C1NO, and HI. The H atom yield was compared with O 2 yields in pure O 2 and in O 2 /SF 6 mixtures which lead to a value G(H) = 17.6. The rate constants at room temperature of several reactions were determined. 2) OH radical reactions with tetraalkyllead at room temperature and with ethane, methane, and a series of C1- and F-substituted methanes at 300-400 K were studied. Arrhenius parameters, A and Esub(a), were determined for several reactions. The lifetime of Pb(CH 3 ) 4 and Pb(C 2 H 5 ) 4 in ambient air is estimated. CF 2 C1 2 was found to be a very efficient third body, M, in the reaction OH + OH + M arrow H 2 O 2 + M. 3) In the H 2 S systems the HS extinction coefficient at 3242 AA was determined to 9.5 x 10 2 cm -1 mol -1 . Four rate constants at room temperature were determined. (author)

  12. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980 (United States)

    Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.


    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

  13. Pretreatment with helium does not attenuate liver injury after warm ischemia-reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Sebastian; Plitzko, Gabriel; Bicknell, Leonie; van Caster, Patrick; Schulz, Jan; Barthuber, Carmen; Preckel, Benedikt; Pannen, Benedikt H.; Bauer, Inge


    Preconditioning with noble gases serves as an effective strategy to diminish tissue injury in different organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pretreatment with the nonanesthetic noble gas helium on hepatic injury after warm ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in comparison to

  14. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li


    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen...... production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed...

  15. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palonen, H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Tenkanen, M.


    , and the compositions of solid and liquid fractions were analyzed. The solid fraction after wet oxidation contained 58-64% cellulose, 2-16% hemicellulose, and 24-30% lignin. The pretreatment series gave information about the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The temperature...... of the pretreatment, the residual hemicellulose content of the substrate, and the type of the commercial cellulase preparation used were the most important factors affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest sugar yield in a 72-h hydrolysis, 79% of theoretical, was obtained using a pretreatment of 200degrees...

  16. Radioactive gases monitor system: tritium, radon, noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egey, J.Z.; Matatagui, E.


    A system for monitoring the radioactive gases tritium, radon and noble gases is described. We present the description of the sensor and the associated electronics that have been developed to monitor the presence of radioactive gases in air or other gaseous effluents. The system has a high sensitivity and a wide range of operation. The sensor is an ionization chamber, featuring the internal circulation of the gas to monitor and the associated electronics has a resolution better than 10 E-15A (fA). It allows the detection of the individual pulses that are produced during the alpha decay of radon and its daughter elements. The measurement system is made up of a commercial data acquisition system connected to a computer. The acquired data is presented on a graphical display and it is stored for later processing and analysis. We have a system that is of simple construction and versatile. Here we present the experimental results. (authors) [es

  17. Gases and carbon in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.


    This issue is part of a series of data on 'gases and carbon in metals'. The present survey includes results from papers dealing with gases and carbon in actinides and recommends critically selected data for each element. Firstly data od binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compunds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas adsorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. Within a ternary system the topics are arranged in the same way as in binary systems. (HB) [de

  18. Warming Early Mars by Impact Degassing of Reduced Greenhouse Gases (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Zahnle, K.; Barlow, N. G.


    Reducing greenhouse gases are once again the latest trend in finding solutions to the early Mars climate dilemma. In its current form collision induced absorptions (CIA) involving H2 and/or CH4 provide enough extra greenhouse power in a predominately CO2 atmosphere to raise global mean surface temperatures to the melting point of water provided the atmosphere is thick enough and the reduced gases are abundant enough. Surface pressures must be at least 500 mb and H2 and/or CH4 concentrations must be at or above the several percent level for CIA to be effective. Atmospheres with 1-2 bars of CO2 and 2- 10% H2 can sustain surface environments favorable for liquid water. Smaller concentrations of H2 are sufficient if CH4 is also present. If thick CO2 atmospheres with percent level concentrations of reduced gases are the solution to the faint young Sun paradox for Mars, then plausible mechanisms must be found to generate and sustain the gases. Possible sources of reducing gases include volcanic outgassing, serpentinization, and impact delivery; sinks include photolyis, oxidation, and escape to space. The viability of the reduced greenhouse hypothesis depends, therefore, on the strength of these sources and sinks. In this paper we focus on impact delivered reduced gases.

  19. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.


    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  20. A microscope for Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed


    This thesis reports on a novel quantum gas microscope to investigate many-body systems of fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Single-site resolved imaging of ultracold lattice gases has enabled powerful studies of bosonic quantum many-body systems. The extension of this capability to Fermi gases offers new prospects to studying complex phenomena of strongly correlated systems, for which numerical simulations are often out of reach. Using standard techniques of laser cooling, optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li are prepared and loaded into a large-scale 2D optical lattice of flexible geometry. The atomic distribution is frozen using a second, short-scaled lattice, where we perform Raman sideband cooling to induce fluorescence on each atom while maintaining its position. Together with high-resolution imaging, the fluorescence signals allow for reconstructing the initial atom distribution with single-site sensitivity and high fidelity. Magnetically driven evaporative cooling in the plane allows for producing degenerate Fermi gases with almost unity filling in the initial lattice, allowing for the first microscopic studies of ultracold gases with clear signatures of Fermi statistics. By preparing an ensemble of spin-polarised Fermi gases, we detect a flattening of the density profile towards the centre of the cloud, which is a characteristic of a band-insulating state. In one set of experiments, we demonstrate that losses of atom pairs on a single lattice site due to light-assisted collisions are circumvented. The oversampling of the second lattice allows for deterministic separation of the atom pairs into different sites. Compressing a high-density sample in a trap before loading into the lattice leads to many double occupancies of atoms populating different bands, which we can image with no evidence for pairwise losses. We therefore gain direct access to the true number statistics on each lattice site. Using this feature, we can

  1. [CFC gases in medicinal sprays]. (United States)

    Pedersen, P H; Svendsen, U G


    In 1987, approximately 1.18 million aerosol dispensers for medicinal use were sold in Denmark. These contained approximately 29 tons of completely halogenized CFC gases ("Freon") and the preparations were employed for the treatment of bronchial asthma and rhinitis. The possibilities of substitutes are discussed in this article. Preparations are already available which do not contain CFC. Producers of CFC are also attempting to develop new aerosol gases which do not damage the environment. Perhaps these will be found in medicinal preparations in the future.

  2. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure. (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri


    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum information entropies of ultracold atomic gases in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... ... entropies of weakly interacting trapped atomic Bose–Einstein condensates and spin-polarized trapped atomic Fermi gases at absolute zero temperature are evaluated. We find that sum of the position and momentum space information entropies of these quantum systems containing atoms confined in a ...

  4. EOSN: A TOUGH2 module for noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao; Pruess, Karsten


    We developed a new fluid property module for TOUGH2, called EOSN, to simulate transport of noble gases in the subsurface. Currently, users may select any of five different noble gases as well as CO2, two at a time. For the three gas components (air and two user-specified noble gases) in EOSN, the Henry's coefficients and the diffusivities in the gas phase are no longer assumed constants, but are temperature dependent. We used the Crovetto et al. (1982) model to estimate Henry's coefficients, and the Reid et al. (1987) correlations to calculate gas phase diffusivities. The new module requires users to provide names of the selected noble gases, which properties are provided internally. There are options for users to specify any (non-zero) molecular weights and half-lives for the gas components. We provide two examples to show applications of TOUGH2IEOSN. While temperature effects are relatively insignificant for one example problem where advection is dominant, they cause almost an order of magnitude difference for the other case where diffusion becomes a dominant process and temperature variations are relatively large. It appears that thermodynamic effects on gas diffusivities and Henry's coefficients can be important for low-permeability porous media and zones with large temperature variations

  5. Quantum information entropies of ultracold atomic gases in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atomic Bose–Einstein condensates and spin-polarized trapped atomic Fermi gases at absolute zero temperature are evaluated. We find that sum of the position and momentum space information entropies of these quantum systems containing N atoms confined in a D(≤ 3)-dimensional harmonic trap has a universal form ...

  6. Quantum information entropies of ultracold atomic gases in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The position and momentum space information entropies of weakly interacting trapped atomic Bose–Einstein condensates and spin-polarized trapped atomic Fermi gases at absolute zero temperature are evaluated. We find that sum of the position and momentum space information entropies of these quantum systems ...

  7. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C


    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse.

  8. Using a combined hydrolysis factor to optimize high titer ethanol production from sulfite-pretreated poplar without detoxification (United States)

    Jingzhi Zhang; Feng Gu; J.Y. Zhu; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.


    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to poplar NE222 chips in a range of chemical loadings, temperatures, and times. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) as a pretreatment severity accurately predicted xylan dissolution by SPORL. Good correlations between CHF and pretreated...

  9. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of sunflower stalks for sugar production. (United States)

    Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Cara, Cristóbal; Vidal, Juan D; Castro, Eulogio


    In this work the pretreatment of sunflower stalks by dilute sulfuric acid is studied. Pretreatment temperature and the concentration of acid solution were selected as operation variables and modified according to a central rotatable composite experimental design. Based on previous studies pretreatment time was kept constant (5 min) while the variation range for temperature and acid concentration was centered at 175°C and 1.25% (w/v) respectively. Following pretreatment the insoluble solids were separated by filtration and further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis, while liquid fractions were analyzed for sugars and inhibitors. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze results based on the combined severity of pretreatment experiments. Optimized results show that up to 33 g of glucose and xylose per 100g raw material (65% of the glucose and xylose present in the raw material) may be available for fermentation after pretreatment at 167°C and 1.3% sulfuric acid concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection heating autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol production. (United States)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A


    This work describes the application of two forms of heating for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection heating and microwave heating processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave heating processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave heating processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-energy biomass pretreatment with deep eutectic solvents for bio-butanol production. (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio


    Waste lettuce leaves - from the "fresh cut vegetable" industry - were pretreated with the deep eutectic solvent (DES) made of choline chloride - glycerol. Reaction time (3-16h) and the operation temperature (80-150°C) were investigated. Enzymatic glucose and xylose yields of 94.9% and 75.0%, respectively were obtained when the biomass was pretreated at 150°C for 16h. Sugars contained in the biomass hydrolysate were fermented in batch cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSMZ 792. The energy consumption and the energy efficiency related to the DES pretreatment were calculated and compared to the most common lignocellulosic pretreatment processes reported in the literature. The DES pretreatment process was characterized by lower energy required (about 28% decrease and 72% decrease) than the NAOH pretreatment and steam explosion process respectively. The Net Energy Ratio (NER) value related to butanol production via DES biomass pretreatment was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of adding Te to layered GaSe crystals to increase the van der Waals bonding force (United States)

    Tanabe, Tadao; Zhao, Shu; Sato, Yohei; Oyama, Yutaka


    The interplanar binding strength of layered GaSe1-xTex crystals was directly measured using a tensile testing machine. The GaSe1-xTex crystals were grown by a low temperature liquid phase solution method under a controlled Se vapor pressure. The stoichiometry-controlled GaSe1-xTex crystal has the ɛ-polytype structure of GaSe, where the Te atoms are substituted for some of the Se atoms in the GaSe crystal. The effect of adding Te on the bonding strength between the GaSe layers was determined from direct measurements of the van der Waals bonding energy. The bonding energy was increased from 0.023 × 106 N/m2 for GaSe to 0.16 × 106 N/m2 for GaSe1-xTex (x = 0.106).

  13. Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

    A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

  14. Logarithmically Slow Expansion of Hot Bubbles in Gases


    Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.; Sekimoto, Ken


    We report logarithmically slow expansion of hot bubbles in gases in the process of cooling. A model problem first solved, when the temperature has compact support. Then temperature profile decaying exponentially at large distances is considered. The periphery of the bubble is shown to remain essentially static ("glassy") in the process of cooling until it is taken over by a logarithmically slowly expanding "core". An analytical solution to the problem is obtained by matched asymptotic expansi...

  15. Study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of gases (United States)

    Hanafi, M.; Omar, M. M.; Gamal, Y. E. E.-D.


    A study of the spectral emission in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of gases was performed. The measurements were carried out on helium, argon, nitrogen, and air irradiated with ruby laser radiation at a wavelength of 694.3 nm and a pulse width of 40 ns. The study aimed to evaluate the spectral emission characteristics of these gases as well as the parameters of their formed plasmas, namely: electron temperature and electron density. The temporal behaviour of the spectral emission was also analysed for the different observed emission mechanisms (continuum, atomic, and ionic). Moreover, the effect of gas pressure on the spectral emission intensity is reported in this work.

  16. Influence of ultrasound pretreatment on wood physiochemical structure. (United States)

    He, Zhengbin; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxu


    As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results shown that ultrasound pretreatment is indeed effective in modifying the physiochemical structure of eucalyptus wood; the pretreatment decreased the quantity of alkali metals (e.g., potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the resulting material. Compared to the control group, the residual char content of samples pretreated in aqueous soda solution increased by 10.08%-20.12% and the reaction temperature decreased from 361°C to 341°C, however, in samples pretreated by ultrasound in acetic solution or distilled water, the residual char content decreased by 12.40%-21.45% and there were no significant differences in reactivity apart from a slightly higher maximum reaction rate. Ultrasound pretreatment increased the samples' crystallinity up to 35.5% and successfully removed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from the samples; the pretreatment also increased the exposure of the sample to the treatment solutions, broke down sample pits, and generated collapses and microchannels on sample pits, and removed attachments in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling of pretreatment condition of extrusion-pretreated prairie cordgrass and corn stover with poly (oxyethylen)20 sorbitan monolaurate. (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William


    Extrusion processing has shown potential to be used as a pretreatment method for second-generation bioethanol production. Furthermore, surfactants have been shown to reduce enzyme deactivation and increase the efficiency of hydrolysis. Therefore, a sequential pretreatment technique was developed for corn stover (CS) and prairie cordgrass (PCG) in which a single screw extruder was used for the first pretreatment according to a previously optimized condition using 70-180 °C for feed, barrel, and die zones with 65-155 rpm screw speed. The second pretreatment was optimized in this study at 45-55 °C, 1-4 h, 0.15-0.6 g Tween 20/g glucan according to response surface methodology. Optimization of surfactant pretreatment facilitated the estimation of interaction and higher-order effects for major factors involved in surfactant treatment (temperature, time, surfactant loading). Using 8.6 FPU/g glucan cellulase, the optimum conditions found by fitting appropriate quadratic models to the data increased glucose and xylose yield by 27.5 and 33% for CS and by 21.5 and 27% for PCG, respectively. Tween 20 concentrations and pretreatment temperature were the most significant factors affecting sugar yield (p value <0.05). Studies of SDS concentration at and beyond critical micelle concentration (5.2-100 mM) demonstrated a decrease in sugar yield compared to control.

  18. Corrosion by cooling gases in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.


    This article begins with a review of the various materials which can be used and the cooling gases in which they may be heated, emphasis being placed on the importance of reaching temperatures as high as possible. This is followed by a few general remarks on the dry oxidation of metals and alloys, particularly with regard to diffusion phenomena and their various possible mechanisms, and also the methods of investigation employed. Finally, the behaviour of the chief nuclear materials heated in the various gases is studied successively. Materials used for fuel (metallic uranium, uranium oxide, carbides and silicides), canning materials (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, stainless and refractory steels), structural materials (ordinary or slightly alloyed steels), and finally moderators (graphite, beryllium oxide) are deal with in this way. This account is backed up both by the results obtained at the CEA and by work published outside or abroad up to the present day. In conclusion, every effort has been made to direct future research on the basis of the foregoing. Reprint of a paper published in Industries Atomiques - no. 9/10, 1959, p. 3-23 [fr

  19. Positron Cooling and Annihilation in Noble Gases. (United States)

    Green, D G


    Positron cooling and annihilation in room temperature noble gases is simulated using accurate scattering and annihilation cross sections calculated with many-body theory, enabling the first simultaneous probing of the energy dependence of the scattering and annihilation cross sections. A strikingly small fraction of positrons is shown to survive to thermalization: ∼0.1 in He, ∼0 in Ne, ∼0.15 in Ar, ∼0.05 in Kr, and ∼0.01 in Xe. For Xe, the time-varying annihilation rate Z[over ¯]_{eff}(τ) is shown to be highly sensitive to the depletion of the momentum distribution due to annihilation, conclusively explaining the long-standing discrepancy between gas-cell and trap-based measurements. Overall, the use of the accurate atomic data gives Z[over ¯]_{eff}(τ) in close agreement with experiment for all noble gases except Ne, the experiment for which is proffered to have suffered from incomplete knowledge of the fraction of positrons surviving to thermalization and/or the presence of impurities.

  20. Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis


    Full Text Available Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration (NaOH, temperature, pre-treatment time and granulation. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in accordance to the Box-Behnken design for four factors. In the saccharification process of the pre-treated biomass, cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on diatomaceous earth were used. Based on the obtained results, a mathematical model for the optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment prediction is proposed. The optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment are established as follows: granulation 0.75 mm, catalyst concentration 7%, pre-treatment time 6 h and temperature 65 °C if the saccharification efficiency and cost analysis are considered. An influence of the optimized pre-treatment on both the chemical composition and structural changes for six various lignocellulosic materials (energetic willow, energetic poplar, beech, triticale, meadow grass, corncobs was investigated. SEM images of raw and pre-treated biomass samples are included in order to follow the changes in the biomass structure during hydrolysis.

  1. Soliton Gases and Generalized Hydrodynamics (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Yoshimura, Takato; Caux, Jean-Sébastien


    We show that the equations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD), a hydrodynamic theory for integrable quantum systems at the Euler scale, emerge in full generality in a family of classical gases, which generalize the gas of hard rods. In this family, the particles, upon colliding, jump forward or backward by a distance that depends on their velocities, reminiscent of classical soliton scattering. This provides a "molecular dynamics" for GHD: a numerical solver which is efficient, flexible, and which applies to the presence of external force fields. GHD also describes the hydrodynamics of classical soliton gases. We identify the GHD of any quantum model with that of the gas of its solitonlike wave packets, thus providing a remarkable quantum-classical equivalence. The theory is directly applicable, for instance, to integrable quantum chains and to the Lieb-Liniger model realized in cold-atom experiments.

  2. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters


    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin


    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  3. Radiolytic and thermal generation of gases from Hanford grout samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.


    Gamma irradiation of WHC-supplied samples of grouted Tank 102-AP simulated nonradioactive waste has been carried out at three dose rates, 0.25, 0.63, and 130 krad/hr. The low dose rate corresponds to that in the actual grout vaults; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to more than 40 years in the grout vault were achieved. An average G(H{sub 2}) = 0.047 molecules/100 eV was found, independent of dose rate. The rate of H2 production decreases above 80 Mrad. For other gases, G(N{sub 2}) = 0.12, G(O{sub 2}) = 0.026, G(N{sub 2}O) = 0.011 and G(CO) = 0.0042 at 130 krad/hr were determined. At lower dose rates, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could not be measured because of interference by trapped air. The value of G(H{sub 2}) is higher than expected, suggesting segregation of water from nitrate and nitrite salts in the grout. The total pressure generated by the radiolysis at 130 krad/h has been independently measured, and total amounts of gases generated were calculated from this measurement. Good agreement between this measurement and the sum of all the gases that were independently determined was obtained. Therefore, the individual gas measurements account for most of the major components that are generated by the radiolysis. At 90 {degree}C, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were generated at a rate that could be described by exponential formation of each of the gases. Gases measured at the lower temperatures were probably residual trapped gases. An as yet unknown product interfered with oxygen determinations at temperatures above ambient. The thermal results do not affect the radiolytic findings.

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehhalt, D.; Prather, M.; Dentener, F.; Derwent, R.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Holland, E.; Isaksen, I.; Katima, J.; Kirchhoff, V.; Matson, P.; Midgley, P.; Wang, M.; Berntsen, T.; Bey, I.; Brasseur, G.; Buja, L.; Collins, W. J.; Daniel, J. S.; DeMore, W. B.; Derek, N.; Dickerson, R.; Etheridge, D.; Feichter, J.; Fraser, P.; Friedl, R.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Gauss, M.; Grenfell, L.; Grubler, Arnulf; Harris, N.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Jackman, C.; Jacob, D.; Jaegle, L.; Jain, Atul K.; Kanakidou, M.; Karlsdottir, S.; Ko, M.; Kurylo, M.; Lawrence, M.; Logan, J. A.; Manning, M.; Mauzerall, D.; McConnell, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Montzka, S.; Muller, J. F.; Olivier, J.; Pickering, K.; Pitari, G.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rogers, H.; Rognerud, B.; Smith, Steven J.; Solomon, S.; Staehelin, J.; Steele, P.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sundet, J.; Thompson, A.; van Weele, M.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Wang, Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wigley, T. M.; Wild, O.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Yantosca, R.; Joos, Fortunat; McFarland, M.


    Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 2414.1 Introduction 2434.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 2484.3 Projections of Future Emissions 2664.4 Projections of Atmospheric Composition for the 21st Century 2674.5 Open Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric Chemistry Change 279

  5. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  6. Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies (United States)

    Drachman, Richard J. (Editor)


    This publication contains most of the papers, both invited and contributed, that were presented at the Workshop of Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies. This was the fifth in a biennial series associated with the International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Subjects covered included the scattering and annihilation of positrons and positronium atoms in various media, including those of astrophysical interest. In addition, the topics of antimatter and dark matter were covered.

  7. Landfill gases and some effects on vegetation (United States)

    Franklin B. Flower; Ida A. Leone; Edward F. Gilman; John J. Arthur


    Gases moving from refuse landfills through soil were studied in New Jersey. The gases, products of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the refuse, caused injury and death of peach trees, ornamentals, and commercial farm crops, and create possible hazards to life and property because of the entrance of combustible gases into residences. Remedial measures are...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section 1065.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS..., span, and calibration gases. For example, it may be necessary to store bottles of condensable gases in...

  9. Retention of nitrous gases in scrubber columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.; Costa, R.C.; Lobao, A.S.T.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de


    During the UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NO (sub)x are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special colums. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scrubber colums containing H 2 O or diluted HNO 3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NO x evaluation before and after scrubing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO 2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O 2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO 2 oxidation with maximum absorption in the scrubber columns. (author) [pt

  10. Monolayer adsorption of noble gases on graphene (United States)

    Maiga, Sidi M.; Gatica, Silvina M.


    We report our results of simulations of the adsorption of noble gases (Kr, Ar, Xe) on graphene. For Kr, we consider two configurations: supported and free-standing graphene, where atoms are adsorbed only on one or two sides of the graphene. For Ar and Xe, we studied only the case of supported graphene. For the single-side adsorption, we calculated the two-dimensional gas-liquid critical temperature for each adsorbate. We determined the different phases of the monolayers and constructed the phase diagrams. We found two-dimensional incommensurate solid phases for krypton, argon and xenon, and a two-dimensional commensurate solid phase for krypton. For double side adsorption of Kr, we do not see evidence of an ordering transition driven by the interlayer forces.

  11. Evaluation of the Giggenbach bottle method using artificial fumarolic gases (United States)

    Lee, S.; Jeong, H. Y.


    Volcanic eruption is one of the most dangerous natural disasters. Mt. Baekdu, located on the border between North Korea and China, has been recently showing multiple signs of its eruption. The magmatic activity of a volcano strongly affects the composition of volcanic gases, which can provide a useful tool for predicting the eruption. Among various volcanic gas monitoring methods, the Giggenbach bottle method involves the on-site sampling of volcanic gases and the subsequent laboratory analysis, thus making it possible to detect a range of volcanic gases at low levels. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the Giggenbach bottle method and develop the associated analytical tools using artificial fumarolic gases with known compositions. The artificial fumarolic gases are generated by mixing CO2, CO, H2S, SO2, Ar, and H2 gas streams with a N2 stream sparged through an acidic medium containing HCl and HF. The target compositions of the fumarolic gases are selected to cover those reported for various volcanoes under different tectonic environments as follows: CO2 (2-12 mol %), CO (0.3-1 mol %), H2S (0.7-2 mol %), SO2 (0.6-4 mol %), Ar (0.3-0.7 mol %), H2 (0.3-0.7 mol %), HCl (0.2-1 mol %), and HF (HF dissolve into the alkaline solution. In case of H2S, it reacts with dissolved Cd2+ to precipitate as CdS(s). The gas accumulated in the headspace can be analyzed for CO, Ar, H2, and N2 on a gas chromatography. The alkaline solution is first separated from yellowish CdS precipitates by filtration, and then pretreated with hydrogen peroxide to oxidize dissolved SO2 (H2SO3) to SO42-. The resultant solution can be analyzed for SO2 as SO42-, HCl as Cl-, and HF as F- on an ion chromatography and CO2 on an ionic carbon analyzer. Also, the amount of H2S can be determined by measuring the remaining dissolved Cd2+ on an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

  12. Electrochemical sensor monitoring of volcanic gases (United States)

    Roberts, Tjarda; Freshwater, Ray; Oppenheimer, Clive; Saffell, John; Jones, Rod; Griffiths, Paul; Braban, Christine; Mead, Iqbal


    Advances in instrumentation have fuelled a recent growth of interest in using portable sensor systems for environmental monitoring of pollution. Developments in wireless technology are enabling such systems to operate remotely and autonomously, generating a wealth of environmental data. We report here on the application of miniature Alphasense electrochemical sensors to the detection and characterisation of gases in volcanic plumes. A highly portable sensor system was developed to operate an array of 6 low cost electrochemical sensors to detect CO, H2, HCl, SO2, H2S and NO2 at 1 Hz. A miniature pump draws air over all sensors simultaneously (i.e. sensors arranged in parallel). The sensor output in these campaigns was logged on PDAs for real-time viewing, and later download (with a view to future data-streaming). The instrument was deployed at a number of volcanoes and was subject to extremely harsh conditions including highly acidic environments, low (Antarctic) temperatures, and transport over rough terrain. Analysis methods are demonstrated that consider calibration, cross-sensitivities of the sensors to multiple gases, differing sensor response times, temperature dependence, and background sensor drift with time. The analysis is applied to a range of plume field-measurements to extract gas concentrations ranging from 100's ppmv to sub-ppmv and to characterise the individual volcano emissions. Applications of similar sensor systems for real-time long-term monitoring of volcanic emissions (which may indicate and ultimately predict eruptive behavior), and UAV and balloon-borne plume sampling are now already being realised. This work focused on demonstrating the application of electrochemical sensors to monitoring of environmental pollution from volcanoes. Other applications for similar sensors include the near-source monitoring of industrial emissions, and of pollutant levels enhanced by traffic emissions in the urban environment.

  13. The method of determination of mercury adsorption from flue gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław


    Full Text Available For several recent years Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow conduct intensive studies on the occurrence of mercury contained in thermal and coking coals, as well as on the possible reduction of fossil-fuel mercury emissions. This research focuses, among others, on application of sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gases. In this paper we present the methodology for testing mercury adsorption using various types of sorbents, in laboratory conditions. Our model assumes burning a coal sample, with a specific mercury content, in a strictly determined time period and temperature conditions, oxygen or air flow rates, and the flow of flue gases through sorbent in a specific temperature. It was developed for particular projects concerning the possibilities of applying different sorbents to remove mercury from flue gases. Test stand itself is composed of a vertical pipe furnace inside which a quartz tube was mounted for sample burning purposes. At the furnace outlet, there is a heated glass vessel with a sorbent sample through which flue gases are passing. Furnace allows burning at a defined temperature. The exhaust gas flow path is heated to prevent condensation of the mercury vapor prior to contact with a sorbent. The sorbent container is positioned in the heating element, with controlled and stabilized temperature, which allows for testing mercury sorption in various temperatures. Determination of mercury content is determined before (coal and sorbent, as well as after the process (sorbent and ash. The mercury balance is calculated based on the Hg content determination results. This testing method allows to study sorbent efficiency, depending on sorption temperature, sorbent grain size, and flue-gas rates.

  14. Canonical partition functions: ideal quantum gases, interacting classical gases, and interacting quantum gases


    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng


    In statistical mechanics, for a system with fixed number of particles, e.g., a finite-size system, strictly speaking, the thermodynamic quantity needs to be calculated in the canonical ensemble. Nevertheless, the calculation of the canonical partition function is difficult; even the canonical partition function of ideal Bose and Fermi gases cannot be obtained exactly. In this paper, based on the mathematical theory of the symmetric function and the Bell polynomial, we suggest a method for the...

  15. Impact Delivery of Reduced Greenhouse Gases on Early Mars (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Zahnle, K.; Barlow, N.


    Reducing greenhouse gases are once again the latest trend in finding solutions to the early Mars climate dilemma. In its current form - as proposed by Ramirez et al. [1], later refined by Wordsworth et al. [2], and confirmed by Ramirez [3] - collision induced absorptions between CO2-H2 or CO2-CH4 provide enough extra greenhouse power to raise global mean surface temperatures to the melting point of water provided the atmosphere is thick enough and the reduced gases are abundant enough. To raise surface temperatures significantly by this mechanism, surface pressures must be at least 500 mb and H2 and/or CH4 concentrations must be at or above the several percent level. Both Wordsworth et al. [2] and Ramirez [3] show that the melting point can be reached in atmospheres with 1-2 bars of CO2 and 2-10% H2; smaller concentrations of H2 will suffice if CH4 is also present. If thick weakly reducing atmospheres are the solution to the faint young Sun paradox, then plausible mechanisms must be found to generate and sustain the gases. Possible sources of reducing gases include volcanic outgassing, serpentinization, and impact delivery; sinks include photolyis, oxidation, and escape to space. The viability of the reduced greenhouse hypothesis depends, therefore, on the strength of these sources and sinks.

  16. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen


    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  17. Cuantificación de especies químicas y propiedades termodinámicas de los gases para el cálculo de su temperatura en el interior de la cámara de combustión en MCI. // Chemical species quantification and thermodynamic properties of gases for temperature calc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soto Pau


    Full Text Available Se presentan las herramientas utilizadas en los cálculos y análisis de resultados, para la comparación del desempeñode un motor de combustión interna MCI utilizando etanol, gasolina y mezclas de ambos combustibles. Se hizonecesario en dicha investigación calcular la temperatura en el interior de la cámara de combustión para cada ensayo,con el objetivo de entender el comportamiento de la generación de CO, CO2, NOx, THC y emisión de O2 por elescape. Son varios autores los que brindan ecuaciones para el cálculo de la temperatura en el interior de la cámarapara cada grado de giro del cigüeñal, pero usar dichas ecuaciones a partir de valores reales medidos en el bancodinamométrico se hace bastante complicado. En este trabajo se brinda un modelo que permite calcular lastemperatura antes mencionadas a partir de valores obtenidos en ensayos de motores, además de tener en cuenta elfenómeno de disociación de las moléculas cuando se someten a altas temperaturas (más de 1000 K. Se presenta laaplicación de un modelo fenomelógico que consiste en la unión de varios submodelos creados por diferentes autores,para poder llegar a valores de temperaturas en el interior de la cámara de combustión lo más real posible.Palabras claves: Temperatura en cámaras de combustión, disociación molecular a altastemperaturas, etanol, gasolina.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The method presented allows the calculations and analysis of results for performance comparison of an internal combustion engine (MCIusing ethanol, gasoline and mixtures of both fuels. It became necessary to calculate the reining temperature inside the combustion chamberfor each test, with the goal of understanding the behavior of generation of CO, CO2, NOx, THC and emission of O2 in the exhaust. Thereare several authors that offer equations for calculation of the temperature inside the chamber for each of crankshaft degree, but

  18. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.


    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  19. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI:] | View in  |

  20. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed (Arundo donax L.) (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Cosentino; Jae-Won Lee; Thomas W. Jeffries


    Biomass pretreatment is essential to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose for ethanol production. In the present study we pretreated giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a perennial, rhizomatous lignocellulosic grass with dilute oxalic acid. The effects of temperature (170-190 ºC), acid loading (2-10% w/w) and reaction time (15-40 min) were handled as a single...

  1. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini


    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30–100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas pr...... experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900W, temperature: 60–70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation....

  2. Flow-through pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with inorganic nanoporous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R.; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun


    A process for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is provided. The process generally includes flowing water through a pretreatment reactor containing a bed of particulate ligno-cellulosic biomass to produce a pressurized, high-temperature hydrolyzate exit stream, separating solubilized compounds from the hydrolyzate exit stream using an inorganic nanoporous membrane element, fractionating the retentate enriched in solubilized organic components and recycling the permeate to the pretreatment reactor. The pretreatment process provides solubilized organics in concentrated form for the subsequent conversion into biofuels and other chemicals.

  3. Efficient Fuel Pretreatment: Simultaneous Torrefaction and Grinding of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    Combining torrefaction and grinding of biomass in one reactor may be an attractive fuel pretreatment process. A combined laboratory torrefaction and ball mill reactor has been constructed for studies of the influence of temperature and residence time on the product yields and particle size...

  4. Method for purification of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastrup, N.E.


    The present invention is directed to a method for selective purification of gases. The method comprises feeding an exhaust gas containing a solid impurity and a gaseous impurity to a separator. A substantial portion of the solid impurity is separated. Then, the partially-purified gas is fed to a spray dryer. That gas is sprayed with an absorption agent to separate gaseous impurities. Then, the further, partially-purified gas is fed to another separator to separate remaining solid impurity. An exhaust gas which is substantially free of solid and gaseous impurities and fly ash having a desired quality are recovered.

  5. Mechanics of liquids and gases

    CERN Document Server

    Loitsyanskii, L G; Jones, W P


    Mechanics of Liquids and Gases, Second Edition is a 10-chapter text that covers significant revisions concerning the dynamics of an ideal gas, a viscous liquid and a viscous gas.After an expanded introduction to the fundamental properties and methods of the mechanics of fluids, this edition goes on dealing with the kinetics and general questions of dynamics. The next chapters describe the one-dimensional pipe flow of a gas with friction, the elementary theory of the shock tube; Riemann's theory of the wave propagation of finite intensity, and the theory of plane subsonic and supersonic flows.

  6. Ultrasonic waves in classical gases (United States)

    Magner, A. G.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Grygoriev, U. V.


    The velocity and absorption coefficient for the plane sound waves in a classical gas are obtained by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation, which describes the reaction of the single-particle distribution function to a periodic external field. Within the linear response theory, the nonperturbative dispersion equation valid for all sound frequencies is derived and solved numerically. The results are in agreement with the approximate analytical solutions found for both the frequent- and rare-collision regimes. These results are also in qualitative agreement with the experimental data for ultrasonic waves in dilute gases.

  7. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases (United States)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy


    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  8. Enhanced biogas production from penicillin bacterial residue by thermal-alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Weizhang; Li, Guixia; Gao, Yan; Li, Zaixing; Geng, Xiaoling; Li, Yubing; Yang, Jingliang; Zhou, Chonghui


    In this study, the orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions for the effect of thermal alkaline; pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of penicillin bacterial residue. The biodegradability of the penicillin; bacterial residue was evaluated by biochemical methane potential tests in laboratory. The optimum values of temperature,; alkali concentration, pretreatment time and moisture content for the thermal-alkaline pretreatment were determined as; 70 °C, 6% (w/v), 30 min, and 85%, respectively. Thermal-alkaline pretreatment could significantly enhance the soluble; chemical oxygen demand solubilization, the suspended solid solubilization and the biodegradability. Biogas production; was enhanced by the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, probably as a result of the breakdown of cell walls and membranes of; micro-organisms, which may facilitate the contact between organic molecules and anaerobic microorganisms.; Keywords: penicillin bacterial residue; anaerobic digestion; biochemical methane potential tests; pretreatment

  9. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes. (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai


    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lessons from geothermal gases at Yellowstone (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.; Hurwitz, S.


    The magma-hydrothermal system of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field encompasses over ten thousand individual springs, seeps, and fumaroles spread out over >9000 square kilometers, and produces a range of acid, neutral and alkaline waters. A prominent model (Fournier, 1989 and related papers) concludes that many neutral and alkaline fluids found in hot springs and geysers are derived from a uniform, high-enthalpy parent fluid through processes such as deep boiling and mixing with dilute meteoric groundwater. Acid waters are generally condensates of gas-bearing steam that boils off of subsurface geothermal waters. Our recent studies of gases at Yellowstone (Lowenstern et al., 2015 and references therein) are compatible with such a model, but also reveal that gases are largely decoupled from thermal waters due to open-system addition of abundant deep gas to (comparatively) shallow circulating thermal waters. Fumarole emissions at Yellowstone range from gas-rich (up to 15 mol%) composed of deeply derived CO2, He and CH4, to steam-rich emissions (16 RA) and low CH4 and He concentrations and 2) mantle-derived CO2 with much higher CH4 and/or He concentrations and abundant radiogenic He picked up from crustal degassing. Individual thermal areas have distinct CH4/He. It remains unclear whether some gas ratios mainly reflect subsurface geothermal temperatures. Instead, they may simply reflect signatures imparted by local rock types and mixing on timescales too fast for reequilibration. Overall, the gas chemistry reflects a broader view of mantle-crust dynamics than can be appreciated by studies of only dissolved solutes in the neutral and alkaline waters from Yellowstone geysers. Fournier (1989) Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. v. 17, p. 13-53. Lowenstern et al. (2015) JVGR, v. 302, 87-101.

  11. Impact Delivery of Reduced Greenhouse Gases on Early Mars (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Zahnle, K. J.; Barlow, N. G.


    Reducing greenhouse gases are the latest trend in finding solutions to the early Mars climate dilemma. In thick CO2 atmospheres with modest concentrations of H2 and/or CH4, collision induced absorptions can reduce the outgoing long wave radiation enough to provide a significant greenhouse effect. To raise surface temperatures significantly by this process, surface pressures must be at least 500 mb and H2 and/or CH4 concentrations must be at or above the several percent level. Volcanism, serpentinization, and impacts are possible sources for reduced gases. Here we investigate the delivery of such gases by impact degassing from comets and asteroids. We use a time-marching stochastic impactor model that reproduces the observed crater size frequency distribution of Noachian surfaces. Following each impact, reduced gases are added to the atmosphere from a production function based on gas equilibrium calculations for several classes of meteorites and comets at typical post-impact temperatures. Escape and photochemistry then remove the reduced greenhouse gases continuously in time throughout each simulation. We then conduct an ensemble of simulations with this simple model varying the surface pressure, impact history, reduced gas production and escape functions, and mix of impactor types, to determine if this could be a potentially important part of the early Mars story. Our goal is to determine the duration of impact events that elevate reduced gas concentrations to significant levels and the total time of such events throughout the Noachian. Our initial simulations indicate that large impactors can raise H2 concentrations above the 10% level - a level high enough for a very strong greenhouse effect in a 1 bar CO2 atmosphere - for millions of years, and that the total time spent at or above that level can be in the 10's of millions of years range. These are interesting results that we plan to explore more thoroughly for the meeting.

  12. Strongly-Interacting Fermi Gases in Reduced Dimensions (United States)


    superconductivity), nuclear physics (nuclear matter), high - energy physics (effective theories of the strong interactions ), astrophysics (compact stellar objects...strongly- interacting Fermi gases confined in a standing- wave CO2 laser trap. This trap produces a periodic quasi-two-dimensional pancake geometry...predictions of the phase diagram and high temperature superfluidity. Our recent measurements reveal that pairing energy and cloud profiles can be

  13. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.


    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  14. Stress analysis of the O-element pipe during the process of flue gases purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekvasil R.


    Full Text Available Equipment for flue gases purification from undesired substances is used throughout power and other types of industry. This paper deals with damaging of the O-element pipe designed to remove sulphur from the flue gases, i.e. damaging of the pipe during flue gases purification. This purification is conducted by spraying the water into the O-shaped pipe where the flue gases flow. Thus the sulphur binds itself onto the water and gets removed from the flue gas. Injection of cold water into hot flue gases, however, causes high stress on the inside of the pipe, which can gradually damage the O-element pipe. In this paper initial injection of water into hot pipe all the way to stabilization of temperature fields will be analyzed and the most dangerous places which shall be considered for fatigue will be determined.

  15. Influência da pressão, temperatura e pré-tratamentos na secagem a vácuo de cenoura e abóbora Influence of pressure and temperature and pre-treatments in the carrot and pumpkin vacuum drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Arévalo-Pinedo


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou estudar experimentalmente a cinética de secagem a vácuo de cenoura e abóbora "in natura" e pré-tratadas por branqueamento e congelamento. Os ensaios experimentais foram conduzidos em um secador a vácuo, nas pressões de 5, 15 e 25 kPa e temperaturas de 50, 60 e 70°C. Estudou-se a influência da pressão e temperatura assim como os pré-tratamentos adotados sobre a cinética de secagem. A análise do efeito dos pré-tratamentos e dos parâmetros pressão e temperatura sobre a velocidade de secagem revelou que os melhores valores foram obtidos com a temperatura de 70°C e pressão de 5 kPa para as amostras prétratadas por congelamento. Quanto ao tipo de matéria-prima utilizado, a abóbora apresentou maiores velocidades de secagem que a cenoura, independentemente do tratamento recebido e da condição de secagem utilizada. As curvas experimentais de secagem foram ajustadas ao modelo difusional de Fick para uma placa plana infinita.In this work it was studied experimentally the kinetics of drying of carrot and pumpkin under vacuum drying in nature and pre-treatment by freezing and bleaching. The experimental runs were driven in a dryer under vacuum, at pressures of 5, 15 and 25 kPa and temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C. The influences on the drying kinetics of the pressures and temperature were studied, as well as the effect of adopting pre-treatment. It was observed that the best values were obtained at the temperature of 70°C and pressure of 5 kPa for the samples pretreatment by freezing. As concerns to the raw material employed, pumpkin presented higher drying speeds than the one shown by carrot, independently of the treatment received and of the operational condition of drying. The experimental curves of drying were adjusted to the difusional model of Fick for an infinite slab.

  16. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process. (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen


    Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Corn stover was pretreated with aqueous ammonia in a flow-through column reactor,a process termed as Ammonia Recycle Percolation (ARP). The aqueous ammonia causesswelling and efficient delignification of biomass at high temperatures. The ARPprocess solubilizes abou...

  18. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.X., E-mail: [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Lv, J.C. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Ren, Y. [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Zhi, T.; Chen, J.Y.; Zhou, Q.Q. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Lu, Z.Q.; Gao, D.W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Jin, L.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PET was finished by plasma treatment and SWCNT coating to improve antistatic property. • Plasma modification had a positive effect on SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. • O{sub 2} plasma was more effective in SWCNT coating than Ar plasma in the shorter time. • Antistatic enhanced and then declined with enhancing treatment time and output power. • Antistatic increased with increasing concentration, curing time, curing temperature. - Abstract: This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O{sub 2} plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N{sub 2} or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the

  19. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.X.; Lv, J.C.; Ren, Y.; Zhi, T.; Chen, J.Y.; Zhou, Q.Q.; Lu, Z.Q.; Gao, D.W.; Jin, L.M.


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PET was finished by plasma treatment and SWCNT coating to improve antistatic property. • Plasma modification had a positive effect on SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. • O 2 plasma was more effective in SWCNT coating than Ar plasma in the shorter time. • Antistatic enhanced and then declined with enhancing treatment time and output power. • Antistatic increased with increasing concentration, curing time, curing temperature. - Abstract: This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O 2 plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N 2 or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the plasma treated

  20. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.


    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  1. Granular gases under extreme driving (United States)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.


    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  2. Tween 40 pretreatment of unwashed water-insoluble solids of reed straw and corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water to obtain high concentrations of bioethanol. (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Li, Xuezhi; Yang, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo


    Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to produce bioethanol with lignocellulosic materials. In our previous study, high ethanol concentration and ethanol yield were obtained from water-insoluble solids (WIS) of reed straw and corn stover pretreated with LHW by using fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF). However, high cellulase loading and the large amount of wash water possibly limit the practical application of LHW pretreatment. To decrease cellulase loading and the amount of wash water, we performed Tween 40 pretreatment before WIS was subjected to bioethanol fermentation. Results showed that the optimum conditions of Tween 40 pretreatment were as follows: Tween 40 concentration of 1.5%, WIS-to-Tween 40 ratio of 1:10 (w/v), and pretreatment time of 1 hour at ambient temperature. After Tween 40 pretreatment, cellulase loading could be greatly reduced. After Tween 40 pretreatment, the residual liquid could be recycled for utilization but slightly affected ethanol concentration and yield. The unwashed WIS could obtain a high ethanol concentration of 56.28 g/L (reed straw) and 52.26 g/L (corn stover) by Tween 40 pretreatment using fed-batch S-SSF. Ethanol yield reached a maximum of 69.1% (reed straw) and 71.1% (corn stover). Tween 40 pretreatment was a very effective and less costly method with unwashed WIS. This pretreatment could greatly reduce cellulase loading and save wash water. Higher ethanol concentration was obtained almost without reducing ethanol yield.

  3. Cellulosic butanol biofuel production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB): Impact of hot water pretreatment and solid loadings on fermentation employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260 (United States)

    A novel butanol fermentation process was developed in which sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was pretreated using liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment technique followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and butanol (acetone butanol ethanol; ABE) fermentation. A pretreatment temperature of 200 deg C resulted in the...

  4. Ohmic heating pretreatment of algal slurry for production of biodiesel. (United States)

    Yodsuwan, Natthawut; Kamonpatana, Pitiya; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote


    Suspensions of the model microalga Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were pretreated by ohmic heating to facilitate release of lipids from the cells in subsequent extraction and lipase-mediated transesterification to biodiesel. After ohmic pretreatment, the moist biomass was suspended in a system of water, hexane, methanol and immobilized lipase for extraction of lipids and simultaneous conversion to biodiesel. The ohmic pretreatment was optimized using an experimental design based on Taguchi method to provide treated biomass that maximized the biodiesel yield in subsequent extraction-transesterification operation. The experimental factors were the frequency of electric current (5-10 5  Hz), the processing temperature (50-70 °C), the algal biomass concentration in the slurry (algal fresh weight to water mass ratio of 1-3) and the incubation time (1-3 min). Extraction-transesterification of the pretreated biomass was carried out at 40 °C for 24 h using a reaction systems of a fixed composition (i.e. biomass, hexane, methanol, water and immobilized enzyme). Compared to control (i.e. untreated biomass), the ohmic pretreatment under optimal conditions (5 Hz current frequency, 70 °C, 1:2 mass ratio of biomass to water, incubation time of 2-min) increased the rate of subsequent transesterification by nearly 2-fold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep Eutectic Solvents pretreatment of agro-industrial food waste. (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio


    Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe. In particular, apple residues, potato peels, coffee silverskin, and brewer's spent grains were pretreated with two DESs, (choline chloride-glycerol and choline chloride-ethylene glycol) for fermentable sugar production. Pretreated biomass was enzymatic digested by commercial enzymes to produce fermentable sugars. Operating conditions of the DES pretreatment were changed in wide intervals. The solid to solvent ratio ranged between 1:8 and 1:32, and the temperature between 60 and 150 °C. The DES reaction time was set at 3 h. Optimal operating conditions were: 3 h pretreatment with choline chloride-glycerol at 1:16 biomass to solvent ratio and 115 °C. Moreover, to assess the expected European amount of fermentable sugars from the investigated AFWs, a market analysis was carried out. The overall sugar production was about 217 kt yr -1 , whose main fraction was from the hydrolysis of BSGs pretreated with choline chloride-glycerol DES at the optimal conditions. The reported results boost deep investigation on lignocellulosic biomass using DES. This investigated new class of solvents is easy to prepare, biodegradable and cheaper than ionic liquid. Moreover, they reported good results in terms of sugars' release at mild operating conditions (time, temperature and pressure).

  6. Spin diffusion in Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg


    We examine spin diffusion in a two-component homogeneous Fermi gas in the normal phase. Using a variational approach, analytical results are presented for the spin diffusion coefficient and the related spin relaxation time as a function of temperature and interaction strength. For low temperatures......, strong correlation effects are included through the Landau parameters which we extract from Monte Carlo results. We show that the spin diffusion coefficient has a minimum for a temperature somewhat below the Fermi temperature with a value that approaches the quantum limit ~/m in the unitarity regime...

  7. Electron beam process for SO2 removal from flue gases with high SO2 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licki, J.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Tyminski, B.; Bulka, S.


    Flue gases with high SO 2 concentration are emitted from different industrial processes, e.g. combustion of coal with high sulfur content, copper smelting and sintering plant. The application of the electron beam process for SO 2 removal from such flue gases was investigated. A parametric study was carried out to determine the removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, dose and ammonia stoichiometry. At the dose 11.5 kGy 95% SO 2 removal efficiency was obtained when the temperature and humidity of irradiated flue gases and ammonia stoichiometry were properly adjusted. The synergistic effect of high SO 2 concentration on NO x removal was observed. The collected by-product was the mixture of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and NH 4 NO 3 . The content of heavy metals in the by-product was many times lower than the values acceptable for commercial fertilizer

  8. Complete utilisation of flue gases from natural gas combustion for reducing fuel purchase costs and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Gedrovics, M.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.


    The article shows the possibilities to reduce the consumption of natural gas, thus cutting the expenditure for the purchase of natural gas and minimising the emissions. By analysing on e component of the heat balance of a boiler - the losses of heat with outgoing flue gases - the impact of lower-temperature flue gases without / with the water vapor condensations is shown upon the increase in the value of the efficiency of the boiler. Technical possibilities are shown how to reduce the temperature of flue gases by installation of heat exchangers and condensing boilers. It is emphasised that the products of natural gas combustion do not contain sulphurous compounds and ash, making thi kind of fuel appropriate for condensation of the water vapour present in flue gases. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of ultrasound assisted potassium permanganate pre-treatment of spent coffee waste. (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Swarna; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit K


    In the present study, novel pre-treatment for spent coffee waste (SCW) has been proposed which utilises the superior oxidising capacity of alkaline KMnO 4 assisted by ultra-sonication. The pre-treatment was conducted for different exposure times (10, 20, 30 and 40min) using different concentrations of KMnO 4 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5%w/v) at room temperature with solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. Pretreating SCW with 4% KMnO 4 and exposing it to ultrasound for 20min resulted in 98% cellulose recovery and a maximum lignin removal of 46%. 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugar yield was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of KMnO 4 pretreated SCW as compared to raw. SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis of the pretreated SCW revealed the various effects of pretreatment. Thermal behaviour of the pretreated substrate against the native biomass was also studied using DSC. Ultrasound-assisted potassium permanganate oxidation was found to be an effective pretreatment for SCW, and can be a used as a potential feedstock pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combustion of low calorific value gases in porous burners; Verbrennung von niederkalorischen Gasen in Porenbrennern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezinger, S.; Talukdar, P.; Issendorff, F. von; Trimis, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Stroemungsmechanik Friedrich-Alexander-Univ., Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)


    By the use of low calorific value gases significant energy amounts can be saved, emissions can be reduced and system efficients can be increased. These mixtures are generated in different fields like waste sites and fuel cell systems with reformation of hydrocarbons. Conventional combustion techniques are not suited for the combustion of this kind of gases. Due to its high internal heat recuperation the porous burner technology has great potential for the combustion of low calorific value gases. In this work the influence of the combustion zone properties, the surface load and the educt temperature were determined by numerical simulations and experiments. (orig.)

  11. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yoney; Martin, Carlos; Gullon, Beatriz; Parajo, Juan Carlos


    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  12. Influence of the gray gases number in the weighted sum of gray gases model on the radiative heat exchange calculation inside pulverized coal-fired furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnomarković Nenad Đ.


    Full Text Available The influence of the number of gray gases in the weighted sum in the gray gases model on the calculation of the radiative heat transfer is discussed in the paper. A computer code which solved the set of equations of the mathematical model describing the reactive two-phase turbulent flow with radiative heat exchange and with thermal equilibrium between phases inside the pulverized coal-fired furnace was used. Gas-phase radiative properties were determined by the simple gray gas model and two combinations of the weighted sum of the gray gases models: one gray gas plus a clear gas and two gray gases plus a clear gas. Investigation was carried out for two values of the total extinction coefficient of the dispersed phase, for the clean furnace walls and furnace walls covered by an ash layer deposit, and for three levels of the approximation accuracy of the weighting coefficients. The influence of the number of gray gases was analyzed through the relative differences of the wall fluxes, wall temperatures, medium temperatures, and heat transfer rate through all furnace walls. The investigation showed that there were conditions of the numerical investigations for which the relative differences of the variables describing the radiative heat exchange decrease with the increase in the number of gray gases. The results of this investigation show that if the weighted sum of the gray gases model is used, the complexity of the computer code and calculation time can be reduced by optimizing the number of gray gases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in-house developed software tools

  13. Greenhouse Gases Concentrations in the Atmosphere Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect of vehicular emission on greenhouse gases concentrations along selected roads of different traffic densities in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nine roads comprised highway, commercial and residential were selected. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) were determined from both sides of the roads by ...

  14. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases. (United States)


    ... gases must be available for operation: (1) Purified nitrogen (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400... span gases. (1) Calibration gas values are to be derived from NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRM's... purified synthetic air ; (ii) C3H8 and purified nitrogen (optional for raw measurements); (iii) CO and...

  15. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases (United States)

    Natesan, Krishnamurti


    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of C.

  16. Elimination of carbon dioxide and other atmospheric gases by means of calcium rich industrial w aste


    Esquivias, L.; Santos, Alberto; Morales, Alberto


    [EN] The present invention relates to the use of an aqueous suspension comprising calcium in a proportion exceeding 15% by weight, the solid phase of such aqueous suspension being preferably portlandite proceeding from chemical industry waste, for the elimination of CO2 and other greenhouse effect gases. The present invention moreover relates to a procedure of elimination of said gases under conditions of ambient pressure and temperatures, through both induced and environmental carbo...

  17. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.


    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  18. Neuralfussy multivariable control applied to the control of velocity, power, and exhaust gas temperature of a turbo gas unit; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de gases de escape de una unidad turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio


    The electric power demand in Mexico has forced to the electric sector to be in a constant search of methods and systems that, among other objectives, improve the operation of the generating power stations of electric power continually. As part of their mission, the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) has promoted and leaning the applied research and the technological development to improve the indexes of security, readiness, dependability, efficiency and durability of central generating by means of the development and the installation of big digital systems of information and control. At the present time, inside the scheme of electric power generation, the gas turbine (UTG) represent 7% of the generation of the national electric sector [1]. These units have become the dominant way of the new electric generation in the U.S, either in simple cycle or combined. The above-mentioned, is attributable at less installation cost for generated kilowatt, to the shortest construction programs, at first floor levels of emission of pollutants and competitive operation costs. The control system of the gas turbine is based on conventional control algorithms of the type PI [2]. This control scheme is dedicated for regulation tasks and rejection to interferences, and it doesn't stop pursuit of reference points. The controllers act all on a control valve, that which represents a strong interaction among the same ones, for example an adjustment in the parameters of the algorithm of the digital PI of temperature, it can improve their acting but it can also affect the acting of the speed control or that of power. The gas turbine presents a non lineal behavior and variant in the time, mainly in the starting stage where several important disturbances are presented. At the moment, the controllers used in the scheme of control of the turbines are lineal, which are syntonized for a specific operation point and they are conserved this way by indefinite time. In this thesis the

  19. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik


    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  20. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam. (United States)

    van Doornmalen, J P C M; Kopinga, K


    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1%) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M(TM) Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Environmental Gases: Health Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; IBrahim, M.S.; Zakaria, Kh.M.


    Radioactive radon gas is widely considered to be a health hazard by environmental agencies in the United States and in Europe. Yet despite the warnings of these agencies, thousands of people annually expose themselves to radon for therapeutic purposes, in facilities ranging from rustic old mines, to upscale spas and clinics. The inert natural radioactive gas radon has been used since the beginning of the century in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In many places in the world, radon is used for therapeutic purposes for various diseases. Radon inhalation is applied in a thermal gallery with atmospheric radon concentrations up to 100 kBq/m3, elevated temperature up to 41 EC , and humidity close to 100%, or in the form of radon baths where Rn is emanated from water with high natural Rn activity. Frequently, a combination of both treatment procedures is applied. Evidence from empirical experience and from clinical observational studies suggests that radon has analgesic, anti inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects. Ozone is one of nature's most powerful oxidants. It increases the effectiveness of the antioxidant enzyme system, which scavenge excess free radicals in the body. It is used in water purification and sewage treatment and is now being applied medically to treat many diseases from wounds and colitis to cancer, stroke and AIDS. According to the dosage and concentration range, medical ozone is a pharmaceutical agent that exerts specific properties and a well-defined range of efficacy. This paper describes the medical application of environmental gases: radon and ozone

  2. Radiative energy transfer in molecular gases (United States)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.


    Basic formulations, analyses, and numerical procedures are presented to study radiative interactions in gray as well as nongray gases under different physical and flow conditions. After preliminary fluid-dynamical considerations, essential governing equations for radiative transport are presented that are applicable under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Auxiliary relations for relaxation times and spectral absorption models are also provided. For specific applications, several simple gaseous systems are analyzed. The first system considered consists of a gas bounded by two parallel plates having the same temperature. Within the gas there is a uniform heat source per unit volume. For this system, both vibrational nonequilibrium effects and radiation conduction interactions are studied. The second system consists of fully developed laminar flow and heat transfer in a parallel plate duct under the boundary condition of a uniform surface heat flux. For this system, effects of gray surface emittance are studied. With the single exception of a circular geometry, the third system is considered identical to the second system. Here, the influence of nongray walls is also studied.

  3. Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases (United States)

    Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.


    Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.

  4. Pretreatment of Process Condensate with Ammonia Degassing in CAN Fertilizer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.


    Full Text Available In the production process of calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN fertilizer, process-condensate is generated with a high content of ammonium nitrogen. Such high mass concentration of ammonium nitrogen (approximately 2 g L-1 significantly burdens the operation of the wastewater treatment plant, where the process condensate is treated by method of ion exchange. At CAN 1 Plant, a degassing system for process condensate was built. After pretreatment, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in the process condensate was reduced to less than 500 mg L-1.Before upgrading with degassing system, the process condensate from CAN 1 Plant was collected in tank TK 17 301, from which it was pumped to the wastewater treatment plant to be treated by the method of ion exchange. When CAN 1 Plant is in normal operation, 10 m3h-1 of process condensate is formed with pH around 10, and temperatures around 50 °C. The degassing system of process condensate consists of a new tank, TK 17 504, which is connected with new pipeline to the tank TK 17 301. The process condensate input was transferred from the old to the new tank, TK 17 504. A new pump was installed for regulation of process condensate and bursting above the condensate level.Additional stimulation for ammonia degassing followed, after the return of 12 bar steam condensate into the tank TK 17 504. Consequently, the process condensate temperature increased to 80 C. Degassed ammonia is introduced into the existing system for washing gases and returns into the process of fertilizer production.By degassing ammonia from the process condensate at CAN 1 Plant, 10.7 kg h-1of ammonia returns into the fertilizer production process.Additionally, there has been an improved performance of the wastewater treatment plant, so that in December 2010, the volume of treated wastewater was almost 80 000 m3 which is an increase of 86 %.

  5. Greenhouse gases and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Dudek, D.J.


    Global cooperation is essential in cutting greenhouse-gas emissions, say Alice LeBlanc and Daniel J. Dudek of the Environmental Defense in New York City. The first step, they continue, is agreement among nations on an overall global limit for all greenhouse gases, followed by an allocation of the global limit among nations. The agreements must contain effective reporting and monitoring systems and enforcement provisions, they add. The Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by most nations of the world in Brazil in 1992, provides the foundation for such an agreement, LeBlanc and Dudek note. open-quotes International emissions trading is a way to lower costs and expand reduction options for the benefit of all,close quotes they contend. Under such an arrangement, an international agency would assign allowances, stated in tons of carbon dioxide. Countries would be free to buy and sell allowances, but no country could exceed, in a given year, the total allowances it holds. By emitting less than its allowed amount, a country would accumulate more allowances, which it could sell. The authors claim such a system would offer benefits to the world economy by saving billions of dollars in pollution-reduction costs while still achieving emission limits established in an international agreement

  6. Evaluation of lime and hydrothermal pretreatments for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse. (United States)

    Grimaldi, Maira Prearo; Marques, Marina Paganini; Laluce, Cecília; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Sponchiado, Sandra Regina Pombeiro


    Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment step to disrupt the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin complex and to increase biomass digestibility, thus allowing the obtaining of high yields of fermentable sugars for the subsequent fermentation. Hydrothermal and lime pretreatments have emerged as effective methods in preparing the lignocellulosic biomass for bioconversion. These pretreatments are advantageous because they can be performed under mild temperature and pressure conditions, resulting in less sugar degradation compared with other pretreatments, and also are cost-effective and environmentally sustainable. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these pretreatments on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse obtained directly from mill without prior screening. In addition, we evaluated the structure and composition modifications of this bagasse after lime and hydrothermal pretreatments. The highest cellulose hydrolysis rate (70 % digestion) was obtained for raw sugarcane bagasse pretreated with lime [0.1 g Ca(OH)2/g raw] for 60 min at 120 °C compared with hydrothermally pretreated bagasse (21 % digestion) under the same time and temperature conditions. Chemical composition analyses showed that the lime pretreatment of bagasse promoted high solubilization of lignin (30 %) and hemicellulose (5 %) accompanied by a cellulose accumulation (11 %). Analysis of pretreated bagasse structure revealed that lime pretreatment caused considerable damage to the bagasse fibers, including rupture of the cell wall, exposing the cellulose-rich areas to enzymatic action. We showed that lime pretreatment is effective in improving enzymatic digestibility of raw sugarcane bagasse, even at low lime loading and over a short pretreatment period. It was also demonstrated that this pretreatment caused alterations in the structure and composition of raw bagasse, which had a pronounced effect on the enzymes accessibility to the

  7. Survey of Lignin-Structure Changes and Depolymerization during Ionic Liquid Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Tanmoy; Isern, Nancy G.; Sun, Jian; Wang, Eileen; Hull, Sarah; Cort, John R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema


    A detailed study of chemical changes in lignin structure during the ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment process is not only pivotal for understanding and overcoming biomass recalcitrance during IL pretreatment, but also is necessary for designing new routes for lignin valorization. Chemical changes in lignin were systematically studied as a function of pretreatment temperature, time and type of IL used. Kraft lignin was used as the lignin source and common pretreatment conditions were employed using three different ILs of varying chemical structure in terms of acidic or basic character. The chemical changes in the lignin structure due to IL pretreatment processes were monitored using 1H-13C HSQC NMR, 31P NMR, elemental analysis, GPC, FT-IR, and the depolymerized products were analyzed using GC-MS. Although pretreatment in acidic IL, triethylammonium hydrogensulfate ([TEA][HSO4]) results in maximum decrease in β-aryl ether bond, maximum dehydration and recondensation pathways were also evident, with the net process showing a minimum decrease in the molecular weight of regenerated lignin. However, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) pretreatment yields a smaller decrease in the β-aryl ether content along with minimum evidence of recondensation, resulting in the maximum decrease in the molecular weight. Cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys]) pretreatment shows an intermediate result, with moderate depolymerization, dehydration and recondensation observed. The depolymerization products after IL pretreatment are found to be a function of the pretreatment temperature and the specific chemical nature of the IL used. At higher pretreatment temperature, [Ch][Lys] pretreatment yields guaiacol, [TEA][HSO4] yields guaiacylacetone, and [C2C1Im][OAc] yields both guaiacol and guaiacylacetone as major products. These results clearly indicate that the changes in lignin structure as well as the depolymerized product profile depend on the pretreatment conditions and the nature

  8. Pretreatment of textile dyeing wastewater using an anoxic baffled reactor. (United States)

    Kong, Huoliang; Wu, Huifang


    A study on pretreatment of textile dyeing wastewater was carried out using an anoxic baffled reactor (ABR) at wastewater temperatures of 5-31.1 degrees C. When hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 8h, the color of outflow of ABR was only 40 times at 5 degrees C and it could satisfy the professional discharge standard (grade-1) of textile and dyeing industry of China (GB4287-92). The total COD removal efficiency of ABR was 34.6%, 47.5%, 50.0%, 53.3%, 54.7% and 58.1% at 5, 9.7, 14.9, 19.7, 23.5 and 31.1 degrees C, respectively. Besides, after the wastewater being pre-treated by ABR when HRT was 6h and 8h, the BOD5/COD value rose from 0.30 of inflow to 0.46 of outflow and from 0.30 of inflow to 0.40 of outflow, respectively. Experimental results indicated that ABR was a very feasible process to decolorize and pre-treat the textile dyeing wastewater at ambient temperature. Moreover, a kinetic simulation of organic matter degradation in ABR at six different wastewater temperatures was carried through. The kinetic analysis showed the organic matter degradation was a first-order reaction. The reaction activation energy was 19.593 kJ mol(-1) and the temperature coefficient at 5-31.1 degrees C was 1.028.

  9. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir


    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  10. Bose Einstein condensation of gases in a harmonic potential trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Zomorrodian


    Full Text Available One of the most interesting properties of boson gases is that under special conditions, there is a possibility of a phase transition, in a critical temperature  below  which  all bosons condensate into  the ground state. This phenomenon is called Bose – Einstein Condensation (BEC. In  this paper, we investigate BEC in a harmonic oscillator trap. We conclude that, in contrast to a free boson gas, there is no critical temperature for phase transition in a harmonic oscillator trap. However , by numerical and analytical calculation, it is possible to obtain a temperature at which the heat capacity is maximum. We call this the critical  temperature . Possible explanation for all these features will be explained in this paper.

  11. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte


    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  12. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)


    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  13. Understanding changes in lignin of Panicum virgatum and Eucalyptus globulus as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment. (United States)

    Varanasi, Patanjali; Singh, Priyanka; Arora, Rohit; Adams, Paul D; Auer, Manfred; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema


    Ionic liquids (ILs) have shown great potential for the reduction of lignin in biomass after pretreatment. Although dilute acid and base pretreatments have been shown to result in pretreated biomass with substantially different lignin composition, there is scarce information on the composition of lignin of IL pretreated biomass. In this work, temperature dependent compositional changes in lignin after IL pretreatment were studied to develop a mechanistic understanding of the process. Panicum virgatum and Eucalyptus globulus were pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)mim][OAc]). Measurement of syringyl and guaiacyl ratio using pyrolysis-GC/MS and Kamlet-Taft properties of [C(2)mim][OAc] at 120 °C and 160 °C strongly suggest two different modes of IL pretreatment. Preferential breakdown of S-lignin in both eucalyptus and switchgrass at high pretreatment temperature (160 °C) and breakdown of G-lignin for eucalyptus and no preferential break down of either S- or G-lignin in switchgrass was observed at lower pretreatment temperatures (120 °C). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial planets (United States)

    Wacker, J. F.


    Terrestrial planets and chondrites have noble gas platforms that are sufficiently alike, especially Ne/Ar, that they may have acquired their noble gases by similar processes. Meteorites presumably obtained their noble gases during formation in the solar nebula. Adsorption onto C - the major gas carrier in chondrites - is the likely mechanism for trapping noble gases; recent laboratory simulations support this hypothesis. The story is more complex for planets. An attractive possibility is that the planets acquired their noble gases in a late accreting veneer of chondritic material. In chondrites, noble gases correlate with C, N, H, and volatile metals; by Occam's Razor, we would expect a similar coupling in planets. Indeed, the Earth's crust and mantle contain chondritic like trace volatiles and PL group metals, respectively and the Earth's oceans resemble C chondrites in their enrichment of D (8X vs 8-10X of the galactic D/H ratio). Models have been proposed to explain some of the specific noble gas patterns in planets. These include: (1) noble gases may have been directly trapped by preplanetary material instead of arriving in a veneer; (2) for Venus, irradiation of preplanetary material, followed by diffusive loss of Ne, could explain the high concentration of AR-36; (3) the Earth and Venus may have initially had similar abundances of noble gases, but the Earth lost its share during the Moon forming event; (4) noble gases could have been captured by planetestimals, possibly leading to gravitational fractionation, particularly of Xe isotopes and (5) noble gases may have been dissolved in the hot outer portion of the Earth during contact with a primordial atmosphere.

  15. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira


    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO 2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N 2 O by soil process, and CH 4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO 2 , CH 4 , CO, H 2 , N 2 O and SF 6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO 2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO 2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H 2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO 2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was

  16. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun


    60 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  17. Microwave-assisted co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock for upgrading liquid oil: Effect of pretreatment parameters on pyrolysis behavior. (United States)

    Duan, Dengle; Ruan, Roger; Lei, Hanwu; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Zhang, Yayun; Zhao, Yunfeng; Dai, Leilei; Wu, Qiuhao; Zhang, Shumei


    The co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock was carried out to upgrade vapors under microwave irradiation. Results showed that the yield of 29.92-42.21 wt% of upgraded liquid oil was achieved under varied pretreatment conditions. Char yield decreased from 32.44 wt% for untreated control to 24.35 wt% for the 150 °C pretreated samples. The increased temperature, irradiation time and acid concentration were conducive to decrease the relative contents of phenols and oxygenates in liquid oils. The main components of the liquid oil were gasoline fraction (mono-aromatics and C5-C12 aliphatics), which ranged from 57.38 to 71.98% under various pretreatment conditions. Meanwhile, the diesel fraction (C12+ aliphatics) ranged from 13.16 to 22.62% from co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock, comparing with 10.18% of C12+ aliphatics from co-pyrolysis of non-pretreated lignin and soapstock. A possible mechanism was proposed for co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock for upgraded liquid oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases (United States)

    Trizac, Emmanuel


    inelasticity of inter-grain encounters—as velocity independent is inconsistent with the mechanical point of view. An asymptotic expression for the impact velocity dependence of ɛ is therefore derived for visco-elastic spheres. The important inelastic Boltzmann equation is introduced in part II and the associated velocity distribution characterized for a force-free medium (so-called free cooling regime). Transport processes can then be analyzed in part III at the single particle level, and part IV from a more macroscopic viewpoint. The corresponding Chapman Enskog-like hydrodynamic approach is worked out in detail, in a clear fashion. Finally, the tendency of granular gases to develop instabilities is illustrated in part V where the hydrodynamic picture plays a pivotal role. This book clearly sets the stage. For the sake of simplicity, the authors have discarded some subtle points, such as the open questions underlying the hydrodynamic description (why include the temperature among the hydrodynamic modes, and what about the separation of space and time scales between kinetic and hydrodynamic excitations?). Such omissions are understandable. To a certain extent however, the scope of the book is centered on previous work by the authors, and I have a few regrets. Special emphasis is put on the (variable ɛ) visco-elastic model, which enhances the technical difficulty of the presentation. On the other hand, the important physical effects including scaling laws, hydrodynamic behaviour and structure formation, can be understood in two steps, from the results derived within the much simpler constant ɛ model, allowing subsequently \\varepsilon to depend on the granular temperature. The authors justify their choice with the inconsistency of the constant ɛ route. The improvements brought by the visco-elastic model remain to be assessed, since the rotational degrees of freedom, discarded in the book, play an important role and require due consideration of both tangential and normal

  19. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Feng


    Full Text Available Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent, biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4 was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

  20. Spectroscopy and Kinetics of Combustion Gases at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Bowman, Craig [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This report describes our research program that involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw laser absorption methods for the measurement of concentration time-histories and fundamental spectroscopic parameters for species of interest in combustion; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. This first part of this report covers research during the final three-year support period, i.e. March 2012 – November 2015. The later part of this report summarizes research conducted over multiple-year periods between March 1988 to March 2012. Publications supported by DOE for each period are summarized at the end of that report section.

  1. An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases. (United States)

    Manne, A S; Richels, R G


    The Kyoto Protocol permits countries to meet part of their emission reduction obligations by cutting back on gases other than CO2 (ref. 1). This approach requires a definition of trade-offs among the radiatively active gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has suggested global warming potentials for this purpose, which use the accumulated radiative forcing of each gas by a set time horizon to establish emission equivalence. But it has been suggested that this approach has serious shortcomings: damages or abatement costs are not considered and the choice of time horizon for calculating cumulative radiative force is critical, but arbitrary. Here we describe an alternative framework for determining emission equivalence between radiatively active gases that addresses these weaknesses. We focus on limiting temperature change and rate of temperature change, but our framework is also applicable to other objectives. For a proposed ceiling, we calculate how much one should be willing to pay for emitting an additional unit of each gas. The relative prices then determine the trade-off between gases at each point in time, taking into account economical as well as physical considerations. Our analysis shows that the relative prices are sensitive to the lifetime of the gases, the choice of target and the proximity of the target, making short-lived gases more expensive to emit as we approach the prescribed ceiling.

  2. The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Lystad, Terje; Torvanger, Asbjoern


    To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 {sup o}C less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH{sub 4}. (author)

  3. The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Lystad, Terje; Torvanger, Asbjoern


    To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO 2 and CH 4 . In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 o C less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH 4 . (author)

  4. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  5. Roadside management strategies to reduce greenhouse gases. (United States)


    Californias Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act : (SB 375), and Executive Order S-14-08 direct Caltrans to develop actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Air : pollution reduction is...

  6. Atomic physics: Cold gases venture into Flatland (United States)

    Burnett, Keith


    Vortex structures have revealed a lot about the nature of three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates. They play an even bigger part in two-dimensional cold atomic gases and drive a fundamentally different phase transition.

  7. Quantum statistics of dense gases and nonideal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ebeling, Werner; Filinov, Vladimir


    The aim of this book is the pedagogical exploration of the basic principles of quantum-statistical thermodynamics as applied to various states of matter – ranging from rare gases to astrophysical matter with high-energy density. The reader will learn in this work that thermodynamics and quantum statistics are still the concepts on which even the most advanced research is operating - despite of a flood of modern concepts, classical entities like temperature, pressure, energy and entropy are shown to remain fundamental. The physics of gases, plasmas and high-energy density matter is still a growing field and even though solids and liquids dominate our daily life, more than 99 percent of the visible Universe is in the state of gases and plasmas and the overwhelming part of matter exists at extreme conditions connected with very large energy densities, such as in the interior of stars. This text, combining material from lectures and advanced seminars given by the authors over many decades, is a must-have intr...

  8. The roles of xylan and lignin in oxalic acid pretreated corncob during separate enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Hyun Joo Kim; In-Gyu Choi; Thomas W. Jeffries


    High yields of hemicellulosic and cellulosic sugars are critical in obtaining economical conversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. To optimize pretreatment conditions, we evaluated oxalic acid loading rates, treatment temperatures and times in a 23 full factorial design. Response-surface analysis revealed an optimal oxalic acid pretreatment...

  9. Fractal gases of zero momentum with respect to all inertial frames (United States)

    Moore, Guy S. M.


    Unlike gases containing molecules obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, ``fractal gases'' obey the fundamental axiom that their linear momentum is zero when resolved in any direction with respect to all inertial frames of reference. In contrast to speculation, the properties of fractal gases obeying Newtonian mechanics, or special or general relativity can be investigated in a way similar to the logic of geometry. They have the following properties: (1) An entire fractal gas cannot decay into a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, but is in a state of overall equilibrium. (2) Localities tend toward localized equilibrium, upset later by collision with other localities. (3) Fractal gases contain temperature differences that are a source of temporary order. (4) The appearance of a fractal gas to a hypothetical observer would suggest creation in an initial discontinuity.

  10. Enzymatic Saccharification and Ethanol Fermentation of Reed Pretreated with Liquid Hot Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lu


    Full Text Available Reed is a widespread-growing, inexpensive, and readily available lignocellulosic material source in northeast China. The objective of this study is to evaluate the liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment efficiency of reed based on the enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of water-insoluble solids (WISs from reed after the LHW pretreatment. Several variables in the LHW pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process were optimized. The conversion of glucan to glucose and glucose concentrations are considered as response variables in different conditions. The optimum conditions for the LHW pretreatment of reed area temperature of 180°C for 20min and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1 : 10. These optimum conditions for the LHW pretreatment of reed resulted in a cellulose conversion rate of 82.59% in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis at 50°C for 72 h with a cellulase loading of 30 filter paper unit per gram of oven-dried WIS. Increasing the pretreatment temperature resulted in a higher enzymatic digestibility of the WIS from reed. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WIS showed that the conversion of glucan to ethanol reached 99.5% of the theoretical yield. The LHW pretreatment of reed is a suitable method to acquire a high recovery of fermentable sugars and high ethanol conversion yield.

  11. Infrared (IR) remote sensing of gases


    López Martínez, Fernando


    The IR Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory – LIR-UC3M of Universidad Carlos III, has developed Multi and Hyper spectral Infrared (IR) analysis techniques for gas remote sensing. Design of specific sensors for the determination of gases and their concentration are proposed. Almost all gases (CO2, CO, NO2, O3, HC o NH, …) related to industrial, environmental or military safety can be detected. Companies or centres with interest in the use of specific application sensors are required.

  12. Biological production of products from waste gases (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.


    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  13. Noble Gases Trace Earth's Subducted Water Flux (United States)

    Smye, A.; Jackson, C.; Konrad-Schmolke, M.; Parman, S. W.; Ballentine, C. J.


    Volatile elements are transported from Earth's surface reservoirs back into the mantle during subduction of oceanic lithosphere [e.g. 1]. Here, we investigate the degree to which the fate of slab-bound noble gases and water are linked through the subduction process. Both water and noble gases are soluble in ring-structured minerals, such as amphibole, that are common constituents of subducted oceanic lithosphere. Heating and burial during subduction liberates noble gases and water from minerals through a combination of diffusion and dissolution. Combining a kinetic model, parameterized for noble gas fractionation in amphibole [2], with thermodynamic phase equilibria calculations, we quantify the effect of subduction dehydration on the elemental composition of slab-bound noble gases. Results show that post-arc slab water and noble gas fluxes are highly correlated. Hot subduction zones, which likely dominate over geologic history, efficiently remove noble gases and water from the down-going slab; furthermore, kinetic fractionation of noble gases is predicted to occur beneath the forearc. Conversely, hydrated portions of slab mantle in cold subduction zones transport noble gases and water to depths exceeding 200 km. Preservation of seawater-like abundances of Ar, Kr and Xe in the convecting mantle [1] implies that recycling of noble gases and water occurred during cold subduction and that the subduction efficiency of these volatile elements has increased over geological time, driven by secular cooling of the mantle. [1] Holland, G. and Ballentine, C. (2006). Nature 441, 186-191. [2] Jackson et al. (2013). Nat.Geosci. 6, 562-565.

  14. pVT-Second Virial Coefficients B(T ), Viscosity η(T ), and Self-Diffusion ρD(T) of the Gases: BF3, CF4, SiF4, CCl4, SiCl4, SF6, MoF6, WF6, UF6, C(CH3)4, and Si(CH3)4 Determined by Means of an Isotropic Temperature-Dependent Potential (United States)

    Zarkova, L.; Hohm, U.


    We present results on self-consistent calculations of second pVT-virial coefficients B(T), viscosity data η(T), and diffusion coefficients ρD(T) for eleven heavy globular gases: boron trifluoride (BF3), carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), molybdenum hexafluoride (MoF6), tungsten hexafluoride (WF6), uranium hexafluoride (UF6), tetramethyl methane (C(CH3)4, TMM), and tetramethyl silane (Si(CH3)4, TMS). The calculations are performed mainly in the temperature range between 200 and 900 K by means of isotropic n-6 potentials with temperature-dependent separation rm(T) and potential well depth ɛ(T). The potential parameters at T=0 K (ɛ, rm, n) and the enlargement of the first level radii δ are obtained solving an ill-posed problem of minimizing the squared deviations between experimental and calculated values normalized to their relative experimental error. The temperature dependence of the potential is obtained as a result of the influence of vibrational excitation on binary interactions. This concept of the isotropic temperature-dependent potential (ITDP) is presented in detail where gaseous SF6 will serve as an example. The ITDP is subsequently applied to all other gases. This approach and the main part of the results presented here have already been published during 1996-2000. However, in some cases the data are upgraded due to the recently improved software (CF4, SF6) and newly found experimental data (CF4, SiF4, CCl4, SF6).

  15. Gases and carbon in metals. Pt. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Speck, H.; Hehn, W.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.


    This issue is part of a series of data on 'Gases and Carbon in Metals' which supplements the data compilation in the book 'Gase und Kohlenstoff in Metallen' (Gases and Carbon in Metals), edited by E. Fromm and E. Gebhardt, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976. The present survey includes results from papers published after the copy deadline and recommends critically selected data. Furthermore, it comprises a bibliography of relevant literature. For each element, firstly data on binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility, solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compounds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas absorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation kinetics, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. (orig./GE)

  16. On the dissolution of vapors and gases. (United States)

    Wüstneck, N; Wüstneck, R; Pison, U; Möhwald, H


    The captive bubble technique in combination with axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA-CB) and with micro gas chromatography is used to study the dynamics of dissolution of different gases and vapors in water in situ. The technique yields the changes in the interfacial tension and bubble volume and surface. As examples, the dissolution of methanol and hexane vapors, inhaled anesthetic vapors, and gases, that is, diethyl ether, chloroform, isoflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, N2O, and xenon, and as nonimmobilizers perfluoropentane and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro-ethane (R113) were investigated. The examination of interfacial tension-time and bubble volume-time functions permits us to distinguish between water-soluble and -insoluble substances, gases, and vapors. Vapors and gases generally differ in terms of the strength of their intermolecular interactions. The main difference between dissolution processes of gases and vapors is that, during the entire process of gas dissolution, no surface tension change occurs. In contrast, during vapor dissolution the surface tension drops immediately and decreases continuously until it reaches the equilibrium surface tension of water at the end of dissolution. The results of this study show that it is possible to discriminate anesthetic vapors from anesthetic gases and nonimmobilizers by comparing their dissolution dynamics. The nonimmobilizers have extremely low or no solubility in water and change the surface tension only negligibly. By use of newly defined molecular dissolution/diffusion coefficients, a simple model for the determination of partition coefficients is developed.

  17. Brewer’s Spent Grain Valorization Using Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment for Second Generation Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, I.; Ruiz, E.; Cara, C.

    Brewer’s spent grain constitutes a byproduct of beer making process yearly generated in big amounts and lacking of economic feasible applications. This lignocellulosic residue was characterized and pretreated by dilute phosphoric acid according to a rotatable central composite design to evaluate...... the effect of phosphoric acid concentration (2-6% w/v) and pretreatment temperature (140-180ºC). The influence of these factors on the hemicellulosic sugar solubilisation and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined by maximizing both...... hemicellulosic sugar recovery in liquids and enzymatic hydrolysis yield....

  18. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee


    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  19. Molecular model for solubility of gases in flexible polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Ole; Szabo, Peter


    the length of the rods with the molecular weight corresponding to a Kuhn step. The model provides a tool for crude estimation of the gas solubility on the basis of only the monomer unit of the polymer and properties of the gas. A comparison with the solubility data for several gases in poly......(dimethylsiloxane) reveals agreement between the data and the model predictions within a factor of 7 and that better model results are achieved for temperatures below the critical temperature of the gas. The model predicts a decreasing solubility with increasing temperature (because of the increasing vapor pressure......) and that smaller gas molecules exhibit a lower solubility than larger ones (e.g., CH4 has a smaller solubility than CO2), which agrees with the experimental data....

  20. Wall shear stress hot film sensor for use in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, O D; Silin, N


    The purpose of this work is to present the construction and characterization of a wall shear stress hot film sensor for use in gases made with MEMS technology. For this purpose, several associated devices were used, including a constant temperature feedback bridge and a shear stress calibration device that allows the sensor performance evaluation. The sensor design adopted here is simple, economical and is manufactured on a flexible substrate allowing its application to curved surfaces. Stationary and transient wall shear stress tests were carried on by means of the calibration device, determining its performance for different conditions.

  1. Extraction of trapped gases in ice cores for isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, M.; Bourg, C.; Francey, R.; Wahlen, M.


    The use of ice cores for paleoclimatic investigations is discussed in terms of their application for dating, temperature indication, spatial time marker synchronization, trace gas fluxes, solar variability indication and changes in the Dole effect. The different existing techniques for the extraction of gases from ice cores are discussed. These techniques, all to be carried out under vacuum, are melt-extraction, dry-extraction methods and the sublimation technique. Advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods are listed. An extensive list of references is provided for further detailed information. (author)

  2. Two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases beyond weak coupling (United States)

    França, Guilherme; LeClair, André; Squires, Joshua


    Using a formalism based on the two-body S-matrix we study two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases with both attractive and repulsive interactions. Approximate analytic expressions, valid at weak coupling and beyond, are developed and applied to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. We successfully recover the correct logarithmic functional form of the critical chemical potential and density for the Bose gas. For fermions, the BKT critical temperature is calculated in BCS and BEC regimes through consideration of Tan’s contact.

  3. Nonperturbative predictions for cold atom bose gases with tunable interactions. (United States)

    Cooper, Fred; Chien, Chih-Chun; Mihaila, Bogdan; Dawson, John F; Timmermans, Eddy


    We derive a theoretical description for dilute Bose gases as a loop expansion in terms of composite-field propagators by rewriting the Lagrangian in terms of auxiliary fields related to the normal and anomalous densities. We demonstrate that already in leading order this nonperturbative approach describes a large interval of coupling-constant values, satisfies Goldstone's theorem, yields a Bose-Einstein transition that is second order, and is consistent with the critical temperature predicted in the weak-coupling limit by the next-to-leading-order large-N expansion.

  4. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas. (United States)

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W


    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels.

  5. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anis, Samsudin, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Kampus Sekaran, Gunungpati, 50229 Semarang, 8508101 (Indonesia); Zainal, Z. A., E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)


    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  6. Understanding the Impacts of AFEX™ Pretreatment and Densification on the Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Stover, Prairie Cord Grass, and Switchgrass. (United States)

    Sundaram, Vijay; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gent, Stephen


    Lignocellulosic feedstocks corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment and densified using extrusion pelleting and ComPAKco densification technique. The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment and densification were studied on the fast pyrolysis product yields. Feedstocks were milled in a hammer mill using three different screen sizes (2, 4, and 8 mm) and were subjected to AFEX™ pretreatment. The untreated and AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks were moisture adjusted at three levels (5, 10, and 15 % wb) and were extruded using a lab-scale single screw extruder. The barrel temperature of the extruder was maintained at 75, 100, and 125 °C. Durability of the extruded pellets made from AFEX™-pretreated corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass varied from 94.5 to 99.2, 94.3 to 98.7, and 90.1 to 97.5 %, respectively. Results of the thermogravimetric analysis showed the decrease in the decomposition temperature of the all the feedstocks after AFEX™ pretreatment indicating the increase in thermal stability. Loose and densified feedstocks were subjected to fast pyrolysis in a lab-scale reactor, and the yields (bio-oil and bio-char) were measured. Bio-char obtained from the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks exhibited increased bulk and particle density compared to the untreated feedstocks. The properties of the bio-oil were statistically similar for the untreated, AFEX™-pretreated, and AFEX™-pretreated densified feedstocks. Based on the bio-char and bio-oil yields, the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks and the densified AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks (pellets and PAKs) exhibited similar behavior. Hence, it can be concluded that densifying the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks could be a viable option in the biomass-processing depots to reduce the transportation costs and the logistical impediments without affecting the product yields.

  7. Impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on composition and hydrolysability in a sugar platform biorefinery (United States)

    Vaurs, L. P.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C. J.


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely available large volume source of lignocellulosic material containing a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a sugar platform biorefinery. Thermal pretreatments are generally applied to MSW to facilitate the extraction of the lignocellulosic material from recyclable materials (plastics, metals etc.) and improve the paper pulp conversion to sugars. Applying high temperature might enhance food waste solubilisation but may collapse cellulose fibre decreasing its hydrolysability. Low temperature pre-treatment will reduce the energy demand but might result in highly contaminated pulp. Preliminary results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis performances were dependent on the MSW origins. Using 8 different samples, the impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on pulp composition and hydrolysability was assessed in this work. Low pre-treatment temperature produced pulp which contained less lignocellulosic material but which hydrolysed to a higher degree than MSW treated at high temperatures. High temperature pre-treatment could have exposed more of the inhibiting lignin to cellulase. This information would have a significant economic impact on a commercial plant as expensive autoclave could be advantageously replaced by a cheaper process. Glucan conversions were also found to vary depending on the region, the recycling rate possibly because of the lower recycling rate resulting in the use of less paper additive in the material or the difference in paper production technology (chemical VS mechanical pulping). This could also be explained by the differences in paper composition.

  8. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F


    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  9. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis


    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; La Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin


    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps as state-of-the-art technologies for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forwar...

  10. Control of Self Burning in Coal, Piles by Detection of the generated gases; Control de autoencendidos en Parvas de Carbon por Deteccion de los Gases Producidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this Research Project is to find the most appropriate method for immediate and remote detection of the phenomena that take place in Thermic Power Plant coal piles, due to the piling up of great quantities of this fuel and its large surface area. These phenomena are: Slow self-oxidation of the coal, producing loss of its calorific power, with its consequent financial loss. Self-combustion of the coal caused when the gases produced by self-oxidation and temperature conditions combine, and they reach a critical point (that of ignition). One of the most recent and novel methods for detection is the Formation of images of Gases, based on the use of laser turned into the vibration wavelengths of the molecules in the gases. This technique, coupled with Thermography, would give as a spatial map of thus distribution and temperatures of gave. It is necessary, in order to extend the use of this equipment to Thermic Power Plant coal piles, to accurately determine which different gases are emanated as well as the minimum concentration of each one of these and the temperature distribution in space. (Author)

  11. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafique, Rashad; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar


    on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 degrees C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 degrees C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 degrees C), with maximum enhancement at 100...

  12. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of oxalic acid pretreated corncob assessed with response surface methodology (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Thomas W. Jeffries


    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate optimal time, temperature and oxalic acid concentration for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corncob particles by Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Fifteen different conditions for pretreatment were examined in a 23 full factorial design with six axial points. Temperatures ranged from 132 to 180º...

  13. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases. (United States)

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy


    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes. © 2011 The Royal Society

  14. Shale gases, a windfall for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre


    After having recalled the definition and origin of shale gases, the different non conventional gases and their exploitation techniques (hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) this report examines whether these gases are an opportunity for France. Some characteristics and data of the fossil and gas markets are presented and commented: world primary energy consumption, proved reserves of non conventional gases and their locations, European regions which may possess reserves of shale gases and coal-bed methane, origins of gas imports in France. The second part addresses shale gas deposits and their exploitation: discussion of the influence of the various rock parameters, evolution of production. The third part discusses the exploitation techniques and specific drilling tools. The issue of exploitation safety and security is addressed as well as the associated controversies: about the pollution of underground waters, about the fact that deep drillings result in pollution, about the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and injections of chemical products, about the hold on ground and site degradation, about water consumption, about pollution due to gas pipeline leakage, about seismic risk, about noise drawbacks, about risks for health, about exploration and production authorization and license, and about air pollution and climate. The last part addresses the French situation and its future: status of the energy bill, recommendations made by a previous government, cancellation of authorizations, etc. Other information are provided in appendix about non conventional hydrocarbons, about shale gas exploitation in the USA, and about the Lacq gas

  15. Iron clustering in GaSe epilayers grown on GaAs(111)B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, A R de; Mosca, D H; Mattoso, N; Guimaraes, J L; Klein, J J; Schreiner, W H; Souza, P E N de; Oliveira, A J A de; Vasconcellos, M A Z de; Demaille, D; Eddrief, M; Etgens, V H


    In this paper we report on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of semiconducting GaSe epilayers, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, doped to different iron contents (ranging from 1 to 22 at.% Fe). Our results indicate that iron forms metallic Fe nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 1 to 20 nm embedded in the crystalline GaSe matrix. The Fe incorporation proceeds by segregation and agglomeration and induces a progressive disruption of the lamellar GaSe epilayers. The magnetization as a function of the temperature for zero-field cooling with the magnetic field parallel to the surface of the sample provides evidence of superparamagnetic behaviour of the nanoparticles. Cathodoluminescence experiments performed at room temperature reveal semiconducting behaviour even for samples with Fe concentrations as high as 20 at.%

  16. Permeation, diffusion and dissolution of hydrogen isotopes, methane and inert gases through/in a tetrafluoroethylene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, M.; Miyake, H.; Ashida, K.; Watanabe, K.


    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) is widely used for conventional tritium handling systems such as vacuum seals, tubing and so on. We measured the permeation of the three hydrogen isotopes, methane and the inert gases through a TFE film at room temperature by means of the time-lag method in order to establish the physicochemical properties which determine the solubility and diffusivity of those gases. It was found that the diffusion constant of the inert gases changed exponentially with the heat of vaporization and the solubility was an exponential function of the Lennard-Jones force constant of the gases. On the other hand, hydrogen isotopes and methane deviated from these relations. It is concluded that chemical interactions between the solute and the solvent play an important role for the dissolution and the diffusion of these gases in TFE. (orig.)

  17. Biomass torrefaction: A promising pretreatment technology for biomass utilization (United States)

    Chen, ZhiWen; Wang, Mingfeng; Ren, Yongzhi; Jiang, Enchen; Jiang, Yang; Li, Weizhen


    Torrefaction is an emerging technology also called mild pyrolysis, which has been explored for the pretreatment of biomass to make the biomass more favorable for further utilization. Dry torrefaction (DT) is a pretreatment of biomass in the absence of oxygen under atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range of 200-300 degrees C, while wet torrrefaction (WT) is a method in hydrothermal or hot and high pressure water at the tempertures within 180-260 degrees C. Torrrefied biomass is hydrophobic, with lower moisture contents, increased energy density and higher heating value, which are more comparable to the characteristics of coal. With the improvement in the properties, torrefied biomass mainly has three potential applications: combustion or co-firing, pelletization and gasification. Generally, the torrefaction technology can accelerate the development of biomass utilization technology and finally realize the maximum applications of biomass energy.

  18. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.


    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  19. Microwave Pretreatment for Thiourea Leaching for Gold Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nag-Choul Choi


    Full Text Available In this research, we studied the use of microwave pretreatment to enhance the efficiency of Au leaching from gold concentrate. The gold concentrate was pretreated using microwaves with different irradiation time. The sample temperature was increased up to 950 °C by the microwave irradiation. A scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer showed the evolution of microcracks and the reduction of sulfur on the mineral surface. X-ray diffraction data also showed the mineral phase shift from pyrite to hematite or pyrrhotite. A leaching test was conducted for the microwave-treated and untreated gold concentrates using thiourea. Although the thiourea leaching recovered 80% of Au from the untreated concentrate, from the treated concentration, the Au could be recovered completely. Au leaching efficiency increased as the microwave irradiation time increased, as well as with a higher composition of thiourea.

  20. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment. (United States)

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong


    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wash water waste pretreatment system (United States)


    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  2. Equilibrium Molecular Interactions in Pure Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov


    Full Text Available The equilibrium molecular interactions in pure real gases are investigated based on the chemical thermodynamics principles. The parallels between clusters in real gases and chemical compounds in equilibrium media have been used to improve understanding of the real gas structure. A new approach to the equilibrium constants for the cluster fractions and new methods to compute them and their significant parameters from the experimental thermophysical data are developed. These methods have been applied to some real gases, such as Argon and Water vapors and gaseous Alkanes. It is shown that the four-particle clusters make a noticeable contribution in the thermophysical properties of the equilibrium Water vapor. It is shown also that the effective bond energy for dimers in Alkanes linearly grows with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović


    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  4. Mechanism study of multimode ultrasound pretreatment on the enzymolysis of wheat gluten. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Li, Jing; Li, Suyun; Ma, Haile; Zhang, Hua


    Ultrasound pretreatment could improve the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of hydrolysates of wheat gluten (WG). The working mode of ultrasound has an important effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of protein. The results showed that the optimum working mode of ultrasound was alternate dual-frequency mode (20/35 kHz), substrate concentration was 30 g L -1 , initial temperature of the suspension was 30 °C, ultrasound pretreatment time was 10 min and power density was 150 W L -1 . Under optimised conditions, ACE inhibitory activity of WG hydrolysates reached to its maximum value in advance. The surface hydrophobicity (H 0 ) of WG and the content of small peptides at the beginning of the enzymolysis were improved by the ultrasound pretreatment. The structure of WG was destroyed by the ultrasound pretreatment. The enzymatic residue of ultrasound pretreated WG were damaged greater than control. It was concluded that alternate dual-frequency ultrasound pretreatment improved the ACE inhibitory activity. Ultrasonic pretreatment may loosen the tissue of WG aggregate, and help the enzyme alcalase to attack the interior of WG aggregate easily, which resulted in the release of low molecular weight peptides from WG aggregate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal and ozonation pretreatment methods. (United States)

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco


    Treatment of food waste by anaerobic digestion can lead to an energy production coupled to a reduction of the volume and greenhouse gas emissions from this waste type. According to EU Regulation EC1774/2002, food waste should be pasteurized/sterilized before or after anaerobic digestion. With respect to this regulation and also considering the slow kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process, thermal and chemical pretreatments of food waste prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion were studied. A series of batch experiments to determine the biomethane potential of untreated as well as pretreated food waste was carried out. All tested conditions of both thermal and ozonation pretreatments resulted in an enhanced biomethane production. The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process were, however, accelerated by thermal pretreatment at lower temperatures (food waste, was obtained with thermal pretreatment at 80 °C for 1.5 h. On the basis of net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production could cover the energy requirement of the thermal pretreatment. In contrast, the enhanced biomethane production with ozonation pretreatment is insufficient to supply the required energy for the ozonator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of twin gear-based pretreatment of rice straw for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Rehman, Muhammd Saif Ur; Terán-Hilares, Ruly; Khalid, Saira; Han, Jong-In


    Highlights: • Twin gear reactor is a continuous high solids pretreatment reactor. • RSM was applied to optimize twin gear pretreatment for enzymatic digestibility. • 89% enzymatic digestibility was achieved under optimum conditions. • Thermomechanical pretreatment altered the structural features of rice straw. - Abstract: A laboratory twin-gear reactor (TGR) was investigated as a new means for the pretreatment of high solid lignocelluloses. Response surface methodology based on Box Behnken Design was used to optimize the enzymatic digestibility with respect to the pretreatment process variables: temperature of 50–90 °C, NaOH concentration of 2–6% and no. of cycles of 30–60. The results revealed that the TGR-based pretreatment led to the significant structural alterations through increases in pore size, pore volume, cellulose crystallinity and surface area. SEM images also confirmed the surface modifications in the pretreated rice straw. A response surface quadratic model predicted 90% of the enzymatic digestibility, and it was confirmed experimentally and through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well. The TGR extrusion proved to be an effective means for exceedingly high solids lignocellulose.

  7. Indoor air pollution caused by geothermal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Michael


    This paper discusses the little-known but potentially serious indoor air quality problems that may occur where buildings are constructed on geothermal ground. The main problems are related to seepage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, radon and other gases from soil cavities directly into indoor air through perforations in the structure. These gases present a health hazard, and hydrogen sulphide, which is particularly corrosive, may cause problems electrical and electronic systems. Counter-measures are not always effective, so developments in such areas should only be undertaken with a clear understanding of site-specific issues and their possible solutions. (author)

  8. Composition of gases vented from a condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R.N.


    Designers of systems that involve condensers often need to predict the amount of process vapor that accompanies the noncondensable gases that are vented from the condensers. An approximation is given that appears to provide, in many cases, reasonably accurate values for the mole ratio of process vapor to noncondensable gases in the vented mixture. The approximation is particularly applicable to flash and direct-contact power systems for geothermal brines and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). More regorous relationships are available for exceptional cases.

  9. Investigations into electrical discharges in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Klyarfel'D, B N


    Investigations into Electrical Discharges in Gases is a compilation of scientific articles that covers the advances in the investigation of the fundamental processes occurring in electrical discharges in gases and vapors. The book details the different aspects of the whole life cycle of an arc, which include the initiation of a discharge, its transition into an arc, the lateral spread of the arc column, and the recovery of electric strength after extinction of an arc. The text also discusses the methods for the dynamic measurement of vapor density in the vicinity of electrical discharges, alon


    Sears, Dewey F.; Fenn, Wallace O.


    Investigations of the effect of high pressures of Na (100 to 130 atmospheres) and of Ar (60 to 80 atmospheres) showed that these gases are effective in reversing the phases of an oil in water emulsion. Nitrous oxide did not cause reversal at pressures as high as 53 atmospheres nor did helium as high as 107 atmospheres. We found CO2 most effective in reversing the emulsions and attributed this to its chemical properties. It is suggested that these observations may help to explain the narcotic effects of inert gases. PMID:13416527

  11. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  12. Nanoclusters and Microparticles in Gases and Vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M


    Research of processes involving Nanoclusters and Microparticleshas been developing fastin many fields of rescent research, in particular in materials science. To stay at the cutting edge of this development, a sound understanding of the processes is needed. In this work, several processes involving small particles are described, such as transport processes in gases, charging of small particles in gases, chemical processes, atom attachment and quenching of excited atomic particles on surfaces, nucleation, coagulation, coalescence and growth processes for particles and aggregates. This work pres

  13. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H


    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua presents three major topics, which are the fourth to sixth parts of this volume. These topics are the remarks on units of physical quantities; kinetic theory of gases and gaseous flow; and theory of vacuum diffusion pumps. The first topic aims to present concisely the significance of units of physical quantities, catering the need and interest of those who take measurements and make calculations in different fields of vacuum sciences. The technique and applications of this particular topic are also provided. The second main topic focuses sp

  14. Interaction of gases with solid surfaces (United States)

    Borisov, Sergei F.; Balakhonov, Nikifor F.; Gubanov, Vladimir A.

    Various problems related to the interaction of gases with solid surfaces are examined theoretically and experimentally. In particular, attention is given to the scattering of molecules by surfaces in the nonequilibrium system gas-solid; heat transfer in gas-solid systems over a wide range of Knudsen numbers; adsorption processes at the gas-solid interface; and thermal accommodation of gases on a controlled surface. The discussion also covers kinetic equations for the nonequilibrium heterogeneous system gas-solid; scattering nucleus and accommodation coefficients on solid surfaces; and quantum-chemical calculations of the electron states of a solid surface.

  15. Impacts of operating parameters on oxidation-reduction potential and pretreatment efficacy in the pretreatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huifang, E-mail: [College of Environment, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Industrial Water-Conservation and Emission Reduction, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Shihe [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A real printing and dyeing wastewater was pretreated by Fenton process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated impacts of operating parameters on ORP and pretreatment efficacy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship among ORP, operating parameters and treatment efficacy was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment efficacy was in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated kinetics of color and COD removal and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio in solution. - Abstract: An experiment was conducted in a batch reactor for a real printing and dyeing wastewater pretreatment using Fenton process in this study. The results showed that original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration and ferrous sulfate concentration affected ORP value and pretreatment efficacy greatly. Under experimental conditions, the optimal original pH was 6.61, and the optimal hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate concentrations were 1.50 and 0.75 g L{sup -1}, respectively. The relationship among ORP, original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration, ferrous sulfate concentration, and color (COD or BOD{sub 5}/COD) was established, which would be instructive in on-line monitoring and control of Fenton process using ORP. In addition, the effects of wastewater temperature and oxidation time on pretreatment efficacy were also investigated. With an increase of temperature, color and COD removal efficiencies and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio increased, and they were in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Similarly, color and COD removal efficiencies increased with increasing oxidation time, and both color and COD removal obeyed the first-order kinetics. The BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio could be expressed by a second-degree polynomial with respect to oxidation time, and the best biodegradability of wastewater was present at the oxidation time of 6.10 h.

  16. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.


    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O 2 concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O 2 ) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO x gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO x but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases

  17. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis. (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin


    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 7 ) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD 7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  18. Production of fuel ethanol from steam-explosion pretreated olive tree pruning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristobal Cara; Encarnacion Ruiz; Mercedes Ballesteros; Paloma Manzanares; Ma Jose Negro; Eulogio Castro [University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering


    This work deals with the production of fuel ethanol from olive tree pruning. This raw material is a renewable, low cost, largely available, and lacking of economic alternatives agricultural residue. Olive tree pruning was submitted to steam explosion pre-treatment in the temperature range 190-240{sup o}C, with or without previous impregnation by water or sulphuric acid solutions. The influence of both pre-treatment temperature and impregnation conditions on sugar and ethanol yields was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation on the pretreated solids. Results show that the maximum ethanol yield (7.2 g ethanol/100 g raw material) is obtained from water impregnated, steam pretreated residue at 240{sup o}C. Nevertheless if all sugars solubilized during pre-treatment are taken into account, up to 15.9 g ethanol/100 g raw material may be obtained (pre-treatment conditions: 230{sup o}C and impregnation with 1% w/w sulphuric acid concentration), assuming theoretical conversion of these sugars to ethanol. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe


    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  20. Three toxic gases meet in the mitochondria (United States)

    Decréau, Richard A.; Collman, James P.


    The rationale of the study was two-fold: (i) develop a functional synthetic model of the Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) active site, (ii) use it as a convenient tool to understand or predict the outcome of the reaction of CcO with ligands (physiologically relevant gases and other ligands). At physiological pH and potential, the model catalyzes the 4-electron reduction of oxygen. This model was immobilized on self-assembled-monolayer (SAM) modified electrode. During catalytic oxygen reduction, electron delivery through SAMs is rate limiting, similar to the situation in CcO. This model contains all three redox-active components in CcO's active site, which are required to minimize the production of partially-reduced-oxygen-species (PROS): Fe-heme (“heme a3”) in a myoglobin-like model fitted with a proximal imidazole ligand, and a distal tris-imidazole Copper (“CuB”) complex, where one imidazole is cross-linked to a phenol (mimicking “Tyr244”). This functional CcO model demonstrates how CcO itself might tolerate the hormone NO (which diffuses through the mitochondria). It is proposed that CuB delivers superoxide to NO bound to Fe-heme forming peroxynitrite, then nitrate that diffuses away. Another toxic gas, H2S, has exceptional biological effects: at ~80 ppm, H2S induces a state similar to hibernation in mice, lowering the animal's temperature and slowing respiration. Using our functional CcO model, we have demonstrated that at the same concentration range H2S can reversibly inhibit catalytic oxygen reduction. Such a reversible catalytic process on the model was also demonstrated with an organic compound, tetrazole (TZ). Following studies showed that TZ reversibly inhibits respiration in isolated mitochondria, and induces deactivation of platelets, a mitochondria-rich key component of blood coagulation. Hence, this program is a rare example illustrating the use of a functional model to understand and predict physiologically important reactions at the active

  1. Three Toxic Gases Meet in the Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Decreau


    Full Text Available The rationale of the study was two-fold : (i develop a functional synthetic model of the Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO active site, (ii use it as a convenient tool to understand or predict the outcome of the reaction of CcO with ligands (physiologically relevant gases and other ligands. At physiological pH and potential, the model catalyzes the 4-electron reduction of oxygen. This model was immobilized on self-assembled-monolayer (SAM modified electrode. During catalytic oxygen reduction, electron delivery through SAMs is rate limiting, similar to the situation in CcO. This model contains all three redox-active components in CcO’s active site, which are required to minimize the production of partially-reduced-oxygen-species (PROS: Fe¬-heme (heme a3 in a myoglobin-like model fitted with a proximal imidazole ligand, and a distal tris-imidazole Copper (CuB complex, where one imidazole is cross-linked to a phenol (mimicking Tyr244. This functional CcO model demonstrates how CcO itself might tolerate the hormone NO (which diffuses through the mitochondria. It is proposed that CuB delivers superoxide to NO bound to Fe-heme forming peroxynitrite, then nitrate that diffuses away. Another toxic gas, H2S, has exceptional biological effects: at ~80 ppm, H2S induces a state similar to hibernation in mice, lowering the animal's temperature and slowing respiration. Using our functional CcO model, we have demonstrated that at the same concentration range H2S can reversibly inhibit catalytic oxygen reduction. Such a reversible catalytic process on the model was also demonstrated with an organic compound, tetrazole (TZ. Following studies showed that TZ reversibly inhibits respiration in isolated mitochondria, and induces deactivation of platelets, a mitochondria-rich key component of blood coagulation. Hence, this program is a rare example illustrating the use of a functional model to understand and predict physiologically important reactions at the active site

  2. Enhancing enzymolysis and fermentation efficiency of sugarcane bagasse by synergistic pretreatment of Fenton reaction and sodium hydroxide extraction. (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Zhu, Ming-Jun


    A study on the synergistic pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using Fenton reaction and NaOH extraction was conducted. The optimized process conditions for Fenton pretreatment were 10% (w/w) of H2O2, 20mM of Fe(2+), pH 2.5, pretreatment time 6h, and pretreatment temperature 55°C. Sequential pretreatments were performed in combination with NaOH extraction (NaOH 1% (w/w), 80°C, 5% of solid loading, 1h). Among all the pretreatments, Fenton pretreatment followed by NaOH extraction had the highest efficiency of 64.7% and 108.3% for enzymolysis and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) with an ethanol concentration of 17.44g/L. The analyses by the scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that Fenton pretreatment disrupts the structure of SCB to facilitate the degradation of lignin by NaOH. The overall data suggest that this combinatorial strategy is a promising process for SCB pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The desorption behaviour of implanted noble gases at low energy on silicon surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, A.H.M.; van Silfhout, Arend


    Under UHV conditions, clean crystalline Si(111) surfaces have been bombarded mass-selectively at room temperature with noble gas ions, Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, at normal incidence. By means of stepwise heating up to 1050 K the activation energies and desorbed doses of the noble gases have been straight

  4. Comparison of two standard test methods for determining explosion limits of gases at atmospheric conditions. (United States)

    De Smedt, G; de Corte, F; Notelé, R; Berghmans, J


    A comparison is made between two internationally accepted methods to determine the explosion limits of gases at atmospheric pressure and room temperature (20 l sphere - DIN 51649). Significant differences (about 1 vol.%) in the upper explosion limits (UEL) values are found for four hydrocarbons tested. A new criterion is proposed which leads to close agreement between the UEL values obtained by the two methods.

  5. The Adiabatic Expansion of Gases and the Determination of Heat Capacity Ratios: A Physical Chemistry Experiment. (United States)

    Moore, William M.


    Describes the procedures and equipment for an experiment on the adiabatic expansion of gases suitable for demonstration and discussion in the physical chemical laboratory. The expansion produced shows how the process can change temperature and still return to a different location on an isotherm. (JN)

  6. A combined sodium phosphate and sodium sulfide pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and delignification of corn stover. (United States)

    Qing, Qing; Zhou, Linlin; Guo, Qi; Huang, Meizi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue


    Na3PO4 and Na2S were employed as efficient alkaline catalysts for the pretreatment of corn stover. To systematically obtain optimal conditions, the effects of critical pretreatment parameters including sodium phosphate concentration (1-4%), sulfidity (0-20%), pretreatment temperature (100-120°C), and reaction time (20-60min) on the reducing sugar yield of pretreated substrates were evaluated in a lab-scale using the response surface methodology. Pretreated under the sodium phosphate concentration of 4%, sulfidity of 10%, temperature of 120°C, and reaction time of 40min, the reducing sugar yield and glucose yield of the pretreated corn stover achieved 91.11% and 64.01%, respectively, with a moderate enzyme loading of 30FPU/g substrate. Additionally, a strong correlation (R(2)=0.971 and R(2)=0.954) between the delignification and the reducing sugar yield (or glucose yield) was observed by this pretreatment method. These results evidently support that the combined Na3PO4-Na2S pretreatment is an effective and feasible method for processing lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Efficient saccharification by pretreatment of bagasse pith with ionic liquid and acid solutions simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Wenjuan; Qi, Wei; Yan, Yongjie; Xu, Qingli


    Highlights: • Bagasse pith was pretreated by BMIMCl solution containing HCl and water. • Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to reducing sugars by HCl to maximize total sugar yield. • Cellulose was dissolved by BMIMCl and 95% of cellulose recovery was obtained. • The recovered cellulose was disrupted which is conducive to cellulase hydrolysis. • The total sugars yield is 89.9% obtained from pretreatment and cellulase hydrolysis. - Abstract: Hydrolysis of hemicellulose and disruption of cellulose during pretreatment process are conducive to the following cellulase hydrolysis performance. In this work, bagasse pith was first pretreated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) solution containing 0–1.2% hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 30% water. The water (30%) added into the acidic ionic liquid (IL) solutions led to an increase in the biomass loading up to a biomass/IL solutions ratio of 1:10 (wt.%). Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to reducing sugars by HCl and cellulose was dissolved by [BMIM]Cl. In this process, 76.9% of hemicellulose conversion and 95% of cellulose recovery were obtained. The pretreated bagasse pith was then followed by hydrolysis with commercially available enzymes. The effects of pretreatment temperature, reaction time and acid concentration on cellulase hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse pith were investigated. Pretreatment of bagasse pith with [BMIM]Cl solutions containing 1.0% HCl at 120 °C for 30 min resulted in the glucose concentration of 92.3 g/l and yield of 94.5% after 72 h of cellulase hydrolysis. The maximum total reducing sugars yield reached to 89.9% after pretreatment and cellulase hydrolysis

  8. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard

  9. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 12. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols. J Srinivasan. General Article Volume 13 Issue 12 December 2008 pp 1146-1155. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Noble gases as cardioprotectants - translatability and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Kirsten F.; Weber, Nina C.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Preckel, Benedikt


    Several noble gases, although classified as inert substances, exert a tissue-protective effect in different experimental models when applied before organ ischaemia as an early or late preconditioning stimulus, after ischaemia as a post-conditioning stimulus or when given in combination before,

  11. Unconventional views to generation of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryan Petr


    Full Text Available The majority of the implemented measures lowering the amount of originating greenhouse gases derive particularly fromthe balances targeted into power industry, transportation or heavy industry. The article summarized date shoving that the dumpingof communal biodegradace wastes related to catering in many aspects competes in the creation of grenhouses gates related with the cartransportation or power industry.

  12. Escape of atmospheric gases from the Moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The escape rate of atmospheric molecules on the Moon is calculated.Based on the assumption that the rates of emission and escape of gases attain equilibrium, the ratio of molecular number densities during day and night, 0/0, can be explained. The plausible emission rate of helium and radioactive elements present ...

  13. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.


    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  14. Eco gases for future particle gas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kjølbro, Jógvan Nikolaj


    Due to global regulations of non environmental refrigerants, some of the gas mixtures used in gas detectors at CERN has to be replaced. This report is a review that summarises and predicts some properties that are important when selecting new gases to operate in the gas detectors.

  15. Fate of Gases generated from Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasulu, M.; Francis, A. J.; Francis, A. J.


    The backfill materials such as cement, bentonite or crushed rock are used as engineered barriers against groundwater infiltration and radionuclide transport. Gas generation from radioactive wastes is attributed to radiolysis, corrosion of metals, and degradation of organic materials. Corrosion of steel drums and biodegradation of organic materials in L/ILW can generate gas which causes pressure build up and has the potential to compromise the integrity of waste containers and release the radionuclides and other contaminants into the environment. Performance assessment therefore requires a detailed understanding of the source and fate of gas generation and transport within the disposal system. Here we review the sources and fate of various type of gases generated from nuclear wastes and repositories. Studies on modeling of the fate and transport of repository gases primarily deal with hydrogen and CO 2 . Although hydrogen and carbon dioxide are the major gases of concern, microbial transformations of these gases in the subterranean environments could be significant. Metabolism of hydrogen along with the carbon dioxide results in the formation of methane, low molecular weight organic compounds and cell biomass and thus could affect the total inventory in a repository environment. Modeling studies should take into consideration of both the gas generation and consumption processes over the long-term

  16. Noble Gases in Five Rumuruti Chondrites (United States)

    Weber, H. W.; Schultz, L.


    Concentration and isotopic composition have been measured in five new R-chondrites: Dar al Gani 417, Northwest Africa 053, Ouzina, Sahara 98248, and Sahara 99531. Two of these meteorites contain solar trapped gases, NWA 053 has an unusual short exposure age of 0.2 Ma.

  17. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives. 345. 2011;17(5). South Afr J Anaesth Analg. Introduction. In recent times there has been a surge in interest in our contribution to climate change. Human activity results in increased atmospheric levels of a variety of gaseous chemicals that are able to ...

  18. Deviations from Fick's law in Lorentz gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe, C.P.; Frenkel, D.; Hoef, M.A. van der


    We have calculated the self-dynamic structure factorF(k,t) for tagged particle motion in hopping Lorentz gases. We find evidence that, even at long times, the probability distribution function for the displacement of the particles is highly non-Gaussian. At very small values of the wave vector this

  19. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov


    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  20. Cold and trapped metastable noble gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassen, W.; Cohen-Tannoudji, C.; Leduc, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C.I.; Truscott, A.; Baldwin, K.; Birkl, G.; Cancio, P.; Trippenbach, M.


    Experimental work on cold, trapped metastable noble gases is reviewed. The aspects which distinguish work with these atoms from the large body of work on cold, trapped atoms in general is emphasized. These aspects include detection techniques and collision processes unique to metastable atoms.

  1. Release of fission products from miniature fuel plates at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, J.C.


    Three miniature fuel plates were tested at progressively higher temperatures. A U 3 Si plated blistered and released fission gases at 500 0 C. Two U 3 O 8 filled plates blistered and released fission gases at 550 0 C

  2. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas


    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...

  3. A Predictive Model for Life Assessment of Automotive Exhaust Mufflers Subject to Internal Corrosion Failure due to Exhaust Gases Condensation


    Nazir, H.; Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Stokes, K.


    A study has been presented of pitting corrosion on internal walls of automotive exhaust muffler due to exhaust gases condensation. The problem mainly exists in the rear section of exhaust system close to tail end pipe such as muffler, especially when the temperature of muffler does not go up during short distance run or winter. The water vapor condenses on the muffler's inner wall in the form of water droplets. The dissolution of corrosive gases which are coming from internal combustion of en...

  4. Microstructural study of pre-treated and enzymatic hydrolyzed bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funsho O. KOLAWOLE


    Full Text Available Bamboo was used as biomass feedstock which was pre-treated using dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The bamboo was mechanical ground to particle sizes 212–500µm, followed by pre-treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 (%v/v at temperatures of 25, 110, 120, 150 and 200°C with time intervals of 2 and 4 hours. Pre-hydrolyzate was later analyzed for reducing sugar using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Under the above conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 153.1 mg/g was obtained at 200°C and acid concentrations of 1% for 4 hours. Water insoluble solids obtained were subsequently hydrolyzed with Celluclast (Trichoderma reesi and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188 for 72 hours. Optical Microscope and ESEM images of bamboo samples were obtained at various stages of pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Result reveals a breakdown in the ligno-cellulosic structure of the bamboo during exposure to dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  5. Technological pretreatment of the synchysite non-oxidized ore (United States)

    Munkhtsetseg, B.; Burmaa, G.


    Mongolia has rich deposits of rare, precious, and poly-metallic ores. Nowadays, it is important to research separation of rare earth elements oxides concentrates from the ores, analyze their unique physical chemical characteristics, and purified it. Our investigation on raw materials focuses on rare earth non-oxidized ores. Main mineral in this rock sample is Synchysite (LnCa(CO3)2F. We did technological and thermal pretreatment: direct sulphurization (H2SO4), sulphurization with subsequent roasting (800°C+H2SO4), sulphurization prior to roasting (H2SO4+650°C). Sulphurization method based on dissolution of rare earth mineral into sulfuric acid (93%) according to the reaction. The amount of rare earth element oxides is almost 10 times greater (29.16%) after direct sulphurization process, almost 8 times greater (21.14%) after sulphurization with subsequent roasting, and almost 20 times greater (44.62%) after sulphurization prior to roasting process. After those technological pretreatment raw material's micro elements Thorium and Uranium contents are reduced as follows: H2SO4>800°C+H2SO4>H2SO4+650°C. These results show that cerium group rare earth elements have very good solubility in water at +2°C temperature and decreasing micro elements content uranium and thorium good pretreatment condition is prior to roasting (H2SO4+650°C) of synchysite non-oxidized ore.

  6. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on delignification of wheat straw. (United States)

    Asghar, Umar; Irfan, Muhammad; Iram, Mehvish; Huma, Zile; Nelofer, Rubina; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratulain


    This study was conducted to analyse structural changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) after alkaline pretreatment of wheat straw for optimum steaming period. During the study, 2 mm size of substrate was soaked in 2.5% NaOH for 1 h at room temperature and then autoclaved at 121°C for various steaming time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Results revealed that residence time of 90 min at 121°C has strong effect on substrate, achieving a maximum cellulose content of 83%, delignification of 81% and hemicellulose content of 10.5%. Further SEM and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed structural modification caused by alkaline pretreatment in substrate. Maximum saccharification yield of 52.93% was achieved with 0.5% enzyme concentration using 2.5% substrate concentration for 8 h of incubation at 50°C. This result indicates that the above-mentioned pretreatment conditions create accessible areas for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  7. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Chemical potential for the Bose gases in a one-dimensional harmonic trap (United States)

    Liu, T. G.; Y Niu, M.; Liu, Q. H.


    A closed expression for the chemical potential of Bose gases in an external one-dimensional harmonic trap, reported recently in this journal (Mungan 2009 Chemical potential of one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillators Eur. J. Phys. 30 1131-6), is approximate and not applicable for temperatures lower than a characteristic value below which the ground state becomes occupied by a macroscopic number of particles. In this letter, the correct behaviour of the chemical potential at low temperature is addressed.

  8. Study on the Concentration Measurement of the Pollution Gases from Coal-Fired Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L J; Li, W


    CO 2 is a main kind of pollution gases discharged from coal-fired power station. The relationship between gas concentration and pressure, temperature is deduced base on the law of Beer-Lambert and the theory of gas line-shape. The tunable diode laser spectral technology is used to analyze the changing regularity of the peak, half-peak width of the absorption curve with pressure and temperature

  9. Kinetic studies of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis from pretreated corn cob (United States)

    Stevanie, Jeannie; Kartawiria, Irvan; Abimanyu, Haznan


    Successful utilization of corn cob biomass as raw material in bioethanol production is depending on the hydrolysis process where high level of β-cellulose is converted into glucose. Enzymatic hydrolysis is the common process for this purpose. This study is focusing on the evaluation of hydrolysis of pre-treated corn cob using Novozymes Cellic ® C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes to obtain the optimum reaction condition and its general reaction kinetics. The corn cob used was pretreated using 10% of NaOH solution. Hydrolysis reactions were conducted in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask for 72 hour using mixture of C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes at the fixed ratio of 5:1 and glucose concentration were measured using HPLC. Reaction temperature of 40°C and quantity of 0.5 ml enzyme solution per gram substrate gives the highest reaction rate (0.0123 gram of glucose/gram sample.h) with the glucose yield being 0.089 g glucose/ g substrate. Total conversion of cellulose observed was 11.91 %. Corn cob hydrolysis using C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes also result in xylose (0.0202 g/g substrate), which can also contribute to bioethanol productivity in further fermentation process. The reaction is following zero order kinetics for the first 8 hours and reaches maximum yield within 10 hours; significantly shorter compared to previous studies of cellulosic material hydrolysis that may take up to 72 hour to complete. Prolonging the hydrolysis of pre-treated corn cob more than 24 hour gives no significant increase in glucose conversion and yield. Hydrolysis temperature range of 40°C to 60°C is in accordance with the manufacturer recommendation for the purpose; however the decrease of reaction rate is observable at temperature 50°C or higher.

  10. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane (United States)

    Stolper, D.A.; Lawson, M.; Davis, C.L.; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, G.S.; Lewan, M.D.; Martini, Anna M.; Tang, Y.; Schoell, M.; Sessions, A.L.; Eiler, J.M.


    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a “clumped isotope” technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models.

  11. Monitoring organic volatiles and flammable gases with a holographic sensor (United States)

    Martínez-Hurtado, J. L.; Davidson, C. A. B.; Lowe, C. R.


    There is an increasing preoccupation regarding the effects of organic volatiles or explosive gases in human welfare and society. A holographic sensor for gaseous and volatile compounds was produced by diffusion of silver salts in a silicon elastomer (PDMS). The salts were reduced to produce silver particles, which upon ablation with a pulsed laser form fringes of nano-sized silver grains. The fringes are separated by about half of the wavelength of the laser (266nm) producing a photonic effect that can be measured as a colorful reflection. A CCD spectrophotometer was used to detect the reflected wavelength of the hologram illuminated with a white light source. The molecular affinity of PDMS for organic molecules can be expressed as intermolecular forces in terms of the cohesive energy density. This parameter is used to predict with great accuracy the sensor performance. Hydrocarbon gases at different concentrations were tested for 3 sets of temperatures. Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms were detected. The sensor responds in less than 5s to the hydrocarbon gas presence in a range of concentrations from 0% to 100% (v/v). Liquid organic compounds exhibit a slower response; however, the results agree with the prediction imposed by the cohesive energy densities. The capabilities of the sensor make it ideal for applications in indoor environment monitoring or dangerous environments enriched with such organic compounds.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of ion mobility in gases (United States)

    Lai, Rui; Dodds, Eric D.; Li, Hui


    A force field molecular dynamics method is developed to directly simulate ion drift in buffer gases driven by an electric field. The ion mobility and collision cross sections (CCSs) with relevance to ion mobility spectrometry can be obtained from the simulated drift velocity in high-density buffer gases (pressure ˜50 bars) and high electric fields (˜107 V/m). Compared to trajectory methods, the advantage of the molecular dynamics method is that it can simultaneously sample the internal dynamic motions of the ion and the ion-gas collisions. For ions with less than 100 atoms, the simulated collision cross section values can be converged to within ±1%-2% by running a 100 ns simulation for 5-19 h using one computer core. By using a set of element-based Lennard-Jones parameters that are not tuned for different atomic types in different molecules, the simulated collision cross sections for 15 small molecular ions (number of atoms ranging from 17 to 85, mass ranging from 74.1 to 609.4 g/mol) are consistent with experimental values: the mean unsigned error is 2.6 Å2 for He buffer gas and 4.4 Å2 for N2 buffer gas. The sensitivity of the simulated CCS values to random diffusion, drift velocity, electric field strength, temperature, and buffer gas density is examined.

  13. Electron Stimulated Desorption of Condensed Gases on Cryogenic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tratnik, H; Hilleret, Noël


    In ultra-high vacuum systems outgassing from vacuum chamber walls and desorption from surface adsorbates are usually the factors which in°uence pressure and residual gas composition. In particular in beam vacuum systems of accelerators like the LHC, where surfaces are exposed to intense synchro- tron radiation and bombardment by energetic ions and electrons, properties like the molecular desorption yield or secondary electron yield can strongly in°uence the performance of the accelerator. In high-energy particle accelerators operating at liquid helium temperature, cold surfaces are exposed to the bombardment of energetic photons, electrons and ions. The gases released by the subsequent desorption are re-condensed on the cold surfaces and can be re-desorbed by the impinging electrons and ions. The equilibrium coverage reached on the surfaces exposed to the impact of energetic particles depends on the desorption yield of the condensed gases and can a®ect the operation of the accelerator by modifying th...

  14. Quantum degenerate atomic gases in controlled optical lattice potentials (United States)

    Gemelke, Nathan D.


    Since the achievement of Bose Einstein condensation in cold atomic gases, mean-field treatments of the condensed phase have provided an excellent description for the static and dynamic properties observed in experiments. Recent experimental efforts have focused on studying deviations from mean-field behavior. I will describe work on two experiments which introduce controlled single particle degeneracies with time-dependent optical potentials, aiming to induce correlated motion and nontrivial statistics in the gas. In the first experiment, an optical lattice with locally rotating site potentials is produced to investigate fractional quantum Hall effects (FQHE) in rotating Bose gases. Here, the necessary gauge potential is provided by the rotating reference frame of the gas, which, in direct analogy to the electronic system, organizes single particle states into degenerate Landau levels. At low temperatures the repulsive interaction provided by elastic scattering is expected to produce ground states with structure nearly identical to those in the FQHE. I will discuss how these effects are made experimentally feasible by working at small particle numbers in the tight trapping potentials of an optical lattice, and present first results on the use of photoassociation to probe correlation in this system. In the second experiment, a vibrated optical lattice potential alters the single-particle dispersion underlying a condensed Bose gas and offers tailored phase-matching for nonlinear atom optical processes. I will demonstrate how this leads to parametric instability in the condensed gas, and draw analogy to an optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold.

  15. Effect of pretreatments on electrodeposited epoxy coatings for electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sironmani Palraj


    Full Text Available Waterborne epoxy coatings were prepared on aluminium (Al surfaces by cathodic electro-deposition on the pretreated surface of pickling, phosphating, chromating and anodizing. The electro-deposition experiments were done at two different voltages, 15 V and 25 V at room temperature in 10% epoxy coating formulations. Corrosion and thermal behavior of these coatings were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in anodized Al surface than the other. But, TGA studies show that the thermal stability is higher in anodized and chromated Al surfaces. The surface morphology of these coatings were analyzed by SEM and AFM studies.

  16. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang


    Full Text Available Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+, with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp. Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc. on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs, affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR system promotes mercury oxidation by 34–85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP and fabric filter (FF remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD captures 60–95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs. For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66–82 % of total mercury in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29–90 % from non-ferrous metal

  17. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  18. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng


    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  19. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.


    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  20. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazor, E. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Truesdell, A.H.


    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  1. Efficiency of utilization of heat of moisture from exhaust gases of heat HRSG of CCGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the technology of utilizing the heat of exhaust gas moisture from heat recovery steam gases (HRSG of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT. Particular attention focused on the influence of the excess air factor on the trapping of the moisture of the exhaust gases, as in the HRSG of the CCGT its value varies over a wider range than in the steam boilers of the TPP. For the research, has been developed a mathematical model that allows to determine the volumes of combustion products and the amount of water vapor produced according to a given composition of the burned gas and determine the amount of moisture that will be obtained as a result of condensation at a given temperature of the flue gases at the outlet of the condensation heat exchanger (CHE. To calculate the efficiency of the HRSG taking into account the heat of condensation of moisture in the CHE an equation is derived.

  2. The influence of vibrational state-resolved transport coefficients on the wave propagation in diatomic gases (United States)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Kunova, Olga V.; Kustova, Elena V.; Oblapenko, George P.


    A detailed kinetic-theory model for the vibrationally state-resolved transport coefficients is developed taking into account the dependence of the collision cross section on the size of vibrationally excited molecule. Algorithms for the calculation of shear and bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion and diffusion coefficients for vibrational states are proposed. The transport coefficients are evaluated for single-component diatomic gases N2, O2, NO, H2, Cl2 in the wide range of temperature, and the effects of molecular diameters and the number of accounted states are discussed. The developed model is applied to study wave propagation in diatomic gases. For the case of initial Boltzmann distribution, the influence of vibrational excitation on the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient is found to be weak. We expect more significant effect in the case of initial thermal non-equilibrium, for instance in gases with optically pumped selected vibrational states.

  3. The optical method for determining the thermodynamic parameters of hot gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.V.; Voitsekhovskaya, O.K.; Kashirskii, D.E.; Tsvyk, R.Sh.; Sazanovich, V.M.; Sherstobitov, M.V.


    The research conducted on the thermodynamic parameters of a flame was based on its experimental transmission spectra in the 2.7 μm and 4.3 μm ranges. To produce the flame, alcohol was burned under atmospheric conditions. The hot gases resulting from the burning of ethanol (H 2 O, CO, and CO 2 ) were accelerated and spun by the rotation of an impeller. The optical method developed by the authors was employed for predicting the temperature and partial pressure of the hot gases. The results demonstrate the practical significance of the method suggested. The spectroscopic database HITEMP 2010 was used for all line-by-line calculations presented in the article. - Highlights: • We report an optical method for determining the thermodynamic parameters of hot gases. • This method was tested in an experiment by burning alcohol at surface level atmospheric pressure. • The results of this research indicate the practical application of the suggested method

  4. In-vitro methods for testing dermal absorption and penetration of toxic gases. (United States)

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Pisaniello, Dino; Edwards, John W; Bromwich, David; Reed, Sue; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina


    This technical note provides details of an experimental technique for in-vitro skin studies with atmospheric chemical challenge. There appear to be major evidence gaps in relation to dermal exposure of gases. We describe a modification of standard OECD protocols for an atmospheric delivery system which can be used to understand interaction of toxic gases and the skin. The system can be used to examine the mechanisms by which skin uptake occurs. Auxiliary components which allow for parameter variation such as temperature and relative humidity are also described. Methodology presented in this technical note uses examples of gas challenges (ammonia, chlorine) to illustrate its application to gases of differing physicochemical properties. This adapted protocol can be applied in the context of HAZMAT scenarios involving atmospheric toxic chemical release and dermal absorption potential under variable exposure conditions.

  5. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: International Emissions and Projections (United States)

    EPA August 2011 report on global non-CO2 emissions projections (1990-2030) for emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated greenhouse gases) from more than twenty emissions sources.

  6. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden


    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  7. Effect of thermal pretreatment on equilibrium moisture content of lignocellulosic biomass. (United States)

    Acharjee, Tapas C; Coronella, Charles J; Vasquez, Victor R


    The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of raw lignocellulosic biomass, along with four samples subjected to thermal pretreatment, was measured at relative humidities ranging from 11% to 97% at a constant temperature of 30 °C. Three samples were prepared by treatment in hot compressed water by a process known as wet torrefaction, at temperatures of 200, 230, and 260 °C. An additional sample was prepared by dry torrefaction at 300 °C. Pretreated biomass shows EMC below that of raw biomass. This indicates that pretreated biomass, both dry and wet torrefied, is more hydrophobic than raw biomass. The EMC results were correlated with a recent model that takes into account additional non-adsorption interactions of water, such as mixing and swelling. The model offers physical insight into the water activity in lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Properties of quantum self-gravitating gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantseva, E.N.


    Ways of development of the quantum field theory in the general relativity theory are under consideration. A direction, where consideration of quantum fields in strong nonstatic gravitational fields leads to such effects as particle production, is found out. Authors managed to explain properties of quantum self-gravitating gases on the base of an expansion the fugacity in power series for bose- and fermi gases. Expressions for fluctuations in statistical models of the Fridmann universe are presented. The spectrum density of relict neutrinos in Fridmann models is calculated. A characteristic low boundary of the neutrino energy spectrum constitutes 1 MeV. A number of neutrinos with such energies practically is equal to zero. A great number of neutrinos has energies 0 . It is precisely these neurinos, which are responsible for the closed state of the universe according to the built up model

  9. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis and lignin removal of bagasse using photocatalytic pretreatment (United States)

    Pattanapibul1, P.; Chuangchote, S.; Laosiripojana, N.; Champreda, V.; Kaewsaenee, J.


    Pretreatment for reduction of biological resistance in a lignocellulosic material, i.e. bagasse, for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated. Photocatalyst (TiO2) was used as an additive composition to assist this pretreatment process. Reaction time was varied (24, 48, and 72 h) to find the optimum condition for the pretreatment, while concentration of solvent (NaOH, H2O2, or NH4OH), biomass to solvent ratio, and weight ratio of catalyst to bagasse were fixed at 2 M, 1:20 g/ml (typically, solvent = 150 ml), and 1:5, respectively. Batch reaction temperature was at 25°C. After the pretreatment, the enzymatic digestibility of pretreated bagasse was carried out to find the sugar yield. Hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with photocatalyst show higher sugar yields than the conventional reactions without photocatalyst. The maximum yields of sugars (541.03 mg glucose and 192.79 mg pentose) were obtained at the longest reaction time.

  10. Lower pressure heating steam is practical for the distributed dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment. (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Jian; Hou, Weiliang; Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Bao, Jie


    Most studies paid more attention to the pretreatment temperature and the resulted pretreatment efficiency, while ignored the heating media and their scalability to an industry scale. This study aimed to use a relative low pressure heating steam easily provided by steam boiler to meet the requirement of distributed dry dilute acid pretreatment. The results showed that the physical properties of the pretreated corn stover were maintained stable using the steam pressure varying from 1.5, 1.7, 1.9 to 2.1MPa. Enzymatic hydrolysis and high solids loading simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results were also satisfying. CFD simulation indicated that the high injection velocity of the low pressure steam resulted in a high steam holdup and made the mixing time of steam and solid corn stover during pretreatment much shorter in comparison with the higher pressure steam. This study provides a design basis for the boiler requirement in distributed pretreatment concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced Soluble Protein and Biochemical Methane Potential of Apple Biowaste by Different Pretreatment (United States)

    Tulun, Şevket; Bilgin, Melayib


    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic digestion of apple pomace waste in terms of pretreatment. In this study, the main pretreatment strategies for apple pomace include: ultrasound (35 and 53 kHz), thermal and chemical (pH 5 and 10). For each pretreatment method four different temperatures are selected as 25, 40, 50, and 60 °C, and operation times are selected as 5th, 15th, 30th, and 45th minutes. The effects on pretreatment were investigated by measuring changes in the soluble protein concentrations of pretreated wastes and the enhanced anaerobic digestion was investigated by using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. The soluble proteins of ultrasonic (35 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), ultrasonic (53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), chemical (pH 5 at 60 °C, 5th min), chemical (pH 10 at 60 °C, 30th min) and thermal chemical (40 °C, 15th min) pretreatment apple pomace were 74.3, 75.6, 48.7, 85.5 and 58.6% higher, respectively. The results indicated that apple pomace treated with 53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min had the highest biogas yield of 1519 mL CH4/g after anaerobic digestion, which was on average 40.9% higher than raw pomace.

  12. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  13. Effect of Glycerol Pretreatment on Levoglucosan Production from Corncobs by Fast Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Jiang


    Full Text Available In this manuscript, glycerol was used in corncobs’ pretreatment to promote levoglucosan production by fast pyrolysis first and then was further utilized as raw material for chemicals production by microbial fermentation. The effects of glycerol pretreatment temperatures (220–240 °C, time (0.5–3 h and solid-to-liquid ratios (5–20% were investigated. Due to the accumulation of crystalline cellulose and the removal of minerals, the levoglucosan yield was as high as 35.8% from corncobs pretreated by glycerol at 240 for 3 h with a 5% solid-to-liquid ratio, which was obviously higher than that of the control (2.2%. After glycerol pretreatment, the fermentability of the recovered glycerol remaining in the liquid stream from glycerol pretreatment was evaluated by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that the recovered glycerol had no inhibitory effect on the growth and metabolism of the microbe, which was a promising substrate for fermentation. The value-added applications of glycerol could reduce the cost of biomass pretreatment. Correspondingly, this manuscript offers a green, sustainable, efficient and economic strategy for an integrated biorefinery process.

  14. Vapour-phase crystallisation of silica from SiF4-bearing volcanic gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. G. Jacobs


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic modelling of magmatic gases shows that SiF4 may be an important F-bearing species at the high pressures typical of magma reservoirs. Upon decompression during degassing, SiF4 will react with water vapour to form HF and silica. Common magmatic gases of high-T fumaroles seem to contain too little SiF4 to be a significant source of silica, except if extremely large amounts of gas percolate through a small volume of rock, as is the case in lava domes. Only if fluorine contents of the gases exceed 1 mol% detectable amounts of silica may be formed, but such high fluorine contents have not yet been observed in natural gases. Alternatively, silica may be formed by heating of cool SiF4-rich gases circulating in cooling lava bodies. We suggest that these mechanisms may be responsible for the deposition of crystalline silica, most probably cristobalite, observed in vesicles in lavas from Lewotolo volcano (Eastern Sunda Arc, Indonesia. Silica occurs as vapour-crystallised patches in vesicles, and is sometimes associated with F-phlogopite, which further supports F-rich conditions during deposition. Because of the connection between F-rich conditions and high-K volcanism, we propose that late-stage gaseous transport and deposition of silica may be more widespread in K-rich volcanoes than elsewhere, and long-term exposure to ash from eruptions of such volcanoes could therefore carry an increased risk for respiratory diseases. The dependence of SiF4/HF on temperature reported here differs from the current calibration used for temperature measurements of fumarolic gases by remote sensing techniques, and we suggest an updated calibration.

  15. Thermodynamics of dilute gases in shear flow (United States)

    Jou, D.; Criado-Sancho, M.


    We consider the effect of shear and normal viscous pressures on the non-equilibrium entropy of ideal gases in Couette flow. These results extend the previous ones (Bidar et al., Physica A 233 (1996) 163), where normal pressure effects were ignored. Furthermore, we analyze the non-equilibrium contributions to the chemical potential, which may be useful in the analysis of shear-induced effects on colligative properties and chemical equilibrium.

  16. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater. (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki


    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  17. Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases in Two Dimensions (United States)


    Phys. 82, 3045 (2010). [4] M. Inguscio, W. Ketterle, C. Salomon, eds., Ultracold Fermi gases, Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico ... Enrico Fermi ,” Course CLXIV, Varenna, 2006, edited by M. Inguscio, W. Ketterle, and C. Salomon (IOS, Amsterdam, 2008). [3] W. Ketterle and M...International School of Physics ‘‘ Enrico Fermi ,’’ Course CLXIV, edited by M. Inguscio, W. Ketterle, and C. Salomon (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2008). [4] S

  18. Noble Gases in the Chelyabinsk Meteorites (United States)

    Haba, Makiko K.; Sumino, Hirochika; Nagao, Keisuke; Mikouchi, Takashi; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Zolensky, Michael E.


    The Chelyabinsk meteorite fell in Russia on February 15, 2013 and was classified as LL5 chondrite. The diameter before it entered the atmosphere has been estimated to be about 20 m [1]. Up to now, numerous fragments weighing much greater than 100 kg in total have been collected. In this study, all noble gases were measured for 13 fragments to investigate the exposure history of the Chelyabinsk meteorite and the thermal history of its parent asteroid.

  19. High field optical nonlinearities in gases (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang

    Optical femtosecond self-channeling in gases, also called femtosecond filamentation, has become an important area of research in high field nonlinear optics. Filamentation occurs when laser light self-focuses in a gas owing to self-induced nonlinearity, and then defocuses in the plasma generated by the self-focused beam. The result of this process repeating itself multiple times is an extended region of plasma formation. Filamentation studies have been motivated by the extremely broad range of applications, especially in air, including pulse compression, supercontinuum generation, broadband high power terahertz pulse generation, discharge triggering and guiding, and remote sensing. Despite the worldwide work in filamentation, the fundamental gas nonlinearities governing self-focusing had never been directly measured in the range of laser intensity up to and including the ionization threshold. This dissertation presents the first such measurements. We absolutely measured the temporal refractive index change of O2, N2, Ar, H2, D2 and N2O caused by highfield ultrashort optical pulses with single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry, cleanly separating for the first time the instantaneous electronic and delayed rotational nonlinear response in diatomic gases. We conclusively showed that a recent claim by several European groups that the optical bound electron nonlinearity saturates and goes negative is not correct. Such a phenomenon would preclude the need for plasma to provide the defocusing contribution for filamentation. Our results show that the 'standard model of filamentation', where the defocusing is provided by plasma, is correct. Finally, we demonstrated that high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses filamenting in gases can generate long-lived gas density `holes' which persist on millisecond timescales, long after the plasma has recombined. Gas density decrements up to ~20% have been measured. The density hole refilling is dominated by thermal

  20. Role of buffer gases in optoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas III, L.J.; Kelly, M.J.; Amer, N.M.


    The dependence of an acoustically resonant optoacoustic signal on the molecular weight and thermodynamic and transport properpties of the buffer gas is reported. Our results show that careful selection of such gases can significantly increase the sensitivity and flexibility of optoacoustic spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that such thermodynamic quantities as γ (equivalentC/sub p//C/sub v/) and sound velocity can now be measured readily and accurately. Other potential applications are suggested

  1. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases (United States)

    Shelby, James E.; Kenyon, Brian E.


    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  2. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt (United States)

    Gerlach, T.M.


    Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO2. The CO2-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (gerlach and Graeber, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO2-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032??C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the fO2 buffering process occurs by transfer of oxygen from the major species in the gas phase (H2O, CO2, SO2) to the lava during cooling and that the transfer of oxygen also controls the fugacities of several minor and trace species (H2, CO, H2S, S2, Cl2, F2), in addition to O2 during cooling. Gas/lava exchanges of other components are apparently insignificant and exert little influence, compared to oxygen exchange, during cooling. Oxygen transfer during cooling is variable, presumably reflecting short-term fluctuations in gas flow rates. Higher flow rates restrict the time available for gas/lava oxygen transfer and result in gases with higher equilibrium temperatures. Lower flow rates favor fO2-constrained equilibration by oxygen transfer down to lower temperatures. Thus, the chemical equilibrium preserved in these gases is a heterogeneous equilibrium constrained by oxygen fugacity, and the equilibrium temperatures implied by the compositions of the gases reflect the temperatures at which gas/lava oxygen exchange ceased. This conclusion

  3. Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulstad, Johan Greger


    Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases is one of the instruments used by Norwegian authorities to meet their obligations with respect to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. This book discusses the legal issues raised by these agreements. A main topic is how the industrial emissions conform to the Pollution Act. Does the Pollution Act apply to these emissions? What is the impact of the sanction rules in this act on the emissions? The book also deals with the following general questions that arise in connection with the application of public authority: (1) Can the administration grant concessions and permits in the form of agreements? (2) What commitments can be imposed on a private party by the administration by agreement? (3) Should the procedures set down in the Pollution Act and in the Public Administration Act be followed fully when the pollution authorities make agreements? Is the opportunity of the administration to reverse more restricted when they make agreements than when they make one-sided decisions? Although this discussion primarily deals with the emission of greenhouse gases, the reasoning and conclusions are relevant in many other types of agreements in which the public administration is one of the parties. The agreement that regulates the emissions of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry is described in a special section. The book also gives a brief account of how agreements are used in the Danish climate policy

  4. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.


    Bituminous coal became plastic at certain temperature ranges and swelled, causing plugging of preheater tubes. With few exceptions, this problem was encountered only when hydrogenating bituminous coal. This swelling often appeared in the coking of coals, and for the majority of the cases it was found that efforts to reduce the baking ability of bituminous coal also reduced the swelling of coal paste in the preheater tubes. Three methods of pretreatment to reduce swelling were preheating, oxidation (anoxidation), and sulfur treatment. The preheating by hot nitrogen at 250 atm for 3 hours showed no improvement in swelling characteristics, but produced a greater asphalt content and a lower amount of gasification. Absorption of oxygen was shown to increase the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in a vacuum showed no effects. Oxidation (anoxidation) increased the splitting and gasification and gave higher asphalt content. The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by addition of 2.5% sulfur and heating for 1/sup 1///sub 2/ hours at 110/sup 0/C, in a stream of H/sub 2/S. The volatile content dropped significantly when the same coal was heated to 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. When neutralized Saar coal was dried under a stream of H/sub 2/S, only slight deterioration of the yield was noted with equal degree of gasification. It was concluded that a more or less distinct improvement would be observed from the absorption of sulfur, but that residue processing would have to be altered to account for the sulfur content.

  5. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment. (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E


    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (P<0.05) improved (25%, 20%, and 40%, respectively) by HP pretreatment of IPP. Protein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (P<0.05) improved (80%) ferric reducing antioxidant power. The protein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimizing Phosphoric Acid plus Hydrogen Peroxide (PHP) Pretreatment on Wheat Straw by Response Surface Method for Enzymatic Saccharification. (United States)

    Qiu, Jingwen; Wang, Qing; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Yongmei; Song, Chun


    Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP), in which temperature, time, and H 3 PO 4 proportion for pretreatment were investigated by using response surface method. Results indicated that hemicellulose and lignin removal positively responded to the increase of pretreatment temperature, H 3 PO 4 proportion, and time. H 3 PO 4 proportion was the most important variable to control cellulose recovery, followed by pretreatment temperature and time. Moreover, these three variables all negatively related to cellulose recovery. Increasing H 3 PO 4 proportion can improve enzymatic hydrolysis; however, reduction on cellulose recovery results in decrease of glucose yield. Extra high temperature or long time for pretreatment was not beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose yield. Based on the criterion for minimizing H 3 PO 4 usage and maximizing glucose yield, the optimized pretreatment conditions was 40 °C, 2.0 h, and H 3 PO 4 proportion of 70.2 % (H 2 O 2 proportion of 5.2 %), by which glucose yielded 299 mg/g wheat straw (946.2 mg/g cellulose) after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis.

  7. Thermoelectric transport and Peltier cooling of cold atomic gases (United States)

    Grenier, Charles; Kollath, Corinna; Georges, Antoine


    This brief review presents the emerging field of mesoscopic physics with cold atoms, with an emphasis on thermal and 'thermoelectric' transport, i.e. coupled transport of particles and entropy. We review in particular the comparison between theoretically predicted and experimentally observed thermoelectric effects in such systems. We also show how combining well-designed transport properties and evaporative cooling leads to an equivalent of the Peltier effect with cold atoms, which can be used as a new cooling procedure with improved cooling power and efficiency compared to the evaporative cooling currently used in atomic gases. This could lead to a new generation of experiments probing strong correlation effects of ultracold fermionic atoms at low temperatures.

  8. Using Thermal Infrared Absorption and Emission to Determine Trace Gases (United States)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Drummond, James R.; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Orphal, Johannes

    The light emerging from the top of the atmosphere in the greater part of the infrared region is thermal radiation from the Earth's surface. The resultant spectra obtained depend on the temperature difference between the emitting feature and absorbing gas. In this region the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, CO2, methane, CH4, ozone, O3, and water, H2O, are observed as well as carbon monoxide, CO, a product indicative of fossil fuel combustion, methanol, CH3OH, from biomass burning, and ammonia, NH3, from agriclulture. Chapter 3 describes the techniques for retrieving atmospheric abundances of these and other species from a number of satellite instruments, and concludes with suggestions for future developments.

  9. ANTICOOL: Simulating positron cooling and annihilation in atomic gases (United States)

    Green, D. G.


    The Fortran program ANTICOOL, developed to simulate positron cooling and annihilation in atomic gases for positron energies below the positronium-formation threshold, is presented. Given positron-atom elastic scattering phase shifts, normalised annihilation rates Zeff, and γ spectra as a function of momentum k, ANTICOOL enables the calculation of the positron momentum distribution f(k , t) as a function of time t, the time-varying normalised annihilation rate Z¯eff(t) , the lifetime spectrum and time-varying annihilation γ spectra. The capability and functionality of the program is demonstrated via a tutorial-style example for positron cooling and annihilation in room temperature helium gas, using accurate scattering and annihilation cross sections and γ spectra calculated using many-body theory as input.

  10. Characterization of agave bagasse as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Pimienta, Jose A.; Lopez-Ortega, Monica G.; Chavez-Carvayar, Jose A.; Varanasi, Patanjali; Stavila, Vitalie; Cheng, Gang; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.


    Previous studies of agave bagasse (AGB-byproduct of tequila industry) presented unidentified crystalline peaks that are not typical from common biofuel feedstocks (e.g. sugarcane bagasse, switchgrass or corn stover) making it an important issue to be addressed for future biorefinery applications. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of AGB was performed using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim][OAc]) at 120, 140 and 160 °C for 3 h and a mass fraction of 3% in order to identify these peaks. Pretreated samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC) and wet chemistry methods. Previous unidentified XRD peaks on AGB at 2θ = 15°, 24.5° and 30.5°, were found to correspond to calcium oxalate (CaC 2 O 4 ) in a monohydrated form. IL pretreatment with [C 2 mim][OAc] was observed to remove CaC 2 O 4 and decrease cellulose crystallinity. At 140 °C, IL pretreatment significantly enhances enzymatic kinetics and leads to ∼8 times increase in sugar yield (6.66 kg m −3 ) when compared to the untreated samples (960 g m −3 ). These results indicate that IL pretreatment can effectively process lignocellulosic biomass with high levels of CaC 2 O 4 . - Highlights: • Chemical behavior of agave bagasse pretreated by ionic liquid (IL) is assessed. • Previously unidentified XRD peaks correspond to calcium oxalate (CaC 2 O 4 ). • Total sugar yield and initial enzymatic hydrolysis rate were higher at 140 °C. • IL pretreatment can effectively process biomass with high levels of CaC 2 O 4. • Increasing the temperature of IL pretreatment causes the agglomeration of CaC 2 O 4

  11. Two Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of Contaminant Gases (United States)

    Wright, John D.


    Two catalysts for the selective oxidation of trace amounts of contaminant gases in air have been developed for use aboard the International Space Station. These catalysts might also be useful for reducing concentrations of fumes in terrestrial industrial facilities especially facilities that use halocarbons as solvents, refrigerant liquids, and foaming agents, as well as facilities that generate or utilize ammonia. The first catalyst is of the supported-precious-metal type. This catalyst is highly active for the oxidation of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates at low concentrations in air. This catalyst is more active for the oxidation of hydrocarbons and halocarbons than are competing catalysts developed in recent years. This catalyst completely converts these airborne contaminant gases to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral acids that can be easily removed from the air, and does not make any chlorine gas in the process. The catalyst is thermally stable and is not poisoned by chlorine or fluorine atoms produced on its surface during the destruction of a halocarbon. In addition, the catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to nitrogen at a temperature between 200 and 260 C, without making nitrogen oxides, which are toxic. The temperature of 260 C is higher than the operational temperature of any other precious-metal catalyst that can selectively oxidize ammonia. The purpose of the platinum in this catalyst is to oxidize hydrocarbons and to ensure that the oxidation of halocarbons goes to completion. However, the platinum exhibits little or no activity for initiating the destruction of halocarbons. Instead, the attack on the halocarbons is initiated by the support. The support also provides a high surface area for exposure of the platinum. Moreover, the support resists deactivation or destruction by halogens released during the destruction of halocarbons. The second catalyst is of the supported- metal-oxide type. This catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to

  12. Optimising the (Microwave Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Brewers Spent Grains for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Wilkinson


    Full Text Available For the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, it is important to optimise the thermochemical pretreatment which is required to facilitate subsequent liberation of monomeric sugars. Here, we report optimisation of pretreatment conditions for brewers spent grains (BSG with the main objectives of (1 working at commercially relevant high solids content, (2 minimising energy and chemical inputs, and (3 maximising downstream sugar yields. Studies indicated there to be a play-off between pretreatment solids content, the usage of an acid catalyst, and pretreatment temperature. For example, yields of 80–90% theoretical glucose could be obtained following pretreatment at 35% w/v solids and 200°C, or at 140–160°C with addition of 1% HCl. However, at very high solids loadings (40–50% w/v temperatures of 180–200°C were necessary to attain comparable sugar yields, even with an acid catalyst. The feasibility of producing bioethanol from feedstocks generated using these protocols was demonstrated (but not optimised at laboratory scale.

  13. Evaluating the impact of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment conditions on the cost of ethanol production. (United States)

    Bals, Bryan; Wedding, Chris; Balan, Venkatesh; Sendich, Elizabeth; Dale, Bruce


    Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment is an ammonia-based process for improving the susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic attack. Four parameters--ammonia loading, water loading, reaction temperature, and residence time--can be varied in order to optimize AFEX pretreatment. The effect of these parameters on process economics of ethanol production was studied using a leading biorefinery model. Ammonia loading and residence time had the greatest impact on the economics of ethanol production, primarily due to processing costs for the chilled water condenser and the capital cost of the AFEX reactor. Water loading and reaction temperature had only modest impact on process economics. In addition, the impact of pretreatment conditions on makeup ammonia requirements was explored experimentally, which ranged from 15 to 25 g ammonia/kg biomass. Overall, pretreatment conditions can change the costs of ethanol production by up to 35 cents per gallon ethanol in an 850 ton/day refinery. By linking the results obtained from this Aspen model to experimental results for ethanol production and makeup ammonia recovery, this study can be used to create an economic optimum for AFEX pretreatment in contrast with simply maximizing fermentable sugar production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzos Sergios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs, still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83% > >[C2mim]Cl(53% = [C4mim]Cl(53%. Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography. Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin

  15. Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  16. The effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on methane generation uing different lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Jonuzaj, Suela; Gavala, Hariklia N.


    ., Aita G, Day DF.: Compositional changes in sugarcane bagasse on low temperature, long-term diluted ammonia treatment, Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 161, 34–40 (2010) [2] Himmelsbach, J., Raman, D., Anex, R., Burns, R., Faulhaber, C. :Effect of ammonia soaking pretreatment and enzyme addition on biochemical...

  17. A single cell model for pretreatment of wood by microwave explosion (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Yongdong Zhou; Yonglin Yan; Zhiyong Cai; Fu Feng


    A theoretical model was developed to better understand the process of microwave explosion treatment of wood cells. The cell expansion and critical conditions concerning pressure and temperature of ray parenchyma cells in Eucalyptus urophylla were simulated during microwave pretreatment. The results indicate that longitudinal and circumferential stresses were generated...

  18. Pretreatment of corn stover using wet oxidation to enhance enzymatic digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, E.; Schmidt, A.S.; Reczey, K.


    Corn stover is an abundant, promising raw material for fuel ethanol production. Although it has a high cellulose content, without pretreatment it resists enzymatic hydrolysis, like most lignocellulosic materials. Wet oxidation (water, oxygen, mild alkali or acid, elevated temperature and pressure...

  19. High-performance removal of acids and furans from wheat straw pretreatment liquid by diananofiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueb, Mohd Shafiq Mohd; Zdarta, Jakub; Jesionowski, Teofil


    Two model solutions and a real stream from the hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw were subjected to nanofiltration, and permeate flux, retention and resistance to fouling were evaluated. Three commercial NF membranes were tested, and a pressure of 4 bars (range: 1–20 bars) and a temperature...

  20. Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Klimontovich, Yu L


    Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor

  1. Chemical Fungicide Pretreatment and Cool–Wet Storage Prolonging Seed Longevity in Pachira macrocarpa (Cham. & Schl.) Schl.


    Shen, Rong–Show; Lu, Shao–Wei; Hsu, Shan–Te; Huang, Kuang–Liang; Miyajima, Ikuo


    Production of Pachira macrocarpa seeds in Taiwan is concentrated in the summer and winter months. Furthermore, the seeds harvested are difficult to store or recalcitrant. To resolve the problem of supplying seeds throughout the year, this study explores the effects that fungicide pretreatment and storage temperature have on the storage longevity of P. macrocarpa seeds, and develops effective and practical seed storage technology. The seeds were pretreated with the fungicides benomyl and carbe...

  2. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  3. Determinants of disinfectant pretreatment efficacy for nitrosamine control in chloraminated drinking water. (United States)

    McCurry, Daniel L; Krasner, Stuart W; von Gunten, Urs; Mitch, William A


    Utilities using chloramines need strategies to mitigate nitrosamine formation to meet potential future nitrosamine regulations. The ability to reduce NDMA formation under typical post-chloramination conditions of pretreatment with ultraviolet light from a low pressure mercury lamp (LPUV), free chlorine (HOCl), ozone (O3), and UV light from a medium pressure mercury lamp (MPUV) were compared at exposures relevant to drinking water treatment. The order of efficacy after application to waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges was O3 > HOCl ≈ MPUV > LPUV. NDMA precursor abatement generally did not correlate well between oxidants, and waters exhibited different behaviors with respect to pH and temperature, suggesting a variety of source-dependent NDMA precursors. For wastewater-impacted waters, the observed pH dependence for precursor abatement suggested the important role of secondary or tertiary amine precursors. Although hydroxyl radicals did not appear to be important for NDMA precursor abatement during O3 or MPUV pretreatment, the efficacy of MPUV correlated strongly with dissolved organic carbon concentration (p = 0.01), suggesting alternative indirect photochemical pathways. The temperature dependences during pre- and post-disinfection indicated that NDMA formation is likely to increase during warm seasons for O3 pretreatment, decrease for HOCl pretreatment, and remain unchanged for MPUV treatment, although seasonal changes in source water quality may counteract the temperature effects. For two waters impacted by relatively high polyDADMAC coagulant doses, pretreatment with HOCl, O3, and MPUV increased NDMA formation during post-chloramination. For O3 pretreatment, hydroxyl radicals likely led to precursor formation from the polymer in the latter tests. MPUV treatment of polymer-impacted water increased subsequent NDMA formation through an indirect photochemical process. Many factors may mitigate the importance of this increased NDMA formation

  4. Thermodynamics of a classical ideal gas at arbitrary temperatures


    Pal, Palash B.


    We propose a fundamental relation for a classical ideal gas that is valid at all temperatures with remarkable accuracy. All thermodynamical properties of classical ideal gases can be deduced from this relation at arbitrary temperature.

  5. Chemical and isotopic composition of fumarolic gases at Iwate volcano, Japan, during and after seismic activity in 1998: implications for the modification of ascending volcanic gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritoshi Morikawa


    Full Text Available In 1998, there were many volcanic earthquakes recorded at Iwate volcano, Japan. Although an eruption was anticipated, it never occurred. Fumarolic gases were sampled at the volcano on six occasions during 1998 and 1999, and were analyzed for their chemical compositions and isotope ratios. The fumarolic gases were again sampled in 2004 and 2006, after the period of seismic activity. The HCl concentrations and isotope ratios of the H2O in the gas samples collected from an active geothermal area at the volcano were high in 1998 and 1999, but decreased significantly after 2004, irrespective of the relatively stable concentrations of CO2 and sulfur-bearing gases. A notable feature of the fumarolic gases is the high isotope ratio of H2O, similar to that of pure magmatic gas, which is typical of andesitic volcanoes, although the temperature at the outlet was less than 146°C in the present case. These features can be explained if the enthalpy of the magmatic gas was equivalent to that of water vapor at 252°C to 370°C under a pressure of 1 bar. The correlations observed among CO2/H2O and HCl/H2O, and the δ18O values of the fumarolic gases suggest partial condensation of H2O vapor during the ascent of the volcanic gas to the surface. The estimated CO2/H2O molar ratio of the magmatic gas was 0.008, which is less than the 0.03 reported previously for magmatic gas sampled during an effusive eruption at Unzen volcano, Japan. These data suggest that the magma at Iwate volcano is depleted in volatiles, because CO2 is preferentially degassed from the silicate melt relative to H2O. Such depletion in CO2 might explain the failed eruption at Iwate volcano in 1998.

  6. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (United States)


    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons...

  7. Method of controlling a distillatory coulumn in a liquefaction and distillation device for radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Awata, Yoshihisa.


    Object: To automatically and securely perform controlling purity of column bottom liquid, which is most difficult in the liquefaction and distillation device. Structure: In a liquefaction and distillation device for liquefying and separating rare gas krypton in fuel reprocessing gases, a difference in temperature between the column bottom liquid (column top) and the distillation portion is detected so as to maintain temperature in the distillation portion of the distilling column constant, and the vaporization amount of column bottom liquid is varied with the difference in temperature to control purity of the column bottom liquid. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Characteristic of combustion of Colombian gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil B, Edison; Maya, Ruben; Andres, Amel A.


    The variety of gas locations in the country, makes that the gas that will be distributed by the net of present gas pipeline a very different composition, what bears to that these they behave in a different way during its use. In this work the main characteristics of the combustion are calculated for the Colombian gases, basically the properties of the combustion and the characteristics of the smoke, as basic information for the design and operation of the gas teams and their certification. These properties were calculated with the special help software for combustion developed by the authors

  9. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  10. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsunaga


    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  11. Mean free path in soccer and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzuriaga, J, E-mail: [Centro Atomico Bariloche - CNEA, Instituto Balseiro UNC (8400), Bariloche (Argentina)


    The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could be suitable for an introductory course in vacuum techniques or undergraduate courses in kinetic theory of gases. Without going into the slightly harder quantitative results, the analysis presented might be used for introducing some ideas of kinetic theory qualitatively to high school students.

  12. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H


    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua provides information on the many aspects of vacuum technology, from material on the quantum theoretical aspects of the complex semi-conductors used for thermionic and photo-electric emission to data on the performance of commercially available pumps, gauges, and high-vacuum materials. The handbook satisfies the need of workers using vacuum apparatuses or works on the diverse applications of high-vacuum technology in research and industry. The book is a compilation of long articles prepared by experts in vacuum technology. Sufficient theoret

  13. Positron scattering from noble gases future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A C L; Caradonna, P; Makochekanwa, C; Slaughter, D S; Sullivan, J P; Buckman, S J [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mitroy, J, E-mail: [Faculty of Education Health and Science, Charles Darwin University, NT (Australia)


    Recent results for positron scattering from noble gases over an energy range from 0.5 to 60eV are presented. Measurements include the grand total ({sigma}{sub GT}), Ps formation ({sigma}{sub Ps}) and Grand total - Ps formation (({sigma}{sub GT}-P{sub s}) cross sections. Some preliminary DCS results will also be presented. Work on a formulation of modified effective range theory (MERT) is being undertaken to determine the value of the scattering length which may be useful for identifying a bound state. Plans for experiments on metal atoms will be outlined.

  14. Green House Gases Measurement At Maitri, Antarctica (United States)

    Jain, S. L.; Ghude, S. D.; Arya, B. C.

    The earth's environment is constantly changing. The scientific evidence indicates that these changes are result of a complex interplay among a number of natural and human related systems. Therefore in the recent times, concern has grown about global change - which is related to natural and anthropogenic alteration of the Earth's environment. Among them the important issues, which are dangerous for the survival of life on the earth, are global green house warming, urban and regional atmospheric pollution, regional increases in tropospheric ozone, the decrease in stratospheric ozone in general and ozone hole over Antarctica in particular, acid rain etc. The monitoring of green house gases has an important role in the understanding of global change. The green house effect of CO_2 increase which has been the subject of scientific studies since later half of the nineteenth century but the CO_2 problem gained tremendous momentum during last two decades. Now it has been recognized that the green house effect due to trace gases such as CFC's, CH_4, O_3, N_2O, H_2O etc. is as much as that due to CO_2 while it was only due to CO_2 during pre industrial era to 1950's. In view of the above various state of art systems have been set up at Maitri, Antarctica for measurements of various green house gases, column ozone, water vapour, UV-B radiation, aerosol optical depth and vertical profiles of ozone which in turn will go a long way to fill in the gaps and provide valuable data for modeling studies. An automated gas chromatograph based experiment was setup in January 2002 at Maitri, for the measurements of green house gases, such as Carbon Dioxide (CO_2), Methane (CH_4) etc. The average concentration of CO_2 during the year 2002 is found out to be 367.42 ppm and average concentration of CH_4 from February to May 2003 is found out to be 1.69 ppm. An increase of about 1.6 ppm of CO_2 concentration was observed during the year 2002. The hourly mean mixing ratios of CO was found in

  15. Surface dependency in thermodynamics of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Altug


    The Casimir-like size effect rises in ideal gases confined in a finite domain due to the wave character of atoms. By considering this effect, thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas confined in spherical and cylindrical geometries are derived and compared with those in rectangular geometry. It is seen that an ideal gas exhibits an unavoidable quantum surface free energy and surface over volume ratio becomes a control variable on thermodynamic state functions in microscale. Thermodynamics turns into non-extensive thermodynamics and geometry difference becomes a driving force since the surface over volume ratio depends on the geometry

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Validation of a Biomass Hydrothermal Pretreatment Process - A Demonstration Scale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest


    for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Several by-products are also formed, which disturb and act as inhibitors downstream. The objective of this study is to formulate and validate a large scale hydrothermal pretreatment dynamic model based on mass and energy balances, together with a complex conversion mechanism......Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a cost effective technology for second generation biorefineries. The process occurs in large horizontal and pressurized thermal reactors where the biomatrix is opened under the action of steam pressure and temperature to expose cellulose...

  17. Phenotypic selection of a wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of AFEX pretreated corn stover (United States)

    Mingie Jin; Cory Sarks; Christa Gunawan; Benjamin D. Bice; Shane P. Simonett; Ragothaman Avanasi Narasimhan; Laura B. Willis; Bruce E. Dale; Venkatesh Balan; Trey K. Sato


    Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process involves enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of glucose and xylose in one bioreactor. The optimal temperatures for enzymatic hydrolysis are higher than the standard fermentation temperature of ethanologenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover,...

  18. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation (United States)

    Adam, Niklas


    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  19. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.


    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  20. Optimization pretreatment condition of sweet sorghum bagasse for production of second generation bioethanol (United States)

    Sudiyani, Yanni; Waluyo, Joko; Triwahyuni, Eka; Burhani, Dian; Muryanto, Primandaru, Prasetyo; Riandy, Andika Putra; Sumardi, Novia


    The bagasse residue of Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) consist of cellulose 39.48%; hemicellulose 16.56% and lignin 24.77% that can be converted to ethanol. Pretreatment is of great importance to ethanol yield. In this study, pretreatment process was conducted in a 5-liter reactor using NaOH 10% at various temperature 110, 130, 150°C and reaction time 10, 20, 30 minutes and optimizing severity parameter (log R0 between 1.3 - 2.9). The statistical analysis using two way anova showed that third variations of temperature give different effects significant on lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content at 95% the confidence level. The optimum pretreatment of bagasse sorghum were obtained with Log R0 value between 2.4-2.9. High severity value in pretreatment condition reduce lignin almost 84-86%, maximum reducing lignin content was 86% obtained at temperature 150°C for 20 minutes reaction time and cellulose increased almost two times the initial content.