WorldWideScience

Sample records for presuppositions contradictions controversies

  1. Contradictions and Controversies in Danish Civil Society Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents four critical observations that it is argued characterize the Danish welfare discourse on the role of civil society and the voluntary sector. The first observation is the tendency to ascribe only positive outcomes to the increase in mutual cooperation and partnerships between...... to overlook failures within the voluntary sector and focus on government failure is discussed. The aim of the article is to raise awareness of some fundamental contradictions in the current political discussion, and hopefully place them on the research agenda for future critical and empirical scrutiny....

  2. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations.

  3. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-04-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by asserting the content as new information; or (b) by presupposing the content as given information which would then have to be accommodated. This distinction predicts that it is conversationally more appropriate to assert implausible information rather than presuppose it (e.g., von Fintel, 2008; Heim, 1992; Stalnaker, 2002). A second view rejects the assumption that presuppositions are accommodated; instead, presuppositions are assimilated into asserted content and both are correspondingly open to challenge (e.g., Gazdar, 1979; van der Sandt, 1992). Under this view, we should not expect to find a difference in conversational appropriateness between asserting implausible information and presupposing it. To distinguish between these two views of linguistic information, we performed two self-paced reading experiments with an on-line stops-making-sense judgment. The results of the two experiments-using the presupposition triggers the and too-show that accommodation is inappropriate (makes less sense) relative to non-presuppositional controls when the presupposed information is implausible but not when it is plausible. These results provide support for the first view of linguistic information: the contrast in implausible contexts can only be explained if there is a presupposition-assertion distinction and accommodation is a mechanism dedicated to reasoning about presuppositions. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Prejudice and Presupposition in Offensive Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Penco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a short introduction to the standard way to treat offensive language in contemporary philosophy of language, without giving details on the very rich contemporary literature on the problem. My aim here is to connect what is called a “presuppositional point of view” on pejoratives to the topic of prejudice. At the same time, I want to develop some hints given by Flavio Baroncelli, a political philosopher and colleague who offered some provocative suggestions on the educative role of politically correct language. I will show that some of his ideas are still workable, and at the same time I eventually will try to show what is really new in the diffusion of prejudice through social networks and which kinds of reactions can be foreseen.

  5. Intimate Contradictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Nadine; Jensen, Tina Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    The Danish family unification policies are based on an underlying moral agenda rooted in the idea of emotional, intimate, love-based marriages as the basis of the modern nation state. This paper questions the efficacy of this moral agenda by examining the unintended consequences and false...... dichotomies that emerge with the implementation of the legislation, particularly focusing on kin relations and individual autonomy. Empirically, the article compares how the legislation affects both the intended targets (intra-ethnic marriages among Danes of immigrant descent) and the unintended targets...... (ethnic Danes who marry non-European spouses, namely, Cubans). This comparative perspective highlights the cracks in the moral agenda of the state's efforts to shape family formation and, ultimately, the contradictions of attempting to promote ‘modernity’ over ‘tradition’....

  6. A contextual perspective on presupposition, with reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    completion, system and structure. When any text is translated, it needs to address the target readers' specific needs, sometimes addressing more than one category of needs. Consciously or subconsciously, translators make decisions about how to organise and design the translation according to their presuppositions about ...

  7. Is it possible to do theology without philosophical presuppositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particularly in connection with the doctrine of God the unavoidability of philosophical presuppositions becomes apparent. The uncritical theological practice to speak about a concept of God is in need of the epistemological distinction between concept and idea, which is philosophical in nature. If this foundational distinction ...

  8. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Epistemological Presuppositions for the Theistic Philosophy of A. Plantinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Karpov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to reconstruct the context surrounding the projects for a reformed epistemology and an affi rmation of the Christian faith by Alvin Plantinga. An analysis of Plantinga’s epistemological presuppositions reveals how they are intertwined. The basic problem surrounding the dispute between fundamentalists and anti-fundamentalists concerning the nature of knowledge constituted the background against which the theistic philosophy of Plantinga began to take form. Examining this dispute, the author of this article attempts to define the position of the philosophers in question and to clarify the differences in terminology which are found in the appropriate literature. The relationship between evidentialism and reliabilism on the one hand and internalism and externalism on the other is noted. The author distinguishes between an early (weak and later (strong type of reformed epistemology. In the former type, Plantinga was concerned with refuting the classical version of epistemological fundamentalism; in the latter, he concentrated his attention on constructing a philosophical scheme which could grant to the basic teachings of theism an epistemological foundation. The author discusses and analyses the main objections to Plantinga. These objections are of two kinds: theological and philosophical. The philosophical objections are aimed at the epistemological presuppositions suggested by Plantinga. The author concludes that, in spite of the value and longevity of Plantiga’s arguments, the solutions to the questions which he raised are dependent on contemporary discussions of analytical epistemology.

  10. ANAPHORIC ENCAPSULATION AND PRESUPPOSITION: PERSUASIVE AND STEREOTYPICAL USES OF A COHESIVE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Pecorari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the presuppositional values of anaphoric encapsulation. We highlight that presupposition is a basic feature of argumentative and persuasive uses of this cohesive strategy, but may also apply to stereotypical instances, where evaluation does not coincide with persuasion. Finally, we analyse examples where a higher-order definite noun phrase does not presuppose the existence of a discourse referent.

  11. Irony as Inferred Contradiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лаура Альба-Хуес

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “If we acknowledge the existence of an Irony Principle, we should also acknowledge another ‘higher-order principle’ which has the opposite effect. While irony is an apparently friendly way of being offensive (mock politeness, the type of verbal behaviour known as ‘banter’ is an offensive way of being friendly (mock impoliteness.” Geoffrey Leech, Principles of Pragmatics (1983: 144 In this work I present some theoretical considerations about what I consider to be a permanent and ever-present feature of verbal irony, namely, inferred contradiction , which has to be distinguished from plain, direct (non-inferred contradiction as well as from indirect negation , for a contradiction which is directly expressed cannot be interpreted as ironical (since it lacks a crucial component: inference, and an indirect negation may or may not be ironic (depending on the situation, and thus cannot be considered a permanent feature of the phenomenon. In spite of the fact that many scholars have proposed different theories in order to capture the essence of this intricate and complex phenomenon, not all of them have managed to find a feature or characteristic that applies to or is found in all possible occurrences of irony. I briefly discuss the tenets of some of the best-known of these theories, namely the Classical theories (Socrates, Cicero, Quintilian, the Echoic-Mention Theory (later Echoic Theory, the Echoic Reminder Theory, the Pretence Theory and the Relevant Inappropriateness Theory, trying to show that in all the types of irony emerging from these proposals (e.g. echoic irony, pretence irony, etc. it can be observed that the irony is triggered by inferred contradiction . The one theory that according to my view and knowledge- seems to capture its whole essence to date is Attardo’s (2000 Relevant Inappropriateness Theory, to whose proposal I adhere, but I argue at the same time that inferred contradiction is another feature of irony (which

  12. Computational Controversy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Benjamin; Kuhn, Tobias; Beelen, Kaspar; Aroyo, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, vaccination, abortion, Trump: Many topics are surrounded by fierce controversies. The nature of such heated debates and their elements have been studied extensively in the social science literature. More recently, various computational approaches to controversy analysis have

  13. HIV/AIDS IMMUNEPATHOLOGY: MECHANISMS, CONTRADICTIONS AND CONTROVERSIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sion, Fernando Samuel; UNIRIO; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; UNIRIO; da Cunha Pinto, Jorge Francisco; UNIRIO; Velho, Marcelo Costa; UNIRIO; Kalil, Rosangela Souza; UNIRIO; Morais de Sá, Carlos Alberto; UNIRIO

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Antes de entrar na célula como uma partícula infecciosa livre, o HIV passa por contato célula a célula. A ligação do HIV ao CD4 causa alterações no gp120 e CD4 oferecendo sítios de ligação com CXR4, CXR5 e outros receptores. Portanto, pode ocorrer em células CD4+, CD8+, monócitos ou macrófagos, ativação ou apoptose como mecanismos de proteção, auto-imunidade ou completa devastação. Esses eventos são observados no sangue, mucosa do trato digestivo, sistema nervoso central e como fenôme...

  14. A Critical Discussion of "The Ethical Presuppositions behind the Library Bill of Rights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Library Bill of Rights focuses on paternalism and the dangers of Internet filtering, in response to a previous article that advocated revision of the Bill of Rights. Topics include ethical presuppositions; censorship; philosophical foundations; access; social contract theory; and utilitarianism. (LRW)

  15. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  16. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  17. Nature of worldview presuppositions among science teachers in botswana, indonesia, japan, nigeria, and the philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Meshach B.; Jegede, Olugbenro J.; Ogawa, Masakata; Yandila, Cephas D.; Oladele, Femi K.

    The focus of this study was to identify the nature of worldview presuppositions held by a group of science teachers from five non-western cultures. The results show that the subjects, irrespective of their cultural backgrounds, hold identical worldview presuppositions. It is not clear at this exploratory stage to what extent the subjects' alternative viewpoints influenced their scientific outlook or their science teaching. However, an analysis of the subjects' viewpoints suggests either poor conceptualizations of the nature of science or a form of collateral thinking, whereby an individual accepts or uses both mechanistic and anthropomorphic explanations depending on the context in question and without exhibiting any sign of cognitive dissonance. The implications of such a scenario for the teaching-learning process are highlighted.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 September 1994;

  18. Contradictions in qualitative management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Richard; Dorland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    and remove them from the analytical work. The purpose of this paper is to re-visit and re-introduce a dissensus-based management research strategy in order to analytically be able to work with what appear to be contradictions and misinformation in qualitative research accounts, and give them a more profound......– Contradictory accounts in empirical material are often perceived as deliberate “lies” or “misleading deceptions” performed in acts of impression management, or they are simply neglected. When observed in the material collected empirically, methods have been developed in order to identify...... role in the understanding of management ideas, work and practices....

  19. Friedrich Schlegels early Romantic notion of religion in relation to two presuppositions of the Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asko Nivala

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available German early Romanticism was an intellectual movement that originated in the era between the great French Revolution of 1789 and the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars in 1803. Usually, it is defined in contrast to the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment is presented as the age of reason, criticism and scientific naturalism, while the Romantics are portrayed as its reactionary enemies. According to a still customary prejudice, Romanticism was the age of exaggerated emotions, authoritarian dogmatism and mystical superstition. However, our notion of the Enlightenment has undergone changes in recent decades. Because the traditional antagonism between Aufklärung and Frühromantik has become questionable, the Romantic revival of religion needs reconsideration. In this paper, Nivala proposes an argument why the Romantics did not fall into reactionary irrationalism. His discussion focuses on one person, Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829. Nivala presents how two vital presuppositions of the Enlightenment, naturalism and criticism, were reinterpreted by Schlegel as pantheism and mysticism.

  20. The contradictions of democracy globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the problem of European (global democratization and not with its goals. The author defines the first group of problems as internal contradictions of modern democratic states. In addition to the existing historical-political criticisms of democratic rule, the author refers to critical analysis of democracy in John Keane’s works. According to Keane, modern democratic state gets involved in several ways in the field of free circulation of public opinion. Based on this and other analyses (Bobio, Dahl, the author concludes that in contemporary European democratic societies there also exist profound contradictions that are transferred to globalization of democracy, too. The author identifies the second problem concerning European democratization in its anthropological assumptions. With reference to Tocqueville’s book Democracy in America, the author states that American democracy man develops personality characteristics oriented to the acquisition of material goods (enrichment. The expansion of Euro-American picture of man to other democracies creates the tension between universal institutions and national cultural anthropology. The third problem concerning democracy is defined from the viewpoint of political relativism. The history of the world is the history of cultural differences. The short-term experience in European democratization proves that political relativism is not respected and that tendency to imposing Euro-American model is gaining in strength. This process endangers political identity of a nation, which becomes the source of confrontation and conflicts inside and between the states. In summary, the author suggests the solution of the problem in the spirit of political liberalism. States (or groups of states do not have the right to prescribe for other states how to define their public good, except in case they endanger other states (or in case they conduct massive killing of their own citizens.

  1. Wrestling with Contradictions in Government Social Media Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lars

    2014-01-01

    practices: Contradictions between service administration and community feeling as forms of practice, contradictions in organizing between local engagement and central control, and contradictions in the digital infrastructure between proprietary municipal websites and public social media platforms. The paper...

  2. Controversial Books for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, La Vinia Jean

    1979-01-01

    Discusses children's books which have caused controversies pertaining to ethnic stereotyping, labeling, sex instruction, and offensive language, and maintains that controversy is beneficial in that it keeps librarians aware of children's interests. (FM)

  3. Contradictions in a Distance Course for a Marginalized Population at a Middle Eastern University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshat Madyarov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores six cases of non-native English speaking students engaged in a distance English-medium course on critical thinking at a university in Iran. Framed within activity theory, the study investigated students’ course-related activity systems with a particular focus on contradictions that underlie any human activity. The construct of contradictions provides a theoretical lens to understand a web of relationships among a number of elements in course-related activities situated in a cultural-historical setting beset with political controversies, technological challenges, and needs for a bilingual curriculum. The findings indicate that all student participants had multiple activity systems within the course environment. Most participants had primary, secondary, and quaternary contradictions that had positive and negative consequences on the expansion of their activity systems. Discussion also includes practical implications for the distance university under study that could potentially be applied to similar distance schools.

  4. Discovering and avoiding self-contradiction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents an innovative method to teach ethics, which has so far been implemented amongst Danish students. The method focuses on developing skills to conduct a methodical, ethical dialogue by teaching students to become aware of self-contradictions and learning to avoid them. This method......, this method focuses not so much on teaching what other people think, but rather starts by finding out what the students think, and to which degree they contradict themselves. In addition the method focuses on how students argue for their positions when entering an ethical dialogue. The method focuses on two...... (learning the skills to conduct an ethical dialogue) builds on the previous ability to identify contradictions. This is done by focusing in 4 basic rules that introduce the basic principles of a dialectical dialogue. These rules allow them to avoid fundamental mistakes which otherwise hinder an ethical...

  5. Discovering and avoiding self-contradiction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents an innovative method to teach ethics, which has so far been implemented amongst Danish students. The method focuses on developing skills to conduct a methodical, ethical dialogue by teaching students to become aware of self-contradictions and learning to avoid them. This method...... was created as a response to a recurring disappointment relating to the common way of teaching ethics in Danish nursing schools, in which students are introduced to ethical theories and asked to use them to reflect on concrete ethical cases. In these courses, quite commonly students were able to understand...... aspects –first developing critical self-refection and secondly developing skills to conduct an ethical dialogue. The first aspect is addressed by finding out what the students think, do they contradict themselves and how to avoid self-contradictions. This is done by using a questionnaire with 13 ethical...

  6. Contradiction and Kant's Formula of Universal Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the

  7. Basic contradiction of the international production cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinas V. Kashbraziyev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the contradictions of international industrial cooperation as a driving force for its development. Methods identification and analysis of contradictions in international cooperation were carried out using systematic approach based on general scientific methods of theoretical and empirical research analysis synthesis scientific observation measurement and comparison. On the basis of generalization and analysis of the information contained in the statistical system of the Organization for economic cooperation and development and the global competitiveness reports of the world economic forum the author presents assessment of the level of technological and knowledgeintensity of the economies of certain developed and developing transition countries investment efficiency in science and research their influence on the technological level of production and the degree of technological sovereignty of the mentioned countries. Results the study of the industrialized countriesrsquo experience has shown that the production of hightech products is impossible without integration into a global cooperative network of industrial companies and research institutes. However being included into the global production chains and attracting advanced technologies of production marketing and management the national companies inevitably fall into dependence on foreign import supply. An economic axiom is formulated modern hightech production requires a dramatic expansion of international production cooperation. The main ontological contradiction of international industrial cooperation is revealed characterized by the impact on the improvement of the technological level of production and innovativeness of the national economy on the one hand and simultaneous strengthening of its dependence on foreign partners on the other hand. Scientific novelty on the basis of systematic approach the article reveals contradictions in international cooperation in the

  8. ANTONYMS? PRESUPPOSITIONS? ON THE SEMANTICS OF TWO EVALUATIVE MODALS JINGRAN AND GUORAN IN MANDARIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Shiung Wu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Jingran indicates that the (nonoccurrence of a situation that it presents contradicts the expectation, while guoran indicates that the (nonoccurrence of a situation presented by it converges with the expectation. Arguing against Hsieh's (2005, 2006a, 2006b proposal that evaluative modals in Mandarin do not have a model-theoretic semantics, I propose that, given that the expectation serves as a modal base B which an evaluative conversational background forms, jingran presents a proposition which represents a simple necessity of negation in a possible world w with respect to B, whereas guoran presents a proposition which is equivalent to a simple necessity in a possible world w with respect to B. Contrary to Hsieh's claim that modality in Mandarin has a language-specific property, i.e., that the semantics of certain modals in Mandarin cannot be defined in terms of possibility and necessity, I seek to fit modality in Mandarin into a bigger picture of modality in general and show that it is possible to achieve a universally valid notional category of modality, similar to the works of Kratzer (1981, though different languages may have language-specific choices for modal bases, which result in different types of modality in languages.

  9. The concept of contradiction in ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanael, Dimitris; Zarboutis, Nikos; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The present communication deals with the methodology of the ergonomics field intervention process. It proposes an operationalized version of work analysis in terms of contradictions. The aim is to demonstrate that such a dialectic tool and method of representation may assist the ergonomist to frame the essence of a work activity in practical terms, swiftly and in a manner that preserves its multifaceted unity. The proposed method is inspired by two theoretical constructs (i) contradiction as used in Cultural Historical Activity Theory and (ii) regulation, as developed and used by the francophone tradition of ergonomics of activity. Two brief examples of its use are presented and a discussion is made on further developments and possible pitfalls.

  10. Intrinsic Contradictions of Entrepreneurship Development and Self-development

    OpenAIRE

    Revaz Gvelesiani

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic contradictions of entrepreneurship development and self-development strategies complicate the task of reaching compliance between the state economic policy and the company entrepreneurship policy: on the one hand, there is a contradiction between the social and the competitive order within economic order policy and on the other hand, the contradiction exists between entrepreneurship strategy and entrepreneurship culture within entrepreneurship policy.

  11. Understanding Ethnomathematics from its criticisms and contradictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    do Carmo Domite, Maria; Pais, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    We considered articles from six researchers on the field of mathematics education, in which we identified two categories of criticisms to ethnomathematics: epistemological, related with the way ethnomathematics positioned itself in terms of mathematical knowledge; and pedagogical, related...... to the way ethnomathematical ideas are implicated in formal education. From this analysis we conclude firstly that it is not easy to criticize a research field so diverse and internationalized as ethnomathematics. Those difficulties are related with the different contexts on which ethnomathematics...... is pedagogically implicated. Secondly ethnomathematics itself as a research field rejects any dogmatic position, and is aware of contradictions implicated in their pedagogical aims....

  12. Energy, controversies and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertholet, J.-L.; Garbely, M.; Lachal, B.; Romerio, F.; Weber, W.

    2003-01-01

    The energy debate raises deep controversies, as discussions on climate change or electricity markets' deregulation show. In this context, it is very difficult for the citizen to express himself in referendums and for the decision maker to slice between various options. Experts themselves deliver controversial evaluations and interest groups can benefit from them to suggest their own solution. This book enables to get a better insight and better understand energy-related controversies and the environmental and socio-economic impacts of energy. It deals with topics as complex and politically extreme as the exhaustion of fossil fuels, climate change, ionising radiations, renewable energy sources, energy consumption in Southern countries and the reorganisation of electricity markets. It starts with an article on the precaution principle and it ends with a glance on the future, devoted to education in the field of efficient energy use [fr

  13. Obstetric controversies in thyroidology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that thyroid disorders commonly affect women. The care of pregnant women affected by thyroid disease is an important clinical challenge for endocrinologists. Hypothyroidism is the commonest problem, and maternal hypothyroxinemia has been linked to adverse feto-maternal outcomes. This article would discuss the controversy regarding first-trimester thyroid hormone deficiency and fetal brain development. Certain obstetric controversies in the management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the indications of TSH receptor antibody measurements and fetal thyroid status monitoring would also be discussed.

  14. Contradiction in universal and particular reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medaglia, Maria Teresa; Tecchio, Franca; Seri, Stefano; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Rossini, Paolo M; Porcaro, Camillo

    2009-12-01

    A wide range of essential reasoning tasks rely on contradiction identification, a cornerstone of human rationality, communication and debate founded on the inversion of the logical operators "Every" and "Some." A high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) study was performed in 11 normal young adults. The cerebral network involved in the identification of contradiction included the orbito-frontal and anterior-cingulate cortices and the temporo-polar cortices. The event-related dynamic of this network showed an early negative deflection lasting 500 ms after sentence presentation. This was followed by a positive deflection lasting 1.5 s, which was different for the two logical operators. A lesser degree of network activation (either in neuron number or their level of phase locking or both) occurred while processing statements with "Some," suggesting that this was a relatively simpler scenario with one example to be figured out, instead of the many examples or the absence of a counterexample searched for while processing statements with "Every." A self-generated reward system seemed to resonate the recruited circuitry when the contradictory task is successfully completed. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Cartography of architectural controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    that employing the visualising methods of the recent development of Actor-Network-Theory called ‘Cartography of Controversies' might contribute to trans-disciplinary efforts to develop analytic understanding of the conflicting human purposes and power-struggles at stake in the be-coming of architecture....

  16. ORGANIC REACTION MECHANISM CONTROVERSY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    However, there are so many chemical reactions notably in organic chemistry where reactions may not directly lead to products. ... There are concepts that support these ideas but can they be proven to the ... Reaction mechanism is one such issue in organic chemistry that has attracted a lot of controversial comments from ...

  17. Contradictions of labor law during elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Márquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article is part of a research to understand Uruguayan labour law through an analysis of the contradictions that arise between the rights and obligations derived from public law rules in the current stage where labour law is dispersed within the voluminous set of rules that conforms Uruguayan law. Our argument focuses particularly on the topic of the working hours that officers and public notaries invest whenever citizenship is convened to vote in the electoral polls, the most important act in a democracy. We hope this publication may arise a debate that contributes to the construction of new rules helping in the creation of a better labour law.

  18. Contradictions from the enlightenment roots of transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James

    2010-12-01

    Transhumanism, the belief that technology can transcend the limitations of the human body and brain, is part of the family of Enlightenment philosophies. As such, transhumanism has also inherited the internal tensions and contradictions of the broad Enlightenment tradition. First, the project of Reason is self-erosive and requires irrational validation. Second, although most transhumanists are atheist, their belief in the transcendent power of intelligence generates new theologies. Third, although most transhumanists are liberal democrats, their belief in human perfectibility and governance by reason can validate technocratic authoritarianism. Fourth, transhumanists are divided on the balance between democracy and the market. Fifth, teleological expectations of unstoppable progress are in tension with awareness of the indeterminacy of the future. Sixth, transhumanists are divided between advocates of ethical universalism and ethical relativism. Seventh, the rational materialist denial of discrete persistent selves calls into question the transhumanist project of individual longevity and enhancement.

  19. Teaching Human Rights: Confronting the Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Hammond

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching human rights means taking on a series of controversies over what human rights are, how they are determined, and how they are (or are not upheld.  The "possession paradox" is that often human rights are declared but many, or even most, people do not actually enjoy them.  In teaching human rights we must convey both the promise of human rights and the discrepancy between that promise and their fulfillment.  I review a number of controversies in the current application of human rights, many of which arise from that discrepancy.  I then suggest the use of literary works and simulation games that can sometimes convey meanings more effectively than expository material.

  20. Controversial Messages on Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustieles, Vicente; Olea, Nicolas; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Fernandez, Mariana F

    2015-01-01

    A direct connection between certain lifestyle factors and an increased risk of cancer has already been established. Despite well-documented associations, controversial messages on causes of cancer often appear without taking into consideration their impact on the general population. While mainstream coverage of cancer research is clearly welcome, consideration must be given to the risk of transmitting provocative messages with serious negative consequences for cancer research and public health. We must avoid becoming a breeding ground for the misinterpretation of scientific information. Polemical results can stimulate scientific research and progress, but controversial messages encourage confusion and impotence in an increasingly disoriented population. The correct communication of health messages is at least as important as research on risk factors.

  1. The Thimerosal Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Historically, there has always been a degree of concern related to vaccination. While public health policy in the early 1900s was more concerned with the contamination of vaccine vials with microbes, such as tetanus, that could cause serious illness and potentially death, current vaccination concerns are centered on the apprehension of chemicals ‘contaminating’ vaccines. The modern day vaccination controversy regarding chemical contamination began as a result of environmental concerns regardi...

  2. The pertussis vaccine controversy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinman, A R

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been continuing controversy about whether the benefits of routine vaccination for pertussis outweight the potential risks. Some of the epidemiologic and technical issues include ascertainment and reporting of cases, case definition and laboratory confirmation, identification and purification of antigens, vaccine potency measurement, vaccine efficacy, and vaccine safety. Other factors include legal and economic issues, ethical concerns, emotional overlays, an...

  3. The role of conversational maxims, implicature and presupposition in the creation of humour: an analysis of Woody Allen’s anything else

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Álvaro, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    Humour is becoming the shelter of a dehumanised society that aspires to find happiness in different areas of daily life. This paper focuses on the analysis of humour in a specific realm, cinema, from a pragmatic perspective; the concrete movie studied is Woody Allen’s Anything Else. The analysis will cover various pragmatic concepts such as implicature, conversational maxims and presupposition, which will be approached in combination with rhetorical figures and taking into account humour theo...

  4. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  5. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  6. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contradictions of TNCs’ Foreign Economic Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov Aleksandr Borisovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some directions of the external economic expansion of multinational corporations in modern conditions of globalization, the contradictions generated by these conditions and the conflicts in the system of world economy are presented in the article. The global strategy of functioning of multinational corporation professes the principle of “double standards”. Multinational corporations, on the one hand, support liberalization and internationalization in scales of world reproduction, on the other hand – further redistribution of spheres of influence, and imposing the new world economic order. The functional role of modern multinational corporations is inconsistent. Though they stimulate the tendency of increasing the competitiveness, concentration of the capital and production, at the same time, the monopolization and institutional barriers created by multinational corporation and its structural divisions. Multinational corporations determine the competitive struggle, implement the sanitation mechanism and optimization of world economy. The diversification of multinational corporations’ activity promotes the generation of new requirements and the markets (information, innovations, technologies, services, etc. where individual subjects and competitive forces are formed. It is caused by a progressive functional role of modern multinational corporations in the global economy. Massive penetration into the international business, external expansion of transnational monopolies stimulates economic growth in host countries, promotes specialization, division of labor, cooperation. At the same time, the monopolist form of these processes inevitably leads to numerous negative phenomena, a slow down and inconsistent development of production in the countries-recipients.

  8. Siting controversial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Blacker, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    There is often significant difficulty involved with siting controversial facilities. The social and political problems are frequently far more difficult to resolve than the technical and economic issues. The tendancy for most developing organizations is to address only technical issues in the search for a technically optimal site, to the exclusion of such weighting considerations as the social and political climate associated with potential sites--an approach which often imperils the success of the project. The site selection processes currently suggested is summarized and two contemporary examples of their application are cited. The difference between developers' real objectives and the objectives they have implicitly assumed by adopting the recommended approaches without augmentation are noted. The resulting morass of public opposition is attributed to the failure to consider the needs of individuals and groups who stand to be negatively impacted by the development. A comprehensive implementation strategy which addresses non-technical consideration in parallel with technical ones is presented and evaluated

  9. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  10. Contradictions in stem cell research education amongst science educators and Buddhist, Christian and Muslim theologians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhayboubi, Samira Nawal

    We examine how teachers approach stem cell research (SCR) as a controversial religio-scientific issue, and how theologians derive rulings in SCR. We also examine the contradictions teachers have regarding religio-scientific aspect of SCR. Two observations were the igniters of this study, increasing public involvement in political decision-making and changing demographics among voters. Two samples were gathered, a teachers' group and a theologians' group. The teachers' group consisted of 43 graduate-level Science education teachers and teachers-in-training from the University of Texas at Dallas and Stanford University. The theologian's group consisted of theologians from 3 denominations, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. Data was obtained using Likert-surveys, open-ended questions and interviews. Results show that majority of the teachers' group are open to discussing SCR but fear retaliation.

  11. Controversy surrounding 'mini' gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K; Carr, William R J; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K

    2014-02-01

    Mini gastric bypass is a modification of Mason loop gastric bypass with a longer lesser curvature-based pouch. Though it has been around for more than 15 years, its uptake by the bariatric community has been relatively slow, and the procedure has been mired in controversy right from its early days. Lately, there seems to be a surge in the interest in this procedure, and there is now published experience with more than 5,000 procedures globally. This review examines the major controversial aspects of this procedure against the available scientific literature. Surgeons performing this procedure need to be aware of these controversies and counsel their patients appropriately.

  12. A Contradiction-Based Approach for Innovative Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Yao-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Without creativity in design there is no potential for innovation. This paper investigates the role of contradictions in enhancing creativity in product design. Based on the inventive principles of TRIZ, this paper presents a novel design method by integrating technical and physical contradiction analysis methods into the conceptual design activities of new product development (NPD. Despite the recognized importance of innovative design, there is a lack of the systematic and effective design-thinking process that can covers all conceptual design activities. To address this gap, a sharper and fundamental model of the problem-solving is created for innovative product design based on the contradiction-oriented concept. Eventually, one case study is employed to illustrate the method and the result validates that it can help designers produce more creative outcomes in product design.

  13. Partisan Scholarship in Technoscientific Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Hansson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Several academic traditions have addressed epistemological objectivity and/or partisanship in the study of technoscientific controversies. On the one hand, positivist and relativist scholars agree that the political commitments of the social researcher should not impinge on scientific enquiry...

  14. The Media and the Contradictions in Commitments to the Fight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the media and contradictions in the fight against climate change. It notes that there is widespread agreement on human-induced climate change (anthropogenic climate change) in addition to natural causes. Using results of empirical studies, the paper argues however that the media are succumbing, ...

  15. On the Contradiction in Conception Test of the Categorical Imperative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author argues against Christine Korsgaard\\'s influential interpretation of. Kant\\'s contradiction in conception test of the categorical imperative. Korsgaard\\'s rejection of the 'teleological' interpretation is shown to be based on a misunderstanding of the role that teleology plays for Kant in ruling out immoral maxims, and her ...

  16. Tensions, Contradictions and Inconsistencies in Community-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through a critical analysis of the different educational processes this paper exemplifies how contradictions, inconsistencies and tensions in educational theory undermined practice and affected the character of the programme, its implementation and outcomes at community level. It further demonstrates how the conscious ...

  17. Dialectical Philosophy and Developmental Psychology: Hegel and Piaget on Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that although Piaget's psychological theory is developmental and dialectical in a general way, the lack of a developed philosophical basis leads to the subordination of a dialectical approach to static, anti-dialectical concepts. Hegel's theory of interaction and contradiction is examined to show that dialectical theory has a precise…

  18. Challenges, Contradictions and Risks of the Modern Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyneka Tetyana A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the nature of challenges, contradictions and risks of the global economy. The stages of the reproduction cycle of global contradictions are considered with singling out the “conflict” stage. There described the categorical apparatus of the research with determination of the following meaningful sequence: global challenge ? global problem ? global risk ? global crisis ? global catastrophe. The forecast of the WEF for 2017 on global trends and global risks is analyzed. The system nature of global risks is identified as a defining feature of their modern manifestation. The system approach to determining the source of origin of modern challenges, contradictions and risks of the global economy is used. It is proved that the nature of the system unproductiveness (crisis-induced character comes from the depths of capitalist relations and finds its modern manifestation through the self-denial of capitalism and the contradictions caused by the evolution of global capital. The idea of the inevitability of the global catastrophe that awaits humanity is refuted and the possibility and necessity of applying long-term safety management strategies on the part of the harmonized society is argued.

  19. Curriculum: The Contradictions in Theatre Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo Nogueira, Marcia; de Medeiros Pereira, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The history of arts education in Brazil is summarised, based on its contradictions. Some aspects of the Brazilian educational system and the National Curriculum Parameters are presented, in order to identify the predominant approach to theatre education. Three situations of the theatre education landscape in the state of Santa Catarina, southern…

  20. Young People's Wellbeing: Contradictions in Managing the Healthy Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the contradictions and complexities of young people's management of their health and wellbeing. It argues that it is important to understand how young people actively produce health outcomes, drawing substantially on themes developed in my recent book on young people and wellbeing (Wyn, 2009). The background to this…

  1. Social Contradictions and Change in Okri's Dangerous Love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ben Okri is one of Africa's most experimental contemporary novelists in the Magical realist tradition through which he has carved a nitch for himself. In this paper we critically interrogate his utilization of the magic realist form in Dangerous Love to examine the theme of contradiction and love. Through a Marxist dialectic ...

  2. 21st-century liberal democracy and its contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This brief paper intends to highlight the contradictions in which liberal democracy struggles within the process of globalisation, influenced as it is by the new connecting technologies. In particular, the difficult relationship between liberalism and democracy is analysed in light of the latest communitarist theories and new trends that interpret them socially. 

  3. The Contradictions of Constitution-Making in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... of nature‖ and ―… force exercised without right, creates a state of war, because it contributes to a ... periods of soliciting and collating the views of the people, through oral and. The Contradictions of ... assembly needs to be preceded by a wide range of constitutional proposals. All the populace cannot ...

  4. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  5. Current controversies, is there merit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    Xylitol has become a debated measure in caries prevention. This paper aims to examine and comment on some possible controversies, with emphasis on the most recent literature. A search for clinical trials was conducted through 2007 in PubMed, and papers describing a controlled xylitol intervention...

  6. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, E.; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R.; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit

  7. Organic Reaction Mechanism Controversy: Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated the pedagogical implications of the controversy generated by the nature of reaction mechanism in organic chemistry as to whether it can be proven or not. A conference of a chemist, chemical educator, a graduate chemistry teacher and a graduate assistant was organized. The conference lasted for ...

  8. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race,…

  9. Minimum Contradictions Physics and Propulsion via Superconducting Magnetic Field Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassikas, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    All theories are based on Axioms which obviously are arbitrary; e.g. SRT, GRT, QM Axioms. Instead of manipulating the experience through a new set of Arbitrary Axioms it would be useful to search, through a basic tool that we have at our disposal i.e. Logic Analysis, for a set of privileged axioms. Physics theories, beyond their particular axioms, can be restated through the basic communication system as consisting of the Classical Logic, the Sufficient Reason Principle and the Anterior-Posterior Axiom. By means of a theorem this system can be proven as contradictory. The persistence in logic is the way for a set of privileged axioms to be found. This can be achieved on the basis of the Claim for Minimum Contradictions. Further axioms beyond the ones of the basic communications imply further contradictions. Thus, minimum contradictions can be achieved when things are described through anterior-posterior terms; due to existing contradictions through stochastic space-time, which is matter itself, described through a Ψ wave function and distributed, in a Hypothetical Measuring Field (HMF), through the density probability function P(r, t). On this basis, a space-time QM is obtained and this QM is a unified theory satisfying the requirements of quantum gravity. There are both mass-gravitational space-time (g) regarded as real and charge-electromagnetic (em) space-time that could be regarded as imaginary. In a closed system energy conversion-conservation and momentum action take place through photons, which can be regarded either as (g) or (em) space-time formation whose rest mass is equal to zero. Universe Evolution is described through the interaction of the gravitational (g) with the electromagnetic (em) space-time-matter field and not through any other entities. This methodology implies that there is no need for dark matter. An experiment is proposed relative to the (g)+(em) interaction based on Superconducting Magnetic Field Trapping to validate this approach.

  10. Controversies in neurosciences critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiffany R; Naval, Neeraj S; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Neurocritical care is an evolving subspecialty with many controversial topics. The focus of this review is (1) transfusion thresholds in patients with acute intracranial bleeding, including packed red blood cell transfusion, platelet transfusion, and reversal of coagulopathy; (2) indications for seizure prophylaxis and choice of antiepileptic agent; and (3) the role of specialized neurocritical care units and specialists in the care of critically ill neurology and neurosurgery patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate Change: Consensus or Controversy?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Neville

    2006-01-01

    The hundreds of scientists comprising the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) maintain that there is a consensus that humans are changing the global climate. Yet many commentators in the media dispute this, and a reader of such commentaries would surely conclude that climate change is a controversy rather than a consensus. This is simply incorrect – the overwhelming majority of climate scientists accept the reality of the greenhouse effect and its impact on the current climate. T...

  12. Controversies in Facial Cosmetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana, Armando

    2017-11-01

    Facial cosmetic surgery techniques are constantly updated to meet the expectations of patients who demand less invasive procedures and less recovery time. Current trends in lower eyelid surgery call for periorbital fat repositioning instead of excision of fat. Controversies still exist in chin augmentations regarding osseous genioplasty versus alloplastic chin implant. The benefits, disadvantages, and considerations of these procedures are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment o...

  14. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Borra, E.; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R.; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit history and discussion section for every article, the substance of these sections is difficult to phantom for Wikipedia users interested in the development of an article and in locating which...

  15. Controversial reversal of nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarović Miodrag

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due introduction of climate change prevention measures. Recent developments indicate the advantages of nuclear option over other possible options in terms of sustainable development. However, a large number of controversial issues on nuclear energy make its...

  16. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Contradictions and shifts in teaching with a new curriculum: The role of mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stouraitis, Konstantinos; Potari, Despina; Skott, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    of enacting a new mathematics curriculum. We examine the connection between contradictions and shifts in teaching activity, with a special focus on the mathematical character of these contradictions. We claim that dialectical oppositions lying in the background of these contradictions promote teachers...

  18. Ecology and shareholder value - a contradiction in terms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, G.; Schaltegger, S.; Rechsteiner, R.; Figge, F.; Kuhn, R; Biedermann, D.

    2002-01-01

    In its function as a purely financial concept for company assessment, does shareholder value promote short-term thinking or can an enterprise's orientation towards shareholder value be sustainable? What contradictions exist between the yield, security and liquidity of an asset and ethically and ecologically correct behaviour? One of the authors shows why effective environmental protection and a simultaneous increase in shareholder value are both possible and sensible. Especially when the assessment of the future economic chances of an enterprise in a changing ecological frame of reference are being examined, the shareholder value approach is well suited as a conceptional basis - provided it is correctly used. Can shareholders replace environmental policy? This question is asked by another of the authors. Is a 'green' strategy good, simply because it generates more profit? Can green capitalism rescue the world? According to another contributor there is no real contradiction between the shareholder value approach and the stake holder concept. The shareholder value approach is primarily a method for looking at an enterprise from the capital investor's point of view. The stake holder concept can, on the other hand, be assigned to the strategic management category. It shows that enterprises must take account of stake holder requirements in order to permanently be able to reach their goals. A further contribution addresses the role played by pension funds. What responsibility is carried by a pension fund when it invests its assets? What are its objectives? Which role do socially and ecologically-oriented investments play? Is there really a contradiction between economy and ecology? How does a pension fund deal with possible conflicting objectives? Another contributor presents an investment foundation's integrated approach to socially responsible investment: First of all, investments should be made in those enterprises and countries that make exceptional contributions to

  19. Transcending logic: the difference between contradiction and antinomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël Strauss

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy and all the academic disciplines are sensitive to the aim of sound reasoning – except for the dialectical tradition which sanctions contradictions and antinomies (Heraclitus, Nicolas of Cusa, Hegel, Marx, Vaihinger, Simmel, Rex, and Dahrendorf. A brief overview is presented of conflicting theoretical stances within the various academic disciplines before an assessment is given of the positive and negative meaning of ‘reductionism.’ Against the background of historical lines of development the multiple terms employed in this context are mentioned and eventually positioned within the context of the normativity holding for logical thinking. It is argued that the logical contrary between logical and illogical serves as the foundation of other normative contraries, such as legal and illegal and moral and immoral. Through the discovery of irrational numbers the initial Pythagorean conviction that everything is number reverted to a geometrical perspective that generated a static metaphysics of being which challenged the ideas of plurality and motion. This development uncovered the problem of primitive terms in scientific discourse as an alternative for those theoretical attempts aimed at reducing whatever there is to one single mode of explanation. Zeno’s paradoxes are used to demonstrate an alternative understanding of the difference between the potential and the actual infinite as well as the nature of (theoretical antinomies. It is argued that genuine antinomies are inter-modal in nature (such as is found in the attempt to reduce movement to static positions in space and therefore differ from logical contradictions (such as a ‘square circle’ which merely confuses two figures within one modal aspect. Although every antinomy does entail logical contradictions, the latter do not necessarily presuppose an antinomy. The implication is that logic itself has an ontic foundation – as is seen from the nature of the principle of

  20. Military laser weapons: current controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y

    2001-09-01

    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  1. The controversy about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    A short review of the events of the past several years in the conflict in the USA between the groups supporting or opposing nuclear power. Reference is made to publications on both sides of the controversy which the author considers to be well reasoned and useful sources of information. Mention is also made of the legal and legislative actions taken by both sides. The arguments against nuclear power are summarized and solutions to the problems which are the source of these arguments are suggested

  2. Evidence-based complementary and alternative veterinary medicine--a contradiction in terms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Sebastian; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) like acupuncture, herbal medicine and homeopathy is increasingly used in the treatment of human and animal disease. On the other hand, CAM is discussed controversially, especially in the context of Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine (EBVM). This paper provides a balanced analysis of the currently available data on CAM in human and veterinary medicine. In conclusion, little rigorous research data concerning the efficacy and safety of CAM has been published. However, acupuncture is gaining increasing acceptance in academic medicine, based on several metaanalyses that show efficacy for specific conditions. In practice, decisions concerning CAM therapies should also be based on the best available evidence provided by scientifically valid data. This implies that CAM interventions must be validated by stringent high quality research to obtain an objective and replicable overview of efficacy and safety. Nevertheless, trials should be designed according to important aspects of CAM therapies (e.g. individual treatment). In conclusion, Evidence-Based Alternative Veterinary Medicine is not a contradiction in terms.

  3. COP-21: the economic controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2015-01-01

    This publication analyses and discusses the content of the so-called 'intended nationally determined contributions' (INDC) prepared by countries for the COP-21. It notably shows that the USA projected energy consumption is in total contradiction with the contribution. It outlines that some of these contributions sound too ambitious in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, these statements are important for poor countries to obtain financial support from rich countries. The perspective of temperature increase is not good, but it seems that everybody is now aware of the associated risks. The article outlines that commitments for actions remain far behind the objectives defined in Copenhagen. The fact that fossil energies are cheap favours their use, that which is a problem with respect to general commitments for climate. The limitations of present alternate solutions are discussed: green oil, hydraulic, electricity production based on wind and solar energy, use of geothermal for heat or electricity, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion

  4. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  5. Vocational Literacy in Mozambique: Historical Development, Current Challenges and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Popov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the historical development of vocational literacy in basic education and Non-Formal Vocational Education (NFVE in Mozambique, as well as current challenges and contradictions. The theoretical lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT is employed in the study. Methodologically the study was executed through an analysis of oral, printed and e-resources produced by the main stakeholders and also the reflective experiences of the authors in their extensive educational work in the country. The findings reveal poorly developed vocational literacy education in schools and non-formal settings in spite of recurrent political declarations about its importance. There is a strong dependence by formal and particularly NFVE sectors on the technical and financial support provided by international organisations. Vocational literacy courses are characterized by a lack of adequate equipment and poor practice. As a consequence, theoretical or elementary forms of vocational knowledge are dominant in the courses, resulting in the dissatisfaction of both learners and educators. Vocational literacy development proved to be a complex field that faces many challenges and ischaracterised by diverse internal contradictions.

  6. Contradictions and conflicts of the contemporary Russian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Akulich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the contradictions and conflicts of the contemporary Russian education focusing on the opportunities for conflict management. The research is based on the institutional and system approaches, in particular on the sociological conceptions of social conflict and social cohesion. The author conducted a historical and sociological analysis of social conflicts and social cohesion in the educational sphere, and such conflicts seem to be the result of the contradictions inherent in this social institution. The article identifies basic types of conflicts in the Russian education, and the ways of resolving them by the subjects of the educational system for such conflicts are manageable, especially within the interaction of educational system and society. To verify the proposed typology of conflicts in the contemporary Russian education the author conducted an empirical study to develop a system of practical measures that will help to improve the quality of learning of pupils and students, and will have a positive impact on the functioning and development of the contemporary Russian society. Thus, the article may be useful to sociologists, teachers, educational managers and readers interested in the specifics of social conflicts and the ways for resolving conflict situations.

  7. Disordered eating and the contradictions of neoliberal governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, Iain

    2016-07-01

    The last decade has seen the development of an important literature on the contradictions between neoliberal norms of corporal citizenship and the forms of consumption that market-based food systems promote. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature by exploring the relationship between these contradictions and the increased prevalence of particular eating disorders (binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa). Within contemporary neoliberal food systems bingeing is increasingly normalised and consumption temporally disorganised. At the same time, neoliberal public health policy, and the wider 'health' entertainment media it legitimates, focuses on the promotion of 'correct' forms of consumer agency. Individuals who fail to manage consumption 'appropriately' are stigmatised. The growth of bulimia and BED can be related to the contradictory pressures that the food system and regime of corporal governance place on individuals. The paper also seeks to explore how the increased medicalisation and biomedicalisation of eating since the 1980s fits within a broader neoliberal governance strategy. By medicalising key social problems the neoliberal state depoliticises these issues. Medicalisation and biomedicalisation obscure the role of capitalism in generating these problems and encourage a focus on individual dysfunction. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  8. Doctrinal controversies and ecumenical councils | Ogbonnaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work focused on the doctrinal controversies that have confronted the Church in the course of its development and the accompanying councils that sought to resolve these theological controversies. The paper did this historically, by showing the origin of the problems, the factors and features involved in the controversies ...

  9. Contradictions of Control, Part 2: Teachers, Students, and Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Linda M.

    1988-01-01

    Instead of freeing teachers to teach, schools' bureaucratic organization may have inadvertently produced ritualized, mechanistic teaching that elicits only minimal compliance from students. Defensive teaching strategies, including fragmentation (teaching by lists), mystifying information, omitting controversial topics, and simplifying material,…

  10. Cartography of Controversies about MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Massively open online courses (MOOCs) are one of most recent educational technology development that have become a highly debated issue, polarized among proponents, boosters, skeptics, and resistants. To understand the nature of such evolving technology concepts, the typical methods and techniques...... studies (STS) discipline. The method guides the application of actor network theory (ANT). Online digital media and tools (namely, Scopus, ScienceScape, Google trends, OpenHeatMap, NodeXL, Gephi, Facebook, Twitter) are used for data collection and analysis. The study uses both qualitative and quantitative...... tools and techniques to highlight the statements, literatures, actors, cosmoses or general concepts involved in the controversy. The paper propounds the adoption of the method in the field of education and educational technology and proposes through demonstration in this article that such investigations...

  11. Managing Controversies in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the controversies that emerge in the fuzzy front end (FFE) and how they are closed so the innovation process can move on. The fuzzy front has been characterized in the literature as a very critical phase, but controversies in the FFE have not been studied before....... The analysis investigates the microprocesses around the controversies that emerge during the fuzzy front end of four products. Five different types of controversies are identified: profit, production, design, brand and customers/market. Each controversy represents a threat, but also an opportunity to search...... demonstrates how the fuzzy front requires managers to deal with controversies that emerge from many different places and involve both human and non-human actors. Closing the controversies requires managers to take account of the situation, identify the problem that needs to be addressed, and initiate a search...

  12. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  13. Error, contradiction and reversal in science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccheri, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    Error and contradictions are not "per se" detrimental in science and medicine. Going back to the history of philosophy, Sir Francis Bacon stated that "truth emerges more readily from error than from confusion", and recently Popper introduced the concept of an approximate temporary truth that constitutes the engine of scientific progress. In biomedical research and in clinical practice we assisted during the last decades to many overturnings or reversals of concepts and practices. This phenomenon may discourage patients from accepting ordinary medical care and may favour the choice of alternative medicine. The media often enhance the disappointment for these discrepancies. In this note I recommend to transfer to patients the concept of a confirmed and dependable knowledge at the present time. However, physicians should tolerate uncertainty and accept the idea that medical concepts and applications are subjected to continuous progression, change and displacement. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rural education in brazilian education: contradictions and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana D'Agostini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the rural education. It aimed to analyze and discuss the rural education in the Brazilian educational context, indicating its character and its importance from the 1990s in the perspective of building an education aimed at human emancipation and that contradictory it is also supported and guided by neoliberal educational policies. From the studies of production on rural education was found challenges, problems, difficulties and contradictions that permeate the attempt to create a perspective of rural education. The concept of rural education was initially developed within the Movement of Landless Workers (MST and other social movements from the political pressure and demands for the state to take over public education / field took dimension of public policy. This complex situation currently directs rural schools, a critical perspective that seeks an education beyond the capital.

  15. CAUSES AND NATURE OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTRADICTIONS OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN TRANSITIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Shulga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Today the state of the agricultural sector in most economies in transition is disappointing and caused by unresolved social and economic contradictions in its development, which in the transformations only worsened. Therefore, to develop effective agricultural policies to address the existing contradictions in the agricultural sector, it is needed to find their nature and causes and development. This is what will resolve current contradictions and predict the natural course of development of agrarian relations in the future. The subject of the investigation – nature and causes of economic and social contradictions of the agrarian sector in transitional economies. To clarify these issues there were used methods such as dialectic, systemic and structural, analysis and synthesis, unity logical and historical approaches, induction and deduction, etc. The aim is to find out the nature of economic and social contradictions of the agricultural sector, their causes and development in transitional economies. Based on these methods, it is found that a contradiction is an internal source of development, and causes of changes and development of the contradictions are inherent within it. That means that the contradiction is a process that is changing, evolving itself, as its domestic activity and through interaction with the struggle of opposites. Accordingly, the economic and social contradictions in the development of the agricultural sector are of objective nature. Mistakes in the actions of agrarian relations do not generate new conflicts, but only reinforce the negative side of contradictions inhibiting its solution. This is due to the fact that every contradiction has its objective course of development and natural solutions through new quality reproduction with the peculiar contradictions of development. The subjective factor can only help or hinder solving contradictions, lead to a partial solution of contradictions. Errors are mostly subjective

  16. The HPV vaccine mandate controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Gillian; Malow, Robert M; Zimet, Gregory D

    2007-12-01

    In this editorial we address the controversies surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry mandate legislation, but differentiate between the mandate debate and issues specific to the vaccine itself. Our goal is not to take a stand in favor of or opposed to mandates, but rather to critically examine the issues. We discuss the following arguments against HPV vaccine school-entry requirements: 1. The public health benefit of mandated HPV vaccination is not sufficient to warrant the intrusion on parental autonomy; 2. A vaccine that prevents a non-casually transmitted infection should not be mandated; 3. Opt-out provisions are inherently unfair to parents who oppose HPV vaccination; 4. Limited health care dollars should not be directed toward cervical cancer prevention; and 5. The vaccine is expensive and potential problems with supply suggest that mandates should not be implemented until insurance coverage and supply issues are resolved. Next, we critically evaluate the following critiques of HPV vaccination itself: 1. Giving girls HPV vaccine implies tacit consent to engage in sexual activity; 2. Giving girls this vaccine will confer a false sense of protection from sexually transmitted infections and will lead to sexual disinhibition; 3. Children already have too many vaccinations on the immunization schedule; 4. Long-term side effects of HPV vaccine are unknown; 5. The vaccine's enduring effectiveness is unknown and booster shots may be required; and 6. It is wrong to only target girls with HPV vaccine; boys should be vaccinated as well.

  17. Lyme disease: why the controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M H

    2016-12-01

    Some Australians have become convinced of the existence of locally acquired Lyme disease (LD). The history of LD, since its recognition in the early 1970s, is reviewed as a model for investigative approaches to unknown syndromes. Australian Management Guidelines for LD include the requirement for diagnostic testing by National Association of Testing Authorities-accredited laboratories using Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed tests, which result in the efficient diagnosis of LD in overseas travellers. Despite this, patients who have not left Australia pay many thousands of dollars for non-specialist consultations and testing at overseas laboratories. Unproven long-term therapy with multiple antibiotics has resulted in serious complications, including allergies, line sepsis, pancreatitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Studies have shown that LD vectors are not found in Australia, and Lyme Borrelia has not been found in Australian vectors, animals or patients with autochthonous illnesses. I propose that (i) A non-controversial name for the chronic syndrome should be adopted, 'Australian Multisystem Disorder'. (ii) Research funding should enable the development of a consensus case definition and studies of the epidemiology of this syndrome with laboratory investigations to identify an aetiology and surrogate markers of disease. Prospective, randomised treatment studies could then be undertaken using ethical protocols. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  19. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  20. Contradictions of international migration in terms of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The political economy approach that entails critical arguments in relation to the processes of migration in neoliberal terms is developed in the paper. Starting with the account that migration covers as broad issues as politics, economics and population dynamic, the authors address the issue of migration in the political economy circuits of neoliberalization. In fact, the main line of argument is connected to the political economy as the relevant discursive frame and explanatory principle for the articulation of the complexity of migration. Critical arguments relating to the processes of migration in the neoliberal context thematize the mechanism of implemented flexibilisation and deregulation of labor. Demographic dynamics is essential in this context, but the authors intend to identify those political economy processes that lead to high precariousness, to various forms of temporary labor which are closely associated with forced labor forms. The category of forced labor is emphasized in the contemporary forms of migration, because this mode of labor facilitates the migration throughout the world. Furthermore, the authors point out the contradictory position of the state in relation to the migration-processes and analyse the authoritarian statism. This argumentation leads to articulation of the contradictory position of neoliberalization. The neoliberal discourses bring out the critical stance concerning the supremacy of the state, but it plays a key role in the regulation of migration. The state exposed to migration is faced with the contradictory demands. The globalization indicates the world without borders but is faced with the same contradictions. It is no coincidence that the intention of the reconceptualizations of globalization are interested in promoting global public goods. The processes of privatization in the sphere of the regulation of migration sharpen the contradictions of migration in the context of neoliberalization. The

  1. Contradictions and dilemmas within the practice of immigration medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisaillon, Laura

    2013-01-08

    To identify, explore and critique features of how practices associated with immigration medicine are socially organized. Specifically, how the work of designated medical practitioners (DMP) - physicians who conduct immigration medical examinations of prospective immigrants to Canada as contractors to the Canadian government department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada - is organized to occur in interactions with applicants who are diagnosed with the human immunodeficiency virus during the immigration medical examination. Findings from a theoretically informed empirical study using institutional and political activist ethnography inform this article. Data collection and analytic activities spanning 18 months included observational work in institutional settings, textual review, 61 interviews, and 2 focus groups in three Canadian cities. The medical examination of prospective immigrants to Canada is not organized as a therapeutic relation of care and has little to do with medicine per se. The rationale structuring the work of DMPs is actually administrative responsibilities. The work achieved by the DMP positions her/him as a key figure and important decision-maker within the Canadian immigration system. The work of doctors who practice immigration medicine gives rise to contradictions and ethical problems. These are largely unresolvable because of the way in which the labour process in which the DMP is implicated is coordinated. The social organization of immigration doctoring practices has serious consequences for prospective immigrants to Canada, for doctors themselves, and for the Canadian immigration system more broadly.

  2. Georgia's Economy in the Space of Contradictions Regional Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Degtev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the economic ties between Georgia and four countries neighbouring the Caucasus region: Russia, Turkey, Iran, and Kazakhstan. The authors focus their attention on regional analysis and, for comparison, give figures on Georgia's relations with three global players: the USA, the EU, and the PRC. The authors postulate at least three challenges to Russia’s interests in Georgia. First, both Georgian establishment and society regard integration with the EU and NATO as main goal of the state, which in case of NATO evidently contradicts Russian national interests. Second, from the economic point of view, the USA is no longer a financial driver of Georgian reforms. The EU, main trade partner of Georgia for the past 15 years, has replaced it. The CIS surpasses the EU in commodity turnover with Georgia, however it is in fact an amorphous organization that formally combines its member-states and lacks for common economic policy, unlike the European Union that acts as an integration association. Third, Chinese investment in Georgian infrastructure within the "New Silk Way" project serves as a ponderable alternative to Russian financial flow. For a comprehensive analysis of the situation the authors used some figures concerning commodity trade, FDI, cross-border financial flows, tourism, and transport development. Major pipeline branches, including the planned projects, are taken into account as well. The findings are based on the results of desk research, and on empirical data obtained through meetings with Georgian government officials.

  3. The agrarian innovation in Camajuaní: inequities and contradictions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Martínez Massip

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian innovation in Camajuaní shows a group of social problems, despite of being a leading municipality in the production of different crops, tobacco and livestock farming. The article is aimed at characterizing, from a sociological approach, the agrarian innovation in producers of different crops, industrial crops, livestock farming and poultry in Camajuaní. A survey, a semi-structured interview and an analysis of the content were applied to an intentional simple of 39 innovators. The outcomes resulted in: gender and age inequity, variability in the levels of scholarship and the tenure of the land of the farmers for an insufficient cognitive domain of innovation, and predominance of a medium level of innovation for most agrarian practices with a high efficiency but low novelty in the various cultures. The agrarian innovations are affected by the contradiction of lacking a bond to the social innovations, with economical aims and being absent to a local system of innovation, which not only limits its growing and development, but also reflects the lack of projection of local entities and civil society; what put at risk the agrarian, rural, and local development.

  4. GENESIS CONTRADICTIONS OF GENDER APPROACH IN EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Dyuldina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider genesis contradictions of gender approach in modern education and training of children and possibilities of its application in an educational system during the newest period of the society development.Methods, results and scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of the sources has shown that gender approach isn’t new and not studied: on the contrary, separate education and training of boys and girls in the past was a norm and a duty of parents and teachers. However, the reflection of social processes shows the demolition of traditional system of gender stratification; weakening of women’s and men’s polarization of social roles; change of cultural stereotypes of masculinity and femininity; objective changes in the matrimonial relations. Everything listed above brings into focus an investigative search of new approaches to gender education. The essence of the terms «gender», «gender approach» is specified. Despite very long history of gender education (which was cultivated since the most ancient eras of existence of a mankind, insufficient study of this problem is stated now. Special importance of gender aspect in family education is emphasized. The different points of view in understanding of gender approach in modern science are revealed; the main perspective directions of researches on this subject are noted.Practical significance. The materials of the present article can be used in teaching history of pedagogics, gender psychology and gender pedagogics.

  5. Humanism and positivism in nursing: contradictions and conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playle, J F

    1995-11-01

    Nursing and nurse education have been influenced by a shift towards a broadly humanistic philosophy as a basis for practice. At the same time, in attempts to develop a knowledge base and credibility as a profession, the vital importance of research has been acknowledge. Both these aspects of nursing are increasingly forming the basis for all nursing courses. However, in this paper, it is argued that the implicit adoption of notions of science based in a positivistic paradigm gives rise to conflicts with a humanistic philosophy. It is contended that nursing has inherited a 'legacy of positivism', which promotes objectivity and reductionism and which excludes subjective meaning and the personal from the research process. In part this has been due to the powerful influence of medical hegemony, which has defined the nature of legitimate knowledge and controlled nursing research through the gatekeeping function of doctors. If nursing is to make progress in the development of a knowledge base, the contradictions between humanism and positivism must be acknowledged as a barrier to an integration of the art and science of nursing. This paper suggests that what is required is a paradigm shift, a redefinition of nursing science, which not only rehumanizes the nature of research, but also refutes and challenges the notion of objectivity and the objective attitude.

  6. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  7. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  8. Innovative Startup-Projects: Experience, Evaluation, Implementation Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakov Maksim Olegovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative companies in the conditions of global post-crisis economic recovery and increased economic activity become again a promising area for investments of large investment and venture capital funds, venture divisions of large transnational corporations, business angels and other private investors. This is confirmed by the data on the increase in the volume of venture capital market in the US and Europe and on a significant increase in the cost of the leading foreign and Russian start-up companies which are rated as of 2014 in the present article. The comparative analysis of the leading Russian and foreign start-ups showed the prevalence of companies engaged in the field of IT-Internet-Mobile and focused on the provision of various kinds of innovative services to consumers among the foreign participants of the rating. Among Russian startups-winners the companies of technological orientation (biological, medical, and “clean” technologies dominate. They reflect the increasing importance of start-ups in the innovative development of the Russian economy. Participation in such competitions and ratings is a favorable factor of promoting start-ups, increasing awareness of potential investors and consumers of start-up products. The importance of start-ups formation and the development of effective regional and national innovation systems update the studies related to the identification of the fundamental contradictions in the activities of Russian start-ups and to the development of recommendations for their resolution. The article identifies the key issues of economic, organizational, informational and marketing character causing the collapse of start-up projects in the Russian economy in modern conditions.

  9. Hydroelectric power is green, although controversial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Hydroelectric power is worldwide the most important source of renewable energy. Still, it has some controversial aspects, which are briefly discussed in this article, focusing on Belgium and the Netherlands [nl

  10. Energy transition and security of supply - a contradiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofbauer, F.

    2016-01-01

    stage. The necessary measures can be planned and implemented in time. The different time components are thereby adapted and are intended to prevent that energy supply and supply security becoming a contradiction. (rössner) [de

  11. Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 300 000 new cases of Lyme disease occur each year in the United States and that 10% to 20% of these patients will remain symptomatic despite receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy. Many elements of the disease are poorly understood and have generated considerable controversy. This paper discusses the medical controversies related to posttreatment manifestations and their potential impact on infusion nurses. PMID:27755213

  12. How science makes environmental controversies worse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarewitz, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    I use the example of the 2000 US Presidential election to show that political controversies with technical underpinnings are not resolved by technical means. Then, drawing from examples such as climate change, genetically modified foods, and nuclear waste disposal, I explore the idea that scientific inquiry is inherently and unavoidably subject to becoming politicized in environmental controversies. I discuss three reasons for this. First, science supplies contesting parties with their own bodies of relevant, legitimated facts about nature, chosen in part because they help make sense of, and are made sensible by, particular interests and normative frameworks. Second, competing disciplinary approaches to understanding the scientific bases of an environmental controversy may be causally tied to competing value-based political or ethical positions. The necessity of looking at nature through a variety of disciplinary lenses brings with it a variety of normative lenses, as well. Third, it follows from the foregoing that scientific uncertainty, which so often occupies a central place in environmental controversies, can be understood not as a lack of scientific understanding but as the lack of coherence among competing scientific understandings, amplified by the various political, cultural, and institutional contexts within which science is carried out. In light of these observations, I briefly explore the problem of why some types of political controversies become 'scientized' and others do not, and conclude that the value bases of disputes underlying environmental controversies must be fully articulated and adjudicated through political means before science can play an effective role in resolving environmental problems

  13. Contrasting Controversies: Fracking and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Zabel, I. H. H.; Ross, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing (commonly known as "fracking") is highly controversial. So is global warming, and the two issues are closely related, but the natures of these two controversies have substantial and important differences. Building upon years of experience in teaching and developing resources and strategies for teaching about evolution and climate change, staff at the Paleontological Research Institution have engaged in public outreach and educator professional development to help nurture understanding of fracking and the broader energy system. How are these controversies similar to and different from one another, and how should understanding these similarities and differences inform educational programming (and about how you talk about these issues with your Uncle Fred at the family holiday dinner?). It is nearly universally agreed amongst scientists who study climate that changes now underway are real and human caused, and are posing or likely to pose very serious problems for humanity. Scientists who study slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing agree that it causes environmental damage, but there is no consensus as to whether fracking causes more or less harm (e.g., among different kinds of environment harm, across different temporal and spatial scales, and among different social contexts) than other ways of producing energy on a large scale. In other words, the basic tenets of climate change are not a matter of scientific controversy, though the implications for policy making obviously remain politically controversial, while fracking is an issue of both scientific and political controversy. Without advocating for or against fracking, we help audiences disentangle scientific and political issues, better understand the energy resources used in their own communities, and consider issues of scale, systems, and complexity. We will compare and contrast the overlapping controversies surrounding climate change and fracking and highlight

  14. Discursive contradictions in regional tourism marketing strategies: the case of Fryslân, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2015-01-01

    Discourses in tourism destination marketing play an important role in constructing and consuming tourism destinations. However, various discursive contradictions can emerge, potentially limiting or facilitating tourism development. This paper has two objectives. First, it aims to identify discursive

  15. Towards an Enhanced Aspect-based Contradiction Detection Approach for Online Review Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuradilah Azman, Siti; Ishak, Iskandar; Sharef, Nurfadhlina Mohd; Sidi, Fatimah

    2017-09-01

    User generated content as such online reviews plays an important role in customer’s purchase decisions. Many works have focused on identifying satisfaction of the reviewer in social media through the study of sentiment analysis (SA) and opinion mining. The large amount of potential application and the increasing number of opinions expresses on the web results in researchers interest on sentiment analysis and opinion mining. However, due to the reviewer’s idiosyncrasy, reviewer may have different preferences and point of view for a particular subject which in this case hotel reviews. There is still limited research that focuses on this contradiction detection in the perspective of tourism online review especially in numerical contradiction. Therefore, the aim of this paper to investigate the type of contradiction in online review which mainly focusing on hotel online review, to provide useful material on process or methods for identifying contradiction which mainly on the review itself and to determine opportunities for relevant future research for online review contradiction detection. We also proposed a model to detect numerical contradiction in user generated content for tourism industry.

  16. The words of controversy about climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetouani, Lamria

    2007-01-01

    The author analyses the rhetorical staging of controversies which occur in France about climate change, and more particularly about the greenhouse effect. In a first part, she makes a distinction between four registers of controversy: on responsibilities, on consequences and extent of the phenomenon, on solutions, and on spatio-temporal projections of the greenhouse effect. She shows that debates are structured by an opposition between optimism and pessimism. In a second part, based on a lexicological analysis, she highlights the important oppositions between scientific speeches and political speeches, independent speeches and technocratic speeches, and so on, with unexpected aspects. It appears that controversy goes largely beyond the scientific debate, and incorporates crossed interventions of economic, political and social concern

  17. CONTRADICTION BETWEEN TECHNOCRATIC AND HUMANISTIC SYSTEMS OF VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazakevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the paper is determination of difference between technocratic and humanistic value systems. The authors also suggest to outline the range of issues specific to modern technological civilization, reflect its controdictory nature, as well as to focus on the university activity fields concerning formation and/or restoration of technocratic and humanitarian balance. Methodology. The most important methodological principle of the work is a systematic approach. It has determined logic of description and conclusion. During the study authors analyzed separate aspects of social development of the late 20th – early 21st centuries, as well as content analysis of the global information flow (documentary and non-documentary on this topic and their own observations, obtained during the implementation of long-term educational and scientific practices at the university. It is, for example, drawing up a comparative table of technocratic and humanistic value systems. The authors have conducted a comparative analysis of 2 Sociological Research data (2009 and 2013 years among university youth of Dnipropetrovsk "Modern Library by Students′ Eyes" and trending concerning the issues about the role of reading in the students lives. Findings. The difference between the technocratic and humanistic value systems was determined. Contemporary problems of the personal intellectual development in the process of education and training in technical universities during the dominance of technocratic value systems were outlined. Attention is focused on the university directions on formation and / or restoration of technocratic and humanitarian balance. Originality. The authors have analyzed and outlined a range of issues specific to contemporary industrial civilization, its controversial nature was reflected. Rebalancing of the technocratic and humanitarian is one of the major tasks in our time. The directions of universities activities were determined

  18. The first Pico-Ficino Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasdalen, Unn Irene

    2011-01-01

    in an attempt to throw light upon their further disagreement about the Platonic philosophy of love. The first Pico-Ficino controversy is in part played out over Florentine poetry, but does not have poetry as its prime concern. In essence, the miniature dispute about the Donna me prega encapsulates a grand......-scale conflict regarding how to live and die according to Platonic ideals. The themes of the controversy are firstly the interpretation of Plato’s Symposium, in particular Diotima’s speech, and secondly the practical conclusions one should draw from Plato’s fictional banquet. Ficino’s position is presented...

  19. 'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s-birth of quantum theory-and concluding with Erwin Schroedinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged

  20. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by…

  1. Controversial Therapies: A Review and Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The article offers guidelines to educators evaluating controversial therapies and applies them to four such therapies: tinted lenses as a cure for dyslexia; orthomolecular treatments for learning disabilities; pharmaceutical intervention for dyslexia; and visual training for children with learning disabilities. (DB)

  2. STEM CELL RESEARCH-CONCEPT AND CONTROVERSIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    The concept of stem cell research is unarguably one of the most profound concepts of our time and the controversies surrounding it are both complex and difficult to analyse. The issue is hotly debated by all and sundry, among scientists and researchers, in government circles, among people of different faith, even within the ...

  3. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  4. Federal Judge Orders Showing of Controversial Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a recent court decision in Nebraska regarding the cancellation of a controversial film on the University of Nebraska campus. The film was cancelled after a state senator threatened to close the theater if the movie was shown. The lawsuit alleged the university violated the First Amendment in cancelling the film; the judge ruled for the…

  5. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  6. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  7. The Saga of the HIV Controversy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 5. The Saga of the HIV Controversy - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - 2008. Udaykumar Ranga. General ... Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064, India.

  8. Teaching Controversial Issues in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith M.; Hoffman, Alan J.

    The design of a methods course offered at Georgia State University to prepare social studies teachers for dealing with controversial issues in the middle school or secondary social studies classroom is presented. The course focuses on identification, selection, an analysis of an issue as well as the requirement that the student develop some method…

  9. Atomic weight versus atomic mass controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    A problem for the Atomic Weights Commission for the past decade has been the controversial battle over the names ''atomic weight'' and ''atomic mass''. The Commission has considered the arguments on both sides over the years and it appears that this meeting will see more of the same discussion taking place. In this paper, I review the situation and offer some alternatives

  10. Controversies in Pediatric Sports Medicine (Commentary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Paul G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses controversial issues that have arisen in children's sports, including infant exercise programs, trampolines, amenorrhea in the adolescent athlete, coed contact sports, and sport participation by children with Down Syndrome. Policy statements are included from the American Academy of Pediatrics. (JD)

  11. The Saga of the HIV Controversy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 5. The Saga of the HIV Controversy - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - 2008. Udaykumar Ranga. General Article Volume 14 Issue 5 May 2009 pp 472-498. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. The “tightrope walker love”. Contradictions emotional political relations new loving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta García Faet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is, on the one hand, to describe what I call “tightrope walker love” –the contemporary model of love in Western societies−; on the other, I aim to examine critically its contradictions. This new style of love, which has transcended, but not totally overcome, traditional romanticism, and which is near A. Giddens’ “confluent love” and “pure relation”, has the following features: in relation to its predecessors, it is more democratic; more individualistic; more intimate; more sophisticated from the point of view of emotional intelligence and pliable sexuality; more egalitarian; more utilitarian; and more legalist. However, two kinds of contradictions may be raised: external and internal. External contradictions involve, firstly, the flexibility of the labor market and the economy, in contrast with the psychological assumption of couples and families; and secondly, gender inequality, which denies the whole project. The internal contradictions –those that affect its self-description− may be summed up in the antinomy “liquidity” versus “attachment”. I will conclude arguing in favor of this new style of love, which is morally superior to the other models available, and contend that is contradictions, even if not completely solved, may be softened to a great extent.

  13. Proposition and Contradiction: The Definition of Proposition in Aristotle's Logical Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ammar Kalantar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle in his logical works, in addition to the statement, introduces the concept of proposition and defines it based on affirmation and negation in Prior Analytics. There are two issues about Aristotle's view of preposition, i.e., the interpretation of its definition, and its relation to the statement. In this article, first, three interpretations of preposition, including Alexander of Aphrodisias' and classical ones, are discussed and criticized. And because Aristotle points to the relation between contradiction and proposition, first, the definition of contradiction from Aristotle's point of view and, then, its relation to proposition are discussed. Finally, my interpretation of proposition is explained: proposition is a statement which its relation with contradiction is considered and the attention to this relation leads to the acceptation of the rule of contradiction which is the foundation of each deduction. The linguistics meaning of proposition is compatible with this interpretation: proposition is to propose one side of contradiction, and because of this, the dialectical proposition has two forms: question form the answerer and its replay as a premise in dialectical deduction.

  14. AN ACTIVITY THEORY PERSPECTIVE ON STUDENT-REPORTED CONTRADICTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL TELECOLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga K. Basharina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This process-oriented study focuses on contradictions that emerged in a WebCT bulletin board collaboration among English learners from Japan, Mexico and Russia, and explains them from the perspective of activity theory (Leont’ev, 1978, 1981; Engeström, 1987, 1999. The study identified a two intra-cultural contradictions – to post or not to post, to sound formal or informal; b three inter-cultural contradictions – unequal contribution, genre clash/plagiarism, clash of topic choice; and c three technology-related contradictions – message overload as hindering community formation, bulletin board as too "slow" when compared to chat, and names and gender confusion. These contradictions were catalyzed by the clash of curricula versus interactive learning paradigms (Lemke, 1998: the outcomes of different cultures-of-use of computer technologies (Thorne, 2003, instructors’ mediation, and resources available to learners within their broader socio-cultural contexts. The study concludes with a discussion of whether the learning paradigms can be bridged and cultures-of-use of computer technologies aligned.

  15. Disturbing pasts: Memories, controversies and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Wainwright

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This themed issue of the Open Arts Journal, ‘Disturbing pasts: Memories, controversies and creativity’, brings together a range of artists, curators, policy-makers and academics from around the world, who explore creative engagements with controversial and traumatic pasts in art practice, curating and museums. The material is presented in three parts: ‘Difficult Pasts and Public Space’ (writings on historical issues and museums, ‘Visual Investigations’ (artists’ statements and criticism, and ‘Collaborations’ (visual analysis and artist-scholar pairings of writings and original artworks. This collection was developed through a two-year international research project led by Leon Wainwright, which involved three consortia of researchers from universities throughout Europe, and focused on a major public event at the Museum of Ethnology Vienna/ Weltmuseum, Wien (November 2011. The project is funded by HERA (Humanities in the European Research Area, the European Science Foundation.

  16. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  17. Epistemic Authority and Genuine Ethical Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam James

    2017-05-01

    In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked. He or others must instead look to establish that the reasons against stance-taking on genuine ethical controversies are more compelling than those for it: plausibly a more challenging task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, E.

    2009-01-01

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  19. The Controversies over Bioenergy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Andersen, Bente Hessellund

    2012-01-01

    for processing of biomass for biofuels. The alignment with the private car regime is strong, because biofuel enables continuation of fuel-driven vehicles as dominating transportation mode. Danish farmers see manure as important source for biogas while arguing for reduction of climate impact and nuisances from......Based on the approach of 'arena of development' controversies over bioenergy in the shaping of a Danish climate strategy are analyzed as a contribution to a sustainable transition perspective on bioenergy in industrialized societies with substantial agricultural production. Bioenergy plays...... a prominent role in several Danish climate and energy plans, alongside with wind and solar energy, and energy savings. There are major controversies about targets for bioenergy with respect to acceptable types, sources and amounts of biomass. Strong path dependency is identified. Energy companies in Denmark...

  20. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Nina; Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete SUDS project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study thereby investigating...... the multiple understandings “Sustainable Urban Drainages System’s” (SUDS). Several different perspectives are identified with regard to what are and what will become the main climate problems in the urban environment as well as what are considered to be the best responses to these problems. Building...... on the actor-network inspired theory of “urban green assemblages” we argue that at least three different assemblages can be identified in urban climate change adaptation. Each assemblage frames problems and responses differently, and thereby assigns different types of roles to homeowners. As climate change...

  1. Datasprints as a method for Controversy Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Munk, Anders Kristian; Bach, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A datasprint is an intensive 3-5 day workshop that brings together humanistic researchers, data experts, and stakeholders from a selected field. Together, the participants visualize and analyse a collection of data sets, which have been prepared before the datasprint. In the beginning of a datasp......A datasprint is an intensive 3-5 day workshop that brings together humanistic researchers, data experts, and stakeholders from a selected field. Together, the participants visualize and analyse a collection of data sets, which have been prepared before the datasprint. In the beginning...... collaboration between the partners. Since 2015, DIGHUMLAB has sponsored a special interest group in controversy mapping. Datasprints have proved to be a very productive format for controversy making and for creating dialogue and joint projects between humanistic researchers....

  2. Metabolic effects of resveratrol: addressing the controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Jacob L; Chung, Jay H

    2015-04-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in a number of plant-based foods such as red wine, has received a great deal of attention for its diverse array of healthful effects. Beneficial effects of resveratrol are diverse; they include improvement of mitochondrial function, protection against obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type-2 diabetes, suppression of inflammation and cancer cell growth and protection against cardiovascular dysfunction, just to name a few. Investigations into the metabolic effects of resveratrol are furthest along and now include a number of clinical trials, which have yielded mixed results. There are a number of controversies surrounding resveratrol that have not been resolved. Here, we will review these controversies with particular emphasis on its mechanism of metabolic action and how lessons from resveratrol may help develop therapies that harness the effects of resveratrol but without the undesirable properties of resveratrol.

  3. Controversies Concerning Theological Language: Cognitivity and Revelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Briedis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Theological language as a problem under research is especially a controversial one. The question of language enerpsrise is crucial if we are willing to concider theology as a rational and/or critical discipline despite its „object“ or „religious substance“ which can be defined as irrational in the sense of divine mistery. The reflection of a specific referential system which is constituted by theological propositions uncovers peculiar logic of theological language which in turn is always in correlation with basic shifts in philosophy. The paper questions this mutuality as well as presents several characteristic controversies in contemporary theology, particularly in the protestant one. After these goals are achieved, it is possible to formulate concluding  ideas about the problem of cognitive value of revelation, and, on the other hand, about the influence of concrete forms of knowledge (modern ontology for the structures of faith. 

  4. Climatic change science, experience and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Treut, H.; Van Ypersele, J.P.; Hallegatte, St.; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The international scientific community, gathered in the framework of the inter-governmental group for climate evolution (Giec), has confirmed the influence of human activities on climate and on the global warming. However, this diagnosis is sometimes questioned in the press. This book, published by the institute of sustainable development, gathers a series of articles written by scientists who make comments on the last Giec reports and who outline the knowledge gained, the remaining uncertainties and the controversies. (J.S.)

  5. Pertussis and Rotavirus Vaccines - Controversies and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Nabaneeta; Verma, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    Pertussis and rotavirus vaccines have been the subject of several controversies over the years. In this paper the authors discuss facts and myths behind these controversies and also suggest solutions to overcome some limitations of these vaccines. The whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wPV) came into disrepute due to the associated adverse reactions, resulting in its replacement by acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) in industrialized nations in 1990s. Although wPV is known to have more side effects; but they are usually minor. Whole-cell pertussis containing vaccine is being used safely in the National Immunization programme in India from many years. Another controversy erupted during 2009-2010, when there were reports of resurgence of pertussis cases among adolescents and adults, from developed nations. Present literature review raises doubts about long term protection offered by aPV, when compared with wPV. In spite of prevailing controversy, acellular pertussis containing vaccines should be acceptable, if timely delivery of primary and booster doses is ensured; including vaccination of adolescents and pregnant women. Initial rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn from the market because of increased risk of intussusception. Although three new generation rotavirus vaccines are currently available for use in India, but doubts about their efficacy, long term protection and safety still exists. Present literature review found them to be safe and moderately efficacious because of reasonable good cross protection. Even a moderately efficacious vaccine like rotavirus vaccine could significantly improve the outcome if disease burden is high. Therefore, it is being included in National Immunization Programme of India.

  6. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Beverley

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management. (orig.)

  7. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management. (orig.)

  8. Methods of experimental settlement of contradicting data in evaluated nuclear data libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Libman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest versions of the evaluated nuclear data libraries (ENDLs have contradictions concerning data about neutron cross sections. To resolve this contradiction we propose the method of experimental verification. This method is based on using of the filtered neutron beams and following measurement of appropriate samples. The basic idea of the method is to modify the suited filtered neutron beam so that the differences between the neutron cross sections in accordance with different ENDLs become measurable. Demonstration of the method is given by the example of cerium, which according to the latest versions of four ENDLs has significantly different total neutron cross section.

  9. Controversies in faith and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contradictions as Drivers for Improving Inclusion in Teaching Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paju, Birgit; Kajamaa, Anu; Pirttimaa, Raija; Kontu, Elina

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to enhance understanding of the contradictions that arise in the drive to improve teaching practices among pupils with special educational needs (SENs). A questionnaire was administrated to 167 classroom teachers, subject teachers, special education teachers and teaching assistants in Finland. The analysis, based on…

  11. University-Community Partnership Models: Employing Organizational Management Theories of Paradox and Strategic Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Amanda M.

    2017-01-01

    University-Community (U-C) partnerships have the potential to respond to society's most pressing needs through engaged scholarship. Despite this promise, partnerships face paradoxical tensions and inherent contradictions that are often not fully addressed in U-C partnership models or frameworks, or in practice. This article seeks to explore the…

  12. Pedagogy of the Privileged: Elite Universities and Dialectical Contradictions in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Mark; Karimova, Zulfia; Brock, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the role and function of Left academics within "elite" (i.e. Russell Group) universities within the UK. Deploying Marxist theory and critical realism, it analyses the "dialectical contradictions" experienced in such a role and reflects upon productive strategies for resisting the hegemony of neo-liberalism…

  13. Contradictions of Designing with Building Information Modelling - A Case Study with an Activity Theory Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Peter; Gade, Anne Nørkjær; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark. Aspects of the design activity and the development of practices during the project were explored through the lens of Activity Theory. We were able to examine how BIM-mediated the production of the building design, how BIM use evolved. The article presents and discusses four main contradictions...

  14. More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

  15. Negotiating Contradictions in Developing Teacher Identity during the EAL Practicum in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Hue

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on how Maria (pseudonym), a non-native English speaker (NNES) and preservice teacher (PST) of English as an additional language (EAL), developed her professional identity during the practicum in an Australian secondary school. Drawing on activity theory, the study identified contradictions in Maria's practicum activity and…

  16. Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer's Epic Poetry and Plato's Early Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1983-01-01

    Homer's epic poetry illustrates correspondence between society's needs and the values stressed in education, while Socrates' thought uncovers contradictions between social and educational values and seeks a new form of correspondence. Examples from the Epics and Plato's early dialogues trace changing educational attitudes among the Classical…

  17. An Activity Theory Exegesis on Conflict and Contradictions in Networked Discussions and Feedback Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistassou, Stella K.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the culturally afforded contradictions that ten advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) learner encountered when they posted their paper topics and exchanged feedback strategies online and contextualized some of these strategies to draft their papers. Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT),…

  18. English Is for Dummies: Linguistic Contradictions at an International College in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Under the slogan of internationalisation, Korean universities have opened international colleges as a way to better attract and accommodate foreign students. However, due to a lack of foreign student recruiting capability, the majority of the students who enrol at one such international college are not foreign, but Korean. Contradictions arise…

  19. Children's Agency and the Welfare State: Policy Priorities and Contradictions in Australia and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, liberal welfare regimes have begun to treat lone parents as workers rather than as carers. This has happened in conjunction with an ongoing "moral panic" about the need to develop policies to invest in children, and to protect them from adult worlds. The purpose of this article is to analyse contradictions within…

  20. Current controversies in shock and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlinsky, M; Shoemaker, W; Reis, E D; Kerstein, M D

    2001-12-01

    Many controversies and uncertainties surround resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock caused by vascular trauma. Whereas the basic pathophysiology is better understood, much remains to be learned about the many immunologic cascades that lead to problems beyond those of initial fluid resuscitation or operative hemostasis. Fluid therapy is on the verge of significant advances with substitute oxygen carriers, yet surgeons are still beset with questions of how much and what type of initial fluid to provide. Finally, the parameters chosen to guide therapy and the methods used to monitor patients present other interesting issues.

  1. Lessons learnt from the organ retention controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the lessons to be learnt from the organ retention controversy in the Republic of Ireland. The paper emphasises the importance of good communication between clinicians and families of deceased persons and a move away from a medical culture based on paternalism to a partnership approach between clinicians and patients based on mutual trust and understanding. A model of authorisation rather than consent is proposed as the way forward for dealing with the difficult and traumatic experience of asking families for permission to carry out a post mortem examination on their deceased child. (authors)

  2. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  3. Autoimmune diseases and infections: controversial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, P; Brucato, A; Buskila, D; Gershwin, M E; Giacomazzi, D; Lopez, L R; Luzzati, R; Matsuura, E; Selmi, C; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Atzeni, F

    2008-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of certain types of disease remain controversial and stand like a bridge that crosses infectious, autoimmune and autoinflammatory pathways. Infection, for example, may initiate a disease, although it is the genetic regulation in the host, the interplay between virus or bacteria persistence and autoimmunity that produces the later phases of disease, the antigenic determinants responsible for inducing autoimmune disease, and the pathogenetic effector mechanisms. Infections agents cause pericarditis, but in 85% of cases it is "idiopathic". It has also been shown that persistent Clamydia pneumoniae, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Helicobacter pylori infections cause host immunity and promote atherogenesis. A number of infectious agents have been suggested as potential triggers for primary biliary cirrhosis. Infections and vaccinations have also been linked to the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia syndrome, a common, chronic syndrome of widespread pain. Many factors are also responsible for fever of unknown origin such as: infections, autoimmunity disease, etc. However, it is difficult to determine a direct correlation between the infections agents in such a large group of diseases. The aim of this review is to analyze some of the controversies about the role of infections in autoimmune diseases.

  4. Controversial Issues in Thyroid Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, R Michael

    2018-04-13

    The lack of prospective randomized clinical trials for most management topics in differentiated thyroid cancer force us to make management recommendations based on retrospective observational data which is often incomplete, subject to selection bias, and conflicting. Therefore, it is not surprising that many aspects of thyroid cancer management remain controversial and not well defined. This review will examine the controversies surrounding three important topics in thyroid cancer management: (1) the option of thyroid lobectomy as initial therapy for thyroid cancer, (2) the proper use of preoperative neck imaging to optimize the completeness of the initial surgical procedure, and (3) the selective use RAI therapy as remnant ablation, adjuvant treatment or treatment of known persistent/recurrent disease. As thyroid cancer management moves toward a much more risk adapted approach to personalized management recommendations, clinicians and patients must balance the risks and benefits of the potential management options to arrive at a management plan that is optimized based on both patient preferences/values and the philosophy/experience of the local disease management team. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  5. Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Glaciers in Patagonia: Controversy and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Alho, P.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Cogley, J. G.; Dussaillant, A.; Guido, Z.; Haeberli, W.; Harrison, S.; Leonard, G.; Maxwell, A.; Meier, C.; Poveda, G.; Reid, B.; Reynolds, J.; Rodríguez, C. A. Portocarrero; Romero, H.; Schneider, J.

    2012-05-01

    Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilities—a US7- to 10-billion megaproject—in a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to civic debates on important issues. There has been greater respect for science in this controversy than in some previous debates over projects that pertain to glaciers, although valid economic motivations again could trump science and drive a solution to the energy supply problem before the associated safety and environmental problems are understood. The connection between glaciers and climate change—both anthropogenic and natural—is fundamental to glaciology and to glaciers' practical importance for water and hydropower resources, agriculture, tourism, mining, natural hazards, ecosystem conservation, and sea level [Buytaert et al., 2010; Glasser et al., 2011]. The conflict between conservation and development can be sharper in glacierized regions than almost anywhere else. Glaciers occur in spectacular natural landscapes, but they also supply prodigious exploitable meltwater.

  7. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis facts and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues. A bidirectional association between them has been demonstrated by many researchers. The link of DM and TB is more prominent in developing countries where TB is endemic and the burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing. The association between diabetes and tuberculosis may be the next challenge for global tuberculosis control worldwide. Proper planning and collaboration are necessary to reduce the dual burden of diabetes and TB. One model similar to the TB-HIV program for prevention, screening and treatment of both diseases can be the best approach. In this paper, we review existing data and discuss the matters of controversy that would be helpful for determining research priorities in different countries. PMID:24360398

  9. Some remarks about the 'controversial discussions'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, A

    1994-04-01

    In 1943-44, the British Psycho-Analytical Society held the 'Controversial Discussions' in an attempt to resolve various disagreements then current in the theory, practice and teaching of psychoanalysis. This paper selects and assesses in some detail some of the arguments that emerged around the concepts of 'unconscious phantasy' and 'unconscious conflict'. Inter alia, they included arguments about assumed early events, about ways of interpreting and assessing evidence, about modes and different levels of conceptualisation, about interpretations of Freud and about changes in psychoanalyic theory. Attempts to achieve mutual understanding existed side by side with total and sometimes rancorous disagreement. Attention is given to sometimes irresolvable communicative and conceptual difficulties that arose and still arise, from differences in meaning that different psychoanalytic thinkers assigned and still assign to each of the two conceptual terms, 'unconscious phantasy' and 'unconscious conflict'.

  10. The controversial universality of individual human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Graf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Human rights is currently a very relevant but also very controversial issue in international politics in the aftermath of some of the events that occurred during the twentieth century. In this article, the author puts the present issues in perspective by initiating the discussion with a look at aspects of the historical development of the concept of human rights. He then moves on to take a closer look at how the concept of human rights feature� and function in the Christian religion and follows that up with an overview of how human rights are perceived and are operative in the religion of Islam. The article concludes with a focus on inter-cultural discourse.�

  11. The Breivik controversy: politics, terrorism and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Tad

    2014-08-01

    To examine and analyse the controversy over psychiatric aspects of the case of Norwegian far right mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik. Because of a basic acceptance of methodological individualism and scientific positivism, mainstream psychiatry is currently ill suited to being broadly applied to the spheres of politics and political violence. Rather than jettison psychiatric insights in such cases, the choices facing the profession are either to accept the narrowness of its utility or to work towards a theoretical framework that sees the individual psyche as socially embedded rather than as socially constitutive, and psychiatric science itself as socially constructed and hence inescapably value-laden. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  12. Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnostic Approaches and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos; Spanou, Loukia

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. In the last ten years a large number of publications have highlighted the limitations of traditional approaches and the inadequacies of conventional biomarkers to diagnose and monitor renal insufficiency in the acute setting. A great effort was directed not only to the discovery and validation of new biomarkers aimed to detect AKI more accurately but also to standardise the definition of AKI. Despite the advances in both areas, biomarkers have not yet entered into routine clinical practice and the definition of this syndrome has many areas of uncertainty. This review will discuss the controversies in diagnosis and the potential of novel biomarkers to improve the definition of the syndrome. PMID:28167845

  13. The Cartoon Controversy: Offence, Identity, Oppression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    If the publication of twelve drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, which sparked the ‘cartoon controversy', was wrong, why might this be the case? The article considers four arguments advanced in relation to the quite similar Rushdie affair for judging...... such publications to be wrong, and asks whether they provide plausible moral reasons against such publications, and whether they justify legal restrictions on freedom of speech. The arguments concern: (a) the consistent extension of group defamation legislation to cover Muslims; (b) offence to religious...... for judging the kind of publications under consideration to be morally wrong or suitable objects for legal restrictions. The argument from oppression is different, however, in pointing to different kinds of factors, but its applicability is limited both by a number of conditions for when oppression provides...

  14. Ibuprofen in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Camilla; Carroll, Will

    2016-12-01

    Ibuprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The oral formulation is widely used in paediatric practice and after paracetamol it is one of the most common drugs prescribed for children in hospital. The treatment of fever with antipyretics such as ibuprofen is controversial as fever is the normal response of the body to infection and unless the child becomes distressed or symptomatic, fever alone should not be routinely treated. Combined treatment with paracetamol and ibuprofen is commonly undertaken but almost certainly is not helpful. This article aims to describe the indications and mode of action of the drug, outline its pharmacokinetics and highlight the important key messages regarding its use in clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zamboni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze the actual scientific controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its association with both neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS. We revised all published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients, including ultrasound and catheter venography series. Furthermore, we take into consideration other publications dealing with the pathophysiologic consequences of CCSVI in the brain, as well as ecent data characterizing the pathology of the venous wall in course of CCSVI. Finally, safety and pilot data on effectiveness of endovascular CCSVI treatment were further updated. Studies of prevalence show a big variability in prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients assessed by established ultrasonographic criteria. This could be related to high operator dependency of ultrasound. However, 12 studies, by the means of more objective catheter venography, show a prevalence >90% of CCSVI in MS. Global hypo-hypoperfusion of the brain, and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in MS was shown to be related to CCSVI. Postmortem studies and histology corroborate the 2009 International Union of Phlebology (UIP Consensus decision to insert CCSVI among venous malformations. Finally, safety of balloon angioplasty of the extracranial veins was certainly demonstrated, while prospective data on the potential effectiveness of endovascular treatment of CCSVI support to increase the level of evidence by proceeding with a randomized control trial (RCT. Taking into account the current epidemiological data, including studies on catheter venography, the autoptic findings, and the relationship between CCSVI and both hypo-perfusion and cerebro-spinal fluid flow, we conclude that CCSVI can be definitively inserted among the medical entities. Research is still inconclusive in elucidating the CCSVI role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. The controversy between the vascular and the

  16. Ergonomics and design in the Brazilian agricultural sector: a proposal to build matrix of contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosetto, Thaís; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a correlation between the parameters of classical TRIZ and variables of analysis of the EWA to construct a matrix of contradictions in ergonomics, with the objective of assisting the designing processes in the Brazilian agricultural sector. Given the representativeness of the sector in the economy, the boundary conditions in which the activities are developed and their impact on the health of workers, this proposal should contribute to the development of adaptable solutions and the promotion of Decent Work.

  17. How mathematicians think using ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox to create mathemathics

    CERN Document Server

    Byers, William

    2007-01-01

    To many outsiders, mathematicians appear to think like computers, grimly grinding away with a strict formal logic and moving methodically--even algorithmically--from one black-and-white deduction to another. Yet mathematicians often describe their most important breakthroughs as creative, intuitive responses to ambiguity, contradiction, and paradox. A unique examination of this less-familiar aspect of mathematics, How Mathematicians Think reveals that mathematics is a profoundly creative activity and not just a body of formalized rules and results

  18. Rhetorical business – A study of marketing work in the spirit of contradiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Marketing has traditionally been understood from the perspective of marketing management. This causes problems when we study marketing practices because the normative discourse of marketing management is not particularly useful for describing the day-to-day work of marketing practitioners. This calls for marketing research from new perspectives. Rhetorical business – A study of marketing work in the spirit of contradiction investigates marketing work in professional service organizations from...

  19. Population policies and education: exploring the contradictions of neo-liberal globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bovill, C.; Leppard, M.

    2006-01-01

    The world is increasingly characterised by profound income, health and social inequalities (Appadurai, 2000). In recent decades development initiatives aimed at reducing these inequalities have been situated in a context of increasing globalisation with a dominant neo-liberal economic orthodoxy. This paper argues that neo-liberal globalisation contains inherent contradictions regarding choice and uniformity. This is illustrated in this paper through an exploration of the impact of neo-liberal...

  20. The Contradictions and Compartmentalizing the Interactions between Integrated Business Structures: Aspect of Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nifatova Olena M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying contradictions and developing a compartmentalizing as to the interaction between integrated business structures, taking into consideration the branding approach to management. The main specific features and contradictions that arise in the process of integration in the domestic market of mergers and acquisitions have been allocated. The contradictions identified were systematized and substantiated at three economic levels: macro-, meso-, and microeconomic. A compartmentalizing of the business units interaction in a merge or an acquisition process has been proposed. This compartmentalizing takes account of the branding aspect through the introduction of «brands interaction» – cluster interaction, circular interaction, holding interaction, linear interaction, which enhances the scientific view of exploring the problem of business units interaction in the process of the formations becoming integrated. The development of a compartmentalizing as to the interaction between integrated business structures, taking into consideration the branding approach to management, would provide a more effective use of the fundamental nature of branding as synergistic force in terms of the system of integration of business structures at the current stage of development of the national economy. Further development of branding issues in this sphere will have a significant impact on the functioning of the integrated business structures with the participation of Ukrainian companies.

  1. Educational Technology: A Presupposition of Equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The work of philosopher Jacques Rancière is used conceptually and methodologically to frame an exploration of the driving interests in educational technology policy and the sanctioning of particular discursive constructions of pedagogy that result. In line with Rancière's thinking, the starting point for this analysis is that of equality--that…

  2. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles.

  3. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles.

  4. VIRTUAL CURRENCY "BITCOIN" – CHALLENGES AND CONTROVERSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOAVĂ GEORGETA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society, when there is a rapidly evolving information technology, the virtual markets, namely the online transactions, have created the premises emergence and development of new technologies of using of finances, namely virtual coin (Bitcoin. Use of this coin appears as an alternative to traditional currencies, but they are not under the control of no body, are devoid of inflation and maintain the anonymity of users. Following the evolution of this new type of coin, we proposed in this paper to present some general aspects of this coin focusing on global controversies on using Bitcoin. We have reviewed several myths that have arisen with the development and penetration of its on market and because it is a volatile coin can generate huge gains but and huge losses, we have studied fluctuation and implications for users and investors and the attraction of the drug dealers and criminals for using virtual currency, Bitcoin. At the end of the paper, based on the analysis we have tried to outline the future of this modern payment system. Thus, we found that lately, in that its value has fluctuated strongly, and increased buyer confidence, but appeared and increased cyber attacks, and the fear that if the state has no a role in protecting citizens from fraud, we can assist at the development of financial schemes extremely dangerous. The financial experts believe that if the world banks would jointly solve all the problems, the virtual money will have a real chance of life.

  5. Biliary tract cancers: current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gregory D; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2005-02-01

    Biliary tract cancer, which consists of gall bladder cancer and cholangio-carcinoma, presents many challenges to practising physicians. It is a relatively rare cancer that often causes a diagnostic dilemma, as its presentation may be similar to that of non-malignant conditions. In many cases, histological or cytological confirmation of a cancer diagnosis is not possible preoperatively. The management of this disease is also complex due to a morbid patient population and limited data on the optimal therapeutic approach. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, although the extent of resection required is still debated. The role of adjuvant therapy is also controversial, but a combined modality approach appears to be beneficial in patients with a high risk of recurrence, such as those with node positive tumors or positive resection margins. When surgery is not possible, the prognosis of patients with biliary tract cancer is very poor. In unresectable patients, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy can result in a prolonged survival for some patients. In the palliative setting, biliary stenting and other supportive measures can alleviate symptoms and improve survival. Gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy may also provide successful palliation and has achieved response rates of approximately 30% and a median survival of > 15 months in one study. Ultimately, treatment decisions should be individualised and participation in clinical trials is encouraged. Further progress in the management of biliary tract cancer is anticipated using biological therapies and continued research is essential to discover the optimal treatment for this challenging disease.

  6. Energy controversy: the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.H.; Bodansky, D.

    1975-02-01

    The objective of the paper presented is to show that nuclear fission power is the best, and maybe the only, alternative source of energy. It is written for a wide range of readers, including non-scientists and scientists who are not particularly informed on the issues involved. The first question considered concerns man's need for energy; it is concluded that conservation measures alone cannot suffice. Next, the earth's energy sources are examined, and the extent of each is estimated in the simple context of the length of time it could last at present use rates. Only nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and solar energy can provide for future time scales commensurate with man's historic past, while avoiding the possibility of catastrophic social upheaval. Fusion and solar energy are rejected on technological grounds because the world energy problem is so pressing that one cannot gamble on hopes for future technological breakthroughs. Thus, only nuclear fission meets the twin criteria of technological feasibility and adequate resource base. Each of the controversial issues surrounding nuclear fission energy is examined in some detail. The conclusion is reached that none is serious, and that nuclear fission offers by far the best energy source from environmental, economic, longevity, and overall safety standpoints

  7. Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

    2014-01-01

    Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage.

  8. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  9. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramania Iyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented.

  10. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

    2013-11-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population.

  11. The nuclear energy controversy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oszuszky, F.; Szeless, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sociological aspects of the energy issue have become of overwhelming importance in the last few years. As a result, traditional considerations such as the importance of adequate and cheap energy supplies as the basis for growth, and the necessity, in a time of politically uncertain oil supplies, of energy supply security and diversity, have been equalled in importance, and sometimes replaced, by arguments about the social goals to be achieved. Nuclear energy has been selected as the vehicle for a socio-political debate on the controversial issue of the application of large-scale technology. Beyond that it has acquired a symbolic role in what is really an emotional attack on the political systems, economy and culture of present day civilization. It stands for the concentration of power, the centralization of technology and society, and man's dependence on the products of that centralization. Nuclear power is seen as one of the motors of further economic growth and thus an apparent pioneer of the further destruction of our natural and social environment. (author)

  12. Cognitive styles: Controversial issues and research problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Volkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.

  13. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles. PMID:24910577

  14. Cellulite: advances in treatment: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Cellulite is traditionally considered a highly prevalent aesthetic condition in women. From a clinical standpoint, it is characterized by a cottage-cheese-like appearance of the skin, which can be most commonly found in certain areas of the body (eg, thighs, buttocks, and legs). Although cellulite is generally asymptomatic, the more severe stages can be accompanied by the appearance of painful nodules and increased local temperature, which are suggestive of an inflammatory reaction occurring in the dermis and in the underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue. Whether cellulite is a real disease or only a disturbing aesthetic issue is still a matter of controversy. This debate notwithstanding, it seems clear from market trends that there is considerable commercial interest in developing effective strategies aimed at reducing the cottage-cheese-like appearance of cellulite areas. Quite disturbingly, the majority of treatment attempts to date have been conducted in an empirical manner and without the application of rigorous scientific methodology. This is likely due--at least in part--to the lack of major, evidence-based pathophysiological insights into the nature of this condition. More stringent regulatory control is needed over commercial products aiming at improving the appearance of cellulite. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Controversy over the Buddhas of Bamiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Centlivres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses a rare case of mirror-outrage that followed the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan. This event brought the Taliban and the international community into opposition in 2001. The article first stresses the intriguing paradigmatic similarities between the destruction of the Buddhas and the destruction of Artemis Temple in 356 BC, when the eradication of a monument, sacred as well as emblematic of a cultural heritage, was perceived as an outrage against piety and beauty. This analogy helps the author emphasize the uncertainty regarding the identification of the victims: were they ‘the people’ in general, abstract deities, or specific communities? The article then elaborates on the argumentation and self-justification presented by the Taliban, and underlies their sense of indignation at a protest coming from ‘Christian’ countries, which they saw as exclusively concerned with saving ‘idols’ but ignorant of the ordeal endured by the Afghans. It finally argues that conflicting visions over the very meaning of ‘cultural heritage’ were at the core of the controversy.

  16. Some controversy about law on private security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia is one of the last countries that legally regulate the private security sector, which is a new conceptual system of the national security system. Since the law is expected to solve many issues and dilemmas, and bring order to the area, which by some accounts is a very profitable branch of economy. Expectations were that by the end to regulate issues such as: 1 the need for institutionalization of partnership between the public and private sectors for mutual benefit, 2 the need of expressing mutual interest to establish the desired condition of security in the entire society and 3 the need to define the mechanisms and authority to achieve mentioned above. Based on this, legal framework of private security should explicitly provide: 1 a new role of the private sector, 2 communication and data exchange between the public and private sector, 3 mandatory notification about prepared or committed criminal acts on which there is information, 4 cooperation in the tasks of necessarily protected facilities, 4 cooperation in crisis situations including natural disasters, traffic accidents, strikes, sabotage, terrorist attacks, etc., 5 cooperate in the selection and training of staff and 6 cooperation in planning activities and project design of security. This paper presents a critical review of some theoretical and professional controversies in the solutions provided by law, for the purpose of answering whether it is achieving the purpose of passing of such a legal act.

  17. Some algebraic clues towards a syntactic view on the Principles of Non-Contradiction and Excluded-Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillas, E.; García-Honrado, I.; Termini, S.

    2014-02-01

    This short paper just considers the possibility of a new view for posing and proving Aristotle's Principles of Non-Contradiction and Excluded-Middle. It is done by means of their refutability, or deducibility, respectively, under Tarski's Consequence Operators.

  18. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  19. Addressing the nuclear controversy on university campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, G.B.; Poncelet, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    A strong anti-nuclear sentiment exists on many university campuses. Young minds are eager to adopt causes which purport to reflect new intellectual approaches to social, political and economic issues. Hence, the opposition to nuclear power can be made to seem to be based on: (1) technical study of nuclear plants; (2) concern for the environment; (3) concern for public health and safety; (4) requirements for an improved economic order; and (5) demand for public decision on technical issues. All these elements could attract student and faculty interest and support. To contend with this problem in the USA, Westinghouse Electric Corporation attempted to achieve a dialogue with the student and faculty audiences. The development and results of the programme up to mid-1977 are reported in this paper. A small group of young nuclear engineers was chosen to undergo comprehensive training on the controversy and contemporary campus issues in the States to be visited. Selection and training emphasized the ability of the engineers to relate to the students as their peers. They were encouraged to speak candidly and for themselves. Thus, they did not give the impression of being merely typical corporate spokesmen. The rapport made possible by this approach is very important to the success of such an effort. Invitations to debate before student audiences were issued to leading opposition groups and to the news media. Response by the media has been outstandingly favourable: not only has the coverage been extensive, but it has carried the pro-nuclear arguments to large audiences on a scale and with a credibility not otherwise achievable. The results up to May 1977, in eight States, have been extremely encouraging. Other countries are invited to learn more about the ''Campus America'' programme in order to evaluate whether or not such an approach, with appropriate modification, could prove effective in their own situations. (author)

  20. The Gaia Controversy: AGU'S Chapman Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Eric G.

    The controversial Gaia Hypothesis of James Lovelock of Coombe Mill, Launceston, Cornwall, U.K., and his colleagues variously contends that throughout Earth history the global biosphere has influenced, even controlled, the physicochemical evolution of Earth's environments (especially oceans and climate) for its own benefit. Since the origin of life, the biosphere has influenced selective pressures on evolution, maintained the Earth in a kind of homeostasis, and thus created an environmental optimum through time, regulated by and for the biosphere. Rarely has a hypothesis immediately sparked such passionate response. There is something in it for everybody, from hard core scientists to philosophers, ultraconservationists, students of world religions, mystics, politicians, and space enthusiasts; they were all there in San Diego, March 7-11, 1988, for the AGU Chapman Conference on Gaia Hypotheses. For 4 days an impressive list of specialists presented and debated the pros and cons of Gaia Hypotheses from diverse perspectives: modern and ancient biology, ecology, biochemistry, the physicochemical systems of the Earth, oceans, and atmosphere, and the evolution of the solar system. Focus was on modern to Pleistocene atmosphere-ocean-Earth systems, case histories of their interaction with the biosphere, and relatively simple models drawn from these observations and projected back through time. Equivalent studies on the geological and paleobiological history of the Earth-life system over the past 3.5 b.y. were underrepresented. Extended debates that followed generally strong presentations were lively, argumentative, and remarkably civil despite widely held views. The grace with which Jim Lovelock moved between his strongest critics and supporters set high standards for the debates. Everybody acknowledged a high learning curve.

  1. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  2. Addressing the nuclear controversy on university campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, G.B.; Poncelet, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    A strong anti-nuclear sentiment exists on many university campuses. Young minds are eager to adopt causes which purport to reflect new intellectual approaches to social, political, and economic issues. Hence, the opposition to nuclear power can be made to seem to be based on: 1) technical study of nuclear plants; 2) concern for the environment; 3) concern for public health and safety; 4) requirements for an improved economic order; and 5) demand for public decision on technical issues. All of these elements have the potential of attracting student and faculty interest and support. To contend with this problem, our company decided to attempt to achieve a dialogue with the student and faculty audiences. A small group of young nuclear engineers was chosen to undergo comprehensive training on the controversy and contemporary campus issues in the states to be visited. The selection and training emphasized the ability of the engineers to relate to the students as their peers. They were encouraged to speak candidly and for themselves. Thus, they were not burdened with the image of being viewed merely as typical corporate spokesmen. The rapport made possible by this approach is a very important element in the success of such an effort. Invitations to debate before student audiences were issued to leading opposition groups; also, to the news media to report the events. Response by the media has been outstandingly favorable: not only has the coverage been extensive, but it has carried the pro-nuclear arguments to large audiences on a scale and with a credibility not otherwise achievable. The results to date have been extremely encouraging. Other countries are invited to learn more about the ''Campus America'' program in order to evaluate whether or not such an approach, with appropriate modification, could prove effective in their own situations

  3. Controversial Conversations in Science: Incorporating the Science "Sex Box"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Science classrooms--and science textbooks--are proving to be challenging spaces for education that contradicts abstinence-only-until-marriage (AOUM) sex education. However, science educators can teach against this knowledge in a way that is critical of oppressive language. In fact, having explicit dialogue about gender identities and sexual…

  4. Controversial Aspects of the Subject of a Commercial Concession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temnikova N. A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues arising in the process of negotiation and performance of a commercial concession. The authors investigate law enforcement experience, norms of international law, theoretical studies regarding the ways of resolving the contradictions that arise

  5. Aging and the memorial consequences of catching contradictions with prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanath, Sharda; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2012-12-01

    This experiment tested the possibility that older adults are less susceptible to semantic illusions because they are more likely to notice contradictions with stored knowledge. Older and young adults encoded stories containing factual inaccuracies; critically, half the participants were instructed to mark any errors they noticed. Older adults reproduced fewer story-errors on a later general knowledge test, but there were no age differences in marking errors during encoding. However, older adults were better able to recover and answer correctly after failing to notice errors during story-reading. Implications for false memories and semantic illusions are discussed. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. The symmetries of regular polyhedra in general relativity and contradictions with quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, C.; Gravel, P.

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that every spacetime determined by a non-spherically symmetric body with the symmetry of any one of the five Platonic solids has a curvature tensor which vanishes in a neighbourhood of the centre of this symmetry. This means that every non-spherically symmetric object, be it a star, a crystal or an atom, with the exact symmetry of one of these polyhedra must have an empty centre of symmetry. This result puts forward contradictions between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, when both theories are applied to the atomic scale

  7. Commonalities, conflicts and contradictions in organizational masculinities; exploring the gendered genesis of the Challenger disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M; Messerschmidt, J W

    1998-08-01

    The events surrounding the 1986 decision to launch the Space Shuttle Challenger are reconstructed to illustrate how multiple masculinities, particularly between and among managers and engineers, contributed to that organizational crisis. An analysis of gendered power relations--especially among men--reveals how the construction of particular forms of "masculinities," and the ways in which they are reproduced, rationalized or resisted, vary as a result of contextual changes. Commonalities and differences among these masculinities are discussed. We close by exploring possible contradictions in the construction of organizational masculinities and their implications for organizational practice.

  8. Research and analysis of contradictions and strategies of Hainan tourism development under the new normal background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xiangxiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, China’s economic and social development has entered into a new normal state, the construction of Hainan international tourism island also has entered into the middle and late period. Hainan tourism has made brilliant achievements, but the development contradictions have become increasingly serious. Based on the analysis of the current situation and realistic problems of Hainan tourism, this paper points out five principal problems of Hainan tourism development--industrial status, supply-demand relationship, cultural preservation, subject-object relationship and government-business relationship, and it also proposes strategic suggestions on the great tourism, large interconnection, great culture, big Hainan and big special zone.

  9. [Difficulties in the swift recognition of contradictions in procedural learning disorder: possible central coherence dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Eguilaz, Nerea; Narbona, Juan

    2011-03-01

    Procedural learning disorder, or non-verbal learning disorder, affects the automation of perceptual motor and cognitive skills and routines. To further our knowledge of the neurocognitive dysfunction in this disorder and, more specifically, to analyse the difficulties experienced when going from recognition of the constituting elements of something to an understanding of the whole. Contrasting simultaneous visual information and the swift recognition of contradictions are especially difficult abilities for children with procedural learning disorder. These difficulties may reflect a central coherence dysfunction and can partly account for the deficient ability to adapt their social behaviour displayed by these children.

  10. Waste incineration and waste prevention: not a contradiction in terms; Abfallverbrennung ist kein Gegner der Abfallvermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    The paper provides a detailed analysis of the current situation on waste management in Germany and identifies 10 arguments on the issue that waste incineration and waste prevention are not contradiction in terms. The following topics are discussed within this frame: waste prevention in production and consumption; resource-efficient products; offsetting of efficiency gains by growth of volume; consumer behavior, need of waste management; influence of long-term waste management contracts; product responsibility; highest recovery rates despite incineration of residual waste; precise sorting as a prerequisite for recovery. It is concluded that waste incineration with energy generation and utilization of slag is an environmentally sound option.

  11. Replicative mosaicism might explain the seeming contradictions in the telomere theory of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhelson, V M

    2001-09-15

    All living organisms are regarded as a mosaic of cells with different replicative histories explaining all the contradictions in the telomere theory of aging. Exhausted proliferative potential of cells in some areas of the organ tissue might be sufficient to promote one of the age-dependent diseases. Thus a combination of these disorders, gradually increasing with age, is aging. Nobody dies because of the age. Nothing other than the age-related diseases occur with age, and if we separate these diseases, we will get not just a healthy old man, but according to Dr Hayflick's new hypothesis (Exp. Gerontol., 33 (1998) 639) a healthy young man, if not a newborn child.

  12. Collective Endeavors to Address Institutional Contradiction between Gender Identity and Occupational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeseche, Florence

    associating the related occupational identity to a masculine gender social identity. Thus, it can be argued that women in organizations can face an “institutional contradiction” between their occupation and their gender – i.e a perceived discordancy between their social occupational identity as managers...... or leaders and their social identity as women. Accordingly, I here seek to answer the following question: what dilemmas arise from the collective institutional work performed by actors facing institutional contradiction between their occupational and gender identity, and how are those dilemmas addressed? I...

  13. Factors Affecting the Participation of Social Studies Teacher Candidates in Discussions on Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Figen ERSOY

    2013-05-01

    about culturally and socially sensitive issues. 40.5% pre-service teachers in the study shared that they do not have discussions with their peers who are not tolerant to different ideas and perspectives. On the other hand, 48.7% participants argued that if the discussions become a personal battles between peers, they are not comfortable sharing their ideas. 54.8% of the participants stated that even if they feel like the teacher supports one of group against other groups, they still are comfortable expressing themselves during classroom discussions; however, 32.8% participants pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions if they believe the teacher is not objective about the sensitive issue.The findings of the study show that participants’ gender, income, their parents’ education, residency, the university they attend, grade level, and high school they graduated from are contributed to their level of participation in the classroom discussions about controversial issues. Female participants stated that if they feel like they do not have enough knowledge about the discussion topic or the topic is a culturally and socially sensitve issue, they either do not participate at all or their participation is limited. However, male pre-service teachers shared that they are more concerned about peer interaction and having good relationships with their peers after the discussion is ended as well. Another finding of the study indicate that pre-service teachers from low socio-economic status shared that if they feel like the teacher’s judgement might be compromised based on students’ contradicted ideas, they rarely participate in the discussions. In addition, students whose parents have limited education (i.e., elementary level said that they have difficulty expressing themselves during classroom discussions. Furthermore, another finding show that teacher candidates who come from big cities feel more comfortable participating in the classroom discussions about

  14. Structured Academic Controversies in the Professional Physical Education Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Lynnette Young; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured academic controversy is a cooperative learning strategy that can promote learning in theoretical physical education classes at the college level. This article explains how to conduct structured academic controversy, providing examples of topics (e.g., adapted physical education, biomechanics, motor development, and sport psychology).…

  15. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...... some of the changes that may occur in the near future in the field of COPD....

  16. Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution Controversy in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Tony; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's Theory of Evolution has stirred controversy since its inception. Public schools in the United States, pressed by special interest groups on both sides of the controversy, have struggled with how best to teach the theory, if at all. Court cases have dealt with whether states can ban the teaching of evolutionary theory, whether Creationism…

  17. Blackwater fever: An insight into a controversy | Chiabi | Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the possible pathogenetic mechanisms, pathophysiology and therapeutic options of blackwater fever. The review points out some salient controversies from several studies concerning this disorder. It is concluded that despite these controversies in literature, blackwater fever ...

  18. From Classroom to Controversy: Conflict in the Teaching of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    What happens when a class assignment becomes a source of controversy? How do we respond? What do we learn? By describing the controversy surrounding an assignment on religion and representation, this article examines conflict's productive role in teaching about New Religious Movements (NRMs) and religion. It suggests that we consider how our…

  19. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...

  20. Predicting Public Acceptability in Controversial Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    Technology and society have a synergic relationship. New technologies are a product of the values and aspirations of the culture in which they emerge. In turn, each new technology shapes and alters these values and aspirations, to a greater or lesser degree. The acceptance by society of any particular technology depends, however, on how far the values embodied in the technology reflect those of the wider society, or only those of some privileged sector - perhaps a ruling elite, a group of academic researchers, a commercial company, or even a special interest group. As public disquiet about controversial technologies has grown, their acceptance can no longer be taken for granted. It is now becoming more important to evaluate in advance the degree of likely mismatch between the aspirations of the technologists and the values of society. This paper explores one approach to making this evaluation, based on the notion of a conditional social contract between technology and society. A given society may be prepared to embrace a new technology to deliver certain benefits, and may accept a certain degree of risk and adaptation of life styles, provided certain basic conditions are fulfilled. These conditions include the upholding of basic values, familiarity, how it compares with similar technologies, the degree of control and choice, trust in those in control, the nature of any risks, the tangible benefits, and the media profile given to the new area. If several of these factors are not fulfilled, the technology is unlikely to be accepted. This was dramatically illustrated in the UK public reaction to food products derived from imported US GM soya and maize. These failed nearly all the conditions, so that public rejection should have been seen as a foregone conclusion. In the light of this, the likely public reaction to a number of future biotechnological innovations is assessed, based on the same conditions. Some examples taken from the energy sector are also compared. The

  1. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  2. KNOW NUKES: a model for teaching controversial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomashow, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation articulates elements of an educational strategy derived from the experience of the KNOW NUKES program, a teacher training project designed to introduce the nuclear power controversy in the high school classroom. This strategy can be used as means of furthering the effectiveness of controversial issues education, not only in the area of nuclear power, but in teaching about any environmental issue. This is specifically achieved by (2) placing the KNOW NUKES institute in the broader context of controversial issues education; (2) describing in detail KNOW NUKES project planning; (3) reviewing the structure and content of the various teaching techniques and materials that have been developed for the KNOW NUKES institute; (4) utilizing a particular technique developed by the institute that reveals varying perspectives on controversial issues, in this case, an instrumental for decoding the controversial issues that are explicit and implicit in corporate image advertisements; and (5) qualitatively evaluating the practical implementation of the KNOW NUKES model

  3. Contradictions in the American dream: High educational aspirations and perceptions of deteriorating institutional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Pamela

    2017-02-01

    This study examines contradictions in the "American Dream" during the Great Recession: young adults maintained high educational aspirations, yet perceived little opportunity for their educational achievements to help them fulfil their dreams of financial prosperity and work stability. Based on in-depth interviews with 85 young college students and recent graduates, this study found that college enrolment was propelled by the recession, as a college degree, and often a graduate or professional degree, was perceived as an increasingly necessary credential. Despite these high educational aspirations, students and recent graduates were fearful about their capacity to find future work and they expressed concerns about the collapse of employment opportunity. Many were also wary of educational institutions, which they viewed as unable to prepare them for a shrinking job market. These perceptions reveal a contradiction in the "American Dream:" although young adults have high aspirations and achievements, they have lost confidence in the educational and work institutions upon which they must depend. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. [Dialectics for humanized care in ICU's: contradictions between professional nursing discourse and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; dos Santos, Silvia Maria Azevedo

    2008-03-01

    This study attempts to unveil contradictions in humanized nursing care in ICUs. It is a qualitative, dialectic-based study involving 7 nurses, 4 family members and one patient of the Adult ICU of the Hospital of the Federal Universityof Santa Catarina. Participatory observation and semi-structured interviews were applied to collect the data. Marxist and Gramscian ideas of contradiction were used as the theoretical-philosophical reference. This study demonstrates that humanized care is part of a complex network, in which care knowledge seems to give way to closer network ties, while care practicefollows an impersonalized strategy within the logic of partitioned and routine health care production. The dissociation between knowledge and practice also contemplates the difficulties in dealing with the burdens of suffering and institutional-professional limitations. The conclusion is that knowledge of this reality should be a renewed, yet age-old challenge for the nurse in the search for the constant construction/ reconstruction of Nursing in terms of practice, knowledge and work relations.

  5. Facts, myths, and controversies in vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Gustavo C

    2004-11-15

    Significant progress in the field of VaD resulted from publication of the NINIDS-AIREN Diagnostic Criteria for VaD (G.C. Roman, T.K. Tatemichi, T. Erkinjuntti, et al., Vascular dementia (VaD): diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology 43 (1993) 250-260). Epidemiological studies confirmed the importance of VaD as the second most common cause of dementia in the elderly, representing 15-20% of all cases of dementia. In Europe and North America, Alzheimer's disease (AD) predominates over VaD in a 2:1 ratio; in contrast, in Japan and China VaD accounts for almost 50% of all dementias. Case-control studies have identified risk factors for VaD including ageing, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, recurrent stroke, cardiac disease, smoking, sleep apnea, and more recently, hyperhomocysteinemia, among others. Hypertension treatment may prevent VaD and AD. This finding has enormous importance from the Public Health viewpoint to decrease the future number of patients with dementia in the elderly. Along with advances in the field of VaD came a number of controversies and damaging misconceptions and myths. Myth no. 1--Vascular dementia is a non-entity: The false idea that VaD does not exist is particularly destructive because it creates the perspective that VaD is unworthy of study or research. A condition that either does not exist or represents only a minute proportion of all cases of dementia in the elderly, lacks public health relevance and becomes a low priority for research by funding agencies and industry. In fact, vascular brain lesions are the commonest and most important component of dementia in the elderly. Myth no. 2--Vascular dementia is so difficult to diagnose that only experts can recognize and identify it accurately: VaD does exist and the diagnosis of post-stroke VaD, in particular is straightforward. Most cases fulfill NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable VaD; i.e., (1) there is acute onset

  6. The design of an enzyme: a chronology on the controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buc, Henri

    2013-05-13

    After the publication of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model, a controversy arose between Jacques Monod, Francis Crick and Jeffries Wyman about the comparison of the regulatory performances of an oligomer undergoing a concerted transition between two states and a monomer having the same composition and subjected to a similar conformational equilibrium. The controversy took place between September 1965 and March 1966. It gave rise to several unpublished notes. Numerous misunderstandings between the participants were not fully dissipated as the controversy abruptly ended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Contradictions to Appreciate the History of I.S. Education in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Metcalfe

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one person's interpretation of the history of Information Systems (IS education in South Australia (SA. The stance used to think about the history was that of seeking the contradictions, underlying tensions, which worked over time to create the present. The paper will argue this stance, suggested to the author, that IS education in SA was influenced significantly by maintaining a "how to" view of teaching IS which failed to distinguish itself from the engineering worldview. It is suggested that a 'trade school' mentality never turned into a critical academic perspective relevant to modern business schools. After explaining the underlying tension stance this paper will use extracts from a long semi-structured interview with two seminal IS educators to support this argument.

  8. Health discourse, sexual slang and ideological contradictions among Mozambican youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2009-01-01

      Despite the urgency of improving an understanding of sexual cultures in the face of a globally devastating HIV epidemic, methodological reflection and innovation has been conspicuously absent from qualitative research in recent years. Findings from fieldwork on condom use among young people...... in Mozambique confirm the need to remain alert to the ideological and linguistic bias of applied methods. Interviewing young people about their sexuality using a conventional health discourse resulted in incorrect or socially acceptable answers rather than accurate information about their sexual behaviour....... Young people's resistance to enquiry, the paper argues, is due to ideological contradictions between their sexual culture and slang, on the one hand, and Western health discourses associated with colonial and post-colonial opposition to traditional culture and languages, on the other. Mixing colloquial...

  9. Thomas Hardy and His Readers: Contradictions of the Rebellious Serial Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Sánchez Espinosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the relationship between Thomas Hardy and his contemporary readers from The Poor Man and the Lady, his first, unpublished, novel, to The Well- Beloved, his last one. It discovers a writer split into two, with Hardy, the artist, striving to cohabitate with Hardy-the serial writer for the three decades his career as a novelist lasted. In order to fully appreciate Hardy's novels as they have reached us nowadays, after the 1912 Wessex edition, we should focus on the contradictions between their initial manuscripts, their edited versions for the family magazines and their final reconstructions into volume forms. Although Hardy certainly wanted quick success with the Victorian masses he never let go of his "higher aspirations" to be received differently by a more select readership, even if this alternative reading had to be done between the lines at a later stage.

  10. Contradictions within a Knotworking session of an interior décor project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Svidt, Kjeld

    In recent research of the construction industry, collaboration is referred to as a crucial aspect to deliver a project on time, within the predetermine budget and according to the expected level of detail (Bishop et al. 2008). This presentation will give an introduction to Knotworking as a method...... for collaboration among actors with various historical backgrounds. Knotworking is an Activity Theory based method developed by CRADLE at University of Helsinki on the basis of the method Big Room (CRADLE 2015). The agenda of Knotworking is to untie ‘knots’ within a specific project in a collaboration of various...... actors with an interest in the specific ‘knot’ (Engeström 2008). Moreover this presentation presents an analysis of contradictions within a Knotworking session of an interior décor project. The interior décor project is targeted a new building for Department of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University...

  11. [Most important deficits, contradictions and possibilities in suicide prevention in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is not only a contradictory biological, psychological, sociocultural and spiritual phenomenon, but also a serious public health problem, which is manifold, therefore the fight against it is also complex. The aim of the present publication is to establish the current situation of the fight against suicide in Hungary, which are the most important deficits, contradictions and unexploited possibilities. The author states that although we have accomplished important steps in the prevention of suicide, we did not realise the majority of them in everyday practice. The author defines the most important problems and tasks which should be solved in the next decade. In the near future a great deal more should be done for prevention than what we have accomplished so far in order to significantly reduce the number of suicide victims in Hungary.

  12. Dispossess to accumulate: reflections on the contradictions of the process of neoliberal modernization of Chilean agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando De Matheus e Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to present a renewed and critical reading about the contradictions engendered by the neoliberal modernization of the Chilean agriculture. This task is carried out through the lens of the "historical-geographical materialism" developed mainly by the British geographer David Harvey, and also through agrarian studies linked to the critical thinking, especially Marxists. As the main empirical substrate, information and data supplied by documents and studies that have sought to understand the specific case of contemporary capitalist development in Chile as well as its consequences for the countryside and national peasants are used. It is sustained here that the mechanisms of “accumulation by dispossession” were (and still are of critical importance to make Chile a world-wide agricultural and food.

  13. Social Contradictions and the Internal Control of Angolan Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Pedro-Ludi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MPYMEs have been the main means of sustaining modern economies, not only by their participation in reducing unemployment, but also by adjusting to the needs of the communities and contributing significantly to the decline of The informality of the economy and poverty. The Angolan government has implemented this instrument for the creation of business promotion programs and credit concessions essentially subsidized in the MSMEs, however in many cases unfortunately they have only been unsuccessful attempts. According to the above, the objective of this article is to analyze the contradictions between the government's policy of financing the MSMEs for the diversification of the national economy, reduction of unemployment, cultural development of the people and the fight against poverty, for which the methods of analysis_ synthesis, historical _logic and induction_ deduction were used.

  14. Expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing: dilemmas and contradictions facing the labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Lara Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We sought to analyze, from the perspective of professors and students, the reasons and consequences of the expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing, discussing the dilemmas and the contradictions confronting the labor market. It was a qualitative study with data obtained from focus groups, conducted in 18 undergraduate nursing courses in the state of Minas Gerais, during the period of February to October of 2011. The narratives were submitted to critical discourse analysis. The results indicated that the education of the nurse was permeated by insecurity as to the future integration into the labor market. The insecurity translates into dilemmas that referred to employability and the precariousness of the working conditions. In this context, employment in the family health strategy emerges as a mirage. One glimpses the need for a political agenda with the purpose of discussion about education, the labor market and the determinants of these processes.

  15. [Between caring and monitoring: ambiguities and contradictions in the discourse of a female penitentiary officer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcinski, Mariana; Altenbernd, Bibiana; Campani, Cristiane

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this paper was to establish how the discourse of a female penitentiary officer working in a prison for women reflects, in different ways, the inherent contradiction of prisons, namely their double mission of punishing and resocializing criminals. The data collected in a female prison in Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated using Critical Discourse Analysis, which seeks to understand how discursive productions reflect social power relations. The analyses show that this officer's practice is based simultaneously on punitive and resocializing ideologies, expressed in contradictory feelings of anger and affection towards incarcerated women. Results point to the centrality of gender in the relationship established between officers and interns. Thus, the fact of being a female officer caring and monitoring other women makes this daily relationship even more complex. This complexity extrapolates the limits imposed by prisons.

  16. Motivations, contradictions and ambiguities in the leadership of nurses in management positions in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Maria Dall'Agnol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the contradictions and ambiguities which permeate nurses' motivation for exercising leadership in management positions, in a university hospital. METHOD: this study has a qualitative approach and is exploratory and descriptive, and used a total of 33 semi-structured interviews which were submitted to thematic analysis. RESULTS: the information converged on five categories: Motivation to take on a management position; The view of nursing managers on the exercising of leadership; The emblematic aspect of working with people; Leadership in nursing - mediatory and conciliatory; Time: a dilemma between managing and caring. CONCLUSION: leading people can be both a great encouragement, and an impeding aspect, bearing in mind the nuances of teamwork and the complexity of the context in which this process is constructed. In addition to this, conciliatory and mediatory attitudes are shown to be fundamental for a healthy and productive organizational atmosphere; however, the lack of time was indicated as a dilemma between managing and caring.

  17. The use of electronic patient records for medical research: conflicts and contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Fiona

    2015-03-29

    The use of electronic patient records for medical research is extremely topical. The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CRPD), the English NHS observational data and interventional research service, was launched in April 2012. The CPRD has access to, and facilities to link, many healthcare related datasets. The CPRD is partially based on learning from the Health Research Support Service (HRSS), which was used to test the technical and practical aspects of downloading and linking electronic patient records for research. Questions around the feasibility and acceptability of implementing and integrating the processes necessary to enable electronic patient records to be used for the purposes of research remain. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with a total of 50 patients and 7 staff from the two English GP practices involved in piloting the HRSS, supplemented with 11 interviews with key stakeholders. Emergent themes were mapped on to the constructs of normalization process theory (NPT) to consider the ways in which sense was made of the work of implementing and integrating the HRSS. The NPT analysis demonstrated a lack of commitment to, and engagement with, the HRSS on the part of patients, whilst the commitment of doctors and practice staff was to some extent mitigated by concerns about issues of governance and consent, particularly in relation to downloading electronic patient records with associated identifiers. Although the CPRD is presented as a benign, bureaucratic process, perceptions by patients and staff of inherent contradictions with centrally held values of information governance and consent in downloading and linking electronic patient records for research remains a barrier to implementation. It is likely that conclusions reached about the problems of balancing the contradictions inherent in sharing what can be perceived as a private resource for the public good are globally transferrable.

  18. Making the black box signal processor transparent explains the contradictions in x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, T.; Maxwell, J.A.; Papp, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are significant differences in the experimental data needed in the analysis of x-ray spectra, and many of the results contradict basic conservation laws and simple arithmetic. We have identified that the main source of the unexplainable results is rooted in the signal processing electronics. We have developed a line of fully digital signal processors that have yielded improved resolution, line shape, tailing and pile up recognition. The signal processor is a time variant, non-paralyzable signal processor. The signal processor accounts for and registers all events, sorting them into two spectra, one spectrum for the desirable or accepted events, and one spectrum for the rejected events. Although the information on the rejected events is always necessary, we recently realized its additional benefits in high rate, (10 5 -10 6 cps) analytical measurements. Having all information available we were surprised to see how different conclusions and level of understandings are possible in detector characterization, detector efficiency, spectrum evaluation methodology, and that it explains many of the contradictions. We will demonstrate how the Coster-Kronig transition measurements often do not even comply with arithmetic, and why is it difficult to interpret the spectra with other processors. It will be presented that for different spectra in origin, like radioisotope measurements, x-ray fluorescence, and particle induced x-ray emission, the primary signal from the preamplifier is so different, that the signal processor is facing very different challenges, and different metrological approaches are necessary in data processing. This data processing methodology cannot be established on the partial and fractional information offered by other approaches. However, the maximum information utilization approach offered by our processor's rejected spectrum supplements the accepted spectrum to allow the development of straight forward and accurate metrology. All the

  19. Disasters in ‘development’ contexts: Contradictions and options for a preventive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The relations of development and disaster offer a starting point for an overview of disaster risk reduction (DRR in African contexts. A social vulnerability approach is adopted with its goal of improving conditions for persons and places most at risk. However, this approach faces serious contradictions in both the disasters and development scenes. Disaster events and losses have grown exponentially in recent decades. So have advances in disaster-related knowledge and the institutions and material resources devoted to disaster management. Evidently, the latter have not reduced disaster incidence or over all losses. Similar contradictions appear in development. By some measures, in most developing countries the economy has grown much faster than population. Yet, indebtedness, unemployment and insecurity seem worse in many countries. Poverty, the avowed target, remains huge in urban, peri-urban and rural areas singled out by disaster losses. Problems also arise from separate treatment of development and disaster. Climate change and the global financial crises challenge some of the most basic assumptions. The promise of ‘developed nations’, built around massive use of fossil fuels, puts global and African economic growth on a collision course with environmental calamity. The 2008 financial crisis has undermined the safety of global majorities, as well as reliance on development assistance. The case for alternatives in development and DRR is reinforced, including the vulnerability-reducing responses highlighted in the Hyogo framework for action. However, this is being undermined by a return to a civil defence-type approach, an increasingly militarised, and for-profit, focus on emergency management.

  20. Disasters in ‘development’ contexts: Contradictions and options for a preventive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations of development and disaster offer a starting point for an overview of disaster risk reduction (DRR in African contexts. A social vulnerability approach is adopted with its goal of improving conditions for persons and places most at risk. However, this approach faces serious contradictions in both the disasters and development scenes. Disaster events and losses have grown exponentially in recent decades. So have advances in disaster-related knowledge and the institutions and material resources devoted to disaster management. Evidently, the latter have not reduced disaster incidence or over all losses. Similar contradictions appear in development. By some measures, in most developing countries the economy has grown much faster than population. Yet, indebtedness, unemployment and insecurity seem worse in many countries. Poverty, the avowed target, remains huge in urban, peri-urban and rural areas singled out by disaster losses. Problems also arise from separate treatment of development and disaster. Climate change and the global financial crises challenge some of the most basic assumptions. The promise of ‘developed nations’, built around massive use of fossil fuels, puts global and African economic growth on a collision course with environmental calamity. The 2008 financial crisis has undermined the safety of global majorities, as well as reliance on development assistance. The case for alternatives in development and DRR is reinforced, including the vulnerability-reducing responses highlighted in the Hyogo framework for action. However, this is being undermined by a return to a civil defence-type approach, an increasingly militarised, and for-profit, focus on emergency management.

  1. Understanding and Developing Controversial Issues in College Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses common controversial issues in different college disciplines, such as the death penalty and drug legalization. Also suggests useful methods for encouraging enlightening discussions, such as verbal and physical cues, student-centered activities, and text selection. (SLD)

  2. Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, H. C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy? Neuromuscular electrostimulation (LAMES) is a method for stimulating muscles with short electrical pulses. Neuromuscular electrostimulation is frequently used in physiotherapy to strengthen healthy muscles (as in sports

  3. Summerhill Dismembered: Using Controversy to Motivate Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis; Lawrence, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    Workshops for teachers engaged in practitioner-based inquiry centered on the controversial issues raised by a television documentary on the Summerhill School. Learners normally engaged in distance education were motivated by the processes of dissent, argument, and disputation. (SK)

  4. Memory for flip-flopping: detection and recollection of political contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Adam L; Wahlheim, Christopher N; Jacoby, Larry L

    2014-10-01

    During political campaigns, candidates often change their positions on controversial issues. Does changing positions create confusion and impair memory for a politician's current position? In 3 experiments, two political candidates held positions on controversial issues in two debates. Across the debates, their positions were repeated, changed, or held only in the second debate (control). Relative to the control condition, recall of the most recent position on issues was enhanced when change was detected and recollected, whereas recall was impaired when change was not recollected. Furthermore, examining the errors revealed that subjects were more likely to intrude a Debate 1 response than to recall a blend of the two positions, and that recollecting change decreased Debate 1 intrusions. We argue that detecting change produces a recursive representation that embeds the original position in memory along with the more recent position. Recollecting change then enhances memory for the politician's positions and their order of occurrence by accessing the recursive trace.

  5. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  6. Mapping Controversies with Social Media: The Case for Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Marres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the usefulness for social media research of controversy analysis, an approach developed in Science and Technology Studies (STS and related fields. We propose that this approach can help to address an important methodological problem in social media research, namely, the tension between social media as resource for social research and as an empirical object in its own right. Initially developed for analyzing interactions between science, technology, and society, controversy analysis has in recent decades been implemented digitally to study public debates and issues dynamics online. A key feature of controversy analysis as a digital method, we argue, is that it enables a symmetrical approach to the study of media-technological dynamics and issue dynamics. It allows us to pay equal attention to the ways in which a digital platform like Twitter mediates public issues, and to how controversies mediate “social media” as an object of public attention. To sketch the contours of such a symmetrical approach, the article discusses examples from a recent social media research project in which we mapped issues of “privacy” and “surveillance” in the wake of the National Security Agency (NSA data leak by Edward Snowden in June 2013. Through a discussion of social media research practice, we then outline a symmetrical approach to analyzing controversy with social media. We conclude that the digital implementation of such an approach requires further exchanges between social media researchers and controversy analysts.

  7. On the contradiction between the microscopic and integral data for fast neutron absorption cross-section for 238U nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van'kov, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The contradiction between a measured integral neutron absorption cross-section averaged over a fast reactor spectrum and the corresponding value which was calculated with the use of evaluated microscopic cross-sections and a theoretical neutron spectrum has been investigated. The possible systematic error of a correction factor which takes into account multiple resonance neutron scattering in samples used in the measurement of the absorption cross-section is investigated. It is proposed that this error may be one of the main reason for the contradiction mentioned above which arises in the measurement of the 236 U neutron absorption cross-section. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  8. Logiques et contradictions du trafic transalpin dans le contexte politique et social européen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Perlik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans les régions alpines, deux intérêts contradictoires coexistent. Une part de la population se plaint du manque d’accessibilité et de mobilité, l’autre part de la population est correctement desservie par les axes routiers internationaux mais en subit des nuisances importantes. Ces régions argumentent qu’une bonne part de ces transports est superflue, voire inutile. Cet article rend compte d’une étude qui s’est intéressée aux points suivants : 1 - Est-ce que des transports superflus ou inutiles pourraient être déplacés sans être remplacés ? 2 - Est-ce que les politiques fondées sur des redistributions modales ou sur le marché, comme la tarification des passages, sont suffisantes pour réduire les transports et leurs impacts ? 3 - Sous quelles conditions le transport peut-il être réduit de la manière la plus complète ? Des réponses sont proposées ici en analysant trois champs pertinents pour comprendre l’augmentation du trafic : la logique politique, la logique économique, et la logique de développement spatial. Ces logiques sont interprétées selon une approche régulationiste. Chacune a son application en terme d’arguments normatifs. Néanmoins, il y a des contradictions entre les différents objectifs sociétaux et/ou politiques et les objectifs économiques, et plus particulièrement entre la recherche de compétitivité et le respect de conditions de vie équitables entre les différentes régions. De telles contradictions peuvent être expliquées par les processus d’unification européenne, par les intérêts divergents entre les acteurs majeurs et par les changements de valeur des trente dernières années, qui peuvent être caractérisés comme un changement de régime. Les trois logiques sont le fruit de rapports sociaux et sont donc sujettes à des changements sur le long terme par les acteurs. Selon les principes du développement durable, à un niveau global, et dans l

  9. Logics and Contradictions of Transalpine Transport within the Context of Political and Social Relations in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Perlik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans les régions alpines, deux intérêts contradictoires coexistent. Une part de la population se plaint du manque d’accessibilité et de mobilité, l’autre part de la population est correctement desservie par les axes routiers internationaux mais en subit des nuisances importantes. Ces régions argumentent qu’une bonne part de ces transports est superflue, voire inutile. Cet article rend compte d’une étude qui s’est intéressée aux points suivants : 1 - Est-ce que des transports superflus ou inutiles pourraient être déplacés sans être remplacés ? 2 - Est-ce que les politiques fondées sur des redistributions modales ou sur le marché, comme la tarification des passages, sont suffisantes pour réduire les transports et leurs impacts ? 3 - Sous quelles conditions le transport peut-il être réduit de la manière la plus complète ? Des réponses sont proposées ici en analysant trois champs pertinents pour comprendre l’augmentation du trafic : la logique politique, la logique économique, et la logique de développement spatial. Ces logiques sont interprétées selon une approche régulationiste. Chacune a son application en terme d’arguments normatifs. Néanmoins, il y a des contradictions entre les différents objectifs sociétaux et/ou politiques et les objectifs économiques, et plus particulièrement entre la recherche de compétitivité et le respect de conditions de vie équitables entre les différentes régions. De telles contradictions peuvent être expliquées par les processus d’unification européenne, par les intérêts divergents entre les acteurs majeurs et par les changements de valeur des trente dernières années, qui peuvent être caractérisés comme un changement de régime. Les trois logiques sont le fruit de rapports sociaux et sont donc sujettes à des changements sur le long terme par les acteurs. Selon les principes du développement durable, à un niveau global, et dans l

  10. Cultural Contradictions and the Institutional Dilemma of Education in Capitalist America. (An Alternative View of School Effectiveness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Craig B.

    Education in America is facing a postindustrial crisis of legitimacy brought on by the cultural contradictions of advanced American capitalism. The theorist and social critic, D. Bell, describes the most significant feature of postindustrial society as "the disjunction of realms." This concept describes the progressive division of labor…

  11. Is This Information Source Commercially Biased? How Contradictions between Web Pages Stimulate the Consideration of Source Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Yvonne; Kalbfell, Eva; Gerjets, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments we systematically examined whether contradictions between two web pages--of which one was commercially biased as stated in an "about us" section--stimulated university students' consideration of source information both during and after reading. In Experiment 1 "about us" information of the web pages was…

  12. Living with Contradictions: Complementing Activity Theory with the Notion of "Installed Base" to Address the Historical Dimension of Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igira, Faraja; Aanestad, Margunn

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the historical dimension of the relation between information systems innovation and organizational transformation. We analyse findings from a study of ongoing transformations in the healthcare sector in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The process is described with a particular focus on instances where some contradictions in the old…

  13. Education and Communities at the "Margins": The Contradictions of Western Education for Islamic Communities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfum-Mensah, Obed

    2017-01-01

    This paper employs postcolonial framework to discuss the contradictions of promoting western education in Islamic communities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Prior to colonization, Islamic education was an important socializing process that instilled strong Islamic identity in Islamic communities in SSA. European encounters in SSA and the…

  14. Studying a Controversy amongst Pashtuns of Torghar, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Bellon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about the political structures of tribal groups. The present article looks at political dynamics amongst Pashtuns of Balochistan, through the prism of a controversy. The sociological interest of studying the arguments used during a controversy has been underlined by Boltanski and Thevenot. A controversy finishes by the establishment, through consensus, of a common agreement upon accepted norms, determined limits, redefinition of social values, etc. The advantage of focusing on the argumentation itself is to avoid taking the agreement as a pre-established social truth, a reference that concerned people would reluctantly challenge. To study a controversy is to study the social realities in the making, to study the archaeology of collective consensus, to reinstate history, contingencies and individual plurality within the social dynamics and to take seriously their performative actions alongside other social determinisms. This article shows that to study controversy is a way not only to set light on political dynamics and structures, but also to discuss the impact and definition of concepts such as segmentarity, equality, rights, interests, and their relevance within the Pashtun society which was observed.

  15. Emotional Life: Exploring Contradictions in Health Behavior Through Creative Writing in Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Lise

    2017-09-01

    Weaving personal experience with literature on social determinants and health humanities, the author argues that including art and literature in public health education will benefit efforts to integrate health care and public health by reminding practitioners that communities are composed of individuals with complicated and often contradictory impulses. She argues that those whose work involves planning interventions and reviewing population data also need to perform the tasks of mental flexibility, of imagination, to think about the people behind the numbers. Together with colleagues at the University of Missouri, the author researches the role of creative writing and imagination in reducing HIV stigma and finds hopeful signs in student responses that they are prepared to consider the contradictions present in human behavior if they are given the opportunity to reflect deeply upon them. Creative writing, literature, and art belong in public health education, she argues, because that is how we make space for emotion in our lives and how we connect with the emotional lives of others.

  16. Pathological, Disabled, Transgender: The Ethics, History, Laws, and Contradictions in Models that Best Serve Transgender Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance; Gill, Sabrina

    This article addresses the precarious place of transgender and gender non-cis persons in relation to their discrimination-protections in recent legal, medical, and ethical policies in the United States. At present, there exists a contradiction such that trans persons are considered "pathological" enough that they are included in the latest iteration of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) as "gender dysphoric," but they are not included in the category of "disabled" under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). As such, trans persons in America are subject to the stigma of pathology (albeit with medical treatment) without the full protections of the ADA. By contrast, transgender and non-cis-gender Americans find their queer cohorts who are HIV-positive to be fully protected by the ADA. We ask whether transgender and non-cis-gender persons should embrace their (already pathologized) personhood as a disability. Sometimes "choosing disability" affords more rights than it deploys stigma.

  17. Banking is for Others: Contradictions of Microfinance in the Ghanaian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature on microfinance has observed that commercial microfinance programs that achieve financial sustainability largely fail to reach the poor (Hulme 2000; Mayoux 2000; Cull, Demirgüç-Kunt, and Morduch 2007. Most studies rely on institutional explanations for this failure (Battilana and Dorado 2010; Pache and Santos 2010; Canales 2011. Using a Braudelian conceptualization of a fragmented, three-tiered capitalist world-economy, this study examines how Ghanaian market women finance their businesses within the bottom layer of the capitalist world-economy, and why, despite the availability of commercial microfinance, they continue to rely on informal finance. I argue that commercial microfinance is structurally constrained by contradictions between the profit-driven logic of the upper layers of the capitalist world-economy and the socially-embedded and subsistence-driven logic that organizes the market in which market women operate. I also show that, to the extent that commercial microfinance partially penetrates the market, it disrupts the circulation of financial resources and weakens existing social and economic networks within the community.

  18. Eco-Industrial Parks and Sustainable Spatial Planning: A Possible Contradiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli and Simona Tondelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition and the subsequent development of eco-industrial parks (EIPs have been deeply based on the application of industrial ecology theory, which pays specific attention to metabolic exchanges within industrial processes to address a deep reduction of limited resource consumption and a minimization of waste production in the framework of a sustainable development approach. Despite the EIPs configurations being essentially based on the overall idea of sustainability, the problem of defining their proper location inside the territory and the consequent land use model, to minimize land consumption, have not always been central in the wide range of studies and practices concerning the EIPs. Nevertheless, the specific problem of a drastic reduction of land consumption at the EIP planning stage acquires a crucial role and, therefore, needs to be carefully assessed inside the perspective of sustainable urban development. In this framework, the paper firstly aims at facing the nontrivial relationship between the EIPs’ theorizations and implementations and the reduction of land consumption by referencing specific studies and shared tools, where new developments have been favored despite the conversion and redevelopment of existing industrial parks; secondly, it focus on an Italian case study and its emblematic EIP planning processes, in order to deepen the contradictions between sustainable spatial planning and eco-industrial parks. Finally, some final conclusions will be presented, in order to integrate some main issues concerning the reduction of land consumption inside the more traditional EIP design processes.

  19. Controversy and consensus nuclear beta decay 1911-1934

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    In 1920s, a long-lasting controversy on the interpretation of nuclear beta spectrum arose between Lise Meitner and Charles Drummond Ellis. This controversy, and the reactions from the contending parties when it was settled, reflect clearly the difference between the scientific communities in Berlin and Cambridge at that time. The Meitner-Ellis controversy ended in 1929, and it left an anomaly that attracted leading theoretical physicists. A new dispute, this time between Niels Bohr and Wolfgang Pauli, broke out. It concerned the explanation of the continuity of the primary beta particles and dominated the discussions for the next five years. Pauli argued for a new particle, and Bohr for a new theory; both suggestions were radical steps, but they reflected two different ways of doing physics.

  20. Review of the recent carbon dioxide-climate controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Cess, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Model calculations of the climatic impact of the increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration consistently suggest that a doubling of the CO 2 concentration would lead to a warming of global average surface air temperatures by as much as several degrees Celsius. In this appendix, this controversy about the effect of CO 2 on climate is reviewed. Because the surface energy balance approach to estimating climate sensitivity has been the source of much of the controversy, a review of this approach is presented. It is shown that prior applications of this approach violate the law of conservation of energy (the first law of thermodynamics); therefore, these results are incorrect. Empirical data indicating the relationship between atmospheric emittance and surface vapor pressure and surface air temperature are shown to be consistent with climate model calculations. Consequently, it is not the experimental data that are the basis of the controversy, but rather the analysis and interpretation of these data

  1. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  2. Humanitarian law: the controversial historical construction of a universal moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Nour Sckell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian law was conceived by legal and moral normativism founded on universal principles. Despite its undeniable universal moral content, its formulations and application methods are however the result of historical conflicts. This article aims to analyze how the universality of humanitarian law is produced by highly controversial conflicts. It is necessary to overcome the antagonism between an analysis that focuses on the moral undeniable value of humanitarian law by ignoring its controversies and an analysis that focuses on social antagonism questioning the achievability of the moral and universal value of humanitarian law. For this, we must consider that humanitarian law is a construction. It appears as autonomous and independent of power relationships, as based on the rationality of morality and thus worthy of universal recognition. Yet its development is only possible when one considers the historical roots of reason. It is only through political struggle that humanitarian law is realized in history. The aim of this paper is to analyze how the universal nature of humanitarian law is produced by highly controversial conflicts. Firstly, an analysis is offered on the universal but at the same controversial character in the codification of humanitarian law, recalling controversies around the creation of the Additional Protocols of 1977 (Section 1. Next, an analysis is given on the conflictual character of organizations supporting humanitarian law, taking in account conflicts between the Red Cross and Doctors Without Borders and controversies around the ambitions to pass from an humanitarian law to a right of humanitarian intervention (Section 2. Finally, a reflection is offered on how the theories of international relations that most appropriately grasp the universal nature of humanitarian law must be complemented by a "historical sociology of the universal" that embraces the conflicting historical dimension in the construction of the

  3. Design Piracy: Student Perceptions of a Constructive Controversy Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcketti, Sara B.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal learning occurs when students are interested in the subject matter, are motivated with challenging and quality learning opportunities, and when immersed in atmospheres that make learning enjoyable. One technique to promote optimal learning is through the use of constructive controversies. The purpose of this study was to provide an example…

  4. "We Make It Controversial": Elementary Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2015-01-01

    The impetus for this study began during an elementary teacher education course meeting, where preservice teachers discussed whether or not it was appropriate to discuss controversial topics--including race--with young children. Preservice teachers disclosed their "uncomfortableness" with race at large, and emphasized that discussions…

  5. Is Race Really Controversial in the University Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philion, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Today, even though "social justice" programs exist as a virtual growth industry on US campuses and many universities have incorporated classes on race and racism into their curricula, everyone continues to be faced with the perception that race is a "controversial" topic that has to be broached with care due to its "sensitive nature". This is even…

  6. Disaster, Controversy--Are You Prepared for the Worst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Robert W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Provides demographic profiles from "Executive Educator's" fourth annual survey of U.S. school executives. Regarding disaster preparedness, only a small percentage of all districts in earthquake-prone areas have earthquake and fire action plans. Concerning controversial issues, teaching about substance abuse, child abuse, and teen suicide meets…

  7. Teaching Controversial Issues in the JLL Classroom for Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojimai, Yasuko

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how teachers explore teaching controversial issues in the Japanese language classroom to Japanese language learner (JLL) or culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students who have different cultural and political backgrounds. Assuring educational opportunities with consideration of JLLs' background is important…

  8. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  9. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the contested amount of a claim is $10,000 or less, the Copyright Royalty Judges shall decide the... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.3 Controversy and further... negotiation period, the Copyright Royalty Judges will issue an order declaring that further proceedings are...

  10. Luther and Zwingli's Eucharistic Controversy: A Reflection on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luther and Zwingli's Eucharistic Controversy: A Reflection on Nigerian Christianity. ... To Luther and Zwingli, there are two sacraments (baptism and Eucharist) whereas for the Roman Catholic Church, they are seven (baptism, Eucharist, Penance, Confirmation, Marriage, Ordination, and Extreme Unction). The Catholic ...

  11. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  12. IQ Test Controversy: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, David W.

    The controversies surrounding the use of intelligence quotient (IQ) tests with children are summarized. This article discusses what intelligence is and how intelligence is measured. It also examines factors which can affect measurement, including examiner training or bias, examinee age, misinterpretation of test scores, and poor tests. The…

  13. Stem Cell Research-Concept And Controversies | Kalu | Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Stem Cell Research-Concept And Controversies.

  14. Allocative inefficiency and the capital-energy controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Dimitris K.; Tsionas, Efthymios G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate a system of input demands for Greek manufacturing deviating from the standard practice of assuming strict cost minimization. The study allows for the presence of price distortions and allocative inefficiency in the decision process. This assumption affects parameter estimates and estimated elasticities materially, and throws new light on the capital-energy controversy in Greek manufacturing

  15. The Ecology Controversy: Opposing Viewpoints. Critical Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuen, Gary E., Ed.; Bender, David L., Ed.

    Ecological problems are explored in this book of sixteen student readings and exercises aimed at developing and applying critical thinking skills. The readings, mostly extracts from books and periodicals, are introduced by the editor and accompanied by questions. Chapter I, The Population Controversy, includes selections from Paul Ehrlich's The…

  16. Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A

    2008-01-01

    Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life

  17. Adolescent Controversial Status Brokers: A Double-Edged Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sarah; Zeman, Janice; Carboni, Inga; Gilman, Rich; Thrash, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Using a 3-wave longitudinal, multidimensional approach, this study investigated the influence of social network position and social status on the psychosocial outcomes of 440 youth (45.1% girls; M[subscript age] = 16.1 years; 90.9% Caucasian) over 26 months, focusing on the controversial status classification (i.e., youth who are highly liked and…

  18. [Organic foods and human health: a study of controversies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Anete Araújo de; Azevedo, Elaine de; Lima, Elinete Eliete de; Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira da

    2012-06-01

    The study of controversies is a methodological tool that generates knowledge about the social and political dimensions of science. This approach can be used to understand and explore the topic of organic foods. The present study aimed to analyze the controversies regarding the status of organic foods. We carried out a review of studies published since 1990 in three websites: International Foundation for Organic Agriculture, Soil Association, and Food and Agriculture Organization. The following controversies were identified: 1) effects on human health of the presence of chemical contaminants in organic foods; 2) the quality of organic foods as compared to conventionally grown foods; and 3) price of organic foods. Based on this review, it is possible to conclude that, even though organic foods stand out for their low toxicity, higher durability, and nutritional content of some items, more comparative studies are required to confirm the nutritional superiority of organic foods and to solve the controversies. The discussion must be contextualized within a broad spectrum of health promotion, in which organic farming appears associated with the support for small farming, biodiversity, and local sustainable development, so as to increase offer and demand for organic products at fair prices for individual and institutional consumers.

  19. Taking One's Principles Seriously: A Teacher Confronts Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, William

    2010-01-01

    A teacher faces hostility from certain colleagues who view his decision to attend a controversial lecture as tantamount to the repudiation of the principle of inclusive education and the rights of students with disabilities. The teacher sees the proposed boycott of the lecture as a form of censorship threatening freedom of inquiry and critical…

  20. Hate Speech: The History of an American Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Samuel

    Noting that no other country in the world offers protection to offensive speech, this book provides a comprehensive account of the history of the hate speech controversy in the United States. The book examines the issue, from the conflicts over the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and American Nazi groups in the 1930s, to the famous Skokie, Illinois…

  1. Financing the UNCED Agenda: The Controversy over Additionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Additionality is the concept that developed countries should finance the costs of developing countries to address global environmental problems and make the transition to sustainable development on top of all other financial aid. Discusses the controversy regarding this concept as discussed at the June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment…

  2. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  3. Integration of basic controversies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses controversies in the field of cross-cultural psychology, including cultural psychology, with a view to possible integration.1 It briefly describes the indigenisation movement as a reaction against Western scientific ethnocentrism and mentions two methodological topics, that

  4. Some diagnostic and therapeutic controversies in glaucoma addressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, Rogier Peter Hendrik Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the five studies contained in this thesis, several controversies on the diagnosis of and therapy for glaucoma have been addressed. The first part of this thesis consisted of three studies that aimed tot improve existing technologies for diagnosing glaucoma. The latter part consisted of two

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research - a South African perspective. A Dhai, J Moodley, D J McQuoid-Mason, C Rodeck. Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological ...

  6. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  7. Maintaining Legitimacy: Controversies, Orders of Worth and Public Justifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriotta, G.; Gond, J.-P.; Schultz, F.

    2011-01-01

    We build on Boltanski and Thévenot's theory of justification to account for the ways in which different stakeholder groups actively engage with discourses and objects to maintain the legitimacy of institutions that are relevant to their activity. We use this framework to analyse a controversy

  8. Controversial Therapies for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines reasons parents may choose a controversial alternative treatment for a child with developmental disabilities and reviews a few specific treatments--vitamin B-6 and magnesium, auditory integration training, megavitamins and minerals, Piracetam, intravenous immunoglobulin, and melatonin. Recommendations on talking with families…

  9. The cartoon controversy as a case of multiculturalrecognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers what ‘recognition' might mean in theory and which policies would in practice qualify as policies of recognition in relation to multicultural conflicts such as the ‘cartoon controversy' sparked by the publication of drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish Newspaper...

  10. Development of Management Quality Assessment Methodology in the Public Sector: Problems and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kozhevina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development management quality assessment methodology in the public sector is relevant scientific and practical problem of economic research. The utilization of the results of the assessment on the basis of the authors’ methodology allows us to rate the public sector organizations, to justify decisions on the reorganization and privatization, and to monitor changes in the level of the management quality of the public sector organizations. The study determined the place of the quality of the control processes of the public sector organization in the system of “Quality of public administration — the effective operation of the public sector organization,” the contradictions associated with the assessment of management quality are revealed, the conditions for effective functioning of the public sector organizations are proved, a mechanism of comprehensive assessment and algorithm for constructing and evaluating the control models of management quality are developed, the criteria for assessing the management quality in the public sector organizations, including economic, budgetary, social and public, informational, innovation and institutional criteria are empirically grounded. By utilizing the proposed algorithm, the assessment model of quality management in the public sector organizations, including the financial, economic, social, innovation, informational and institutional indicators is developed. For each indicator of quality management, the coefficients of importance in the management quality assessment model, as well as comprehensive and partial evaluation indicators are determined on the basis of the expert evaluations. The main conclusion of the article is that management quality assessment for the public sector organizations should be based not only on the indicators achieved in the dynamics and utilized for analyzing the effectiveness of management, but also should take into account the reference levels for the values of these

  11. Flare Energy Release: Internal Conflict, Contradiction with High Resolution Observations, Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, L.

    2017-06-01

    All accepted paradigm of solar and stellar flares energy release based on 2 whales: 1. Source of energy is free energy of non-potential force free magnetic field in atmosphere above active region; 2. Process of ultrafast dissipation of magnetic fields is Reconnection in Thin Turbulent Current Sheet (RTTCS). Progress in observational techniques in last years provided ultra-high spatial resolution and in physics of turbulent plasma showed that real situation is much more complicated and standard approach is in contradiction both with observations and with problem of RTTCS stability. We present critical analysis of classic models of pre-flare energy accumulation and its dissipation during flare energy release from pioneer works Giovanelli (1939, 1947) up to topological reconnection. We show that all accepted description of global force-free fields as source of future flare cannot be agreed with discovered in last years fine and ultra-fine current-magnetic structure included numerouse arcs-threads with diameters up to 100 km with constant sequence from photosphere to corona. This magnetic skeleton of thin current magnetic threads with strong interaction between them is main source of reserved magnetic energy insolar atmosphere. Its dynamics will be controlled by percolation of magnetic stresses through network of current-magnetic threads with transition to flare state caused by critical value of global current. We show that thin turbulent current sheet is absolutely unstable configuration both caused by splitting to numerous linear currents by dissipative modes like to tearing, and as sequence of suppress of plasma turbulence caused by anomalous heating of turbulent plasma. In result of these factors primary RTTCS will be disrupted in numerous turbulent and normal plasma domains like to resistors network. Current propagation through this network will have percolation character with all accompanied properties of percolated systems: self-organization with formation power

  12. New concept of geographical education in the Russian Federation: challenges, problems, contradictions, prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Сухинин

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of geographical education is the main document regulating the structure and content of the subject study. The new Concept of geographical education in the Russian Federation was developed in 2016 by the Russian Geographical Society in conjunction with the Ministry of science and education of the Russian Federation. It was submitted for the discussion of the pedagogical and scientific community and adopted at the second All-Russian Congress of geography teachers 2-3 November, 2016 in M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. A new Concept of geographical education in the Russian Federation was adopted at the end of 2016. It contains the main principles, priorities, goals, objectives and main directions of geographical education development in school and in extracurricular activities; defines the mechanisms, tools, resources, and expected implementation results. There are significant contradictions and problems of implementation of the Concept, putting some purpose into the category of impossible. This requires coordination and adjustment of the Concept’s provisions with the realities of educational activities at school and at the university. At the same time, in the Concept there are significant differences that put some of its goals in the category of impossible. Their main reason is the inconsistency of some provisions of the concept with a real educational process. In this regard, there is the problem of matching and adjustment of the Concept’s provisions, bringing them into conformity with other normative documents in the field of education and real teaching activities at school and at the University.

  13. Primary Approbation of the Questionnaire for Assessing the Perception of Contradictions in the Norm and Mental Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupchev G.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the primary approbation of the questionaire for the assessment of the perception of contradictions. We developed a questionnaire "Study of contradictions", which includes pairs of opposing or not opposing characteristics of the person (both physical and psychological and social. The study involved 26 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy subjects. The study revealed that patients with schizophrenia are significantly less compared to healthy subjects, allowed for the possibility of coexistence in a person of the opposite social and psychological characteristics. The data obtained allows considering that tolerance of some inconsistency in the perception of themselves and others is a normative phenomenon and acts as the integrity and stability of beliefs about themselves and other people. This work was supported by grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research № 17-06-00271. The authors are grateful Kochneva T.V. for assistance in data collection.

  14. ENTREPRENEURS WHO ARE CONTRADICTION BETWEEN THE IDEALIZATION OF IDEOLOGY AND THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF CAPITALISM: A RESEARCH ON TOURISM ENTREPRENEURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali TAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to reveal how entrepreneurs manage conflicts or contradictions between values, norms and beliefs specific to entrepreneurs’ ideology and capitalist requirements. In addition to the main purpose, this study also focus on what the preferences of entrepreneurs are when they have a conflict and contradiction between their ideological positions and capitalist requirements. In this context, interviews were conducted with eight entrepreneur who have invested in tourism industry. Interview data imply that when entrepreneurs have conflict between ideological norms-beliefs and capitalist requirements, they prefer ideological norms, beliefs, and avoid behaviour which are in conflict with their ideology. But, this implications always doesn’t mean that entrepreneurs doesn’t always prefer ideological norms and beliefs to capitalist requirements. Because data show that some new economic incomes and investment forms about tourism industry arise which enable to prefer ideological norms and beliefs.

  15. Physician-perceived contradictions in end-of-life communication: toward a self-report measurement scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Rebecca; Hannawa, Annegret F

    2015-01-01

    Communication is undoubtedly a critical element of competent end-of-life care. However, physicians commonly lack communication skills in this particular care context. Theoretically grounded, evidence-based guidelines are needed to enhance physicians' communication with patients and their families in this important time of their lives. To address this need, this study tests and validates a Contradictions in End-of-Life Communication (CEOLC) scale, which disentangles the relational contradictions physicians commonly experience when communicating with end-of-life patients. Exploratory factors analysis confirmed the presence of eight physician-perceived dialectical tensions, reflecting three latent factors of (1) integration, (2) expression, and (3) dominance. Furthermore, a number of significant intercultural differences were found in cross-cultural comparisons of the scale in U.S., Swiss, and Italian physician samples. Thus, this investigation introduces a heuristic assessment tool that aids a better understanding of the dialectical contradictions physicians experience in their interactions with end-of-life patients. The CEOLC scale can be used to gather empirical evidence that may eventually support the development of evidence-based guidelines and skills training toward improved end-of-life care.

  16. Confrontation of Major Counteracting Forces in the Globalized Market as a Process of Resolving / Intensifying its Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyneka Tetyana A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the process of resolving/intensifying the contradictions of the contemporary globalized market by means of identifying the counteracting forces that are critical for the period of the formation of post-industrial relations. It is proved that in the context of globalization and gradual establishment of principles of the post-industrial economy, the confrontation of major counteracting market forces is undergoing changes, which is manifested through the processes of resolving/ intensifying the market contradictions. There identified the content of these changes, in particular: if at early stages of the market development the confrontation «state—market» was of decisive importance, at the present time it is the confrontation «civil society – TNCs». There described a multivariate character of the interaction between the major market forces — states, international organizations, TNCs, civil society (both with the effect of achieving community of their interests and with the effect of their disunity. It is proved that the confrontation between the civil society and international corporations objectifies in the globalized economy a new form of contradiction between labor and capital that corresponds to the post-industrial content of economic relations and, in particular the content of property relations

  17. Understanding the agreements and controversies surrounding childhood psychopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Josephine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of children in the US taking prescription drugs for emotional and behavioral disturbances is growing dramatically. This growth in the use of psychotropic drugs in pediatric populations has given rise to multiple controversies, ranging from concerns over off-label use and long-term safety to debates about the societal value and cultural meaning of pharmacological treatment of childhood behavioral and emotional disorders. This commentary summarizes the authors' eight main findings from the first of five workshops that seek to understand and produce descriptions of these controversies. The workshop series is convened by The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute located in Garrison, New York, U.S.A.

  18. Using deliberation to address controversial issues: Developing Holocaust education curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS MISCO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a cross-cultural project responded to the need for new Holocaust educational materials for the Republic of Latvia through the method of curriculum deliberation. Analysis of interview, observational, and document data drawn from seven curriculum writers and numerous project members suggest that curriculum deliberation helped awaken a controversial and silenced history while attending to a wide range of needs and concerns for a variety of stakeholders. The findings highlight structural features that empowered the curriculum writers as they engaged in protracted rumination, reflected upon competing norms, and considered the nuances of the curriculum problem in relation to implementation. Understanding the process, challenges, and promises of cross-cultural curriculum deliberation holds significance for educators, curricularists, and educational researchers wishing to advance teaching and learning within silenced histories and controversial issues.

  19. Behavioural controversy concerning homo economicus: a Humean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Elahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In his monumental masterpiece, A Treatise on Human Nature, which explains the methodology of human reasoning concerning matters of fact and describes the roles that passions and morals play in it, Hume arrives at an enormously interesting maxim: An academic controversy cannot continue for long unless the disputants assign different meanings to the major terms employed in the debate. This theory has been applied in this paper to examine the behavioural criticisms about Homo Economicus (HE, the pivotal perception in the neoclassical microeconomic model.To achieve this objective, the paper discusses the origin and evolution of the concept, reviews behavioural criticisms, summarises the main tenets of Hume’s philosophy of human knowledge and finally examines the behavioural opinions from Hume’s perspective. The paper concludes that Hume’s theory convincingly explains the reason why the HE controversy is continuing for over half century- a fact that both the mainstream and behavioural economists are ignoring.

  20. Nuclear energy: public controversies and the analysis of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Energy is a social concept, the product of social, economic, and political processes that define certain raw materials as resources and thus convert them into usable energy. Like all social concepts, energy is controversial. Out of a wide range of controversies, three are selected for analysis here: (1) the relationship of nuclear power systems to nuclear weapons proliferation; (2) the risks of terrorism and sabotage associated with the operation of nuclear power facilities, including threats to civil liberties; and (3) the problems associated with the long-term management of radioactive wastes. The final section of the paper describes various modes of analyzing risks and the perception of risks. It is concluded that it may take many decades to learn whether nuclear energy is as natural a source of electrical power as wells are of drinking water, or whether nuclear energy is a horror that mankind in the 1980s or 1990s took a hard look at and then backed away. (author)

  1. Results of a European survey on current controversies in otology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Simon Florian; Luers, Jan-Christoffer; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Huttenbrink, Karl Bernd

    2007-09-01

    Various topics in otology cause controversy among otologists internationally. The resulting variety of diagnostic and surgical concepts reflects differences between surgical schools and the lack of structured studies in the field. During the "Third Instructional Workshop of the European Academy of Otology and Neuro-Otology," we interviewed 100 invited instructors using a written questionnaire on 13 controversial topics in otology. The analyses of the survey showed a variety of different approaches in most otologic topics. A further exchange of experiences and discussions in expert panels such as the Instructional Workshop of the European Academy of Otology and Neuro-Otology may help standardize concepts in otology for a safe, efficient, and cost-effective standard of care in otology.

  2. Distinguishing heat from light in debate over controversial fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Philip C J; Purnell, Mark A

    2009-02-01

    Fossil organisms offer our only direct insight into how the distinctive body plans of extant organisms were assembled. However, realizing the potential evolutionary significance of fossils can be hampered by controversy over their interpretation. Here, as a guide to evaluating palaeontological debates, we outline the process and pitfalls of fossil interpretation. The physical remains of controversial fossils should be reconstructed before interpreting homologies, and choice of interpretative model should be explicit and justified. Extinct taxa lack characters diagnostic of extant clades because the characters had not yet evolved, because of secondary loss, or because they have rotted away. The latter, if not taken into account, will lead to the spurious assignment of fossils to basally branching clades. Conflicting interpretations of fossils can often be resolved by considering all the steps in the process of anatomical analysis and phylogenetic placement, although we must accept that some fossil organisms are simply too incompletely preserved for their evolutionary significance to be realized.

  3. The pertussis vaccine controversy in Great Britain, 1974-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2003-09-08

    This historical essay analyzes the role played by Great Britain in the pertussis vaccine controversy of the 1970s and 1980s. Public backlash against this vaccine not only took place earlier in Britain than the United States, but also was so widespread that a series of whooping cough epidemics soon followed. As with the more recent dispute involving measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism, the United Kingdom played a primary role in defining, promoting, and ultimately exporting this controversy. This essay seeks to explain this phenomenon by situating it in Britain's long history of suspicion regarding vaccines evident among both the public and the medical profession, a theme dating back to the compulsory vaccination laws of the 19th century. It argues that anti-vaccinationism, far from being simply a new development related to the public's lack of awareness of childhood vaccine-preventable illness, actually represents a revival of a much older movement.

  4. Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2008-02-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the "autism epidemic"? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public's trust in the nation's vaccine system.

  5. Unconsciously against it. Psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschmann, A.

    1980-06-01

    The book deals with the psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy. An attempt is made to describe, in psychological terms, arrange, explain and, in this sense, 'comprehend' the phenomenon of the nuclear controversy in the light of the following facts: - individual and archetypal spectra of associations arising in the minds of many people in combination with the term 'nuclear power plant', the existence of different psychological types; the suggestion and psychological regression in the group. Especially the nuclear opponents, more or less successfully, have used the individual and archetypal association spectrum as an instrument to further their own ends and have thus contributed to the erection of psychological barriers against nuclear power in the minds of many people. (orig./RW) [de

  6. The nuclear controversy as reflected in the daily newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buire, S. van.

    1980-01-01

    The development and utilization of nuclear energy has led to conflicts of larger dimensions in our society. What has been the role of the mass communication media in this discussion. Did they fulfill their duty to inform the public, did they actively foster discussions about the facts to be considered, and did they play their part in public opinion making by publishing critical analyses. These are questions answered by this book by presenting analyses of newspaper articles on the nuclear controversy, facts and figures on the opinions and information published in the daily newspapers on the subject of nuclear energy utilization, and analyses of tendencies pro or contra nuclear energy as expressed by the various articles. By an evaluation of the history of discussions, the development and modifications of the arguments put forward and the reactions shown by the various social groups involved in the process are illustrated and commented in the light of the controversy becoming more acute. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Mehasseb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial carcinoma is the commonest type of female genital tract malignancy in the developed countries. Endometrial carcinoma is usually confined to the uterus at the time of diagnosis and as such usually carries an excellent prognosis with high curability. Our understanding and management of endometrial cancer have continuously developed. Current controversies focus on screening and early detection, the extent of nodal surgery, and the changing roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy and will be discussed in this paper.

  8. The tidelands oil controversy: The prize and the responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagar, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    This article reviews the legal history of the Tidelands oil controversy in the Santa Barbara Channel of Southern California. A blowout of a well in an offshore platform in 1969 marked the beginning of California`s anti-oil movement. Santa Barbara today is a combination of industrialization and recreation, and like the oil and water that are the lifeblood of these two pursuits, they do not mix.

  9. Controversies and challenges of vaccination: an interview with Elizabeth Miller

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although strong evidence exists that the benefits of vaccination by far outweigh potential adverse events, controversy still exists. This has led opponents of vaccination to question its safety, efficacy and necessity. In an interview with Professor Elizabeth Miller, we discuss the continuum of beliefs held by vaccine refusers and hesitators, the resulting health consequences, and ways in which health professionals and industry regulators can help promote transparency to better convey the sub...

  10. Controversies and challenges of vaccination: an interview with Elizabeth Miller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-10-16

    Although strong evidence exists that the benefits of vaccination by far outweigh potential adverse events, controversy still exists. This has led opponents of vaccination to question its safety, efficacy and necessity. In an interview with Professor Elizabeth Miller, we discuss the continuum of beliefs held by vaccine refusers and hesitators, the resulting health consequences, and ways in which health professionals and industry regulators can help promote transparency to better convey the substantial health benefits of vaccination.

  11. Controversies in knee rehabilitation: anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Mathew J; Arundale, Amelia J H; Logerstedt, David S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no reinjury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to preinjury sports. Using these criteria, the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury are reviewed and recommendations are provided for the counseling of athletes after ACL injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanica...

  13. Controversies in the Surgical Management of Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Raslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI affects over 200,000 people in the USA and is a major source of morbidity, mortality, and societal cost. Management of SCI includes several components. Acute management includes medical agents and surgical treatment that usually includes either all or a combination of reduction, decompression, and stabilization. Physical therapy and rehabilitation and late onset SCI problems also play a role. A review of the literature in regard to surgical management of SCI patients in the acute setting was undertaken. The controversy surrounding whether reduction is safe, or not, and whether prereduction magnetic resonance (MR imaging to rule out traumatic disc herniation is essential is discussed. The controversial role of timing of surgical intervention and the choice of surgical approach in acute, incomplete, and acute traumatic SCI patients are reviewed. Surgical treatment is an essential tool in management of SCI patients and the controversy surrounding the timing of surgery remains unresolved. Presurgical reduction is considered safe and essential in the management of SCI with loss of alignment, at least as an initial step in the overall care of a SCI patient. Future prospective collection of outcome data that would suffice as evidence-based is recommended and necessary.

  14. The controversy over the minimum quantum requirement for oxygen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jane F; Govindjee

    2014-10-01

    During the early- to mid-twentieth century, a bitter controversy raged among researchers on photosynthesis regarding the minimum number of light quanta required for the evolution of one molecule of oxygen. From 1923 until his death in 1970, Otto Warburg insisted that this value was about three or four quanta. Beginning in the late 1930s, Robert Emerson and others on the opposing side consistently obtained a value of 8-12 quanta. Warburg changed the protocols of his experiments, sometimes in unexplained ways, yet he almost always arrived at a value of four or less, except eight in carbonate/bicarbonate buffer, which he dismissed as "unphysiological". This paper is largely an abbreviated form of the detailed story on the minimum quantum requirement of photosynthesis, as told by Nickelsen and Govindjee (The maximum quantum yield controversy: Otto Warburg and the "Midwest-Gang", 2011); we provide here a scientific thread, leaving out the voluminous private correspondence among the principal players that Nickelsen and Govindjee (2011) examined in conjunction with their analysis of the principals' published papers. We explore the development and course of the controversy and the ultimate resolution in favor of Emerson's result as the phenomenon of the two-light-reaction, two-pigment-system scheme of photosynthesis came to be understood. In addition, we include a brief discussion of the discovery by Otto Warburg of the requirement for bicarbonate in the Hill reaction.

  15. The conundrum of Greece and the Eurozone: Puzzles, paradoxes and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitromilides Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three questions regarding the controversial relationship between Greece and the eurozone during the current crisis. First, why was Greece “bailed-out” in 2010? Second, why the Greek economy collapsed despite the largest “bail-out” in global financial history? Third, was the electoral mandate of the Syriza government for ending austerity while remaining in the eurozone contradictory? There are conflicting answers to all three questions and the paper compares the answers of the so called “dominant narrative” to those provided by the “counter-narrative” of the eurozone crisis. The paper reaches the following conclusions. First, the primary motivation for the “bail-out” of Greece was the maintenance of European and global financial stability. Second, although programme implementation was less successful in Greece than in other “programme” countries the catastrophic collapse of the Greek economy had more to do with the programme itself than its implementation. Third, the meaning of democratic decision-making in the Euro-group needs re-appraisal and must go beyond seeing the Greek demand of a policy reversal in the eurozone as simply a clash of democratic mandates in a 19 member monetary union. Political unity will not only improve efficiency but also democracy and accountability in eurozone policymaking.

  16. Ups and Downs and Contradictions of Human Rights Teaching in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelino A. Siede

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How and how much has the Argentine education system assumed its international commitment to teach human rights? What distances and distortions have there been between curricular requirements and pedagogical practices of schools? This article considers some conditioning nuances of human rights teaching in Argentina. For this, it develops a brief genealogical journey through the process of curricular integration of human rights as specific, controversial and multi-faceted content of the elementary and secondary education, in relation with the political debate of each moment, over the course of nearly seven decades, from 1949 to the present. In order to analyze the actual curriculum of schools, the article includes some testimonies of teachers from different regions. They share their approaches and doubts in relation with this content and the criteria for its teaching. Finally, the author reviews some risks and tensions in curricular integration modalities and public policies developed in recent years so as to include the human rights approach in the formal education system in Argentina.

  17. [Contradiction and intention of actual situation and statistical observation on home custody of mental patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Actual Situation and Statistical Observation on Home Custody of Mental Patients (1918) by Kure and Kashida has diverse content but contains many contradictions. This book is a record of investigations performed by 15 psychiatrists regarding home custody of mental patients in 15 prefectures between 1910 and 1916. The book is written in archaic Japanese and contains a mixture of old Kanji characters and Katakana, so few people have read the entire book in recent years. We thoroughly read the book over 2 years, and presented the results of our investigation and analysis. The contents were initially published in Tokyo Journal of Medical Sciences as a series of 4 articles, and published as a book in 1918. The Department of the Interior distributed 100 copies of the book to relevant personnel. Until its dissolution in 1947, the Department of the Interior included the Police Department and had a great deal of authority. The Health and Welfare Ministry became independent from the Department of the Interior in 1938. Therefore, mental institutions were under the supervision of the police force for many years. At the time, an important task for police officers was to search for infectious disease patients and to seclude and restrain them. Thus, home custody for mental patients was also supervised under the direction of the Police Department. This book is a record of an external investigation performed by psychiatrists on home custody supervised by the police. When investigating the conditions, one of the psychiatrists obtained a copy of "Documents for mental patients under confinement" at the local police station. The contents of these documents included records of hearings by the police, as well as applications for confinement submitted by family members, as well as detailed specifications and drawings of the confinement room. With a local photographer, they traveled deep into the mountains to investigate the conditions under which mental patients were living. The book

  18. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  19. Controversies in the management of tongue base cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Tongue base cancer is one of the most lethal head and neck cancers. There is considerable controversy in the management of this disease with wide variation of opinion within the literature. METHODS: We discuss the presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies which exist in the literature. Articles were reviewed from 1970 to 2007 within the Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane libraries. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with a history of persistent unilateral neck pain, even in the absence of clinical signs warrant MRI neck imaging. Tongue base cancer organ preservation therapeutic strategies, radiation and concomitant platinum based chemotherapy, currently optimise oncologic and quality of life outcomes.

  20. Current controversies in infective endocarditis [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Cahill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening disease caused by a focus of infection within the heart. For clinicians and scientists, it has been a moving target that has an evolving microbiology and a changing patient demographic. In the absence of an extensive evidence base to guide clinical practice, controversies abound. Here, we review three main areas of uncertainty: first, in prevention of infective endocarditis, including the role of antibiotic prophylaxis and strategies to reduce health care-associated bacteraemia; second, in diagnosis, specifically the use of multimodality imaging; third, we discuss the optimal timing of surgical intervention and the challenges posed by increasing rates of cardiac device infection.

  1. Journalism, controversy and convincing practices: the words and the training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Castilhos Karam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Journalism is raised by Greco-RomanRhetoric and Dialectics and comes through thepresent days without ever giving up on its centralpillar: words. Words are to be found everywhere:in writt en texts, static or dynamic images; in infographicsand great, typical journalistic tales. Theyare to be found in chronics, comics, informal talkand social networks. To become a journalist meansto not give up on words that are central when oneacknowledges the importance of the surroundings,of detection methods and narrative models. Wordsare at the core of controversy and convincing practices.They are at the core of becoming a journalist.

  2. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: Current status and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandarkar Deepraj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair of inguinal hernia is one of the commonest operations performed by surgeons around the world. The treatment of this common problem has seen an evolution from the pure tissue repairs to the prosthetic repairs and in the recent past to laparoscopic repair. The fact that so many hernia repairs are practiced is a testimony to the fact that probably none is distinctly superior to the other. This review assesses the current status of surgery for repair of inguinal hernia and examines the various controversial issues surrounding the subject.

  3. The nuclear controversy: unequal competition in public policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, I.

    1980-05-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; some epistemological problems; energy policy-making and the energy crisis; the nuclear controversy - substantive issues (the need for nuclear power; the desirability of nuclear power (safety of nuclear power; cost of nuclear power; nuclear power and weapons proliferation; nuclear power and civil liberties; some other aspects of nuclear power development); conclusion); the dominance of pro-nuclear thinking; conclusion and prospects. Appendix A describes the structure of the UK nuclear industry and its European connections. (U.K.)

  4. Controversies on the Publishing of the Newspaper “Curentul”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fănel Teodoraşcu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of “Curentul” Journal has been enthusiastically welcomed by the readers, this publication bringing a fresh vim to the Romanian inter-war press. Many contemporary journalists have distrustfully considered Pamfil Șeicaru‟s Journal. This “horrendous” journalist was charged by his peers of having sustained this publication with funding provided by the Government. The controversies derived from this subject can be found in the articles and memories of those who knew the director of “Curentul”, but also in the novels which had him as a source of inspiration.

  5. When ideology and controversy collide: the case of Soviet science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L R

    1982-04-01

    Using specific examples such as the recombinant DNA debate, the author compares Soviet and American decision-making procedures in resolving bioethical controversies. In the Soviet Union, the dominant approach is for specialists to arrive at the "correct" position inherent in the world view of Marxism-Leninism. In the United States, it is common to negotiate a compromise between what science can achieve and what defenders of old values are willing to accept. The author concludes that, in both countries, resolution of biomedical issues is influenced more by culture and tradition than by logic and reason.

  6. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Swimming in a sea of contradictions and uncertainties. 5. international conference on high levels of natural radiation, Muenchen, 4.-7. Sept. 2000, and 2. Dresden symposium on radiation protection, Dresden, 10.-14. Sept. 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    2000-01-01

    As there is no difference in biological response between natural and artificial radiation, regulations should cover both, but this seems to be a 'shaking of the coconut tree'. It would amount to the evacuation of large populated areas, the end of important non-nuclear industries - or the politically not correct upward adjustment of the current 1 mSv/y limit towards the substantial fluctuations in the natural exposure by a factor of 10 and more. During a large international conference in Munich in September, and a smaller follow-up symposium in Dresden, scientists from about forty countries discussed the science and the politics in establishing the present double standards. There were, for example, reports about basic differences in the biological effects of low and high doses; results showing that it is the dose-rate, not the dose, which matters; consistent reports about the lack of detrimental health effects in high natural radiation areas (>10 mSv/y) in China, India, etc.; and the usual controversies about the value and limits of radon epidemiology - all contributing to serious questions about various basic contradictions and uncertainties in the self-inflicted ghetto situation of current radiation protection. (orig.)

  8. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steven B; Myers, Jeffrey N

    2015-10-10

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Seborrheic dermatitis: etiology, risk factors, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, based on the observation of their presence in affected skin and the therapeutic response to antifungal agents. Others have proposed that Malassezia is incidental to a primary inflammatory dermatosis that resulted in increased cell turnover, scaling, and inflammation in the epidermis, similar to psoriasis. The presence of host susceptibility factors, permitting the transition of M furfur to its pathogenic form, may be associated with immune response and inflammation. Metabolites produced by Malassezia species, including oleic acid, malssezin, and indole-3-carbaldehyde, have been implicated. SD also has been traditionally considered to be a form of dermatitis based on the presence of Malassezia in healthy skin, the absence the pathogenic mycelial form of Malassezia yeasts in SD, and its chronic course. As a result, proposed treatments vary, ranging from topical corticosteroids to topical antifungals and antimicrobial peptides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia yeasts: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanis, Georgios; Velegraki, Aristea; Mayser, Peter; Bassukas, Ioannis D

    2013-01-01

    The implication of the yeast genus Malassezia in skin diseases has been characterized by controversy, since the first description of the fungal nature of pityriasis versicolor in 1846 by Eichstedt. This is underscored by the existence of Malassezia yeasts as commensal but also by their implication in diseases with distinct absence of inflammation despite the heavy fungal load (pityriasis versicolor) or with characteristic inflammation (eg, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, folliculitis, or psoriasis). The description of 14 Malassezia species and subsequent worldwide epidemiologic studies did not reveal pathogenic species but rather disease-associated subtypes within species. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the interaction of Malassezia yeasts with the skin is multifaceted and entails constituents of the fungal wall (melanin, lipid cover), enzymes (lipases, phospholipases), and metabolic products (indoles), as well as the cellular components of the epidermis (keratinocytes, dendritic cells, and melanocytes). Understanding the complexity of their interactions will highlight the controversies on the clinical presentation of Malassezia-associated diseases and unravel the complexity of skin homeostatic mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Controversies Concerning the Canadian Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Robert; O'Shaughnessy, Roy; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2017-03-01

    In Canada, individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder are subject to the disposition recommendations of the Provincial or Territorial Review Board of the jurisdiction where the offense was committed. Bill C-14, known as "The Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act" made changes to the postverdict disposition process of these individuals. This legislation was consistent with a broader "tough-on-crime" agenda of the previous federal government. The legislative changes codify that Review Boards take public safety as the "paramount consideration" in making their recommendations. The legislation also creates a new "high-risk" category for certain offenders and imposes limitations on their liberty. Further, Bill C-14 seeks to enhance victim involvement in the disposition process. The passage of this legislation has generated significant controversy in the medical and legal fields. Critics have stated that there is an absence of empirical evidence on which to base the amendments, that the legislation was an overreaction to high-profile cases, and that Bill C-14 is in questionable compliance with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In this review, we explore the potential catalysts involved in the creation of Bill C-14, the controversy surrounding the legislation, and the potential future impact on practicing forensic psychiatrists and on the forensic mental health system in Canada. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  12. The Ground Zero Mosque Controversy: Implications for American Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyakat Takim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy surrounding the “ground zero mosque” is part of a larger debate about the place of Islam in U.S. public space. The controversy also reveals the ways in which the boundaries of American identity continue to be debated, often through struggles over who counts as a “real” American. It further demonstrates the extent to which Islam is figured as un-American and militant, and also the extent to which all Muslims are required to account for the actions of those who commit violence under the rubric of Islam. This paper will discuss how, due to the events of September 11, 2001, Muslims have engaged in a process of indigenizing American Islam. It will argue that the Park51 Islamic Community Center (or Ground Zero mosque is a reflection of this indigenization process. It will go on to argue that projects such as the Ground Zero mosque which try to establish Islam as an important part of the American religious landscape and insist on the freedom of worship as stated in the U.S. constitution, illustrate the ideological battlefield over the place of Islam in the U.S. The paper will also examine the possible ramifications of building the Park51 Islamic Community Center including how this will shape the role that Islam plays in the socio-political lives America Muslims.

  13. The nuclear controversy as reflected in the daily press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiren, S. van.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a content analysis of 2047 journal articles of the years 1974 to 1977 on conflicts over nuclear power plants (Wyhl, Brokdorf), the book intends to analyze the role of the media in present social conflicts. The book presents facts and figures concerning the information and opinions on nuclear power in five newspapers and the bias of these newspapers in favour of nuclear power or against it. According to the author, newspaper journalists have failed at least in one thing: to explain the dimensions of the conflict with regard to social policy and to give background information on their own opinions. On the other hand, the press has proved its independence: It is not an extended arm of industrial PR departments - at least not in the nuclear controversy. The greater part of the articles is in opposition to nuclear power. The development and modifications of the arguments stated by the various groups active in the nuclear controversy are analyzed in dependence of the increasingly aggressive nature of the conflict. (HP) [de

  14. Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Attar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.

  15. The mesh controversy [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Cohn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence are common conditions for which approximately 11% of women will undergo surgical intervention in their lifetime. The use of vaginal mesh for pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence rose rapidly in the early 2000s as over 100 mesh products were introduced into the clinical armamentarium with little regulatory oversight for their use. US Food and Drug Administration Public Health Notifications in 2008 and 2011, as well as reclassification of transvaginal mesh for prolapse to class III in early 2016, were a response to debilitating complications associated with transvaginal mesh placement in many women. The midurethral sling has not been subject to the same reclassification and continues to be endorsed as the “gold standard” for surgical management of stress urinary incontinence by subspecialty societies. However, litigators have not differentiated between mesh for prolapse and mesh for incontinence. As such, all mesh, including that placed for stress urinary incontinence, faces continued controversy amidst an uncertain future. In this article, we review the background of the mesh controversy, recent developments, and the anticipated role of mesh in surgery for prolapse and stress urinary incontinence going forward.

  16. Patients' perspective on controversial issues in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Choi, Jinbae; Shin, Kwang Sook; Chang, Chong Bum; Seong, Sang Cheol

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the level of patient knowledge and preferences over the currently controversial issues in TKA. One hundred patients who had decided to undergo TKA for advanced osteoarthritis were asked to complete a questionnaire inquiring their knowledge and preferences over three controversial issues: (1) computer assisted surgery (CAS), (2) minimal invasive surgery (MIS), and (3) ceramic femoral component. The patient preferences over the three issues were questioned again after they had been informed of advantages and disadvantages of each option using an explanatory document. Most (more than 75%) of the patients did not have sufficient knowledge and their knowledge was based on non-professional sources (more than 85%). Before the information was given, most (more than 80%) of the patients preferred a new option. After the information was provided, more patients preferred a standard option in the issues of CAS (60%) and MIS (88%). This study prompts health care providers to become more active in providing accurate information and to consider patients perspective in making decisions which will influence the benefits and risk of the patients.

  17. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    An account of the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy is presented as: a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, which was characterised by secrecy and distrust, the post-Cold War era, in which trust and co-operation between risk managers and the public began to develop. This contrast between these two historical periods provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified: (1) without a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement in the management of radiological hazards is not possible; (2) given a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement can lead to improved solutions to the management of radiological hazards; and (3) risk managers should therefore seek to understand the values of public stakeholders and to identify ways, through stakeholder involvement, that those values can be incorporated in management practice. (author)

  18. Comprehension of Relations among Controversial Texts: Effects of External Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of external strategy use on the comprehension of relations among controversial texts. About 80 undergraduates read six controversial texts for the purpose of either finding intertextual relations or forming their opinion about the controversial issue. Half of them were permitted to use external strategies, the other…

  19. Illness, Observation, and Contradiction: Intertext and Intrahistory in Alejandro Morales's "The Captain of All These Men of Death"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiron-King, Shimberlee

    2009-01-01

    Numerous critics have marked Alejandro Morales's controversial career by its shift from the experimental novel to historical fiction as well as by what Morales himself describes as the connection between intrahistory and intertextuality. Morales's latest work, "The Captain of All These Men of Death," emphasizes the fictive nature of historical…

  20. Controversy undermines support for state mandates on the human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Dempsey, Amanda F; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2010-11-01

    State actions requiring adolescent girls to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine created controversy following the vaccine's approval in 2006. Some health professionals worried that the controversy might dampen public support for those state policies and for other school immunizations in general. We fielded an experimental Internet survey to determine how controversy affects attitudes about vaccines. We discovered that public support for the HPV vaccine mandates wanes when the public is informed that the policies are controversial. However, the experimental survey also revealed that exposure to this policy controversy did not spill over and reduce public support for immunizations in general.

  1. Unitization in Brazil: controversial issues; Unitizacao no Brasil: questoes controversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucheb, Jose Alberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the main consequences of the growing number of the tendered blocks is the increasing probability of the discovery of oil and gas accumulations that extends through more than one concession. In these cases, the Brazilian Petroleum Law determines that the concessionaires of the adjoining blocks shall agree on the unitization of the production. In this context, the negotiations of the first agreements have brought some controversies not yet resolved. The first one is related to the instrument that will define the basis of the unitization process in case of non-agreement within the maximum period established by the ANP. Another issue still in discussion relates to the scope of the unitization process: field, block, vertical prism of indeterminate depth, vertical prism of determinate depth or reservoir (accumulation). Additionally, the unitization involving concessions with different local content commitments is analyzed. (author)

  2. Present state of the controversy about the grain boundary relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.; Molinas, B.J.

    1990-04-01

    An analysis of the internal friction produced by grain boundary relaxation in metals, alloys and ceramics is presented. The different interpretations given in the literature to relaxation phenomena occurring at temperatures above about half the melting point which include the influence of grain boundaries and their interaction with solutes and precipitates are discussed in detail. A complete set of the experimental data disposable in this field since 1972 until today is reviewed. Finally, some recent experiments are discussed and new ones are suggested. They might solve the actual controversy about the real origin of the relaxation phenomena observed. If this is the case, a considerable amount of information already published can be taken into account with a good degree of confidence. This information contributes to the description of the structure and behaviour of grain boundaries, both being important topics for materials science. (author). 119 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  3. Open access and the humanities contexts, controversies and the future

    CERN Document Server

    Eve, Martin Paul

    2014-01-01

    If you work in a university, you are almost certain to have heard the term 'open access' in the past couple of years. You may also have heard either that it is the utopian answer to all the problems of research dissemination or perhaps that it marks the beginning of an apocalyptic new era of 'pay-to-say' publishing. In this book, Martin Paul Eve sets out the histories, contexts and controversies for open access, specifically in the humanities. Broaching practical elements alongside economic histories, open licensing, monographs and funder policies, this book is a must-read for both those new to ideas about open-access scholarly communications and those with an already keen interest in the latest developments for the humanities.

  4. AMS and controversies in history The Spanish conquest of Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, U; Jacobsen, G; Laurencich-Minelli, L; Lawson, E M; Sarkisian, G; Tuniz, C

    2000-01-01

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s.

  5. Ecotheology and the theology of eating: controversies and convergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Pihkala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental theology (or, ecotheology developed slowly during the first half of the twentieth century and has become a major field of study since the late 1960s. While many of the issues discussed in ecotheological works have included consequences for food production and eating habits, these themes were often not explicitly discussed. The reasons for this are interesting and complex. Issues related to food have been culturally very sensitive and have manifold connections to religiosity. In regard to the discussion about the rights and value of animals, controversies have been seen to arise between ecotheology and ‘animal theology’. Recently, a new interest has arisen in the themes of food, eating, and Christian theology, which has resulted in a new field of literature which could be called the ‘theology of eating’. This article gives an overview of the relations between these fields, with an emphasis on both early ecotheology and new literature about the theology of eating.

  6. Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy: Current Status and Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Il; Lee, Hak Jong; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In Korea, the incidence of prostate cancer in 2002 was sixth among the malignancies diagnosed in men, but it was the most rapidly increasing cancer. As many prostate cancers are indistinguishable from normal prostate tissue as determined on an ultrasound examination, the randomized systematic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is the gold standard for the detection of prostate cancer. Indications for a TRUS guided prostate biopsy including an elevated level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and an abnormal digital rectal exam, as well as patient preparation and procedure techniques including anesthesia are reviewed in this report. This report also considers controversies about a prostate biopsy such as the ideal number of biopsy cores, usefulness of PSA derivatives, effective methods for local anesthesia, and the use of patient preparation questionnaires covering topics such as the paucity of anticoagulants and the use of antibiotics and enemas

  7. Articles and contributions to the nuclear controversy - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, P.I.

    1976-08-01

    In the beginning of the 1970s the public interest in nuclear power in Norway was negligible, and an active information campaign might have been interpreted as an attack on the dominant hydroelectric development policy. In 1973 the electricity authorities themselves began to propose concrete nuclear power projects. Over a very short interval of time organised protest groups emerged whose main objective was to hinder the establishment of nuclear power in their own districts. T hese have since developed into agressive national groups and in the period up to the spring of 1975 an intense press debate took place. The staff of Institutt for Atomenergi took an active part in this debate and this collection of articles and contributions gives an impression of the nuclear controversy in Norway from 1973 to 1976. (JIW)

  8. Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

  9. Thermal conductance of nanofluids: is the controversy over?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keblinski, Pawel; Prasher, Ravi; Eapen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade nanofluids (colloidal suspensions of solid nanoparticles) sparked excitement as well as controversy. In particular, a number of researches reported dramatic increases of thermal conductivity with small nanoparticle loading, while others showed moderate increases consistent with the effective medium theories on well-dispersed conductive spheres. Accordingly, the mechanism of thermal conductivity enhancement is a hotly debated topic. We present a critical analysis of the experimental data in terms of the potential mechanisms and show that, by accounting for linear particle aggregation, the well established effective medium theories for composite materials are capable of explaining the vast majority of the reported data without resorting to novel mechanisms such as Brownian motion induced nanoconvection, liquid layering at the interface, or near-field radiation. However, particle aggregation required to significantly enhance thermal conductivity, also increases fluid viscosity rendering the benefit of nanofluids to flow based cooling applications questionable.

  10. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluter, C.M.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it's findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, open-quotes Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.close quotes The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau's response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government's program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists

  11. Mapping intravascular ultrasound controversies in interventional cardiology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maresca

    Full Text Available Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with

  12. Bimbo or boffin? Women in science: an analysis of media representations and how female scientists negotiate cultural contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimba, Mwenya; Kitzinger, Jenny

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines the gendered representations of scientists in the UK media. Our analysis reveals the asymmetrical ways in which men and women working in science, engineering and technology are portrayed, in particular through the emphasis on women's appearance and a focus on their exceptional status. It also highlights the way female scientists may be used to "sex up" the discipline in the context of increasing concern about the (un)popularity of science. This media analysis is contextualized by drawing on data from 86 scientists examining how women themselves experience press and television coverage and address the cultural contradictions surrounding their role. The research highlights the challenges facing women working in these fields and the dilemmas for those seeking to develop a "human" face for science and promote a positive image for women.

  13. [Between contradictions and risks: Mexican male adolescents' views about teenage pregnancy and its association with sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Atienzo, Erika E; Campero, Lourdes; Suárez-López, Leticia

    2014-04-01

    To explore the opinions of Mexican male adolescents regarding teenage pregnancy and analyze its association with sexual behavior. This is a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among a conventional sample of male students (15-19 years old) in eight public schools in Morelos and Mexico City. Analyses include multivariate models to identify the association between opinions and sexual behaviors. Overall, 68% agree that a teenage pregnancy is a negative event. In a hypothetical case, if a girlfriend got pregnant in this moment 56% would continue in the school whereas 18% would definitely abandon it. Those who affirm that a teenage pregnancy is something very bad have greater odds of using condoms (OR=1.8; pteenage pregnancy are associated with some sexual behaviors; however their opinions reflect several contradictions. The design of surveys directed exclusively to explore male adolescents' opinions about reproductive health is urgent.

  14. The political economy of tobacco and poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia: contradictions in the role of the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2010-03-01

    Of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), all but Indonesia have embraced the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and all endorse some form of tobacco control policy. Nevertheless, except for Brunei, all these states are, to varying degrees, complicit in investing in or promoting the tobacco industry, often using the justification of poverty alleviation. Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of illness and death among the populations of these countries. Claims that tobacco alleviates poverty in developing countries have increasingly been discredited: thus continuing state support for the industry represents a fundamental paradox. Using primary documents from governments and the tobacco industry, and published studies investigating tobacco and poverty, this article explores the contradictions inherent in the state seeking to prevent tobacco use in the interests of health, while actively promoting tobacco for the economic benefit of its citizens. These contradictions result in both symbolic and substantial harm to tobacco control efforts: tobacco production is legitimized, rational policy principles are violated, direct cooperation between the state and multinational tobacco corporations is made possible with associated opportunities for mollifying control policies, and different state agencies work at cross purposes. Although tobacco exports within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also threaten the group's health solidarity, it is argued that divestiture of state ownership of capital in tobacco corporations and a commitment by states not to promote tobacco are urgently required if the Convention is to have full effect both in the countries of the region and in other states that have ratified it.

  15. Reunion of Crimea and Russia in the Context of Trends and Contradictions of Contemporary Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina G. Kirsanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of reunification of Crimea and the Russian Federation is considered in the context of the content, the basic trends and contradictions of the modern political process at the global, regional and national government levels. Analyzing the reunification of Crimea with Russia, the authors reveal the problem of observing the principle of sovereign equality of the states, territorial integrity, non-interference into the internal affairs of the states, the right of peoples to self-determination. The authors highlight the geopolitical threats and risks arising from the violation of the principle of force non-use or threat of force in the situation of “Ukrainian crisis”. This process is analyzed through the prism of the political history of Russia, the establishment and strengthening of its statehood. Interpreted documentary sources reveal the organizational, legal, and political contradictions of the transfer of Crimean region from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1954. Socio-political importance of the reunification of Crimea and the Russian Federation for the present stage of modernization transformations of the society and the state are considered. The possible scenarios of development of the internal political and international situation with regard to the sanctions confrontation of Russia and some foreign countries are analyzed. The authors identified the resources for: effective assertion of the national interests of the Russian Federation; ensuring stability and security of life for all people living on its territory; permanent reproduction of national elite abilities (political, administrative, military, economic, etc. to act decisively in critical situations, to make fateful decisions of geopolitical nature. The article uses the results of sociological surveys of public opinion about the attitude of the Russians and citizens of Ukraine to the process of reunification

  16. Is the N170 face specific? Controversy, context, and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Earp

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive science, there is an ongoing debate about the architecture of the mind: does it consist of a number of mental “organs” each managing a different function in isolation, or is it more of general processor, adaptable to a wide range of tasks? One corner of this debate has centered on face processing. This is because face-perception is crucial to normal human functioning and some evidence shows that faces may be processed by the brain in a privileged way compared to other types of stimuli. For example, in EEG brain recordings, the N170 is a characteristic signal that occurs after a participant is exposed to an image of a face, but it is much less pronounced when other stimuli are shown. More than 15 years of research on the “N170 face effect” have yielded the standard view that the N170 is at the very least face-sensitive, and possibly even face-specific, that is, indexing modular processes tied exclusively to facial geometries. The specificity claim is clearly stronger, and hence subject to significant controversy; while the more conservative “sensitivity” claim had been regarded (until recently as effectively settled. Nevertheless, Thierry and colleagues, in a contentious 2007 article, sought to undermine even this “conservative” consensus: they argued that the apparent face-responsiveness of the N170 in prior research was due to systematic flaws in experimental design. Fiery debate has followed. In this review, we put the debate in its historical and philosophical context, and try to spell out some of the theoretical and logical assumptions that underlie the claims of the competing camps. We then show that the best available evidence counts, at least partially, against the Thierry et al. construal of the N170. Accordingly, it would be premature to abandon the “conservative” account of the N170, according to which it is – minimally – responsive to faces. We conclude by returning to the more controversial claim

  17. The LNT-controversy and the concept of "controllable dose".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Nekolla, E A

    2000-10-01

    There is no firm scientific information on the potential health effects, such as increased cancer rates, due to low doses of ionizing radiation. In view of this uncertainty ICRP has adopted as a prudent default option the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption and has used it to derive nominal risk coefficients. Subsequent steps, such as the comparison of putative fatality rates in radiation workers with observed accident rates in other professions, have given the risk estimates a false appearance of scientific fact. This has encouraged meaningless computations of radiation-induced fatalities in large populations and has caused a trend to measure dose limits for the public not against the magnitude of the natural radiation exposure and its geographic variations, but against the numerical risk estimates. In reaction to this development, opposing claims are being made of a threshold in dose for deleterious health effects in humans. In view of the growing polarization, ICRP is now exploring a new concept "controllable dose" that aims to abandon the quantity collective dose, emphasizing, instead, individual dose and, in particular, the control of the maximum individual dose from single sources. Essential features of the new proposal are here examined, and it is concluded that the control of individual dose will still have to be accompanied by the avoidance of unnecessary exposures of large populations, even if their magnitude lies below that acceptable to the individual. If a reasonable cut-off at trivial doses is made, the collective dose can remain useful. Misapplications of collective dose are not the deeper cause of the current controversy; the actual root is the misrepresentation of the LNT-assumption as a scientific fact and the amplification of this confusion by loose terminology. If over-interpretation and distortion are avoided, the current system of radiation protection is workable and essentially sound, and there is no need for a fruitless LNT-controversy. The

  18. Sensory processing disorders – diagnostic and therapeutic controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta R. Borkowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the current state of knowledge regarding the controversial issue of sensory integration dysfunction/sensory processing disorder. Symptoms are defined as impairments in the accurate reception and registering of stimuli, differentiation of stimulus intensity, and adequate reactivity to stimulation. They can be of specific character and occur in isolation and can also be a nonspecific element of a clinical picture of another disease entity. Psychophysiological and neuroimaging studies confirm the existence of both a distinct group of children with symptoms of sensory processing disorder diagnosed based on descriptions of behaviours listed in questionnaires and of a specific neurobiological basis of this disorder. In clinical practice, it is of key importance to determine whether behavioural problems observed in children are caused by disorders other than sensory processing disorders. Results of meta-analyses regarding sensory integration therapy are inconclusive and do not allow this form of treatment to be considered fact-based. Future studies with high methodological standards are necessary in order to verify the effectiveness of different forms of sensory integration therapy. Parents should be informed about the existing limitations.

  19. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.

  20. Unwaged Posts in UK Universities: Controversies and Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Forkert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines unwaged posts at UK universities, using recent examples of advertised job posts. While unpaid work is common in the UK higher education system, unwaged posts are not. The posts under scrutiny in this article differ from traditional honorary titles as they target early career academics, who are unlikely to have a paid position elsewhere, rather than established scholars. The article contextualizes the appearance of these posts in a climate of increasing marketization of higher education, entrenching managerialism in higher education institutions, and the casualization of academic work. We also discuss resistance to the posts, arguing that the controversy surrounding unpaid internships in the creative industries created a receptive environment for resisting unwaged posts in academia. We analyze the campaigns that were fought against the advertisement of the posts, mostly through social media and the University and College Union. We explore the tactics used and discuss the advantages and limitations of the use of social media, as well as the role of trade unions in the campaigns against these posts, and we reflect on what future campaigns can learn from these experiences.

  1. Sustainable Development? Controversies over Prawn Farming on Mafia Island, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Caplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world market for crustaceans has increased exponentially in recent years and so too have the number of production sites. However, the growth of this industry has not been without controversy, particularly regarding its environmental effects. In 2002, a large company based in Kenya applied to locate a prawn farm on Mafia Island, Tanzania, close to the Rufiji Delta. This scheme raised very differing views among various 'stakeholders': villagers living around the proposed site, the Mafia District Councillors (madiwan, government officials at varying levels, local and national activists (some in NGOs, the prawn farming company, and the experts whom they hired to produce environmental impact reports. There were opposing discourses around the rights of locals as citizens to retain control of 'their' resources, on the one hand, versus the needs of 'development' and the creation of jobs, on the other. There were also fierce debates about the importance and meaning of environment and sustainability, and the perceived role of corruption. This paper, based on fieldwork in 2002 and 2004, explores these complex debates and the ways in which the decision was finally made to allow the prawn farm to go ahead. It reveals the means by which the legal rights of citizens at the local level may be trumped by pressures emanating from those coming from above and outside who wield greater power.

  2. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: classical considerations and current controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboym, Irene; Mazeh, Haggi

    2014-01-01

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is an endocrinopathy characterized by gastrin-secreting tumors, responsible for causing the formation of multiple, refractory, and recurrent peptic ulcers in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum. Two main variants have been described, sporadic and those found in association with parathyroid and pituitary tumors, a genetic disorder known as multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1). Biochemical serum evaluation for elevated gastrin, followed by radiological or nuclear localization of the primary lesion, is mandated for establishing diagnosis. The mainstays of treatment include management of hypersecretory state with medical suppression of gastric acid production and surgical resection of primary tumor for the prevention of malignant transformation and metastatic complications. Medical therapy with proton pump inhibitors has virtually eliminated the need for acid-reducing surgical procedures. Surgical approach to sporadic and MEN-1-associated ZES varies based on our understanding of the natural history of the condition and the probability of cure; however, resection to a negative microscopic margin is indicated in both cases. Postoperative surveillance involves measurement of gastrin level, followed by imaging if elevation is detected. Re-excision of recurrent or resection of metastatic disease is a subject of controversy; however, at the present time aggressive cytoreductive approach is favored.

  3. Science motivation by discussion and controversy (SMDC) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Mora Ley, César Eduardo; Ramírez Díaz, Mario Humberto

    2017-05-01

    Succeeding theories and empirical investigations have often been built over conceptual understanding to develop talent education. Opportunities provided by society are crucial at every point in the talent-development process. Abilities differ and can vary among boys and girls. Although they have some responsibility for their own growth and development, the educational system and psychosocial variables influence on the successful development of high levels of education. This research explores students’ attitudes to science education to establish why many disengage with the subject in class and what can be done to reverse this trend to produce unimaginable scientific and practical benefits to society. The control group is students from several schools with traditional education in Iran and the experimental group is teams who have taken part in several activities such as national and international tournaments (2005-2013). This research has two parts: 1—how innovation in teaching and 2—discussion and controversy in class can improve science education and cause motivation. The average scores are divided into 5 ranges in both experimental and traditional groups. As shown by Spearman’s correlation rank (ρ) the difference between boys’ and girls’ average scores is about (2.71) in the control group but it has decreased to (0.29) in the experimental group. The main point of discussion is on problems in class which advance a set of interrelated scientific arguments for outstanding achievement.

  4. Understanding the nuclear controversy: An application of cultural theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaff, Shashi van de

    2016-01-01

    The need for a secure and sustainable energy future has become firmly entrenched on the global political agenda. Governments worldwide are seeking solutions that will ensure security of their energy supplies, while reducing carbon emissions in the fight against climate change. Advocates of nuclear power have reframed the technology as the most reliable, cost-effective and immediate solution to both of these policy problems, and predicted the emergence of a 'nuclear renaissance’. However, there is little evidence to date that suggests a nuclear renaissance has actually taken place. Public opinion polling demonstrates that many remain unconvinced of the need for nuclear power. This paper uses Cultural Theory as a heuristic to understand why the arguments for a nuclear renaissance have been largely unsuccessful. It argues that the failure of nuclear advocates to engage with a wider cross-section of world-views has prevented the controversy surrounding nuclear power from being resolved, and the nuclear renaissance from becoming a reality. In doing so, this paper builds upon a growing recognition of the contribution that social science research can make to understanding public acceptance of energy policy choices. - Highlights: • There is little evidence of a nuclear renaissance taking place in Western Europe or North America. • Public opinion on nuclear power continues to be deeply divided. • Pro-nuclear arguments are dominated by a particular cultural rationality. • A broader range of cultural perspectives needs to be recognised for the nuclear debate to progress.

  5. Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world were discussed in present article. First-generation biofuels, i.e., grain and land based biofuels, occupied large areas of arable lands and severely constrained food supplies, are widely disputed. They have been replaced by second-generation biofuels. The raw materials of the second-generation biofuels include plants, straw, grass and other crops and forest residues. However, the cost for production of the second-generation biofuels is higher. Therefore the development of the third-generation biofuels is undergoing. The third-generation technologies use, mainly algae, as raw material to produce bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel and hydrogen, and use discarded fruits to produce dimethylfuran, etc. Different countries and regions are experiencing different stages of biofuel industry. In the future the raw materials for biofuel production will be focused on various by-products, wastes, and organisms that have not direct economic benefit for human. Production technologies should be improved or invented to reduce carbon emission and environmental pollution during biofuel production and to reduce production cost.

  6. The Soul in Medicine: Rabbinic and Scientific Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukier, Henri

    2016-12-01

    The practice of medicine relies on a combination of two very different sources, and requires two kinds of talents: a cognitive-instrumental, knowledge-based and disease-centered approach; and a psychological, expressive-relational and patient-centered approach. Throughout the centuries, the mix between the cognitive and expressive dimensions, and the relative emphasis given to each approach, has varied considerably. Current evidence-based medicine privileges the cognitive-performative dimension. The recent developments within medicine are indicative of the inherent and lasting tension between the cognitive and expressive dimensions. Not surprisingly, then, related terms of debate are also apparent in medieval rabbinic discussions of medical practice. However, the rabbinic and medical traditions resolved the tension in very different ways. This paper explores a conceptual link between the modern dynamics of the cognitive and the socio-relational dimensions, and a complementary rabbinic controversy starting in the thirteenth century, originally between Maimonides and Nahmanides, both physicians. There are significant interactions between the modern evolution in the roles of doctors and patients, and the rabbinic approaches to physicians and illness. The mapping of the two debates about doctors and patients suggests that the tension between science and soul, and the dynamics of integrating them, has characterized medicine through the ages, though they can lead to different outcomes.

  7. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. Seifeldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CL/P is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material.

  8. Controversies in multiple myeloma: Evidence-based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Inhye E; Mailankody, Sham

    2016-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 10 new drugs for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) over the last two decades. The influx of new anti-myeloma agents with high efficacy and acceptable tolerability add complexity to the clinical decision-making process. First, treatment of smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) remains investigational to date, although a randomized trial showed a survival gain in high-risk patients receiving lenalidomide. Second, in newly diagnosed MM, the majority of contemporary induction regimens have been studied in single-arm trials or compared to an older regimen, which complicates evidence-based treatment selection. Third, the role of consolidation chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) needs to be revisited in the context of highly effective agents, as newer regimens- such as carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone-are able to achieve extremely deep responses equivalent to or exceeding those seen after conventional induction and ASCT. Fourth, risks and benefits of maintenance therapy should also be redefined and individualized, as long-term survival and safety data accumulate. Here we selected four clinical settings where controversies exist, reviewed evidences behind conflicting treatment strategies, and asked myeloma experts to discuss evidence-based recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier. All rights reserved.

  9. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial.

  10. ACCOUNTING CONTROVERSY ON THE RECOGNITION AND EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TULVINSCHI MIHAELA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology in recent decades has forced the transition from the industrialized society, where the main role was occupied by tangible assets, to an information society, where the essential place is played by intangible assets. These are assets that can not be touched or felt, but are very important to produce wealth and to maintain competitiveness. Within these, development expenditure occupies an important place because it influences the analysis of an entity and its future. The accounting practices applicable to development expenditure are based on theoretical fundamentals and ambiguous typologies. The purpose of the article is to present the controversies about recognizing and evaluating development expenditure. Although development expenditure involves large initial investments, it generates, on medium and long term, significant savings. Depending on the purpose for which it is carried out, research and development expenditure can in time generate identifiable intangible assets but also intangible unidentifiable assets. An optimistic attitude regarding the chances of success of a development project will lead to the capitalization of development expenditure. Capitalizing development expenditures, the usefulness of financial statements is increased, which is generally measured in the ability to explain stock prices through earnings and accounting values.

  11. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  12. [Parental alienation and the controversy surrounding psychiatric diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migchels, C; De Wachter, D

    The phenomenon of parental alienation can arise when a child allies with one parent and refuses to have contact with the other parent. The concept has attracted a great deal of attention over the last few years. There has been controversy about whether parental alienation should be recognised as a psychiatric syndrome of the alienated child caught up in a conflict between supporters and opponents. AIM: To try to determine whether parental alienation belongs to psychiatric diagnostics. METHOD: We made a careful study of various databases in order to find literature relating to parental alienation. RESULTS: Parental alienation is situated on the border between psychiatry, sociology and justice. One of the main tasks of psychiatry in this border area is to safeguard the domain of diagnostics. CONCLUSION: Because so much attention is being given to the question of whether parental alienation syndrome should be recognised as a diagnosis, there is often a tendency to ignore the possible impact of parental alienation and to pay very little attention to ways of coping with the problem.

  13. Outbreaks associated with duodenoscopes: new challenges and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Zachary A; Murthy, Rekha K

    2016-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae related to duodenoscopes in the United States and Europe have gained international attention and resulted in new regulations, especially in the United States, affecting healthcare facilities. In this review, we summarize findings from recent duodenoscope-related outbreaks, highlight what is known about the risk of transmission from these devices and discuss controversies about current recommendations to prevent transmission. Between 2013 and 2015, several US and European healthcare facilities reported outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures. Unlike prior outbreaks (attributed to lapses in cleaning and reprocessing), the recent outbreaks occurred in spite of adherence to current reprocessing guidelines. Factors associated with infection transmission include a low margin of safety for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures and complex design features of duodenoscopes. Outbreaks were halted with enhanced cleaning and surveillance measures or by adopting gas sterilization methods. New guidance from manufacturers and federal agencies has been issued as a result of these recent outbreaks; however, concerns remain that the new measures may not eliminate risks to patients. Recent duodenoscope-related outbreaks have highlighted the need for a reassessment of current guidelines for endoscope reprocessing and for new design of duodenoscope components. Although we summarize the US experience, this review has global implications for the safe cleaning and disinfection of these instruments.

  14. Roles of glucocorticoids in human parturition: a controversial fact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Q; Zhu, P; Myatt, L; Sun, K

    2014-05-01

    The pivotal role of glucocorticoids in the initiation of parturition has been very well documented in several domestic mammalian animal species. However the role of glucocorticoids in human parturition remains controversial mainly because of the absence of effect of synthetic glucocorticoids, given to promote fetal organ maturation in pregnant women with threatened preterm delivery, on the length of gestation. This article will review studies of glucocorticoids in human parturition and provide evidence for an important role of glucocorticoids in human parturition as well but a simultaneous high concentration of estrogen within the intrauterine tissues may be necessary for GCs to initiate parturition. The synthetic GCs dexamethasone and betamethasone pass through the placenta intact resulting in potent negative feedback on the fetal HPA axis and diminished production of DHEA from fetal adrenal glands for estrogen synthesis by the placenta. This may negate the effect of systemic administration of GCs on the induction of labor, especially in cases where the myometrium is not yet fully primed by estrogen. Endogenous glucocorticoids are inactivated by the placental 11β-HSD2 thus limiting the negative feedback of maternal cortisol on the fetal HPA axis and allowing the simultaneous rise of cortisol and estrogen levels towards the end of gestation. Therefore, endogenous glucocorticoids, particularly glucocorticoids produced locally in the intrauterine tissues may play an important role in parturition in humans by enhancing prostaglandin production in the fetal membranes and stimulating estrogen and CRH production in the placenta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vaccine safety controversies and the future of vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Guido; Duclos, Philippe; Margolis, Harold; Lavanchy, Daniel; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Meheus, André; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Emiroğlu, Nedret; Badur, Selim; Van Damme, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    In the years following the hepatitis B vaccination/multiple sclerosis controversy, a number of new issues regarding vaccine safety have been raised, in some cases leading to more debate and confusion. Against this background, an international group of experts was convened to review the current points of view concerning the use of thimerosal as a preservative and its potential risks; the suggested link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the alleged association between aluminum-containing vaccines/macrophagic myofasciitis and general systemic complaints; a possible link between vaccination and autoimmune pathology; and a hypothetical link between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism. At present, there are no data to conclude that childhood vaccines, and in particular hepatitis B vaccine, pose a serious health risk or justify a change in current immunization practice. However, vaccine "scares" continue to have an international impact on immunization coverage. Creating a positive environment for immunization can be achieved by repositioning the value of vaccines and vaccination, supported by evidence-based information. The role of international organizations, the media, and the industry in the implementation of communication strategies was discussed and the impact of litigation issues on vaccination was evaluated. The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board confirms its commitment to current recommendations for universal and risk group hepatitis B vaccination and further encourages the conduct of vaccine safety studies and the dissemination of their results.

  16. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  17. Gender dysphoria and the controversy over the Safe Schools program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The Safe Schools program has attracted great controversy. On one end of the spectrum, it is defended as an anti-bullying program for young people who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, or have issues concerning their gender identity. On the other end of the spectrum, it is regarded as social engineering. This article seeks to promote a discussion of the way in which gender identity issues are addressed in the Safe Schools program. It is argued that the information in this program to Principals, teachers and young people is inaccurate and misleading. The program, as presently designed, may actually cause harm to children and young people who experience gender identity issues because it promotes gender transitioning without expert medical advice. The Safe Schools materials do not acknowledge that the great majority of children resolve gender dysphoria issues around the time of puberty. It may be much more difficult for a child to accept his or her gender at puberty if he or she has already changed name and gender identity in primary school. These deficits need to be addressed if the program is to continue.

  18. Cannabis Controversies: How genetics can inform the study of comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To review three key and controversial comorbidities of cannabis use – other illicit drug use, psychosis and depression as well as suicide, from a genetically informed perspective. Design Selective review. Results Genetic factors play a critical role in the association between cannabis use, particularly early-onset use and use of other illicit drugs, psychosis and depression as well as suicide, albeit via differing mechanisms. For other illicit drugs, while there is strong evidence for shared genetic influences, residual association that is attributable to causal or person-specific environmental factors cannot be ruled out. For depression, common genetic influences are solely responsible for the association with cannabis use but for suicidal attempt, evidence for person-specific factors persists. Finally, even though rates of cannabis use are inordinately high in those with psychotic disorders, there is no evidence of shared genetic etiologies underlying this comorbidity. Instead, there is limited evidence that adolescent cannabis use might moderate the extent to which diathesis influences psychosis. Conclusions Overlapping genetic influences underlie the association between early-onset cannabis use and other illicit drug use as well as depression and suicide. For psychosis, mechanisms other than shared genetic influences might be at play. PMID:24438181

  19. Controversies and challenges in the management of chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubach, P; Zuberbier, T; Vestergaard, C; Siebenhaar, F; Toubi, E; Sussman, G

    2016-07-01

    This supplement reports proceedings of the second international Global Urticaria Forum, which was held in Berlin, Germany in November 2015. Despite the clear international guideline, there remain a number of controversies and challenges in the management of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). As a result of major advancements in urticaria over the past 4 years, the current EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO urticaria guideline treatment algorithm requires updating. Case studies from patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) [also called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)], chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU) or diseases and syndromes related to CU are useful in describing and exploring challenges in disease management. Case studies of specific CSU patient populations such as children with CU or patients with angio-edema but no hives also require consideration as potentially challenging groups with unmet needs. The current EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO urticaria guideline provides a general framework for the management of patients with CU but, as these cases highlight, a personalized approach based on the expert knowledge of the physician may be required. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. The Europeanisation of Austria: Misfit, Adaptation and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Falkner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the multiple dimensions of Austria’s Europeanisation and the high degree of both misfit and conflict involved therein. Austria’s path to EU membership was characterised by fundamental doubts due to the country’s status of neutrality, and by a basic reinterpretation of this concept. After accession, need for institutional adaptation to the EU’s decision-making patterns was significant since major tenets of the Austrian political system are special. Furthermore, policy misfit between the domestic and the EU level was considerable in several fields, among them highly symbolic ones. Austria’s EU-related diplomacy recently witnessed a major crisis with the other 14 member states ‘sanctioning’ the new centre-right government in a controversial way. Against this background of strong and multi-dimensional misfit, Austrian performance in implementing EU law is still surprisingly good. By contrast, public appreciation of EU membership has declined even further, and a majority of Austrians oppose enlargement while the Freedom Party advocates a referendum on that issue. Therefore, the conclusions argue that improved communication processes and mutual learning across the multiple levels of the EU system are crucial.

  1. The Europeanisation of Austria: Misfit, Adaptation and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Falkner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the multiple dimensions of Austrias Europeanisation and the high degree of both misfit and conflict involved therein. Austrias path to EU membership was characterised by fundamental doubts due to the countrys status of neutrality, and by a basic reinterpretation of this concept. After accession, need for institutional adaptation to the EUs decision-making patterns was significant since major tenets of the Austrian political system are special. Furthermore, policy misfit between the domestic and the EU level was considerable in several fields, among them highly symbolic ones. Austrias EU-related diplomacy recently witnessed a major crisis with the other 14 member states sanctioning the new centre-right government in a controversial way. Against this background of strong and multi-dimensional misfit, Austrian performance in implementing EU law is still surprisingly good. By contrast, public appreciation of EU membership has declined even further, and a majority of Austrians oppose enlargement while the Freedom Party advocates a referendum on that issue. Therefore, the conclusions argue that improved communication processes and mutual learning across the multiple levels of the EU system are crucial.

  2. Asbestos and cancer: epidemiological and public health controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huncharek, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses many of the currently controversial issues surrounding asbestos health effects and their relationship to cancer risk assessment and risk management. The major conclusions reached from this analysis are: (1) All asbestos fiber types are carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health. Therefore, all fiber types should be regulated similarly. (2) The health risks associated with indoor asbestos exposure are uncertain. Available data show that some groups, such as building maintenance personnel (among others), may contract asbestos-related diseases secondary to indoor exposure. Clearly, additional research is needed to accurately determine the extent and nature of disease risk under these conditions. (3) Controlled use has proved an elusive goal. Limited information from underdeveloped countries parallels the experience of Western industrialized nations. Efforts by the Canadian government to establish markets for asbestos in these areas should be opposed. (4) Finally, asbestos-related cancer risk is no longer confined to asbestos industry workers. Asbestos-related mesothelioma has been documented in a wide variety of occupational and nonoccupational settings, highlighting the need for continued surveillance to minimize potential health risks.

  3. Maternal obesity and inflammatory mediators: A controversial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendeloski, Karen Priscilla Tezotto; Ono, Erika; Torloni, Maria Regina; Mattar, Rosiane; Daher, Silvia

    2017-05-01

    The link between maternal obesity and inflammatory mediators is still unclear. Our aim was to summarize the main findings of recently published studies on this topic. We performed a search in Medline for studies published in the last years on obesity, human pregnancy, and inflammatory mediators. We report the findings of 30 studies. The characteristics and number of participants, study design, gestational age at sample collection, and type of sample varied widely. Approximately two-thirds of them investigated more than one mediator, and 50% included participants in only one trimester of pregnancy. The most frequently investigated mediators were leptin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6. Almost all studies reported an association between maternal obesity, leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels but not with IL-1β and IL-10. The association of IL-6, TNF-α, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), adiponectin, and resistin with maternal obesity is still controversial. To clarify the physiopathological link between maternal obesity and inflammation, more high-quality studies are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cord blood banking and transplantation: advances and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Mervin C

    2014-04-01

    A review of articles published since January 2012 on the topic of cord blood banking and cord blood stem cell transplantation was conducted for this the 25th anniversary year of the first cord blood transplant performed in a human. Cord blood banking is performed throughout the world. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is recognized as an acceptable alternative stem cell source for paediatric and adults requiring a haematopoietic transplant, particularly for patients of racial and ethnic minorities. To further advance the use of UCB, methods to enhance UCB stem cell expansion, engraftment and maintenance may be required. Controversy on the most effective and economically sustainable model for banking and storing an optimal UCB product continues to persist. Cord blood banking and transplantation of cord blood stem cells has advanced rapidly over the initial 25 years, as more than 30 ,000 patients have benefited from the therapy. New concepts on the use of methods to expand UCB stem cells for transplantation and use for nonhaematopoietic indications may increase demand for UCB over the next few decades.

  5. LNT-an apparent rather than a real controversy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, M W [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Can the carcinogenic risks of radiation that are observed at high doses be extrapolated to low doses? This question has been debated through the whole professional life of the author-now nearing four decades. In its extreme form the question relates to a particular hypothesis (LNT) used widely by the international community for radiological protection applications. The linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis propounds that the extrapolation is linear and that it extends down to zero dose. The debate on the validity of LNT has increased dramatically in recent years. This is in no small part due to concern that exaggerated risks at low doses leads to undue amounts of societal resources being used to reduce man-made human exposure and because of the related growing public aversion to diagnostic and therapeutic medical exposures. The debate appears to be entering a new phase. There is a growing realisation of the limitations of fundamental data and the scientific approach to address this question at low doses. There also appears to be an increasing awareness that the assumptions necessary for a workable and acceptable system of radiological protection at low doses must necessarily be based on considerable pragmatism. Recent developments are reviewed and a historical perspective is given on the general nature of controversies in radiation protection over the years. All the protagonists in the debate will at the end of the day probably be able to claim that they were right{exclamation_point} (opinion)

  6. Cannabis controversies: how genetics can inform the study of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    To review three key and controversial comorbidities of cannabis use-other illicit drug use, psychosis and depression, as well as suicide, from a genetically informed perspective. Selective review. Genetic factors play a critical role in the association between cannabis use, particularly early-onset use and use of other illicit drugs, psychosis and depression, as well as suicide, albeit via differing mechanisms. For other illicit drugs, while there is strong evidence for shared genetic influences, residual association that is attributable to causal or person-specific environmental factors cannot be ruled out. For depression, common genetic influences are solely responsible for the association with cannabis use but for suicidal attempt, evidence for person-specific factors persists. Finally, even though rates of cannabis use are inordinately high in those with psychotic disorders, there is no evidence of shared genetic etiologies underlying this comorbidity. Instead, there is limited evidence that adolescent cannabis use might moderate the extent to which diathesis influences psychosis. Overlapping genetic influences underlie the association between early-onset cannabis use and other illicit drug use as well as depression and suicide. For psychosis, mechanisms other than shared genetic influences might be at play. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Budd Russo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issue in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirement for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration Botanical Guidance. The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety and public health issues remain.

  8. LNT--an apparent rather than a real controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M W

    2006-09-01

    Can the carcinogenic risks of radiation that are observed at high doses be extrapolated to low doses? This question has been debated through the whole professional life of the author--now nearing four decades. In its extreme form the question relates to a particular hypothesis (LNT) used widely by the international community for radiological protection applications. The linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis propounds that the extrapolation is linear and that it extends down to zero dose. The debate on the validity of LNT has increased dramatically in recent years. This is in no small part due to concern that exaggerated risks at low doses leads to undue amounts of societal resources being used to reduce man-made human exposure and because of the related growing public aversion to diagnostic and therapeutic medical exposures. The debate appears to be entering a new phase. There is a growing realisation of the limitations of fundamental data and the scientific approach to address this question at low doses. There also appears to be an increasing awareness that the assumptions necessary for a workable and acceptable system of radiological protection at low doses must necessarily be based on considerable pragmatism. Recent developments are reviewed and a historical perspective is given on the general nature of controversies in radiation protection over the years. All the protagonists in the debate will at the end of the day probably be able to claim that they were right!

  9. The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Changes or introductions of technology or equipment can affect how a sport is played or influence its performances. This article conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify any case studies of controversial events surrounding the implementation or use of sports technology. 56 articles were identified that highlighted 31 different case studies found over a three decade time period. Thematic analysis revealed six distinctive themes when reviewing the articles. Whilst the sport of golf had the highest number of case studies, it was found that a significant level of attention had been recorded in the cases of Oscar Pistorius use of prosthetic legs in athletics and the use of full length swimsuits in swimming. The trend surrounding the number of articles was shown to be initially intermittent but saw a peak period from 2008 to 2010. However, the frequency of such articles since this peak has been more consistent. It is proposed that long periods of time without intervention or resolution by a governing body often increases the peer-reviewed attention paid to such cases in examples such as those identified in this systematic review.

  10. Ethical controversies in organ donation after circulatory death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The persistent mismatch between the supply of and need for transplantable organs has led to efforts to increase the supply, including controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD). Controlled DCD involves organ recovery after the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and the declaration of death according to the cardiorespiratory criteria. Two central ethical issues in DCD are when organ recovery can begin and how to manage conflicts of interests. The "dead donor rule" should be maintained, and donors in cases of DCD should only be declared dead after the permanent cessation of circulatory function. Permanence is generally established by a 2- to 5-minute waiting period. Given ongoing controversy over whether the cessation must also be irreversible, physicians should not be required to participate in DCD. Because the preparation for organ recovery in DCD begins before the declaration of death, there are potential conflicts between the donor's and recipient's interests. These conflicts can be managed in a variety of ways, including informed consent and separating the various participants' roles. For example, informed consent should be sought for premortem interventions to improve organ viability, and organ procurement organization personnel and members of the transplant team should not be involved in the discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment or the declaration of death. It is also important to emphasize that potential donors in cases of DCD should receive integrated interdisciplinary palliative care, including sedation and analgesia.

  11. Cancer stem cells in lung cancer: Evidence and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALAMGEER, Muhammad; PEACOCK, Craig D.; MATSUI, William; GANJU, Vinod; WATKINS, D. Neil

    2014-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model is based on a myriad of experimental and clinical observations suggesting that the malignant phenotype is sustained by a subset of cells characterized by the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation and innate resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. CSC may be responsible for disease recurrence after definitive therapy and may therefore be functionally synonymous with minimal residual disease. Similar to other solid tumours, several putative surface markers for lung CSC have been identified, including CD133 and CD44. In addition, expression and/or activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH and capacity of cells to exclude membrane permeable dyes (known as the ‘side population’) correlate with stem-like function in vitro and in vivo. Embryonic stem cell pathways such as Hedgehog, Notch and WNT may also be active in lung cancers stem cells and therefore may be therapeutically targetable for maintenance therapy in patients achieving a complete response to surgery, radiotherapy or chemo-therapy. This paper will review the evidence regarding the existence and function of lung CSC in the context of the experimental and clinical evidence and discuss some ongoing controversies regarding this model. PMID:23586700

  12. Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia Type B in Adults: A Controversial Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasillis Vougas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND is a well-defined entity which raises controversy among authors, described as a congenital malformation of gastrointestinal innervation and caused by dysplastic embryonal development of the enteric nervous system. It is potentially associated with mild and chronic gastrointestinal motility disturbances. IND is rarely reported in adults and especially elderly patients. The present study reports on the case of a 71-year-old man suffering from longstanding idiopathic constipation and who was misdiagnosed for more than 60 years, despite several hospital admissions and a sigmoidectomy in the meantime. On the last admission, the patient presented with megacolon, abdominal pain and X-ray finding of bowel obstruction. Due to massive large bowel dilatation, an exploratory laparotomy failed to reveal any obvious mechanical cause, and a subtotal colectomy and Hartmann's procedure was performed. Bowel continuity was performed 3 months later. Analysis of full-thickness biopsies revealed enlarged myenteric and submucosal neurons as well as an increased number of giant cells and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the mucosa. The diagnosis of IND was established. The main diagnostic criteria, the underlining pathophysiology and the recommended therapeutic approach of this rare entity are extensively reviewed.

  13. Emerging from the rib: resolving the turtle controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ritva; Riccio, Paul; Gilbert, Scott F; Cebra-Thomas, Judith

    2015-05-01

    Two of the major controversies in the present study of turtle shell development involve the mechanism by which the carapacial ridge initiates shell formation and the mechanism by which each rib forms the costal bones adjacent to it. This paper claims that both sides of each debate might be correct-but within the species examined. Mechanism is more properly "mechanisms," and there is more than one single way to initiate carapace formation and to form the costal bones. In the initiation of the shell, the rib precursors may be kept dorsal by either "axial displacement" (in the hard-shell turtles) or "axial arrest" (in the soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus), or by a combination of these. The former process would deflect the rib into the dorsal dermis and allow it to continue its growth there, while the latter process would truncate rib growth. In both instances, though, the result is to keep the ribs from extending into the ventral body wall. Our recent work has shown that the properties of the carapacial ridge, a key evolutionary innovation of turtles, differ greatly between these two groups. Similarly, the mechanism of costal bone formation may differ between soft-shell and hard-shell turtles, in that the hard-shell species may have both periosteal flattening as well as dermal bone induction, while the soft-shelled turtles may have only the first of these processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Trust, patents and public perceptions: the governance of controversial biotechnology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Einsiedel, Edna; Merz, Jon F; Nicol, Dianne

    2006-11-01

    The sustainability of many research endeavors, particularly in controversial areas, requires an understanding of public concerns. As such, governance strategies should be developed to sustain public trust.

  15. MODELING OF PROCESSES OF OVERCOMING CONTRADICTIONS OF THE STATE AND ECONOMIC OPERATORS FOR THE SECURITY AND FACILITATION OF CUSTOMS PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhnyuk Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The issue of simultaneous provision of economic security of the state and simplification of customs procedures is actualized nowadays. The author of the study stressed the importance to create a «safe» business environment from the point of view of the customs sphere, which is based on «security», «justice» and «stability». Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations for modeling the processes of overcoming contradictions of the state and subjects of foreign economic activity in the field of security and simplification of customs procedures. Results. The research indicates that the appointment of revenue and fee bodies is the creation of favorable conditions for the development of foreign economic activity, ensuring the safety of society, protecting the customs interests of Ukraine. When performing customs duties by the SFS, the tasks assigned to them, aimed at ensuring the correct application, strict observance and prevention of non-compliance with the requirements of the Ukrainian legislation on state customs issues, may present risks that are inherently contradictory, conflicting in terms of the vector of action with respect to each other, namely: the probability of non-compliance by the subjects of foreign trade with the norms of customs legislation, or the creation of significant bureaucratic barriers in the process of economic operators. There is a peculiar conflict of interests between the state and the subjects of foreign economic activity. The main direction of creating a favorable business environment in accordance with the recommendations of WCO is the process of further simplification of customs procedures for subjects with a high degree of trust, fighting corruption and facilitating the movement of goods, vehicles and people in general. Conclusions. Thus, the scheme of «relations» between the state and the subjects of foreign economic activity can be modeled by the means of game theory, which is

  16. [Neuroethics and bioethics--implications of Balkanization controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Chiaki

    2009-01-01

    There have been considerable disputes the positioning of neuroethics as a new field since its emergence in 2002. It is the novelty of the neuroethical issues and the necessity for updated moral approaches to them that leading exponents of neuroethics have emphasized; advances in neurosciences have created an entirely new field of moral inquiries that the conventional bioethics had never noticed. Futher, as neuroethics embraces the subdivision of ethics in neuroscience, it should take precedence over bioethics, which depends on the fundamental moral concepts without questioning their bases. Many bioethicists have squarely opposed these insistences and thereby detected the claim of neuroethics exceptionalism: the asserted newness of issues comes mainly from the ignorance of exponents of this new field regarding accumulated bioethical inquiries, so that the overlapping concerns between bioethics and neuroethics are passed on to the future by them. Moreover, bioethicists point out that the recent tendency of Balkanization in the field of bioethics could endanger the integrity of moral investigations. Subfields of bioethics, such as geneethics, neuroethics, nanoethics and so on, originate consecutively, entail wastage of valuable time and money, and increase the risk of fragmentizing moral considerations in an inconsistent way. By reviewing this controversy between neuroethics and bioethics, I argue that the relevant scientific investigations and technologies, which have appeared to promote the proliferation of bioethical sub-disciplines to date, are beginning to converge into 1 complex that demands not the division into subspecialities but the novel integration of bioethical inquiries: it is time to attempt the unification of bioethical applied ethics for moral considerations regarding nano-bio-info-cogno convergent technologies.

  17. Management of ß-thalassemia – Consensus and controversies!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta V. Manglani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of treatment of ß-Thalassemia major includes life-long regular packed red cell transfusions and iron chelation. With advances in understanding the molecular biology and its implications in the patients, newer modalities are now being explored to offer a better quality of life to transfusion dependent thalassemic patients. Improved safety of transfusions, newer chelator drugs and combination of chelators have improved outcomes in these patients. Amlodipine along with chelators may be a future option for preventing cardiac iron overload related complications. Drugs which improve HbF levels and thus ameliorate anemia such as hydroxyurea, butyrates azacytidine etc. have also been explored with little relief to transfusion dependent patients. HSCT, which is the only curative treatment available at present, has its own limitations as sibling donors may not be available to many. However, there has been extensive work done on improving outcomes with MUD and Haplo-identical HSCT in the recent times. Gene therapy using lentiviral vectors is also offering great hope to these children. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC is a promising advance in the treatment of thalassemia. Several newer molecules targeting different pathophysiologic aspects are being explored and have met with good success. These include luspatercept, sotatercept, macrophage inhibition, JAK2 inhibition using ruxolitinib etc. Controversies regarding use of wheat grass and ESAs are relatively less worrisome. But use of thalidomide should be done with great caution. Despite its success reported in anecdotal reports, in the absence of adequate data with larger trials, its role in routine management of thalassemia syndromes remains to be ascertained.

  18. 25 Years of Self-organized Criticality: Concepts and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas W.; Pruessner, Gunnar; Chapman, Sandra C.; Crosby, Norma B.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by the late Per Bak and his colleagues, self-organized criticality (SOC) has been one of the most stimulating concepts to come out of statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory in the last few decades, and has played a significant role in the development of complexity science. SOC, and more generally fractals and power laws, have attracted much comment, ranging from the very positive to the polemical. The other papers (Aschwanden et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2014, this issue; McAteer et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2015, this issue; Sharma et al. in Space Sci. Rev. 2015, in preparation) in this special issue showcase the considerable body of observations in solar, magnetospheric and fusion plasma inspired by the SOC idea, and expose the fertile role the new paradigm has played in approaches to modeling and understanding multiscale plasma instabilities. This very broad impact, and the necessary process of adapting a scientific hypothesis to the conditions of a given physical system, has meant that SOC as studied in these fields has sometimes differed significantly from the definition originally given by its creators. In Bak's own field of theoretical physics there are significant observational and theoretical open questions, even 25 years on (Pruessner 2012). One aim of the present review is to address the dichotomy between the great reception SOC has received in some areas, and its shortcomings, as they became manifest in the controversies it triggered. Our article tries to clear up what we think are misunderstandings of SOC in fields more remote from its origins in statistical mechanics, condensed matter and dynamical systems by revisiting Bak, Tang and Wiesenfeld's original papers.

  19. Controversy in the management of optic nerve glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.; Sagerman, R.H.; King, G.A.; Chung, C.T.; Dubowy, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The records of 16 patients with optic nerve glioma treated between 1961 and 1984 were reviewed. All patients except two had extension of tumor beyond the chiasm to the hypothalamus, adjacent brain and/or along the posterior optic tract. Eleven of 16 cases were biopsy-proven, two patients had craniotomy and visual inspection but no biopsy was performed, and in two cases the biopsy was not diagnostic. Fourteen patients received radiation therapy, usually consisting of 50 Gy in 5 weeks (range 40-56 Gy), one patient was treated surgically and one with chemotherapy. With a follow-up of 1 to 20 years, 7 of the 14 patients irradiated are alive, three patients are dead of disease at 3, 6 and 9 years post-treatment, three were lost to follow-up at 1, 8, and 8 years, and one is dead of intercurrent disease at 5.5 years. Overall vision was improved in five patients and stable in seven following treatment. In two patients, vision could not be evaluated because of young age at presentation. Four patients had recurrences. One was retreated with 30 Gy in 3 weeks and shows no evidence of disease at 20 years. The three other patients died of their disease. There is controversy over the best treatment for these patients. Based on these results and a review of the literature, the authors recommendation is to irradiate tumors with extension beyond the chiasm at the time of presentation rather than waiting for increasing symptoms because function that is lost may not always be recovered. Chemotherapy needs to be further investigated but holds promise, especially for the younger children

  20. Empirical Investigation of Two Presuppositions in Counseling snd Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gerald T.; Hurst, James C.

    1972-01-01

    Results indicated that the client sees the therapist as being capable of healthier functioning than himself, and that the therapist sees himself as functioning more effectively than the client. (Author)

  1. Critique of influential epistemological presuppositions in clinical reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorgård, Keld

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is an important resource in modern clinical reasoning. It is, however, widely discussed how judgement, experience and patient perspectives are supposed to be integrated in evidence-based decision-making. They are recognised as important aspects, but their epistemological...... status has remained unclarified. In this article, it is argued that we need to consider three different yet related epistemological problems in order to obtain a better understanding of these aspects in clinical reasoning. Even though judgement and values are mentioned in the decision-making procedure......, better clinical reasoning is typically linked to detachment, neutrality and monological conceptions of rationality. In this article, it is argued that rational clinical decision-making must also include position-dependent experiences, values and dialogical deliberation....

  2. Moral Development Theory: A Critique of Its Kantian Presuppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert L.; Christopher, John Chambers

    1996-01-01

    Claims that contemporary moral development theory follows pathways laid down by Kant. Defines formalists and altruists, claiming that both interpret the moral domain too narrowly. Proposes a character-based redefinition that reintegrates moral development with the development of the self (Eudaimonism, or "human flourishing") and of…

  3. Perceptions of Prostate Cancer Screening Controversy and Informed Decision Making: Implications for Development of a Targeted Decision Aid for Unaffected Male First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Davis, Stacy N; Wilson, Shaenelle; Patel, Mitul; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Meade, Cathy D; Rivers, Brian M; Yu, Daohai; Torres-Roca, Javier; Heysek, Randy; Spiess, Philippe E; Pow-Sang, Julio; Jacobsen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of prostate cancer (PC) patients should consider multiple concurrent personal risk factors when engaging in informed decision making (IDM) about PC screening. This study assessed perceptions of IDM recommendations and risk-appropriate strategies for IDM among FDRs of varied race/ethnicity. A cross-sectional, qualitative study design was used. Study setting was a cancer center in southwest Florida. The study comprised 44 participants (24 PC patients and 20 unaffected FDRs). Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison methods. Patients and FDRs found the PC screening debate and IDM recommendations to be complex and counterintuitive. They overwhelmingly believed screening saves lives and does not have associated harms. There was a strongly expressed need to improve communication between patients and FDRs. A single decision aid that addresses the needs of all FDRs, rather than one separating by race/ethnicity, was recommended as sufficient by study participants. These perspectives guided the development of an innovative decision aid that deconstructs the screening controversy and IDM processes into simpler concepts and provides step-by-step strategies for FDRs to engage in IDM. Implementing IDM among FDRs is challenging because the IDM paradigm departs from historical messages promoting routine screening. These contradictions should be recognized and addressed for men to participate effectively in IDM. A randomized pilot study evaluating outcomes of the resulting decision aid is underway.

  4. Discovery Of A Major Contradiction In Big Bang Cosmology Points To The New Cosmic Center Universe Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gentry, R V

    2003-01-01

    The BAL z=3.91 quasar's high Fe/O ratio has led to a reexamination of big bang's spacetime expansion postulate and the discovery that it predicts a CBR redshift of z>36000 instead of the widely accepted z~1000. This result leads an expansion-predicted CBR temperature of only T = 0.08K, which is contradicted by the experimental T = 2.73K. Contrary to long-held belief, these results strongly suggest that the F-L expanding spacetime paradigm, with its expansion redshifts, is not the correct relativistic description of the universe. This conclusion agrees with the earlier finding (gr-qc/9806061) that the universe is relativistically governed by the Einstein static spacetime solution of the field equations, not the F-L solution. Disproof of expansion redshifts removes the only support for the Cosmological Principle, thus showing that the spherical symmetry of the cosmos demanded by the Hubble redshift relation can no longer be attributed to the universe being the same everythere. The Cosmological Principle is flaw...

  5. Between contradictions and risks: Mexican male adolescents’ views about teenage pregnancy and its association with sexual behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Quiroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the opinions of Mexican male adolescents regarding teenage pregnancy and analyze its association with sexual behavior. Materials and methods. This is a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among a conventional sample of male students (15-19 years old in eight public schools in Morelos and Mexico City. Analyses include multivariate models to identify the association between opinions and sexual behaviors. Results. Overall, 68% agree that a teenage pregnancy is a negative event. In a hypothetical case, if a girlfriend got pregnant in this moment 56% would continue in the school whereas 18% would definitely abandon it. Those who affirm that a teenage pregnancy is something very bad have greater odds of using condoms (OR=1.8; p menor que 0.05. Conclusions. Male adolescents’ views about teenage pregnancy are associated with some sexual behaviors; however their opinions reflect several contradictions. The design of surveys directed exclusively to explore male adolescents’ opinions about reproductive health is urgent.

  6. Diet and identity: being a good parent in the face of contradictions presented by the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michelle; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat diet used to treat drug-resistant childhood epilepsy. Given that negative meanings tend to be attached to fatty foods and children's food consumption is seen to be the responsibility of parents, the ketogenic diet may be problematic for parenting identity. This article draws upon in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 parents from 10 families that have a child whose epilepsy is being treated with the ketogenic diet. The main focus of the article is the meanings these parents attached to foods and how they were drawn upon or altered to overcome some of the contradictions presented by the diet. It will be argued that the diet was medicalised and parents came to view food as medicine. When viewing food in this way, negative associations with fat were reversed. Furthermore, parents also used food as a symbol of inclusion and prioritised portion size or the child's enjoyment of food in order to use food as a symbol of love. In turn this enabled parents to feel they were being good parents. Overall, it seems that diet can be medicalised and the identity of the good parent maintained if dietary treatment is successful. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  7. Controversy and consensus on a clinical pharmacist in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazen, A.C.M.; van der Wal, Aletta W.; Sloeserwij, Vivianne M.; Zwart, Dorien L M; de Gier, Johan J; De Wit, Niek J.; Leendertse, A.J.; Bouvy, M.L.; De Bont, Antoinette A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Controversy about the introduction of a non-dispensing pharmacist in primary care practice hampers implementation. Objective The aim of this study is to systematically map the debate on this new role for pharmacists amongst all stakeholders to uncover and understand the controversy and

  8. Teacher College Students' Views of Controversial Environmental Issues: Ambivalence and Readiness to Adopt a Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Yehudith; Dreyfus, Amos

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important goals of discussing controversial issues in the classroom is to educate students to possess an inclination towards reason, open mindedness and fairness. However, research tends to show that teachers are not adequately trained to lead fruitful discussions about controversial issues and do not possess the necessary skills…

  9. Emergence of controversy in technology transitions: Green revolution and Bt cotton in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramani, S.V.; Thutupalli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Technology transitions following radical technological breakthroughs are often marked by controversies and the transitions to Green Revolution (GR) and Genetically Modified (GM) seeds in India were no exceptions to this rule. Controversies can trigger social dilemmas, but in economics we do not yet

  10. What Can We Learn from Taiwanese Teachers about Teaching Controversial Public Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how history teachers in Taiwan make curricular decisions while engaging controversial public issues. The main political controversies discussed in Taiwanese society center on the relationship between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China. This study documents how four social studies teachers formulate their curricular…

  11. The Use and Abuse of "Universal Values" in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    During the Danish cartoon controversy in 2005-2006 appeals to universal liberal values were often made in ways that marginalized Muslims. An analysis of the controversy shows that referring to "universal values" can be exclusionary when dominant actors fail to distinguish their own culture's embo...

  12. The Problem of Catholic School Teachers Deferring to the Home on Controversial Religious Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Graham P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper observes that an ironic tension occurs in the discussion of controversial issues in some Catholic schools. One technique that teachers use in response to student disagreement with the official Church view on a controversial issue like contraception, homosexuality, or female ordination is to present Church teaching but then suggest that…

  13. "Topoi" of Religious Controversy in the American Catholic Debate over Vernacular Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that arguments used popularly in religious controversies are historically stable and that the rhetorical critic's attention to topics or sources of reference ("topoi") for argumentation enhances the analysis of such controversies. Examines the Catholic debate over vernacular reform and emphasizes the relatively narrow range of "topoi"…

  14. Scientific Experts and the Controversy about Teaching Creation/Evolution in the UK Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The issue whether creationist accounts of the origins of life should be taught in science education alongside or even instead Darwin's theory of evolution is controversial in many countries. In 2002 there was a controversy around teaching creationism in science classes at a secondary school in England. The research presented in this paper uses…

  15. The Effects of Controversy, Concurrence Seeking, and Individualistic Learning on Achievement and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared effects of cooperative learning activities (with and without structured controversy) and individualistic learning activities on the achievement and attitudes of fifth graders (N=84) toward wolves. Results show that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn about wolves, and more positive…

  16. The Case of the Danish Cartoons Controversy: The Paradox of Civility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    to understand how some views and interventions in the controversy were displaced or misrepresented, which gave defenders of Jyllands-Posten a rhetorical advantage that allowed them to dominate the controversy, at least in Denmark. But the very framing of the debate in terms of civility also leads to a problem...

  17. Sjögren's syndrome. Controversies and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R I

    1997-09-01

    Diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are required by both physicians and patients to (1) provide a rational basis for their symptoms, assess their prognosis, and guide therapy; (2) identify a group of patients who are most likely to share a common etiopathogenesis, in order to identify those genetic and environmental factors that are crucial in pathogenesis; (3) fill out the myriad medical insurance forms that require a diagnosis code; and (4) serve as a "shorthand" code that alerts specialists in different fields (oral medicine, ophthalmology, and a variety of specialists in internal medicine) to search for particular clinical problems found in the SS patient. The key question in this article is whether the term "Sjögren's syndrome" should apply to a rather restricted group of individuals (those with an autoimmune basis for exocrinopathy) or to a rather large group of individuals who share a similar symptom complex of dry eyes and mouth. Primary SS, as defined by San Diego criteria, is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterized by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia resulting from lymphocytic infiltrates of the lacrimal and salivary glands. The criteria for the diagnosis of SS continues to be controversial, leading to confusion in the clinical and research literature. It is important to distinguish SS (an idiopathic autoimmune process) from other processes including hepatitis C infection, retroviral infection, lymphoma, autonomic neuropathy, depression, primary fibromyalgia, and drug side effects that can result in sicca symptoms. Recent studies on pathogenesis of SS in human and animal models have examined the clonality of the T-cell infiltrates, the production of cytokines by lymphocytes and glandular epithelial cells, neuroendocrine and hormonal factors that affect glandular secretion, and the fine structure of antigens recognized by T cells and B cells. Studies in SS have allowed comparison of lymphocytes in blood and in the

  18. The Neglected Patent Controversies in the Twenty First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Na virada do século, assistimos a um reforço do sistema de patentes. No entanto, os gestores de políticas deixam sistematicamente de lado as controvérsias sobre patentes. Este artigo examina criticamente as complexas relações entre, por um lado, as razões para os direitos de patente e, por outro lado, seus efeitos sociais e econômicos. Só quando entendermos essa relação, seremos capazes de projetar regimes adequados de Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual (DPI para o novo paradigma tecnoeconômico de microeletrônica baseada em conhecimento e invenções de amplo alcance implementadas por computador. O foco se concentra nas razões morais, nas razões de incentivo econômico, e nas razões de aumento da concorrência e "proteção do talento empresarial no mercado", e nas razões econômicas para organizar ciência, tecnologia e criatividade. Afirma-se aqui que os sistemas de patentes não são neutros, eles estabelecem as regras do jogo em que indivíduos e organizações são os jogadores.At the turn of the century we have seen a tightening of the patent system. However, policy makers systematically neglect the patent controversies. This article critically reviews the complex relationships between the rationales for patent rights on the one hand, and the social and economic effects of such on the other hand. Only when we understand this relationship, will we be able to design appropriate Intellectual Property Right (IPR regimes for the new technoeconomic paradigm of knowledge-based micro-electronics and computer implemented pervasive inventions. Focus is on moral rationales, economic incentive rationales, increased competition and "market protection of entrepreneurial talent" rationales, and the economic rationales for organizing science, technology and creativity. It is argued that patent systems are not neutral, but set the rules of the game in which individuals and organizations are the players.

  19. Experimental, controversial, and futuristic treatments for chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Robert L; Theodoroff, Sarah M; Martin, William Hal; Shi, Yongbing

    2014-01-01

    Because chronic tinnitus is a condition that negatively impacts the quality of life of millions of people worldwide, a safe and effective treatment for tinnitus has been sought for millennia. However, effective treatments for tinnitus are greatly outnumbered by ineffective strategies, medications, devices, and surgeries that continue to be developed and promoted for the condition. This article describes and critiques experimental, controversial, and potential treatments for chronic tinnitus. The purpose of this review is to provide information that should help patients and clinicians to select tinnitus treatment and management strategies most likely to be effective for each set of symptoms and circumstances. PubMed and MEDLINE databases (National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine) were searched for the term tinnitus in articles published from 1940 to 2012. Other historical documents and publications were also reviewed as needed for particular topics. Studies included in this review were selected to represent a sampling of treatment methodologies that have been used for tinnitus. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies reviewed, it was not appropriate to perform a meta-analysis. A selective review of the literature was conducted to summarize and critique published research results. Most invasive treatments for tinnitus should be avoided because (1) at best, there is scant evidence that any of these treatments is effective, and (2) the risk to patients for most invasive procedures is much greater than the risk posed by the tinnitus perception. Effective and noninvasive treatments for tinnitus include acoustic therapy (which includes hearing aids and other types of environmental sound enrichment); cognitive-behavioral therapy; psychological counseling; hypnosis; biofeedback; and relaxation training. Over-the-counter or prescription medications may be used as needed to facilitate sleep and to reduce anxiety, depression, or

  20. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease: controversy laid to rest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R L; Bohlke, K

    2001-01-01

    infection and IBD have been contentious. While some investigators have claimed to find persistent measles infection among patients with IBD, others, using highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction techniques, have not been able to replicate the findings. Recent controversy has centred on whether there is any evidence for molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of IBD. In summary, available evidence does not support an association between measles-containing vaccines and risk of IBD, nor between measles infection and IBD. While further research is necessary into the causal factors underlying Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, continued public education efforts are needed to reassure the public about vaccine safety and to prevent declines in vaccine coverage.

  1. The heritage and museums field: A controversial cultural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrieta Urtizberea, Iñaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of acceptance as heritage and musealisation do not respond to history or aesthetics-related criteria, but rather to identity-related criteria. They do not concern scientists, specialists and policy-makers alone, but also social groups. The choice of cultural assets is not an objective consequence of their formal characteristics. It is the result of the selection made by social agents so as to represent a group identity. But no social group is homogeneous; on the contrary they are diverse and complex so the identity references, and therefore the cultural assets, do not have to be univocal. Beyond the aseptic discourses, many of these processes are controversial. Differences regarding the identity references and the uses to be made of cultural assets lead to the field of heritage and museums being spaces where interests and values clash. This article presents and analyses the conflicts that arose in the Basque municipality of Legazpi when the process of musealisation and acceptance of iron production as heritage first started.

    Los procesos de patrimonialización y musealización de la cultura no responden a criterios históricos o estéticos, sino identitarios. No atañen a científicos, especialistas y políticos solamente, sino a colectivos sociales. La elección de unos bienes culturales no es una consecuencia objetiva de sus características formales, es el resultado de la selección llevada a cabo por agentes sociales con el fin de representar una identidad grupal. Pero ningún colectivo social es uniforme, sino, al contrario, es diverso y complejo, de tal modo que los referentes identitarios y, consecuentemente, los bienes culturales no tienen por qué ser unívocos. Más allá de los discursos asépticos, muchos de esos procesos se presentan conflictivos. Diferencias acerca de los referentes identitarios y de los usos que se les quieren dar a los bienes culturales acarrean que el campo patrimonial y museístico sea un

  2. Compactness and contradiction

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2013-01-01

    There are many bits and pieces of folklore in mathematics that are passed down from advisor to student, or from collaborator to collaborator, but which are too fuzzy and nonrigorous to be discussed in the formal literature. Traditionally, it was a matter of luck and location as to who learned such "folklore mathematics". But today, such bits and pieces can be communicated effectively and efficiently via the semiformal medium of research blogging. This book grew from such a blog. The articles, essays, and notes in this book are derived from the author's mathematical blog in 2010. It contains a

  3. Contradictions of Medical Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zsarnoczky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Industries have to face continuously emerging new trends and challenges worldwide. The former pattern of local bundling techniques cannot seem to be adapted at global measures. The processes of globalisation urgently call for the harmonisation of legislative policies and practices. A good example for this is the current situation of health tourism. In the most rapidly changing industry, development has overcome legislation by far, and unfortunately left policy makers and local stakeholders unable to respond to the new challenges. However, the continuous growing on the demand side forecasts further massive development of the field in the coming decades. My research focuses on this contradictory situation: I try to find out whose responsibility is it to force the creation of a unified legal background: the supply side that offers a wide variety of different services or the rather vulnerable supply side that needs a transparent quality assurance system to be protected.

  4. Population Genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia Contradicts the Virgin Soil Hypothesis for Human Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Iñaki; Hailu, Elena; Kiros, Teklu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Mekonnen, Wondale; Gumi, Balako; Tschopp, Rea; Ameni, Gobena; Hewinson, R Glyn; Robertson, Brian D; Goig, Galo A; Stucki, David; Gagneux, Sebastien; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas; Berg, Stefan

    2015-12-21

    Colonial medical reports claimed that tuberculosis (TB) was largely unknown in Africa prior to European contact, providing a "virgin soil" for spread of TB in highly susceptible populations previously unexposed to the disease [1, 2]. This is in direct contrast to recent phylogenetic models which support an African origin for TB [3-6]. To address this apparent contradiction, we performed a broad genomic sampling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia. All members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) arose from clonal expansion of a single common ancestor [7] with a proposed origin in East Africa [3, 4, 8]. Consistent with this proposal, MTBC lineage 7 is almost exclusively found in that region [9-11]. Although a detailed medical history of Ethiopia supports the view that TB was rare until the 20(th) century [12], over the last century Ethiopia has become a high-burden TB country [13]. Our results provide further support for an African origin for TB, with some genotypes already present on the continent well before European contact. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a pattern of serial introductions of multiple genotypes into Ethiopia in association with human migration and trade. In place of a "virgin soil" fostering the spread of TB in a previously naive population, we propose that increased TB mortality in Africa was driven by the introduction of European strains of M. tuberculosis alongside expansion of selected indigenous strains having biological characteristics that carry a fitness benefit in the urbanized settings of post-colonial Africa. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Population Genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia Contradicts the Virgin Soil Hypothesis for Human Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Iñaki; Hailu, Elena; Kiros, Teklu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Mekonnen, Wondale; Gumi, Balako; Tschopp, Rea; Ameni, Gobena; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Robertson, Brian D.; Goig, Galo A.; Stucki, David; Gagneux, Sebastien; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas; Berg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Colonial medical reports claimed that tuberculosis (TB) was largely unknown in Africa prior to European contact, providing a “virgin soil” for spread of TB in highly susceptible populations previously unexposed to the disease [1, 2]. This is in direct contrast to recent phylogenetic models which support an African origin for TB [3, 4, 5, 6]. To address this apparent contradiction, we performed a broad genomic sampling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia. All members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) arose from clonal expansion of a single common ancestor [7] with a proposed origin in East Africa [3, 4, 8]. Consistent with this proposal, MTBC lineage 7 is almost exclusively found in that region [9, 10, 11]. Although a detailed medical history of Ethiopia supports the view that TB was rare until the 20th century [12], over the last century Ethiopia has become a high-burden TB country [13]. Our results provide further support for an African origin for TB, with some genotypes already present on the continent well before European contact. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a pattern of serial introductions of multiple genotypes into Ethiopia in association with human migration and trade. In place of a “virgin soil” fostering the spread of TB in a previously naive population, we propose that increased TB mortality in Africa was driven by the introduction of European strains of M. tuberculosis alongside expansion of selected indigenous strains having biological characteristics that carry a fitness benefit in the urbanized settings of post-colonial Africa. PMID:26687624

  6. Nationalism, racism and propaganda in early Weimar Germany: contradictions in the campaign against the "black horror on the Rhine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Julia

    2012-01-01

    During the early 1920s, an average of 25,000 colonial soldiers from North Africa, Senegal and Madagascar formed part of the French army of occupation in the Rhineland. The campaign against these troops, which used the racist epithet ‘black horror on the Rhine’ (schwarze Schmach am Rhein), was one of the most important propaganda efforts of the Weimar period. In black horror propaganda, images of alleged sexual violence against Rhenish women and children by African French soldiers served as metaphors for Germany’s ‘victimization’ through the Versailles Treaty. Because the campaign initially gained broad popular and official support, historians have tended to consider the black horror a successful nationalist movement bridging political divides and strengthening the German nation state. In contrast, this essay points to some of the contradictions within the campaign, which often crystallized around conflicts over the nature of effective propaganda. Extreme racist claims about the Rhineland’s alleged ‘mulattoization’ (Mulattisierung) increasingly alienated Rhinelanders and threatened to exacerbate traditional tensions between the predominantly Catholic Rhineland and the central state at a time when Germany’s western borders seemed rather precarious in the light of recent territorial losses and separatist agitation. There was a growing concern that radical strands within the black horror movement were detrimental to the cohesion of the German nation state and to Germany’s positive image abroad, and this was a major reason behind the campaign’s decline after 1921/22. The conflicts within the campaign also point to some hitherto neglected affinities between the black horror and subsequent Nazi propaganda.

  7. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support as Behavior Analysis in Practice: Why Is This Even Controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Tetreault, Allison S

    2015-05-01

    The inclusion of Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports as a type of applied behavior analysis has often spurred considerable controversy. This controversy seems related to at least three areas of contention: measurement issues, views on aversive control, and the overall target of treatment. The present paper discusses these three areas in light of Horner and Sugai's target article and the current state of the field of applied behavior analysis. In the end, the authors are left wondering why this is even an ongoing controversy.

  8. Contradictions in Expansive Learning: Towards a Critical Analysis of Self-dependent Forms of Learning in Relation to Contemporary Socio-technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Langemeyer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Current policies to expand and "flexibilise" labour markets are encapsulated in the drive to ensure "employability". To achieve this "employability", workers and the unemployed are encouraged to participate in "life-long learning". In this context, the traditional understanding of education as instructional pedagogy is increasingly replaced by learner-centred approaches which allow more autonomy and individuality within the actual learning process and demand greater personal (learner responsibility for progress and success. Such self-dependent learning might seem to provide a promising alternative to traditional schooling—which often proves contradictory in producing a rather passive attitude among the learners by undermining motivation. But the challenges of those "new" forms of learning have turned out to be contradictory as well. This article seeks to clarify how to take account of these contradictions. Theoretically, it proceeds on the basis of a discussion of Klaus HOLZKAMP's "subject science of learning" and Yrjö ENGESTRÖM's activity theory. Both approaches are centred around an idea of "expansive learning", and each stresses the interrelation between individual learning processes and external development as a route towards extending action possibilities and one's power to act. But they differ significantly on the matter of contradictions. For HOLZKAMP contradictions are considered an obstruction or hindrance for learning, while for ENGESTRÖM they are a starting point for problem solving and development. In the blank spaces within and between these theories, however, a slightly different approach to expansive learning is developed. Two case studies, that were part of a larger enquiry on a vocational training program for IT-specialists (LANGEMEYER 2005a, are used to enhance the comprehension of contradictions in relation to learning, and to exemplify an analysis of the current changes in education processes. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs

  9. Radiofrequency (mobile telephones) Exposures and Health Risks: Findings and Controversies - Linet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiofrequency (mobile telephones) Exposures and Health Risks: Findings and Controversies by Dr. Martha Linet - part of the Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course on the health effects of radiation exposure

  10. [Presence of parents during dental treatment of children: a very controversial topic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boj Quesada, J R; Azanza, N

    1990-04-01

    The convenience of the presence of the parents in the dental operatory during the treatment of their children has always been controversial. This paper presents a study performed through a questionnaire regarding the topic.

  11. [Addressing the controversy regarding the association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Lisset; Hernández, Adrián V; Suárez Moreno, Víctor; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Vaccination is one of the most important public health interventions in the reduction childhood morbidity and mortality. Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound used as preservante in multi-dose vials. Often in Peru, there are waves of controversy about the safety of this type of vaccines, mainly arguing that there is an association between them and autism. As a result of these controversies, there have been some voices asking for laws banning thimerosal-containing vaccines, which would have a large impact in costs and the logistic aspects of the public vaccination programs. The aim of this article is to review the literature for the main controversies about thimerosal in vaccines and its supposed association to autism. We made an historical review about these controversies given the available scientific evidence and the statements from important international organizations. We concluded that the current available evidence do not support an association between thimerosal and childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism.

  12. Metaphysics for an enlightened public: The controversy over monads in Germany, 1746-1748.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This essay analyzes the controversy that attended the prize essay question on monads proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1746. The controversy was first touched off by an anonymous pamphlet published by the mathematician Leonhard Euler, the academy's most well known member, that attacked the doctrine of monads. It peaked with the awarding of the prize to Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi, whose winning essay closely followed Euler's arguments. This essay discusses the controversy as one instance in a broader quarrel in the German academic community over the suitability of Christian Wolff's philosophy as the foundation for a broad range of academic disciplines, including natural philosophy. It also analyzes the controversy as displaying the central role of the periodical press in the emergent German public sphere.

  13. Saúde mental no trabalho: contradições e limites Mental health at work: contradictions and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Vasconcelos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo do desenvolvimento do capitalismo, a concepção do que seja a saúde do trabalhador modificou-se, passando do patamar da 'preocupação com a sobrevivência do corpo' para a 'preocupação com a saúde mental do trabalhador'. A gestão da saúde foi sendo incorporada às novas formas de gestão dos empreendimentos capitalistas, mas a despeito disso, o sofrimento no trabalho continua, expresso em manifestações como estresse, fadiga crônica, burnout, DORT etc. Este artigo busca identificar e analisar, através de um estudo de caso, as contradições existentes acerca das estratégias organizacionais adotadas sobre Saúde Mental no Trabalho, tendo como referência a percepção dos trabalhadores. Os resultados mostraram que os programas de saúde são baseados em intervenções pontuais, paliativas e estão relacionados ao sistema de controle da organização atuando em cima dos efeitos da organização do trabalho, não se baseando numa real preocupação com a saúde do trabalhador.Along the capitalism development, the conceptions of worker's health has changed, passing from the "preoccupation with the surviving of the body" to the "preoccupation with the worker's mental health". Management of health has been incorporated to the new capitalist enterprising management forms, but in spite of that, the suffering of the worker goes on, expressed in physical manifestations like stress, and chronicle fatigue, burnout and DORT. This essay tries to identify and analyze, through a case study, the existing contradictions about the organizational strategies adopted on mental health at work/labor, having as a reference the workers' perception. The results show that health programs are based in ad hoc and palliative interventions related to the control system of the organization, acting on the effects of work organization, and not based on a real preoccupation with the worker's health.

  14. JUDGMENTS CONCERNING THE ACCOUNTING CONTROVERSIAL OVER THE REVALUATION OF ESTATE INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Andreea Trandafir; Nicoleta Asalos

    2009-01-01

    The present work tackles as main theme the bookkeeping controversy, which is met when the two international audit standards are put face to face, especially IAS 16 that it refers to corporal immobilizations versus IAS 40, that it refers to an real investment. This work has as a goal the presentation and the differentiation of the bookkeeping controversy between the two audit international standards. In the first part of the work there are presented the two standards, IAS 16 corporal Immobiliz...

  15. Addressing the controversy regarding the association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism

    OpenAIRE

    García-Fernández, Lisset; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médica infectóloga.; Hernández, Adrián V.; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland. Ohio, EE. UU. médico epidemiólogo clínico, PhD in Health Science.; Suárez Moreno, Víctor; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo, MPH in Public Health.; Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most important public health interventions in the reduction childhood morbidity and mortality. Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound used as preservante in multi-dose vials. Often in Peru, there are waves of controversy about the safety of this type of vaccines, mainly arguing that there is an association between them and autism. As a result of these controversies, there have been some voices asking for laws banning thimerosal-containing vaccines, which would...

  16. Historical Controversies in Psychology: Irrational Egotistic Anomalies or Structural Stages of Rational Debate?

    OpenAIRE

    Catriel Fierro

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical (historical) survey about the insertion, definition and valuation of scientific controversies in psychology on the basis of certain historiographical trends in History of Psychology. With the overall objective of reviewing the importance of controversial instances for the scientific development of psychology, and the specific objective of enabling rapprochement between the historiography of psychology and social studies of science, the definition and explanati...

  17. Actor-network Theory and cartography of controversies in Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENÇO, Ramon Fernandes; TOMAÉL, Maria Inês

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to discuss the interactions between the Actor-network Theory and the Cartography of Controversies method in Information Science research. A literature review was conducted on books, scholarly articles, and any other sources addressing the Theory-Actor Network and Cartography of Controversies. The understanding of the theoretical assumptions that guide the Network-Actor Theory allows examining important aspects to Information Science research, seeking to identif...

  18. Anatomy of a health scare: education, income and the MMR controversy in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Arnaud Chevalier; Jonathan Wadsworth

    2009-01-01

    One theory for why there is a strong education gradient in health outcomes is that more educated individuals more quickly absorb new information about health technology. The MMR controversy in the UK provides a case where, for a brief period of time, some highly publicized research suggested that a particular multi-component vaccine, freely provided to young children, could have potentially serious side-effects. As the controversy set in, uptake of the MMR vaccine by more educated parents dec...

  19. Is healthcare providers' value-neutrality depending on how controversial a medical intervention is? Analysis of 10 more or less controversial interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynöe, Niels; Björk, Joar; Juth, Niklas

    2017-09-01

    Swedish healthcare providers are supposed to be value-neutral when making clinical decisions. Recent conducted studies among Swedish physicians have indicated that the proportion of those whose personal values influence decision-making (the value-influenced) vary depending on the framing and the nature of the issue. To examine whether the proportions of value-influenced and value-neutral participants vary depending on the extent to which the intervention is considered controversial. To discriminate between value-neutral and value-influenced healthcare providers, we have used the same methods in six vignette based studies including 10 more or less controversial interventions. To be controversial was understood as being an intervention where conscientious objections in healthcare have been proposed or an intervention that is against law and regulations. End of life decisions and female reproduction issues are associated with conscientious objection and more or less against regulations, and also resulted in the highest proportions of value-influenced participants. Following routines, which is not in conflict with official values, were associated with one of the lowest proportion of value-influenced participants. The difference between the highest and lowest proportions of value-influenced participants among the 10 examined interventions was significant (81.8% (95% confidence interval: 78.1-85.5) versus 34.7% (95% confidence interval: 29.2-40.2)). The study indicates that the proportions of value-neutral participants decrease the more controversial an issue is, and vice versa. In some cases, however, framing effects may potentiate or obscure this association. As a bold hypothesis, we suggest the proportion of value-neutral or value-influenced might indicate how controversial an issue is.

  20. Historical Controversies in Psychology: Irrational Egotistic Anomalies or Structural Stages of Rational Debate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriel Fierro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical (historical survey about the insertion, definition and valuation of scientific controversies in psychology on the basis of certain historiographical trends in History of Psychology. With the overall objective of reviewing the importance of controversial instances for the scientific development of psychology, and the specific objective of enabling rapprochement between the historiography of psychology and social studies of science, the definition and explanation given about historical controversies by the classic historiography of psychology are first described, emphasizing the anomalous character of such controversies to said historiography given the implicit theoretical and methodological principles of such tradition. The redefinition of historical controversies by the ‘new history’ of psychology developed since 1970 is then detailed. It is noted that such redefinition took place partly due to the historians’ incorporation of certain sociological and socio-historical principles and explanatory resources from social history of science and social studies of science. The positive character of such a redefinition and of the foresight of deeper socio-historical analysis of controversies in psychology is then concluded.

  1. Turkish Social Studies Teachers’ Thoughts About the Teaching of Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Copur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, one of the primary goals of education is to raise individuals as citizens equipped with the skills of communication, high-level thinking, problem solving and questioning as well as with a global viewpoint. Introducing controversial issues into the classroom environment may be among the steps to be taken to achieve these goals. In this context, this study has the primary goal of revealing Social Studies teachers’ thoughts about the teaching of controversial issues in the classroom environment. This study adopted mixed methods. The study participants consisted of Social Studies teachers working in Bursa, which is a large-scale province of Turkey, in the 2014-2015 school year. According to the study findings, while terror was the most controversial issue, faith in creation was the least controversial issue. In addition, teachers mainly preferred to introduce issues related to the Social Studies curriculum and that were appropriate for the students’ preparedness. However, another result is that controversial issues contributed to students’ acquisition of personal critical skills such as high-level thinking and communication. It was also observed that the teaching of controversial issues was related to the Social Studies lesson and was important for the achievement of the goals of the lesson.

  2. [The medical dissertation--no definitive model. Results of a survey about obtaining a doctorate contradict frequently stated opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, M; Strate, J; Pabst, R

    2003-12-05

    The relevance of medical dissertations is controversial in Germany. The "Wissenschaftsrat" (Science Council) of Germany even made the radical proposal of abolishing medical dissertations, in their present form, in the recently published "Guidelines on writing a thesis". Using a questionnaire with 22 items all students submitting their dissertations within one year at the Medical School in Hannover were asked to participate in a survey about the dissertation, supervision, time spent on it and publishing the results. The answers were evaluated statistically by explorative data analysis. A total of 232 questionnaires were evaluated, which is equivalent to a response rate of 87% (47% were women). A majority of 69% had prepared their thesis in a clinical institution. The supervision during various phases of the dissertation was graded as good. Altogether 90% thought that it had been personally worth-while. In 57% of cases the data of the dissertation had already been published and in 39 % of these cases the author of the dissertation was listed as first author of the publication. In agreement with former studies in German universities an overwhelming majority of 90% of respondents graded dissertations as a significant part of their medical studies, although requiring much additional time. They would recommend such a research phase to younger students as highly valuable. These results are in contrast to many repeatedly made statements.

  3. General practitioners' perceptions of vaccination controversies: a French nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Marechal, M; Fressard, L; Agrinier, N; Verger, P; Pulcini, C

    2017-11-24

    We aimed to study general practitioners' (GPs') perceptions of vaccines that have been a subject of controversy in France. A cross-sectional survey in 2014 asked a representative national sample of GPs, randomly selected from the exhaustive database of health professionals in France, about their perceptions of the likelihood of serious adverse events potentially associated with six different vaccines: for two of them the association was based on some scientific evidence, whereas for the other four this is not the case. We performed a cluster analysis to construct a typology of GPs' perceptions about the likelihood of these potential six associations. Factors associated with certain clusters of interest were identified using logistic regression models. Overall, 1582 GPs participated in the questionnaire survey (1582/1712 GPs who agreed to participate, 92%). Cluster analysis identified four groups of GPs according to their susceptibility to vaccine controversies: 1) limited susceptibility to controversies (52%); 2) overall unsure, but rejected the association between hepatitis B vaccine and multiple sclerosis (32%); 3) highly susceptible to controversies (11%); and 4) unsure (5%). We found that GPs who occasionally practised alternative medicine (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.65-4.45), and those who considered information provided by mass media as reliable (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.65-3.99) were more susceptible to controversies. GPs had different profiles of susceptibility to vaccination controversies, and most of their perceptions of these controversies were not based on scientific evidence. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. La traduction anglaise de Maria Stuarda : paradoxes et contradictions d’une reine catholique et puritaine The English Translation of Maria Stuarda: Paradoxes and Contradictions of a Catholic and Puritan Queen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Degott

    2011-12-01

    the score. These were no doubt justified by the presence on the ENO stage of the mezzo-soprano Janet Baker, a national icon in the 1970s. Dame Janet’s assumption of this controversial role no doubt contributed to the general process of rewriting at the core of such an adaptation.

  5. Early Controversies over Athetosis: I. Clinical Features, Differentiation from other Movement Disorders, Associated Conditions, and Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Lanska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the description of athetosis in 1871 by American neurologist William Alexander Hammond (1828-1900 the disorder has been a source of controversy, as were many aspects of Hammond’s career.  Methods: Review of controversies in the semi-centennial since the description of athetosis.  Results: Hammond struggled to establish athetosis as a distinct clinic-pathological entity, and had successfully predicted the striatal pathology in his initial case (albeit somewhat serendipitously.  Athetosis was, nevertheless, considered by many neurologists to be a form of post-hemiplegic chorea or part of a continuum between chorea and dystonia. European neurologists, and particularly the French, initially ignored or discounted the concept. Additional controversies arose over whether the movements persisted during sleep, whether athetosis was, or could be, associated with imbecility or insanity, and how it should be treated. Discussion: Some controversies concerning athetosis served to identify areas where knowledge was insufficient to make accurate statements, despite prior self-assured or even dogmatic statements to the contrary.  Other controversies illustrated established prejudices, even if these biases were often only apparent with the greater detachment of hindsight. 

  6. The Use and Abuse of "Universal Values" in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    's embodiment of these values from the more abstract ideas. To avoid self-contradiction, liberal principles and constitutional norms should not be seen as incontestable aspects of democracy but rather as subject to recursive democratic justification and revision by everyone subject to them. Newcomers should...... be able to contribute their specific perspectives in this process of democratically reinterpreting and perfecting the understanding of universalistic norms and thereby make them fit better to those to whom they apply and to make them theirs, too. In this way the norms are not made cultureless...

  7. Does Controversial Science Call For Public Participation? The Case Of Gmo Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Christiansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many instances of new and emerging science and technology are controversial. Although a number of people, including scientific experts, welcome these developments, a considerable skepticism exists among members of the public. The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs is a case in point. In science policy and in science communication, it is widely assumed that such controversial science and technology require public participation in the policy-making process. We examine this view, which we call the Public Participation Paradigm, using the case of GMOs as an example. We suggest that a prominent reason behind the call for public participation is the belief that such participation is required for democratic legitimacy. We then show that the most prominent accounts of democratic legitimacy do not, in fact, entail that public participation is required in cases of controversial science in general, or in the case of GMOs in particular.

  8. Topical therapy of atopic dermatitis: controversies from Hippocrates to topical immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, Gérard; Wallach, Daniel; Taïeb, Alain

    2007-02-01

    Although atopic dermatitis can be treated efficiently, there is still much controversy about the risk/benefit ratio of both topical corticosteroids and topical immunomodulators. Conflicting data may be found about the usefulness of bathing, diet regulation, and other therapeutic interventions. These controversies result in part from the persistence of Hippocratic doctrines in modern medical thinking. Humoralist and diathetic doctrines, as they pertain to eczema, are reviewed. The paradoxical worsening of oozing and the deadly hazards of hospitalization before the era of antibiotics are brought to mind. We hope that this historical review will improve the understanding of current controversies and help dermatologists to manage patients with atopic dermatitis and other chronic skin diseases.

  9. Adjunctive use of the diode laser in non-surgical periodontal therapy: exploring the controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Mary Sornborger; Rowe, Dorothy J

    2014-04-01

    Despite the controversy regarding clinical efficacy, dental hygienists use the diode laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy. The technique to maximize successful laser therapy outcome is controversial as well. The purpose of this review is to explore the scientific foundation of the controversy surrounding the use of the diode laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy. Further, this paper addresses the weaknesses in study design, the heterogeneity of methodology in the published clinical studies, especially the laser parameters, and how these issues impact the collective clinical and microbial data, and thus conclusions regarding clinical efficacy. Evaluation of the literature identifies possible mechanisms that could contribute to the varied, often conflicting results among laser studies that are the foundation of the controversy surrounding clinical efficacy. These mechanisms include current paradigms of periodontal biofilm behavior, tissue response to laser therapy being dependent on tissue type and health, and that the successful therapeutic treatment window is specific to the target tissue, biofilm composition, laser wavelength, and laser energy delivered. Lastly, this paper discusses laser parameters used in the various clinical studies, and how their diversity contributes to the controversy. Although this review does not establish clinical efficacy, it does reveal the scientific foundation of the controversy and the need for standardized, well designed randomized controlled clinical trials to develop specific guidelines for using the laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy. Using evidence-based laser guidelines would allow dental hygienists to provide more effective non-surgical periodontal care.

  10. [Foucault, Derrida, and the history of madness: notes on a controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Neto, A F

    1998-01-01

    The publication of the book Folie et Déraison. Histoire de la Folie à l'Age Classique (1961), by Michel Foucault, sparked a debate between the author and philosopher Jacques Derrida during the 1960s and 70s. Derrida criticized the methodological proposal and organization of the History of Madness presented by Foucault in the foreword to the first edition. The controversy appears to have motivated the author to withdraw this same foreword from the second edition. The purpose of this article is to analyze some current points in this controversy. It also presents a research agenda for an understanding of the reasons leading Foucault to take this stance.

  11. Sentencing and Other Controversial Issues: Why We Need Rational Debate More Than Ever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to demonstrate the importance of rational debate in the community on controversial issues. It focuses on the need for rationalism to prevail in community debates on controversial issues. Issues inclusive of sentencing, climate change, mental health and its prevalence in the prison system and ‘whether courts are out of touch’ with the community. The article recognises the difficulties faced by those engaged in community issues and concludes by promoting the need to maintain a tolerant and harmonious society by engaging in well informed rational debate.

  12. Einstein's opponents the public controversy about the theory of relativity in the 1920s

    CERN Document Server

    Wazeck, Milena

    2014-01-01

    This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.

  13. Proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer 101: basics, controversies, and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisenbaugh, Eric S; Andrews, Paul E; Ferrigni, Robert G; Schild, Steven E; Keole, Sameer R; Wong, William W; Vora, Sujay A

    2014-01-01

    Proton beam therapy for prostate cancer has become a source of controversy in the urologic community, and the rapid dissemination and marketing of this technology has led to many patients inquiring about this therapy. Yet the complexity of the technology, the cost, and the conflicting messages in the literature have left many urologists ill equipped to counsel their patients regarding this option. This article reviews the basic science of the proton beam, examines the reasons for both the hype and the controversy surrounding this therapy, and, most importantly, examines the literature so that every urologist is able to comfortably discuss this option with inquiring patients.

  14. El hombre con su contradicción: del desflorador avergonzado al "hombre color mujer". // The man with his contradiction: from ashamed deflowered to "woman-colored man".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Ricardo Moreno Chía.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basis of this article is the idea that “the masculine” has an internal contradiction. This is supported by some freudian references, and brought out by Jacques Lacan’s formulations, particularly in his sexuation theory and his innovations on the borromean knot. We wonder how these statements explain the internal contradiction of masculinity, and we look for a possible answer in Lacan’s assertion that there is a “woman-colored man”, whose context corresponds to his theory of the sinthome. // El presente trabajo parte de la idea según la cual “lo masculino” posee una contradicción interna. Esta idea que es sustentada en algunas referencias freudianas es puesta a la luz de las formulaciones de Jacques Lacan, en particular su teoría de la sexuación y sus desarrollos en torno al nudo borromeo. Nos preguntamos cómo estas formulaciones dan cuenta de esa contradicción interna de la masculinidad, e intentamos una posible respuesta en la afirmación de Lacan, según la cual hay “hombre color mujer” y cuyo contexto corresponde a su teoría acerca del sinthome.

  15. Is systems biology a promising approach to resolve controversies in cancer research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Ana M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems Biology could help cancer research to overcome this stalemate by resolving contradictions and identifying spurious data. First, in silico experiments should allow cancer researchers to be bold and a priori reject sets of data and hypotheses in order to gain a deeper understanding of how each dataset and each hypothesis contributes to the overall picture. In turn, this process should generate novel hypotheses and rules, which could be explored using these in silico approaches. These activities are significantly less costly and much faster than "wet-experiments". Consequently, Systems Biology could be advantageously used both as a heuristic tool to guide "wet-experiments" and to refine hypotheses and test predictions.

  16. Tektite controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Clues as to the possible origin of tektites are found by studying the chemical composition, sites where they are found, and shapes. An important chemical fact of tektites is that they are extremel dry. Tektites lie in four major areas and in three isolated regions. They are distributed as if they fell from the skies. By studying the flanged shapes of the australites, it was concluded that their shape was due to a fast, hot trip through the atmosphere. Tektites show no cosmic ray tracks which implies their space exposure time was short. This rules out the possibility that they are a form of meteorite with these clues in mind, four theories on their possible origin are discussed in this paper. The theories are: (1) terrestial impact by meteorite or comet; (2) lunar impact; (3) terrestial volcanoes; and (4) lunar volcanoes. This article rules out the first three theories for reasons which are given and leans toward the fourth theory as the most probable of the four

  17. Constructive Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2009-01-01

    Current theories of argumentation underestimate the difference, emphasized already by Aristotle, between theoretical and practical (action-oriented) argumentation. This is exemplified with the argument theories of Toulmin, pragma-dialectics, Habermas, Walton, and Perelman. Since antiquity, rhetor......, but also inside each individual, several conflicting value dimensions are typically involved, not just the dimension of truth-falsity, which makes sustained, reasonable dissensus inevitable....

  18. Clinical Correlates of Alleged Satanic Abuse and Less Controversial Sexual Molestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Frank

    1994-01-01

    This study found that 39 women alleging satanic ritual abuse and 47 women reporting less controversial forms of sexual trauma as children were characterized by high but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology. Patients alleging satanic ritual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with…

  19. Singapore Teachers' Beliefs about the Purpose of Climate Change Education and Student Readiness to Handle Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Tricia; Ho, Li-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines what four pre-service and six practicing geography educators in Singapore schools believe to be the purpose of climate change education, and how this intersects with their beliefs about student readiness to handle controversy within climate change education. A key finding of this study indicates that the teachers'…

  20. Old and New Controversies in the Alternative Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial…

  1. Denver's airport of doom; the story behind the world's possibly most controversial airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Big airport projects have often been prone to controversy. Schiphol’s Polderbaan project, Heathrow’s expansion, and the construction of Berlin’s new airport all suffered from political, financial or technical issues. However, Denver International Airport (often referred to as DIA) caused uproar in

  2. Controversial Practices: The Need for a Reacculturation of Early Intervention Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies characteristics (such as cure claims, practitioner specialization, and questionable research) of controversial practices in early intervention. Evaluates 13 such practices grouped into medical, educational, and therapeutic categories and suggests reasons that professionals and parents adopt such practices. Suggestions for the field…

  3. CONTROVERSY AND CONFLICTS DUE TO IMPROPER MEDICAL CARE AND LEGAL PRACTICE OF THEIR RESOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Perepechina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the statistical data on the Russian Federation, showing how often controversy and conflicts due to improper medical care occurs in medical practice, as well as what are the ways to resolve them.

  4. From Iconoclasm to Arianism: The Construction of Christian Tradition in the Iconoclast Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Gwynn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The defenders of icons in the eighth and ninth centuries, especially Photius, significantly reinterpreted the fourth-century Arian controversy and the views of Eusebius in order to link the Iconoclasts to the Arians and themselves to Church fathers like Athanasius.

  5. An Analysis of Selected Biology Textbooks for the Treatment of Controversial Issues and Biosocial Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Florence S.; Lindbeck, Joy S.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes five biology textbooks in 11 categories identified as current controversial issues and biosocial problems. Quantitative ratings for each category, based on total number of textbook pages, are presented for Darwinian evolution, disease states, drugs, environment, human genetics, human reproduction, man in nature, origin of life, population…

  6. Academic Controversy in Macroeconomics: An Active and Collaborative Method to Increase Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicola, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that there is a lack of learning outcomes in economics that can be attributed to the reliance on traditional lecture and the failure to adopt innovative instructional techniques. This study sought to investigate the student learning effects of academic controversy, a cooperative learning technique that shows promise in the…

  7. Controversy and consensus on a clinical pharmacist in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.M. Hazen (Ankie); Wal, A.W.V.D. (Aletta W. Van Der); V.M. Sloeserwij (Vivianne); D.L.M. Zwart (Dorien); Gier, J.J.D. (Johan J. De); Wit, N.J.D. (Niek J. De); A.J. Leendertse (Anne); M.L. Bouvy (Marcel); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Controversy about the introduction of a non-dispensing pharmacist in primary care practice hampers implementation. Objective The aim of this study is to systematically map the debate on this new role for pharmacists amongst all stakeholders to uncover and understand the

  8. Professional Controversies between Teachers about Their Summative Assessment Practices: A Tool for Building Assessment Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier Lopez, Lucie; Pasquini, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    This article describes two collaborative research projects whose common goal was to explore the potential role of professional controversies in building teachers' summative assessment capacity. In the first project, upper primary teachers were encouraged to compare their practices through a form of social moderation, without prior instructor input…

  9. Representing New Math: Genre Chains and Controversy in the Saskatchewan Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The media's response to the release of "Math Instruction that Makes Sense" (2011), a research report by the Frontier Centre for Public Policy (FCPP), helped spark a public controversy and spur the Saskatchewan government to reexamine the Ministry of Education's math curriculum. The purpose of this article is to examine the CBC's…

  10. The Safford, Arizona, Murals of Seymour Fogel: A Study in Artistic Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jared A.; Stevens, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the controversy generated by art works commissioned by the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Attempting to create work for depression-era artists, the WPA often commissioned murals for government buildings. Recounts the experience of Seymour Fogel, who's positive portrayal of Native Americans ran afoul of racist sentiments in Safford,…

  11. Digitally mediated publics: The case of the Copenhagen ‘payment ring’ controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the concept of digitally mediated publics and outline a research strategy for investigating such publics, drawing on the Copenhagen road pricing controversy as a useful empirical case. The discussion takes Marres’ (2005) concept of issue publics as its vantage...

  12. Science and Social Studies Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Teaching Controversial Issues: Certain Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate social studies and science teachers' attitudes and classroom practices associated with controversial issues. The study is a qualitative research based on data collected through interviews and observation. Social studies and Science teachers participated in the current study which was conducted in Kirsehir, a…

  13. The Intellectual Roots of the Controversy around Cultural Diversity and Political Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Luke

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on the intellectual history of American higher education and how it has shaped the current issues around cultural diversity and political correctness. Shows how a major part of the controversy over cultural diversity in higher education stems from the ideology of white superiority, which is pervasive and deeply rooted in American higher…

  14. Girls' Doll Play in Educational, Virtual, Ideological and Market Contexts: A Case Analysis of Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifel, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore an example of girls' doll play in contemporary US culture, including its virtual, political, marketing, and other contextual meanings. The narrative that provoked the analysis was a brief news report about a controversial school function--a school fund-raiser fashion show featuring American Girl doll…

  15. Antimicrobials and Non-Healing Wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions-key messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Finn; Apelqvist, Jan; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article constitutes an extraction of key messages originally presented in the Document: Antimicrobials and Non-Healing Wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions written by the European Wound Management Association (EWMA), and originally published by the Journal of Wound Care in 2013. All...

  16. Service and Emotional Support Animals on Campus: The Relevance and Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Service and emotional support animals (ESA) have recently been a topic of conversation on college campuses, despite decades of controversy related to the interpretation of federal law. The distinction between an Emotional Support Animal and Service Animals, and the rights of the student regarding accommodations under FHA and ADA have been debated…

  17. Managing controversy through consultation: a qualitative study of communication and trust around MMR vaccination decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Robert; Cheater, Francine M; Weighall, Anna; Nelson, Carolyn; Schweiger, Martin; Mukherjee, Suzanne

    2004-07-01

    Controversy over the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has reduced uptake, raising concerns of a future disease epidemic. To explore parents' accounts of decision making relating to the MMR vaccine controversy, identifying uptake determinants and education needs. Qualitative interviews analysed using the 'framework' approach. Five general practices in the Leeds area, 2002-2003. Sixty-nine interviews conducted with parents of children aged between 4 and 5 years, and 12 interviews with primary care practitioners, managers and immunisation coordinators serving participating sites. Participants were interviewed one-to-one in a place of their choice. The vaccination decision is primarily a function of parental assessments of the relative acceptability and likelihood of possible outcomes. For most parents the evidence of science and medicine plays little role in the decision. Although local general practitioners and health visitors are trusted information sources, the influence of primary care providers on the vaccination decision is limited by concerns over consultation legitimacy, discussion opportunity, and perceptions of financial and political partiality. Parents and practitioners identify a need for new approaches to support decisions and learning when faced with this and similar healthcare controversies. These include new collaborative approaches to information exchange designed to transform rather than supplant existing parent knowledge as part of an ongoing learning process. The study identified new ways in which parents and practitioners need to be supported in order to increase understanding of medical science and secure more informed decisions in the face of health controversy.

  18. For a Psycholinguistic Model of Handwriting Production: Testing the Syllable-Bigram Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Fayol, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the theoretical controversy on the impact of syllables and bigrams in handwriting production. French children and adults wrote words on a digitizer so that we could collect data on the local, online processing of handwriting production. The words differed in the position of the lowest frequency bigram. In one condition, it…

  19. Framing Controversial Identity Issues in Schools: The Case of HB2, Bathroom Equity, and Transgender Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journell, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how teachers might address controversial identity issues in their classrooms, using the 2016 North Carolina House Bill 2 that raised the issue of transgender bathroom rights to the forefront of societal discourse as an example. I analyze the issue using the three most commonly cited criteria for determining the openness of…

  20. Fair and Unfair Strategies in Public Controversies: The Case of Induced Earthquakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Jan Albert; Krabbe, Erik C. W.; Mohammed, Dima; Lewinski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary theory of argumentation offers many insights about fallacies and the ways to react to them. But what if, in a public controversy, it is not a matter of occasional derailments but one party is systematically trivializing the other party’s problems or resorting to pressure in the form of

  1. Mourning, Memorials, and Religion: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on the Park51 Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Carlin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a version of the “mourning religion” thesis—derived from the work of Peter Homans and further developed and advanced by William Parsons, Diane Jonte-Pace, and Susan Henking—and then demonstrates how this thesis can shed light on the Park51 controversy. We argue that the Park51 controversy represents a case of incomplete cultural mourning of an aspect of American civil religion that manifests itself in melancholic rage by means of protests, threats to burn the Qur’an (as well as actual burnings of the Qur’an, and vandalism of mosques around the United States. We explore various losses—military, economic, and symbolic—and note that these losses remain ambiguous, therefore preventing closure and productive mourning. The fact that a permanent memorial still has not been built at Ground Zero reflects, and perhaps exacerbates, this incomplete cultural mourning. Also, the fact that Freedom Tower, the building to replace the Twin Towers, is to be 1776 feet tall reflects that the losses related to 9/11 are connected to American civil religion, as 1776 is a sacred year in American history. Setting aside the ethics and the politics related to this controversy, we attempt here to understand this controversy from a psychoanalytic perspective.

  2. Philosophical Approaches of Religious Jewish Science Teachers toward the Teaching of "Controversial" Topics in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, Jeff; Dayan, Aliza; Orion, Nir

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the problems that religious Jewish science teachers in Israeli high schools have in coping with science subjects (such as geological time) which conflict with their religious beliefs. We do this by characterizing the philosophical approaches within Judaism that such teachers have adopted for dealing with such controversy.…

  3. Boundary Work and Power in the Controversy over Therapeutic Touch in Finnish Nursing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolanto, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The boundary work approach has been established as one of the main ways to study controversies in science. However, it has been proposed that it does not meet the power dynamics of the scientific field sufficiently. This article concentrates on the intertwining of boundary work and power. It combines the boundary work approach developed by Thomas…

  4. Honoring Controversy: Using Real-World Problems to Teach Critical Thinking in Honors Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargas, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    In this article Sarita Cargas suggests that getting honors students used to analyzing controversies will contribute to their developing a disposition toward critical thinking. She goes on to say that the value of teaching critical-thinking skills complements the movement of many honors programs toward teaching more than just disciplinary content.…

  5. Imaging Management of Breast Density, a Controversial Risk Factor for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Shannon; Williams, Angela; Weinfurtner, Jared; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-04-01

    Breast density is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, the magnitude of risk is controversial. As the public becomes increasingly aware of breast density as a risk factor, legislation and notification laws in relation to breast density have become common throughout the United States. Awareness of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer presents new challenges for the clinician in the approach to the management and screening of women with dense breasts. The evidence and controversy surrounding breast density as a risk factor for the development of breast cancer are discussed. Common supplemental screening modalities for breast cancer are also discussed, including tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A management strategy for screening women with dense breasts is also presented. The American College of Radiology recognizes breast density as a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, whereas the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recognizes breast density as a modest risk factor. Neither organization recommends the routine use of supplemental screening in women with dense breasts without considering additional patient-related risk factors. Breast density is a poorly understood and controversial risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Mammography is a screening modality proven to reduce breast cancer-related mortality rates and is the single most appropriate tool for population-based screening. Use of supplemental screening modalities should be tailored to individual risk assessment.

  6. How "Bright" is it to Use CFLs? A Look at the Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2008-01-01

    Commonly referred to as CFLs, compact fluorescent light bulbs are rapidly replacing traditional incandescent light bulbs for residential use. However, controversy and even comic parody have arisen surrounding CFL use. CFLs contain small amounts of mercury, and several public forums and news agencies have been announcing that the breakage of a CFL…

  7. 'The 1901 controversy': South African cricket and the Anglo-Boer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of course the war dragged on but the predominantly 'Uitlander' team did go, leaving Cape Town on what was to prove a testing, if somewhat ground-breaking tour. This paper will investigate the background to this tour, the controversy it created and the development of South African cricket during this time of war. Keywords:

  8. Teaching the Philosophical Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry through Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritz, Andoni

    2013-01-01

    This study has the key premise of teaching history and philosophy of physical sciences to illustrate how controversies and rivalries among scientists play a key role in the progress of science and why scientific development is not only founded on the accumulation of experimental data. The author is a defender of teachers who consider…

  9. Media Misrepresentations of a Mascot Controversy: Contested Constructions of Race and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Liang, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    This article examines media coverage of a high school Native American mascot controversy. Discourse analysis of media documents and artifacts was utilized to explore how the issue was socially constructed for public consumption. Critical race feminism was used as a framework to examine how media discourses can oversimplify the complex interaction…

  10. The power of putting a label on it: Green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf J. J. Hahnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels, this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e. product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3. Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2. We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3. Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  11. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J. J.; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1–3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767

  12. Current controversies in prenatal diagnosis 1: NIPT for chromosome abnormalities should be offered to women with low a priori risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, Jan M. M.; Faas, Brigitte H. W.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    In its successful annual cycle of controversies and debates, the International Society of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy once again addressed non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by following up on the 2013 controversy, Should non-invasive DNA testing be the standard screening test for Down syndrome

  13. Current controversies in prenatal diagnosis 1: NIPT for chromosome abnormalities should be offered to women with low a priori risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lith, J.M. van; Faas, B.H.W.; Bianchi, D.W.

    2015-01-01

    In its successful annual cycle of controversies and debates, the International Society of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy once again addressed non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by following up on the 2013 controversy, 'Should non-invasive DNA testing be the standard screening test for Down

  14. The Effect of Falsely Balanced Reporting of the Autism-Vaccine Controversy on Vaccine Safety Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Graham; Clarke, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Controversy surrounding an autism-vaccine link has elicited considerable news media attention. Despite being widely discredited, research suggests that journalists report this controversy by presenting claims both for and against a link in a relatively "balanced" fashion. To investigate how this reporting style influences judgments of vaccine…

  15. Diagnostic Issues and Controversies in DSM-5: Return of the False Positives Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2016-01-01

    The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was the most controversial in the manual's history. This review selectively surveys some of the most important changes in DSM-5, including structural/organizational changes, modifications of diagnostic criteria, and newly introduced categories. It analyzes why these changes led to such heated controversies, which included objections to the revision's process, its goals, and the content of altered criteria and new categories. The central focus is on disputes concerning the false positives problem of setting a valid boundary between disorder and normal variation. Finally, this review highlights key problems and issues that currently remain unresolved and need to be addressed in the future, including systematically identifying false positive weaknesses in criteria, distinguishing risk from disorder, including context in diagnostic criteria, clarifying how to handle fuzzy boundaries, and improving the guidelines for "other specified" diagnosis.

  16. What’s in a name? Problems, facts and controversies regarding neurological eponyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of eponyms in neurology remains controversial, and important questions have been raised about their appropriateness. Different approaches have been taken, with some eponyms being excluded, others replaced, and new ones being created. An example is Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, which has been replaced by neurodegeneration with brain iron accuulatium (NBIA. Amiothoplic lateral sclerosys (ALS, for which the eponym is Charcot’s disease, has been replaced in the USA by Lou Gehrig’s disease. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an eponym that is still the subject of controversy, and various different names are associated with it. Finally,restless legs syndrome (RLS, which was for years known as Ekbom’s syndrome, has been rechristened as RLS/Willis-Ekbom syndrome.

  17. How did the fracking controversy emerge in the period 2010-2012?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Allan

    2016-02-01

    In 2010-2012, the controversy over fracking grew rapidly, first in the United States, and then internationally. An important step was the anti-fracking documentary film Gasland. With help from celebrity sources, the film was produced and won a prize at the Sundance Film Festival by early 2010 and had an Oscar nomination by early 2011, in the meantime popularizing potent images of hazard including tainted aquifers and ignitable water running from kitchen faucets. During this period, major US news organizations paid little attention to the issue. The offshore Deepwater Horizon disaster of April 2010 spurred The New York Times to prolific reporting on potential risks of the new onshore technique for extracting shale gas. With flagship news coverage, the controversy had by 2012 gained wide media attention that evoked public concern and opposition, spreading from the United States to other nations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  19. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMoleiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both DSM and ICD, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  20. [3rd and 4th generation estroprogestatives French controversy: What effect on women's behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis; Frapard, Christian; Daumas, Aurélie; Guibert, Nicolas; Lagouanelle-Simeoni, Marie-Claude; Rakoto, Jean-Claude; Villani, Patrick; Sambuc, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the reasons given by women who have changed or suspended their contraceptive method in 2013. What influence had the 3rd and 4th generation estroprogestatives (EP) French controversy and advices from doctors? Did they notice any consequences of the controversy on their lifestyle? Did they feel an impact on their behavior to health professionals? A study was conducted on women of childbearing age. Data collection took place between November 4 and December 16, 2013. The included subjects were between 18 and 55 years old females. Subjects were surveyed through an anonymous self-administered questionnaire distributed through pharmacies. The protocol called for the construction of clusters of subjects by having heard about, or not, of the controversy. Patients reporting having heard about the controversy have formed the "exposed" group while the others have formed the "unexposed" group. We compared two parameters between these two groups: the rate of subjects who reported having modified or suspended their contraceptive method in 2013 on one hand, and the rate of subjects who reported having made a change in their contraceptive method without or against advices from a doctor on the other hand. The sample included 988 subjects. The average age was 34 years. The level of exposure to media debates was 86.5%. Of the respondents, 19.8% were under 3rd or 4th generation EP in 2012, thus directly involved in the discussions and affected by health recommendations. Of the patients, 38.5% reported having changed their contraception in 2013. In these women, when they confirmed having heard about the controversy, 40.1% of them claimed to have conducted this process without or against advices from a doctor. This number dropped to 18.2% for those who had not heard of it. Media coverage of the 3rd and 4th generation EP vascular risk was not mentioned more by patients who suspended all medical contraceptive method than it was by