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Sample records for pressure sampling frequency

  1. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadingson Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of wave load sampling frequency on calculated sliding distance in an overall stability analysis of a monolithic caisson. It is demonstrated by a specific example of caisson design that for this kind of analyses the sampling frequency in a small scale model could...... be as low as 100 Hz in model scale. However, for design of structure elements like the wave wall on the top of a caisson the wave load sampling frequency must be much higher, in the order of 1000 Hz in the model. Elastic-plastic deformations of foundation and structure were not included in the analysis....

  2. Sample summary report for ARG 1 pressure tube sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinco, C.

    2006-01-01

    The ARG 1 sample is made from an un-irradiated Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tube. The sample has 103.4 mm ID, 112 mm OD and approximately 500 mm length. A punch mark was made very close to one end of the sample. The punch mark indicates the 12 O'clock position and also identifies the face of the tube for making all the measurements. ARG 1 sample contains flaws on ID and OD surface. There was no intentional flaw within the wall of the pressure tube sample. Once the flaws are machined the pressure tube sample was covered from outside to hide the OD flaws. Approximately 50 mm length of pressure tube was left open at both the ends to facilitate the holding of sample in the fixtures for inspection. No flaw was machined in this zone of 50 mm on either end of the pressure tube sample. A total of 20 flaws were machined in ARG 1 sample. Out of these, 16 flaws were on the OD surface and the remaining 4 on the ID surface of the pressure tube. The flaws were characterized in to various groups like axial flaws, circumferential flaws, etc

  3. The electrical signature of rock samples exposed to hydrostatic and triaxial pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikamp, S.; Nover, G. [Bonn Univ., Bonn (Germany). Mineralogical Institute

    2001-04-01

    The electrical signature of sedimentary (carbonate) and crystalline rock samples was studied in hydrostatic and triaxial pressure experiments up to 300 MPa. The aim was to establish a relation between an electrical signal stimulated by an external pressure acting on the sample and the mechanical stability of the rock. Natural open fractures tend to be closed under hydrostatic pressure conditions, whereas in triaxial pressure experiments new fractures are generated. These contrary processes of either decrease or increase in crack density and geometry, cause a decrease or increase in the inner surface of the sample. Such pressure induced variations in pore geometry were investigated by an interpretation and modelling of the frequency dependence of the complex electrical conductivity. In a series of hydrostatic pressure experiments crack-closure was found in the electrical signature by decrease of the model capacitor C being related to crack geometry. This capacitor increases in the triaxial experiments where new fractures were formed.

  4. Sampling frequency affects ActiGraph activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    that is normally performed at frequencies higher than 2.5 Hz. With the ActiGraph model GT3X one has the option to select sample frequency from 30 to 100 Hz. This study investigated the effect of the sampling frequency on the ouput of the bandpass filter.Methods: A synthetic frequency sweep of 0-15 Hz was generated...... in Matlab and sampled at frequencies of 30-100 Hz. Also, acceleration signals during indoor walking and running were sampled at 30 Hz using the ActiGraph GT3X and resampled in Matlab to frequencies of 40-100 Hz. All data was processed with the ActiLife software.Results: Acceleration frequencies between 5......-15 Hz escaped the bandpass filter when sampled at 40, 50, 70, 80 and 100 Hz, while this was not the case when sampled at 30, 60 and 90 Hz. During the ambulatory activities this artifact resultet in different activity count output from the ActiLife software with different sampling frequency...

  5. Wavenumber-frequency Spectra of Pressure Fluctuations Measured via Fast Response Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, J.; Roozeboom, N. H.; Ross, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent advancement in fast-response Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) allows time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations from a dense grid of spatial points on a wind tunnel model. This capability allows for direct calculations of the wavenumber-frequency (k-?) spectrum of pressure fluctuations. Such data, useful for the vibro-acoustics analysis of aerospace vehicles, are difficult to obtain otherwise. For the present work, time histories of pressure fluctuations on a flat plate subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body were measured using PSP. The light intensity levels in the photographic images were then converted to instantaneous pressure histories by applying calibration constants, which were calculated from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Fourier transform of the time-histories from a large number of spatial points provided k-? spectra for pressure fluctuations. The data provides first glimpse into the possibility of creating detailed forcing functions for vibro-acoustics analysis of aerospace vehicles, albeit for a limited frequency range.

  6. The driving frequency effects on the atmospheric pressure corona jet plasmas from low frequency to radio frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Rhee, J. K.; Choe, W.; Moon, S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lately, the atmospheric pressure jet type corona plasma, which has been typically driven by dc to low frequency (LF: several tens of kHz), is often generated by using radio frequency of 13.56 MHz. Yet, the relationship between the plasma and its driving frequency has seldom been investigated. Hence, in this study, dependence of the atmospheric pressure corona plasma characteristics on the driving frequency was explored experimentally from LF to rf (5 kHz-13.56 MHz). The plasmas generated by the driving frequency under 2 MHz were cylindrical shape of several tens of millimeters long while the 13.56 MHz plasma is spherical and a few millimeters long. As the driving frequency was increased, the plasma length became shortened. At the lower driving frequencies (below 2 MHz), the plasmas existed as positive streamer and negative glow for each half period of the applied voltage, but the discharge was more continuous in time for the 13.56 MHz plasma. It was inferred from the measured I-V curves that the higher driving frequency induced higher discharge currents, and the gas temperature was increased as the driving frequency was increased.

  7. Surface chemical structure of poly(ethylene naphthalate) films during degradation in low-pressure high-frequency plasma treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Noritsugu; Yuji, Toshifumi; Thungsuk, Nuttee; Arunrungrusmi, Somchai; Chansri, Pakpoom; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Mungkung, Narong

    2018-06-01

    The surface chemical structure of poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) films treated with a low-pressure, high-frequency plasma was investigated by storing in a box at room temperature to protect the PEN film surface from dust. The functional groups on the PEN film surface changed over time. The functional groups of –C=O, –COH, and –COOH were abundant in the Ar + O2 mixture gas plasma-treated PEN samples as compared with those in untreated PEN samples. The changes occurred rapidly after 2 d following the plasma treatment, reaching steady states 8 d after the treatment. Hydrophobicity had an inverse relationship with the concentration of these functional groups on the surface. Thus, the effect of the low-pressure high-frequency plasma treatment on PEN varies as a function of storage time. This means that radical oxygen and oxygen molecules are clearly generated in the plasma, and this is one index to confirm that radical reaction has definitely occurred between the gas and the PEN film surface with a low-pressure high-frequency plasma.

  8. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  9. Advanced pressure tube sampling tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, K.C.; King, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium concentration is an important parameter that must be assessed to evaluate the Fitness for service of CANDU pressure tubes. In-reactor pressure tube sampling allows accurate deuterium concentration assessment to be made without the expenses associated with fuel channel removal. This technology, which AECL has developed over the past fifteen years, has become the standard method for deuterium concentration assessment. AECL is developing a multi-head tool that would reduce in-reactor handling overhead by allowing one tool to sequentially sample at all four axial pressure tube locations before removal from the reactor. Four sets of independent cutting heads, like those on the existing sampling tools, facilitate this incorporating proven technology demonstrated in over 1400 in-reactor samples taken to date. The multi-head tool is delivered by AECL's Advanced Delivery Machine or other similar delivery machines. Further, AECL has developed an automated sample handling system that receives and processes the tool once out of the reactor. This system retrieves samples from the tool, dries, weighs and places them in labelled vials which are then directed into shielded shipping flasks. The multi-head wet sampling tool and the automated sample handling system are based on proven technology and offer continued savings and dose reduction to utilities in a competitive electricity market. (author)

  10. Resonant frequency analysis on an electrostatically actuated microplate under uniform hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhikang; Zhao Libo; Ye Zhiying; Zhao Yulong; Jiang Zhuangde; Wang Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    The resonant frequency of a microplate is influenced by various physical parameters such as mass, surface stress, hydrostatic pressure and electrostatic force. In this paper, the effects of both electrostatic force and uniform hydrostatic pressure on the resonant frequency of a clamped circular microplate are investigated. An approximate solution is derived for the fundamental resonance frequency of the mciroplate under both types of loads using an energy equivalent method. It is found that both electrostatic force and uniform hydrostatic pressure decrease the resonant frequency of the microplate under small deflections. Additionally, the linearized expression of this solution shows that the resonant frequency varies linearly with pressure in the low and ultra-low range, and the corresponding pressure sensitivity depends on the voltage applied to the microplate. The analytical results are well validated by the finite element method. This study may be helpful for the design and optimization of electrostatically actuated resonance devices based on microplates, especially electrostatically actuated low- or ultra-low-pressure sensors. (paper)

  11. Occupational Noise Exposure, Bilateral High-Frequency Hearing Loss, and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure using self-reported occupational exposure and bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. This study included 4548 participants aged 20 to 69 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004. On the basis of self-reported exposure status, participants were divided into the current, former, or never exposed groups. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency hearing threshold at least 25 dB in both ears. The currently exposed participants had slightly increased diastolic blood pressure compared with those never exposed. Among previously exposed participants, those with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss had increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and the prevalence of hypertension compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing. Although there were some significant results, the evidence was not consistent to support the associations between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure.

  12. Raman Frequencies Calculated at Various Pressures in Phase I of Benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tari, Ozlem; Yurtseven, Hamit [Istanbul Arel Univ., Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-04-15

    We calculate in this study the pressure dependence of the frequencies for the Raman modes of A (A{sub g}), B (A{sub g}, B{sub 2g}) and C (B{sub 1g}, B{sub 3g}) at constant temperatures of 274 and 294K (room temperature) for the solid phase I of benzene. Using the mode Gruneisen parameter of each lattice mode, which correlates the pressure dependence of the crystal volume and the frequency, the Raman frequencies of those modes are computed for phase I of benzene. Our results show that the Raman frequencies of the three lattice modes (A, B and C) increase as the pressure increases, as expected. The temperature effect on the Raman frequencies is not significant, which can be explained by the experimental measurements.

  13. Effect of Training Frequency on Maximum Expiratory Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Supraja; El-Bashiti, Nour; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) frequency on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Method: We assigned 12 healthy participants to 2 groups of training frequency (3 days per week and 5 days per week). They completed a 4-week training program on an EMST trainer (Aspire Products, LLC). MEP was the primary…

  14. Pressure Stimulated Currents (PSCin marble samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vallianatos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical behaviour of marble samples from Penteli Mountain was studied while they were subjected to uniaxial stress. The application of consecutive impulsive variations of uniaxial stress to thirty connatural samples produced Pressure Stimulated Currents (PSC. The linear relationship between the recorded PSC and the applied variation rate was investigated. The main results are the following: as far as the samples were under pressure corresponding to their elastic region, the maximum PSC value obeyed a linear law with respect to pressure variation. In the plastic region deviations were observed which were due to variations of Young s modulus. Furthermore, a special burst form of PSC recordings during failure is presented. The latter is emitted when irregular longitudinal splitting is observed during failure.

  15. Study of a dual frequency atmospheric pressure corona plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Moon, S. Y.; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency mixing of 2 and 13.56 MHz was investigated by performing experimental measurements on the atmospheric pressure corona plasma. As a result of the dual frequency, length, current density, and electron excitation temperature of the plasma were increased, while the gas temperature was maintained at roughly the same level when compared to the respective single frequency plasmas. Moreover, observation of time-resolved images revealed that the dual frequency plasma has a discharge mode of 2 MHz positive streamer, 2 MHz negative glow, and 13.56 MHz continuous glow.

  16. Capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges in nitrogen at low pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Luí s Lemos; Marques, Luí s S A; Pintassilgo, Carlos D.; Wattieaux, Gaë tan; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Berndt, Johannes; Kovačević, Eva; Carrasco, Nathalie; Boufendi, Laï fa; Cernogora, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses experiments and modelling to study capacitively coupled radio-frequency (rf) discharges in pure nitrogen, at 13.56MHz frequency, 0.11 mbar pressures and 230W coupled powers. Experiments performed on two similar (not twin) setups

  17. Real-time determination of fringe pattern frequencies: An application to pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Piroozan, Parham

    2007-05-01

    Retrieving information in real time from fringe patterns is a topic of a great deal of interest in scientific and engineering applications of optical methods. This paper presents a method for fringe frequency determination based on the capability of neural networks to recognize signals that are similar but not identical to signals used to train the neural network. Sampled patterns are generated by calibration and stored in memory. Incoming patterns are analyzed by a back-propagation neural network at the speed of the recording device, a CCD camera. This method of information retrieval is utilized to measure pressures on a boundary layer flow. The sensor combines optics and electronics to analyze dynamic pressure distributions and to feed information to a control system that is capable to preserve the stability of the flow.

  18. A software sampling frequency adaptive algorithm for reducing spectral leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Li-dong; WANG Fei

    2006-01-01

    Spectral leakage caused by synchronous error in a nonsynchronous sampling system is an important cause that reduces the accuracy of spectral analysis and harmonic measurement.This paper presents a software sampling frequency adaptive algorithm that can obtain the actual signal frequency more accurately,and then adjusts sampling interval base on the frequency calculated by software algorithm and modifies sampling frequency adaptively.It can reduce synchronous error and impact of spectral leakage;thereby improving the accuracy of spectral analysis and harmonic measurement for power system signal where frequency changes slowly.This algorithm has high precision just like the simulations show,and it can be a practical method in power system harmonic analysis since it can be implemented easily.

  19. Measured wavenumber: frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account.

  20. First-principles studies of PETN molecular crystal vibrational frequencies under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren; Zhao, Jijun

    2005-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies will be presented and compared with experiment. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used.

  1. Pipeline's natural frequency response due to internal pressure effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Andre L.L.; Guevara Junior, Nestor O. [Suporte - Consultoria e Projetos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galgoul, Nelson S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Antonio C.; Coelho, Fabio M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2009-12-19

    A few years ago, a discussion about how internal pressure is treated in submarine pipelines has taken place. Galgoul et al (2004) have pointed out the conservatism of the latest recommendations for pipeline free-span evaluations associated to the way the axial force is considered in the determination of the pipeline natural frequency. Fyrileiv and Collberg (2005) have also discussed this point in defense of the effective axial force concept and its use in the natural frequency determination. In order to contribute to this aspect, an experimental test has been performed with a fully embedded pipeline which was pressurized. The main object consists in showing that the pipe is under tension (and not under compression) and, as a consequence, it is the authors' intention to prove that the natural frequency increases instead of reducing when the internal pressure is incremented. In addition to the test, a finite element model has been presented where this internal pressure effect is taken into account as it actually is (and not as an axial force) in order to show the real behavior of the wall stresses. Static analyses, as well as modal and transient analysis have been performed in order to compare theoretical results with the experimental test conducted. (author)

  2. Low-frequency blood pressure oscillations and inotrope treatment failure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesoulis, Zachary A; Hao, Jessica; McPherson, Christopher; El Ters, Nathalie M; Mathur, Amit M

    2017-07-01

    The underlying mechanism as to why some hypotensive preterm infants do not respond to inotropic medications remains unclear. For these infants, we hypothesize that impaired vasomotor function is a significant factor and is manifested through a decrease in low-frequency blood pressure variability across regulatory components of vascular tone. Infants born ≤28 wk estimated gestational age underwent prospective recording of mean arterial blood pressure for 72 h after birth. After error correction, root-mean-square spectral power was calculated for each valid 10-min data frame across each of four frequency bands ( B1 , 0.005-0.0095 Hz; B2 , 0.0095-0.02 Hz; B3 , 0.02-0.06 Hz; and B4 , 0.06-0.16) corresponding to different components of vasomotion control. Forty infants (twenty-nine normotensive control and eleven inotrope-exposed) were included with a mean ± SD estimated gestational age of 25.2 ± 1.6 wk and birth weight 790 ± 211 g. 9.7/11.8 Million (82%) data points were error-free and used for analysis. Spectral power across all frequency bands increased with time, although the magnitude was 20% less in the inotrope-exposed infants. A statistically significant increase in spectral power in response to inotrope initiation was noted across all frequency bands. Infants with robust blood pressure response to inotropes had a greater increase compared with those who had limited or no blood pressure response. In this study, hypotensive infants who require inotropes have decreased low-frequency variability at baseline compared with normotensive infants, which increases after inotrope initiation. Low-frequency spectral power does not change for those with inotrope treatment failure, suggesting dysfunctional regulation of vascular tone as a potential mechanism of treatment failure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we examine patterns of low-frequency oscillations in blood pressure variability across regulatory components of vascular tone in normotensive and

  3. Remotised sliver sample removal from irradiated pressure tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupani, B B; Sharma, B S.V.G.; Shyam, T V; Sinha, R K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Reactor Engineering Div.

    1994-12-31

    The life of irradiated pressure tubes of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) can be assessed by analysing hydrogen content in sliver samples of pressure tube material. The sample can be obtained in the form of small slivers by scraping at any specified locations within the bore of the pressure tube of operating reactor. A tool namely Hydride Scraping Tool (HST) has been developed to obtain very thin slivers of hydride bearing samples from irradiated pressure tube. In order to save man-rem consumption during scraping operation, a feeding mechanism has also been designed and developed for axial positioning of scraping tool in the channel remotely. This paper covers general details about constructional features of the scraping tool, feeding mechanism and their control system. It also highlights the operational salient features and capabilities of the system. Possible applications of the feeding mechanism in other fields are also indicated. (author). 4 figs.

  4. Remotised sliver sample removal from irradiated pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupani, B.B.; Sharma, B.S.V.G.; Shyam, T.V.; Sinha, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The life of irradiated pressure tubes of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) can be assessed by analysing hydrogen content in sliver samples of pressure tube material. The sample can be obtained in the form of small slivers by scraping at any specified locations within the bore of the pressure tube of operating reactor. A tool namely Hydride Scraping Tool (HST) has been developed to obtain very thin slivers of hydride bearing samples from irradiated pressure tube. In order to save man-rem consumption during scraping operation, a feeding mechanism has also been designed and developed for axial positioning of scraping tool in the channel remotely. This paper covers general details about constructional features of the scraping tool, feeding mechanism and their control system. It also highlights the operational salient features and capabilities of the system. Possible applications of the feeding mechanism in other fields are also indicated. (author). 4 figs

  5. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Phillips, Larry; Valente, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  6. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardan Upadhyay, Larry Phillips, Anne-Marie Valente

    2011-09-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  7. Effect of planecta and ROSE? on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE?, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and the...

  8. Sampling methods for low-frequency electromagnetic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, Bastian; Hanke, Martin; Schneider, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    For the detection of hidden objects by low-frequency electromagnetic imaging the linear sampling method works remarkably well despite the fact that the rigorous mathematical justification is still incomplete. In this work, we give an explanation for this good performance by showing that in the low-frequency limit the measurement operator fulfils the assumptions for the fully justified variant of the linear sampling method, the so-called factorization method. We also show how the method has to be modified in the physically relevant case of electromagnetic imaging with divergence-free currents. We present numerical results to illustrate our findings, and to show that similar performance can be expected for the case of conducting objects and layered backgrounds

  9. Improvement of technical purpose materials performance characteristics with the radio frequency low pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhotkina, L. Yu; Khristoliubova, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The main aim of the work is to solve the actual problem of increasing the competitiveness of tanning products by reducing the prime cost and improving the quality of finished products due to the increased durability of the working elements of tanneries. The impact of the low pressure radio frequency (RF) plasma in the processes of treating for modification of the materials for special purposes is considered in the article. The results of working elements of tanneries and the materials for special purposes sample processing by a RF low pressure plasma are described. As a result of leather materials nano structuring and nano modifying physical, mechanical and hygienic characteristics were increased. Processing of the technical purpose materials allows to increase operational performance of products and extend their lifespan.

  10. The effect of pressurizer-water-level on the low frequency component of the pressure spectrum in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.; Izsak, E.; Valko, J.

    1984-09-01

    The pressure fluctuations were measured in the cooling system of the Paks-1 reactor. A shift of the peak was detected in low frequency component of the pressure fluctuation spectrum which is due to the fluctuations of water level in the pressurizer. Using the model of Katona and Nagy (1983), the eigenfrequencies, the magnitude of the shift and the sensitivity to the pressurizer water level were reproduced in good accordance with the experimental data. (D.Gy.)

  11. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Naicheng

    2016-11-14

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  12. Frequency of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Ahmed, K.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury. To compare frequency of pressure ulcers in complete and incomplete spinal cord injury using ASIA impairment scale.Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine Rawalpindi, from Jun 2013 to Jan 2014. Material and Methods: After permission from the hospital ethical committee and informed consent, spinal cord injury (SCI) patients were included from the outdoor and the indoor departments of Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine Rawalpindi from June 2013 to January 2014. Patients were divided in two groups of complete SCI and incomplete SCI on the basis of American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis. Results: Total 62 SCI patients were included. Mean age of patients was 36 +- 0.93 SD. Males were more in number 79% (49). On ASIA scoring 51.6% (32) were in ASIA 'A' followed by 19.4% (12), 17.7% (11) and 11.3% (7) patients in ASIA 'B', 'C' and 'D' respectively. SCI was complete in 51.6% (32) and incomplete in 48.4% (30). PU were present in 32.3% (20) patients. PU were in stage 4 in 30% (6) patients. PU were more frequent in ASIA 'A' injuries followed by 'B', 'C' and 'D' involving 43.8%, 25%,18.2% and 14.3% of patients respectively. Pressure ulcers (PU) were common in complete injuries involving 43.8% (14) than in incomplete injuries 20% (6) (p=0.041). Conclusions: Pressure ulsers were more common complication detected after spinal cord injury with more frequency in complete spinal cord injury. (author)

  13. An Ultra-low Frequency Modal Testing Suspension System for High Precision Air Pressure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling YUAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a resolution for air pressure control challenges in ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension systems, an incremental PID control algorithm with dead band is applied to achieve high-precision pressure control. We also develop a set of independent hardware and software systems for high-precision pressure control solutions. Taking control system versatility, scalability, reliability, and other aspects into considerations, a two-level communication employing Ethernet and CAN bus, is adopted to complete such tasks as data exchange between the IPC, the main board and the control board ,and the pressure control. Furthermore, we build a single set of ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension system and complete pressure control experiments, which achieve the desired results and thus confirm that the high-precision pressure control subsystem is reasonable and reliable.

  14. In situ sampling for pressure tube deuterium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, A.J.; Kittmer, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The present method of assessing the useful life of pressure tubes in CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors requires the periodic removal and examination of a tube. Special tooling was developed at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to obtain a sample of material from a pressure tube without removing the tube from the reactor. The sampling tool concept has been successfully used by Ontario Hydro during scheduled outages at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). (author)

  15. The deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship in infants during high-frequency ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, David G; Mills, John F; Morley, Colin J; Pellicano, Anastasia; Dargaville, Peter A

    2006-02-15

    The importance of applying high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with a high lung volume strategy in infants is well established. Currently, a lack of reliable methods for assessing lung volume limits clinicians' ability to achieve the optimum volume range. To map the pressure-volume relationship of the lung during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in infants, to determine at what point ventilation is being applied clinically, and to describe the relationship between airway pressure, lung volume, and oxygenation. In 12 infants, a partial inflation limb and the deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship were mapped using a quasi-static lung volume optimization maneuver. This involved stepwise airway pressure increments to total lung capacity, followed by decrements until the closing pressure of the lung was identified. Lung volume and oxygen saturation were recorded at each airway pressure. Lung volume was measured using respiratory inductive plethysmography. A distinct deflation limb could be mapped in each infant. Overall, oxygenation and lung volume were improved by applying ventilation on the deflation limb. Maximal lung volume and oxygenation occurred on the deflation limb at a mean airway pressure of 3 and 5 cm H(2)O below the airway pressure approximating total lung capacity, respectively. Using current ventilation strategies, all infants were being ventilated near the inflation limb. It is possible to delineate the deflation limb in infants receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; in doing so, greater lung volume and oxygenation can be achieved, often at lower airway pressures.

  16. Gas Breakdown of Radio Frequency Glow Discharges in Helium at near Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinkun; Xu Jinzhou; Cui Tongfei; Guo Ying; Zhang Jing; Shi Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was developed for radio frequency glow discharge in helium at near atmospheric pressure, and was employed to study the gas breakdown characteristics in terms of breakdown voltage. The effective secondary electron emission coefficient and the effective electric field for ions were demonstrated to be important for determining the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge at near atmospheric pressure. The constant of A was estimated to be 64±4 cm −1 Torr −1 , which was proportional to the first Townsend coefficient and could be employed to evaluate the gas breakdown voltage. The reduction in the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge with excitation frequency was studied and attributed to the electron trapping effect in the discharge gap

  17. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected

  18. Multi-frequency direct sampling method in inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwoo; Lambert, Marc; Park, Won-Kwang

    2017-10-01

    We consider the direct sampling method (DSM) for the two-dimensional inverse scattering problem. Although DSM is fast, stable, and effective, some phenomena remain unexplained by the existing results. We show that the imaging function of the direct sampling method can be expressed by a Bessel function of order zero. We also clarify the previously unexplained imaging phenomena and suggest multi-frequency DSM to overcome traditional DSM. Our method is evaluated in simulation studies using both single and multiple frequencies.

  19. Atmospheric pressure reaction cell for operando sum frequency generation spectroscopy of ultrahigh vacuum grown model catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiaz, Matteo; Pramhaas, Verena; Li, Xia; Rameshan, Christoph; Rupprechter, Günther

    2018-04-01

    A new custom-designed ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber coupled to a UHV and atmospheric-pressure-compatible spectroscopic and catalytic reaction cell is described, which allows us to perform IR-vis sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy during catalytic (kinetic) measurements. SFG spectroscopy is an exceptional tool to study vibrational properties of surface adsorbates under operando conditions, close to those of technical catalysis. This versatile setup allows performing surface science, SFG spectroscopy, catalysis, and electrochemical investigations on model systems, including single crystals, thin films, and deposited metal nanoparticles, under well-controlled conditions of gas composition, pressure, temperature, and potential. The UHV chamber enables us to prepare the model catalysts and to analyze their surface structure and composition by low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy, respectively. Thereafter, a sample transfer mechanism moves samples under UHV to the spectroscopic cell, avoiding air exposure. In the catalytic cell, SFG spectroscopy and catalytic tests (reactant/product analysis by mass spectrometry or gas chromatography) are performed simultaneously. A dedicated sample manipulation stage allows the model catalysts to be examined from LN2 temperature to 1273 K, with gaseous reactants in a pressure range from UHV to atmospheric. For post-reaction analysis, the SFG cell is rapidly evacuated and samples are transferred back to the UHV chamber. The capabilities of this new setup are demonstrated by benchmark results of CO adsorption on Pt and Pd(111) single crystal surfaces and of CO adsorption and oxidation on a ZrO2 supported Pt nanoparticle model catalyst grown by atomic layer deposition.

  20. Impact of sampling frequency in the analysis of tropospheric ozone observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saunois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone vertical profiles are valuable for the evaluation of atmospheric chemistry models and contribute to the understanding of the processes controlling the distribution of tropospheric ozone. The longest record of ozone vertical profiles is provided by ozone sondes, which have a typical frequency of 4 to 12 profiles a month. Here we quantify the uncertainty introduced by low frequency sampling in the determination of means and trends. To do this, the high frequency MOZAIC (Measurements of OZone, water vapor, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides by in-service AIrbus airCraft profiles over airports, such as Frankfurt, have been subsampled at two typical ozone sonde frequencies of 4 and 12 profiles per month. We found the lowest sampling uncertainty on seasonal means at 700 hPa over Frankfurt, with around 5% for a frequency of 12 profiles per month and 10% for a 4 profile-a-month frequency. However the uncertainty can reach up to 15 and 29% at the lowest altitude levels. As a consequence, the sampling uncertainty at the lowest frequency could be higher than the typical 10% accuracy of the ozone sondes and should be carefully considered for observation comparison and model evaluation. We found that the 95% confidence limit on the seasonal mean derived from the subsample created is similar to the sampling uncertainty and suggest to use it as an estimate of the sampling uncertainty. Similar results are found at six other Northern Hemisphere sites. We show that the sampling substantially impacts on the inter-annual variability and the trend derived over the period 1998–2008 both in magnitude and in sign throughout the troposphere. Also, a tropical case is discussed using the MOZAIC profiles taken over Windhoek, Namibia between 2005 and 2008. For this site, we found that the sampling uncertainty in the free troposphere is around 8 and 12% at 12 and 4 profiles a month respectively.

  1. Effects of large pressure amplitude low frequency noise in the parotid gland perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; Mendes, João; da Fonseca, Jorge; Águas, Artur; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    In tissues and organs exposed to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise fibrosis occurs in the absence of inflammatory signs, which is thought to be a protective response. In the parotid gland the perivasculo-ductal connective tissue surrounds arteries, veins and the ductal tree. Perivasculo-ductal connective tissue is believed to function as a mechanical stabilizer of the glandular tissue. In order to quantify the proliferation of perivasculo-ductal connective tissue in large pressure amplitude low frequency noise-exposed rats we used sixty Wistar rats which were equally divided into 6 groups. One group kept in silence, and the remaining five exposed to continuous large pressure amplitude low frequency noise: g1-168h (1 week); g2-504h (3 weeks); g3-840h (5 weeks); g4-1512h (9 weeks); and g5-2184h (13 weeks). After exposure, parotid glands were removed and the perivasculo-ductal connective tissue area was measured in all groups. We applied ANOVA statistical analysis, using SPSS 13.0. The global trend is an increase in the average perivasculo-ductal connective tissue areas, that develops linearly and significantly with large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure time (p connective tissue. Hence, these results show that in response to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure, rat parotid glands increase their perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

  2. Development of multi-frequency ESR system for high-pressure measurements up to 2.5 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, T.; Fujimoto, K.; Matsui, R.; Kawasaki, K.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Tanaka, H.

    2015-10-01

    A new piston-cylinder pressure cell for electron spin resonance (ESR) has been developed. The pressure cell consists of a double-layer hybrid-type cylinder with internal components made of the ZrO2-based ceramics. It can generate a pressure of 2 GPa repeatedly and reaches a maximum pressure of around 2.5 GPa. A high-pressure ESR system using a cryogen-free superconducting magnet up 10 T has also been developed for this hybrid-type pressure cell. The frequency region is from 50 GHz to 400 GHz. This is the first time a pressure above 2 GPa has been achieved in multi-frequency ESR system using a piston-cylinder pressure cell. We demonstrate its potential by showing the results of the high-pressure ESR of the S = 1 system with the single ion anisotropy NiSnCl6 · 6H2O and the S = 1 / 2 quantum spin system CsCuCl3. We performed ESR measurements of these systems above 2 GPa successfully.

  3. A high pressure sample facility for neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlile, C.J.; Glossop, B.H.

    1981-06-01

    Commissioning tests involving deformation studies and tests to destruction as well as neutron diffraction measurements of a standard sample have been carried out on the SERC high pressure sample facility for neutron scattering studies. A detailed description of the pressurising equipment is given. (author)

  4. Recommended practice for process sampling for partial pressure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, James E.; Ellefson, Robert E.; Raby, Bruce A.; Brucker, Gerardo A.; Waits, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    This Recommended Practice describes and recommends various procedures and types of apparatus for obtaining representative samples of process gases from >10 -2 Pa (10 -4 Torr) for partial pressure analysis using a mass spectrometer. The document was prepared by a subcommittee of the Recommended Practices Committee of the American Vacuum Society. The subcommittee was comprised of vacuum users and manufacturers of mass spectrometer partial pressure analyzers who have practical experience in the sampling of process gas atmospheres

  5. Inert medium (helium) irradiation testing of pressure tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Stefan, V.; Preda, M.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation tests currently performed in C-5 capsule aim at obtaining data and information concerning behavior to irradiation of pressure tubes of CANDU type fuel channel, to evidence the factors limiting operation life span. A calculation code for analysis and prediction of pressure tube behavior should be based upon periodical inspection results, post irradiation examination of the removed from reactor pressure tubes as well as on the experimental results obtained with materials subjected to irradiation conditions identical with the operational ones. Mechanical behavior analysis should focus both complex thermal-mechanical type stresses and mechanical properties alteration under irradiation. The experimental results should be applied: - to evaluate the irradiation effects upon mechanical properties of Zr-2.5% Nb exposed to fluences up to 10 21 n·cm -2 ; - to gather data concerning the real stress / real deformation characteristic from which characteristic quantities can be deduced as, for instance, elasticity modulus, plasticity modulus, exponent of stress term in the Tsu-Berteles relation, to be used within the CANTUP simulation code describing pressure tube behavior, currently developed at INR Pitesti; - to develop prediction methods of pressure tube behavior and merging with in-service inspection procedure in order to forecast the life span and the proper timing for replacement before major failures occur. The samples irradiated in C-5 capsule were extracted from the ends of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes resulting from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. The samples for tensile tests were extracted on longitudinal and transversal directions of the pressure tube. The tests were carried out under following conditions: - test environment temperature, 260 - 280 deg.C; - testing medium, helium at 1 - 6 b pressure; - neutron flux (E n > 1 MeV), 1 - 2 · 10 13 ncm -2 s -1 ; - neutron fluence (E n > 1 MeV), 4 · 10 20 ncm -2 . The following characteristics were obtained from tensile

  6. Efficient estimation for ergodic diffusions sampled at high frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    A general theory of efficient estimation for ergodic diffusions sampled at high fre- quency is presented. High frequency sampling is now possible in many applications, in particular in finance. The theory is formulated in term of approximate martingale estimating functions and covers a large class...

  7. Frequency Mixing Magnetic Detection Scanner for Imaging Magnetic Particles in Planar Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyobong; Lim, Eul-Gyoon; Jeong, Jae-Chan; Chang, Jiho; Shin, Sung-Woong; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-09

    The setup of a planar Frequency Mixing Magnetic Detection (p-FMMD) scanner for performing Magnetic Particles Imaging (MPI) of flat samples is presented. It consists of two magnetic measurement heads on both sides of the sample mounted on the legs of a u-shaped support. The sample is locally exposed to a magnetic excitation field consisting of two distinct frequencies, a stronger component at about 77 kHz and a weaker field at 61 Hz. The nonlinear magnetization characteristics of superparamagnetic particles give rise to the generation of intermodulation products. A selected sum-frequency component of the high and low frequency magnetic field incident on the magnetically nonlinear particles is recorded by a demodulation electronics. In contrast to a conventional MPI scanner, p-FMMD does not require the application of a strong magnetic field to the whole sample because mixing of the two frequencies occurs locally. Thus, the lateral dimensions of the sample are just limited by the scanning range and the supports. However, the sample height determines the spatial resolution. In the current setup it is limited to 2 mm. As examples, we present two 20 mm × 25 mm p-FMMD images acquired from samples with 1 µm diameter maghemite particles in silanol matrix and with 50 nm magnetite particles in aminosilane matrix. The results show that the novel MPI scanner can be applied for analysis of thin biological samples and for medical diagnostic purposes.

  8. Effect of sintering pressure on structure and magnetic properties of Zn0.99Ni0.01O bulk samples synthesized under different pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Chaosheng; Su, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Hao, Junhong; Ren, Yufen

    2015-01-01

    A series of Zn 0.99 Ni 0.01 O bulk samples were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and then sintered at 600 °C under various pressures from normal pressure(NP) to 3 GPa. The effects of sintering pressure (P S ) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the doping samples were investigated in detail. The XRD and HRTEM results reveal that all samples are of single-phase hexagonal structure. Compared with the sample sintered at normal pressure, the lattice parameters a and c of the samples sintered at high pressures (HP) show a sharply decrease. With the increase of sintering pressure, the particle size gradually increases as well as the particles get closer to each other. At 300 K, the sample sintered at normal pressure shows a superparamagnetic-like behavior, while the samples sintered at high pressures display typical ferromagnetic behaviors. The saturation magnetization of the samples sintered at high pressures is three orders of magnitude larger than that of the one sintered at normal pressure. Our results reveal that an appropriate sintering pressure can tune the magnetic properties of Ni-doped ZnO system by changing the lattice parameters, particle size and inter-particle spacing, which may be helpful to the practical applications. - Highlights: • A series of Zn 0.99 Ni 0.01 O bulk samples were sintered in different pressures. • The lattice constants of the samples sintered at high pressure clearly decrease. • The particle size increases gradually with the increase of sintering pressure. • The samples sintered at different pressures show different magnetic behaviors. • Appropriate sintering pressure can tune the magnetic properties of Zn–Ni–O system

  9. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions

  10. In-cylinder pressure-based direct techniques and time frequency analysis for combustion diagnostics in IC engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.; Galleani, L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct pressure-based techniques have been applied successfully to spark-ignition engines. • The burned mass fraction of pressure-based techniques has been compared with that of 2- and 3-zone combustion models. • The time frequency analysis has been employed to simulate complex diesel combustion events. - Abstract: In-cylinder pressure measurement and analysis has historically been a key tool for off-line combustion diagnosis in internal combustion engines, but online applications for real-time condition monitoring and combustion management have recently become popular. The present investigation presents and compares different low computing-cost in-cylinder pressure based methods for the analyses of the main features of combustion, that is, the start of combustion, the end of combustion and the crankshaft angle that responds to half of the overall burned mass. The instantaneous pressure in the combustion chamber has been used as an input datum for the described analytical procedures and it has been measured by means of a standard piezoelectric transducer. Traditional pressure-based techniques have been shown to be able to predict the burned mass fraction time history more accurately in spark ignition engines than in diesel engines. The most suitable pressure-based techniques for both spark ignition and compression ignition engines have been chosen on the basis of the available experimental data. Time–frequency analysis has also been applied to the analysis of diesel combustion, which is richer in events than spark ignited combustion. Time frequency algorithms for the calculation of the mean instantaneous frequency are computationally efficient, allow the main events of the diesel combustion to be identified and provide the greatest benefits in the presence of multiple injection events. These algorithms can be optimized and applied to onboard diagnostics tools designed for real control, but can also be used as an advanced validation tool for

  11. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50 kHz/2 MHz dual-frequency power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of α mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation

  12. Pressure effect on the amide I frequency of the solvated α-helical structure in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekiyo, T; Yoshimura, Y; Shimizu, A; Koizumi, T; Kato, M; Taniguchi, Y

    2007-01-01

    As a model system of the pressure dependence of the amide I mode of the solvated α-helical structure in a helical peptide, we have calculated the frequency shifts of the amide I modes as a function of the distance between trans-N-methylacetamide (t-NMA) dimer and a water molecule (d C=O···H-O ) by the density-functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p) level. Two amide I frequencies at 1652 and 1700 cm -1 were observed under this calculation. The former is ascribed to the amide I mode forming the intermolecular hydrogen bond (H-bond) between t-NMA and H 2 O in addition to the intermolecular H-bond in the t-NMA dimer. The latter is due to the amide I mode forming only the intermolecular H-bond in the t-NMA dimer. We have found that the amide I frequency at 1652 cm -1 shifts to a lower frequency with decreasing d C=O···H-O ) (i.e., increasing pressure), whereas that at 1700 cm -1 shifts to a higher frequency. The amide I frequency shift of 1652 cm -1 is larger than that of 1700 cm -1 by the intermolecular H-bond. Thus, our results clearly indicate that the pressure-induced amide I frequency shift of the solvated α-helical structure correlates with the change in d C=O···H-O )

  13. Simulation of rarefied low pressure RF plasma flow around the sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltukhin, V. S.; Shemakhin, A. Yu

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of the flow of radio frequency plasma at low pressure. The hybrid mathematical model includes the Boltzmann equation for the neutral component of the RF plasma, the continuity and the thermal equations for the charged component. Initial and boundary conditions for the corresponding equations are described. The electron temperature in the calculations is 1-4 eV, atoms temperature in the plasma clot is (3-4) • 103 K, in the plasma jet is (3.2-10) • 102 K, the degree of ionization is 10-7-10-5, electron density is 1015-1019 m-3. For calculations plasma parameters is developed soft package on C++ program language, that uses the OpenFOAM library package. Simulations for the vacuum chamber in the presence of a sample and the free jet flow were carried out.

  14. Frequency of diarrhoea as a predictor of elevated blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Juan Jaime; Davies, Alisha R.; Smith, George Davey; Smeeth, Liam; Cabrera, Lilia; Gilman, Robert H.; García, Héctor H.; Ortega, Ynes R.; Cama, Vitaliano A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal illness is a major public health problem for children worldwide, particularly among developing countries, and is a proxy condition for severe dehydration. It has been hypothesized that severe dehydration in the first 6 months of life could be associated with increased blood pressure later in life. This study aimed to explore whether frequency of diarrhoea is associated with elevated blood pressure in children in a setting with a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease. Methods The present study is a cross-sectional study of blood pressure among children from a longitudinal child diarrhoeal disease cohort in Lima, Peru. From 2001 to 2006, daily diarrhoeal surveillance was made. Children were revisited in 2006 and blood pressure was measured. Diarrhoeal exposures were evaluated in terms of total number of diarrhoea days, number of episodes of diarrhoea, persistent diarrhoeal episodes and by the quartiles of daily incidence and episode incidence of diarrhoea. Results The overall incidence of diarrhoeal episodes at age under 1 year was 4.35 (95% confidence interval: 3.79-4.98) and under 5 years was 2.80 (95% confidence interval: 2.69-2.92). No association was observed between the total number of diarrhoeal days, diarrhoeal episodes or diarrhoeal incidence rates with childhood blood pressure. There was weak evidence that hospital admission due to severe dehydration in the first year of life showed a gradient towards an increase in both, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion In the first study to date to examine the association in a setting with a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease, diarrhoeal frequency did not show an association with increased blood pressure. Our observations of elevated levels of blood pressure among those admitted into hospitals in the first year of life are in line with the original hypothesis of dehydration in early infancy and high blood pressure. However, the effect of episodes of severe dehydration on later blood

  15. The effects of extra-low-frequency atmospheric pressure oscillations on human mental activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyukov, A. A.; Didyk, L.

    Slight atmospheric pressure oscillations (APO) in the extra-low-frequency range below 0.1 Hz, which frequently occur naturally, can influence human mental activity. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments with a group of 12 healthy volunteers exposed to experimentally created APO with amplitudes 30-50 Pa in the frequency band 0.011-0.17 Hz. Exposure of the subjects to APO for 15-30 min caused significant changes in attention and short-term memory functions, performance rate, and mental processing flexibility. The character of the response depended on the APO frequency and coherence. Periodic APO promoted purposeful mental activity, accompanied by an increase in breath-holding duration and a slower heart rate. On the other hand, quasi-chaotic APO, similar to the natural perturbations of atmospheric pressure, disrupted mental activity. These observations suggest that APO could be partly responsible for meteorosensitivity in humans.

  16. An optimal frequency range for assessing the pressure reactivity index in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Tim; Johnson, Ulf; McKelvey, Tomas; Enblad, Per

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the optimal frequency range for computing the pressure reactivity index (PRx). PRx is a clinical method for assessing cerebral pressure autoregulation based on the correlation of spontaneous variations of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP). Our hypothesis was that optimizing the methodology for computing PRx in this way could produce a more stable, reliable and clinically useful index of autoregulation status. The patients studied were a series of 131 traumatic brain injury patients. Pressure reactivity indices were computed in various frequency bands during the first 4 days following injury using bandpass filtering of the input ABP and ICP signals. Patient outcome was assessed using the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe). The optimization criterion was the strength of the correlation with GOSe of the mean index value over the first 4 days following injury. Stability of the indices was measured as the mean absolute deviation of the minute by minute index value from 30-min moving averages. The optimal index frequency range for prediction of outcome was identified as 0.018-0.067 Hz (oscillations with periods from 55 to 15 s). The index based on this frequency range correlated with GOSe with ρ=-0.46 compared to -0.41 for standard PRx, and reduced the 30-min variation by 23%.

  17. Dental anthropology of a Brazilian sample: Frequency of nonmetric traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Delwing, Fábio; Francesquini, Luiz; Daruge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Dental elements are valuable tools in a study of ancient populations and species, and key-features for human identification; among the dental anthropology field, nonmetric traits, standardized by ASUDAS, are closely related to ancestry. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of six nonmetric traits in a sample from Southeast Brazil, composed by 130 dental casts from individuals aged between 18 and 30, without foreign parents or grandparents. A single examiner observed the presence or absence of shoveling, Carabelli's cusp, fifth cusp, 3-cusped UM2, sixth cusp, and 4-cusped LM2. The frequencies obtained were different from the ones shown by other researches to Amerindian and South American samples, and related to European and sub-Saharan frequencies, showing the influence of this groups in the current Brazilian population. Sexual dimorphism was found in the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped UM2, and sixth cusp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of planecta and ROSE™ on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE™, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and their frequency characteristics were tested with or without ROSE™. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained using frequency characteristics analysis software and evaluated by plotting them on the Gardner's chart. By inserting a planecta port, the natural frequency markedly decreased in both the FloTrac sensor kit (from 40 to 22 Hz) and the DTXplus transducer kit (from 35 to 22 Hz). In both kits with one planecta port, the damping coefficient markedly increased by insertion of ROSE™ from 0.2 to 0.5, optimising frequency characteristics. In both kits with two planecta ports, however, the natural frequency decreased from 22 to 12 Hz. The damping coefficient increased from 0.2 to 0.8 by insertion of ROSE™; however, optimisation was not achieved even by ROSE™ insertion. Planecta ports decrease the natural frequency of the kit. ROSE™ is useful to optimise the frequency characteristics in the kits without or with one planecta port. However, optimisation is difficult with two or more planecta ports, even with the ROSE™ device.

  19. High-frequency dynamics of the glass former dibutylphthalate under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermet, A.; Krisch, M.; Duval, E.; Polian, A.

    2002-01-01

    The high-frequency dynamics of a fragile molecular glass former (dibutylphthalate) was studied through inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), as a function of pressure and temperature. The mesoscopic structural arrest associated with the glass transition process was tracked by following upon cooling the inelastic excitations at fixed Q points in the dispersion curves, at ambient pressure and 2 kbar. The application of pressure to this system induces an offset between the macroscopic glass transition temperature T g and the mesoscopic glass transition temperature, as determined from IXS. The concomitant fragility decrease of dibutylphthalate under pressure unveils that the stronger the glass former is, the more its mesoscopic dynamics differ from the macroscopic regime. This trend is interpreted as the signature of a nanoscopic inhomogeneous elastic network. Further aspects of this system are obtained when studying the temperature dependence of its nonergodicity factor f Q (T). The chemical specificity of the molecule is suggested to be responsible for the nonobservation of a critical temperature T c in dibutylphthalate up to ∼300 K

  20. Simulation of rarefied low pressure RF plasma flow around the sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltukhin, V S; Shemakhin, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of the flow of radio frequency plasma at low pressure. The hybrid mathematical model includes the Boltzmann equation for the neutral component of the RF plasma, the continuity and the thermal equations for the charged component. Initial and boundary conditions for the corresponding equations are described. The electron temperature in the calculations is 1-4 eV, atoms temperature in the plasma clot is (3-4) • 10 3 K, in the plasma jet is (3.2-10) • 10 2 K, the degree of ionization is 10 -7 -10 -5 , electron density is 10 15 -10 19 m -3 . For calculations plasma parameters is developed soft package on C++ program language, that uses the OpenFOAM library package. Simulations for the vacuum chamber in the presence of a sample and the free jet flow were carried out. (paper)

  1. Estimating fish swimming metrics and metabolic rates with accelerometers: the influence of sampling frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownscombe, J W; Lennox, R J; Danylchuk, A J; Cooke, S J

    2018-06-21

    Accelerometry is growing in popularity for remotely measuring fish swimming metrics, but appropriate sampling frequencies for accurately measuring these metrics are not well studied. This research examined the influence of sampling frequency (1-25 Hz) with tri-axial accelerometer biologgers on estimates of overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), tail-beat frequency, swimming speed and metabolic rate of bonefish Albula vulpes in a swim-tunnel respirometer and free-swimming in a wetland mesocosm. In the swim tunnel, sampling frequencies of ≥ 5 Hz were sufficient to establish strong relationships between ODBA, swimming speed and metabolic rate. However, in free-swimming bonefish, estimates of metabolic rate were more variable below 10 Hz. Sampling frequencies should be at least twice the maximum tail-beat frequency to estimate this metric effectively, which is generally higher than those required to estimate ODBA, swimming speed and metabolic rate. While optimal sampling frequency probably varies among species due to tail-beat frequency and swimming style, this study provides a reference point with a medium body-sized sub-carangiform teleost fish, enabling researchers to measure these metrics effectively and maximize study duration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling of the dual frequency capacitive sheath in the intermediate pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, P C; Robiche, J; Turner, M M

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinearity of the plasma sheath in dual frequency capacitively coupled reactors is investigated for frequencies well above the ion plasma frequency. This work focuses on the behaviour of the voltage and the sheath width with respect to the driving current source and the collisionality regime. For typical plasma processing applications, the gas pressure ranges from a few milliTorrs to hundreds of milliTorrs, and the ion dynamics span different collisional regimes. To describe these different ion dynamics, we have used a collisionless model and a variable mobility model. The sheath widths and the voltages obtained from these two models have then been compared

  3. Parameters of the constricted plasma discharge produced by radio-frequency for atmospheric pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrano R, G.

    1987-01-01

    The main electrophysical characteristics of high-frequency discharge between two electrodes for pressures of the order of atmospheric pressure were investigated. The vibrational and kinetic temperatures of the discharge, and the possibilities for creating the conditions which using these type of discharge an instability between vibrational and kinetic temperatures can be obtained. For determining main characteristics of this type of discharge, argon gas, nitrogen gas and air, when oxygen and nitrogen are predominated, were used. The obtained electrical discharge parameters were: the high frequency voltage between electrocathodes, the current, the phase displacement between current and voltage, and the discharge power. The kinetic temperature distribution in the discharge region, and the vibrational temperature of the nitrogen molecules in discharge channel were also obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. All-Optical Frequency Modulated High Pressure MEMS Sensor for Remote and Distributed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a new all-optical frequency modulated pressure sensor. Using the tangential strain in a circular membrane, a waveguide with an integrated nanoscale Bragg grating is strained longitudinally proportional to the applied pressure causing...... a shift in the Bragg wavelength. The simple and robust design combined with the small chip area of 1 × 1.8 mm2 makes the sensor ideally suited for remote and distributed sensing in harsh environments and where miniaturized sensors are required. The sensor is designed for high pressure applications up...

  5. Flow and pressure drop fluctuations in a vertical tube subject to low frequency oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas; Balakrishnan, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Heat transfer and other equipment mounted on off-shore platforms may be subjected to low frequency oscillations. The effect of these oscillations, typically in the frequency range of 0.1-1 Hz, on the flow rate and pressure drop in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally in the present work. A 1.75 m-long vertical tube of inner diameter 0.016 m was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical simulator capable of providing low frequency oscillations in the range of 8-30 cycles/min at an amplitude of 0.125 m. The effect of the oscillations on the flow rate and the pressure drop has been measured systematically in the Reynolds number range 500-6500. The induced flow rate fluctuations were found to be dependent on the Reynolds number with stronger fluctuations at lower Reynolds numbers. The effective friction factor, based on the mean pressure drop and the mean flow rate, was also found to be higher than expected. Correlations have been developed to quantify this Reynolds number dependence

  6. Flow and pressure drop fluctuations in a vertical tube subject to low frequency oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Balakrishnan, A.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: arbala@iitm.ac.in

    2008-01-15

    Heat transfer and other equipment mounted on off-shore platforms may be subjected to low frequency oscillations. The effect of these oscillations, typically in the frequency range of 0.1-1 Hz, on the flow rate and pressure drop in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally in the present work. A 1.75 m-long vertical tube of inner diameter 0.016 m was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical simulator capable of providing low frequency oscillations in the range of 8-30 cycles/min at an amplitude of 0.125 m. The effect of the oscillations on the flow rate and the pressure drop has been measured systematically in the Reynolds number range 500-6500. The induced flow rate fluctuations were found to be dependent on the Reynolds number with stronger fluctuations at lower Reynolds numbers. The effective friction factor, based on the mean pressure drop and the mean flow rate, was also found to be higher than expected. Correlations have been developed to quantify this Reynolds number dependence.

  7. A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Alex M.; Gülder, Ömer L. [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame.

  8. Study of Stage-wise Pressure Pulsation in an Electric Submersible Pump under Variable Frequency Operation at Shut-off Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, A.; Kumaraswamy, S.

    2018-01-01

    Pressure pulsation causes vibration in the Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) and affects the life and performance of its system. ESP systems are installed at depths ranging from a few meters to several hundred meters. Unlike pumps used on the surface, once they are installed they become inaccessible for maintenance or for any kind of diagnostic measurement that might be taken directly on them. Therefore a detailed knowledge of mean and fluctuating pressures is required to achieve an optimal pressure distribution inside the ESP. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the stage-wise pulsating pressure in ESP at shut-off condition at different speeds. Experiments were conducted on a pump having five stages. A variable frequency drive was used to operate the pump at five different speeds. Piezoresistive transducers were mounted at each stage of ESP to capture the unsteady pressure signals. Fast Fourier Transformation was carried out on the pressure signals to convert into frequency domain and the spectra of pressure pulsation signals were analyzed. The obtained results indicated the existence of fundamental frequency corresponding to the speed of rotation times the number of impeller blades and of the whole series of harmonics of higher frequencies.

  9. Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations.

  10. Improving uniformity of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges using dual frequency excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Peeters, F. J. J.; Starostin, S. A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; de Vries, H. W.

    2018-01-01

    This letter reports a novel approach to improve the uniformity of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges using a dual-frequency excitation consisting of a low frequency (LF) at 200 kHz and a radio frequency (RF) at 13.56 MHz. It is shown that due to the periodic oscillation of the RF electric field, the electron acceleration and thus the gas ionization is temporally modulated, i.e. enhanced and suppressed during each RF cycle. As a result, the discharge development is slowed down with a lower amplitude and a longer duration of the LF discharge current. Hence, the RF electric field facilitates improved stability and uniformity simultaneously allowing a higher input power.

  11. Surface analyses of electropolished niobium samples for superconducting radio frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Saeki, T.; Sawabe, M.; Hayano, H.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities is sometimes limited by contaminations present on the cavity surface. In the recent years extensive research has been done to enhance the cavity performance by applying improved surface treatments such as mechanical grinding, electropolishing (EP), chemical polishing, tumbling, etc., followed by various rinsing methods such as ultrasonic pure water rinse, alcoholic rinse, high pressure water rinse, hydrogen per oxide rinse, etc. Although good cavity performance has been obtained lately by various post-EP cleaning methods, the detailed nature about the surface contaminants is still not fully characterized. Further efforts in this area are desired. Prior x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of EPed niobium samples treated with fresh EP acid, demonstrated that the surfaces were covered mainly with the niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) along with carbon, in addition a small quantity of sulfur and fluorine were also found in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. In this article, the authors present the analyses of surface contaminations for a series of EPed niobium samples located at various positions of a single cell niobium cavity followed by ultrapure water rinsing as well as our endeavor to understand the aging effect of EP acid solution in terms of contaminations presence at the inner surface of the cavity with the help of surface analytical tools such as XPS, SIMS, and scanning electron microscope at KEK.

  12. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  13. Practical iterative learning control with frequency domain design and sampled data implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    This book is on the iterative learning control (ILC) with focus on the design and implementation. We approach the ILC design based on the frequency domain analysis and address the ILC implementation based on the sampled data methods. This is the first book of ILC from frequency domain and sampled data methodologies. The frequency domain design methods offer ILC users insights to the convergence performance which is of practical benefits. This book presents a comprehensive framework with various methodologies to ensure the learnable bandwidth in the ILC system to be set with a balance between learning performance and learning stability. The sampled data implementation ensures effective execution of ILC in practical dynamic systems. The presented sampled data ILC methods also ensure the balance of performance and stability of learning process. Furthermore, the presented theories and methodologies are tested with an ILC controlled robotic system. The experimental results show that the machines can work in much h...

  14. Accurate Frequency Estimation Based On Three-Parameter Sine-Fitting With Three FFT Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple DFT-based golden section searching algorithm (DGSSA for the single tone frequency estimation. Because of truncation and discreteness in signal samples, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT are inevitable to cause the spectrum leakage and fence effect which lead to a low estimation accuracy. This method can improve the estimation accuracy under conditions of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and a low resolution. This method firstly uses three FFT samples to determine the frequency searching scope, then – besides the frequency – the estimated values of amplitude, phase and dc component are obtained by minimizing the least square (LS fitting error of three-parameter sine fitting. By setting reasonable stop conditions or the number of iterations, the accurate frequency estimation can be realized. The accuracy of this method, when applied to observed single-tone sinusoid samples corrupted by white Gaussian noise, is investigated by different methods with respect to the unbiased Cramer-Rao Low Bound (CRLB. The simulation results show that the root mean square error (RMSE of the frequency estimation curve is consistent with the tendency of CRLB as SNR increases, even in the case of a small number of samples. The average RMSE of the frequency estimation is less than 1.5 times the CRLB with SNR = 20 dB and N = 512.

  15. Effect of using a Planecta™ port with a three-way stopcock on the natural frequency of blood pressure transducer kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Tachihara, Keiichi; Mori, Satoshi; Ouchi, Kentaro; Yokoe, Chizuko; Imaizumi, Uno; Morimoto, Yoshinari; Miki, Yoichiro; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yoshida, Kazu-Ichi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    Blood pressure transducer kits are equipped with two types of Planecta™ ports-the flat-type Planecta™ port (FTP) and the Planecta™ port with a three-way stopcock (PTS). We reported that FTP application decreased the natural frequency of the kits. However, Planecta™ is an invaluable tool as it prevents infection, ensures technical simplicity, and excludes air. Hence, an ideal Planecta™ port that does not decrease the frequency characteristics is required. As a first step in this direction, we aimed to assess the influence of PTSs on the natural frequency of blood transducer kits. A DTXplus transducer kit (DT4812J; Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) was used along with ≥1 PTSs (JMS, Hiroshima, Japan), and the frequency characteristics were assessed. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained by using frequency characteristics analysis software, and these parameters were evaluated by plotting them on Gardner's chart. Regardless of whether one or two PTSs were inserted, the natural frequency of the kits only slightly decreased (from 42.5 to 41.1 Hz, when 2 PTSs were used). Thus, the frequency characteristics of the kits with PTSs were adequate for pressure monitoring. The insertion of ≥2 FTPs in pressure transducer kits should be avoided, as they markedly decrease the natural frequency and lead to underdamping. However, the effect of PTS insertion in pressure transducer kits on the frequency characteristics is minimal. Thus, we found that the use of PTS markedly improved the frequency characteristics as compared to the use of FTP.

  16. Device for mechanoluminescence excitation by applying gradually varying pressure on the sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, R.K.; Kher, R.S.; Upadhyay, A.K.; Dhoble, S.J.; Khan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanoluminescence (ML) is an interesting phenomenon, which is a light emission caused by mechanical stimuli such as grinding, cutting, collision, striking, friction etc. The nature of the ML emitted from a particular material depends upon how the materials are deformed. The compression technique and piston impact or impulsive techniques are the most popular for ML measurement. In these techniques, ML is excited by applying certain fixed load on to the sample and, it is not possible to study ML by continuously varying load on to the sample. Therefore in order to study ML by applying continuously increasing/decreasing pressure on the sample, a low cost set up has been designed and developed. We have compared the ML of sugar (non-irradiated), γ-irradiated LiF:Ba and BaAl 2 O 4 :Eu phosphor, when ML is excited impulsively and by applying continuously varying pressure on the sample. When BaAl 2 O 4 :Eu phosphor is deformed impulsively, a single peak with shoulder is observed in the time versus ML intensity curve, while number of peak is observed, when continuously increasing pressure applied on the sample. When pressure is continuously decreased less number of peaks is observed as compared to that of increasing pressure. Similar result is observed for LiF:Ba crystal. The enhancement in ML intensity with γ-irradiation suggest that the BaAl 2 O 4 :Eu is a suitable candidate for ML dosimetry. (author)

  17. A Frequency Domain Design Method For Sampled-Data Compensators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to the design of a sampled-data compensator in the frequency domain is investigated. The starting point is a continuous-time compensator for the continuous-time system which satisfy specific design criteria. The new design method will graphically show how the discrete...

  18. Symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time DDO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Cao, Zizheng; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin; Wu, Xian

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a symbol synchronization and sampling frequency synchronization techniques in real-time direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) system, over 100-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) using a cost-effective directly modulated distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The experiment results show that the proposed symbol synchronization based on training sequence (TS) has a low complexity and high accuracy even at a sampling frequency offset (SFO) of 5000-ppm. Meanwhile, the proposed pilot-assisted sampling frequency synchronization between digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is capable of estimating SFOs with an accuracy of technique can also compensate SFO effects within a small residual SFO caused by deviation of SFO estimation and low-precision or unstable clock source. The two synchronization techniques are suitable for high-speed DDO-OFDM transmission systems.

  19. First-Principles Studies of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) Single Crystal Unit Cell Volumes and Vibrational Frequencies under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren F.; Zhao, Jijun; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2006-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies is presented.

  20. Mixed Frequency Data Sampling Regression Models: The R Package midasr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ghysels

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When modeling economic relationships it is increasingly common to encounter data sampled at different frequencies. We introduce the R package midasr which enables estimating regression models with variables sampled at different frequencies within a MIDAS regression framework put forward in work by Ghysels, Santa-Clara, and Valkanov (2002. In this article we define a general autoregressive MIDAS regression model with multiple variables of different frequencies and show how it can be specified using the familiar R formula interface and estimated using various optimization methods chosen by the researcher. We discuss how to check the validity of the estimated model both in terms of numerical convergence and statistical adequacy of a chosen regression specification, how to perform model selection based on a information criterion, how to assess forecasting accuracy of the MIDAS regression model and how to obtain a forecast aggregation of different MIDAS regression models. We illustrate the capabilities of the package with a simulated MIDAS regression model and give two empirical examples of application of MIDAS regression.

  1. Surface analyses of electropolished niobium samples for superconducting radio frequency cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Saeki, T.; Sawabe, M.; Hayano, H.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S. [GUAS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); KAKEN Inc., Hokota, Ibaraki 311-1416 (Japan); GUAS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan) and KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    The performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities is sometimes limited by contaminations present on the cavity surface. In the recent years extensive research has been done to enhance the cavity performance by applying improved surface treatments such as mechanical grinding, electropolishing (EP), chemical polishing, tumbling, etc., followed by various rinsing methods such as ultrasonic pure water rinse, alcoholic rinse, high pressure water rinse, hydrogen per oxide rinse, etc. Although good cavity performance has been obtained lately by various post-EP cleaning methods, the detailed nature about the surface contaminants is still not fully characterized. Further efforts in this area are desired. Prior x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of EPed niobium samples treated with fresh EP acid, demonstrated that the surfaces were covered mainly with the niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) along with carbon, in addition a small quantity of sulfur and fluorine were also found in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. In this article, the authors present the analyses of surface contaminations for a series of EPed niobium samples located at various positions of a single cell niobium cavity followed by ultrapure water rinsing as well as our endeavor to understand the aging effect of EP acid solution in terms of contaminations presence at the inner surface of the cavity with the help of surface analytical tools such as XPS, SIMS, and scanning electron microscope at KEK.

  2. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at high-frequency interval in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Maja; Walløe, Lars; Holme, Nathalie L A; Maes, Elke; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Arterial blood pressure variations are an independent risk factor for end organ failure. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a sign of a healthy cardiovascular system. However, whether RSA counteracts arterial blood pressure variations during the respiratory cycle remains controversial. We restricted normal RSA with non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) to test the hypothesis that RSA normally functions to stabilize mean arterial blood pressure. Ten young volunteers were investigated during metronome-paced breathing and IPPV. Heart rate (ECG), mean arterial blood pressure and left stroke volume (finger arterial pressure curve) and right stroke volume (pulsed ultrasound Doppler) were recorded, while systemic and pulmonary blood flow were calculated beat-by-beat. Respiratory variations (high-frequency power, 0.15-0.40 Hz) in cardiovascular variables were estimated by spectral analysis. Phase angles and correlation were calculated by cross-spectral analysis. The magnitude of RSA was reduced from 4.9 bpm(2) (95% CI 3.0, 6.2) during metronome breathing to 2.8 bpm(2) (95% CI 1.1, 5.0) during IPPV (p = 0.03). Variations in mean arterial blood pressure were greater (2.3 mmHg(2) (95% CI 1.4, 3.9) during IPPV than during metronome breathing (1.0 mmHg(2) [95% CI 0.7, 1.3]) (p = 0.014). Respiratory variations in right and left stroke volumes were inversely related in the respiratory cycle during both metronome breathing and IPPV. RSA magnitude is lower and mean arterial blood pressure variability is greater during IPPV than during metronome breathing. We conclude that in healthy humans, RSA stabilizes mean arterial blood pressure at respiratory frequency.

  3. Tailoring electron energy distribution functions through energy confinement in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, C.; Waskoenig, J. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-08

    A multi-scale numerical model based on hydrodynamic equations with semi-kinetic treatment of electrons is used to investigate the influence of dual frequency excitation on the effective electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma. It is found that variations of power density, voltage ratio, and phase relationship provide separate control over the electron density and the mean electron energy. This is exploited to directly influence both the phase dependent and time averaged effective EEDF. This enables tailoring the EEDF for enhanced control of non-equilibrium plasma chemical kinetics at ambient pressure and temperature.

  4. Pressure broadening and frequency shift of the D 1 and D 2 lines of K in the presence of Ne and Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xulin; Chen, Yao; Quan, Wei; Chi, Haotian; Fang, Jiancheng

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of pressure broadening and frequency shift of K D 1 and D 2 lines in presence of 1-4 amg of Neon gas and 1-5 amg of Krypton gas by laser absorption spectroscopy. Both pressure broadening and frequency shift are linearly related to gas density with high accuracy. The asymmetry of the absorption line shape caused by van der Waals potential was first found in the near-line wings of large density Kr in the experiment. We have also investigated the temperature dependence of the pressure broadening and frequency shift in a range of 353-403 K in Neon and 373-417 K in Krypton and compared the results of the pressure broadening and frequency shift with previous values.

  5. Time-Frequency Based Instantaneous Frequency Estimation of Sparse Signals from an Incomplete Set of Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-17

    100 0 2 4 Wigner distribution 0 50 100 0 0.5 1 Auto-correlation function 0 50 100 0 2 4 L- Wigner distribution 0 50 100 0 0.5 1 Auto-correlation function ...bilinear or higher order autocorrelation functions will increase the number of missing samples, the analysis shows that accurate instantaneous...frequency estimation can be achieved even if we deal with only few samples, as long as the auto-correlation function is properly chosen to coincide with

  6. Effect of Sampling Frequency for Real-Time Tablet Coating Monitoring Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igne, Benoît; Arai, Hiroaki; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2016-09-01

    While the sampling of pharmaceutical products typically follows well-defined protocols, the parameterization of spectroscopic methods and their associated sampling frequency is not standard. Whereas, for blending, the sampling frequency is limited by the nature of the process, in other processes, such as tablet film coating, practitioners must determine the best approach to collecting spectral data. The present article studied how sampling practices affected the interpretation of the results provided by a near-infrared spectroscopy method for the monitoring of tablet moisture and coating weight gain during a pan-coating experiment. Several coating runs were monitored with different sampling frequencies (with or without co-adds (also known as sub-samples)) and with spectral averaging corresponding to processing cycles (1 to 15 pan rotations). Beyond integrating the sensor into the equipment, the present work demonstrated that it is necessary to have a good sense of the underlying phenomena that have the potential to affect the quality of the signal. The effects of co-adds and averaging was significant with respect to the quality of the spectral data. However, the type of output obtained from a sampling method dictated the type of information that one can gain on the dynamics of a process. Thus, different sampling frequencies may be needed at different stages of process development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. An estimation of core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor during mid-loop operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.C.; Chen, C.T.; Lee, M.

    2004-01-01

    The core damage frequency during mid-loop operation of a Westinghouse designed 3-loop Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) due to loss of Residual Heat Removal (RHR) events was assessed. The assessment considers two types of outages (refueling and drained maintenance), and uses failure data collected specifically for shutdown condition. Event trees were developed for five categories of loss of RHR events. Human actions to mitigate the loss of RHR events was identified and human error probabilities were quantified using HCR and THERP model. The result showed that the core damage frequency due to loss of RHR events during mid-loop operation is 3.1x10 -5 per year. The results also showed that the core damage frequency can be reduced significantly by removing a pressurizer safety valve before entering mid-loop operation. The establishment of reflux cooling, i.e. decay heat removal through steam generator secondary side also plays important role in mitigating the loss of RHR events. (author)

  8. Draft evaluation of the frequency for gas sampling for the high burnup confirmatory data project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-15SN0802041, “Draft Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burn-up Storage Demonstration Project” under Work Package FT-15SN080204, “ST Field Demonstration Support – SNL”. This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations. Gas sampling will provide information on the presence of residual water (and byproducts associated with its reactions and decomposition) and breach of cladding, which could inform the decision of when to open the project cask.

  9. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain sampling frequency, the biotic data showed stronger correlations with seasonal variables (e.g., temperature, salinity) in combination with nutrients. It is suggested that the 8-sampling events per year may be an optimal sampling strategy for ciliated protozoan seasonal research in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Moderately high frequency ventilation with a conventional ventilator allows reduction of tidal volume without increasing mean airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, Ricardo Luiz; Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Gomes, Susimeire; Brochard, Laurent; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore if positive-pressure ventilation delivered by a conventional ICU ventilator at a moderately high frequency (HFPPV) allows a safe reduction of tidal volume (V T) below 6 mL/kg in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and at a lower mean airway pressure than high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). This is a prospective study. In eight pigs (median weight 34 [29,36] kg), ARDS was induced by pulmonary lavage and injurious ventilation. The animals were ventilated with a randomized sequence of respiratory rates: 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, followed by HFOV at 5 Hz. At each step, V T was adjusted to allow partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) to stabilize between 57 and 63 mmHg. Data are shown as median [P25th,P75th]. After lung injury, the PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio was 92 [63,118] mmHg, pulmonary shunt 26 [17,31]%, and static compliance 11 [8,14] mL/cmH2O. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 [10,17] cmH2O. At 30 breaths/min, V T was higher than 6 (7.5 [6.8,10.2]) mL/kg, but at all higher frequencies, V T could be reduced and PaCO2 maintained, leading to reductions in plateau pressures and driving pressures. For frequencies of 60 to 150/min, V T progressively fell from 5.2 [5.1,5.9] to 3.8 [3.7,4.2] mL/kg (p mechanics, auto-PEEP generation, hemodynamics, or gas exchange. Mean airway pressure was maintained constant and was increased only during HFOV. During protective mechanical ventilation, HFPPV delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe ARDS swine model safely allows further tidal volume reductions. This strategy also allowed decreasing airway pressures while maintaining stable PaCO2 levels.

  11. Design of Multi Bubble Sonoluminescence Reactor for Low Frequency Pressure Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seok; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Sonoluminescence phenomenon has been intensively studied due to its extraordinary capability to produce very high temperature and pressure within micro bubbles exposed by the pressure radiation. In general, it has been widely used for the chemical treatment including dissociation of the toxics and synthesis of functional materials such as nano catalysis. As for the nuclear applications, some of researchers tried to realization of the bubble fusion and change of the decay constant. Unfortunately applications to the nuclear industry are very skeptically accepted in the academic society. In spite of all such skepticism, the studies on sonoluminescence still have the room to be explored. In the present study, we investigated the relation among the reactor size, power and frequency of the pressure radiation. Main motivation of the present study came from some mismatch in the degradation rate of TCE in the multibubble sonoluminescence reactors (MBSL reactor) between Lee et al (2011) and Oh and Lee (2010). Both studies utilized horn type ultrasound source with the frequency of 20 kHz. However, the shape and volume of the reactors were different form each other. In the present study, we simply measured the light emission from the luminol solution in the reactors to evaluate the effectiveness of the MBSL. As noted in the study of Lee et al, the hot spot of MBSL dissociate water molecules into OH radicals which dissociate luminol in the solution to emit radiation. Therefore, the intensity and distribution of the radiation of luminol dissociation in the reactor are key index of the population of hot spots. Results and discussions are made by comparing the light emission intensity with different operating powers

  12. Enhancement of low sampling frequency recordings for ECG biometric matching using interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, Khairul Azami; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) based biometric matching suffers from high misclassification error with lower sampling frequency data. This situation may lead to an unreliable and vulnerable identity authentication process in high security applications. In this paper, quality enhancement techniques for ECG data with low sampling frequency has been proposed for person identification based on piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation (PCHIP) and piecewise cubic spline interpolation (SPLINE). A total of 70 ECG recordings from 4 different public ECG databases with 2 different sampling frequencies were applied for development and performance comparison purposes. An analytical method was used for feature extraction. The ECG recordings were segmented into two parts: the enrolment and recognition datasets. Three biometric matching methods, namely, Cross Correlation (CC), Percent Root-Mean-Square Deviation (PRD) and Wavelet Distance Measurement (WDM) were used for performance evaluation before and after applying interpolation techniques. Results of the experiments suggest that biometric matching with interpolated ECG data on average achieved higher matching percentage value of up to 4% for CC, 3% for PRD and 94% for WDM. These results are compared with the existing method when using ECG recordings with lower sampling frequency. Moreover, increasing the sample size from 56 to 70 subjects improves the results of the experiment by 4% for CC, 14.6% for PRD and 0.3% for WDM. Furthermore, higher classification accuracy of up to 99.1% for PCHIP and 99.2% for SPLINE with interpolated ECG data as compared of up to 97.2% without interpolation ECG data verifies the study claim that applying interpolation techniques enhances the quality of the ECG data. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compact multipurpose sub-sampling and processing of in-situ cores with press (pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E.; Muller, W.H. [Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany). Chair of Continuum Mechanics and Material Theory

    2008-07-01

    Climate change, declining resources and over-consumption result in a need for sustainable resource allocation, habitat conservation and claim for new technologies and prospects for damage-containment. In order to increase knowledge of the environment and to define potential hazards, it is necessary to get an understanding of the deep biosphere. In addition, the benthic conditions of sediment structure and gas hydrates, temperature, pressure and bio-geochemistry must be maintained during the sequences of sampling, retrieval, transfer, storage and downstream analysis. In order to investigate highly instable gas hydrates, which decomposes under pressure and temperature change, a suite of research technologies have been developed by the Technische Universitat Berlin (TUB), Germany. This includes the pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system (PRESS) that was developed in the European Union project called HYACE/HYACINTH. The project enabled well-defined sectioning and transfer of drilled pressure-cores obtained by a rotary corer and fugro pressure corer into transportation and investigation chambers. This paper described HYACINTH pressure coring and the HYACINTH core transfer. Autoclave coring tools and HYACINTH core logging, coring tools, and sub-sampling were also discussed. It was concluded that possible future applications include, but were not limited to, research in shales and other tight formations, carbon dioxide sequestration, oil and gas exploration, coalbed methane, and microbiology of the deep biosphere. To meet the corresponding requirements and to incorporate the experiences from previous expeditions, the pressure coring system would need to be redesigned to adapt it to the new applications. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. The T-lock: automated compensation of radio-frequency induced sample heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, Sebastian; Arthanari, Haribabu; Wagner, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-field NMR spectrometers can stabilize the nominal sample temperature at a precision of less than 0.1 K. However, the actual sample temperature may differ from the nominal value by several degrees because the sample heating caused by high-power radio frequency pulses is not readily detected by the temperature sensors. Without correction, transfer of chemical shifts between different experiments causes problems in the data analysis. In principle, the temperature differences can be corrected by manual procedures but this is cumbersome and not fully reliable. Here, we introduce the concept of a 'T-lock', which automatically maintains the sample at the same reference temperature over the course of different NMR experiments. The T-lock works by continuously measuring the resonance frequency of a suitable spin and simultaneously adjusting the temperature control, thus locking the sample temperature at the reference value. For three different nuclei, 13 C, 17 O and 31 P in the compounds alanine, water, and phosphate, respectively, the T-lock accuracy was found to be <0.1 K. The use of dummy scan periods with variable lengths allows a reliable establishment of the thermal equilibrium before the acquisition of an experiment starts

  15. Distortions in frequency spectra of signals associated with sampling-pulse shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1983-04-01

    A method developed earlier by the author [IC/82/44; IC/82/45] is used to investigate distortions introduced into frequency spectra of signals by the shapes of the sampling pulses involved. Conditions are established under which the use of trapezoid or exponentially-edged pulses to digitize signals can make the frequency spectra of the resultant data samples devoid of the main features of the signals. This observation does not, however, apply in any way to cosinusoidally-edged pulses or to pulses with cosine-squared edges. Since parts of the Earth's surface and atmosphere receive direct solar energy in discrete samples (i.e. only from sunrise to sunset) we have extended the technique and attempted to develop a theory that explains the observed solar terrestrial relationships. A very good agreement is obtained between the theory and previous long-term and short-term observations. (author)

  16. Development of a radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet for diamond-like carbon coatings on stainless steel substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Samadi, O.; Siadati, S. N.; Etaati, G. R.; Asadi, E.; Safari, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge was developed for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel substrates. The plasma jet was generated by argon-methane mixture and its physical parameters were investigated. Relation between the plasma jet length and width of the powered electrode was discussed. Optical and electrical characteristics were studied by optical emission spectroscopy, voltage and current probes, respectively. The evolutions of various species like ArI, C2 and CH along the jet axis were investigated. Electron temperature and density were estimated by Boltzmann plot method and Saha-Boltzmann equation, respectively. Finally, a diamond-like carbon coating was deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates by the atmospheric pressure radio frequency plasma jet in ambient air. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and Vickers hardness test were used to study the deposited films. The length of the jet was increased by increasing the width of the powered electrode. The estimated electron temperature and density were 1.43 eV and 1.39 × 1015 cm-3, respectively. Averaged Vicker's hardness of the coated sample was three times greater than that of the substrate. The SEM images of the deposited thin films revealed a 4.5 μm DLC coated for 20 min.

  17. Turning frequency in adult bedridden patients to prevent hospital-acquired pressure ulcer: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelyn Chew, H-S; Thiara, Emelia; Lopez, Violeta; Shorey, Shefaly

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify current research on turning frequencies of adult bed-bound patients and inform future turning practices for hospitals based on evidence-based practice. We undertook a scoping review framework that provided a transparent and systematic methodology using 8 electronic databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, Scopus, ProQuest, and Web of Science) to identify articles published from 2000 to 2016. Articles were included if they focused on the prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers related to the frequency of turning or repositioning of bed-bound patients. Literature search and data extraction were performed independently by 3 authors. The study followed the PRISMA guidelines. In total, 911 articles were identified, of which 10 were eligible. Of the eligible articles, 8 studies could not reach a conclusion on the effective frequency of turning and duration for repositioning patients to prevent the development of pressure ulcers. Only 2 studies found significant differences among the intervention and control groups. Results regarding turning and repositioning schedules are inconclusive; however, the topic needs further exploration to improve the outdated guidelines surrounding pressure ulcer prevention. This may, in turn, make the work of nurses more efficient and make treatment cost-effective for both the patients and the hospitals. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An investigation into the effects of frequency-modulated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on experimentally-induced pressure pain in healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Johnson, Mark I

    2009-10-01

    Frequency-modulated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivers currents that fluctuate between preset boundaries over a fixed period of time. This study compared the effects of constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS on blunt pressure pain in healthy human volunteers. Thirty-six participants received constant-frequency TENS (80 pps), frequency-modulated TENS (20 to 100 pps), and placebo (no current) TENS at a strong nonpainful intensity in a randomized cross-over manner. Pain threshold was taken from the forearm using pressure algometry. There were no statistical differences between constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS after 20 minutes (OR = 1.54; CI, 0.29, 8.23, P = 1.0). Both constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS were superior to placebo TENS (OR = 59.5, P TENS does not influence hypoalgesia to any greater extent than constant-frequency TENS when currents generate a strong nonpainful paraesthesia at the site of pain. The finding that frequency-modulated TENS and constant-frequency TENS were superior to placebo TENS provides further evidence that a strong yet nonpainful TENS intensity is a prerequisite for hypoalgesia. This study provides evidence that TENS, delivered at a strong nonpainful intensity, increases pain threshold to pressure algometry in healthy participants over and above that seen with placebo (no current) TENS. Frequency-modulated TENS does not increase hypoalgesia to any appreciable extent to that seen with constant-frequency TENS.

  19. Applied pressure-dependent anisotropic grain connectivity in shock consolidated MgB{sub 2} samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Wataru [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Takenaka, Kenta [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Tadashi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Tamaki, Hideyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Matsuzawa, Hidenori [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan)]. E-mail: matuzawa@mx3.nns.ne.jp; Kai, Shoichiro [Advanced Materials and Process Development Group, Explosive Division, Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Oita 870-0392 (Japan); Kakimoto, Etsuji [Advanced Materials and Process Development Group, Explosive Division, Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Oita 870-0392 (Japan); Takano, Yoshihiko [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Minehara, Eisuke [FEL Laboratory, Tokai Site, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Shirakata-shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    Three different cylindrical MgB{sub 2} bulk samples were prepared by the underwater shock consolidation method in which shock waves of several GPa, generated by detonation of explosives, were applied to a metallic cylinder containing commercially available MgB{sub 2} powders with no additives. Resistivity anisotropy of the samples increased with shock pressure. The highest- and medium-pressure applied samples had finite resistivities in the radial direction for the whole temperature range down to 12 K, whereas their axial and azimuthal resistivities dropped to zero at 32-35 K. By contrast, the lowest-pressure applied sample was approximately isotropic with a normal-state resistivity of {approx}40 {mu}{omega} cm, an onset temperature of {approx}38.5 K, and a transition width of {approx}4.5 K. These extremely anisotropic properties would have resulted from the distortion of grain boundaries and grain cores, caused by the shock pressures and their repeated bouncing.

  20. An investigation of Ar metastable state density in low pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled argon and argon-diluted plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong; Peng, Fei; Guo, Qian; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    An tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the Ar*( 3 P 2 ) and Ar*( 3 P 0 ) metastable atoms densities in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas. The effects of different control parameters, such as high-frequency power, gas pressure and content of Ar, on the densities of two metastable atoms and electron density were discussed in single-frequency and dual-frequency Ar discharges, respectively. Particularly, the effects of the pressure on the axial profile of the electron and Ar metastable state densities were also discussed. Furthermore, a simple rate model was employed and its results were compared with experiments to analyze the main production and loss processes of Ar metastable states. It is found that Ar metastable state is mainly produced by electron impact excitation from the ground state, and decayed by diffusion and collision quenching with electrons and neutral molecules. Besides, the addition of CF 4 was found to significantly increase the metastable destruction rate by the CF 4 quenching, especially for large CF 4 content and high pressure, it becomes the dominant depopulation process

  1. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction frequency in human detrusor strips correlates with phasic intravesical pressure waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colhoun, Andrew F; Speich, John E; Cooley, Lauren F; Bell, Eugene D; Barbee, R Wayne; Guruli, Georgi; Ratz, Paul H; Klausner, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    Low amplitude rhythmic contractions (LARC) occur in detrusor smooth muscle and may play a role in storage disorders such as overactive bladder and detrusor overactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LARC frequencies identified in vitro from strips of human urinary bladder tissue correlate with in vivo LARC frequencies, visualized as phasic intravesical pressure (p ves ) waves during urodynamics (UD). After IRB approval, fresh strips of human urinary bladder were obtained from patients. LARC was recorded with tissue strips at low tension (rhythmic frequency similar to the in vitro LARC frequency quantified in human urinary bladder tissue strips. Further refinements of this technique may help identify subsets of individuals with LARC-mediated storage disorders.

  2. High-frequency coherent edge fluctuations in a high-pedestal-pressure quiescent H-mode plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; McKee, G R; Groebner, R J; Snyder, P B; Osborne, T H; Burrell, K H

    2011-07-29

    A set of high frequency coherent (HFC) modes (f=80-250 kHz) is observed with beam emission spectroscopy measurements of density fluctuations in the pedestal of a strongly shaped quiescent H-mode plasma on DIII-D, with characteristics predicted for kinetic ballooning modes (KBM): propagation in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction; a frequency near 0.2-0.3 times the ion-diamagnetic frequency; inferred toroidal mode numbers of n∼10-25; poloidal wave numbers of k(θ)∼0.17-0.4 cm(-1); and high measured decorrelation rates (τ(c)(-1)∼ω(s)∼0.5×10(6) s(-1)). Their appearance correlates with saturation of the pedestal pressure. © 2011 American Physical Society

  3. Pressure effects on nanostructured manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acha, C.; Garbarino, G.; Leyva, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the pressure sensitivity of magnetic properties on La 5/8-y Pr y Ca 3/8 MnO 3 (y=0.3) nanostructured powders. Samples were synthesized following a microwave assisted denitration process and a final heat treatment at different temperatures to control the grain size of the samples. A span in grain diameters from 40 nm to ∼1000 nm was obtained. Magnetization curves as a function of temperature were measured following different thermomagnetic histories. AC susceptibility as a function of temperature was also measured at different hydrostatic pressures (up to 10 kbar) and for different frequencies. Our results indicate that the nanostructuration plays a role of an internal pressure, producing a structural deformation with similar effects to those obtained under an external hydrostatic pressure

  4. Terahertz Frequency-Domain Spectroscopy of Low-Pressure Acetonitrile Gas by a Photomixing Terahertz Synthesizer Referenced to Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Kimura, Hiroto; Hayashi, Kenta; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    A terahertz (THz) frequency synthesizer based on photomixing of two near-infrared lasers with a sub-THz to THz frequency offset is a powerful tool for spectroscopy of polar gas molecules due to its broad spectral coverage; however, its frequency accuracy and resolution are relatively low. To tune the output frequency continuously and widely while maintaining its traceability to a frequency standard, we developed a photomixing THz synthesizer phase-locked to dual optical frequency combs (OFCs). While the phase-locking to dual OFCs ensured continuous tuning within a spectral range of 120 GHz, in addition to the traceability to the frequency standard, use of a broadband uni-traveling carrier photodiode for photomixing enabled the generation of CW-THz radiation within a frequency range from 0.2 to 1.5 THz. We demonstrated THz frequency-domain spectroscopy of gas-phase acetonitrile CH3CN and its isotope CH3 13CN in the frequency range of 0.600-0.720 THz using this THz synthesizer. Their rotational transitions were assigned with a frequency accuracy of 8.42 × 10-8 and a frequency resolution of 520 kHz. Furthermore, the concentration of the CH3CN gas at 20 Pa was determined to be (5.41 ± 0.05) × 1014 molecules/cm3 by curve fitting analysis of the measured absorbance spectrum, and the mixture ratio of the mixed CH3CN/CH3 13CN gas was determined to be 1:2.26 with a gas concentration of 1014-1015 molecules/cm3. The developed THz synthesizer is highly promising for high-precision THz-FDS of low-pressure molecular gases and will enable the qualitative and quantitative analyses of multiple gases.

  5. Detection of small-amplitude periodic surface pressure fluctuation by pressure-sensitive paint measurements using frequency-domain methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Nakakita, Kazuyki; Wakahara, Masaki; Kameda, Masaharu

    2018-06-01

    Image measurement using pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an effective tool for analyzing the unsteady pressure field on the surface of a body in a low-speed air flow, which is associated with wind noise. In this study, the surface pressure fluctuation due to the tonal trailing edge (TE) noise for a two-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil was quantitatively detected using a porous anodized aluminum PSP (AA-PSP). The emission from the PSP upon illumination by a blue laser diode was captured using a 12-bit high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. The intensities of the captured images were converted to pressures using a standard intensity-based method. Three image-processing methods based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) were tested to determine their efficiency in improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the unsteady PSP data. In addition to two fundamental FFT techniques (the full data and ensemble averaging FFTs), a technique using the coherent output power (COP), which involves the cross correlation between the PSP data and the signal measured using a pointwise sound-level meter, was tested. Preliminary tests indicated that random photon shot noise dominates the intensity fluctuations in the captured PSP emissions above 200 Hz. Pressure fluctuations associated with the TE noise, whose dominant frequency is approximately 940 Hz, were successfully measured by analyzing 40,960 sequential PSP images recorded at 10 kfps. Quantitative validation using the power spectrum indicates that the COP technique is the most effective method of identification of the pressure fluctuation directly related to TE noise. It is possible to distinguish power differences with a resolution of 10 Pa^2 (4 Pa in amplitude) when the COP was employed without use of another wind-off data. This resolution cannot be achieved by the ensemble averaging FFT because of an insufficient elimination of the background noise.

  6. Variable Sampling Composite Observer Based Frequency Locked Loop and its Application in Grid Connected System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN, K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified digital signal processing procedure is described for the on-line estimation of DC, fundamental and harmonics of periodic signal. A frequency locked loop (FLL incorporated within the parallel structure of observers is proposed to accommodate a wide range of frequency drift. The error in frequency generated under drifting frequencies has been used for changing the sampling frequency of the composite observer, so that the number of samples per cycle of the periodic waveform remains constant. A standard coupled oscillator with automatic gain control is used as numerically controlled oscillator (NCO to generate the enabling pulses for the digital observer. The NCO gives an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency making it suitable for power quality applications. Another observer with DC and second harmonic blocks in the feedback path act as filter and reduces the double frequency content. A systematic study of the FLL is done and a method has been proposed to design the controller. The performance of FLL is validated through simulation and experimental studies. To illustrate applications of the new FLL, estimation of individual harmonics from nonlinear load and the design of a variable sampling resonant controller, for a single phase grid-connected inverter have been presented.

  7. High-pressure oxygenation of thin-wall YBCO single-domain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaud, X; Savchuk, Y; Sergienko, N; Prikhna, T; Diko, P

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen annealing of ReBCO bulk material, necessary to achieve superconducting properties, usually induces micro- and macro-cracks. This leads to a crack-assisted oxygenation process that allows oxygenating large bulk samples faster than single crystals. But excellent superconducting properties are cancelled by the poor mechanical ones. More progressive oxygenation strategy has been shown to reduce drastically the oxygenation cracks. The problem then arises to keep a reasonable annealing time. The concept of bulk Y123 single-domain samples with thin-wall geometry has been introduced to bypass the inherent limitation due to a slow oxygen diffusion rate. But it is not enough. The use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) enables to speed up further the process. It introduces a displacement in the equilibrium phase diagram towards higher temperatures, i.e., higher diffusion rates, to achieve a given oxygen content in the material. Remarkable results were obtained by applying such a high pressure oxygen annealing process on thin-wall single-domain samples. The trapped field of 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain samples was doubled (0.6T vs 0.3T at 77K) using an annealing time twice shorter (about 3 days). The initial development was made on thin bars. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample

  8. ESR study of advanced materials with new parameters frequency and pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Mizoguchi, K

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that electron spin resonance (ESR) is a useful technique to investigate the magnetic properties of electrons in condensed matter. The frequency, as an additional parameter to the temperature, gives us the possibility to study the anisotropic dynamics of charge carriers with spin, even in polycrystalline materials. Furthermore, the pressure provides us a way to discuss how interactions between the electrons and their environments are responsible for the novel physical properties in these advanced materials, such as ferromagnetisms, charge-density waves, superconductivity, and so on. Results obtained by using ESR with these parameters are overviewed. Studies as a function of the frequency are demonstrated, especially for the conductive polymers, polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole with various dopants for which single crystals are not available yet. Alkali-electro-sodalite (AES), a kind of zeolite with a regular electron lattice known as an s-electron Mott insulator, and fullerene compo...

  9. Effect of low-frequency power on dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Q H; Xin, Y; Huang, X J; Sun, K; Ning, Z Y; Yin, G Q

    2008-01-01

    In low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas driven with 60/13.56 MHz, the effect of low-frequency power on the plasma characteristics was investigated using a compensated Langmuir electrostatic probe. At lower pressures (about 10 mTorr), it was possible to control the plasma density and the ion bombardment energy independently. As the pressure increased, this independent control could not be achieved. As the low-frequency power increased for the fixed high-frequency power, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) changed from Druyvesteyn-like to Maxwellian-like at pressures of 50 mTorr and higher, along with a drop in electron temperature. The plasma parameters were calculated and compared with simulation results.

  10. Estimating an appropriate sampling frequency for monitoring ground water well contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 1,500 ground water wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are sampled quarterly to monitor contamination by radionuclides and other hazardous constituents from nearby waste sites. Some 10,000 water samples were collected in 1993 at a laboratory analysis cost of $10,000,000. No widely accepted statistical method has been developed, to date, for estimating a technically defensible ground water sampling frequency consistent and compliant with federal regulations. Such a method is presented here based on the concept of statistical independence among successively measured contaminant concentrations in time

  11. Frequency-Selective Signal Sensing with Sub-Nyquist Uniform Sampling Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss a problem of acquisition and reconstruction of a signal polluted by adjacent- channel interference. The authors propose a method to find a sub-Nyquist uniform sampling pattern which allows for correct reconstruction of selected frequencies. The method is inspired...... by the Restricted Isometry Property, which is known from the field of compressed sensing. Then, compressed sensing is used to successfully reconstruct a wanted signal even if some of the uniform samples were randomly lost, e. g. due to ADC saturation. An experiment which tests the proposed method in practice...

  12. Assessing the precision of a time-sampling-based study among GPs: balancing sample size and measurement frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; van der Hoek, Lucas; Batenburg, Ronald

    2017-12-04

    Our research is based on a technique for time sampling, an innovative method for measuring the working hours of Dutch general practitioners (GPs), which was deployed in an earlier study. In this study, 1051 GPs were questioned about their activities in real time by sending them one SMS text message every 3 h during 1 week. The required sample size for this study is important for health workforce planners to know if they want to apply this method to target groups who are hard to reach or if fewer resources are available. In this time-sampling method, however, standard power analyses is not sufficient for calculating the required sample size as this accounts only for sample fluctuation and not for the fluctuation of measurements taken from every participant. We investigated the impact of the number of participants and frequency of measurements per participant upon the confidence intervals (CIs) for the hours worked per week. Statistical analyses of the time-use data we obtained from GPs were performed. Ninety-five percent CIs were calculated, using equations and simulation techniques, for various different numbers of GPs included in the dataset and for various frequencies of measurements per participant. Our results showed that the one-tailed CI, including sample and measurement fluctuation, decreased from 21 until 3 h between one and 50 GPs. As a result of the formulas to calculate CIs, the increase of the precision continued and was lower with the same additional number of GPs. Likewise, the analyses showed how the number of participants required decreased if more measurements per participant were taken. For example, one measurement per 3-h time slot during the week requires 300 GPs to achieve a CI of 1 h, while one measurement per hour requires 100 GPs to obtain the same result. The sample size needed for time-use research based on a time-sampling technique depends on the design and aim of the study. In this paper, we showed how the precision of the

  13. Pressure effects on single wall carbon nanotube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teredesai, P.V.; Sharma, S.M.; Karmakar, S.; Sikka, S.K.; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2001-01-01

    We report high pressure Raman studies on single wall carbon nanotube bundles under hydrostatic conditions using two different pressure transmitting media, alcohol mixture and pure water. The radial and tangential modes show a blue shift when SWNT bundle is immersed in the liquids at ambient pressures. The pressure dependence of the radial modes is the same in both liquids. However, the pressure derivatives dω/dP of the tangential modes are slightly higher for the water medium. Raman results are compared with studies under non-hydrostatic conditions and with recent high-pressure X-ray studies. It is seen that the mode frequencies of the recovered sample after pressure cycling from 26 GPa are downshifted by ∝7-10 cm -1 as compared to the starting sample. (orig.)

  14. Time-Scale and Time-Frequency Analyses of Irregularly Sampled Astronomical Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roques

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the quality of spectral restoration in the case of irregular sampled signals in astronomy. We study in details a time-scale method leading to a global wavelet spectrum comparable to the Fourier period, and a time-frequency matching pursuit allowing us to identify the frequencies and to control the error propagation. In both cases, the signals are first resampled with a linear interpolation. Both results are compared with those obtained using Lomb's periodogram and using the weighted waveletZ-transform developed in astronomy for unevenly sampled variable stars observations. These approaches are applied to simulations and to light variations of four variable stars. This leads to the conclusion that the matching pursuit is more efficient for recovering the spectral contents of a pulsating star, even with a preliminary resampling. In particular, the results are almost independent of the quality of the initial irregular sampling.

  15. Modeling seismic stimulation: Enhanced non-aqueous fluid extraction from saturated porous media under pore-pressure pulsing at low frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Huang, Yu-Han

    2012-03-01

    Seismic stimulation, the application of low-frequency stress-pulsing to the boundary of a porous medium containing water and a non-aqueous fluid to enhance the removal of the latter, shows great promise for both contaminated groundwater remediation and enhanced oil recovery, but theory to elucidate the underlying mechanisms lag significantly behind the progress achieved in experimental research. We address this conceptual lacuna by formulating a boundary-value problem to describe pore-pressure pulsing at seismic frequencies that is based on the continuum theory of poroelasticity for an elastic porous medium permeated by two immiscible fluids. An exact analytical solution is presented that is applied numerically using elasticity parameters and hydraulic data relevant to recent proof-of-principle laboratory experiments investigating the stimulation-induced mobilization of trichloroethene (TCE) in water flowing through a compressed sand core. The numerical results indicated that significant stimulation-induced increases of the TCE concentration in effluent can be expected from pore-pressure pulsing in the frequency range of 25-100 Hz, which is in good agreement with what was observed in the laboratory experiments. Sensitivity analysis of our numerical results revealed that the TCE concentration in the effluent increases with the porous medium framework compressibility and the pulsing pressure. Increasing compressibility also leads to an optimal stimulation response at lower frequencies, whereas changing the pulsing pressure does not affect the optimal stimulation frequency. Within the context of our model, the dominant physical cause for enhancement of non-aqueous fluid mobility by seismic stimulation is the dilatory motion of the porous medium in which the solid and fluid phases undergo opposite displacements, resulting in stress-induced changes of the pore volume.

  16. Measurement of flaw size in a weld sample by ultrasonic frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, H.L. Jr.; Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.

    1975-05-01

    An ultrasonic frequency analysis technique has been developed and applied to the measurement of flaws in an 8-in.-thick heavy-section steel specimen belonging to the Pressure Vessel Research Committee program. Using the technique the flaws occurring in the weld area were characterized in quantitative terms of both dimension and orientation. Several modifications of the technique were made during the study to include the application of several transducers and to consider ultrasonic mode conversion. (U.S.)

  17. Frequency analyses of CSF flow on cine MRI in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyati, Tosiaki; Kasuga, Toshio; Koshida, Kichiro; Sanada, Shigeru; Onoguchi, Masahisa [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80, Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Mase, Mitsuhito; Yamada, Kazuo [Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya City University Medical School, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8602 (Japan); Banno, Tatsuo [Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8602 (Japan); Fujita, Hiroshi [Department of Information Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Our objective was to clarify intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics in normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Frequency analyses of CSF flow measured with phase-contrast cine MRI were performed. The CSF flow spectra in the aqueduct were determined in patients (n=51) with NPH, brain atrophy or asymptomatic ventricular dilation (VD), and in healthy volunteers (control group; n=25). The changes in CSF flow spectra were also analyzed after intravenous injection of acetazolamide. Moreover, a phase transfer function (PTF) calculated from the spectra of the driving vascular pulsation and CSF flow in the aqueduct were assessed. These values were compared with the pressure volume response (PVR). The amplitude in the NPH group was significantly larger than that in the VD or control group because of a decrease in compliance. The phase in the NPH group was significantly different from that in either the VD or the control group, but no difference was found between the VD and control groups. The amplitude increased in all groups after acetazolamide injection. The PTF in the NPH group was significantly larger than in the control group, and a positive correlation was noted between PTF and PVR. Frequency analyses of CSF flow measured by cine MRI make it possible to noninvasively obtain a more detailed picture of the pathophysiology of NPH. (orig.)

  18. Elemental analysis of bead samples using a laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kurniawan, Davy P.; Pardede, Marincan; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Khumaeni, Ali; Natiq, Shouny A.; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lee, Yong Inn; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Idris, Nasrullah; Tjia, May On

    2006-01-01

    An Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns, 30 mJ) was focused on various types of fresh, fossilized white coral and giant shell samples, including samples of imitation shell and marble. Such samples are extremely important as material for preparing prayer beads that are extensively used in the Buddhist faith. The aim of this research was to develop a non-destructive method to distinguish original beads from their imitations by means of spectral measurements of the carbon, hydrogen, sodium and magnesium emission intensities and by measuring the hardness of the sample using the ratio between Ca (II) 396.8 nm and Ca (I) 422.6 nm. Based on these measurements, original fresh coral beads can be distinguished from any imitation made from hard wood. The same technique was also effective in distinguishing beads made of shell from its imitation. A spectral analysis of bead was also performed on a fossilized white coral sample and the result can be used to distinguish to some extent the fossilized white coral beads from any imitation made from marble. It was also found that the plasma plume should be generated at low ambient pressure to significantly improve the hydrogen and carbon emission intensity and also to avoid energy loss inside the crater during laser irradiation at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study confirm that operating the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy at reduced ambient pressure offers distinct advantage for bead analysis over the conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique operated at atmospheric pressure

  19. Elemental analysis of bead samples using a laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, Tjung Jie [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)]. E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id; Kurniawan, Davy P. [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Graduate Program in Opto Electrotechniques and Laser Applications, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Indonesia, 4 Salemba Raya, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia); Khumaeni, Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Natiq, Shouny A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23116 (Indonesia); Lee, Yong Inn [Physics Department, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756, South Korea (Korea); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Idris, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2006-01-15

    An Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns, 30 mJ) was focused on various types of fresh, fossilized white coral and giant shell samples, including samples of imitation shell and marble. Such samples are extremely important as material for preparing prayer beads that are extensively used in the Buddhist faith. The aim of this research was to develop a non-destructive method to distinguish original beads from their imitations by means of spectral measurements of the carbon, hydrogen, sodium and magnesium emission intensities and by measuring the hardness of the sample using the ratio between Ca (II) 396.8 nm and Ca (I) 422.6 nm. Based on these measurements, original fresh coral beads can be distinguished from any imitation made from hard wood. The same technique was also effective in distinguishing beads made of shell from its imitation. A spectral analysis of bead was also performed on a fossilized white coral sample and the result can be used to distinguish to some extent the fossilized white coral beads from any imitation made from marble. It was also found that the plasma plume should be generated at low ambient pressure to significantly improve the hydrogen and carbon emission intensity and also to avoid energy loss inside the crater during laser irradiation at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study confirm that operating the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy at reduced ambient pressure offers distinct advantage for bead analysis over the conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique operated at atmospheric pressure.

  20. A Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Gas Pressure on the Water Saturation of Compacted Bentonite-Sand Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Feng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In deep geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste, the generated gas can potentially affect the sealing ability of bentonite buffers. There is a competition between water and gas: the former provides sealing by swelling bentonite, and the latter attempts to desaturate the bentonite buffer. Thus, this study focused on numerically modelling the coupling effects of water and gas on the water saturation and sealing efficiency of compacted bentonite-sand samples. Different gas pressures were applied to the top surface of an upper sample, whereas the water pressure on the bottom side of the lower sample was maintained at 4 MPa. The results indicated that gas pressure did not significantly affect the saturation of the bentonite-sand sample until 2 MPa. At 2 MPa, the degree of water saturation of the upper sample was close to 1.0. As the gas pressure increased, this influence was more apparent. When the gas pressure was 6 MPa or higher, it was difficult for the upper sample to become fully saturated. Additionally, the lower sample was desaturated due to the high gas pressure. This indicated that gas pressure played an important role in the water saturation process and can affect the sealing efficiency of bentonite-based buffer materials.

  1. The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the structure and optical properties of MgNiO films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wuze; Jiao, Shujie, E-mail: shujiejiao@gmail.com; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Li, Hongtao

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • MgNiO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • The structure and optical properties of MgNiO films were studied. • The mechanism of phase separation was discussed in detail. • The effect of different sputtering pressure also was discussed. - Abstract: In this study, MgNiO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influence of different sputtering pressures on the crystalline and optical properties of MgNiO thin films has been studied. X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that the MgNiO films are cubic structure with (200) preferred orientation. UV–vis transmission spectra show that all the MgNiO thin films show more than 75% transmission at visible region, and the absorption edges of all thin films locate at solar-blind region (220 nm–280 nm). The lattice constant and Mg content of MgNiO samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction and transmission spectra data. The phase separation is observed both in the X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission spectra, and the phase separation is studied in detail based on the crystal growth theory and sputtering process.

  2. Raman spectra of MgB2 at high pressure and topological electronic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meletov, K.P.; Kulakov, M.P.; Kolesnikov, N.N.; Arvanitidis, J.; Kourouklis, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectra of the MgB 2 ceramic samples were measured as a function of pressure up to 32 GPa at room temperature. The spectrum at normal conditions contains a very broad peak at ∼ 590 cm -1 related to the E 2g phonon mode. The frequency of this mode exhibits a strong linear dependence in the pressure region from 5 to 18 GPa, whereas beyond this region the slope of the pressure-induced frequency shift is reduced by about a factor of two. The pressure dependence of the phonon mode up to ∼ 5 GPa exhibits a change in the slope as well as a hysteresis effect in the frequency vs. pressure behavior. These singularities in the E 2g mode behavior under pressure support the suggestion that MgB 2 may undergo a pressure-induced topological electronic transition [ru

  3. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  4. Reducing the sampling frequency of groundwater monitoring wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.M.; Ridley, M.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Tuckfield, R.C.; Anderson, R.A. [Westinghouse, Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    As part of a joint LLNL/SRTC project, a methodology for selecting sampling frequencies is evolving that introduces statistical thinking and cost effectiveness into the sampling schedule selection practices now commonly employed on environmental projects. Our current emphasis is on descriptive rather than inferential statistics. Environmental monitoring data are inherently messy, being plagued by such problems as extremely high variability and left-censoring. As a result, real data often fail to meet the assumptions required for the appropriate application of many statistical methods. Rather than abandon the quantitative approach in these cases, however, the methodology employs simple statistical techniques to bring a measure of objectivity and reproducibility to the process. The techniques are applied within the framework of decision logic, which inrerprets the numerical results from the standpoint of chemistry-related professional judgment and the regulatory context. This paper presents the methodology`s basic concepts together with early implementation results, showing the estimated cost savings. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Implications of Microwave Holography Using Minimum Required Frequency Samples for Weakly- and Strongly-Scattering Indications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, M.; Case, J. T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave imaging techniques, an integral component of nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDTE), have received significant attention in the past decade. These techniques have included the implementation of synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) algorithms for obtaining high spatial resolution images. The next important step in these developments is the implementation of 3-D holographic imaging algorithms. These are well-known wideband imaging technique requiring a swept-frequency (i.e., wideband), which unlike SAF that is a single frequency technique, are not easily performed on a real-time basis. This is due to the fact that a significant number of data points (in the frequency domain) must be obtained within the frequency band of interest. This not only makes for a complex imaging system design, it also significantly increases the image-production time. Consequently in an attempt to reduce the measurement time and system complexity, an investigation was conducted to determine the minimum required number of frequency samples needed to image a specific object while preserving a desired maximum measurement range and range resolution. To this end the 3-D holographic algorithm was modified to use properlyinterpolated frequency data. Measurements of the complex reflection coefficient for several samples were conducted using a swept-frequency approach. Subsequently, holographical images were generated using data containing a relatively large number of frequency samples and were compared with images generated by the reduced data set data. Quantitative metrics such as average, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio were used to evaluate the quality of images generated using reduced data sets. Furthermore, this approach was applied to both weakly- and strongly-scattering indications. This paper presents the methods used and the results of this investigation.

  6. Hydrogen concentration determination in pressure tube samples using differential scanning calorimetry (dsc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, R.; Mincu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are widely used as a structural material in nuclear reactors. It is known that zirconium based cladding alloys absorb hydrogen as a result of service in a pressurized water reactor. Hydrogen absorbed (during operation of the reactor) in the zirconium alloy, out of which the pressure tube is made, is one of the major factors determining the life time of the pressure tube. For monitoring the hydrides, samples of the pressure tube are periodically taken and analyzed. At normal reactor operating temperature, hydrogen has limited solubility in the zirconium lattice and precipitates out of solid solution as zirconium hydride when the solid solubility is exceeded. As a consequences material characterization of Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tubes is required after manufacturing but also during the operation to assess its structural integrity and to predict its behavior until the next in-service inspection. Hydrogen and deuterium concentration determination is one of the most important parameters to be evaluated during the experimental tests. Hydrogen present in zirconium alloys has a strong effect of weakening. Following the zirconium-hydrogen reaction, the resulting zirconium hydride precipitates in the mass of material. Weakening of the material, due to the presence of 10 ppm of precipitated hydrogen significantly affects some of its properties. The concentration of hydrogen in a sample can be determined by several methods, one of them being the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The principle of the method consists in measuring the difference between the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a sample and a reference to a certain value. The experiments were made using a TA Instruments DSC Q2000 calorimeter. This paper contains experimental work for hydrogen concentration determination by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) method. Also, the reproducibility and accuracy of the method used at INR Pitesti are presented. (authors)

  7. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  8. Compressive sensing-based wideband capacitance measurement with a fixed sampling rate lower than the highest exciting frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Ren, Ying; Sun, Shijie; Cao, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an under-sampling method for wideband capacitance measurement was proposed by using the compressive sensing strategy. As the excitation signal is sparse in the frequency domain, the compressed sampling method that uses a random demodulator was adopted, which could greatly decrease the sampling rate. Besides, four switches were used to replace the multiplier in the random demodulator. As a result, not only the sampling rate can be much smaller than the signal excitation frequency, but also the circuit’s structure is simpler and its power consumption is lower. A hardware prototype was constructed to validate the method. In the prototype, an excitation voltage with a frequency up to 200 kHz was applied to a capacitance-to-voltage converter. The output signal of the converter was randomly modulated by a pseudo-random sequence through four switches. After a low-pass filter, the signal was sampled by an analog-to-digital converter at a sampling rate of 50 kHz, which was three times lower than the highest exciting frequency. The frequency and amplitude of the signal were then reconstructed to obtain the measured capacitance. Both theoretical analysis and experiments were carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed method and to evaluate the performance of the prototype, including its linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, accuracy and stability within a given measurement range. (paper)

  9. Using high-frequency sampling to detect effects of atmospheric pollutants on stream chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; Elizabeth W. Boyer

    2009-01-01

    We combined information from long-term (weekly over many years) and short-term (high-frequency during rainfall and snowmelt events) stream water sampling efforts to understand how atmospheric deposition affects stream chemistry. Water samples were collected at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT, a temperate upland forest site that receives elevated atmospheric...

  10. Frequency-Modulated Continuous Flow Analysis Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FM-CFA-ESI-MS) for Sample Multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filla, Robert T; Schrell, Adrian M; Coulton, John B; Edwards, James L; Roper, Michael G

    2018-02-20

    A method for multiplexed sample analysis by mass spectrometry without the need for chemical tagging is presented. In this new method, each sample is pulsed at unique frequencies, mixed, and delivered to the mass spectrometer while maintaining a constant total flow rate. Reconstructed ion currents are then a time-dependent signal consisting of the sum of the ion currents from the various samples. Spectral deconvolution of each reconstructed ion current reveals the identity of each sample, encoded by its unique frequency, and its concentration encoded by the peak height in the frequency domain. This technique is different from other approaches that have been described, which have used modulation techniques to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of a single sample. As proof of concept of this new method, two samples containing up to 9 analytes were multiplexed. The linear dynamic range of the calibration curve was increased with extended acquisition times of the experiment and longer oscillation periods of the samples. Because of the combination of the samples, salt had little effect on the ability of this method to achieve relative quantitation. Continued development of this method is expected to allow for increased numbers of samples that can be multiplexed.

  11. The pressure-dependent MR effect of magnetorheological elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Chen, Ran; Ma, Ning; Li, Jinhai; Ou, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for the influence of the normal pressure on the magnetic-induced shear modulus of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) was analyzed. Pre-structured MRE samples with 30% micro-sized (∼4 μm) carbonyl iron particles by volume fraction and silicon rubber were prepared under a constant magnetic field of 200 kA m −1 . A parallel-plate MR rheometer was used to conduct dynamic measurements. Under constant strain amplitude (1%) and frequency (10 Hz), different normal pressures (32–128 kPa) were applied on the samples to investigate the normal pressure-dependence properties of MREs. The results indicated that as the normal pressure increases, the magnetic-induced shear modulus of an MRE increases, while the relative MR effect decreases. (paper)

  12. An extension of command shaping methods for controlling residual vibration using frequency sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Neil C.; Seering, Warren P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present an extension to the impulse shaping technique for commanding machines to move with reduced residual vibration. The extension, called frequency sampling, is a method for generating constraints that are used to obtain shaping sequences which minimize residual vibration in systems such as robots whose resonant frequencies change during motion. The authors present a review of impulse shaping methods, a development of the proposed extension, and a comparison of results of tests conducted on a simple model of the space shuttle robot arm. Frequency shaping provides a method for minimizing the impulse sequence duration required to give the desired insensitivity.

  13. Effect of Elevated Intracranial Pressure on Amplitudes and Frequency Tuning of Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Elicited by Bone-Conducted Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkov, Robert; Speierer, Guillaume; Wittwer, Luis; Kalla, Roger

    Recently, it could be demonstrated that an increased intracranial pressure causes a modulation of the air conducted sound evoked ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP). The mechanism for this modulation is not resolved and may depend on a change of either receptor excitability or sound energy transmission. oVEMPs were elicited in 18 healthy subjects with a minishaker delivering 500 and 1000 Hz tone bursts, in supine and tilted positions. The study could confirm the frequency tuning of oVEMP. However, at neither stimulus frequency could a modulating effect of increased intracranial pressure be observed. These data suggest that the observed modulation of the oVEMP response by an increased intracranial pressure is primarily due to the effect of an increased intralabyrinthine pressure onto the stiffness of the inner ear contents and the middle ear-inner ear junction. Future studies on the effect of intracranial pressure on oVEMP should use air-conducted sound and not bone-conducted vibration.

  14. Optimization of vehicle compartment low frequency noise based on Radial Basis Function Neuro-Network Approximation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Qi-guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For reducing the vehicle compartment low frequency noise, the Optimal Latin hypercube sampling method was applied to perform experimental design for sampling in the factorial design space. The thickness parameters of the panels with larger acoustic contribution was considered as factors, as well as the vehicle mass, seventh rank modal frequency of body, peak sound pressure of test point and sound pressure root-mean-square value as responses. By using the RBF(radial basis function neuro-network method, an approximation model of four responses about six factors was established. Further more, error analysis of established approximation model was performed in this paper. To optimize the panel’s thickness parameter, the adaptive simulated annealing algorithm was im-plemented. Optimization results show that the peak sound pressure of driver’s head was reduced by 4.45dB and 5.47dB at frequency 158HZ and 134Hz respec-tively. The test point pressure were significantly reduced at other frequency as well. The results indicate that through the optimization the vehicle interior cavity noise was reduced effectively, and the acoustical comfort of the vehicle was im-proved significantly.

  15. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadings on Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Wave induced pressures on model scale monolithic structures like caissons and concrete superstructures on rubble mound breakwaters show very peaky variations, even in cases without impacts from slamming waves....

  16. The effect of sampling rate and anti-aliasing filters on high-frequency response spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.; Goulet, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used intensity measure in ground-motion prediction equations is the pseudo-absolute response spectral acceleration (PSA), for response periods from 0.01 to 10 s (or frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz). PSAs are often derived from recorded ground motions, and these motions are usually filtered to remove high and low frequencies before the PSAs are computed. In this article we are only concerned with the removal of high frequencies. In modern digital recordings, this filtering corresponds at least to an anti-aliasing filter applied before conversion to digital values. Additional high-cut filtering is sometimes applied both to digital and to analog records to reduce high-frequency noise. Potential errors on the short-period (high-frequency) response spectral values are expected if the true ground motion has significant energy at frequencies above that of the anti-aliasing filter. This is especially important for areas where the instrumental sample rate and the associated anti-aliasing filter corner frequency (above which significant energy in the time series is removed) are low relative to the frequencies contained in the true ground motions. A ground-motion simulation study was conducted to investigate these effects and to develop guidance for defining the usable bandwidth for high-frequency PSA. The primary conclusion is that if the ratio of the maximum Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) to the FAS at a frequency fsaa corresponding to the start of the anti-aliasing filter is more than about 10, then PSA for frequencies above fsaa should be little affected by the recording process, because the ground-motion frequencies that control the response spectra will be less than fsaa . A second topic of this article concerns the resampling of the digital acceleration time series to a higher sample rate often used in the computation of short-period PSA. We confirm previous findings that sinc-function interpolation is preferred to the standard practice of using

  17. Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2004-10-01

    The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King's theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio gamma is larger than a critical value gamma(*) ( approximately 1.9 ) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a(*) (gamma) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples ( gammaacoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval H(n) . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis.

  18. A high-pressure thermal gradient block for investigating microbial activity in multiple deep-sea samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Ferdelman, TG; Jansen, KH

    2003-01-01

    Details about the construction and use of a high-pressure thermal gradient block for the simultaneous incubation of multiple samples are presented. Most parts used are moderately priced off-the-shelf components that easily obtainable. In order to keep the pressure independent of thermal expansion....... Sulfate reduction rates increase with increasing pressure and show maximum values at pressures higher than in situ. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Identification of two-phase flow pattern by using specific spatial frequency of differential pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bin; Tong Yunxian; Wu Shaorong

    1992-11-01

    It is a classical method by using analysis of differential pressure fluctuation signal to identify two-phase flow pattern. The method which uses trait peak in the frequency-domain will result confusion between bubble flow and intermittent flow due to the influence of gas speed. Considering the spatial geometric significance of two-phase slow patterns and using the differential pressure gauge as a sensor, the Strouhal number 'Sr' is taken as the basis for distinguishing flow patterns. Using Strouhal number 'Sr' to identify flow pattern has clear physical meaning. The experimental results using the spatial analytical technique to measure the flow pattern are also given

  20. Association of eating frequency with anthropometric indices and blood pressure in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Bahreynian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the association of eating frequency (EF) with anthropometric indices and blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Parents were asked to report dietary intake of children as frequency of food groups and/or items. EF was defined as the sum of the daily consumption frequency of main meals and snacks. Association of EF with weight disorders, abdominal obesity, and elevated BP was assessed using different logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Eating more frequently (≥ 6 vs. ≤ 3) was found among students who were at younger age (11.91 vs. 13.29 years) (pobese compared to those who had EF ≤ 3. Having EF of 4 (OR: 0.82, CI: 0.71-0.94), 5 (OR: 0.86, CI: 0.74-0.99), and ≥ 6 (OR: 0.73, CI: 0.63-0.85) was related to lower prevalence of abdominal adiposity. Higher EF was associated with lower mean values of anthropometric and BP measures, as well as with lower prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of EF on body composition in the pediatric age group. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Servo-controlled pneumatic pressure oscillator for respiratory impedance measurements and high-frequency ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2004-04-01

    The ability to provide forced oscillatory excitation of the respiratory system can be useful in mechanical impedance measurements as well as high frequency ventilation (HFV). Experimental systems currently used for generating forced oscillations are limited in their ability to provide high amplitude flows or maintain the respiratory system at a constant mean pressure during excitation. This paper presents the design and implementation of a pneumatic pressure oscillator based on a proportional solenoid valve. The device is capable of providing forced oscillatory excitations to the respiratory system over a bandwidth suitable for mechanical impedance measurements and HVF. It delivers high amplitude flows (> 1.4 l/s) and utilizes a servo-control mechanism to maintain a load at a fixed mean pressure during simultaneous oscillation. Under open-loop conditions, the device exhibited a static hysteresis of approximately 7%, while its dynamic magnitude and phase responses were flat out to 10 Hz. Broad-band measurement of total harmonic distortion was approximately 19%. Under closed-loop conditions, the oscillator was able to maintain a mechanical test load at both positive and negative mean pressures during oscillatory excitations from 0.1 to 10.0 Hz. Impedance of the test load agreed closely with theoretical predictions. We conclude that this servo-controlled oscillator can be a useful tool for respiratory impedance measurements as well as HFV.

  2. Effect of the Detector Width and Gas Pressure on the Frequency Response of a Micromachined Thermal Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Courteaud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the design and the environmental conditions of a micromachined thermal accelerometer, based on convection effect, are discussed and studied in order to understand the behavior of the frequency response evolution of the sensor. It has been theoretically and experimentally studied with different detector widths, pressure and gas nature. Although this type of sensor has already been intensively examined, little information concerning the frequency response modeling is currently available and very few experimental results about the frequency response are reported in the literature. In some particular conditions, our measurements show a cut-off frequency at −3 dB greater than 200 Hz. By using simple cylindrical and planar models of the thermal accelerometer and an equivalent electrical circuit, a good agreement with the experimental results has been demonstrated.

  3. FREQUENCY OF ANEUPLOID SPERMATOZOA STUDIED BY MULTICOLOR FISH IN SERIAL SEMEN SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequency of aneuploid spermatozoa studied by multicolor FISH in serial semen samplesM. Vozdova1, S. D. Perreault2, O. Rezacova1, D. Zudova1 , Z. Zudova3, S. G. Selevan4, J. Rubes1,51Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czech Republic; 2U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  4. Capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges in nitrogen at low pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Luís Lemos

    2012-07-06

    This paper uses experiments and modelling to study capacitively coupled radio-frequency (rf) discharges in pure nitrogen, at 13.56MHz frequency, 0.11 mbar pressures and 230W coupled powers. Experiments performed on two similar (not twin) setups, existing in the LATMOS and the GREMI laboratories, include electrical and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements. Electrical measurements give the rf-applied and the direct-current-self-bias voltages, the effective power coupled to the plasma and the average electron density. OES diagnostics measure the intensities of radiative transitions with the nitrogen second-positive and first-negative systems, and with the 811.5 nm atomic line of argon (present as an actinometer). Simulations use a hybrid code that couples a two-dimensional time-dependent fluid module, describing the dynamics of the charged particles (electrons and positive ions N 2 + and N 4 + ), and a zero-dimensional kinetic module, describing the production and destruction of nitrogen (atomic and molecular) neutral species. The coupling between these modules adopts the local mean energy approximation to define spacetime-dependent electron parameters for the fluid module and to work out spacetime-averaged rates for the kinetic module. The model gives general good predictions for the self-bias voltage and for the intensities of radiative transitions (both average and spatially resolved), underestimating the electron density by a factor of 34. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for In-Situ Mars Surface Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Jerman, G. A.; Harvey, R. P.; Doloboff, I. J.; Neidholdt, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. This project is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), electron gun and optics manufacturer Applied Physics Technologies, and small vacuum system manufacturer Creare. Dr. Ralph Harvery and environmental SEM (ESEM) inventor Dr. Gerry Danilatos serve as advisors to the team. Variable pressure SEMs allow for fine (nm-scale) resolution imaging and micron-scale chemical study of materials without sample preparation (e.g., carbon or gold coating). Charging of a sample is reduced or eliminated by the gas surrounding the sample. It is this property of ESEMs that make them ideal for locations where sample preparation is not yet feasible, such as the surface of Mars. In addition, the lack of sample preparation needed here will simplify the sample acquisition process and allow caching of the samples for future complementary payload use.

  6. Gray bootstrap method for estimating frequency-varying random vibration signals with small samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During environment testing, the estimation of random vibration signals (RVS is an important technique for the airborne platform safety and reliability. However, the available methods including extreme value envelope method (EVEM, statistical tolerances method (STM and improved statistical tolerance method (ISTM require large samples and typical probability distribution. Moreover, the frequency-varying characteristic of RVS is usually not taken into account. Gray bootstrap method (GBM is proposed to solve the problem of estimating frequency-varying RVS with small samples. Firstly, the estimated indexes are obtained including the estimated interval, the estimated uncertainty, the estimated value, the estimated error and estimated reliability. In addition, GBM is applied to estimating the single flight testing of certain aircraft. At last, in order to evaluate the estimated performance, GBM is compared with bootstrap method (BM and gray method (GM in testing analysis. The result shows that GBM has superiority for estimating dynamic signals with small samples and estimated reliability is proved to be 100% at the given confidence level.

  7. 2D fluid-analytical simulation of electromagnetic effects in low pressure, high frequency electronegative capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, E; Lichtenberg, A J; Lieberman, M A; Marakhtanov, A M

    2016-01-01

    A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical multifrequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor code is used to study center high nonuniformity in a low pressure electronegative chlorine discharge. In the code, a time-independent Helmholtz wave equation is used to solve for the capacitive fields in the linearized frequency domain. This eliminates the time dependence from the electromagnetic (EM) solve, greatly speeding up the simulations at the cost of neglecting higher harmonics. However, since the code allows up to three driving frequencies, we can add the two most important harmonics to the CCP simulations as the second and third input frequencies. The amplitude and phase of these harmonics are estimated by using a recently developed 1D radial nonlinear transmission line (TL) model of a highly asymmetric cylindrical discharge (Lieberman et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 055011). We find that at higher applied frequencies, the higher harmonics contribute significantly to the center high nonuniformity due to their shorter plasma wavelengths. (paper)

  8. Fiber optics frequency comb enabled linear optical sampling with operation wavelength range extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruolin; Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Zhu, Shengnan; Yu, Zhe; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    Although the linear optical sampling (LOS) technique is powerful enough to characterize various advanced modulation formats with high symbol rates, the central wavelength of a pulsed local oscillator (LO) needs to be carefully set according to that of the signal under test, due to the coherent mixing operation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate wideband LOS enabled by a fiber optics frequency comb (FOFC). Meanwhile, when the broadband FOFC acts as the pulsed LO, we propose a scheme to mitigate the enhanced sampling error arising in the non-ideal response of a balanced photodetector. Finally, precise characterizations of arbitrary 128 Gbps PDM-QPSK wavelength channels from 1550 to 1570 nm are successfully achieved, when a 101.3 MHz frequency spaced comb with a 3 dB spectral power ripple of 20 nm is used.

  9. A Frequency Matching Method for Generation of a Priori Sample Models from Training Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically...... indistinguishable from the training image....

  10. High frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Effect of cerebral blood flow in patients after open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittet, J.F.; Forster, A.; Suter, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Attenuation of ventilator-synchronous pressure fluctuations of intracranial pressure has been demonstrated during high frequency ventilation in animal and human studies, but the consequences of this effect on cerebral blood flow have not been investigated in man. We compared the effects of high frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation on CBF in 24 patients investigated three hours after completion of open-heart surgery. The patients were investigated during three consecutive periods with standard sedation (morphine, pancuronium): a. IPPV; b. HFJV; c. IPPV. Partial pressure of arterial CO 2 (PaCO 2 : 4.5-5.5 kPa) and rectal temperature (35.5 to 37.5 degree C) were maintained constant during the study. The CBF was measured by intravenous 133 Xe washout technique. The following variables were derived from the cerebral clearance of 133 Xe: the rapid compartment flow, the initial slope index, ie, a combination of the rapid and the slow compartment flows, and the ratio of fast compartment flow over total CBF (FF). Compared to IPPV, HFJV applied to result in the same mean airway pressure did not produce any change in pulmonary gas exchange, mean systemic arterial pressure, and cardiac index. Similarly, CBF was not significantly altered by HFJV. However, important variations of CBF values were observed in three patients, although the classic main determinants of CBF (PaCO 2 , cerebral perfusion pressure, Paw, temperature) remained unchanged. Our results suggest that in patients with normal systemic hemodynamics, the effects of HFJV and IPPV on CBF are comparable at identical levels of mean airway pressure

  11. Calculation of sample problems related to two-phase flow blowdown transients in pressure relief piping of a PWR pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1984-02-01

    A method was published, based on the integral method of characteristics, by which the junction and boundary conditions needed in computation of a flow in a piping network can be accurately formulated. The method for the junction and boundary conditions formulation together with the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme are used in a computer program; the program in turn, is used here in calculating sample problems related to the blowdown transient of a two-phase flow in the piping network downstream of a PWR pressurizer. Independent, nearly exact analytical solutions also are obtained for the sample problems. Comparison of the results obtained by the hybrid numerical technique with the analytical solutions showed generally good agreement. The good numerical accuracy shown by the results of our scheme suggest that the hybrid numerical technique is suitable for both benchmark and design calculations of PWR pressurizer blowdown transients

  12. Central Pulsatile Pressure and Flow Relationship in the Time and Frequency Domain to Characterise Hydraulic Input to the Brain and Cerebral Vascular Impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ok; O'Rourke, Michael F; Adji, Audrey; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-01-01

    In the time domain, pulsatile flow and pressure can be characterised as the ratio of the late systolic boost of flow or pressure to the pulse amplitude so as to estimate the hydraulic input to the brain. While vascular impedance has been widely used to represent the load presented to the heart by the systemic circulation, it has not been applied to the cerebral circulation.We set out to study the relationship between the pressure and the flow augmentation index (AIx) in the time domain and to determine cerebral vascular impedance using aortic blood pressure and cerebral blood flow waveforms in the frequency domain. Twenty-four young subjects (aged 21-39 years) were recruited; aortic pressure was derived using SphygmoCor from radial pressure. Flow waveforms were recorded from the middle cerebral artery. In three subjects, we performed the Valsalva manoeuvre to investigate their response to physiological intervention. There was a linear relationship between flow and pressure AIx, and cerebral impedance values were similar to those estimated for low resistance vascular beds. Substantial change in pressure and flow wave contour was observed during the Valsalva manoeuvre; however, the relationship in both the time and the frequency domains were unchanged. This confirms that aortic pressure and cerebral flow waveform can be used to study cerebral impedance.

  13. SNP calling, genotype calling, and sample allele frequency estimation from new-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical framework for estimation and application of sample allele frequency spectra from New-Generation Sequencing (NGS) data. In this method, we first estimate the allele frequency spectrum using maximum likelihood. In contrast to previous methods, the likelihood function is cal...... be extended to various other cases including cases with deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We evaluate the statistical properties of the methods using simulations and by application to a real data set....

  14. A high-pressure thermal gradient block for investigating microbial activity in multiple deep-sea samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Ferdelman, TG; Jansen, KH

    2003-01-01

    Details about the construction and use of a high-pressure thermal gradient block for the simultaneous incubation of multiple samples are presented. Most parts used are moderately priced off-the-shelf components that easily obtainable. In order to keep the pressure independent of thermal expansion...... range of temperatures and pressures and can easily be modified to accommodate different experiments, either biological or chemical. As an application, we present measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction rates in hydrothermal sediments from Guyamas Basin over a wide range of temperatures and pressures...

  15. Raman study of pressure effects on frequencies and isotropic line shapes in liquid acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, W.; Sharko, P.T.; Jonas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Raman line shape of the symmetric C = O stretching band at 1710 cm -1 has been measured in liquid acetone as a function of pressure from 1 bar to 4 kbar over the temperature range from -25 to 50 0 C. The experimental data obtained show several unusual features. First, there is a frequency difference of about 7 cm -1 between the polarized and depolarized components. Sceond, the isotropic linewidth GAMMA/sub iso/ decreases with increasing density, in contrast to the opposite trend usually found in other liquids. Third, the second moment M 2 (V) of the isotropic band appears to decrease with increasing density. The consideration of the experimental linewidth and frequency data leads to a conclusion that intermolecular dipole--dipole coupling between polar acetone molecules are responsible for the observed unusual behavior of , GAMMA/sub iso/, and M 2

  16. Temporal evolution of electron density in a low pressure pulsed two-frequency (60 MHz/2 MHz) capacitively coupled plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirse, N; Ellingboe, A R; Jeon, M H; Yeom, G Y

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved electron density, n e , is measured in a low pressure pulsed two-frequency capacitively coupled plasma discharge sustained in Ar and in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 (80 : 10 : 10) gas mixture using a floating resonance hairpin probe. The top electrode is powered by 60 MHz in pulse mode and the bottom electrode is powered by 2 MHz in continuous wave mode. The dependence of time-resolved n e on the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power levels, operating gas pressure, pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and duty cycle are investigated. It is found that the steady state n e in the long on-phase is greatly influenced by the HF power level and slightly affected by the LF power level in both Ar and Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma. The decay time of n e is slow (∼30–90 µs) in the case of Ar plasma and strongly depends on the LF power level, whereas in the case of Ar/CF 4 /O 2 gas mixture it is very fast (∼15 µs) and marginally dependent on LF power level. In Ar plasma the steady state n e is increasing with a rise in operating gas pressure, however, in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma it first increases with gas pressure reaching to the maximum (at 20 mTorr) value and then decreases. The pressure dependence of decay time constant mimics the pressure variation of steady state n e . Furthermore, it is observed that the on-phase electron density is greatly affected by changing the PRF and duty cycle. This effect is more prominent in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 plasma when compared to Ar discharge. In addition, n e is observed to overshoot the steady state densities in the beginning of the on-phase in Ar/CF 4 /O 2 gas mixture, but this effect is either small or absent in the case of Ar plasma. (paper)

  17. Dielectric characterization of materials at microwave frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de los Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a coaxial line was used to connect a microwave-frequency Network Analyzer and a base moving sample holder for dielectric characterization of ferroelectric materials in the microwave range. The main innovation of the technique is the introduction of a special sample holder that eliminates the air gap effect by pressing sample using a fine pressure system control. The device was preliminary tested with alumina (Al2O3 ceramics and validated up to 2 GHz. Dielectric measurements of lanthanum and manganese modified lead titanate (PLTM ceramics were carried out in order to evaluate the technique for a high permittivity material in the microwave range. Results showed that such method is very useful for materials with high dielectric permittivities, which is generally a limiting factor of other techniques in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 2 GHz.

  18. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  19. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Fung

    Full Text Available The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%, a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L., occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  20. Turbine engine rotor blade fault diagnostics through casing pressure and vibration sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J; Anusonti-Inthra, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an exact solution is provided for a previously indeterminate equation used for rotor blade fault diagnostics. The method estimates rotor blade natural frequency through turbine engine casing pressure and vibration sensors. The equation requires accurate measurements of low-amplitude sideband signals in the frequency domain. With this in mind, statistical evaluation was also completed with the goal of determining the effect of sampling time and frequency on sideband resolution in the frequency domain

  1. High pressure and [Ca2+] produce an inverse modulation of synaptic input strength, network excitability and frequency response in the rat dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I Talpalar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric environments induce the high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS characterized by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system and memory impairment. Human divers and other animals experience the HPNS at pressures beyond 1.1 MPa. High pressure depresses synaptic transmission and alters its dynamics in various animal models. Medial perforant path (MPP synapses connecting the medial entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation are suppressed by 50% at 10.1MPa. Reduction of synaptic inputs is paradoxically associated with enhanced ability of dentate gyrus’ granule cells to generate spikes at high pressure. This mechanism allows MPP inputs to elicit standard granule cell outputs at 0.1 -25 Hz frequencies under hyperbaric conditions. An increased postsynaptic gain of MPP inputs probably allows diving animals to perform in hyperbaric environments, but makes them vulnerable to high intensity/frequency stimuli producing hyperexcitability. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+o partially reverted pressure-mediated depression of MPP inputs and increased MPP’s low-pass filter properties. We postulated that raising Ca2+o in addition to increase synaptic inputs may reduce network excitability in the dentate gyrus potentially improving its function and reducing sensitivity to high intensity and pathologic stimuli. For this matter, we activated the MPP with single and 50 Hz frequency stimuli that simulated physiologic and deleterious conditions, while assessing the granule cell’s output under various conditions of pressure and Ca2+o. Our results reveal that pressure and Ca2+o produce an inverse modulation on synaptic input strength and network excitability. These coincident phenomena suggest a potential general mechanism of networks that adjusts gain as an inverse function of synaptic inputs’ strength. Such mechanism may serve for adaptation to variable pressure and other physiological and pathological conditions and may explain the

  2. Measuring saccade peak velocity using a low-frequency sampling rate of 50 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierts, Roel; Janssen, Maurice J A; Kingma, Herman

    2008-12-01

    During the last decades, small head-mounted video eye trackers have been developed in order to record eye movements. Real-time systems-with a low sampling frequency of 50/60 Hz-are used for clinical vestibular practice, but are generally considered not to be suited for measuring fast eye movements. In this paper, it is shown that saccadic eye movements, having an amplitude of at least 5 degrees, can, in good approximation, be considered to be bandwidth limited up to a frequency of 25-30 Hz. Using the Nyquist theorem to reconstruct saccadic eye movement signals at higher temporal resolutions, it is shown that accurate values for saccade peak velocities, recorded at 50 Hz, can be obtained, but saccade peak accelerations and decelerations cannot. In conclusion, video eye trackers sampling at 50/60 Hz are appropriate for detecting the clinical relevant saccade peak velocities in contrast to what has been stated up till now.

  3. Low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitude during the passage of a higher pressure solar wind region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The passage of a higher pressure solar wind region at the Earth's orbit marked the onset of low latitude (L=1.6 fluctuations in the frequency range (0.8–5.5 mHz for both the horizontal geomagnetic field components. Spectral peaks mostly occur at the same frequencies as the spectral enhancements which appeared in the long term analysis of experimental measurements from the same station and were tentatively interpreted in terms of ground signatures of global magnetospheric modes. A comparison with simultaneous observations discussed by previous investigations allows us to conclude that the same set of frequencies is enhanced in a wide portion of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  4. Pressure-mediated doping in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Jimmy; Machon, Denis; Poncharal, Philippe; Pierre-Louis, Olivier; San-Miguel, Alfonso

    2011-09-14

    Exfoliated graphene and few layer graphene samples supported on SiO(2) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy at high pressure. For samples immersed on a alcohol mixture, an electron transfer of ∂n/∂P ∼ 8 × 10(12) cm(-2) GPa(-1) is observed for monolayer and bilayer graphene, leading to giant doping values of n ∼ 6 × 10(13) cm(-2) at the maximum pressure of 7 GPa. Three independent and consistent proofs of the doping process are obtained from (i) the evolution of the Raman G-band to 2D-band intensity ratio, (ii) the pressure coefficient of the G-band frequency, and (iii) the 2D band components splitting in the case of the bilayer sample. The charge transfer phenomena is absent for trilayer samples and for samples immersed in argon or nitrogen. We also show that a phase transition from a 2D biaxial strain response, resulting from the substrate drag upon volume reduction, to a 3D hydrostatic compression takes place when going from the bilayer to the trilayer sample. By model calculations we relate this transition to the unbinding of the graphene-SiO(2) system when increasing the number of graphene layers and as function of the surface roughness parameters. We propose that the formation of silanol groups on the SiO(2) substrate allows for a capacitance-induced substrate-mediated charge transfer.

  5. Remote through-wall sampling of the Trawsfynydd reactor pressure vessel: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, A.; Clayton, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarises the application of robotic equipment for gaining access to and removing through-wall samples from welds of the reactor pressure vessel at Trawsfynydd power station. The environment, which presents hazards due to ionising radiation, radioactive contamination and asbestos bearing materials is described. The means of access, by use of remote vehicles complete with robotic manipulators supported by additional vehicles, is reviewed. The use of Abrasive Water Jet Cutting for sample removal is introduced. The relative advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed. (Author)

  6. A general theory on frequency and time-frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series based on projection methods - Part 1: Frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Crucifix, Michel

    2018-03-01

    We develop a general framework for the frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series. It is based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, but extended to algebraic operators accounting for the presence of a polynomial trend in the model for the data, in addition to a periodic component and a background noise. Special care is devoted to the correlation between the trend and the periodic component. This new periodogram is then cast into the Welch overlapping segment averaging (WOSA) method in order to reduce its variance. We also design a test of significance for the WOSA periodogram, against the background noise. The model for the background noise is a stationary Gaussian continuous autoregressive-moving-average (CARMA) process, more general than the classical Gaussian white or red noise processes. CARMA parameters are estimated following a Bayesian framework. We provide algorithms that compute the confidence levels for the WOSA periodogram and fully take into account the uncertainty in the CARMA noise parameters. Alternatively, a theory using point estimates of CARMA parameters provides analytical confidence levels for the WOSA periodogram, which are more accurate than Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) confidence levels and, below some threshold for the number of data points, less costly in computing time. We then estimate the amplitude of the periodic component with least-squares methods, and derive an approximate proportionality between the squared amplitude and the periodogram. This proportionality leads to a new extension for the periodogram: the weighted WOSA periodogram, which we recommend for most frequency analyses with irregularly sampled data. The estimated signal amplitude also permits filtering in a frequency band. Our results generalise and unify methods developed in the fields of geosciences, engineering, astronomy and astrophysics. They also constitute the starting point for an extension to the continuous wavelet transform developed in a companion

  7. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  8. Influence of sampling frequency and load calculation methods on quantification of annual river nutrient and suspended solids loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Ahmed; Singh, Ranvir; Patterson, Maree; Roygard, Jon; Horne, Dave; Clothier, Brent; Jones, Geoffrey

    2018-01-11

    Better management of water quality in streams, rivers and lakes requires precise and accurate estimates of different contaminant loads. We assessed four sampling frequencies (2 days, weekly, fortnightly and monthly) and five load calculation methods (global mean (GM), rating curve (RC), ratio estimator (RE), flow-stratified (FS) and flow-weighted (FW)) to quantify loads of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 - -N), soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS), in the Manawatu River, New Zealand. The estimated annual river loads were compared to the reference 'true' loads, calculated using daily measurements of flow and water quality from May 2010 to April 2011, to quantify bias (i.e. accuracy) and root mean square error 'RMSE' (i.e. accuracy and precision). The GM method resulted into relatively higher RMSE values and a consistent negative bias (i.e. underestimation) in estimates of annual river loads across all sampling frequencies. The RC method resulted in the lowest RMSE for TN, TP and TSS at monthly sampling frequency. Yet, RC highly overestimated the loads for parameters that showed dilution effect such as NO 3 - -N and SIN. The FW and RE methods gave similar results, and there was no essential improvement in using RE over FW. In general, FW and RE performed better than FS in terms of bias, but FS performed slightly better than FW and RE in terms of RMSE for most of the water quality parameters (DRP, TP, TN and TSS) using a monthly sampling frequency. We found no significant decrease in RMSE values for estimates of NO 3 - N, SIN, TN and DRP loads when the sampling frequency was increased from monthly to fortnightly. The bias and RMSE values in estimates of TP and TSS loads (estimated by FW, RE and FS), however, showed a significant decrease in the case of weekly or 2-day sampling. This suggests potential for a higher sampling frequency during flow peaks for more precise

  9. Note: Radio frequency surface impedance characterization system for superconducting samples at 7.5 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, B P; Reece, C E; Phillips, H L; Geng, R L; Wang, H; Marhauser, F; Kelley, M J

    2011-05-01

    A radio frequency (RF) surface impedance characterization (SIC) system that uses a novel sapphire-loaded niobium cavity operating at 7.5 GHz has been developed as a tool to measure the RF surface impedance of flat superconducting material samples. The SIC system can presently make direct calorimetric RF surface impedance measurements on the central 0.8 cm(2) area of 5 cm diameter disk samples from 2 to 20 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT. To illustrate system utility, we present first measurement results for a bulk niobium sample.

  10. A Prototype Ice-Melting Probe for Collecting Biological Samples from Cryogenic Ice at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ashley

    2017-08-01

    In the Solar System, the surface of an icy moon is composed of irregular ice formations at cryogenic temperatures (pumps. The device contains a heated conical probe with a central orifice, which is forced into surface ice and directs the meltwater upward into a reservoir. The force on the probe is proportional to the height of meltwater (pressure) obtained in the system and allows regulation of the melt rate and temperature of the sample. The device can collect 5-50 mL of meltwater from the surface of an ice block at 233-208 K with an environmental pressure of less than 10-2 atm while maintaining a sample temperature between 273 and 293 K. These conditions maintain most biological samples in a pristine state and maintain the integrity of most organisms' structure and function.

  11. GEO-MIX-SELF calculations of the elastic properties of a textured graphite sample at different hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthies, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    The recently developed GEO-MIX-SELF approximation (GMS) is applied to interpret the pressure dependence of the longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocities in a polycrystalline graphite sample that has already been investigated in a wide range of experimental contexts. Graphite single crystals have extremely anisotropic elastic properties, making this sample a challenging test to demonstrate the potential of the GMS method. GMS combines elements of well known self-consistent algorithms and of the geometric mean approximation. It is able to consider mixtures of different polycrystalline phases, each with its own nonspherical grain shape and preferred orientation (texture). Pores and 'cracks', typical for bulk graphite, are modeled as phases with 'empty' grains. The pressure dependence (up to 150 MPa) of the experimental wave velocities can be well explained using the known texture of the sample by fitting the shape parameters and volume fractions of the graphite grains, cracks and spherical pores. The pressure dependence of these parameters describes a reasonable scenario for the closing of the cracks and pores with increasing pressure. (orig.)

  12. High-pressure hydrogen respiration in hydrothermal vent samples from the deep biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Smith, D.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Cultivation of organisms from the deep biosphere has met with many challenges, chief among them the ability to replicate this extreme environment in a laboratory setting. The maintenance of in situ pressure levels, carbon sources, and gas concentrations are important, intertwined factors which may all affect the growth of subsurface microorganisms. Hydrogen in particular is of great importance in hydrothermal systems, but in situ hydrogen concentrations are largely disregarded in attempts to culture from these sites. Using modified Hungate-type culture tubes (Bowles et al. 2011) within pressure-retaining vessels, which allow for the dissolution of higher concentrations of gas than is possible with other culturing methods, we have incubated hydrothermal chimney and hydrothermally-altered rock samples from the Lost City and Mid-Cayman Rise hydrothermal vent fields. Hydrogen concentrations up to 15 mmol/kg have been reported from Lost City (Kelley et al. 2005), but data are not yet available from the recently-discovered Mid-Cayman site, and the elevated concentration of 30 mmol/kg is being used in all incubations. We are using a variety of media types to enrich for various metabolic pathways including iron and sulfur reduction under anoxic or microaerophilic conditions. Incubations are being carried out at atmospheric (0.1 MPa), in situ (9, 23, or 50 MPa, depending on site), and elevated (50 MPa) pressure levels. Microbial cell concentrations, taxonomic diversity, and metabolic activities are being monitored during the course of these experiments. These experiments will provide insight into the relationships between microbial activities, pressure, and gas concentrations typical of deep biosphere environments. Results will inform further culturing studies from both fresh and archived samples. References cited: Bowles, M.W., Samarkin, V.A., Joye, S.B. 2011. Improved measurement of microbial activity in deep-sea sediments at in situ pressure and methane concentration

  13. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers

  14. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou Cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers Cedex (France)

    2004-03-07

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers.

  15. Estimating species – area relationships by modeling abundance and frequency subject to incomplete sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Connor, Edward F.; Royle, Andy; Itoh, Katsuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Mishima, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Models and data used to describe species–area relationships confound sampling with ecological process as they fail to acknowledge that estimates of species richness arise due to sampling. This compromises our ability to make ecological inferences from and about species–area relationships. We develop and illustrate hierarchical community models of abundance and frequency to estimate species richness. The models we propose separate sampling from ecological processes by explicitly accounting for the fact that sampled patches are seldom completely covered by sampling plots and that individuals present in the sampling plots are imperfectly detected. We propose a multispecies abundance model in which community assembly is treated as the summation of an ensemble of species-level Poisson processes and estimate patch-level species richness as a derived parameter. We use sampling process models appropriate for specific survey methods. We propose a multispecies frequency model that treats the number of plots in which a species occurs as a binomial process. We illustrate these models using data collected in surveys of early-successional bird species and plants in young forest plantation patches. Results indicate that only mature forest plant species deviated from the constant density hypothesis, but the null model suggested that the deviations were too small to alter the form of species–area relationships. Nevertheless, results from simulations clearly show that the aggregate pattern of individual species density–area relationships and occurrence probability–area relationships can alter the form of species–area relationships. The plant community model estimated that only half of the species present in the regional species pool were encountered during the survey. The modeling framework we propose explicitly accounts for sampling processes so that ecological processes can be examined free of sampling artefacts. Our modeling approach is extensible and could be applied

  16. Pronounced low-frequency vibrational thermal transport in C60 fullerite realized through pressure-dependent molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2017-12-01

    Fullerene condensed-matter solids can possess thermal conductivities below their minimum glassy limit while theorized to be stiffer than diamond when crystallized under pressure. These seemingly disparate extremes in thermal and mechanical properties raise questions into the pressure dependence on the thermal conductivity of C60 fullerite crystals, and how the spectral contributions to vibrational thermal conductivity changes under applied pressure. To answer these questions, we investigate the effect of strain on the thermal conductivity of C60 fullerite crystals via pressure-dependent molecular dynamics simulations under the Green-Kubo formalism. We show that the thermal conductivity increases rapidly with compressive strain, which demonstrates a power-law relationship similar to their stress-strain relationship for the C60 crystals. Calculations of the density of states for the crystals under compressive strains reveal that the librational modes characteristic in the unstrained case are diminished due to densification of the molecular crystal. Over a large compression range (0-20 GPa), the Leibfried-Schlömann equation is shown to adequately describe the pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, suggesting that low-frequency intermolecular vibrations dictate heat flow in the C60 crystals. A spectral decomposition of the thermal conductivity supports this hypothesis.

  17. Optimization of hydrostatic pressure at varied sonication conditions--power density, intensity, very low frequency--for isothermal ultrasonic sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Henri; Le, Ngoc Tuan; Barthe, Laurie; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine

    2015-07-01

    This work aims at investigating for the first time the key sonication (US) parameters: power density (DUS), intensity (IUS), and frequency (FS) - down to audible range, under varied hydrostatic pressure (Ph) and low temperature isothermal conditions (to avoid any thermal effect). The selected application was activated sludge disintegration, a major industrial US process. For a rational approach all comparisons were made at same specific energy input (ES, US energy per solid weight) which is also the relevant economic criterion. The decoupling of power density and intensity was obtained by either changing the sludge volume or most often by changing probe diameter, all other characteristics being unchanged. Comprehensive results were obtained by varying the hydrostatic pressure at given power density and intensity. In all cases marked maxima of sludge disintegration appeared at optimum pressures, which values increased at increasing power intensity and density. Such optimum was expected due to opposite effects of increasing hydrostatic pressure: higher cavitation threshold then smaller and fewer bubbles, but higher temperature and pressure at the end of collapse. In addition the first attempt to lower US frequency down to audible range was very successful: at any operation condition (DUS, IUS, Ph, sludge concentration and type) higher sludge disintegration was obtained at 12 kHz than at 20 kHz. The same values of optimum pressure were observed at 12 and 20 kHz. At same energy consumption the best conditions - obtained at 12 kHz, maximum power density 720 W/L and 3.25 bar - provided about 100% improvement with respect to usual conditions (1 bar, 20 kHz). Important energy savings and equipment size reduction may then be expected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Berry-Esséen bound of frequency polygons for ϕ-mixing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gan-Ji; Xing, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Under some mild assumptions, the Berry-Esséen bound of frequency polygons for ϕ -mixing samples is presented. By the bound derived, we obtain the corresponding convergence rate of uniformly asymptotic normality, which is nearly [Formula: see text] under the given conditions.

  19. Excitation of high frequency pressure driven modes in non-axisymmetric equilibrium at high βpol in PBX-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnic, S.; Holland, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Asakura, N.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Chance, M. S.; Duperrex, P.-A.; Fonck, R. J.; Gammel, G. M.; Greene, G. J.; Hatcher, R. E.; Jardin, S. C.; Jiang, T.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Manickam, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S. F.; Powell, E. T.; Qin, Y.; Roberts, D. W.; Sauthoff, N. R.

    1993-12-01

    High frequency pressure driven modes have been observed in high poloidal beta discharges in the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M). These modes are excited in a non-axisymmetric equilibrium characterized by a large, low frequency mt = 1/nt = 1 island, and they are capable of expelling fast ions. The modes reside on or very close to the q = 1 surface and have mode numbers with either mh = nh or (less probably) mh/nh = mh/(mh-1), with mh varying between 3 and 10. Occasionally these modes are simultaneously localized in the vicinity of the ml = 2/nl = 1 island. The high frequency modes near the q = 1 surface also exhibit a ballooning character, being significantly stronger on the large major radius side of the plasma. When a large mt = 1/nt = 1 island is present, the mode is poloidally localized in the immediate vicinity of the X point of the island. The modes occur exclusively in high beta beam heated discharges and are likely to be driven by the beam ions. They can thus be a manifestation of either a toroidicity induced shear Alfven eigenmode (TAE) at q = (2mh+1)/2nh, a kinetic ballooning mode, or some other type of pressure driven (high β) mode. Most of the data are consistent with the theoretical predictions for the TAE gap mode. Since the high frequency modes in PBX-M, however, are found exclusively on or in the immediate neighbourhood of magnetic surfaces with low rational numbers (q = 1, 2,...), other possibilities are not excluded

  20. Implementation of PLL and FLL trackers for signals with high harmonic content and low sampling frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Iov, Florin; Sera, Dezso

    2014-01-01

    The accurate tracking of phase, frequency, and amplitude of different frequency components from a measured signal is an essential requirement for many digitally controlled equipment. The accurate and robust tracking of a frequency component from a complex signal was successfully applied for example...... in: grid connected inverters, sensorless motor control for rotor position estimation, grid voltage monitoring for ac-dc converters etc. Usually, the design of such trackers is done in continuous time domain. The discretization introduces errors which change the performance, especially when the input...... signal is rich in harmonics and the sampling frequency is close to the tracked frequency component. In this paper different discretization methods and implementation issues, such as Tustin, Backward-Forward Euler, are discussed and compared. A special case is analyzed, when the input signal is reach...

  1. A technique of taking samples from inside the pressure tube along the axis of the fuel channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ageing process through its complex mechanisms affects in time more or less the component parts, the systems and the structures of the nuclear power plant. For CANDU type nuclear power plant the main component part in operation is the pressure tube, made from Zr - 2,5% Nb alloy, used in extreme hard operation conditions (static and dynamic loading from high pressure and temperature and high neutron flux). The pressure tube endures, in time, changing of the material and of the geometry. Additionally, the excessive hydrogen uptake initiates the Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) mechanism on the pressure tubes. For checking the evolution of the hydride / deuteration phenomena in the material of the pressure tube and especially to establish the real lifetime as compared to design lifetime it is useful to initiate, develop and apply a technology and a complex equipment for taking samples directly from inside the pressure tube, this enabling the determination of the hydrogen content. In the paper are showed briefly: - the evolution in time of the techniques for axial taking of the samples from inside of the pressure tube used in the CANDU 6 NPP; - the reasons that determined us to develop one of these technologies; - the technological facilities needed to apply it. (author)

  2. A technique of taking samples from inside the pressure tube along the axis of the fuel channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ageing process through its complex mechanisms affects in time more or less the component parts, the systems and the structures of the nuclear power plant. For CANDU type nuclear power plant the main component part in operation is the pressure tube, made from Zr - 2,5% Nb alloy, used in extreme hard operation conditions (static and dynamic loading from high pressure and temperature and high neutron flux). The pressure tube endures, in time, changing of the material and of the geometry. Additionally, the excessive hydrogen uptake initiates the Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) mechanism on the pressure tubes. For checking the evolution of the hydride/deuteration phenomena in the material of the pressure tube and especially to establish the real lifetime as compared to design lifetime it is useful to initiate, develop and apply a technology and a complex equipment for taking samples directly from inside the pressure tube, this enabling the determination of the hydrogen content. In the paper are showed briefly: - the evolution in time of the techniques for axial taking of the samples from inside of the pressure tube used in the CANDU 6 NPP; - the reasons that determined us to develop one of these technologies; - the technological facilities needed to apply it. (author)

  3. Frequency analysis of CSF flow on cine-MRI in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyati, Tosiaki; Kasuga, Toshio; Imai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Mase, Mitsuhito; Itikawa, Katuhiro

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the flow dynamics of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), frequency analyses of CSF flow measured with an ECG-gated phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. The amplitude and phase in the CSF flow spectra in the aqueduct were determined in patients with NPH after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-NPH group, n=26), an idiopathic NPH (I-NPH group, n=4), an asymptomatic ventricular dilation or a brain atrophy (VD group, n=21), and in healthy volunteers (control group, n=25). The changes of CSF flow spectra were also analyzed 5 and 15 minutes after an intravenous injection of acetazolamide. Moreover, a phase transfer function (PTF) calculated from the spectra of the driving vascular pulsation and CSF flow in the aqueduct were assessed in patients with SAH-NPH and control groups before and after acetazolamide injection. There values were compared with the pressure volume response (PVR). The amplitude of the 1st-3rd harmonics in the SAH-NPH or I-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control or VD group because of a decrease in compliance (increase in PVR). The phase of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly different from that in the control or VD group, but no difference was found between the control and VD groups. The amplitude of the 0-3rd harmonics increased, and the phase of the 1st harmonic changed in all groups after an acetazolamide injection. An evaluation of the time course of the direct current of CSF flow provided further information about the compensatory faculty of the cerebrospinal cavity. A PTF of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control group, and a positive correlation was noted between PTF of the 1st harmonic and PVR. In conclusion, frequency analyses of CSF flow measured by cine-MRI make it possible to obtain noninvasively a more detailed picture of the pathophysiology of NPH and of changes in intracranial

  4. Frequency analysis of CSF flow on cine-MRI in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyati, Tosiaki; Kasuga, Toshio; Imai, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujita, Hiroshi; Mase, Mitsuhito; Itikawa, Katuhiro

    2001-09-01

    To clarify the flow dynamics of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), frequency analyses of CSF flow measured with an ECG-gated phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. The amplitude and phase in the CSF flow spectra in the aqueduct were determined in patients with NPH after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-NPH group, n=26), an idiopathic NPH (I-NPH group, n=4), an asymptomatic ventricular dilation or a brain atrophy (VD group, n=21), and in healthy volunteers (control group, n=25). The changes of CSF flow spectra were also analyzed 5 and 15 minutes after an intravenous injection of acetazolamide. Moreover, a phase transfer function (PTF) calculated from the spectra of the driving vascular pulsation and CSF flow in the aqueduct were assessed in patients with SAH-NPH and control groups before and after acetazolamide injection. There values were compared with the pressure volume response (PVR). The amplitude of the 1st-3rd harmonics in the SAH-NPH or I-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control or VD group because of a decrease in compliance (increase in PVR). The phase of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly different from that in the control or VD group, but no difference was found between the control and VD groups. The amplitude of the 0-3rd harmonics increased, and the phase of the 1st harmonic changed in all groups after an acetazolamide injection. An evaluation of the time course of the direct current of CSF flow provided further information about the compensatory faculty of the cerebrospinal cavity. A PTF of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control group, and a positive correlation was noted between PTF of the 1st harmonic and PVR. In conclusion, frequency analyses of CSF flow measured by cine-MRI make it possible to obtain noninvasively a more detailed picture of the pathophysiology of NPH and of changes in intracranial

  5. Static pressure and temperature coefficients of laboratory standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1996-01-01

    of the microphone. The static pressure and temperature coefficients were determined experimentally for about twenty samples of type BK 4160 and BK 4180 microphones. The results agree almost perfectly with the predictions for BK 4160, while some modifications of the lumped parameter values are called for to make......-order approximation of resonances in the back cavity. It was found that each of the coefficients, for a given type of microphone, can be expressed by a single function when the coefficients are normalized by their low-frequency value and the frequency axis normalized by the individual resonance frequency...

  6. Comparison of mobile and stationary spore-sampling techniques for estimating virulence frequencies in aerial barley powdery mildew populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmøller, M.S.; Munk, L.; Østergård, Hanne

    1995-01-01

    Gene frequencies in samples of aerial populations of barley powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei), which were collected in adjacent barley areas and in successive periods of time, were compared using mobile and stationary sampling techniques. Stationary samples were collected from trap ...

  7. Association of eating frequency with anthropometric indices and blood pressure in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: This study was conducted to explore the association of eating frequency (EF with anthropometric indices and blood pressure (BP in children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 14,880 students, aged 6–18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Parents were asked to report dietary intake of children as frequency of food groups and/or items. EF was defined as the sum of the daily consumption frequency of main meals and snacks. Association of EF with weight disorders, abdominal obesity, and elevated BP was assessed using different logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: Eating more frequently (≥6 vs. ≤3 was found among students who were at younger age (11.91 vs. 13.29 years (p < 0.001. Students who reported an EF of 4 (OR: 0.67, CI: 0.57–0.79, 5 (OR: 0.74, CI: 0.62–0.87, and 6 (OR: 0.54, CI: 0.44–0.65 had lower odds of being obese compared to those who had EF ≤ 3. Having EF of 4 (OR: 0.82, CI: 0.71–0.94, 5 (OR: 0.86, CI: 0.74–0.99, and ≥6 (OR: 0.73, CI: 0.63–0.85 was related to lower prevalence of abdominal adiposity. Conclusion: Higher EF was associated with lower mean values of anthropometric and BP measures, as well as with lower prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of EF on body composition in the pediatric age group.

  8. An estimation of core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor during midloop operation due to loss of residual heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.C.; Chen, C.T.; Lee, M.

    1995-01-01

    The core damage frequency caused by loss of residual heat removal (RHR) events was assessed during midloop operation of a Westinghouse-designed three-loop pressurized water reactor. The assessment considers two types of outages (refueling and drained maintenance) and uses failure data collected specifically for shutdown condition. Event trees were developed for five categories of loss of RHR events. Human actions to mitigate the loss of RHR events were identified and human error probabilities were quantified using the human cognitive reliability (HCR) and the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) models. The results showed that the core damage frequency caused by loss of RHR events during midloop operation was 3.4 x 10 -5 per year. The results also showed that the core damage frequency can be reduced significantly by removing a pressurizer safety valve before entering midloop operation. The establishment of reflux cooling, i.e., decay heat removal through the steam generator secondary side, also plays an important role in mitigating the loss of RHR events during midloop operation

  9. Efficient computation of the joint sample frequency spectra for multiple populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, John A; Terhorst, Jonathan; Song, Yun S

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of studies in population genetics have employed the sample frequency spectrum (SFS), a summary statistic which describes the distribution of mutant alleles at a polymorphic site in a sample of DNA sequences and provides a highly efficient dimensional reduction of large-scale population genomic variation data. Recently, there has been much interest in analyzing the joint SFS data from multiple populations to infer parameters of complex demographic histories, including variable population sizes, population split times, migration rates, admixture proportions, and so on. SFS-based inference methods require accurate computation of the expected SFS under a given demographic model. Although much methodological progress has been made, existing methods suffer from numerical instability and high computational complexity when multiple populations are involved and the sample size is large. In this paper, we present new analytic formulas and algorithms that enable accurate, efficient computation of the expected joint SFS for thousands of individuals sampled from hundreds of populations related by a complex demographic model with arbitrary population size histories (including piecewise-exponential growth). Our results are implemented in a new software package called momi (MOran Models for Inference). Through an empirical study we demonstrate our improvements to numerical stability and computational complexity.

  10. Analytical–numerical global model of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, C; Chabert, P; Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J; Leblanc, A

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional hybrid analytical–numerical global model of atmospheric-pressure, radio-frequency (rf) driven capacitive discharges is developed. The feed gas is assumed to be helium with small admixtures of oxygen or nitrogen. The electrical characteristics are modeled analytically as a current-driven homogeneous discharge. The electron power balance is solved analytically to determine a time-varying Maxwellian electron temperature, which oscillates on the rf timescale. Averaging over the rf period yields effective rate coefficients for gas phase activated processes. The particle balance relations for all species are then integrated numerically to determine the equilibrium discharge parameters. The coupling of analytical solutions of the time-varying discharge and electron temperature dynamics, and numerical solutions of the discharge chemistry, allows for a fast solution of the discharge equilibrium. Variations of discharge parameters with discharge composition and rf power are determined. Comparisons are made to more accurate but numerically costly fluid models, with space and time variations, but with the range of parameters limited by computational time. (paper)

  11. Supra-thermal charged particle energies in a low pressure radio-frequency electrical discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Velocity spectra of supra-thermal electrons escaping from a low-pressure radio-frequency discharge in air have been measured by a time-of-flight method of original design. In addition, the energy spectra of the supra-thermal electrons and positive ions escaping from the rf discharge have been measured by a retarding potential method. Various parameters affecting the energy of the supra-thermal charged particles are experimentally investigated. A model accounting for the supra-thermal charged particle energies is developed and is shown to be consistent with experimental observations

  12. Pressure tuning of anisotropy barrier in Fe8 SMMs probed using high frequency EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Beedle, Christopher; Tozer, Stanley; Hill, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are spin systems with large spin ground state where quantum phenomena such as tunneling of magnetization via a considerable anisotropy barrier manifest. One such SMM that has been extensively studied is [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O, also known as Fe8, with a giant spin ground state of S=10. The eight Fe atoms bridged by the ligands form a butterfly structure where six Fe atoms have spins up and two spins down in the simplest model. This structure in fact gives rise to geometrical spin frustration effects within the cluster. By varying the interaction between the spins, manipulation of quantum tunneling in SMMs may be achieved. Typically, the manipulation of spin interactions is realized using chemical methods. As an alternative approach, we employ high pressure to induce changes in the ligand-field environment of the Fe atoms. In this presentation, the pressure-dependent changes in the anisotropy barrier in single crystal Fe8 SMMs investigated by high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance measurements will be discussed.

  13. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  14. A mechanism for frequency modulation in songbirds shared with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Ana; Margoliash, Daniel

    2013-07-03

    In most animals that vocalize, control of fundamental frequency is a key element for effective communication. In humans, subglottal pressure controls vocal intensity but also influences fundamental frequency during phonation. Given the underlying similarities in the biomechanical mechanisms of vocalization in humans and songbirds, songbirds offer an attractive opportunity to study frequency modulation by pressure. Here, we present a novel technique for dynamic control of subsyringeal pressure in zebra finches. By regulating the opening of a custom-built fast valve connected to the air sac system, we achieved partial or total silencing of specific syllables, and could modify syllabic acoustics through more complex manipulations of air sac pressure. We also observed that more nuanced pressure variations over a limited interval during production of a syllable concomitantly affected the frequency of that syllable segment. These results can be explained in terms of a mathematical model for phonation that incorporates a nonlinear description for the vocal source capable of generating the observed frequency modulations induced by pressure variations. We conclude that the observed interaction between pressure and frequency was a feature of the source, not a result of feedback control. Our results indicate that, beyond regulating phonation or its absence, regulation of pressure is important for control of fundamental frequencies of vocalizations. Thus, although there are separate brainstem pathways for syringeal and respiratory control of song production, both can affect airflow and frequency. We hypothesize that the control of pressure and frequency is combined holistically at higher levels of the vocalization pathways.

  15. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; El Shebini, Salwa M; Ahmed, Nihad H; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-03-15

    Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity.

  16. Using pressure square-like wave to measure the dynamic characteristics of piezoelectric pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, L-L; Tsung, T-T; Chen, L-C; Chang Ho; Jwo, C-S

    2005-01-01

    Piezoelectric pressure sensors are commonly used to measuring the dynamic characteristics in a hydraulic system. The dynamic measurements require a pressure sensor which has a high response rate. In this paper, we proposed use of a pressure square wave to excite the piezoelectric pressure sensor. Experimental frequencies are 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kHz at 10, 15, 20 bar, respectively. Results show that the waveform of time-domain and frequencydomain response are quite different under above testing conditions. The higher the frequencies tested, the faster the pressure-rise speeds obtained. Similarly, the higher the testing pressure, the shorter the rise time attained

  17. Effect of water vapor on sound absorption in nitrogen at low frequency/pressure ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Griffin, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Sound absorption measurements were made in N2-H2O binary mixtures at 297 K over the frequency/pressure range f/P of 0.1-2500 Hz/atm to investigate the vibrational relaxation peak of N2 and its location on f/P axis as a function of humidity. At low humidities the best fit to a linear relationship between the f/P(max) and humidity yields an intercept of 0.013 Hz/atm and a slope of 20,000 Hz/atm-mole fraction. The reaction rate constants derived from this model are lower than those obtained from the extrapolation of previous high-temperature data.

  18. Job strain and blood pressure in employed men and women: a pooled analysis of four northern italian population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, Giancarlo; Sega, Roberto; Ferrario, Marco; Chiodini, Paolo; Corrao, Giovanni; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The extent to which psychosocial stress concurs to raise blood pressure is still uncertain. Here the association between job strain and office blood pressure in a pooled analysis of four population samples from northern Italy is assessed. Four surveys assessing prevalence of major coronary risk factors were performed in 1986, 1990, 1991, and 1993 in area "Brianza" (Milan), a World Health Organization-MONItoring cardiovascular disease (WHO-MONICA) Project collaborating center. Ten year age- and gender-stratified independent samples were randomly recruited from the 25- to 64-year-old residents. The methods used to assess coronary risk factors strictly adhered to the MONICA manual, were kept constant, and underwent internal and external quality controls. Job strain was investigated through the administration to employed participants of a questionnaire derived from the Karasek model, assessing job demand/control latitude. Analysis was restricted to 25- to 54-year-old participants, untreated for hypertension (1799 men and 1010 women). Among men, there was a 3 mm Hg increase of systolic blood pressure (pjob categories. This difference was independent from age, education, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking habits, leisure time physical activity, and survey. No relevant differences among job strain categories were found in women and for diastolic blood pressure in both gender groups. These results carried out on a large population-based sample confirm previous findings obtained adopting ambulatory blood pressure measurements in more restricted samples of population or patients. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between perceived work stress and blood pressure in women.

  19. Frequency, Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Food Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Guo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae in food samples and to detect antibiotic resistance phenotypes, antimicrobial resistance genes and the molecular subtypes of the recovered isolates. A total of 998 food samples were collected, and 99 (9.9% K. pneumoniae strains were isolated; the frequencies were 8.2% (4/49 in fresh raw seafood, 13.8% (26/188 in fresh raw chicken, 11.4% (34/297 in frozen raw food and 7.5% (35/464 in cooked food samples. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against 16 antimicrobials. The highest resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (92.3%, followed by tetracycline (31.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (18.2%, and chloramphenicol (10.1%. Two K. pneumoniae strains were identified as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-one strain had three beta-lactamases genes (blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, and blaCTX-M-10 and one had only the blaSHV gene. Nineteen multidrug-resistant (MDR strains were detected; the percentage of MDR strains in fresh raw chicken samples was significantly higher than in other sample types (P<0.05. Six of the 18 trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant strains carried the folate pathway inhibitor gene (dhfr. Four isolates were screened by PCR for quinolone resistance genes; aac(6'-Ib-cr, qnrB, qnrA and qnrS were detected. In addition, gyrA gene mutations such as T247A (Ser83Ile, C248T (Ser83Phe, and A260C (Asp87Ala and a parC C240T (Ser80Ile mutation were identified. Five isolates were screened for aminoglycosides resistance genes; aacA4, aacC2, and aadA1 were detected. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based subtyping identified 91 different patterns. Our results indicate that food, especially fresh raw chicken, is a reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant K. pneumoniae, and the potential health risks posed by such strains should not be underestimated. Our results demonstrated high prevalence, antibiotic resistance rate and genetic diversity of K. pneumoniae in food in China. Improved

  20. Dynamic pressure probe response tests for robust measurements in periodic flows close to probe resonating frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhun Şahin, Fatma; Schiffmann, Jürg

    2018-02-01

    A single-hole probe was designed to measure steady and periodic flows with high fluctuation amplitudes and with minimal flow intrusion. Because of its high aspect ratio, estimations showed that the probe resonates at a frequency two orders of magnitude lower than the fast response sensor cut-off frequencies. The high fluctuation amplitudes cause a non-linear behavior of the probe and available models are neither adequate for a quantitative estimation of the resonating frequencies nor for predicting the system damping. Instead, a non-linear data correction procedure based on individual transfer functions defined for each harmonic contribution is introduced for pneumatic probes that allows to extend their operating range beyond the resonating frequencies and linear dynamics. This data correction procedure was assessed on a miniature single-hole probe of 0.35 mm inner diameter which was designed to measure flow speed and direction. For the reliable use of such a probe in periodic flows, its frequency response was reproduced with a siren disk, which allows exciting the probe up to 10 kHz with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 20%-170% of the absolute mean pressure. The effect of the probe interior design on the phase lag and amplitude distortion in periodic flow measurements was investigated on probes with similar inner diameters and different lengths or similar aspect ratios (L/D) and different total interior volumes. The results suggest that while the tube length consistently sets the resonance frequency, the internal total volume affects the non-linear dynamic response in terms of varying gain functions. A detailed analysis of the introduced calibration methodology shows that the goodness of the reconstructed data compared to the reference data is above 75% for fundamental frequencies up to twice the probe resonance frequency. The results clearly suggest that the introduced procedure is adequate to capture non-linear pneumatic probe dynamics and to

  1. Simple model for low-frequency guitar function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove; Vistisen, Bo B.

    1980-01-01

    - frequency guitar function. The model predicts frequency responce of sound pressure and top plate mobility which are in close quantitative agreement with experimental responses. The absolute sound pressure level and mobility level are predicted to within a few decibels, and the equivalent piston area......The frequency response of sound pressure and top plate mobility is studied around the two first resonances of the guitar. These resonances are shown to result from a coupling between the fundamental top plate mode and the Helmholtz resonance of the cavity. A simple model is proposed for low...

  2. High-frequency data observations from space shuttle main engine low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, T. F.; Farr, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers during their participation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation are summarized. New signal processing techniques used by the Component Assessment Branch and the Induced Environments Branch during the failure investigation are described in detail. Moreover, nonlinear correlations between frequently encountered anomalous frequencies found in SSME dynamic data are discussed. A recommendation is made to continue low pressure fuel (LPF) duct testing through laboratory flow simulations and MSFC-managed technology test bed SSME testing.

  3. Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve results in protective conventional ventilation comparable to high frequency oscillatory ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Rossi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies comparing high frequency oscillatory and conventional ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome have used low values of positive end-expiratory pressure and identified a need for better recruitment and pulmonary stability with high frequency. OBJECTIVE: To compare conventional and high frequency ventilation using the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve as the determinant of positive end-expiratory pressure to obtain similar levels of recruitment and alveolar stability. METHODS: After lung lavage of adult rabbits and lower inflection point determination, two groups were randomized: conventional (positive end-expiratory pressure = lower inflection point; tidal volume=6 ml/kg and high frequency ventilation (mean airway pressures= lower inflection point +4 cmH2O. Blood gas and hemodynamic data were recorded over 4 h. After sacrifice, protein analysis from lung lavage and histologic evaluation were performed. RESULTS: The oxygenation parameters, protein and histological data were similar, except for the fact that significantly more normal alveoli were observed upon protective ventilation. High frequency ventilation led to lower PaCO2 levels. DISCUSSION: Determination of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve is important for setting the minimum end expiratory pressure needed to keep the airways opened. This is useful when comparing different strategies to treat severe respiratory insufficiency, optimizing conventional ventilation, improving oxygenation and reducing lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve in the ventilation strategies considered in this study resulted in comparable efficacy with regards to oxygenation and hemodynamics, a high PaCO2 level and a lower pH. In addition, a greater number of normal alveoli were found after protective conventional ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  4. High pressure sample container for thermal neutron spectroscopy and diffraction on strongly scattering fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, P.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    1979-01-01

    A description is presented of the construction and performance of a container for thermal neutron scattering on a fluid sample with about 1.5 cm -1 macroscopic cross section (neglecting absorption). The maximum pressure is about 900 bar. The container is made of 5052 aluminium capillary with inner diameter 0.75 mm and wall thickness 0.25 mm; it covers a neutron beam with a cross section of 9 X 2.5 cm 2 . The container has been successfully used in neutron diffraction and time-of-flight experiments on argon-36 at 120 K and several pressures up to 850 bar. It is shown that during these measurements the temperature gradient over the sample as well as the error in the absolute temperature were both less than 0.05 K. Subtraction of the Bragg peaks due to container scattering in diffraction experiments may be dfficult, but seems feasible because of the small amount of aluminium in the neutron beam. Correction for container scattering and multiple scattering in time-of-flight experiments may be difficult only in the case of coherently scattering samples and small scattering angles. (Auth.)

  5. A Novel Intracranial Pressure Readout Circuit for Passive Wireless LC Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fa; Zhang, Xuan; Shokoueinejad, Mehdi; Iskandar, Bermans J; Medow, Joshua E; Webster, John G

    2017-10-01

    We present a wide frequency range, low cost, wireless intracranial pressure monitoring system, which includes an implantable passive sensor and an external reader. The passive sensor consists of two spiral coils and transduces the pressure change to a resonant frequency shift. The external portable reader reads out the sensor's resonant frequency over a wide frequency range (35 MHz-2.7 GHz). We propose a novel circuit topology, which tracks the system's impedance and phase change at a high frequency with low-cost components. This circuit is very simple and reliable. A prototype has been developed, and measurement results demonstrate that the device achieves a suitable measurement distance (>2 cm), sufficient sample frequency (>6 Hz), fine resolution, and good measurement accuracy for medical practice. Responsivity of this prototype is 0.92 MHz/mmHg and resolution is 0.028 mmHg. COMSOL specific absorption rate simulation proves that this system is safe. Considerations to improve the device performance have been discussed, which include the size of antenna, the power radiation, the Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) choice, and the signal processing algorithm.

  6. Graphene Squeeze-Film Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; van der Zant, Herre S J; Steeneken, Peter G

    2016-01-13

    The operating principle of squeeze-film pressure sensors is based on the pressure dependence of a membrane's resonance frequency, caused by the compression of the surrounding gas which changes the resonator stiffness. To realize such sensors, not only strong and flexible membranes are required, but also minimization of the membrane's mass is essential to maximize responsivity. Here, we demonstrate the use of a few-layer graphene membrane as a squeeze-film pressure sensor. A clear pressure dependence of the membrane's resonant frequency is observed, with a frequency shift of 4 MHz between 8 and 1000 mbar. The sensor shows a reproducible response and no hysteresis. The measured responsivity of the device is 9000 Hz/mbar, which is a factor 45 higher than state-of-the-art MEMS-based squeeze-film pressure sensors while using a 25 times smaller membrane area.

  7. Study of geometrical and operational parameters controlling the low frequency microjet atmospheric pressure plasma characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Rhee, J. K.; Moon, S. Y.; Choe, W.

    2006-01-01

    Controllability of small size atmospheric pressure plasma generated at low frequency in a pin to dielectric plane electrode configuration was studied. It was shown that the plasma characteristics could be controlled by geometrical and operational parameters of the experiment. Under most circumstances, continuous glow discharges were observed, but both the corona and/or the dielectric barrier discharge characteristics were observed depending on the position of the pin electrode. The plasma size and the rotational temperature were also varied by the parameters. The rotational temperature was between 300 and 490 K, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials

  8. MalHaploFreq: A computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers, particularly those associated with drug resistance, are important surveillance tools that can inform policy choice. People infected with falciparum malaria often contain several genetically-distinct clones of the parasite; genotyping the patients' blood reveals whether or not the marker is present (i.e. its prevalence, but does not reveal its frequency. For example a person with four malaria clones may contain both mutant and wildtype forms of a marker but it is not possible to distinguish the relative frequencies of the mutant and wildtypes i.e. 1:3, 2:2 or 3:1. Methods An appropriate method for obtaining frequencies from prevalence data is by Maximum Likelihood analysis. A computer programme has been developed that allows the frequency of markers, and haplotypes defined by up to three codons, to be estimated from blood phenotype data. Results The programme has been fully documented [see Additional File 1] and provided with a user-friendly interface suitable for large scale analyses. It returns accurate frequencies and 95% confidence intervals from simulated dataset sets and has been extensively tested on field data sets. Additional File 1 User manual for MalHaploFreq. Click here for file Conclusion The programme is included [see Additional File 2] and/or may be freely downloaded from 1. It can then be used to extract molecular marker and haplotype frequencies from their prevalence in human blood samples. This should enhance the use of frequency data to inform antimalarial drug policy choice. Additional File 2 executable programme compiled for use on DOS or windows Click here for file

  9. RAPID PROCESSING OF ARCHIVAL TISSUE SAMPLES FOR PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS USING PRESSURE-CYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuth N. Puttamallesh1,2

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advent of mass spectrometry based proteomics has revolutionized our ability to study proteins from biological specimen in a high-throughput manner. Unlike cell line based studies, biomedical research involving tissue specimen is often challenging due to limited sample availability. In addition, investigation of clinically relevant research questions often requires enormous amount of time for sample collection prospectively. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE archived tissue samples are a rich source of tissue specimen for biomedical research. However, there are several challenges associated with analysing FFPE samples. Protein cross-linking and degradation of proteins particularly affects proteomic analysis. We demonstrate that barocycler that uses pressure-cycling technology enables efficient protein extraction and processing of small amounts of FFPE tissue samples for proteomic analysis. We identified 3,525 proteins from six 10µm esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissue sections. Barocycler allows efficient protein extraction and proteolytic digestion of proteins from FFPE tissue sections at par with conventional methods.

  10. Flux pinning characteristics in cylindrical niobium samples used for superconducting radio frequency cavity fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavale, Asavari S.; Dhakal, Pashupati; Polyanskii, Anatolii A.; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2012-06-01

    We present the results from DC magnetization and penetration depth measurements of cylindrical bulk large-grain (LG) and fine-grain (FG) niobium samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The surface treatment consisted of electropolishing and low-temperature baking as they are typically applied to SRF cavities. The magnetization data are analyzed using a modified critical state model. The critical current density Jc and pinning force Fp are calculated from the magnetization data and their temperature dependence and field dependence are presented. The LG samples have lower critical current density and pinning force density compared to FG samples, favorable to lower flux trapping efficiency. This effect may explain the lower values of residual resistance often observed in LG cavities than FG cavities.

  11. Digital timing: sampling frequency, anti-aliasing filter and signal interpolation filter dependence on timing resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sanghee; Grazioso, Ron; Zhang Nan; Aykac, Mehmet; Schmand, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of our study is to investigate how the performance of digital timing methods is affected by sampling rate, anti-aliasing and signal interpolation filters. We used the Nyquist sampling theorem to address some basic questions such as what will be the minimum sampling frequencies? How accurate will the signal interpolation be? How do we validate the timing measurements? The preferred sampling rate would be as low as possible, considering the high cost and power consumption of high-speed analog-to-digital converters. However, when the sampling rate is too low, due to the aliasing effect, some artifacts are produced in the timing resolution estimations; the shape of the timing profile is distorted and the FWHM values of the profile fluctuate as the source location changes. Anti-aliasing filters are required in this case to avoid the artifacts, but the timing is degraded as a result. When the sampling rate is marginally over the Nyquist rate, a proper signal interpolation is important. A sharp roll-off (higher order) filter is required to separate the baseband signal from its replicates to avoid the aliasing, but in return the computation will be higher. We demonstrated the analysis through a digital timing study using fast LSO scintillation crystals as used in time-of-flight PET scanners. From the study, we observed that there is no significant timing resolution degradation down to 1.3 Ghz sampling frequency, and the computation requirement for the signal interpolation is reasonably low. A so-called sliding test is proposed as a validation tool checking constant timing resolution behavior of a given timing pick-off method regardless of the source location change. Lastly, the performance comparison for several digital timing methods is also shown.

  12. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  13. Prospective assessment of the frequency of low gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: Critical impact of aortic flow misalignment and pressure recovery phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringle, Anne; Castel, Anne-Laure; Le Goffic, Caroline; Delelis, François; Binda, Camille; Bohbot, Yohan; Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir; Guerbaai, Raphaëlle A; Levy, Franck; Vincentelli, André; Graux, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Maréchaux, Sylvestre

    2018-02-10

    The frequency of paradoxical low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (AS) varies widely across studies. The impact of misalignment of aortic flow and pressure recovery phenomenon on the frequency of low-gradient severe AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has not been evaluated in prospective studies. To investigate prospectively the impact of aortic flow misalignment by Doppler and lack of pressure recovery phenomenon correction on the frequency of low-gradient (LG) severe aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved LVEF. Aortic jet velocities and mean pressure gradient (MPG) were obtained by interrogating all windows in 68 consecutive patients with normal LVEF and severe AS (aortic valve area [AVA] ≤1cm 2 ) on the basis of the apical imaging window alone (two-dimensional [2D] apical approach). Patients were classified as having LG or high-gradient (HG) AS according to MPG 35mL/m 2 or ≤35mL/m 2 , on the basis of the 2D apical approach, the multiview approach (multiple windows evaluation) and AVA corrected for pressure recovery. The proportion of LG severe AS was 57% using the 2D apical approach alone. After the multiview approach and correction for pressure recovery, the proportion of LG severe AS decreased from 57% to 13% (LF-LG severe AS decreased from 23% to 3%; NF-LG severe AS decreased from 34% to 10%). As a result, 25% of patients were reclassified as having HG severe AS (AVA ≤1cm 2 and MPG ≥40mmHg) and 19% as having moderate AS. Hence, 77% of patients initially diagnosed with LG severe AS did not have "true" LG severe AS when the multiview approach and the pressure recovery phenomenon correction were used. Aortic flow misevaluation, resulting from lack of use of multiple windows evaluation and pressure recovery phenomenon correction, accounts for a large proportion of incorrectly graded AS and considerable overestimation of the frequency of LG severe AS with preserved LVEF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Multipurpose Pressure Vessel Scanner and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tayera

    2015-01-01

    Critical flight hardware typically undergoes a series of nondestructive evaluation methods to screen for defects before it is integrated into the flight system. Conventionally, pressure vessels have been inspected for flaws using a technique known as fluorescent dye penetrant, which is biased to inspector interpretation. An alternate method known as eddy current is automated and can detect small cracks better than dye penetrant. A new multipurpose pressure vessel scanner has been developed to perform internal and external eddy current scanning, laser profilometry, and thickness mapping on pressure vessels. Before this system can be implemented throughout industry, a probability of detection (POD) study needs to be performed to validate the system’s eddy current crack/flaw capabilities. The POD sample set will consist of 6 flight-like metal pressure vessel liners with defects of known size. Preparation for the POD includes sample set fabrication, system operation, procedure development, and eddy current settings optimization. For this, collaborating with subject matter experts was required. This technical paper details the preparation activities leading up to the POD study currently scheduled for winter 2015/2016. Once validated, this system will be a proven innovation for increasing the safety and reliability of necessary flight hardware.Additionally, testing of frangible joint requires Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and Digital Image Correlation instrumentation. There is often noise associated with PDV data, which necessitates a frequency modulation (FM) signal-to-noise pre-test. Generally, FM radio works by varying the carrier frequency and mixing it with a fixed frequency source, creating a beat frequency which is represented by audio frequency that can be heard between about 20 to 20,000 Hz. Similarly, PDV reflects a shifted frequency (a phenomenon known as the Doppler Effect) from a moving source and mixes it with a fixed source frequency, which results in

  15. Electron heating mode transition induced by mixing radio frequency and ultrahigh frequency dual frequency powers in capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, B. B.; Han, Jeon G.

    2016-01-01

    Electron heating mode transitions induced by mixing the low- and high-frequency power in dual-frequency nitrogen discharges at 400 mTorr pressure are presented. As the low-frequency (13.56 MHz) power decreases and high-frequency (320 MHz) power increases for the fixed power of 200 W, there is a transition of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) from Druyvesteyn to bi-Maxwellian type characterized by a distinguished warm electron population. It is shown that this EEDF evolution is attributed to the transition from collisional to collisionless stochastic heating of the low-energy electrons.

  16. Surface Characterization of Nb Samples Electro-polished Together With Real Superconducting Radio-frequency Accelerator Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xin; Geng, Rong-Li; Tyagi, P.V.; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kato, Shigeki; Nishiwaki, Michiru; Saeki, Takayuki; Sawabe, Motoaki

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium (Nb) samples electropolished together with a single cell superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavity. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris and the beam-pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray for elemental analysis (SEM/EDX) was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulfur (S) were found covering the samples non-uniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulfur.

  17. Modification of carbon fabrics by radio-frequency capacitive discharge at low pressure to regulate mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics based on it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garifullin, A R; Krasina, I V; Skidchenko, E A; Shaekhov, M F; Tikhonova, N V

    2017-01-01

    To increase the values of mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF) composite materials used in sports equipment production the method of radio-frequency capacitive (RFC) low-pressure plasma treatment in air was proposed. Previously it was found that this type of modification allows to effectively regulate the surface properties of fibers of different nature. This treatment method differs from the traditional ones by efficiency and environmental friendliness as it does not require the use of aggressive, environmentally hazardous chemicals. In this paper it was established that RFC low-pressure air plasma treatment of carbon fabrics enhances the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). As a result of experimental studies of CF by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method it was proved that after radio-frequency capacitive plasma treatment at low pressure in air the oxygen-containing functional groups is grafted on the surface. These groups improve adhesion at the interface “matrix-fiber”. (paper)

  18. Sampling of reactor pressure vessel and core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhaeuser, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants is a growing business as a huge number of plants built in the 1970's have now reached their lifetime. It is well known that dismantling a nuclear power plant means an extraordinary expense for the owner respectively operator. Beside the dismantling works for itself, the disposal of activated components and other nuclear waste is very expensive. What comes next is the fact that final disposal facilities are not available yet in most countries meaning a need for interim storage on-site in specially built facilities. It can be concluded that a special attention is paid on producing a minimal radioactive waste volume. For this, optimized dismantling and packaging concepts have to be developed. AREVA is proud of versatile experience in successfully dismantling nuclear components like core internals and reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The basis of a well-founded and optimized dismantling and packaging concept must always be the detailed knowledge of the radiological condition of the component to be and in the best case a 3D activation- model. For keeping the necessary sampling effort as small as possible, but simultaneously as efficient as possible, representative sampling positions are defined in advance by theoretical radiological examinations. For this, a detailed 3D-CAD-model of the components to be dismantled has proven very helpful and effective. Under these aspects a sampling of RPV and its components is necessary to verify the theoretically calculated radiological data. The obtained results of activation and contamination are taken into account for the optimized dismantling and packaging strategy. The precise 3D-activation-model will reduce the necessary number and type of final disposal containers as security factors are minimized leading to a lower shielding effort, too. Besides, components or even parts of components may be subject of release measurement. In the end, costs can be reduced. In this context

  19. Sound field control for a low-frequency test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The two largest problems in controlling the reproduction of low-frequency sound for psychoacoustic experiments is the effect of the room due to standing waves and the relatively large sound pressure levels needed. Anechoic rooms are limited downward in frequency and distortion may be a problem even...... at moderate levels, while pressure-field playback can give higher sound pressures but is limited upwards in frequency. A new solution that addresses both problems has been implemented in the laboratory of Acoustics, Aalborg University. The solution uses one wall with 20 loudspeakers to generate a plane wave...... that is actively absorbed when it reaches the 20 loudspeakers on the opposing wall. This gives a homogeneous sound field in the majority of the room with a flat frequency response in the frequency range 2-300 Hz. The lowest frequencies are limited to sound pressure levels in the order of 95 dB. If larger levels...

  20. Flux pinning characteristics in cylindrical niobium samples used for superconducting radio frequency cavity fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhavale, Asavari S; Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Polyanskii, Anatolii A

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from DC magnetization and penetration depth measurements of cylindrical bulk large-grain (LG) and fine-grain (FG) niobium samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The surface treatment consisted of electropolishing and low-temperature baking as they are typically applied to SRF cavities. The magnetization data are analyzed using a modified critical state model. The critical current density J c and pinning force F p are calculated from the magnetization data and their temperature dependence and field dependence are presented. The LG samples have lower critical current density and pinning force density compared to FG samples, favorable to lower flux trapping efficiency. This effect may explain the lower values of residual resistance often observed in LG cavities than FG cavities. (paper)

  1. Neutron sample cell suitable for the diffraction of aligned biomaterials and capable of exerting up to 370 MPa of hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.J.; Nieh, M.-P.; Harroun, T.A.; Katsaras, J.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a temperature controlled sample cell suitable for the study of biomimetic materials (e.g., lipid bilayers) using neutron diffraction, and capable of exerting hydrostatic pressures of up to 370 MPa. The advantage of this sample cell, compared to previous high-pressure cells of its type, is that it allows for the use of samples aligned on a solid support which, compared to 'powder' or so-called liposomal preparations, requires only small amounts of sample and allows for the clear differentiation between in-plane and out-of-plane structure

  2. Sample summary report for KOR1 pressure tube sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jong; Nam, Min Woo; Choi, Young Ha

    2006-01-01

    This summary report includes basically the following: - The FLAW CHARACTERIZATION TABLE of KOR1 sample and supporting documentation. - The CROSS REFERENCE TABLES for each investigator, which is the SAMPLE INSPECTION TABLE that cross reference to the FLAW CHARACTERIZATION TABLE. - Each Sample Inspection Report as Appendices

  3. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of some immune response genes in a population sample from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Campos de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.

  4. Atmospheric pressure surface sampling/ionization techniques for direct coupling of planar separations with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-06-18

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. OLT-centralized sampling frequency offset compensation scheme for OFDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zhou, Hui; Zheng, Zhiwei; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Peng, Miao; Liu, Cuiwei; He, Jing; Chen, Lin; Tang, Xionggui

    2017-08-07

    We propose an optical line terminal (OLT)-centralized sampling frequency offset (SFO) compensation scheme for adaptively-modulated OFDM-PON systems. By using the proposed SFO scheme, the phase rotation and inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by SFOs between OLT and multiple optical network units (ONUs) can be centrally compensated in the OLT, which reduces the complexity of ONUs. Firstly, the optimal fast Fourier transform (FFT) size is identified in the intensity-modulated and direct-detection (IMDD) OFDM system in the presence of SFO. Then, the proposed SFO compensation scheme including phase rotation modulation (PRM) and length-adaptive OFDM frame has been experimentally demonstrated in the downlink transmission of an adaptively modulated optical OFDM with the optimal FFT size. The experimental results show that up to ± 300 ppm SFO can be successfully compensated without introducing any receiver performance penalties.

  6. Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-01-01

    Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χ c , which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF

  7. Binge drinking and blood pressure: cross-sectional results of the HAPIEE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pajak

    Full Text Available To investigate whether binge drinking pattern influences blood pressure independently from drinking volume or whether it modifies the effect of volume of drinking.We used cross-sectional data from population samples of 7559 men and 7471 women aged 45-69 years in 2002-05, not on antihypertensive medication, from Russia, Poland and Czech Republic. Annual alcohol intake, drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥ 100 g in men and ≥ 60 g in women in one session at least once a month were estimated from graduated frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was analysed as continuous variables (systolic and diastolic pressure and a binary outcome (≥ 140/90 mm Hg.In men, annual alcohol intake and drinking frequency were strongly associated with blood pressure. The odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking in men was 1.62 (95% CI 1.45-1.82 after controlling for age, country, body mass index, education and smoking; additional adjustment for annual alcohol intake reduced it to 1.20 (1.03-1.39. In women, the fully adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking was 1.31 (1.05-1.63. Binge drinking did not modify the effect of annual alcohol intake. Consuming alcohol as wine, beer or spirits had similar effects.The results suggest that the independent long-term effect of binge drinking was modest, that binge drinking did not modify the effect of alcohol intake, and that different alcoholic beverages had similar effects on blood pressure.

  8. Miniature piezoresistive solid state integrated pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of silicon pressure sensors with an ultra-small diaphragm are described. The pressure sensors utilize rectangular diaphragm as small as 0.0127 x 0.0254 cm and a p-type Wheatstone bridge consisting of diffused piezoresistive elements, 0.000254 cm by 0.00254 cm. These sensors exhibit as high as 0.5 MHz natural frequency and 1 mV/V/psi pressure sensitivity. Fabrication techniques and high frequency results from shock tube testing and low frequency comparison with microphones are presented.

  9. Comparison of Engine/Inlet Distortion Measurements with MEMS and ESP Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Hector L.; Hernandez, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    A study of active-flow control in a small-scale boundary layer ingestion inlet was conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART). Forty MEMS pressure sensors, in a rake style configuration, were used to examine both the mean (DC) and high frequency (AC) components of the total pressure across the inlet/engine interface plane. The mean component was acquired and used to calculate pressure distortion. The AC component was acquired separately, at a high sampling rate, and is used to study the unsteady effects of the active-flow control. An identical total pressure rake, utilizing an Electronically Scanned Pressure (ESP) system, was also used to calculate distortion; a comparison of the results obtained using the two rakes is presented.

  10. High-pressure effects in hydrofullerene C60H36 studied by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meletov, K.P.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka; Tsilika, I.; Assimopoulos, S.; Kourouklis, G.A.; Ves, S.; Bashkin, I.O.; Kulakov, V.I.; Khasanov, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the Raman spectrum of hydrofullerene C 60 H 36 , at room temperature has been investigated up to 12 GPa. The samples were synthesized by means of high-pressure hydrogenation. The pressure dependence of the phonon frequencies exhibits two reversible changes one at ∝0.6 GPa and another one at ∝6 GPa. The first may be probably related to a phase transition from the initial orientationally disordered bcc structure to an orientationally ordered one. The second one, at ∝6 GPa, is probably driven by pressure-induced bonding of hydrogen to a carbon atom of a neighboring hydrofullerene cage. (orig.)

  11. Innovative UVC light (185 nm) and radio-frequency-plasma pretreatment of Nylon surfaces at atmospheric pressure and their implications in photocatalytic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M I; Marín, J M; Restrepo, G; Pulgarín, C; Mielczarski, E; Mielczarski, J; Stolitchnov, I; Kiwi, J

    2009-10-01

    Innovative pretreatment by UVC light (185 nm) and by radio-frequency (RF) plasma at atmospheric pressure to functionalize the Nylon surface, increasing its bondability toward TiO(2), is reported in this study. In the case of UVC light pretreatment in air, the molar absorption coefficient of O(2)/N(2) at 185 nm is very low and the air in the chamber absorbs very little light from the UVC source before reaching the Nylon sample. Nylon fabrics under RF plasma were also functionalized at atmospheric pressure because of the marked heating effect introduced in the Nylon by the RF plasma. This effect leads to intermolecular bond breaking and oxygenated surface groups in the topmost Nylon layers. Both pretreatments enhanced significantly the photocatalytic discoloration of the red-wine stain in Nylon-TiO(2) compared with samples without pretreatment. The UVC and RF methods in the absence of vacuum imply a considerable cost reduction to functionalize textile surfaces, suggesting a potential industrial application. Red-wine-stain discoloration under simulated sunlight was monitored quantitatively by diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy and by CO(2) evolution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to monitor the changes of the C, N, and S species on the Nylon topmost layers during the discoloration process. Significant changes in the XPS spectra of Ti 2p peaks were observed during discoloration of the wine spots. Wine stains attenuated the signal of the Ti 2p (458.4 eV) peak in the Nylon-TiO(2)-stained wine sample at time zero (from now on, the time before the discoloration process). Furthermore, a decrease of the wine-related O 1s signal at 529.7 eV and N 1s signal at 399.5 eV was observed during the discoloration process, indicating an efficient catalytic decomposition of the wine pigment on Nylon-TiO(2). X-ray diffraction detected the formation of anatase on the Nylon fibers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of anatase particles

  12. The Role of Low-frequency TRANS-orbital Magnetic Stimulation in Normalization of Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Makarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Assessment of the effectiveness of low-frequency magnetic therapy on the dynamics of intraocular pressure in the treatment of primary and uncompensated medical means of open-angle glaucoma. Patients and Methods. 46 patients with uncompensated open-angle glaucoma. The first group: 24 patients (42 eyes with open-angle glaucoma (I, II, III stages during 2–13 years. The second group: 22 patients (22 eyes with newly diagnosed elevated intraocular pressure in one eye. The age of patients ranged from 43 to 59 years. Treatment included antiglaucoma hypotensive eye drops and TRANS-orbital magnetic stimulation on the domestic device“Polus-2”. Results. Intraocular pressure before treatment ranged from 25 to 32 mm Hg. (average of 28.9±1.4 mm Hg. in the first group . After magnetic stimulation IOP decreased within 2–5 days in all patients to 18 to 21 mm Hg (average of 17.9±1.1 mm Hg, reaching values “pressure goal.” Second group: in the primary treatment in patients IOP was 28–39 mm Hg (average of 32.6±1.8 mm Hg on one of the eyes. IOP decreased to 16–21 mm Hg in the period from 3 to 9 days in all patients of study group after daily magnetic stimulation and instillation of xalatan and timolol. In the control subgroup of patients with uncompensated openangle glaucoma loweringof the IOP to “pressure goal,” noted only in 7 patients (70,0% 11–14 days after instillation of anti-hypertensive glaucoma eye drops only. Conclusion. Low-frequency TRANS-orbital magnetic stimulation in enhanced hypotensive effect antiglaucomatous eye drops and makes it easier to achieve compensation of IOP to values “pressure goals” in patients with uncompensated open-angle glaucoma. The marked dependence of the efficiency of reduction of IOP from biotropic parameters of the magnetic field. The pulsed mode with a higher amplitude value of the magnetic induction has a more pronounced effect and makes it easier to achieve the reduction of IOP.

  13. Radio frequency energy coupling to high-pressure optically pumped nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plonjes, Elke; Palm, Peter; Lee, Wonchul; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an experimental demonstration of a high-pressure unconditionally stable nonequilibrium molecular plasma sustained by a combination of a continuous wave CO laser and a sub-breakdown radio frequency (rf) electric field. The plasma is sustained in a CO/N 2 mixture containing trace amounts of NO or O 2 at pressures of P=0.4 - 1.2atm. The initial ionization of the gases is produced by an associative ionization mechanism in collisions of two CO molecules excited to high vibrational levels by resonance absorption of the CO laser radiation with subsequent vibration-vibration (V-V) pumping. Further vibrational excitation of both CO and N 2 is produced by free electrons heated by the applied rf field, which in turn produces additional ionization of these species by the associative ionization mechanism. In the present experiments, the reduced electric field, E/N, is sufficiently low to preclude field-induced electron impact ionization. Unconditional stability of the resultant cold molecular plasma is enabled by the negative feedback between gas heating and the associative ionization rate. Trace amounts of nitric oxide or oxygen added to the baseline CO/N 2 gas mixture considerably reduce the electron - ion dissociative recombination rate and thereby significantly increase the initial electron density. This allows triggering of the rf power coupling to the vibrational energy modes of the gas mixture. Vibrational level populations of CO and N 2 are monitored by infrared emission spectroscopy and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. The experiments demonstrate that the use of a sub-breakdown rf field in addition to the CO laser allows an increase of the plasma volume by about an order of magnitude. Also, CO infrared emission spectra show that with the rf voltage turned on the number of vibrationally excited CO molecules along the line of sight increase by a factor of 3 - 7. Finally, spontaneous Raman spectra of N 2 show that with the rf voltage the vibrational

  14. Risk evaluation on the basis of pressure rate measured by automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yusaku; Koseki, Hiroshi

    2008-11-15

    An automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC) had been employed to obtain the thermokinetic and the vapor pressure data during runaway reactions. The APTAC is an adiabatic calorimeter with a large-scale sample mass and low thermal inertia, and is an extremely useful tool for assessing thermal hazards of reactive chemicals. The data obtained by the APTAC are important information for the design of the safe industrial process. The thermodynamics parameters and the gas production were discussed on the basis of the experimental data of various concentrations and weights of di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP)/toluene solution for the purpose of investigating the properties of the APTAC data. The thermal decomposition of DTBP was studied on the basis of the temperature data and the pressure data obtained by the APTAC. The activation energy and the frequency factor of DTBP are nearly constant and the same as the literature values in the concentrations between 20 and 60 wt.%. The pressure rise due to gas production is important data for designing the relief vent of a reactor. The time history of the gas production was investigated with various weights and concentrations. The total gas production index, which had the vapor pressure correction, was 1.0 in the decomposition of DTBP.

  15. Risk evaluation on the basis of pressure rate measured by automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yusaku; Koseki, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    An automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC) had been employed to obtain the thermokinetic and the vapor pressure data during runaway reactions. The APTAC is an adiabatic calorimeter with a large-scale sample mass and low thermal inertia, and is an extremely useful tool for assessing thermal hazards of reactive chemicals. The data obtained by the APTAC are important information for the design of the safe industrial process. The thermodynamics parameters and the gas production were discussed on the basis of the experimental data of various concentrations and weights of di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP)/toluene solution for the purpose of investigating the properties of the APTAC data. The thermal decomposition of DTBP was studied on the basis of the temperature data and the pressure data obtained by the APTAC. The activation energy and the frequency factor of DTBP are nearly constant and the same as the literature values in the concentrations between 20 and 60 wt.%. The pressure rise due to gas production is important data for designing the relief vent of a reactor. The time history of the gas production was investigated with various weights and concentrations. The total gas production index, which had the vapor pressure correction, was 1.0 in the decomposition of DTBP

  16. Variation in ebmental quantification by X-ray fluorescence analysis in crystalline materials when applying pressure in sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; De Ita de la Torre, A.; Chavez R, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this work making use of the diffraction and fluorescence techniques its were determined the presence of elements in a known compound ZrSiO 4 under different pressure conditions. At preparing the samples it were applied different pressures from 1600 until 350 k N/m 2 and it is detected the apparent variations in concentration in the Zr and Si elements. (Author)

  17. Efficient design and operation of a data acquisition system for pressurized pipeline systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S

    2006-01-01

    The unsteady flow analysis of pipeline systems provides useful guidelines for implementing data acquisition components such as data filtering ranges, sensor locations and sampling frequencies. A theoretical integration among hydraulics, free vibration analysis and signal processing is proposed for a comprehensive approach aiming at enhanced design and operation of data acquisition system. Transient analysis is performed to extract flow variation by a valve modulation in a pipeline system. Frequency transformation analysis is developed to convert pressure variations between time domain and frequency domain. Free vibration analysis provides spatial distribution of impedance characteristics and pressure variation for determining optimum sensor location. A real-time filter can be designed to secure valid signals of any particular unsteady event. Hypothetical and experimental applications show that the proposed method has potentials of the leakage detection of a pipeline system as well as an efficient design of data acquisition system.

  18. Intermittent pressure decreases human keratinocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Maria R; Shih, Alan T; West, Dennis P; Martinez, Wanda M; Micali, Giuseppe; Landsman, Adam S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure changes and keratinocyte proliferation by determining whether keratinocytes exposed to altered mechanical pressures would proliferate at different rates compared to control cells not subjected to pressure changes. Tissue culture flasks of human keratinocytes plated at an approximate density of 15,000 cells/cm(2) undergoing an intermittent cyclic pressure of 362 mm Hg at a frequency of 2.28 or 5.16 cycles/min (0.038 or 0.086 Hz) for 8 h were compared to control flasks grown at ambient room pressure. An in-line pressure transducer was used to monitor and adjust pressure within the cell chambers, using a solenoid valve. A thymidine incorporation assay assessed the amount of cell proliferation in each set of experiments. Differences in proliferation between keratinocytes subjected to cyclic pressure changes and control cells were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) in 4 out of 5 proliferation assays. Also, a higher frequency of pressure changes consistently generated a reduced proliferation rate compared to that seen in cells exposed to a lower frequency of pressure changes. These data indicate that keratinocytes undergoing intermittent pressure changes exhibit decreased proliferation rates compared to controls. Furthermore, an increased frequency rate seems to have a greater effect on proliferation than low-frequency rate pressure changes, suggesting that the stress caused by frequently changed pressure may play a greater role in reducing keratinocyte proliferation than the actual magnitude of load applied to the cells. Our results support the current treatment protocol of reducing speed and duration of walking on the site of the wound to promote healing of foot ulcers. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdulich, P; Prentza, A; Wesseling, K H

    1997-03-01

    To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by the Finapres technique in 53 adult human subjects. Mean pressure was subtracted from each pressure waveform and Fourier analysis applied to the pulsations. A distortion model was estimated for each subject and averaged over the group. The average inverse model was applied to the full finger pressure waveform. The pressure decrement was modelled by multiple regression on finger systolic and diastolic levels. Waveform distortion could be described by a general, frequency dependent model having a resonance at 7.3 Hz. The general inverse model has an anti-resonance at this frequency. It converts finger to brachial pulsations thereby reducing average waveform distortion from 9.7 (s.d. 3.2) mmHg per sample for the finger pulse to 3.7 (1.7) mmHg for the converted pulse. Systolic and diastolic level differences between finger and brachial arterial pressures changed from -4 (15) and -8 (11) to +8 (14) and +8 (12) mmHg, respectively, after inverse modelling, with pulse pressures correct on average. The pressure decrement model reduced both the mean and the standard deviation of systolic and diastolic level differences to 0 (13) and 0 (8) mmHg. Diastolic differences were thus reduced most. Brachial to finger pulse wave distortion due to wave reflection in arteries is almost identical in all subjects and can be modelled by a single resonance. The pressure decrement due to flow in arteries is greatest for high pulse pressures superimposed on low means.

  20. Numerical studies of independent control of electron density and gas temperature via nonlinear coupling in dual-frequency atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Nie, Q. Y.; Wang, Z. B.; Gao, X. T.; Kong, F. R.; Sun, Y. F.; Jiang, B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) provide a promising technology of generating non-equilibrium cold plasmas in atmospheric pressure gases. For both application-focused and fundamental studies, it is important to explore the strategy and the mechanism for enabling effective independent tuning of key plasma parameters in a DBD system. In this paper, we report numerical studies of effects of dual-frequency excitation on atmospheric DBDs, and modulation as well as separate tuning mechanism, with emphasis on dual-frequency coupling to the key plasma parameters and discharge evolution. With an appropriately applied low frequency to the original high frequency, the numerical calculation demonstrates that a strong nonlinear coupling between two frequencies governs the process of ionization and energy deposition into plasma, and thus raises the electron density significantly (e.g., three times in this case) in comparisons with a single frequency driven DBD system. Nevertheless, the gas temperature, which is mainly determined by the high frequency discharge, barely changes. This method then enables a possible approach of controlling both averaged electron density and gas temperature independently.

  1. Radiation pressure actuation of test masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garoi, F; Ju, L; Zhao, C; Blair, D G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of radiation pressure force as test mass actuation for laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors. It is shown that it is viable to provide radiation pressure control on test masses for frequencies above ∼0.2 Hz in high performance vibration isolation systems. A very low mass, low frequency resonator has been used to verify that radiation pressure force is not corrupted by other forces such as due to radiometer effects

  2. Prediction of pressure induced structural phase transitions and internal mode frequency changes in solid N2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etters, R.D.; Kobashi, K.; Chandrasekharan, V.

    1983-01-01

    A rhombohedral distortion of the Pm3n structure is introduced which shows that a low temperature phase transition occurs from P4 2 /mnm into the R3c calcite structure at P approx. = 19.2 kbar with a volume change of 0.125 cm 3 /mole. This transition agrees with recent Raman scattering measurements. Another transition from R3c into R3m is predicted at P approx. = 67.5 kbar, with a volume change of 0.1 cm 3 /mole. The pressure dependence of the intramolecular mode frequencies for the R3c structure is in reasonably good agreement with the two main branches observed experimentally

  3. Effects of sample size and sampling frequency on studies of brown bear home ranges and habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Steve M.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    1999-01-01

    We equipped 9 brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, with collars containing both conventional very-high-frequency (VHF) transmitters and global positioning system (GPS) receivers programmed to determine an animal's position at 5.75-hr intervals. We calculated minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed and adaptive kernel home ranges for randomly-selected subsets of the GPS data to examine the effects of sample size on accuracy and precision of home range estimates. We also compared results obtained by weekly aerial radiotracking versus more frequent GPS locations to test for biases in conventional radiotracking data. Home ranges based on the MCP were 20-606 km2 (x = 201) for aerial radiotracking data (n = 12-16 locations/bear) and 116-1,505 km2 (x = 522) for the complete GPS data sets (n = 245-466 locations/bear). Fixed kernel home ranges were 34-955 km2 (x = 224) for radiotracking data and 16-130 km2 (x = 60) for the GPS data. Differences between means for radiotracking and GPS data were due primarily to the larger samples provided by the GPS data. Means did not differ between radiotracking data and equivalent-sized subsets of GPS data (P > 0.10). For the MCP, home range area increased and variability decreased asymptotically with number of locations. For the kernel models, both area and variability decreased with increasing sample size. Simulations suggested that the MCP and kernel models required >60 and >80 locations, respectively, for estimates to be both accurate (change in area bears. Our results suggest that the usefulness of conventional radiotracking data may be limited by potential biases and variability due to small samples. Investigators that use home range estimates in statistical tests should consider the effects of variability of those estimates. Use of GPS-equipped collars can facilitate obtaining larger samples of unbiased data and improve accuracy and precision of home range estimates.

  4. Allele frequencies of variants in ultra conserved elements identify selective pressure on transcription factor binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Silla

    Full Text Available Ultra-conserved genes or elements (UCGs/UCEs in the human genome are extreme examples of conservation. We characterized natural variations in 2884 UCEs and UCGs in two distinct populations; Singaporean Chinese (n = 280 and Italian (n = 501 by using a pooled sample, targeted capture, sequencing approach. We identify, with high confidence, in these regions the abundance of rare SNVs (MAF5% are more often found in relatively less-conserved nucleotides within UCEs, compared to rare variants. Moreover, prevalent variants are less likely to overlap transcription factor binding site. Using SNPfold we found no significant influence of RNA secondary structure on UCE conservation. All together, these results suggest UCEs are not under selective pressure as a stretch of DNA but are under differential evolutionary pressure on the single nucleotide level.

  5. Elimination of frequency noise from groundwater measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.; Bryce, R.W.; Strait, S.R.; Yeatman, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Groundwater response to atmospheric fluctuation can be effectively removed from downhole-pressure records using the systematic approach. The technique is not as successful for removal of earth tides, due to a probable discrepancy between the actual earth tide and the theoretical earth tide. The advantage of the systematic technique is that a causative relationship is established for each component of the pressure response removed. This concept of data reduction is easily understood and well accepted. The disadvantage is that a record of the stress causing the pressure fluctuation must be obtained. This may be done by monitoring or synthesizing the stress. Frequency analysis offers a simpler way to eliminate the undesirable hydrologic fluctuations from the downhole pressure. Frequency analysis may prove to be impractical if the fluctuations being removed have broadband characteristics. A combination of the two techniques, such as eliminating the atmospheric effect with the systematic method and the earth-tide fluctuations with the frequency method, is the most effective and efficient approach

  6. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results. Part II; Cloud Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    This is the second part of a study on how temporal sampling frequency affects satellite retrievals in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. Continuing from Part 1, which looked at Earth's radiation budget, this paper presents the effect of sampling frequency on DSCOVR-derived cloud fraction. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the "truth". The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by subsampling the full Nature Run data. A set of metrics, including uncertainty and absolute error in the subsampled time series, correlation between the original and the subsamples, and Fourier analysis have been used for this study. Results show that, for a given sampling frequency, the uncertainties in the annual mean cloud fraction of the sunlit half of the Earth are larger over land than over ocean. Analysis of correlation coefficients between the subsamples and the original time series demonstrates that even though sampling at certain longer time intervals may not increase the uncertainty in the mean, the subsampled time series is further and further away from the "truth" as the sampling interval becomes larger and larger. Fourier analysis shows that the simulated DSCOVR cloud fraction has underlying periodical features at certain time intervals, such as 8, 12, and 24 h. If the data is subsampled at these frequencies, the uncertainties in the mean cloud fraction are higher. These results provide helpful insights for the DSCOVR temporal sampling strategy.

  7. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood lipids in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Van Berge-Landry, Helene M; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Nicolaisen, Nicola M; Bindon, James R; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated serum cholesterol, and aberrant lipoprotein fractions (low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein fractions and triglycerides) have all been used as measures that assess the "metabolic syndrome" and more recently in indexes of allostatic load, which are designed to assess the degree of integrated metabolic pathology. While there are ample data regarding the interrelationships of these measures in various pathophysiological settings, there are limited data regarding the interrelationship of ambulatory BP (ABP) and blood lipids in healthy subjects. The present study evaluates ABP-blood lipid relationships in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults. The subjects were 37 men (age = 40.9 ± 10.7 years) and 42 women (age = 35.8 ± 10.4 years) who were employed as hotel workers in Hawaii. Each wore an ABP monitor for one midweek workday and had pressures averaged in three daily microenvironments (work, home, and during sleep). They also had fasting blood samples taken for lipid profiling. Multivariate analysis of covariance shows that there was a strong inverse relationship between HDL and both systolic (P act as a group in healthy adults but that higher HDL is associated with lower BP. This latter finding is consistent with research that shows that HDL promotes vasodilation via its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Numerical analysis of effects of transglottal pressure change on fundamental frequency of phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Shinji; Matsuzaki, Yuji; Ikeda, Tadashige

    2007-02-01

    In humans, a decrease in transglottal pressure (Pt) causes an increase in the fundamental frequency of phonation (F0) only at a specific voice pitch within the modal register, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In the present study, numerical analyses were performed to investigate the mechanism of the voice pitch-dependent positive change of F0 due to Pt decrease. The airflow and the airway, including the vocal folds, were modeled in terms of mechanics of fluid and structure. Simulations of phonation using the numerical model indicated that Pt affects both the average position and the average amplitude magnitude of vocal fold self-excited oscillation in a non-monotonous manner. This effect results in voice pitch-dependent responses of F0 to Pt decreases, including the positive response of F0 as actually observed in humans. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of considering self-excited oscillation of the vocal folds in elucidation of the phonation mechanism.

  9. High frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Anders; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is now a routine analysis and serves as a diagnostic marker as well as a complement or alternative to B19 serology. The clinical significance of a positive B19 DNA finding is however dependent on the type of tissue or body fluid...... analysed and of the immune status of the patient. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Parvovirus B19 DNA was analysed in paired bone marrow and serum samples by nested PCR technique. Serum was also analysed...... negative group. A high frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA was thus detected in bone marrow samples in rheumatic patients. The clinical data does not support a direct association between B19 PCR positivity and rheumatic disease manifestation. Therefore, the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone...

  10. A general theory on frequency and time-frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series based on projection methods - Part 2: Extension to time-frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Crucifix, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Geophysical time series are sometimes sampled irregularly along the time axis. The situation is particularly frequent in palaeoclimatology. Yet, there is so far no general framework for handling the continuous wavelet transform when the time sampling is irregular. Here we provide such a framework. To this end, we define the scalogram as the continuous-wavelet-transform equivalent of the extended Lomb-Scargle periodogram defined in Part 1 of this study (Lenoir and Crucifix, 2018). The signal being analysed is modelled as the sum of a locally periodic component in the time-frequency plane, a polynomial trend, and a background noise. The mother wavelet adopted here is the Morlet wavelet classically used in geophysical applications. The background noise model is a stationary Gaussian continuous autoregressive-moving-average (CARMA) process, which is more general than the traditional Gaussian white and red noise processes. The scalogram is smoothed by averaging over neighbouring times in order to reduce its variance. The Shannon-Nyquist exclusion zone is however defined as the area corrupted by local aliasing issues. The local amplitude in the time-frequency plane is then estimated with least-squares methods. We also derive an approximate formula linking the squared amplitude and the scalogram. Based on this property, we define a new analysis tool: the weighted smoothed scalogram, which we recommend for most analyses. The estimated signal amplitude also gives access to band and ridge filtering. Finally, we design a test of significance for the weighted smoothed scalogram against the stationary Gaussian CARMA background noise, and provide algorithms for computing confidence levels, either analytically or with Monte Carlo Markov chain methods. All the analysis tools presented in this article are available to the reader in the Python package WAVEPAL.

  11. Multistage open-tube trap for enrichment of part-per-trillion trace components of low-pressure (below 27-kPa) air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, D.; Vo, T.; Vedder, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A multistage open-tube trap for cryogenic collection of trace components in low-pressure air samples is described. The open-tube design allows higher volumetric flow rates than densely packed glass-bead traps commonly reported and is suitable for air samples at pressures below 27 kPa with liquid nitrogen as the cryogen. Gas blends containing 200 to 2500 parts per trillion by volume each of ethane and ethene were sampled and hydrocarbons were enriched with 100 + or - 4 percent trap efficiency. The multistage design is more efficient than equal-length open-tube traps under the conditions of the measurements.

  12. Calibration of the pressure sensitivity of microphones by a free-field method at frequencies up to 80 khz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J; Herring, G C; Elbing, Brian R

    2006-01-01

    A free-field (FF) substitution method for calibrating the pressure sensitivity of microphones at frequencies up to 80 kHz is demonstrated with both grazing and normal-incidence geometries. The substitution-based method, as opposed to a simultaneous method, avoids problems associated with the nonuniformity of the sound field and, as applied here, uses a 1/4-in. air-condenser pressure microphone as a known reference. Best results were obtained with a centrifugal fan, which is used as a random, broadband sound source. A broadband source minimizes reflection-related interferences that can plague FF measurements. Calibrations were performed on 1/4-in. FF air-condenser, electret, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones in an anechoic chamber. The uncertainty of this FF method is estimated by comparing the pressure sensitivity of an air-condenser FF microphone, as derived from the FF measurement, with that of an electrostatic actuator calibration. The root-mean-square difference is found to be +/- 0.3 dB over the range 1-80 kHz, and the combined standard uncertainty of the FF method, including other significant contributions, is +/- 0.41 dB.

  13. A Computer Controlled Precision High Pressure Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, S.; Yadav, S.; Jha, N.; Gupta, V. K.; Agarwal, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Saxena, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    A microcontroller (AT89C51) based electronics has been designed and developed for high precision calibrator based on Digiquartz pressure transducer (DQPT) for the measurement of high hydrostatic pressure up to 275 MPa. The input signal from DQPT is converted into a square wave form and multiplied through frequency multiplier circuit over 10 times to input frequency. This input frequency is multiplied by a factor of ten using phased lock loop. Octal buffer is used to store the calculated frequency, which in turn is fed to microcontroller AT89C51 interfaced with a liquid crystal display for the display of frequency as well as corresponding pressure in user friendly units. The electronics developed is interfaced with a computer using RS232 for automatic data acquisition, computation and storage. The data is acquired by programming in Visual Basic 6.0. This system is interfaced with the PC to make it a computer controlled system. The system is capable of measuring the frequency up to 4 MHz with a resolution of 0.01 Hz and the pressure up to 275 MPa with a resolution of 0.001 MPa within measurement uncertainty of 0.025%. The details on the hardware of the pressure measuring system, associated electronics, software and calibration are discussed in this paper.

  14. Ultrasonic assisted extraction - an alternative for sample preparation (M4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Junior, P.; Barbosa Junior, F.; Krug, F.J.; Trevizan, L.C.; Nobrega, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last years the ultrasound assisted metal extraction has been frequency proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative for sample preparation of biological and inorganic samples. The extraction effect is considered as being caused by acoustic cavitation, that is, bubble formation and subsequent disruptive action. The collapse of bubbles created by sonication of solutions results in the generation of extremely high local temperature and pressure gradients, which may be regarded as localized 'hot spots'. On a timescale of about 10 -10 s, effective local pressures and temperature of about 10 5 atm and about 5000 K, respectively, are generated under sonochemical conditions. Usually, this method uses a diluted acid medium decreasing blank values and reducing both reagents and time consumption compared to traditional wet digestion systems using conductive or microwave-assisted heating. Furthermore, sonication can also allow the preparation of samples directly within the sample container, thereby preventing sample losses and minimizing sample contamination. Although some controversial results concerning metals extraction behavior have been reported, they could be explained by analyte-matrix interaction and the ability of the ultrasonic processor to generate ultrasound (i.e. the use of an ultrasonic bath or an ultrasonic probe at different power, frequency, and amplitude). This contribution presents a review of ultrasound assisted metal extraction and recent performance data obtained in our laboratory for determination of elements in biological materials, soils and sediments by ICP-OES and ETAAS. The effect of extraction parameters, such as type and concentration of the leaching solution, sonication time and performance of ultrasonic processor (bath or probe) will be presented. (author)

  15. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Using Frequency Ratio Technique with Iterative Random Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Oh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the performance of the landslide susceptibility analysis using frequency ratio (FR with an iterative random sampling. A pair of before-and-after digital aerial photographs with 50 cm spatial resolution was used to detect landslide occurrences in Yongin area, Korea. Iterative random sampling was run ten times in total and each time it was applied to the training and validation datasets. Thirteen landslide causative factors were derived from the topographic, soil, forest, and geological maps. The FR scores were calculated from the causative factors and training occurrences repeatedly ten times. The ten landslide susceptibility maps were obtained from the integration of causative factors that assigned FR scores. The landslide susceptibility maps were validated by using each validation dataset. The FR method achieved susceptibility accuracies from 89.48% to 93.21%. And the landslide susceptibility accuracy of the FR method is higher than 89%. Moreover, the ten times iterative FR modeling may contribute to a better understanding of a regularized relationship between the causative factors and landslide susceptibility. This makes it possible to incorporate knowledge-driven considerations of the causative factors into the landslide susceptibility analysis and also be extensively used to other areas.

  16. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen...... as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic...

  17. Study on the mode-transition of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge between uniform and filamentary by controlling pressures and pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sizhe; Lu, Xinpei

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the temporally resolved evolution of the nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a moderate 6mm gap under various pressures and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) by intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) images, using synthetic air and its components oxygen and nitrogen. It is found that the pressures are very different when the DBD mode transits between uniform and filamentary in air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The PRFs can also obviously affect the mode-transition. The transition mechanism in the pulsed DBD is not Townsend-to-streamer, which is dominant in the traditional alternating-voltage DBDs. The pulsed DBD in a uniform mode develops in the form of plane ionization wave, due to overlap of primary avalanches, while the increase in pressure disturbs the overlap and DBD develops in streamer instead, corresponding to the filamentary mode. Increasing the initiatory electron density by pre-ionization methods may contribute to discharge uniformity at higher pressures. We also find that the dependence of uniformity upon PRF is non-monotonic.

  18. Frequency of metabolic syndrome and its components in 300 Pakistani obese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, I.; Ishaq, T.; Fida, Z.; Rehman, F.U.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its constituents in a sample of Pakistani obese patients. Methodology: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, we used a sample of 300 patients from Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from April 2016 to November 2016. They were randomly selected and their mean age was between 15 and 25 years. The variables obtained included BMI, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride levels, LDL- cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, waist to hip ratio, waist circumference and insulin resistance. Results: Of the 300 patients, the frequency of MS was 20%. There were no significant differences in the frequency of developing MS between the genders. The order of frequency of the components as observed was as follows; abdominal obesity was 88%, high triglyceride level was 85%, males were 40%, 40% of the sampled population resided in the urban area. Meanwhile, 35% of the patients had hypertension while only 5% had hyperglycemia. The frequency of developing MS was 70 times higher in patients with high triglyceride levels in their when compared to those with normal levels. Conclusion: The frequency of MS and its components in Pakistani adolescent patients is high. The high levels of triglyceride and a sedentary lifestyle profoundly contributed to MS. Moreover, the findings signify the importance of early treatment and prevention of obesity in working toward reducing the rate of diabetes mellitus type 2; as glucose intolerance had a strong relationship with the components of MS, and cardiovascular diseases such coronary artery disease. (author)

  19. Dynamic pressure sensitivity determination with Mach number method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraf, Christophe; Damion, Jean-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Measurements of pressure in fast transient conditions are often performed even if the dynamic characteristic of the transducer are not traceable to international standards. Moreover, the question of a primary standard in dynamic pressure is still open, especially for gaseous applications. The question is to improve dynamic standards in order to respond to expressed industrial needs. In this paper, the method proposed in the EMRP IND09 ‘Dynamic’ project, which can be called the ‘ideal shock tube method’, is compared with the ‘collective standard method’ currently used in the Laboratoire de Métrologie Dynamique (LNE/ENSAM). The input is a step of pressure generated by a shock tube. The transducer is a piezoelectric pressure sensor. With the ‘ideal shock tube method’ the sensitivity of a pressure sensor is first determined dynamically. This method requires a shock tube implemented with piezoelectric shock wave detectors. The measurement of the Mach number in the tube allows an evaluation of the incident pressure amplitude of a step using a theoretical 1D model of the shock tube. Heat transfer, other actual effects and effects of the shock tube imperfections are not taken into account. The amplitude of the pressure step is then used to determine the sensitivity in dynamic conditions. The second method uses a frequency bandwidth comparison to determine pressure at frequencies from quasi-static conditions, traceable to static pressure standards, to higher frequencies (up to 10 kHz). The measurand is also a step of pressure generated by a supposed ideal shock tube or a fast-opening device. The results are provided as a transfer function with an uncertainty budget assigned to a frequency range, also deliverable frequency by frequency. The largest uncertainty in the bandwidth of comparison is used to trace the final pressure step level measured in dynamic conditions, owing that this pressure is not measurable in a steady state on a shock tube. A reference

  20. Standard-free Pressure Measurement by Ultrasonic Interferometry in a Multi-Anvil Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, H. J.; Lathe, C.; Schilling, F. R.; Lauterjung, J.

    2002-12-01

    A key question to all high pressure research arises from the reliability of pressure standards. There is some indication and discussion of an uncertainty of 10-20% for higher pressures in all standards. Simultaneous and independent investigation of the dynamical (ultrasonic interferometry of elastic wave velocities) and static (XRD-measurement of the pressure-induced volume decline) compressibility on a sample reveal the possibility of a standard-free pressure calibration (see Getting, 1998) and, consequently an absolute pressure measurement. Ultrasonic interferometry is used to measure velocities of elastic compressional and shear waves in the multi-anvil high pressure device MAX80 at HASYLAB Hamburg enabling simultaneous XRD and ultrasonic experiments. Two of the six anvils were equipped with overtone polished lithium niobate transducers of 33.3 MHz natural frequency, for generation and detection of ultrasonic waves with a frequency sweep between 5 and 55 MHz. Different buffer - reflector combinations were tested to optimize the critical interference between both sample echoes. NaCl powder of 99.5 % purity (analytical grade by Merck) was used as starting material for manufacturing the samples used as pressure calibrant after Decker (1971). The medium grain size was 50 μm. The powder was pressed to a crude sample cylinder of 10 mm diameter and a length of 20 mm using a load of 6 tons resulting in an effective pressure of 0.25 to 0.3 GPa. The millimeter sized samples (diameter 2.4 mm and 1.6 mm length for 6 mm anvil truncation and diameter 3.1 mm and 1.1 mm length for 3.5 mm anvil truncation) for the high pressure experiments were shaped with a high-precision (+/- 0.5 μm) cylindrical grinding machine and polished at the front faces. From the ultrasonic wave velocity data we calculated the compressibility of NaCl. This requires in situ density data. Therefore the sample deformation during the high pressure experiments was analyzed in detail and the results were

  1. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. Methods This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of α<0.05. Results One hundred fifty-seven records and 430 blood pressure measurements were analyzed with an average of three measurements per patient. Of these measures, 46.5% were abnormal. The mean time from admission to documentation of the first blood pressure measurement was 2.5 minutes, with 42 minutes between subsequent measures. There is no correlation between the systolic blood pressure values and the mean time interval between blood pressure documentations: 0.173 (p=0.031). Conclusion The present study found no correlation between frequency of blood pressure documentation and blood pressure values. The frequency of blood pressure documentation increased according to the severity of the patient and decreased during the length of stay in the emergency department. PMID:28444085

  2. Fatigue crack initiation at complex flaws in hydrided Zr-2.5%Nb samples from CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, L.; Radu, V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses the phenomena which occur at locations where the oxide layer of the inner surface of CANDU tube pressure is damaged by the contact with the fuel element or due to the action of hard particles at the interface between the tube pressure and bearing pad of fuel element. In such situations generate defects, which most often are defects known as ''bearing pad fretting flaws'' or ''debris fretting flaws''. In this paper the experiments are completed in a series of previous works on the mechanical fatigue phenomenon on samples prepared from the pressure tube Zr-2.5% Nb alloy. The phenomenon of variable mechanical stress (or fatigue) may lead to initiation of cracks at the tip of volumetric flaws, according to the accumulation of hydrides, which then fractures and can propagate through the tube wall pressure due to the mechanism of type DHC (Delayed Hydride Cracking). (authors)

  3. Numerical simulation of atmospheric-pressure helium discharge driven by combined radio frequency and trapezoidal pulse sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Sun Jizhong; Zhang Jianhong; Ding Zhenfeng; Wang Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure capacitive discharges driven by combined radio frequency (rf) and trapezoidal pulse sources are investigated using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that the plasma intensity in the rf discharge can be enhanced drastically when a low duty ratio short pulse source is additionally applied. The mechanism for the increase in the plasma density can be attributed to a strong localized electric field induced by the applied short pulse; the strong electric field generates a great number of high energy electrons and chemically active particles, which subsequently generate more electrons and ions. The rf capacitive discharges with the aid of externally applied short pulses can achieve a high plasma density with better power efficiency.

  4. Long-term facial artery catheter implantation for serial arterial blood sampling and invasive arterial blood pressure measurement in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; Teixeira, Luisa Gouvêa; Canola, Paulo Aléscio; Albernaz, Raquel Mincarelli; Marques, José Antônio; Neto, José Corrêa de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate surgical catheter implantation in the facial artery of horses and the long-term maintenance of such arteries using heparin and ascorbic acid as filling solution. Nine horses were implanted with a polyurethane catheter. The catheters were flushed with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution every 8h and remained patent for 25 days. Arterial blood samples were collected twice a day, and one exercise test that included serial blood samples and arterial pressure recordings was performed on a treadmill. Polyurethane catheters surgically implanted in the facial artery can be kept patent by filling with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution and provide convenient invasive arterial access in horses which is suitable for use for serial blood sampling and blood pressure recordings, even during exercise on treadmill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. About application of n-InAs and n-CdAs2 samples as reper and calibrator of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollayev, A.Yu.; Saypulayeva, S.L.; Arslanov, R.K.; Alibekov, A.G.; Abakarova, N.S.

    2010-01-01

    In monocrystallin samples n-InAs and n-CdAs 2 was measured the ρ(P) at the hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa and room temperatures with pressure rise and releasing. As a result two reference points were obtained for n-InAs and for n-CdAs 2 there were get four reference points in crystallographic direction and three points in another direction. The present work is the continuation of researches of perspective semiconductor materials, that were began in the institute of physics of Daghestan scientific scientific center of Russian Academy of Sciences with the aim of forming data bank that can be used either at making pressure transmitters for calibration of high pressure apparatus or as command elements for automatization of processes of synthesis of supersolids and precious stone raw materials

  6. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  7. Frequency of Aggressive Behaviors in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadinejad, Morteza; Bahreynian, Maryam; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Qorbani, Mostafa; Movahhed, Mohsen; Ardalan, Gelayol; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate); they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65). In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P bulling to others). Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61), while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69). Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  8. Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form for Assessing Behavior in a Sample of Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Terri N; Thompson, Erin L

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the structure and validity of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form (PBFS-TR) for assessing students' frequency of specific forms of aggression and victimization, and positive behavior. Analyses were conducted on two waves of data from 727 students from two urban middle schools (Sample 1) who were rated by their teachers on the PBFS-TR and the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), and on data collected from 1,740 students from three urban middle schools (Sample 2) for whom data on both the teacher and student report version of the PBFS were obtained. Confirmatory factor analyses supported first-order factors representing 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 3 forms of victimization (physical, verbal and relational), and 2 forms of positive behavior (prosocial behavior and effective nonviolent behavior), and higher-order factors representing aggression, victimization, and positive behavior. Strong measurement invariance was established over gender, grade, intervention condition, and time. Support for convergent validity was found based on correlations between corresponding scales on the PBFS-TR and teacher ratings on the SSIS in Sample 1. Significant correlations were also found between teacher ratings on the PBFS-TR and student ratings of their behavior on the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR) and a measure of nonviolent behavioral intentions in Sample 2. Overall the findings provided support for the PBFS-TR and suggested that teachers can provide useful data on students' aggressive and prosocial behavior and victimization experiences within the school setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. High-pressure behavior of amorphous selenium from ultrasonic measurements and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.; Liu, X. R.; Hong, S. M., E-mail: hpswjtu@gmail.com, E-mail: smhong@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Z. G. [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhu, H. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Peng, J. P. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2014-07-07

    The high-pressure behavior of melt-quenched amorphous selenium (a-Se) has been investigated via ultrasonic measurements and Raman scattering at room temperature. The ultrasonic measurements were conducted on a-Se in a multi-anvil apparatus with two different sample assemblies at pressures of up to 4.5 and 4.8 GPa. We discovered that similar kinks occur in the slopes of the pressure dependence characteristics of the travel time and the sound velocity in both shear and longitudinal waves in the 2.0–2.5 GPa range. These kinks are independent of the sample assemblies, indicating an intrinsic transformation of the a-Se. Additionally, we deduced the pressure-volume relationship of a-Se from the sound velocity characteristics using the Birch–Murnaghan equation of state, and the results agreed well with those of previous reports. In situ high-pressure Raman scattering measurements of a-Se were conducted in a diamond anvil cell with an 830 nm excitation line up to a pressure of 4.3 GPa. We found that the characteristic band of a-Se at ∼250 cm{sup −1} experienced a smooth shift to a lower frequency with pressure, but a sharp slope change in the band intensity versus pressure occurred near 2.5 GPa. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicate that the samples remain in their amorphous states after decompression. Thus, we proposed that the abnormal compression behavior of a-Se in the 2.0–2.5 GPa range can be attributed to pressure-induced local atomic reconfiguration, implying an amorphous-amorphous transition of the elementary selenium.

  10. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    was compared to a linear frequency modulated signal with amplitude tapering, previously used in clinical studies for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. The latter had a relatively flat spectrum which implied that the waveform tried to excite all frequencies including ones with low amplification. The proposed......In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method...... waveform, on the other hand, was designed so that only frequencies where the transducer had a large amplification were excited. Hereby, unnecessary heating of the transducer could be avoided and the signal-tonoise ratio could be increased. The experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS was used to evaluate...

  11. Means of introducing an analyte into liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. Kenneth; Quarles, Jr., Charles Derrick; Russo, Richard E.; Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Carado, Anthony J.

    2017-01-03

    A liquid sampling, atmospheric pressure, glow discharge (LS-APGD) device as well as systems that incorporate the device and methods for using the device and systems are described. The LS-APGD includes a hollow capillary for delivering an electrolyte solution to a glow discharge space. The device also includes a counter electrode in the form of a second hollow capillary that can deliver the analyte into the glow discharge space. A voltage across the electrolyte solution and the counter electrode creates the microplasma within the glow discharge space that interacts with the analyte to move it to a higher energy state (vaporization, excitation, and/or ionization of the analyte).

  12. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  13. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  14. Liquid waste sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    A liquid pumping pressure regulator is disposed on the midway of a pressure control tube which connects the upper portion of a sampling pot and the upper portion of a liquid waste storage vessel. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the sampling pot is made negative, and liquid wastes are sucked to the liquid pumping tube passing through the sampling pot, the difference between the pressure on the entrance of the liquid pumping pressure regulator of the pressure regulating tube and the pressure at the bottom of the liquid waste storage vessel is made constant. An opening degree controlling meter is disposed to control the degree of opening of a pressure regulating valve for sending actuation pressurized air to the liquid pumping pressure regulator. Accordingly, even if the liquid level of liquid wastes in the liquid waste storage vessel is changed, the height for the suction of the liquid wastes in the liquid pumping tube can be kept constant. With such procedures, sampling can be conducted correctly, and the discharge of the liquid wastes to the outside can be prevented. (T.M.)

  15. Film bulk acoustic resonator pressure sensor with self temperature reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X L; Jin, P C; Zhou, J; Wang, W B; Dong, S R; Luo, J K; Garcia-Gancedo, L; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I

    2012-01-01

    A novel film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) with two resonant frequencies which have opposite reactions to temperature changes has been designed. The two resonant modes respond differently to changes in temperature and pressure, with the frequency shift being linearly correlated with temperature and pressure changes. By utilizing the FBAR's sealed back trench as a cavity, an on-chip single FBAR sensor suitable for measuring pressure and temperature simultaneously is proposed and demonstrated. The experimental results show that the pressure coefficient of frequency for the lower frequency peak of the FBAR sensors is approximately −17.4 ppm kPa −1 , while that for the second peak is approximately −6.1 ppm kPa −1 , both of them being much more sensitive than other existing pressure sensors. This dual mode on-chip pressure sensor is simple in structure and operation, can be fabricated at very low cost, and yet requires no specific package, therefore has great potential for applications. (paper)

  16. Experimental research on pressure fluctuation and vibration in a mixed flow pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Houlin; Wang, Wenbo [National Research Center of Pumps and Pumping System Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Zhou, Xiaohua [Gree Electric Appliance Inc. of Zhuhai, Zhuhai (China)

    2016-01-15

    To study the pressure fluctuation and vibration in mixed flow pumps, we chose a mixed flow pump with specific speed of 436.1 to measure. The time domains and frequency domain at each monitoring point on diffuser and outlet elbow were analyzed, as well as the vibration frequency domain characteristics at the impeller outlet and near the motor. The results show that the peak value of pressure fluctuation peak decreased gradually with the increase of flow rate. The pressure fluctuation of each monitoring point had periodicity, and the frequency domain dominated by blade passing frequency and multiple shaft frequency. The vibration frequency of each monitoring point occurred at shaft frequency and its multiple shaft frequency. The dominant frequency and the second frequency were distributed in shaft frequency and double shaft frequency.

  17. Multi frequency phase fluorimetry (MFPF) for oxygen partial pressure measurement: ex vivo validation by polarographic clark-type electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Stefan; Duenges, Bastian; Klein, Klaus U; Hartwich, Volker; Mayr, Beate; Consiglio, Jolanda; Baumgardner, James E; Markstaller, Klaus; Basciani, Reto; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) at high temporal resolution remains a technological challenge. This study introduces a novel PO2 sensing technology based on Multi-Frequency Phase Fluorimetry (MFPF). The aim was to validate MFPF against polarographic Clark-type electrode (CTE) PO2 measurements. MFPF technology was first investigated in N = 8 anaesthetised pigs at FIO2 of 0.21, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. At each FIO2 level, blood samples were withdrawn and PO2 was measured in vitro with MFPF using two FOXY-AL300 probes immediately followed by CTE measurement. Secondly, MFPF-PO2 readings were compared to CTE in an artificial circulatory setup (human packed red blood cells, haematocrit of 30%). The impacts of temperature (20, 30, 40°C) and blood flow (0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0 L min(-1)) on MFPF-PO2 measurements were assessed. MFPF response time in the gas- and blood-phase was determined. Porcine MFPF-PO2 ranged from 63 to 749 mmHg; the corresponding CTE samples from 43 to 712 mmHg. Linear regression: CTE = 15.59+1.18*MFPF (R(2) = 0.93; P0.05). MFPF response-time (monoexponential) was 1.48±0.26 s for the gas-phase and 1.51±0.20 s for the blood-phase. MFPF-derived PO2 readings were reproducible and showed excellent correlation and good agreement with Clark-type electrode-based PO2 measurements. There was no relevant impact of temperature and blood flow upon MFPF-PO2 measurements. The response time of the MFPF FOXY-AL300 probe was adequate for real-time sensing in the blood phase.

  18. Enhancing the Frequency Adaptability of Periodic Current Controllers with a Fixed Sampling Rate for Grid-Connected Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Grid-connected power converters should employ advanced current controllers, e.g., Proportional Resonant (PR) and Repetitive Controllers (RC), in order to produce high-quality feed-in currents that are required to be synchronized with the grid. The synchronization is actually to detect...... of the resonant controllers and by approximating the fractional delay using a Lagrange interpolating polynomial for the RC, respectively, the frequency-variation-immunity of these periodic current controllers with a fixed sampling rate is improved. Experiments on a single-phase grid-connected system are presented...... the instantaneous grid information (e.g., frequency and phase of the grid voltage) for the current control, which is commonly performed by a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) system. Hence, harmonics and deviations in the estimated frequency by the PLL could lead to current tracking performance degradation, especially...

  19. Influence of gas law on ultrasonic behaviour of porous media under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, S; Ayrault, C

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the influence of gas law on ultrasonic behaviour of porous media when the saturating fluid is high pressured. Previous works have demonstrated that ultrasonic transmission through a porous sample with variations of the static pressure (up to 18 bars) of the saturating fluid allows the characterization of high damping materials. In these studies, the perfect gas law was used to link static pressure and density, which is disputable for high pressures. This paper compares the effects of real and perfect gas laws on modeled transmission coefficient for porous foams at these pressures. Direct simulations and a mechanical parameters estimation from minimization show that results are very similar in both cases. The real gas law is thus not necessary to describe the acoustic behaviour of porous media at low ultrasonic frequencies (100 kHz) up to 20 bars. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of Pressure Wave inside CEUP Fuel Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions dependent large pressure variations are one of the working characteristics of combination electronic unit pump (CEUP fuel injection system for diesel engines. We propose a precise and accurate nonlinear numerical model of pressure inside HP fuel pipeline of CEUP using wave equation (WE including both viscous and frequency dependent frictions. We have proved that developed hyperbolic approximation gives more realistic description of pressure wave as compared to classical viscous damped wave equation. Frictional effects of various frequencies on pressure wave have been averaged out across valid frequencies to represent the combined effect of all frequencies on pressure wave. Dynamic variations of key fuel properties including density, acoustic wave speed, and bulk modulus with varying pressures have also been incorporated. Based on developed model we present analysis on effect of fuel pipeline length on pressure wave propagation and variation of key fuel properties with both conventional diesel and alternate fuel rapeseed methyl ester (RME for CEUP pipeline.

  1. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  2. Allele frequencies of variants in ultra conserved elements identify selective pressure on transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Toomas; Kepp, Katrin; Tai, E Shyong; Goh, Liang; Davila, Sonia; Catela Ivkovic, Tina; Calin, George A; Voorhoeve, P Mathijs

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-conserved genes or elements (UCGs/UCEs) in the human genome are extreme examples of conservation. We characterized natural variations in 2884 UCEs and UCGs in two distinct populations; Singaporean Chinese (n = 280) and Italian (n = 501) by using a pooled sample, targeted capture, sequencing approach. We identify, with high confidence, in these regions the abundance of rare SNVs (MAFpower for association studies. By combining our data with 1000 Genome Project data, we show in three independent datasets that prevalent UCE variants (MAF>5%) are more often found in relatively less-conserved nucleotides within UCEs, compared to rare variants. Moreover, prevalent variants are less likely to overlap transcription factor binding site. Using SNPfold we found no significant influence of RNA secondary structure on UCE conservation. All together, these results suggest UCEs are not under selective pressure as a stretch of DNA but are under differential evolutionary pressure on the single nucleotide level.

  3. Vibration and acoustic frequency spectra for industrial process modeling using selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Qiao, Junfei; Wu, ZhiWei; Chai, Tianyou; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Frequency spectral data of mechanical vibration and acoustic signals relate to difficult-to-measure production quality and quantity parameters of complex industrial processes. A selective ensemble (SEN) algorithm can be used to build a soft sensor model of these process parameters by fusing valued information selectively from different perspectives. However, a combination of several optimized ensemble sub-models with SEN cannot guarantee the best prediction model. In this study, we use several techniques to construct mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectra of a data-driven industrial process parameter model based on selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features. Multi-layer SEN (MLSEN) strategy is used to simulate the domain expert cognitive process. Genetic algorithm and kernel partial least squares are used to construct the inside-layer SEN sub-model based on each mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectral feature subset. Branch-and-bound and adaptive weighted fusion algorithms are integrated to select and combine outputs of the inside-layer SEN sub-models. Then, the outside-layer SEN is constructed. Thus, "sub-sampling training examples"-based and "manipulating input features"-based ensemble construction methods are integrated, thereby realizing the selective information fusion process based on multi-condition history samples and multi-source input features. This novel approach is applied to a laboratory-scale ball mill grinding process. A comparison with other methods indicates that the proposed MLSEN approach effectively models mechanical vibration and acoustic signals.

  4. Characteristic of selected frequency luminescence for samples collected in deserts north to Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxu; Wei Mingjian; Wang Junping; Pan Baolin; Zhao Shiyuan; Liu Zhaowen

    2009-01-01

    Surface sand samples were collected in eight sites of the Horqin and Otindag deserts located in north to Beijing. BG2003 luminescence spectrograph was used to analyze the emitted photons and characteristic spectra of the selected frequency luminescence were obtained. It was found that high intensities of emitted photons stimulated by heat from 85 degree C-135 degree C and 350 degree C-400 degree C. It belong to the traps of 4.13 eV (300 nm), 4.00 eV (310 nm), 3.88 eV (320 nm) and 2.70 eV (460 nm), and the emitted photons belong to traps of 4.00 eV (310 nm), 3.88 eV (320 nm) and 2.70 eV (460 nm) were stimulated by green laser. And sand samples of the eight sites can respond to the increase of definite radiological dose at each wavelength, which is the characteristic spectrum to provide radiation dosimetry basis for dating. There are definite district characteristic in their characteristic spectra. (authors)

  5. Blood pressure interacts with APOE ε4 to predict memory performance in a midlife sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Manuck, Stephen B; Gianaros, Peter J; Ferrell, Robert E; Muldoon, Matthew F; Jennings, J Richard; Flory, Janine D; Erickson, Kirk I

    2015-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure and the Apolipoprotein ε4 allele (APOE ε4) are independent risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether the combined presence of the APOE ε4 allele and elevated blood pressure is associated with lower cognitive performance in cognitively healthy middle-aged adults. A total of 975 participants aged 30-54 (mean age = 44.47) were genotyped for APOE. Cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, lipids, and glucose were assessed and cognitive function was measured using the Trail Making Test and the Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the association between APOE ε4 and episodic memory performance varied as a function of systolic blood pressure (SBP), such that elevated SBP was predictive of poorer episodic memory performance only in APOE ε4 carriers (β = -.092; t = -2.614; p = .009). Notably, this association was apparent at prehypertensive levels (≥130 mmHg), even after adjusting for physical activity, depression, smoking, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. The joint presence of APOE ε4 and elevated SBP, even at prehypertensive levels, is associated with lower cognitive performance in healthy, middle-aged adults. Results of this study suggest that the combination of APOE ε4 and elevated SBP may synergistically compromise memory function well before the appearance of clinically significant impairments. Interventions targeting blood pressure control in APOE ε4 carriers during midlife should be studied as a possible means to reduce the risk of cognitive decline in genetically susceptible samples. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Pressure-assisted introduction of urine samples into a short capillary for electrophoretic separation with contactless conductivity and UV spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrlíková, Anna; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2015-08-01

    A computer-controlled hydrodynamic sample introduction method has been proposed for short-capillary electrophoresis. In the method, the BGE flushes sample from the loop of a six-way sampling valve and is carried to the injection end of the capillary. A short pressure impulse is generated in the electrolyte stream at the time when the sample zone is at the capillary, leading to injection of the sample into the capillary. Then the electrolyte flow is stopped and the separation voltage is turned on. This way of sample introduction does not involve movement of the capillary and both of its ends remain constantly in the solution during both sample injection and separation. The amount of sample introduced to the capillary is controlled by the duration of the pressure pulse. The new sample introduction method was tested in the determination of ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, and hippuric acid in human urine. The determination was performed in a capillary with an overall length of 10.5 cm, in two BGEs with compositions 50 mM MES + 5 mM NaOH (pH 5.1) and 1 M acetic acid + 1.5 mM crown ether 18-crown-6 (pH 2.4). A dual contactless conductivity/UV spectrometric detector was used for the detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Exponential frequency spectrum and Lorentzian pulses in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D. C.; Shi, M.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.; Carter, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two different experiments involving pressure gradients across the confinement magnetic field in a large plasma column are found to exhibit a broadband turbulence that displays an exponential frequency spectrum for frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The exponential feature has been traced to the presence of solitary pulses having a Lorentzian temporal signature. These pulses arise from nonlinear interactions of drift-Alfven waves driven by the pressure gradients. In both experiments the width of the pulses is narrowly distributed resulting in exponential spectra with a single characteristic time scale. The temporal width of the pulses is measured to be a fraction of a period of the drift-Alfven waves. The experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD-U) [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] operated by the Basic Plasma Science Facility at the University of California, Los Angeles. One experiment involves a controlled, pure electron temperature gradient associated with a microscopic (6 mm gradient length) hot electron temperature filament created by the injection a small electron beam embedded in the center of a large, cold magnetized plasma. The other experiment is a macroscopic (3.5 cm gradient length) limiter-edge experiment in which a density gradient is established by inserting a metallic plate at the edge of the nominal plasma column of the LAPD-U. The temperature filament experiment permits a detailed study of the transition from coherent to turbulent behavior and the concomitant change from classical to anomalous transport. In the limiter experiment the turbulence sampled is always fully developed. The similarity of the results in the two experiments strongly suggests a universal feature of pressure-gradient driven turbulence in magnetized plasmas that results in nondiffusive cross-field transport. This may explain previous observations in helical confinement devices, research tokamaks, and arc plasmas.

  8. Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiwei; Bao Weimin; Li Xiaoping; Liu Donglin; Zhou Hui

    2016-01-01

    Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. (paper)

  9. Drop-on-demand sample introduction system coupled with the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow for direct molecular analysis of complex liquid microvolume samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, J Niklas; Pfeuffer, Kevin P; Shelley, Jacob T; Bings, Nicolas H; Hieftje, Gary M

    2012-11-06

    One of the fastest developing fields in analytical spectrochemistry in recent years is ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS). This burgeoning interest has been due to the demonstrated advantages of the method: simple mass spectra, little or no sample preparation, and applicability to samples in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state. One such ADI-MS source, the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA), is capable of direct analysis of solids just by aiming the source at the solid surface and sampling the produced ions into a mass spectrometer. However, direct introduction of significant volumes of liquid samples into this source has not been possible, as solvent loads can quench the afterglow and, thus, the formation of reagent ions. As a result, the analysis of liquid samples is preferably carried out by analyzing dried residues or by desorbing small amounts of liquid samples directly from the liquid surface. In the former case, reproducibility of sample introduction is crucial if quantitative results are desired. In the present study, introduction of liquid samples as very small droplets helps overcome the issues of sample positioning and reduced levels of solvent intake. A recently developed "drop-on-demand" (DOD) aerosol generator is capable of reproducibly producing very small volumes of liquid (∼17 pL). In this paper, the coupling of FAPA-MS and DOD is reported and applications are suggested. Analytes representing different classes of substances were tested and limits of detections were determined. Matrix tolerance was investigated for drugs of abuse and their metabolites by analyzing raw urine samples and quantification without the use of internal standards. Limits of detection below 2 μg/mL, without sample pretreatment, were obtained.

  10. Frequency encoding in renal blood flow regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, D.J.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    With a model of renal blood flow regulation, we examined consequences of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) coupling to the myogenic mechanism via voltage-gated Ca channels. The model reproduces the characteristic oscillations of the two mechanisms and predicts frequency and amplitude modulation...... of the myogenic oscillation by TGF. Analysis by wavelet transforms of single-nephron blood flow confirms that both amplitude and frequency of the myogenic oscillation are modulated by TGF. We developed a double-wavelet transform technique to estimate modulation frequency. Median value of the ratio of modulation...... TGF cycle to the next. We used a blood pressure signal recorded by telemetry from a conscious rat as the input to the model. Blood pressure fluctuations induced variability in the modulation records similar to those found in the nephron blood flow results. Frequency and amplitude modulation can...

  11. A study of the pressure profiles near the first pumping aperture in a high pressure photoelectron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahk, J. Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Grechy, Lorenza; Bruce, Paul J.K.; Vincent, Peter E. [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Eriksson, Susanna K. [Department of Chemistry-Ångström, Uppsala University, Box 523, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Rensmo, Håkan; Hahlin, Maria [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Åhlund, John; Edwards, Mårten O.M. [VG Scienta AB, Box 15120, 750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Payne, David J., E-mail: d.payne@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We have examined pressure variations in a high pressure photoelectron spectrometer. • Pressure profiles have been simulated using computational fluid dynamics modelling. • The results are useful for determining the optimal sample position for measurements. - Abstract: In a high-pressure photoelectron spectrometer, the sample is positioned close to a differential pumping aperture, behind which the pressure is several orders of magnitude lower than the pressure in the analysis chamber. To find the optimal sample position, where the path length of the photoelectrons through the high pressure region is minimized as far as possible without compromising knowledge of the actual pressure at the sample surface, an understanding of the pressure variations near the sample and the aperture is required. A computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the pressure profiles, and the results are compared against experimental spectra whose intensities are analyzed using the Beer–Lambert law. The resultant pressure profiles are broadly similar to the one previously derived from a simplistic molecular flow model, but indicate that as the pressure in the analysis chamber is raised, the region over which the pressure drop occurs becomes progressively narrower.

  12. A study of the pressure profiles near the first pumping aperture in a high pressure photoelectron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahk, J. Matthias; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J.; Grechy, Lorenza; Bruce, Paul J.K.; Vincent, Peter E.; Eriksson, Susanna K.; Rensmo, Håkan; Hahlin, Maria; Åhlund, John; Edwards, Mårten O.M.; Payne, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have examined pressure variations in a high pressure photoelectron spectrometer. • Pressure profiles have been simulated using computational fluid dynamics modelling. • The results are useful for determining the optimal sample position for measurements. - Abstract: In a high-pressure photoelectron spectrometer, the sample is positioned close to a differential pumping aperture, behind which the pressure is several orders of magnitude lower than the pressure in the analysis chamber. To find the optimal sample position, where the path length of the photoelectrons through the high pressure region is minimized as far as possible without compromising knowledge of the actual pressure at the sample surface, an understanding of the pressure variations near the sample and the aperture is required. A computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the pressure profiles, and the results are compared against experimental spectra whose intensities are analyzed using the Beer–Lambert law. The resultant pressure profiles are broadly similar to the one previously derived from a simplistic molecular flow model, but indicate that as the pressure in the analysis chamber is raised, the region over which the pressure drop occurs becomes progressively narrower.

  13. Deposition of organosilicone thin film from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with 50 kHz/33 MHz dual-frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaojiao; Yuan, Qianghua; Chang, Xiaowei; Wang, Yong; Yin, Guiqin; Dong, Chenzhong

    2017-04-01

    The deposition of organosilicone thin films from hexamethyldisiloxane(HMDSO) by using a dual-frequency (50 kHz/33 MHz) atmospheric-pressure micro-plasma jet with an admixture of a small volume of HMDSO and Ar was investigated. The topography was measured by using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical bond and composition of these films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the as-deposited film was constituted by silicon, carbon, and oxygen elements, and FTIR suggested the films are organosilicon with the organic component (-CH x ) and hydroxyl functional group(-OH) connected to the Si-O-Si backbone. Thin-film hardness was recorded by an MH-5-VM Digital Micro-Hardness Tester. Radio frequency power had a strong impact on film hardness and the hardness increased with increasing power.

  14. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge as a secondary excitation source: Assessment of plasma characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manard, Benjamin T.; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Sarkar, Arnab; Dong, Meirong; Chirinos, Jose; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as a secondary excitation source with a parametric evaluation regarding carrier gas flow rate, applied current, and electrode distance. With this parametric evaluation, plasma optical emission was monitored in order to obtain a fundamental understanding with regards to rotational temperature (T rot ), excitation temperature (T exc ), electron number density (n e ), and plasma robustness. Incentive for these studies is not only for a greater overall fundamental knowledge of the APGD, but also in instrumenting a secondary excitation/ionization source following laser ablation (LA). Rotational temperatures were determined through experimentally fitting of the N 2 and OH molecular emission bands while atomic excitation temperatures were calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of He and Mg atomic lines. The rotational and excitation temperatures were determined to be ∼ 1000 K and ∼ 2700 K respectively. Electron number density was calculated to be on the order of ∼ 3 × 10 15 cm −3 utilizing Stark broadening effects of the Hα line of the Balmer series and a He I transition. In addition, those diagnostics were performed introducing magnesium (by solution feed and laser ablation) into the plasma in order to determine any perturbation under heavy matrix sampling. The so-called plasma robustness factor, derived by monitoring Mg II/Mg I emission ratios, is also employed as a reflection of potential perturbations in microplasma energetics across the various operation conditions and sample loadings. While truly a miniaturized source ( 3 volume), the LS-APGD is shown to be quite robust with plasma characteristics and temperatures being unaffected upon introduction of metal species, whether by liquid or laser ablation sample introduction. - Highlights: • Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) • LS-APGD as a secondary excitation source for laser-ablated (LA

  15. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicholas J; Gauthe, Beatrice L L E; Terrill, Nick J; Rogers, Sarah E; Templer, Richard H; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M

    2010-06-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  16. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  17. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  18. Pressure vessel integrity and weld inspection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, K.A.; Okrent, D.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to develop a simple methodology which, when coupled with existing observations on pressure vessel behavior, provides an inter-relation between pressure vessel integrity, and the parameters of the in-service inspection program, including inspection sample size, frequency and efficiency. A modified Markov process is employed and a computer code was written to obtain numerical results. The Markov process mathematically describes the following physical events. In a nuclear reactor pressure vessel weld, some defects may exist prior to the zeroth inspection (i.e., prior to vessel operation). During the zeroth inspection and repair processes, some of these defects are removed. During the first cycle of vessel operation, the existing defects may grow and some new defects may be generated. Those defects that are found at the first (and succeeding) inspection interval and warrant repair, are repaired. The above process continues through several operating cycles to the end of vessel life. During any inspection, only a portion of the welds may be inspected, and with less than perfect efficiency

  19. Band Width of Acoustic Resonance Frequency Relatively Natural Frequency of Fuel Rod Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich; Moukhine, V.S.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivets, E.Yu. [MPEI - TU, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    In flow induced vibrations the fluid flow is the energy source that causes vibration. Acoustic resonance in piping may lead to severe problems due to over-stressing of components or significant losses of efficiency. Steady oscillatory flow in NPP primary loop can be induced by the pulsating flow introduced by reactor circulating pump or may be set up by self-excitation. Dynamic forces generated by the turbulent flow of coolant in reactor cores cause fuel rods (FR) and fuel assembly (FA) to vibrate. Flow-induced FR and FA vibrations can generally be broken into three groups: large amplitude 'resonance type' vibrations, which can cause immediate rod failure or severe damage to the rod and its support structure, middle amplitude 'within bandwidth of resonance frequency type' vibrations responsible for more gradual wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support and small amplitude vibrations, 'out of bandwidth of resonance frequency type' responsible for permissible wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support. Ultimately, these vibration types can result in a cladding breach, and therefore must be accounted for in the thermal hydraulic design of FR and FA and reactor internals. In paper the technique of definition of quality factor (Q) of acoustic contour of the coolant is presented. The value of Q defines a range of frequencies of acoustic fluctuations of the coolant within which the resonance of oscillations of the structure and the coolant is realized. Method of evaluation of so called band width (BW) of acoustic resonance frequency is worked out and presented in the paper. BW characterises the range of the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations within which the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations matches the fuel assembly's natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency). Paper show the way of detuning acoustic resonance from natural

  20. Determination of the neutral oxygen atom density in a plasma reactor loaded with metal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms was determined during processing of metal samples in a plasma reactor. The reactor was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 11 cm and a length of 30 cm. Plasma was created by an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz and output power up to 500 W. The O density was measured at the edge of the glass tube with a copper fiber optics catalytic probe. The O atom density in the empty tube depended on pressure and was between 4 and 7 × 1021 m-3. The maximum O density was at a pressure of about 150 Pa, while the dissociation fraction of O2 molecules was maximal at the lowest pressure and decreased with increasing pressure. At about 300 Pa it dropped below 10%. The measurements were repeated in the chamber loaded with different metallic samples. In these cases, the density of oxygen atoms was lower than that in the empty chamber. The results were explained by a drain of O atoms caused by heterogeneous recombination on the samples.

  1. Blood pressure levels in male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima......-media thickness (CIMT), and fasting blood samples were evaluated. The clinical study was combined with a genetic-epidemiological study to replicate the association between blood pressure and CD300LG Arg82Cys in 2,637 men and 3,249 women. RESULTS: CT-carriers had a higher 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure...

  2. Frequency of aggressive behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadinejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. Results: In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate; they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65. In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P < 0.001. Higher rates of involvement in two other behaviors namely being bullied and bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P < 0.001 for being bullied and (20% vs. 14%, P < 0.001 for bulling to others. Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61, while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69. Conclusions: Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  3. Low frequency sound field enhancement system for rectangular rooms using multiple low frequency loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2006-01-01

    an enhancement system with extra loudspeakers the sound pressure level distribution along the listening area presents a significant improvement in the subwoofer frequency range. The system is simulated and implemented on the three different rooms and finally verified by measurements on the real rooms.......Rectangular rooms have strong influence on the low frequency performance of loudspeakers. Simulations of three different room sizes have been carried out using finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) in order to predict the behaviour of the sound field at low frequencies. By using...

  4. Pressurized transient otoacoustic emissions measured using click and chirp stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas H; Patrick Feeney, M; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Sanford, Chris A

    2018-01-01

    Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses were measured in normal-hearing adult ears over frequencies from 0.7 to 8 kHz, and analyzed with reflectance/admittance data to measure absorbed sound power and the tympanometric peak pressure (TPP). The mean TPP was close to ambient. TEOAEs were measured in the ear canal at ambient pressure, TPP, and fixed air pressures from 150 to -200 daPa. Both click and chirp stimuli were used to elicit TEOAEs, in which the incident sound pressure level was constant across frequency. TEOAE levels were similar at ambient and TPP, and for frequencies from 0.7 to 2.8 kHz decreased with increasing positive and negative pressures. At 4-8 kHz, TEOAE levels were larger at positive pressures. This asymmetry is possibly related to changes in mechanical transmission through the ossicular chain. The mean TEOAE group delay did not change with pressure, although small changes were observed in the mean instantaneous frequency and group spread. Chirp TEOAEs measured in an adult ear with Eustachian tube dysfunction and TPP of -165 daPa were more robust at TPP than at ambient. Overall, results demonstrate the feasibility and clinical potential of measuring TEOAEs at fixed pressures in the ear canal, which provide additional information relative to TEOAEs measured at ambient pressure.

  5. Liquid pressure wireless sensor based on magnetostrictive microwires for applications in cardiovascular localized diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aragón

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report a method to measure changes in a fluid pressure, flowing through a flexible pipeline, by means of a ring of magnetic microwire concentric to the pipeline. The detection is based on the modulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by the magnetoelastic ring. This modulation is driven by applying a low frequency bias magnetic field able to tune the magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic microwire. Pressure detection, by means of magnetic permeability changes, is possible due to the magnetostrictive character of the sample. The experimental work developed has, also, allowed fluid pressure detection in a hydraulic circuit connected to ventricular assist system where a fluid with a viscosity close to blood flows.

  6. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...... and trailing edge noise, recognized to be the two main sources of noise from wind turbines, this work contributes to a more detailed insight into noise from wind turbines. The study comprises analysis and interpretation of measurement data that were acquired during an experimental campaign involving a 2 MW...... wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush...

  7. Comparison of air-charged and water-filled urodynamic pressure measurement catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M A; Fletter, P C; Zaszczurynski, P J; Damaser, M S

    2011-03-01

    Catheter systems are utilized to measure pressure for diagnosis of voiding dysfunction. In a clinical setting, patient movement and urodynamic pumps introduce hydrostatic and motion artifacts into measurements. Therefore, complete characterization of a catheter system includes its response to artifacts as well its frequency response. The objective of this study was to compare the response of two disposable clinical catheter systems: water-filled and air-charged, to controlled pressure signals to assess their similarities and differences in pressure transduction. We characterized frequency response using a transient step test, which exposed the catheters to a sudden change in pressure; and a sinusoidal frequency sweep test, which exposed the catheters to a sinusoidal pressure wave from 1 to 30 Hz. The response of the catheters to motion artifacts was tested using a vortex and the response to hydrostatic pressure changes was tested by moving the catheter tips to calibrated heights. Water-filled catheters acted as an underdamped system, resonating at 10.13 ± 1.03 Hz and attenuating signals at frequencies higher than 19 Hz. They demonstrated significant motion and hydrostatic artifacts. Air-charged catheters acted as an overdamped system and attenuated signals at frequencies higher than 3.02 ± 0.13 Hz. They demonstrated significantly less motion and hydrostatic artifacts than water-filled catheters. The transient step and frequency sweep tests gave comparable results. Air-charged and water-filled catheters respond to pressure changes in dramatically different ways. Knowledge of the characteristics of the pressure-measuring system is essential to finding the best match for a specific application. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of dioxin-furans and dioxin-like PCBs from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Capelo, J L; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2008-05-30

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) applying three extraction cycles, temperature and pressure, improved the efficiency of solvent extraction when compared with the classical Soxhlet extraction. Polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs (coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs)) in two Certified Reference Materials [DX-1 (sediment) and BCR 529 (soil)] and in two contaminated environmental samples (sediment and soil) were extracted by ASE and Soxhlet methods. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, results demonstrated that ASE using n-hexane as solvent and three extraction cycles, 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) and 150 degrees C achieves similar recovery results than the classical Soxhlet extraction for PCDFs and Co-PCBs, and better recovery results for PCDDs. ASE extraction, performed in less time and with less solvent proved to be, under optimized conditions, an excellent extraction technique for the simultaneous analysis of PCDD/PCDFs and Co-PCBs from environmental samples. Such fast analytical methodology, having the best cost-efficiency ratio, will improve the control and will provide more information about the occurrence of dioxins and the levels of toxicity and thereby will contribute to increase human health.

  9. Evolution of concentration-discharge relations revealed by high frequency diurnal sampling of stream water during spring snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Y.; White, A. M.; Thompson, M.; Moravec, B. G.; McIntosh, J. C.; Chorover, J.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration discharge (C-Q) relations contain potentially important information on critical zone (CZ) processes including: weathering reactions, water flow paths and nutrient export. To examine the C-Q relations in a small (3.3 km2) headwater catchment - La Jara Creek located in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory, daily, diurnal stream water samples were collected during spring snow melt 2017, from two flumes located in outlets of the La Jara Creek and a high elevation zero order basin within this catchment. Previous studies from this site (McIntosh et al., 2017) suggested that high frequency sampling was needed to improve our interpretation of C-Q relations. The dense sampling covered two ascending and two descending limbs of the snowmelt hydrograph, from March 1 to May 15, 2017. While Na showed inverse correlation (dilution) with discharge, most other solutes (K, Mg, Fe, Al, dissolved organic carbon) exhibited positive (concentration) or chemostatic trends (Ca, Mn, Si, dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved nitrogen). Hysteresis in the C-Q relation was most pronounced for bio-cycled cations (K, Mg) and for Fe, which exhibited concentration during the first ascending limb followed by a chemostatic trend. A pulsed increase in Si concentration immediately after the first ascending limb in both flumes suggests mixing of deep groundwater with surface water. A continual increase in Ge/Si concentrations followed by a rapid decrease after the second rising limb may suggest a fast transition between soil water to ground water dominating the stream flow. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of selected samples across the hydrograph demonstrated pronounced changes in dissolved organic matter molecular composition with the advancement of the spring snow melt. X-ray micro-spectroscopy of colloidal material isolated from the collected water samples indicated a significant role for organic matter in the transport of inorganic colloids. Analyses of high

  10. Quality properties of pre- and post-rigor beef muscle after interventions with high frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Anita L; Mawson, Raymond; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2014-11-01

    The delivery of a consistent quality product to the consumer is vitally important for the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for using high frequency ultrasound applied to pre- and post-rigor beef muscle on the metabolism and subsequent quality. High frequency ultrasound (600kHz at 48kPa and 65kPa acoustic pressure) applied to post-rigor beef striploin steaks resulted in no significant effect on the texture (peak force value) of cooked steaks as measured by a Tenderometer. There was no added benefit of ultrasound treatment above that of the normal ageing process after ageing of the steaks for 7days at 4°C. Ultrasound treatment of post-rigor beef steaks resulted in a darkening of fresh steaks but after ageing for 7days at 4°C, the ultrasound-treated steaks were similar in colour to that of the aged, untreated steaks. High frequency ultrasound (2MHz at 48kPa acoustic pressure) applied to pre-rigor beef neck muscle had no effect on the pH, but the calculated exhaustion factor suggested that there was some effect on metabolism and actin-myosin interaction. However, the resultant texture of cooked, ultrasound-treated muscle was lower in tenderness compared to the control sample. After ageing for 3weeks at 0°C, the ultrasound-treated samples had the same peak force value as the control. High frequency ultrasound had no significant effect on the colour parameters of pre-rigor beef neck muscle. This proof-of-concept study showed no effect of ultrasound on quality but did indicate that the application of high frequency ultrasound to pre-rigor beef muscle shows potential for modifying ATP turnover and further investigation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  12. Frequency of different blood groups and its association with BMI and blood pressure among the female medical students of Faisalabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Shireen; Zia, Sadaf; Tariq, Sundus

    2017-08-01

    To determine the frequency of different blood groups among female medical students and to find the association of blood groups and body mass index with blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was performed at the University Medical and Dental College, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from March to April 2016, and comprised female medical students. Participants were divided into groups on the basis of their ABO blood groups and on body mass index criteria. Blood groups were determined by simple conventional slide method. Blood pressure was estimated by manual auscultatory technique with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Data was analysed usingSPSS20. There were 145 students with an overall mean age of18.4±0.75 years (range: 17-23 years). Blood group B was the predominant group 65(44.8%). Besides, 130(89.6%) subjects were rhesus positive and 23(53%) subjects of blood group O were pre-hypertensive. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant positive association of blood group O with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.002, 0.001). However, subsequent logistic regression showed significant association only with diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001). Relative risk of pre-hypertension for obese (p=0.001) was greater than non-obese subjects. Body mass index was significantly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.004, 0.042). Blood group B was the most common blood group. Blood group O was associated with diastolic pre-hypertension, while body mass index was associated with both systolic and diastolic pre-hypertension.

  13. An analysis of wildfire frequency and burned area relationships with human pressure and climate gradients in the context of fire regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruano, Adrián; Rodrigues Mimbrero, Marcos; de la Riva Fernández, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Understanding fire regime is a crucial step towards achieving a better knowledge of the wildfire phenomenon. This study proposes a method for the analysis of fire regime based on multidimensional scatterplots (MDS). MDS are a visual approach that allows direct comparison among several variables and fire regime features so that we are able to unravel spatial patterns and relationships within the region of analysis. Our analysis is conducted in Spain, one of the most fire-affected areas within the Mediterranean region. Specifically, the Spanish territory has been split into three regions - Northwest, Hinterland and Mediterranean - considered as representative fire regime zones according to MAGRAMA (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Environment and Food). The main goal is to identify key relationships between fire frequency and burnt area, two of the most common fire regime features, with socioeconomic activity and climate. In this way we will be able to better characterize fire activity within each fire region. Fire data along the period 1974-2010 was retrieved from the General Statistics Forest Fires database (EGIF). Specifically, fire frequency and burnt area size was examined for each region and fire season (summer and winter). Socioeconomic activity was defined in terms of human pressure on wildlands, i.e. the presence and intensity of anthropogenic activity near wildland or forest areas. Human pressure was built from GIS spatial information about land use (wildland-agriculture and wildland-urban interface) and demographic potential. Climate variables (average maximum temperature and annual precipitation) were extracted from MOTEDAS (Monthly Temperature Dataset of Spain) and MOPREDAS (Monthly Precipitation Dataset of Spain) datasets and later reclassified into ten categories. All these data were resampled to fit the 10x10 Km grid used as spatial reference for fire data. Climate and socioeconomic variables were then explored by means of MDS to find the extent to

  14. Pressure spectra from single-snapshot tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Avallone, Francesco; Pröbsting, Stefan; Ragni, Daniele; Scarano, Fulvio

    2018-03-01

    The power spectral density and coherence of temporal pressure fluctuations are obtained from low-repetition-rate tomographic PIV measurements. This is achieved by extension of recent single-snapshot pressure evaluation techniques based upon the Taylor's hypothesis (TH) of frozen turbulence and vortex-in-cell (VIC) simulation. Finite time marching of the measured instantaneous velocity fields is performed using TH and VIC. Pressure is calculated from the resulting velocity time series. Because of the theoretical limitations, the finite time marching can be performed until the measured flow structures are convected out of the measurement volume. This provides a lower limit of resolvable frequency range. An upper limit is given by the spatial resolution of the measurements. Finite time-marching approaches are applied to low-repetition-rate tomographic PIV data of the flow past a straight trailing edge at 10 m/s. Reference results of the power spectral density and coherence are obtained from surface pressure transducers. In addition, the results are compared to state-of-the-art experimental data obtained from time-resolved tomographic PIV performed at 10 kHz. The time-resolved approach suffers from low spatial resolution and limited maximum acquisition frequency because of hardware limitations. Additionally, these approaches strongly depend upon the time kernel length chosen for pressure evaluation. On the other hand, the finite time-marching approaches make use of low-repetition-rate tomographic PIV measurements that offer higher spatial resolution. Consequently, increased accuracy of the power spectral density and coherence of pressure fluctuations are obtained in the high-frequency range, in comparison to the time-resolved measurements. The approaches based on TH and VIC are found to perform similarly in the high-frequency range. At lower frequencies, TH is found to underestimate coherence and intensity of the pressure fluctuations in comparison to time-resolved PIV

  15. Thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon: importance of grain size and frequency-dependent mean free paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojie; Alaniz, Joseph E; Jang, Wanyoung; Garay, Javier E; Dames, Chris

    2011-06-08

    The thermal conductivity reduction due to grain boundary scattering is widely interpreted using a scattering length assumed equal to the grain size and independent of the phonon frequency (gray). To assess these assumptions and decouple the contributions of porosity and grain size, five samples of undoped nanocrystalline silicon have been measured with average grain sizes ranging from 550 to 64 nm and porosities from 17% to less than 1%, at temperatures from 310 to 16 K. The samples were prepared using current activated, pressure assisted densification (CAPAD). At low temperature the thermal conductivities of all samples show a T(2) dependence which cannot be explained by any traditional gray model. The measurements are explained over the entire temperature range by a new frequency-dependent model in which the mean free path for grain boundary scattering is inversely proportional to the phonon frequency, which is shown to be consistent with asymptotic analysis of atomistic simulations from the literature. In all cases the recommended boundary scattering length is smaller than the average grain size. These results should prove useful for the integration of nanocrystalline materials in devices such as advanced thermoelectrics.

  16. Comparison of field-enhanced and pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection techniques for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins using CZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yaling; Guan, Yu; Jia, Li

    2009-04-01

    A new online concentration method, namely pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection (PA-FESI), was developed and compared with FESI for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins by CZE with UV detection. In PA-FESI, negative voltage and positive pressure were simultaneously applied to initialize PA-FESI. PA-FESI uses the hydrodynamic flow generated by the positive pressure to counterbalance the reverse EOF in the capillary column during electrokinetic sample injection, which allowed a longer injection time than usual FESI mode without compromising the separation efficiency. Using the PA-FESI method, the LODs of the vitamins were at ng/mL level based on the S/N of 3 and the RSDs of migration time and peak area for each vitamin (1 microg/mL) were less than 5.1%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of water-soluble vitamins in corns.

  17. Terbium oxide at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, Sugandha; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Singh, Jasveer; Bandhyopadhyay, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the behaviour of terbium oxide at high pressures. The as received sample was characterized at ambient by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction showed the sample to be predominantly cubic Tb 4 O 7 , although a few peaks also match closely with Tb 2 O 3 . In fact in a recent study done on the same sample, the sample has been shown to be a mixture of Tb 4 O 7 and Tb 2 O 3 . The sample was subjected to high pressures using a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell upto a pressure of about 42 GPa with ruby as pressure monitor

  18. Pressure Fluctuations Induced by a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the pressure fluctuations generated by a spatially-developed Mach 5.86 turbulent boundary layer. The unsteady pressure field is analyzed at multiple wall-normal locations, including those at the wall, within the boundary layer (including inner layer, the log layer, and the outer layer), and in the free stream. The statistical and structural variations of pressure fluctuations as a function of wall-normal distance are highlighted. Computational predictions for mean velocity pro les and surface pressure spectrum are in good agreement with experimental measurements, providing a first ever comparison of this type at hypersonic Mach numbers. The simulation shows that the dominant frequency of boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations shifts to lower frequencies as the location of interest moves away from the wall. The pressure wave propagates with a speed nearly equal to the local mean velocity within the boundary layer (except in the immediate vicinity of the wall) while the propagation speed deviates from the Taylor's hypothesis in the free stream. Compared with the surface pressure fluctuations, which are primarily vortical, the acoustic pressure fluctuations in the free stream exhibit a significantly lower dominant frequency, a greater spatial extent, and a smaller bulk propagation speed. The freestream pressure structures are found to have similar Lagrangian time and spatial scales as the acoustic sources near the wall. As the Mach number increases, the freestream acoustic fluctuations exhibit increased radiation intensity, enhanced energy content at high frequencies, shallower orientation of wave fronts with respect to the flow direction, and larger propagation velocity.

  19. Extreme pressure differences at 0900 NZST and winds across New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, M. James; Griffiths, Georgina M.; Gosai, Ashmita

    2005-07-01

    Trends in extremes in station daily sea-level pressure differences at 0900 NZST are examined, and extreme daily wind gusts, across New Zealand, since the 1960s. Annual time series were examined (with indices of magnitude and frequency over threshold percentiles) from the daily indices selected. These follow from earlier indices of normalized monthly mean sea-level pressure differences between station pairs, except the daily indices are not normalized. The frequency statistics quantify the number of extreme zonal (westerly and easterly), or extreme meridional (southerly or northerly), pressure gradient events. The frequency and magnitude of extreme westerly episodes has increased slightly over New Zealand, with a significant increase in the westerly extremes to the south of New Zealand. In contrast, the magnitude and frequency of easterly extremes has decreased over New Zealand, but increased to the south, with some trends weakly significant. The frequency and magnitude of daily southerly extremes has decreased significantly in the region.Extreme daily wind gust events at key climate stations in New Zealand and at Hobart, Australia, are highly likely to be associated with an extreme daily pressure difference. The converse was less likely to hold: extreme wind gusts were not always observed on days with extreme daily pressure difference, probably due to the strong influence that topography has on localized station winds. Significant correlations exist between the frequency indices and both annual-average mean sea-level pressures around the Australasian region and annual-average sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere. These correlations are generally stronger for indices of extreme westerly or extreme southerly airflows. Annual-average pressures in the Tasman Sea or Southern Ocean are highly correlated to zonal indices (frequency of extreme westerlies). SST anomalies in the NINO3 region or on either side of the South Island are

  20. Sampling device for radioactive molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Masato

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for accurately sampling molten salts to which various kinds of metals in a molten salt storage tank are mixed for analyzing them during a spent fuel dry type reprocessing. Namely, the device comprises a sampling tube having an opened lower end to be inserted into the radioactive molten salts stored in a tank and keeps reduced pressure from the upper end, and a pressure reducing pipeline having one end connected to the sampling tube and other end connected to an evacuating pump. In this device, the top end of the sampling tube is inserted to a position for sampling the radioactive molten salts (molten salts). The pressure inside the evacuating pipeline connected to the upper portion of the sampling tube is reduced for a while. In this case, the inside of the pressure reducing pipeline is previously evacuated by the evacuating pump so as to keep a predetermined pressure. Since the pressure in the sampling tube is lowered, molten salts are inserted into the sampling tube, the sampling tube is withdrawn, and the molten salts flown in the sampling tube are analyzed. (I.S.)

  1. Theory of high frequency discharge in gases under low pressures. Experimental investigation of high-frequency type ion sources; Theorie de la decharge haute frequence dans les gaz aux faibles pressions. Etude experimentale des sources d'ions du type haute frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Jean

    1955-03-02

    The first part of this research thesis addresses the theory of high frequency discharge in gases under low pressures, and first proposes a calculation of the distribution function for electrons present within the gas. The author then studies the evolution of electron density within a discharge tube by assigning the governing role in electron multiplication to the secondary emission of tube walls. The second part proposes a detailed description of a source operating at 96.5 Mc/s, a discussion of measurements performed on this source, and the search for a theoretical explanation of some of its properties. The author then briefly analyses various existing types of high frequency sources, and finally discusses their use in corpuscular microscopy and in particle accelerators [French] La presente these comprend deux parties. La premiere est consacree a la theorie de la decharge haute frequence dans les gaz aux faibles pressions et comporte tout d'abord le calcul de la fonction de distribution des electrons presents au sein du gaz. Nous etudions ensuite l'evolution de la densite electronique a l'interieur d'un tube a decharge en attribuant, a l'emission secondaire des parois de ce dernier, le role essentiel dans la multiplicalion des electrons. Nous obtenons ainsi les conditions d'amorcage. Tout au long de cette etude, on doit distinguer soigneusement le cas ou le libre parcours moyen des electrons dans le gaz est inferieur aux dimensions de l'enceinte et le cas ou il leur est superieur. La deuxieme partie comprend la description detaillee d'une source fonctionnant sur 96.5 Mc/s, l'expose des mesures effectuees sur celle-ci et la recherche d'une explication theorique de certaines de ses proprietes. Nous faisons ensuite une breve analyse des divers types de sources d'ions haute frequence existant a l'heure actuelle et nous terminons en traitant de leur utilisation en microscopie corpusculaire et dans les accelerateurs de particules.

  2. Investigation and Applications of In-Source Oxidation in Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Afterglow Microplasma Ionization (LS-APAG) Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhenpeng; Li, Yafeng; Zhan, Lingpeng; Nie, Zongxiu

    2017-06-01

    A liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure afterglow microplasma ionization (LS-APAG) source is presented for the first time, which is embedded with both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure afterglow microplasma ionization (APAG) techniques. This ion source is capable of analyzing compounds with diverse molecule weights and polarities. An unseparated mixture sample was detected as a proof-of-concept, giving complementary information (both polarities and non-polarities) with the two ionization modes. It should also be noted that molecular mass can be quickly identified by ESI with clean and simple spectra, while the structure can be directly studied using APAG with in-source oxidation. The ionization/oxidation mechanism and applications of the LS-APAG source have been further explored in the analysis of nonpolar alkanes and unsaturated fatty acids/esters. A unique [M + O - 3H] + was observed in the case of individual alkanes (C 5 -C 19 ) and complex hydrocarbons mixture under optimized conditions. Moreover, branched alkanes generated significant in-source fragments, which could be further applied to the discrimination of isomeric alkanes. The technique also facilitates facile determination of double bond positions in unsaturated fatty acids/esters due to diagnostic fragments (the acid/ester-containing aldehyde and acid oxidation products) generated by on-line ozonolysis in APAG mode. Finally, some examples of in situ APAG analysis by gas sampling and surface sampling were given as well. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. A silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhangyang; Fan Shangchun; Cai Chenguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and test of a silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor. A square membrane and a doubly clamped resonant beam constitute a compound structure. The former senses the pressure directly, while the latter changes its resonant frequency according to deformation of the membrane. The final output relation between the resonant frequency and the applied pressure is deducted according to the structure mechanical properties. Sensors are fabricated by micromachining technology, and then sealed in vaccum. These sensors are tested by open-loop and close-loop system designed on purpose. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor has a sensitivity of 49.8Hz/kPa and repeatability of 0.08%.

  4. High-frequency profile in adolescents and its relationship with the use of personal stereo devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Renata Almeida Araújo; Ribas, Ângela; Hammerschmidt, Rogério; de Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira

    2016-01-01

    To analyze and correlate the audiometric findings of high frequencies (9-16 kHz) in adolescents with their hearing habits and attitudes, in order to prevent noise-induced hearing loss. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, which included 125 adolescents in a sample of normal-hearing students, at a state school. The subjects performed high-frequency audiometry testing and answered a self-administered questionnaire addressing information on sound habits concerning the use of personal stereo devices. The sample was divided according to the exposure characteristics (time, duration, intensity, etc.) and the results were compared with the observed thresholds, through the difference in proportions test, chi-squared, Student's t-test, and ANOVA, all at a significance level of 0.05. Average high-frequency thresholds were registered below 15 dB HL and no significant correlation was found between high frequency audiometric findings and the degree of exposure. The prevalence of harmful sound habits due to the use of personal stereo devices is high in the adolescent population, but there was no correlation between exposure to high sound pressure levels through personal stereos and the high-frequency thresholds in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphology and nano-structure analysis of soot particles sampled from high pressure diesel jet flames under diesel-like conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Tie; Wang, Yifeng; He, Pengfei

    2018-04-01

    Soot particles emitted from diesel engines have a significant impact on the atmospheric environment. Detailed understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes is helpful for reducing the pollution of soot particles, which requires information such as the size and nano-structure parameters of the soot primary particles sampled in a high-temperature and high-pressure diesel jet flame. Based on the thermophoretic principle, a novel sampling probe minimally disturbing the diesel jet flame in a constant volume combustion vessel is developed for analysing soot particles. The injected quantity of diesel fuel is less than 10 mg, and the soot particles sampled by carriers with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid and lacey TEM grid can be used to analyse the morphologies of soot aggregates and the nano-structure of the soot primary particles, respectively. When the quantity of diesel fuel is more than 10 mg, in order to avoid burning-off of the carriers in higher temperature and pressure conditions, single-crystal silicon chips are employed. Ultrasonic oscillations and alcohol extraction are then implemented to obtain high quality soot samples for observation using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. An in-house Matlab-based code is developed to extract the nano-structure parameters of the soot particles. A complete sampling and analysis procedure of the soot particles is provided to study the formation and oxidation mechanism of soot.

  6. Laser generated ultrasound sources using polymer nanocomposites for high frequency metrology

    KAUST Repository

    Rajagopal, Srinath

    2017-11-22

    Accurate characterization of ultrasound fields generated by diagnostic and therapeutic transducers is critical for patient safety. This requires hydrophones calibrated to a traceable standard and currently the upper calibration frequency range available to the user community is limited to a frequency of 40 MHz. However, the increasing use of high frequencies for both imaging and therapy necessitates calibrations to frequencies well beyond this range. For this to be possible, a source of high amplitude, broadband, quasi-planar and stable ultrasound fields is required. This is difficult to achieve using conventional piezoelectric sources, but laser generated ultrasound is a promising technique in this regard. In this study, various polymer-carbon nanotube nanocomposites (PNC) were fabricated and tested for their suitability for such an application by varying the polymer type, carbon nanotubes weight content in the polymer, and PNC thickness. A broadband hydrophone was used to measure the peak pressure and bandwidth of the laser generated ultrasound pulse. Peak-positive pressures of up to 8 MPa and −6dB bandwidths of up to 40 MHz were recorded. There is a nonlinear dependence of the peak pressure on the laser fluence and the bandwidth scales inversely proportionally to the peak pressure. The high-pressure plane waves generated from this preliminary investigation has demonstrated that laser generated ultrasound sources are a promising technique for high frequency calibration of hydrophones.

  7. Enhancing Documentation of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Reduce Pressure Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  8. A radio-frequency nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma operating with argon and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravej, M.; Yang, X.; Hicks, R.F.; Penelon, J.; Babayan, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    A capacitively coupled, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed that produces a high concentration of reactive species at a gas temperature below 300 deg. C. The concentration of ground-state oxygen atoms produced by the discharge was measured by NO titration, and found to equal 1.2 vol %, or 1.2±0.4x10 17 cm -3 , using 6.0 vol % O 2 in argon at 150 W/cm 3 . The ozone concentration determined at the same conditions was 4.3±0.5x10 14 cm -3 . A model of the gas phase reactions was developed and yielded O atom and O 3 concentrations in agreement with experiment. This plasma source etched Kapton registered at 5.0 μm/s at 280 deg. C and an electrode-to-sample spacing of 1.5 cm. This fast etch rate is attributed to the high O atom flux generated by the plasma source

  9. Experimental investigation of pressure fluctuations caused by a vortex rope in a draft tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, O; Ruprecht, A; Göde, E; Riedelbauch, S

    2012-01-01

    In the last years hydro power plants have taken the task of power-frequency control for the electrical grid. Therefore turbines in storage hydro power plants often operate outside their optimum. If Francis-turbines and pump-turbines operate at off-design conditions, a vortex rope in the draft tube can develop. The vortex rope can cause pressure oscillations. In addition to low frequencies caused by the rotation of the vortex rope and the harmonics of these frequencies, pressure fluctuations with higher frequencies can be observed in some operating points too. In this experimental investigation the flow structure and behavior of the vortex rope movement in the draft tube of a model pump-turbine are analyzed. The investigation focuses on the correlation of the pressure fluctuation frequency measured at the draft tube wall with the movement of the vortex rope. The movement of the vortex rope is analyzed by the velocity field in the draft tube which was measured with particle image velocimetry. Additionally, the vortex rope movement has been analyzed with the captures of high-speed-movies from the cavitating vortex rope. Besides the rotation of the vortex rope due to pressure fluctuation with low frequencies the results of the measurement also show a correlation between the rotation of the elliptical or deformed rope cross-section and the higher frequency pressure pulsation. An approximation shows that the frequencies of the pressure fluctuation and the movement of the vortex rope are also connected with the velocity of the flow. Taking into account the size and position of the cavitating vortex core as well as the velocity at the position of the surface of the cavitating vortex core the time-period of the rotation of the vortex core can be approximated. The results show that both, the low frequency pressure fluctuation and the higher frequency pressure fluctuation are correlating with the vortex rope movement. With this estimation, the period of the higher frequency

  10. Resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Cantrell, Sean A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope and methodology called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features.

  11. Measurement of low-frequency noise in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of low-frequency noise in rooms is problematic due to standing wave patterns. The spatial variation in the sound pressure level can typically be as much as 20-30 dB. For assessment of annoyance from low-frequency noise in dwellings, it is important to measure a level close...... rooms. The sound pressure level was measured 1) in three-dimensional corners and 2) according to current Swedish and Danish measurement methods. Furthermore, the entire sound pressure distributions were measured by scanning. The Swedish and Danish measurement methods include a corner measurement...... to the highest level present in a room, rather than a room average level. In order to ensure representative noise measurements, different positions were investigated based on theoretical considerations and observations from numerical room simulations. In addition measurements were performed in three different...

  12. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  13. WOx cluster formation in radio frequency assisted pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipescu, M.; Ossi, P.M.; Dinescu, M.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of oxygen gas pressure and radio-frequency power on the characteristics of the WO x films produced by laser ablation of a W target at room temperature in oxygen reactive atmosphere were investigated. Changing buffer gas pressure in the hundreds of Pa range affects the bond coordination, roughness and morphology of the deposited films, as investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The combination of radio-frequency discharge and buffer gas pressure on film nanostructure, as reflected by bond coordination, surface morphology and roughness is discussed

  14. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge as a secondary excitation source: Assessment of plasma characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manard, Benjamin T. [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sarkar, Arnab [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dong, Meirong; Chirinos, Jose; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marcus, R. Kenneth [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as a secondary excitation source with a parametric evaluation regarding carrier gas flow rate, applied current, and electrode distance. With this parametric evaluation, plasma optical emission was monitored in order to obtain a fundamental understanding with regards to rotational temperature (T{sub rot}), excitation temperature (T{sub exc}), electron number density (n{sub e}), and plasma robustness. Incentive for these studies is not only for a greater overall fundamental knowledge of the APGD, but also in instrumenting a secondary excitation/ionization source following laser ablation (LA). Rotational temperatures were determined through experimentally fitting of the N{sub 2} and OH molecular emission bands while atomic excitation temperatures were calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of He and Mg atomic lines. The rotational and excitation temperatures were determined to be ∼ 1000 K and ∼ 2700 K respectively. Electron number density was calculated to be on the order of ∼ 3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} utilizing Stark broadening effects of the Hα line of the Balmer series and a He I transition. In addition, those diagnostics were performed introducing magnesium (by solution feed and laser ablation) into the plasma in order to determine any perturbation under heavy matrix sampling. The so-called plasma robustness factor, derived by monitoring Mg II/Mg I emission ratios, is also employed as a reflection of potential perturbations in microplasma energetics across the various operation conditions and sample loadings. While truly a miniaturized source (< 1 mm{sup 3} volume), the LS-APGD is shown to be quite robust with plasma characteristics and temperatures being unaffected upon introduction of metal species, whether by liquid or laser ablation sample introduction. - Highlights: • Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) • LS-APGD as a secondary

  15. A novel multi-scale adaptive sampling-based approach for energy saving in leak detection for WSN-based water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Najam us; Faizan Mysorewala, Muhammad; Cheded, Lahouari

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel monitoring strategy for a wireless sensor networks (WSNs)-based water pipeline network. Our strategy uses a multi-pronged approach to reduce energy consumption based on the use of two types of vibration sensors and pressure sensors, all having different energy levels, and a hierarchical adaptive sampling mechanism to determine the sampling frequency. The sampling rate of the sensors is adjusted according to the bandwidth of the vibration signal being monitored by using a wavelet-based adaptive thresholding scheme that calculates the new sampling frequency for the following cycle. In this multimodal sensing scheme, the duty-cycling approach is used for all sensors to reduce the sampling instances, such that the high-energy, high-precision (HE-HP) vibration sensors have low duty cycles, and the low-energy, low-precision (LE-LP) vibration sensors have high duty cycles. The low duty-cycling (HE-HP) vibration sensor adjusts the sampling frequency of the high duty-cycling (LE-LP) vibration sensor. The simulated test bed considered here consists of a water pipeline network which uses pressure and vibration sensors, with the latter having different energy consumptions and precision levels, at various locations in the network. This is all the more useful for energy conservation for extended monitoring. It is shown that by using the novel features of our proposed scheme, a significant reduction in energy consumption is achieved and the leak is effectively detected by the sensor node that is closest to it. Finally, both the total energy consumed by monitoring as well as the time to detect the leak by a WSN node are computed, and show the superiority of our proposed hierarchical adaptive sampling algorithm over a non-adaptive sampling approach.

  16. The relationship between blood viscosity and blood pressure in a random sample of the population aged 55 to 74 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A; Lennie, S E; Smith, F B; Donnan, P T

    1993-05-01

    Blood viscosity is elevated in hypertensive subjects, but the association of viscosity with arterial blood pressure in the general population, and the influence of social, lifestyle and disease characteristics on this association, are not established. In the Edinburgh Artery Study, 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected randomly from the general population attended a university clinic. A fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen). Systolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P index. Diastolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P viscosity and systolic pressure was confined to males. Blood viscosity was associated equally with systolic and diastolic pressures in males, and remained independently related on multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, social class, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, angina, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, and haematocrit.

  17. Zoonotic species of the genus Arcobacter in poultry from different regions of Costa Rica: frequency of isolation and comparison of two types of sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Bogantes, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the zoonotic species of Arcobacter are evaluated in laying hens, broilers, ducks and geese of Costa Rica. The frequency of isolation of the genus Arcobacter is determined in samples of poultry using culture methods and molecular techniques. The performance of cloacal swab sampling and fecal collection is compared from poultry for isolation of Arcobacter. The isolation frequencies of Arcobacter species in poultry have indicated a potential public health problem in Costa Rica. Poultry are determined as sources of contamination and dispersion of the bacteria [es

  18. Frequency of co-morbidities associated with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, A.; Hashim, R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequencies of comorbidities (dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration > 1 year. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from October 2013 to March 2014. Patients and Methods: Thirty six patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), level C5 to T12 were included by non-probability, convenience sampling. Control group consisted of age and sex matched healthy individuals. A detailed medical history was obtained. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for plasma glucose and serum lipid profile. Results: Out of thirty six patients, 31 (86.1%) were male and 5 (13.9%) were females; their mean age was 36.6 ± 11 years. Mean duration of injury was 6.04 ± 3.35 years. Among cases, dyslipidemias were detected in 25 (69.4%) patients while 7 (19.4%) patients had diabetes mellitus. Whereas in control group, frequency of dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus were significantly lower than cases i.e 13.8% and 5.5% respectively. Also no significant difference was found between blood pressures of study group when compared with control group. Conclusion: Individuals with chronic SCI had more frequent associated co-morbid conditions like dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus than normal individuals. Early screening is recommended in patients having SCI >6 months for better patient care and reduction in long term comorbidities in such patients. (author)

  19. Analysis of sound pressure levels emitted by children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gonçalves, Maiara Santos; Tomasi, Marinês; Gomes, Erissandra

    2013-06-01

    To verify the levels of sound pressure emitted by non-certified children's toys. Cross-sectional study of sound toys available at popular retail stores of the so-called informal sector. Electronic, mechanical, and musical toys were analyzed. The measurement of each product was carried out by an acoustic engineer in an acoustically isolated booth, by a decibel meter. To obtain the sound parameters of intensity and frequency, the toys were set to produce sounds at a distance of 10 and 50cm from the researcher's ear. The intensity of sound pressure [dB(A)] and the frequency in hertz (Hz) were measured. 48 toys were evaluated. The mean sound pressure 10cm from the ear was 102±10 dB(A), and at 50cm, 94±8 dB(A), with ptoys was above 85dB(A). The frequency ranged from 413 to 6,635Hz, with 56.3% of toys emitting frequency higher than 2,000Hz. The majority of toys assessed in this research emitted a high level of sound pressure.

  20. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  1. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salarieh Setareh; Dorranian Davoud

    2013-01-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O 2 , He, and He/O 2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O 2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment

  2. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of acinetobacter species isolated from blood samples of paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Zafar, A.; Ejaz, H.; Zubair, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Acinetobacter species is a major nosocomial pathogen causing serious infections in immuno-compromised and hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species in blood samples of paediatric patients. Methodology: This cross sectional observational study was conducted during January to October, 2011 at The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore. A total number of 12,032 blood samples were analysed during the study period. Acinetobacter species were Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The blood cultures showed growth in 1,141 cultures out of which 46 (4.0%) were Acinetobacter species. The gender distribution of Acinetobacter species was 29 (63.0%) in males and 17 (37.0%) in females. A good antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species was seen with sulbactam-cefoperazone (93.0%), imepenem and meropenem (82.6% (30.4%) was poor. Conclusion: The results of the present study shows high rate of resistance of Acinetobacter species with cephalosporins in nosocomial infections. The sulbactam-cefoperazone, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam showed effective antimicrobial susceptibility against Acinetobacter species. (author)

  3. Apparatus and method for non-contact, acoustic resonance determination of intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D.N.; Wray, W.O.

    1994-12-27

    The apparatus and method for measuring intraocular pressure changes in an eye under investigation by detection of vibrational resonances therein. An ultrasonic transducer operating at its resonant frequency is amplitude modulated and swept over a range of audio frequencies in which human eyes will resonate. The output therefrom is focused onto the eye under investigation, and the resonant vibrations of the eye observed using a fiber-optic reflection vibration sensor. Since the resonant frequency of the eye is dependent on the pressure therein, changes in intraocular pressure may readily be determined after a baseline pressure is established. 3 figures.

  4. Effects of diurnal emission patterns and sampling frequency on precision of measurement methods for daily ammonia emissions from animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estelles, F.; Calvet, S.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia concentrations and airflow rates are the main parameters needed to determine ammonia emissions from animal houses. It is possible to classify their measurement methods into two main groups according to the sampling frequency: semi-continuous and daily average measurements. In the first

  5. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate

  6. Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet's characterization and surface wettability driven by neon transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, R. R.; Nafarizal, N.; Ahmad, M. K.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma driven by Neon transformer power supply argon is presented in this paper. Atmospheric pressure plasma system has attracted researcher interest over low pressure plasma as it provides a flexibility process, cost-efficient, portable device and vacuum-free device. Besides, another golden key of this system is the wide promising application in the field of work cover from industrial and engineering to medical. However, there are still numbers of fundamental investigation that are necessary such as device configuration, gas configuration and its effect. Dielectric barrier discharge which is also known as atmospheric pressure plasma discharge is created when there is gas ionization process occur which enhance the movement of atom and electron and provide energetic particles. These energetic particles can provide modification and cleaning property to the sample surface due to the bombardment of the high reactive ion and radicals to the sample surface. In order to develop atmospheric pressure plasma discharge, a high voltage and high frequency power supply is needed. In this work, we used a neon transformer power supply as the power supply. The flow of the Ar is feed into 10 mm cylinder quartz tube with different treatment time in order to investigate the effect of the plasma discharge. The analysis of each treatment time is presented by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. The increase of gas treatment time shows increases intensity of reactive Ar and reduces the angle of water droplets in water contact angle. Treatment time of 20 s microslide glass surface shows that the plasma needle discharges have modified the sample surface from hydrophilic surface to superhydrophilic surface. Thus, this leads to another interesting application in reducing sample surface adhesion to optimize productivity in the industry of paintings, semiconductor and more.

  8. Evaluation of spatial pressure distribution during ice-structure interaction using pressure indicating film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyunwook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is required to determine design loads on local structures, such as plating and framing. However, obtaining a practical ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is a hard task due to the sensitivity of the data acquisition frequency and resolution. High-resolution Pessure-Idicating Flm (PIF was applied to obtain pressure distribution and pressure magnitude using stepped crushing method. Different types of PIF were stacked at each test to creating a pressure distribution plot at specific time steps. Two different concepts of plotting ‘spatial’ pressure-area curve was introduced and evaluated. Diverse unit pixel size was chosen to investigate the effect of the resolution in data analysis. Activated area was not significantly affected by unit pixel size; however, total force was highly sensitive

  9. Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Greve, Anders M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present hypothesis-generating study, we investigated whether spontaneous blood pressure oscillations are suppressed to lower frequencies, and whether abolished oscillations are associated with an adverse outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: We...... retrospectively subjected invasive steady-state blood pressure recordings from 65 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis to spectral analysis. Modified spectral bands were visually identified by plotting spectral power against frequency. RESULTS: Modified middle-frequency and low-frequency (MF' and LF......') oscillations were absent in 9% and 22% of the patients, respectively. In patients in whom spontaneous blood pressure oscillations were preserved, the MF' oscillations occurred at 0.021 Hz (median, interquartile range 0.013-0.030), whereas the LF' oscillations occurred at 0.009 Hz (median, interquartile range 0...

  10. Sustained inflation and incremental mean airway pressure trial during conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a large porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunder Christian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effect of a sustained inflation followed by an incremental mean airway pressure trial during conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on oxygenation and hemodynamics in a large porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Severe lung injury (Ali was induced in 18 healthy pigs (55.3 ± 3.9 kg, mean ± SD by repeated saline lung lavage until PaO2 decreased to less than 60 mmHg. After a stabilisation period of 60 minutes, the animals were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (Pressure controlled ventilation; PCV: FIO2 = 1.0, PEEP = 5 cmH2O, VT = 6 ml/kg, respiratory rate = 30/min, I:E = 1:1; group 2 (High-frequency oscillatory ventilation; HFOV: FIO2 = 1.0, Bias flow = 30 l/min, Amplitude = 60 cmH2O, Frequency = 6 Hz, I:E = 1:1. A sustained inflation (SI; 50 cmH2O for 60s followed by an incremental mean airway pressure (mPaw trial (steps of 3 cmH2O every 15 minutes were performed in both groups until PaO2 no longer increased. This was regarded as full lung inflation. The mPaw was decreased by 3 cmH2O and the animals reached the end of the study protocol. Gas exchange and hemodynamic data were collected at each step. Results The SI led to a significant improvement of the PaO2/FiO2-Index (HFOV: 200 ± 100 vs. PCV: 58 ± 15 and TAli: 57 ± 12; p 2-reduction (HFOV: 42 ± 5 vs. PCV: 62 ± 13 and TAli: 55 ± 9; p Ali: 6.1 ± 1 vs. T75: 3.4 ± 0.4; PCV: TAli: 6.7 ± 2.4 vs. T75: 4 ± 0.5; p Conclusion A sustained inflation followed by an incremental mean airway pressure trial in HFOV improved oxygenation at a lower mPaw than during conventional lung protective ventilation. HFOV but not PCV resulted in normocapnia, suggesting that during HFOV there are alternatives to tidal ventilation to achieve CO2-elimination in an "open lung" approach.

  11. Frequency Modulation and Spatiotemporal Stability of the sCPG in Preterm Infants with RDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Barlow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonnutritive suck (NNS is an observable and accessible motor behavior which is often used to make inference about brain development and pre-feeding skill in preterm and term infants. The purpose of this study was to model NNS burst compression pressure dynamics in the frequency and time domain among two groups of preterm infants, including those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, N=15 and 17 healthy controls. Digitized samples of NNS compression pressure waveforms recorded at a 1-week interval were collected 15 minutes prior to a scheduled feed. Regression analysis and ANOVA revealed that healthy preterm infants produced longer NNS bursts and the mean burst initiation cycle frequencies were higher when compared to the RDS group. Moreover, the initial 5 cycles of the NNS burst manifest a frequency modulated (FM segment which is a significant feature of the suck central pattern generator (sCPG, and differentially expressed in healthy and RDS infants. The NNS burst structure revealed significantly lower spatiotemporal index values for control versus RDS preterm infants during FM, and provides additional information on the microstructure of the sCPG which may be used to gauge the developmental status and progression of oromotor control systems among these fragile infants.

  12. Identification of neural firing patterns, frequency and temporal coding mechanisms in individual aortic baroreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaguang eGu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In rabbit depressor nerve fibers, an on-off firing pattern, period-1 firing, and integer multiple firing with quiescent state were observed as the static pressure level was increased. A bursting pattern with bursts at the systolic phase of blood pressure, continuous firing, and bursting with burst at diastolic phase and quiescent state at systolic phase were observed as the mean level of the dynamic blood pressure was increased. For both static and dynamic pressures, the firing frequency of the first two firing patterns increased and of the last firing pattern decreased due to the quiescent state. If the quiescent state is disregarded, the spike frequency becomes an increasing trend. The instantaneous spike frequency of the systolic phase bursting, continuous firing, and diastolic phase bursting can reflect the temporal process of the systolic phase, whole procedure, and diastolic phase of the dynamic blood pressure signal, respectively. With increasing the static current corresponding to pressure level, the deterministic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH model manifests a process from a resting state first to period-1 firing via a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and then to a resting state via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, and the firing frequency increases. The on-off firing and integer multiple firing were here identified as noise-induced firing patterns near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using the stochastic HH model. The systolic phase bursting and diastolic phase bursting were identified as pressure-induced firings near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using an HH model with a dynamic signal. The firing, spike frequency, and instantaneous spike frequency observed in the experiment were simulated and explained using HH models. The results illustrate the dynamics of different firing patterns and the frequency and temporal coding mechanisms of aortic baroreceptor.

  13. Systematic Sampling and Cluster Sampling of Packet Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Based on experiences of a traffic flow performance meter this papersuggests and evaluates cluster sampling and systematic sampling as methods toestimate average packet delays. Systematic sampling facilitates for exampletime analysis, frequency analysis and jitter measurements. Cluster samplingwith repeated trains of periodically spaced sampling units separated by randomstarting periods, and systematic sampling are evaluated with respect to accuracyand precision. Packet delay traces have been ...

  14. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes: Flaw detection and characterization [Phase 1] [Sample summary reports of pressure tube samples from Argentina, India, Canada, Republic of Korea, and Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    Research Institute (KAERI), Republic of Korea; - The National Institute for Research and Development for Technical Physics (NIRDTP), Romania; and - Nuclear Non-Destructive Testing Research and Services (NNDT), Romania. This TECDOC reports the results of the collaboration on flaw detection and characterization (Phase 1). A companion publication reports results of the collaboration on characterizing hydride blisters and determining the hydrogen concentration in Zirconium alloys (Phase 2). This CD-ROM contains sample summary reports of pressure tube samples from Argentina, India, Canada, Republic of Korea, and Romania

  15. Assessment of dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacà, Raffaele L; Zannin, Emanuela; Ventura, Maria L; Sancini, Giulio; Pedotti, Antonio; Tagliabue, Paolo; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    1) To investigate the possibility of estimating respiratory system impedance (Zrs, forced oscillation technique) by using high-amplitude pressure oscillations delivered during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; 2) to characterize the relationship between Zrs and continuous distending pressure during an increasing/decreasing continuous distending pressure trial; 3) to evaluate how the optimal continuous distending pressure identified by Zrs relates to the point of maximal curvature of the deflation limb of the quasi-static pressure-volume curve. Prospective laboratory animal investigation. Experimental medicine laboratory. Eight New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were ventilated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Zrs was measured while continuous distending pressure was increased and decreased between 2 and 26 cm H2O in 1-minute steps of 4 cm H2O. At each step, a low-amplitude (6 cm H2O) sinusoidal signal was alternated with a high-amplitude (18 cm H2O) asymmetric high-frequency oscillatory ventilation square pressure waveform. Pressure-volume curves were determined at the end of the continuous distending pressure trial. All measurements were repeated after bronchoalveolar lavage. Zrs was estimated from flow and pressure measured at the inlet of the tracheal tube and expressed as resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). Linear correlation between the values, measured by applying the small-amplitude sinusoidal signal and the ventilator waveform, was good for Xrs (r = 0.95 ± 0.04) but not for Rrs (r = 0.60 ± 0.34). Following lavage, the Xrs-continuous distending pressure curves presented a maximum on the deflation limb, identifying an optimal continuous distending pressure that was, on average, 1.1 ± 1.7 cm H2O below the point of maximal curvature of the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curves. Xrs can be accurately measured during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation without interrupting ventilation and/or connecting additional devices. An optimal

  16. Humid scraping method to obtain samples for the analysis of D2 incorporated in the pressure tubes of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetti, Edgardo O.; Cerutti, Carlos R.

    1999-01-01

    From ten fuel channels of the CNE reactor four samples of each channel were taken by means of the Humid Scraping method in order to evaluate the equivalent hydrogen content by incorporating deuterium in the pressure tubes. With these data, it is possible to make a list of priorities of channels for future replacement of spacer rings between pressure and calandria tubes, using Slarette equipment. (author)

  17. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario; Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-01-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 deg. C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g -1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g -1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g -1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g -1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g -1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g -1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb

  18. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: moraetis@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  19. Prediction of rotating stall within an impeller of a centrifugal pump based on spectral analysis of pressure and velocity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullum, Ulrik; Wright, Jennifer; Dayi, Oguz; Ecder, Ali; Soulaimani, Azzeddine; Piche, Robert; Kamath, Hemant

    2006-01-01

    Experimental data, which was acquired in two centrifugal pumps and provided by Grundfos A/S, were analysed to determine if rotating stall could be detected from the velocity and pressure time series. The pressure data, which were uniformly acquired in time at high sample rates(10 kHz), were measured simultaneously in four adjacent di.user channels just downstream of the impeller outlet. The velocity data, which were non-uniformly sampled in time at fairly low rates(100 Hz to 3.5 kHz), were acquired either in or downstream of the impeller. Two di.erent methodologies were employed for detection of stall. The first method, which involved direct analysis of raw data, yielded qualitatively useful flow reversal information from the time series for the radial velocity. The second approach, which was based on power spectrum analysis of velocity and pressure data, could detect the onset and identify the frequency of rotating stall to a satisfactory extent in one of the two pumps. Nearly identical stall frequencies were observed in both velocity and pressure power spectra and this rotating stall phenomenon, which occurred at a very low frequency relative to the impeller speed, did not reveal any noticeable degree of sensitivity to the flow rate. In the other pump, where the available data was limited to velocity time series, the power spectrum analysis was successful in detecting stationary stall for a 6 bladed impeller but did not provide conclusive results for the existence of stall in the case of the 7 bladed impeller. Recommendations on the type of experimental data required for accurate detection of stall are provided based upon the present study

  20. Effect of pore water pressure on P-wave velocity in water-filled sands with partial air saturation; Fukanzen howa jotai no suna shiryo wo denpasuru P ha sokudo ni oyobosu kangeki suiatsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanema, T [Chishitsu-Keisoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to elucidate change in velocity of elastic waves in association with water pressure increase in a sand bed below the groundwater level in a shallow portion of the ground, a measurement experiment was carried out on P-wave velocity in sand samples with partial air saturation. The experiment has used fine sand having an equivalent coefficient of 2.40, a soil particle density of 2.68 g/cm {sup 3} or 60%, and a grain size of 0.36 mm. Inside the water-filled sand sample, two accelerometers were embedded 20 cm apart from each other as vibration receivers. An electromagnetic hammer for P-wave was used as the vibration source. In the experiment, measurement was carried out on the P-wave velocity in association with increase in pore water pressure by applying water pressure afresh to the water-filled sample. As a result of the experiment, the following matters were disclosed: the P-wave velocity increases as the pore water pressure was increased, and a phenomenon was recognized that the dominant frequency changes into high frequency; the degree of increase in the P-wave velocity varies depending on initial saturation of the sample; and bubbles in the pore fluid have their volume decreased due to compression resulted from increased pore water pressure and dissolution of air into the pore water. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  1. High-Performance Pressure Sensor for Monitoring Mechanical Vibration and Air Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancheng Meng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To realize the practical applications of flexible pressure sensors, the high performance (sensitivity and response time as well as more functionalities are highly desired. In this work, we fabricated a piezoresistive pressure sensor based on the micro-structured composites films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS. In addition, we establish efficient strategies to improve key performance of our pressure sensor. Its sensitivity is improved up to 474.13 kPa−1 by minimizing pressure independent resistance of sensor, and response time is shorten as small as 2 μs by enhancing the elastic modulus of polymer elastomer. Benefiting from the high performance, the functionalities of sensors are successfully extended to the accurate detection of high frequency mechanical vibration (~300 Hz and large range of air pressure (6–101 kPa, both of which are not achieved before.

  2. Chaotic dynamic characteristics of pressure fluctuation signals in hydro-turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen Tao; An, Shi [School of Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Li, Xiao Bin; Lan, Chao Feng; Li, Feng Chen [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Wang, Jian Sheng [Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin (China)

    2016-11-15

    The pressure fluctuation characteristics in a Francis hydro-turbine running at partial flow conditions were studied based on the chaotic dynamic methods. Firstly, the experimental data of pressure fluctuations in the draft tube at various flow conditions was de-noised using lifting wavelet transformation, then, for the de-noised signals, their spectrum distribution on the frequency domain, the energy variation and the energy partition accounting for the total energy was calculated. Hereby, for the flow conditions ranging from no cavitation to severe cavitation, the chaos dynamic features of fluctuation signals were analyzed, including the temporal-frequency distribution, phase trajectory, Lyapunov exponent and Poincaré map etc. It is revealed that, the main energy of pressure fluctuations in the draft tube locates at low-frequency region. As the cavitation grows, the amplitude of power spectrum at frequency domain becomes larger. For all the flow conditions, all the maximal Lyapunov exponents are larger than zero, and they increase with the cavitation level. Therefore, it is believed that there indeed exist the chaotic attractors in the pressure fluctuation signals for a hydro-turbine.

  3. Radial breathing vibration of double-walled carbon nanotubes subjected to pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Xiao-Wen; Natsuki, Toshiaki; Shi, Jin-Xing; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical vibrational analysis of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) subjected to pressure is presented based on an elastic continuum model. The results agree with reported experimental results obtained under different conditions. Frequencies of the RBM in DWCNTs subjected to increasing pressure depend strongly on circumferential wave numbers, but weakly on the aspect ratio and axial half-wave numbers. For the inner and outer tubes of DWCNTs, the frequency of the RBM increases obviously as the pressure increases under different conditions. The range of variation is smaller for the inner tube than the outer tube. -- Highlights: → An elastic continuum model is used in the theoretical analysis of RBM of DWCNTs. → The RBM of DWCNTs subjected to pressure is analyzed. → Frequency of RBM depends on wave number and aspect ratio. → Frequencies of RBM in inner and outer tubes change in different trends and ranges.

  4. Multi Frequency Phase Fluorimetry (MFPF) for Oxygen Partial Pressure Measurement: Ex Vivo Validation by Polarographic Clark-Type Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Stefan; Duenges, Bastian; Klein, Klaus U.; Hartwich, Volker; Mayr, Beate; Consiglio, Jolanda; Baumgardner, James E.; Markstaller, Klaus; Basciani, Reto; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) at high temporal resolution remains a technological challenge. This study introduces a novel PO2 sensing technology based on Multi-Frequency Phase Fluorimetry (MFPF). The aim was to validate MFPF against polarographic Clark-type electrode (CTE) PO2 measurements. Methodology/Principal Findings MFPF technology was first investigated in N = 8 anaesthetised pigs at FIO2 of 0.21, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. At each FIO2 level, blood samples were withdrawn and PO2 was measured in vitro with MFPF using two FOXY-AL300 probes immediately followed by CTE measurement. Secondly, MFPF-PO2 readings were compared to CTE in an artificial circulatory setup (human packed red blood cells, haematocrit of 30%). The impacts of temperature (20, 30, 40°C) and blood flow (0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0 L min−1) on MFPF-PO2 measurements were assessed. MFPF response time in the gas- and blood-phase was determined. Porcine MFPF-PO2 ranged from 63 to 749 mmHg; the corresponding CTE samples from 43 to 712 mmHg. Linear regression: CTE = 15.59+1.18*MFPF (R2 = 0.93; PPO2 ranged from 20 to 567 mmHg and CTE samples from 11 to 575 mmHg. Linear regression: CTE = −8.73+1.05*MFPF (R2 = 0.99; PPO2 due to variations of temperature were less than 6 mmHg (range 0–140 mmHg) and less than 35 mmHg (range 140–750 mmHg); differences due to variations in blood flow were less than 15 mmHg (all P-values>0.05). MFPF response-time (monoexponential) was 1.48±0.26 s for the gas-phase and 1.51±0.20 s for the blood-phase. Conclusions/Significance MFPF-derived PO2 readings were reproducible and showed excellent correlation and good agreement with Clark-type electrode-based PO2 measurements. There was no relevant impact of temperature and blood flow upon MFPF-PO2 measurements. The response time of the MFPF FOXY-AL300 probe was adequate for real-time sensing in the blood phase. PMID:23565259

  5. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Rodrigo; Campos, Wagner de; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Silva, Michael Pereira da; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  6. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  7. Numerical study of pressure fluctuations transfer law in different flow rate of turbine mode in a prototype pump turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y K; Zuo, Z G; Liu, S H; Wu, Y L; Liu, J T; Qin, D Q; Wei, X Z

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulation using SST k-w turbulence model was carried out, to predict pressure fluctuation transfer law in turbine mode. Three operating points with different mass flow rates are simulated. The results of numerical simulation show that, the amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuations in different positions are very different. The transfer law of amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuations change with different position and different mass flow rate. Blade passing frequency (BPF) is the first dominant frequency in vaneless space, while component in this frequency got smaller in the upstream and downstream of vaneless space when the mass flow is set. Furthermore triple blade passing frequency (3BPF) component obtained a different transfer law through the whole flow passage. The amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuations is also different in different circumference position of vaneless space. When the mass flow is different, the distribution of pressure fluctuations in circumference is different. The frequency component of pressure fluctuations in all the positions is different too

  8. Data Of Daily Blood Pressure Monitoring In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Rebrov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work is to study the frequency of hypertension and the peculiarity of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We studied 584 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Daily blood pressure monitoring was carried out in 46 patients with arthritis and 18 patients with essential hypertension. Frequency of hypertension was higher in patients with arthritis then in general population. Elevation of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and arterial blood pressure adequate decrease at night were developed to associate with advance of the disease.

  9. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Akash; Meshram, Megha; Gopan, Amrit; Ganjewar, Vaibhav; Kumar, Praveen; Bhatia, Shobna J

    2012-06-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR) and decreased basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure are postulated mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of carbonated drinks on lower esophageal sphincter function. This study was conducted to assess the effect of a carbonated beverage on tLESR and LES pressure. High resolution manometry tracings (16 channel water-perfused, Trace 1.2, Hebbard, Australia) were obtained in 18 healthy volunteers (6 men) for 30 min each at baseline, and after 200 mL of chilled potable water and 200 mL of chilled carbonated cola drink (Pepsi [Pepsico India Ltd]). The sequence of administration of the drinks was determined by random number method generated by a computer. The analysis of tracings was done using TRACE 1.2 software by a physician who was unaware of the sequence of administration of fluids. The mean (SD) age of the participant was 37.3 (12.9) years. The median (range) frequency of tLESr was higher after the carbonated beverage (10.5 [0-26]) as compared to baseline (0 [0-3], p = 0.005) as well as after water (1 [0-14], p = 0.010). The LES pressure decreased after ingestion of the carbonated beverage (18.5 [11-37] mmHg) compared to baseline (40.5 [25-66] mmHg, p = 0.0001) and after water (34 [15-67] mmHg, p = 0.003). Gastric pressure was not different in the three groups. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage increases tLESr and lowers LES pressure in healthy subjects.

  10. [Special artificial respiration procedures and intracranial pressure. Animal experiment studies, development and use of a new pressure measuring technic, clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedl, R

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Forced Diffusion Ventilation (FDV), a special form of High Frequency Ventilation (HFV), on elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in 5 dogs. Elevation of ICP was standardized by inflation of an epidural balloon. A typical finding with FDV is a reduced intrapleural pressure and therefore one could expect a better cerebrovenous drainage influencing ICP. Nevertheless, we found no changes in mean ICP under conditions of FDV compared with IPPV. Respirator-synchronous fluctuations of ICP, cisternal cerebrospinal fluid pressure and intrapleural pressure were drastically reduced with FDV. This phenomenon has been already reported by other groups as a typical effect of HFV with rates of 100/min. One can speculate, that this immediate impact of HFV on ICP-curves might be of some advantage in patients with critically reduced intracranial compliance requiring long-term artificial ventilation, because peaks and amplitudes of ICP are reduced. Our clinical experience with High Frequency Pulsation (HFP) includes 11 patients with severe brain trauma. In clinical routine this method of HFV is more facile to applicate than FDV, because there is no need of a special endotracheal tube and sufficient CO2-elimination is not strongly dependent on precise position of the tube. But HFP, as FDV, includes all advantages of respiratory systems, that are open against atmosphere (coughing and simultaneous breathing, without drastically increasing airway pressure, suction during respiration, etc.). However, we could find no special advantages or disadvantages in ICP-course during long-term application of HFP (up to 10 days). Because application of HFV is dependent on special technical equipment, we investigated in 6 patients the influence of respiratory frequency, tidal volume and inspiratory flow on ICP-fluctuations using conventional ventilators. ICP was recorded by a new, self constructed pneumatic epidural pressure sensor. Ventilator-related ICP

  11. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  12. Flaw-size measurement in a weld samples by ultrasonic frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Whaley, H.L. Jr.; McClung, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic frequency-analysis technique was developed and applies to characterize flaws in an 8-in. (203-mm) thick heavy-section steel weld specimen. The technique applies a multitransducer system. The spectrum of the received broad-band signal is frequency analyzed at two different receivers for each of the flaws. From the two spectra, the size and orientation of the flaw are determined by the use of an analytic model proposed earlier. (auth)

  13. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in a Clinical Sample of Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2017-02-01

    Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake was evaluated with 4-day food records. Participants were 328 adults recruited from the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 and April 2015. Resting BP and 24-hour urine sodium and potassium were measured. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 21 food groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the extracted dietary patterns and BP. The participants' mean age was 43.6±8.0 years, mean body mass index was 32.4±4.2, and mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 124.9±14.5/73.3±9.9 mm Hg. Six major dietary patterns were identified: "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish," "milk and meat," "breads, cereals, and snacks," "cereal-based products, fats, and oils," "alcohol, eggs, and legumes," and "savoury sauces, condiments, and meat." The "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish" dietary pattern was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP (F [7,320]=15.248; Ppattern rich in nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish was inversely associated with blood pressure in this clinical sample. The findings suggest that current dietary guidelines are relevant to an overweight clinical population and support the value of dietary pattern analysis when exploring the diet-disease relationship. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequency domain analysis of knock images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yunliang; He, Xin; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-12-01

    High speed imaging-based knock analysis has mainly focused on time domain information, e.g. the spark triggered flame speed, the time when end gas auto-ignition occurs and the end gas flame speed after auto-ignition. This study presents a frequency domain analysis on the knock images recorded using a high speed camera with direct photography in a rapid compression machine (RCM). To clearly visualize the pressure wave oscillation in the combustion chamber, the images were high-pass-filtered to extract the luminosity oscillation. The luminosity spectrum was then obtained by applying fast Fourier transform (FFT) to three basic colour components (red, green and blue) of the high-pass-filtered images. Compared to the pressure spectrum, the luminosity spectra better identify the resonant modes of pressure wave oscillation. More importantly, the resonant mode shapes can be clearly visualized by reconstructing the images based on the amplitudes of luminosity spectra at the corresponding resonant frequencies, which agree well with the analytical solutions for mode shapes of gas vibration in a cylindrical cavity.

  15. Influence of high-frequency ambient pressure pumping on carbon dioxide efflux from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; William J. Massman; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Xinhua Zhou; Irina V. Litvina; Rick Garcia; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements at 2Hz of pressure fluctuations at and beneath the soil in an agricultural field with dry soil and no vegetation. The objective of our study was to examine the possible role of pressure fluctuations produced by fluctuations in ambient wind on the efflux of CO2 at the soil surface.We observed that pressure fluctuations penetrate to 50 cm in the...

  16. Passive inference of collision frequency in magnetized capacitive argon discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binwal, S.; Joshi, J. K.; Karkari, S. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Nair, L.

    2018-03-01

    A non-invasive method of determining the collision frequency νm by measuring the net plasma impendence in a magnetized, capacitive-coupled, radio-frequency (rf) discharge circuit is developed. The collision frequency has been analytically expressed in terms of bulk plasma reactance, wherein standard sheath models have been used to estimate the reactance offered due to the capacitive rf sheaths at the discharge plates. The experimental observations suggest that in the un-magnetized case, νm remains constant over a range of rf current but steadily increases as the background pressure reduces. In the magnetized case, the collision frequency has been observed to decay with the increase in rf current while it remains unaffected by the background pressure. A qualitative discussion has been presented to explain these characteristics.

  17. Frequency domain and wavelet analysis of the laser-induced plasma shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Miloš, E-mail: milosb@ff.bg.ac.rs; Nikolić, Zoran

    2015-08-01

    In addition to optical emission, another trace of interest that laser-induced plasma provides is a form of acoustic feedback. The acoustic emission (AE) signals were obtained using both microphone and piezo transducers. This kind of optoacoustic signals have some distinct features resembling the short, burst-like sounds, that may differ significantly depending mainly on the sample exposed and irradiance applied. Experiments were performed on atmospheric pressure by irradiating various metallic samples. The recorded waveforms were examined and numerically processed. Single-shot acoustical spectra have shown significant potential of providing valuable supplementary information regarding plasma propagation dynamics. Moreover, the general approach suggests the possibility of making the whole measurement system cost-effective and portable. - Highlights: • We report acoustical waveform, and acoustical spectroscopy measurements and analysis in a laser-induced plasma of a different metals in air. • Both piezo and microphone transducer were used. • The acoustical spectra of the emission were obtained when the sample (and plasma) were enclosed in experimental chamber. • The acquired acoustical spectra are time-integrated and the frequency peaks were sharp and relatively isolated. • Finally, both time and frequency resolved wavelet spectrogram present a novel method of observing laser-induced plasma behavior.

  18. Association of eating frequency with anthropometric indices and blood pressure in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to explore the association of eating frequency (EF with anthropometric indices and blood pressure (BP in children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 14,880 students, aged 6–18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Parents were asked to report dietary intake of children as frequency of food groups and/or items. EF was defined as the sum of the daily consumption frequency of main meals and snacks. Association of EF with weight disorders, abdominal obesity, and elevated BP was assessed using different logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: Eating more frequently (≥6 vs. ≤3 was found among students who were at younger age (11.91 vs. 13.29 years (p < 0.001. Students who reported an EF of 4 (OR: 0.67, CI: 0.57–0.79, 5 (OR: 0.74, CI: 0.62–0.87, and 6 (OR: 0.54, CI: 0.44–0.65 had lower odds of being obese compared to those who had EF ≤ 3. Having EF of 4 (OR: 0.82, CI: 0.71–0.94, 5 (OR: 0.86, CI: 0.74–0.99, and ≥6 (OR: 0.73, CI: 0.63–0.85 was related to lower prevalence of abdominal adiposity. Conclusion: Higher EF was associated with lower mean values of anthropometric and BP measures, as well as with lower prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of EF on body composition in the pediatric age group. Resumo: Objetivos: Este estudo foi realizado para explorar a associação da frequência de alimentação (FA com índices antropométricos e pressão arterial (PA em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: Este estudo transversal nacional foi realizado em uma amostra de várias etapas de 14880 estudantes com idade entre 6 e 18 anos de 30 províncias do Irã. Foi pedido que os pais relatassem o consumo alimentar das crianças como a frequência de grupos e/ou itens alimentares. A FA foi

  19. 40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a... aircraft water system, the sampling frequency must be determined by the disinfection and flushing frequency... disinfection and flushing frequency recommended by the aircraft water system manufacturer, when available...

  20. Investigation of Capacitively Coupled Argon Plasma Driven by Dual-Frequency with Different Frequency Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yiqing; Xin Yu; Ning Zhaoyuan; Lu Wenqi

    2011-01-01

    Low pressure argon dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is generated by using different frequency configurations, such as 13.56/2, 27/2, 41/2, and 60/2 MHz. Characteristics of the plasma are investigated by using a floating double electrical probe and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). It is shown that in the DF-CCPs, the electron temperature T e decreases with the increase in exciting frequency, while the onset of 2 MHz induces a sudden increase in T e and the electron density increases basically with the increase in low frequency (LF) power. The intensity of 750.4 nm emission line increases with the LF power in the case of 13.56/2 MHz, while different tendencies of line intensity with the LF power appear for other configurations. The reason for this is also discussed.

  1. Investigation of low-frequency-oscillating water flow in metal foam with 10 pores per inch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağcı, Ö.; Arbak, A.; De Paepe, M.; Dukhan, N.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, oscillating water flow in metal foam with open cells is investigated experimentally. The metal foam sample has a porosity of 88% and 10 pores. The water was oscillated in the test section with three frequencies between 0.116 Hz and 0.348 Hz, which are considered low for water oscillation, and three flow displacements ranging between 74.35 mm and 111.53 mm. The combinations of frequencies of displacements were studied for their impacts of dimensional and non-dimensional pressure loss quantities. To this purpose, friction factor was correlated as a function of kinetic Reynolds number. The same metal foam sample was studied by exposing it to steady-state water flow to investigate its permeability and drag coefficient in low-velocity flow regimes. The friction factor distribution for oscillating flow was found to be over that found for steady state. The outcomes of the study are important for studying heat transfer under the same flow conditions.

  2. The Impact of Resonance Frequency Breathing on Measures of Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure, and Mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R. Steffen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB significantly improves heart rate variability (HRV. Breathing at resonance frequency (RF, approximately 6 breaths/min constitutes a key part of HRVB training and is hypothesized to be a pathway through which biofeedback improves HRV. No studies to date, however, have experimentally examined whether RF breathing impacts measures of HRV. The present study addressed this question by comparing three groups: the RF group breathed at their determined RF for 15 min; the RF + 1 group breathed at 1 breath/min higher than their determined RF for 15 min; and the third group sat quietly for 15 min. After this 15-min period, all groups participated in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT for 8 min, and then sat quietly during a 10-min recovery period. HRV, blood pressure, and mood were measured throughout the experiment. Groups were not significantly different on any of the measures at baseline. After the breathing exercise, the RF group reported higher positive mood than the other two groups and a significantly higher LF/HF HRV ratio relative to the control group, a key goal in HRVB training (p < 0.05. Additionally, the RF group showed lower systolic blood pressure during the PASAT and during the recovery period relative to the control group, with the RF + 1 group not being significantly different from either group (p < 0.05. Overall, RF breathing appears to play an important role in the positive effect HRVB has on measures of HRV.

  3. Investigation of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory. Analysis of samples and pressurization experiment/analysis of container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    1998-05-01

    To investigate the cause of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory of the Tokai Research Establishment on November 20, 1997, samples of uranium metal waste and scattered residues were analyzed. At the same time the container lid that had been blown off was closely inspected, and the pressurization effects of the container were tested and analyzed. It was found that 1) the uranium metal waste mainly consisted of uranium metal, carbides and oxides, whose relative amounts were dependent on the particle size, 2) the uranium metal waste hydrolyzed to produce combustible gases such as methane and hydrogen, and 3) the lid of the outer container could be blown off by an explosive rise of the inner pressure caused by combustion of inflammable gas mixture. (author)

  4. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Krauthammer, Alex; Efrati, Ori; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-02-12

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. We analyzed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in 22 patients with FD. Information about medications, disease severity, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration, eGFR), pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1) and an index of blood pressure variability (standard deviation of systolic pressure) were analyzed. The mean (± SEM) 24-h blood pressure was 115 ± 5.6/72 ± 2.0 mmHg. The diurnal blood pressure variability was high (daytime systolic pressure standard deviation 22.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, nighttime 17.2 ± 1.6), with a high frequency of a non-dipping pattern (16 patients, 73%). eGFR, use of medications, FEV1, and disability scores were unrelated to the degree of blood pressure variability or to dipping status. This FD cohort had normal average 24-h blood pressure, fluctuating blood pressure, and a high frequency of non-dippers. Although there was evidence of renal dysfunction based on eGFR and proteinuria, the ABPM profile was unrelated to the measures of end organ dysfunction or to reported disability.

  5. DETERMINANTS OF SUBOPTIMAL BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS: 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRES-SURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Moazenzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    INTRODUCTION: The study was conducted to define the determinants of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control among hypertensive patients under treatment and explore a predictive model for detecting the patients at risk for increased BP.    METHODS: We enrolled 97 patients (40 males, 57 females under treatment for hypertension between June 2006 and May 2007 in Shafa hospital, Kerman, Iran. BP was measured at clinic twice within 5-minute intervals. After setting up ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BP was measured at 30-minute intervals during the day and 60-minute intervals during the night. The frequency of increased BP (more than 140/90 mmHg was included in a regression model as dependent variable and all the others such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI, drugs and baseline clinical measurements as the predictors.    RESULTS: Increased BP was detected in 44% (95% CI: 38.79%-49.65% of all measurements during 24-hour monitoring. The frequency of increased BP had a significant relationship with BMI (b=0.35, P=0.001. Clinic's pulse pressure was a significant predicting factor for BP increase (P=0.02.    CONCLUSION: BMI and pulse pressure are the best predictors for being hypertensive during lifetime. Ineffective treatment of hypertension is frequent among the hypertensive patients.      Keywords: Blood pressure control, Pulse pressure, Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BMI.

  6. Two discharge modes of a repetitive nanosecond pulsed helium glow discharge under sub-atmospheric pressure in the repetition frequency range of 20 to 600 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Maegawa, Takuya; Otsubo, Akira; Nishimura, Yoshimi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Yatsuzuka, Mitsuyasu

    2018-05-01

    Two discharge modes, α and γ, of a repetitive nanosecond pulsed helium glow discharge at a gas pressure of 10 kPa in the repetition frequency range from 20 to 600 kHz are reported for the first time. The pulsed glow discharge is produced in a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes without insertion of dielectrics. The α mode discharge is volumetrically produced in the electrode gap at a low-repetition frequency, whereas the γ mode discharge is localized at the cathode surface at a high-repetition frequency. At high-repetition frequency, the time interval between voltage pulses is shorter than the lifetime of the afterglow produced by the preceding discharge. Then, the γ mode discharge is maintained by a large number of secondary electrons emitted from the cathode exposed to high-density ions and metastable helium atoms in the afterglow. In the α mode discharge with a low-repetition frequency operation, primary electrons due to gas ionization dominate the ionization process. Thus, a large discharge voltage is needed for the excitation of the α mode discharge. It is established that the bifurcation of α-γ discharge mode, accompanied by a decrease in the discharge voltage, occurs at the high-repetition frequency of ∼120 kHz.

  7. Self- and air-broadened cross sections of ethane (C2H6) determined by frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy near 1.68 µm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Zachary D.; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of ethane was measured by frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy over the wave number range 5950–5967 cm −1 . Spectra are reported for both pure ethane acquired at pressures near 3 Pa and mixtures of ethane in air at pressures ranging from 666 Pa to 101.3 kPa. Absorption cross sections are reported with a spectrum sampling period of 109 MHz and frequency resolution of 200 kHz. Atmospheric pressure cross sections agree fairly well with existing cross sections determined by FTS in nitrogen, but there are significant variations in cross sections at lower pressures. Source identification of fugitive methane emissions using spectroscopic measurements of the atmospheric ethane-to-methane ratio is also discussed. - Highlights: • We measured spectra of pure and air-broadened ethane in the 1.7 μm region. • Measured cross sections were substantially different than literature values. • Relative uncertainties of measured cross sections were less than 1 %. • These results can be used to quantify ethane/methane ratios for source apportionment

  8. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-05-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal-hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level (ETSPL) measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic laboratory measurements ETSPL values are calculated for the ear simulator specified in IEC 60318-1. Fitting of earphone and coupler is discussed. The data may be used for a future update of the RETSPL standard for supra-aural audiometric earphones, ISO 389-1.

  9. A microwave pressure sounder. [for remote measurement of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the remote measurement of atmospheric surface pressure will be described. Such measurements could be made from a satellite in polar orbit and would cover many areas for which conventional meteorological data are not available. An active microwave instrument is used to measure the strength of return echoes from the ocean surface at a number of frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. Factors which affect the accuracy with which surface pressure can be deduced from these measurements will be discussed and an instrument designed to test the method by making measurements from an aircraft will be described.

  10. Ultrafast Dynamic Pressure Sensors Based on Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanbiao; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Congwei; Wang, Peng; Hu, Weida; Li, Xinming; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Xu, Hejun; Luo, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-19

    Mechanical flexible electronic skin has been focused on sensing various physical parameters, such as pressure and temperature. The studies of material design and array-accessible devices are the building blocks of strain sensors for subtle pressure sensing. Here, we report a new and facile preparation of a graphene hybrid structure with an ultrafast dynamic pressure response. Graphene oxide nanosheets are used as a surfactant to prevent graphene restacking in aqueous solution. This graphene hybrid structure exhibits a frequency-independent pressure resistive sensing property. Exceeding natural skin, such pressure sensors, can provide transient responses from static up to 10 000 Hz dynamic frequencies. Integrated by the controlling system, the array-accessible sensors can manipulate a robot arm and self-rectify the temperature of a heating blanket. This may pave a path toward the future application of graphene-based wearable electronics.

  11. Dynamic pressure sensor calibration techniques offering expanded bandwidth with increased resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewiski, David

    2015-03-01

    Advancements in the aerospace, defense and energy markets are being made possible by increasingly more sophisticated systems and sub-systems which rely upon critical information to be conveyed from the physical environment being monitored through ever more specialized, extreme environment sensing components. One sensing parameter of particular interest is dynamic pressure measurement. Crossing the boundary of all three markets (i.e. aerospace, defense and energy) is dynamic pressure sensing which is used in research and development of gas turbine technology, and subsequently embedded into a control loop used for long-term monitoring. Applications include quantifying the effects of aircraft boundary layer ingestion into the engine inlet to provide a reliable and robust design. Another application includes optimization of combustor dynamics by "listening" to the acoustic signature so that fuel-to-air mixture can be adjusted in real-time to provide cost operating efficiencies and reduced NOx emissions. With the vast majority of pressure sensors supplied today being calibrated either statically or "quasi" statically, the dynamic response characterization of the frequency dependent sensitivity (i.e. transfer function) of the pressure sensor is noticeably absent. The shock tube has been shown to be an efficient vehicle to provide frequency response of pressure sensors from extremely high frequencies down to 500 Hz. Recent development activity has lowered this starting frequency; thereby augmenting the calibration bandwidth with increased frequency resolution so that as the pressure sensor is used in an actual test application, more understanding of the physical measurement can be ascertained by the end-user.

  12. Pressure effects on the dissipative behavior of nanocrystalline diamond microelectromechanical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J T; Chu, V; Conde, J P; Holz, T; Fernandes, A J S; Costa, F M

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-based microelectromechanical resonators have the potential of enhanced performance due to the chemical inertness of the diamond structural layer and its high Young’s modulus, high wear resistance, low thermal expansion coefficient, and very high thermal conductivity. In this work, the resonance frequency and quality factor of MEMS resonators based on nanocrystalline diamond films are characterized under different air pressures. The dynamic behavior of 50–300 μm long linear bridges and double ended tuning forks, with resonance frequencies between 0.5 and 15 MHz and quality factors as high as 50 000 are described as a function of measurement pressure from high vacuum(∼10 mTorr) up to atmospheric conditions. The resonance frequencies and quality factors in vacuum show good agreement with the theoretical models including anchor and thermoelastic dissipation (TED). The Young’s moduli for nanocrystalline diamond films extrapolated from experimental data are between 840–920 GPa. The critical pressure values, at which the quality factor starts decreasing due to dissipation in air, are dependent on the resonator length. Longer structures, with quality factors limited by TED and lower resonance frequencies, have low critical pressures, of the order of 1–10 Torr and go from an intrinsic dissipation, to a molecular dissipation regime and finally to a region of viscous dissipation. Shorter resonators, with higher resonance frequencies and quality factors limited by anchor losses, have higher critical pressures, some higher than atmospheric pressure, and enter directly into the viscous dissipation regime from the intrinsic region. (paper)

  13. Nanohertz frequency determination for the gravity probe B high frequency superconducting quantum interference device signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, M; Conklin, J W; Kozaczuk, J; Berberian, J E; Keiser, G M; Silbergleit, A S; Worden, P; Santiago, D I

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we present a method to measure the frequency and the frequency change rate of a digital signal. This method consists of three consecutive algorithms: frequency interpolation, phase differencing, and a third algorithm specifically designed and tested by the authors. The succession of these three algorithms allowed a 5 parts in 10(10) resolution in frequency determination. The algorithm developed by the authors can be applied to a sampled scalar signal such that a model linking the harmonics of its main frequency to the underlying physical phenomenon is available. This method was developed in the framework of the gravity probe B (GP-B) mission. It was applied to the high frequency (HF) component of GP-B's superconducting quantum interference device signal, whose main frequency f(z) is close to the spin frequency of the gyroscopes used in the experiment. A 30 nHz resolution in signal frequency and a 0.1 pHz/s resolution in its decay rate were achieved out of a succession of 1.86 s-long stretches of signal sampled at 2200 Hz. This paper describes the underlying theory of the frequency measurement method as well as its application to GP-B's HF science signal.

  14. AIR ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE DISCHARGERS FOR OPERATION IN HIGH-FREQUENCY SWITCHING MODE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Yevdoshenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Operation of two designs of compact multigap dischargers has been investigated in a high-frequency switching mode. It is experimentally revealed that the rational length of single discharge gaps in the designs is 0.3 mm, and the maximum switching frequency is 27000 discharges per second under long-term stable operation of the dischargers. It is shown that in pulsed corona discharge reactors, the pulse front sharpening results in increasing the operating electric field strength by 1.3 – 1.8 times.

  15. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N 2 /O 2 (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 ± 0.7)×10 20 m −3 was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 ± 0.4)×10 19 m −3 at 0.1 vol. %

  16. Assessing pesticide concentrations and fluxes in the stream of a small vineyard catchment - Effect of sampling frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiet, M.; Margoum, C.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.; Coquery, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the occurrence and behaviour of six pesticides and one metabolite in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the variability of pesticide concentrations according to the season and to evaluate the role of sampling frequency on the evaluation of fluxes estimates. Results showed that dissolved pesticide concentrations displayed a strong temporal and spatial variability. A large mobilisation of pesticides was observed during floods, with total dissolved pesticide fluxes per event ranging from 5.7 x 10 -3 g/Ha to 0.34 g/Ha. These results highlight the major role of floods in the transport of pesticides in this small stream which contributed to more than 89% of the total load of diuron during August 2007. The evaluation of pesticide loads using different sampling strategies and method calculation, showed that grab sampling largely underestimated pesticide concentrations and fluxes transiting through the stream. - This work brings new insights about the fluxes of pesticides in surface water of a vineyard catchment, notably during flood events.

  17. Assessing pesticide concentrations and fluxes in the stream of a small vineyard catchment - Effect of sampling frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiet, M., E-mail: marion.rabiet@unilim.f [Cemagref, UR QELY, 3bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France); Margoum, C.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.; Coquery, M. [Cemagref, UR QELY, 3bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France)

    2010-03-15

    This study reports on the occurrence and behaviour of six pesticides and one metabolite in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the variability of pesticide concentrations according to the season and to evaluate the role of sampling frequency on the evaluation of fluxes estimates. Results showed that dissolved pesticide concentrations displayed a strong temporal and spatial variability. A large mobilisation of pesticides was observed during floods, with total dissolved pesticide fluxes per event ranging from 5.7 x 10{sup -3} g/Ha to 0.34 g/Ha. These results highlight the major role of floods in the transport of pesticides in this small stream which contributed to more than 89% of the total load of diuron during August 2007. The evaluation of pesticide loads using different sampling strategies and method calculation, showed that grab sampling largely underestimated pesticide concentrations and fluxes transiting through the stream. - This work brings new insights about the fluxes of pesticides in surface water of a vineyard catchment, notably during flood events.

  18. Polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation using high-throughput DNA sequencing of target-enriched pooled DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central role of the somatotrophic axis in animal post-natal growth, development and fertility is well established. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants affecting quantitative traits within this axis is an attractive goal. However, large sample numbers are a pre-requisite for the identification of genetic variants underlying complex traits and although technologies are improving rapidly, high-throughput sequencing of large numbers of complete individual genomes remains prohibitively expensive. Therefore using a pooled DNA approach coupled with target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing, the aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and estimate allele frequency differences across 83 candidate genes of the somatotrophic axis, in 150 Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls divided into two groups divergent for genetic merit for fertility. Results In total, 4,135 SNPs and 893 indels were identified during the resequencing of the 83 candidate genes. Nineteen percent (n = 952 of variants were located within 5' and 3' UTRs. Seventy-two percent (n = 3,612 were intronic and 9% (n = 464 were exonic, including 65 indels and 236 SNPs resulting in non-synonymous substitutions (NSS. Significant (P ® MassARRAY. No significant differences (P > 0.1 were observed between the two methods for any of the 43 SNPs across both pools (i.e., 86 tests in total. Conclusions The results of the current study support previous findings of the use of DNA sample pooling and high-throughput sequencing as a viable strategy for polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation. Using this approach we have characterised the genetic variation within genes of the somatotrophic axis and related pathways, central to mammalian post-natal growth and development and subsequent lactogenesis and fertility. We have identified a large number of variants segregating at significantly different frequencies between cattle groups divergent for calving

  19. Subglottal pressure, tracheal airflow, and intrinsic laryngeal muscle activity during rat ultrasound vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires complex planning and coordination of respiratory, laryngeal, and vocal tract movements, which are incompletely understood in most mammals. Rats produce a variety of whistles in the ultrasonic range that are of communicative relevance and of importance as a model system, but the sources of acoustic variability were mostly unknown. The goal was to identify sources of fundamental frequency variability. Subglottal pressure, tracheal airflow, and electromyographic (EMG) data from two intrinsic laryngeal muscles were measured during 22-kHz and 50-kHz call production in awake, spontaneously behaving adult male rats. During ultrasound vocalization, subglottal pressure ranged between 0.8 and 1.9 kPa. Pressure differences between call types were not significant. The relation between fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure within call types was inconsistent. Experimental manipulations of subglottal pressure had only small effects on fundamental frequency. Tracheal airflow patterns were also inconsistently associated with frequency. Pressure and flow seem to play a small role in regulation of fundamental frequency. Muscle activity, however, is precisely regulated and very sensitive to alterations, presumably because of effects on resonance properties in the vocal tract. EMG activity of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle was tonic in calls with slow or no fundamental frequency modulations, like 22-kHz and flat 50-kHz calls. Both muscles showed brief high-amplitude, alternating bursts at rates up to 150 Hz during production of frequency-modulated 50-kHz calls. A differentiated and fine regulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles is critical for normal ultrasound vocalization. Many features of the laryngeal muscle activation pattern during ultrasound vocalization in rats are shared with other mammals. PMID:21832032

  20. Effects of easily ionizable elements on the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzie, Jacob L.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    A series of studies has been undertaken to determine the susceptibility of the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) atomic emission source to easily ionizable element (EIE) effects. The initial portions of the study involved monitoring the voltage drop across the plasma as a function of the pH to ascertain whether or not the conductivity of the liquid eluent alters the plasma energetics and subsequently the analyte signal strength. It was found that altering the pH (0.0 to 2.0) in the sample matrix did not significantly change the discharge voltage. The emission signal intensities for Cu(I) 327.4 nm, Mo(I) 344.7 nm, Sc(I) 326.9 nm and Hg(I) 253.6 nm were measured as a function of the easily ionizable element (sodium and calcium) concentration in the injection matrix. A range of 0.0 to 0.1% (w/v) EIE in the sample matrix did not cause a significant change in the Cu, Sc, and Mo signal-to-background ratios, with only a slight change noted for Hg. In addition to this test of analyte response, the plasma energetics as a function of EIE concentration are assessed using the ratio of Mg(II) to Mg(I) (280.2 nm and 285.2 nm, respectively) intensities. The Mg(II)/Mg(I) ratio showed that the plasma energetics did not change significantly over the same range of EIE addition. These results are best explained by the electrolytic nature of the eluent acting as an ionic (and perhaps spectrochemical) buffer

  1. Variation in the human lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange frequency as a function of time: results of daily and twice-weekly sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J.D.; Christensen, M.L.; Strout, C.L.; McGee, K.A.; Carrano, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The variation in lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency was investigated in healthy nonsmokers who were not taking any medication. Two separate studies were undertaken. In the first, blood was drawn from four women twice a week for 8 weeks. These donors recorded the onset and termination of menstruation and times of illness. In the second study, blood was obtained from two women and two men for 5 consecutive days on two separate occasions initiated 14 days apart. Analysis of the mean SCE frequencies in each study indicated that significant temporal variation occurred in each donor, and that more variation occurred in the longer study. Some of the variation was found to be associated with the menstrual cycle. In the daily study, most of the variation appeared to be random, but occasional day-to-day changes occurred that were greater than those expected by chance. To determine how well a single SCE sample estimated the pooled mean for each donor in each study, the authors calculated the number of samples that encompassed that donor's pooled mean within 1 or more standard errors. For both studies, about 75% of the samples encompassed the pooled mean within 2 standard errors. An analysis of high-frequency cells (HFCs) was also undertaken. The results for each study indicate that the proportion of HFCs, compared with the use of Fisher's Exact test, is significantly more constant than the means, which were compared by using the t-test. These results coupled with our previous work suggest that HFC analysis may be the method of choice when analyzing data from human population studies.

  2. Hydrostatic pressure effects on the dielectric response of potassium cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Lopez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of crystalline KCN was measured under hydrostatic pressures up to 6.1 kbar in the temperature and frequency ranges of 50-300 K and 10-10 5 Hz, respectively. It is found that the pressure derivative of the real part of the dielectric constant at all measured temperatures is negative. From these results we obtain estimates for the pressure and volume derivatives of polarizabilities. The anomaly in the real part of the dielectric constant at the elastic order-disorder transition shifts to higher temperatures with increasing pressure at a rate of 2.05 K/kbar. By carefully avoiding thermal cycling through this transition we find no evidence of the monoclinic phase reported to exist in the P-T phase diagram of KCN at relatively low pressures. Dielectric loss measurements show thermally-activated CN - reorientation rates in the elastically ordered phase with pressure-independent reorientational barriers and decreasing attempt frequencies for increasing pressures. Additional pressure effects on dielectric loss allow to obtain the pressure derivative of the antiferroelectric transition temperature as 1.97 K/kbar. (Author)

  3. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S; Chen, Y; Huang, N E; Wu, Z; Peng, C-K

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven

  4. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Far-East Road, Chung-Li, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y [Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Huang, N E [Research Center for Adaptive Data Analysis, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Z [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (United States); Peng, C-K [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School (United States)], E-mail: s939205@ mail.yzu.edu.tw

    2008-02-15

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven.

  5. Open-lung protective ventilation with pressure control ventilation, high-frequency oscillation, and intratracheal pulmonary ventilation results in similar gas exchange, hemodynamics, and lung mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khaled A; Takeuchi, Muneyuki; Suchodolski, Klaudiusz; Vargas, Sara O; Shimaoka, Motomu; Schnitzer, Jay J; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    Pressure control ventilation (PCV), high-frequency oscillation (HFO), and intratracheal pulmonary ventilation (ITPV) may all be used to provide lung protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome, but the specific approach that is optimal remains controversial. Saline lavage was used to produce acute respiratory distress syndrome in 21 sheep randomly assigned to receive PCV, HFO, or ITPV as follows: positive end-expiratory pressure (PCV and ITPV) and mean airway pressure (HFO) were set in a pressure-decreasing manner after lung recruitment that achieved a ratio of Pao2/Fio2 > 400 mmHg. Respiratory rates were 30 breaths/min, 120 breaths/min, and 8 Hz, respectively, for PCV, ITPV, and HFO. Eucapnia was targeted with peak carinal pressure of no more than 35 cm H2O. Animals were then ventilated for 4 h. There were no differences among groups in gas exchange, lung mechanics, or hemodynamics. Tidal volume (PCV, 8.9 +/- 2.1 ml/kg; ITPV, 2.7 +/- 0.8 ml/kg; HFO, approximately 2.0 ml/kg) and peak carinal pressure (PCV, 30.6 +/- 2.6 cm H2O; ITPV, 22.3 +/- 4.8 cm H2O; HFO, approximately 24.3 cm H2O) were higher in PCV. Pilot histologic data showed greater interstitial hemorrhage and alveolar septal expansion in PCV than in HFO or ITPV. These data indicate that HFO, ITPV, and PCV when applied with an open-lung protective ventilatory strategy results in the same gas exchange, lung mechanics, and hemodynamic response, but pilot data indicate that lung injury may be greater with PCV.

  6. Characteristics of wall pressure over wall with permeable coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Woo Seog; Shin, Seungyeol; Lee, Seungbae [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluctuating wall pressures were measured using an array of 16 piezoelectric transducers beneath a turbulent boundary layer. The coating used in this experiment was an open cell, urethane type foam with a porosity of approximately 50 ppi. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The ultimate objective of the coating is to provide a mechanical filter to reduce the wall pressure fluctuations. The boundary layer on the flat plate was measured by using a hot wire probe, and the CPM method was used to determine the skin friction coefficient. The wall pressure autospectra and streamwise wavenumber frequency spectra were compared to assess the attenuation of the wall pressure field by the coating. The coating is shown to attenuate the convective wall pressure energy. However, the relatively rough surface of the coating in this investigation resulted in a higher mean wall shear stress, thicker boundary layer, and higher low frequency wall pressure spectral levels compared to a smooth wall.

  7. The gas phase emitter effect of lanthanum within ceramic metal halide lamps and its dependence on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Groeger, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J. [Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Denissen, C.; Suijker, J. [Philips Lighting, Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, NL-5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-08-07

    The gas phase emitter effect increases the lamp lifetime by lowering the work function and, with it, the temperature of the tungsten electrodes of metal halide lamps especially for lamps in ceramic vessels due to their high rare earth pressures. It is generated by a monolayer on the electrode surface of electropositive atoms of certain emitter elements, which are inserted into the lamp bulb by metal iodide salts. They are vaporized, dissociated, ionized, and deposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface within the cathodic phase of lamp operation with a switched-dc or ac-current. The gas phase emitter effect of La and the influence of Na on the emitter effect of La are studied by spatially and phase-resolved pyrometric measurements of the electrode tip temperature, La atom, and ion densities by optical emission spectroscopy as well as optical broadband absorption spectroscopy and arc attachment images by short time photography. An addition of Na to the lamp filling increases the La vapor pressure within the lamp considerably, resulting in an improved gas phase emitter effect of La. Furthermore, the La vapor pressure is raised by a heating of the cold spot. In this way, conditions depending on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency are identified, at which the temperature of the electrodes becomes a minimum.

  8. Fluorinert as a pressure-transmitting medium for high-pressure diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Tamas; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Angel, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorinert is a liquid pressure-transmitting medium that is widely used in high-pressure diffraction work. A systematic study of five different fluorinerts was carried out using single-crystal x-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell in order to determine the pressure range over which they provide a hydrostatic stress state to the sample. It was found that none of the fluorinerts studied can be considered hydrostatic above 1.2 GPa, a lower pressure than reported previously

  9. An evaluation of peak inspiratory pressure, tidal volume, and ventilatory frequency during ventilation with a neonatal self-inflating bag resuscitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Mariana Almada; Filho, Francisco Mezzacappa; de Carvalho Coppo, Maria Regina; Martins Marba, Sérgio Tadeu

    2012-04-01

    Although the self-inflating bag is widely used in the hospital setting, variability of delivered ventilatory parameters is usually high, which might result in both hypoventilation and lung injury. The aims of this study were to assess possible sources of the high variability and to evaluate the adequacy of obtained values in relation to the recommended values for neonatal resuscitation. This was an experimental study in which 172 health professionals (physicians, resident physicians, physiotherapists, nurses, and nursing technicians) who work with neonatal intensive care manually ventilated a test lung (adjusted to simulate the lungs of an intubated term newborn) with a self-inflating bag in 5 different handling techniques, using 10, 5, 4, 3, and 2 fingers. Delivered values of peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), tidal volume (V(T)), and ventilatory frequency (f) were compared, taking into account the different handling modalities and professions by analysis of variance for repeated measures. Chi-square, the Friedman test and the Fisher exact tests were performed to compare the delivered and standard values. PIP and V(T) were significantly affected by the handling technique, with higher values for a greater number of fingers used for ventilation. Profession also influenced V(T) and f significantly: physiotherapists tended to deliver higher volumes and lower rates. Nevertheless, we observed high variability of all studied ventilatory parameters and overall inadequacy of obtained values. Most volunteers delivered excessive pressures and volumes at insufficient ventilatory frequency. Delivered values seem to depend on operators' individual and professional differences, as well as on the number of fingers used to compress the bag. However, from the clinical point of view, it is important to point out the high occurrence of inadequate delivered values, regardless of handling technique and profession.

  10. High pressure apparatus for hydrogen isotopes to pressures of 345 MPa (50,000 psi) and temperatures of 12000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    A functional new high pressure, high temperature apparatus for hydrogen isotopes uses an internally heated pressure vessel within a larger pressure vessel. The pressure capability is 345 MPa (50 K psi) at 1200 0 C. The gas pressure inside the internal vessel is balanced with gas pressure in the external vessel. The internal vessel is attached to a closure and is also the sample container. Our design allows thin-walled internal vessel construction and keeps the sample from ''seeing'' the furnace or other extraneous environment. The sample container together with the closure can easily be removed and loaded under argon using standard glove-box procedures. The small volume of the inner vessel permits small volumes of gas to be used, thus increasing the sensitivity during pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) work

  11. Application of CRAFT (complete reduction to amplitude frequency table) in nonuniformly sampled (NUS) 2D NMR data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish; Hari, Natarajan

    2017-09-15

    The recently published CRAFT (complete reduction to amplitude frequency table) technique converts the raw FID data (i.e., time domain data) into a table of frequencies, amplitudes, decay rate constants, and phases. It offers an alternate approach to decimate time-domain data, with minimal preprocessing step. It has been shown that application of CRAFT technique to process the t 1 dimension of the 2D data significantly improved the detectable resolution by its ability to analyze without the use of ubiquitous apodization of extensively zero-filled data. It was noted earlier that CRAFT did not resolve sinusoids that were not already resolvable in time-domain (i.e., t 1 max dependent resolution). We present a combined NUS-IST-CRAFT approach wherein the NUS acquisition technique (sparse sampling technique) increases the intrinsic resolution in time-domain (by increasing t 1 max), IST fills the gap in the sparse sampling, and CRAFT processing extracts the information without loss due to any severe apodization. NUS and CRAFT are thus complementary techniques to improve intrinsic and usable resolution. We show that significant improvement can be achieved with this combination over conventional NUS-IST processing. With reasonable sensitivity, the models can be extended to significantly higher t 1 max to generate an indirect-DEPT spectrum that rivals the direct observe counterpart. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Indoor measurements of sound at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Due to standing waves, the sound pressure level within a room may vary as much as 20-30 dB with low-frequency tonal noise, somewhat less with noise bands. For assessment of annoyance from low-frequency noise it is relevant to measure a level close to the highest level of the room, rather than a r...

  13. Study on closed pressure vessel test. Effect of heat rate, sample weight and vessel size on pressure rise due to thermal decomposition; Mippeigata atsuryoku yoki shiken ni kansuru kenkyu. Atsuryoku hassei kyodo ni oyobosu kanetsusokudo, shiryoryo oyobi youki saizu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Kenji.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering

    1999-02-28

    We have attempted to devise a new closed pressure vessel test apparatus in order to evaluate the violence of thermal decomposition of self-reactive materials and have examined some influencing factors, such as heat rate, sample weight, filling factor (sample weight/vessel size) and vessel size on Pmax (maximum pressure rise) and dP/dt (rate of pressure rise) due to their thermal decomposition. As a result, the following decreasing orders of Pmax and dP/dt were shown. Pmax: ADCA>BPZ>AIBN>TCP dP/dt: AIBN>BPZ>ADCA>TCP Moreover, Pmax was not almost influenced by heat rate, while dP/dt increased with an increase in heat rate in the case of BPZ. Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in sample weight and the degree of increase depended on the kinds of materials. In addition, it was shown that Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in vessel size at a constant filling factor. (author)

  14. Executive control resources and frequency of fatty food consumption: findings from an age-stratified community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A

    2012-03-01

    Fatty foods are regarded as highly appetitive, and self-control is often required to resist consumption. Executive control resources (ECRs) are potentially facilitative of self-control efforts, and therefore could predict success in the domain of dietary self-restraint. It is not currently known whether stronger ECRs facilitate resistance to fatty food consumption, and moreover, it is unknown whether such an effect would be stronger in some age groups than others. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between ECRs and consumption of fatty foods among healthy community-dwelling adults across the adult life span. An age-stratified sample of individuals between 18 and 89 years of age attended two laboratory sessions. During the first session they completed two computer-administered tests of ECRs (Stroop and Go-NoGo) and a test of general cognitive function (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence); participants completed two consecutive 1-week recall measures to assess frequency of fatty and nonfatty food consumption. Regression analyses revealed that stronger ECRs were associated with lower frequency of fatty food consumption over the 2-week interval. This association was observed for both measures of ECR and a composite measure. The effect remained significant after adjustment for demographic variables (age, gender, socioeconomic status), general cognitive function, and body mass index. The observed effect of ECRs on fatty food consumption frequency was invariant across age group, and did not generalize to nonfatty food consumption. ECRs may be potentially important, though understudied, determinants of dietary behavior in adults across the life span.

  15. The influence of acoustic field and frequency on Hydrodynamics of Group B particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sonolikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound Assisted Fluidized Bed (SAFB of group B particles (180μm glass bead has been studied in a 46mm I.D. column with aspect ratios of 1.4 and 2.9. A loudspeaker mounted on the top of the bed was supplied by a function generator with square wave to generate the sound as the source of vibration of the fluidized bed. The sound pressure level (referred to 20μpa was varied from 102 to 140dB and frequencies from 70Hz to 170Hz were applied. The effects of sound pressure level, sound frequency and particle loading on the properties of SAFB were investigated. The experimental result showed that the minimum fluidization velocity decreased with the increase in sound pressure level, also minimum fluidization velocity was varied with variation of frequencies. At resonance frequency minimum fluidization velocity was found to be minimum. The bed height did not show an appreciable increase in presence of high acoustic field and at resonant frequency. Minimum fluidization velocity verses frequency curve in presence of sound intensity varied with variation of bed weight.

  16. Mechanism of single-frequency operation of the hybrid-CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Heckenberg, N.R.; Holzhauer, E.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of a new method of obtaining high-power single-frequency pulses from a TEA-CO 2 laser is discussed. Measurements of the shape and monochromaticity of pulses from the hybrid laser which has both a TEA and a low-pressure gain section inside one resonator are presented. The mechanism of single-frequency operation of the hybrid laser is discussed with reference to numerical solutions of simplified rate equations. The low-pressure section provides gain only over a narrow range of frequencies so that a mode lying in that band-width builds up faster than neighboring modes to give a single-frequency pulse resembling in overall shape the normal TEA laser pulse. If the system is already lasing when the TEA discharge begins, the single-mode radiation already present rapidly grows to give a single-frequency pulse lacking a gain-switched peak. (U.S.)

  17. Pressure Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  18. Radio frequency emission from high-pressure xenon arcs: A systematic experimental analysis of the underlying near-anode plasma instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechtfischer, Ulrich [Philips Lighting, GBU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, 52068 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    High-pressure Xe discharge lamps at DC operation can show unwanted strong RF (radio-frequency) emission to beyond 1 GHz, correlated to a sharp periodic lamp-voltage instability in the near-anode plasma with a pulse repetition rate {epsilon} of 1-10 MHz. The physical origin of the instability is unclear. Here, its existence and pulse rate have been measured as a function of arc current I = 0.2-1.2 A and anode temperature T{sub a} = 1700-3400 K independently, in experimental lamps with pure-tungsten electrodes and a Xe operating pressure around p = 10 MPa. Surprisingly, the instability is not affected by I or current density j but exists if T{sub a} is lower than a threshold value around 2800-2900 K. The pulse rate {epsilon} is simply a rising linear function of the inverse anode temperature 1/T{sub a}, with only a small I-dependent correction. The average anode heat load is slightly lower in the unstable regime and possibly depends on {epsilon}. The results allow a consistent re-interpretation of earlier and present experimental observations and should be both a valuable help in practical lamp engineering and a tight constraint for future theories of this effect.

  19. Variation of Pore Water Pressure in Tailing Sand under Dynamic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-xu Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense vibration affects the pore water pressure in a tailing dam, with the tendency to induce dam liquefaction. In this study, experiments were performed wherein model tailing dams were completely liquefied by sustained horizontal dynamic loading to determine the effects of the vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and tailing density on the pore water pressure. The results revealed four stages in the increase of the tailing pore water pressure under dynamic loading, namely, a slow increase, a rapid increase, inducement of structural failure, and inducement of complete liquefaction. A lower frequency and smaller amplitude of the vibration were found to increase the time required to achieve a given pore water pressure in dense tailings. Under the effect of these three factors—vibration frequency and amplitude and tailing density—the tailing liquefaction time varied nonlinearly with the height from the base of the tailing dam, with an initial decrease followed by an increase. The pore pressure that induced structural failure also gradually decreased with increasing height. The increase in the tailing pore pressure could be described by an S-shaped model. A complementary multivariate nonlinear equation was also derived for predicting the tailing pore water pressure under dynamic loading.

  20. An Acute Bout of a Controlled Breathing Frequency Lowers Sympathetic Neural Outflow but not Blood Pressure in Healthy Normotensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCLAIN, SHANNON L.; BROOKS, ALEXA M.; JARVIS, SARA S.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled or paced breathing is often used as a stress reduction technique but the impact on blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic outflow have not been consistently reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a controlled breathing (12 breaths/min, CB) rate would be similar to an individual’s spontaneous breathing (SB) rate. Secondly, would a CB rate of 12 breaths/min alter heart rate (HR), BP, and indices of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Twenty-one subjects (10 women, 11 men) performed two trials: SB, where the subject chose a comfortable breathing rate; and CB, where the subject breathed at a pace of 12 breaths/min. Each trial was 6 min during which respiratory waveforms, HR, BP (systolic, SBP; diastolic, DBP), and MSNA were recorded. During CB, the 6 min average breathing frequency (14±4 vs 12±1 breaths/min, P<0.05 for SB and CB, respectively), MSNA burst frequency (18±12 vs 14±10 bursts/min, P<0.01) and MSNA burst incidence (28±19 vs 21± 6 bursts/100 heart beats, P<0.01) were significantly lower than during SB. HR (66±9 vs 67±9 beats/min, P<0.05) was higher during CB. SBP (120±13 vs 121±15 mmHg, P=0.741), DBP (56±8 vs 57±9 mmHg, P=0.768), and MSNA total activity (166±94 vs 145±102 a.u./min, P=0.145) were not different between the breathing conditions. In conclusion, an acute reduction in breathing frequency such as that observed during CB elicited a decrease in indices of MSNA (burst frequency and incidence) with no change in BP. PMID:28344733

  1. Implication of the first decision on visual information-sampling in the spatial frequency domain in pulmonary nodule recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Manning, David; Donovan, Tim; Dix, Alan

    2010-02-01

    Aim: To investigate the impact on visual sampling strategy and pulmonary nodule recognition of image-based properties of background locations in dwelled regions where the first overt decision was made. . Background: Recent studies in mammography show that the first overt decision (TP or FP) has an influence on further image reading including the correctness of the following decisions. Furthermore, the correlation between the spatial frequency properties of the local background following decision sites and the first decision correctness has been reported. Methods: Subjects with different radiological experience were eye tracked during detection of pulmonary nodules from PA chest radiographs. Number of outcomes and the overall quality of performance are analysed in terms of the cases where correct or incorrect decisions were made. JAFROC methodology is applied. The spatial frequency properties of selected local backgrounds related to a certain decisions were studied. ANOVA was used to compare the logarithmic values of energy carried by non redundant stationary wavelet packet coefficients. Results: A strong correlation has been found between the number of TP as a first decision and the JAFROC score (r = 0.74). The number of FP as a first decision was found negatively correlated with JAFROC (r = -0.75). Moreover, the differential spatial frequency profiles outcomes depend on the first choice correctness.

  2. On the frequency and field linewidth conversion of ferromagnetic resonance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yajun; Svedlindh, Peter; Liang Chin, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Both frequency swept and field swept ferromagnetic resonance measurements have been carried out for a number of different samples with negligible, moderate and significant extrinsic frequency independent linewidth contribution to analyze the correlation between the experimentally measured frequency and field linewidths. Contrary to the belief commonly held by many researchers, it is found that the frequency and field linewidth conversion relation does not hold for all cases. Instead it holds only for samples with negligible frequency independent linewidth contributions. For samples with non-negligible frequency independent linewidth contribution, the field linewidth values converted from the measured frequency linewidth are larger than the experimentally measured field linewidth. A close examination of the literature reveals that previously reported results support our findings, with successful conversions related to samples with negligible frequency independent linewidth contributions and unsuccessful conversions related to samples with significant frequency independent linewidth. The findings are important in providing guidance in ferromagnetic resonance linewidth conversions. (paper)

  3. Etching mechanism of niobium in coaxial Ar/Cl2 radio frequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, J.; Im, Do; Popović, S.; Vušković, L.; Valente-Feliciano, A.-M.; Phillips, L.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the Ar/Cl 2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for the desired modification of inner surface of the three dimensional niobium (Nb) superconductive radio frequency cavities. Uniform mass removal in cylindrical shaped structures is a challenging task because the etch rate varies along the direction of gas flow. The study is performed in the asymmetric coaxial radio-frequency (rf) discharge with two identical Nb rings acting as a part of the outer electrode. The dependence of etch rate uniformity on pressure, rf power, dc bias, Cl 2 concentration, diameter of the inner electrode, temperature of the outer cylinder, and position of the samples in the structure is determined. To understand the plasma etching mechanisms, we have studied several factors that have important influence on the etch rate and uniformity, which include the plasma sheath potential, Nb surface temperature, and the gas flow rate

  4. Boat sampling and inservice inspections of the reactor pressure vessel weld No. 4 at Kozloduy NPP, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, M.; Oreb, E.; Mudronja, V.; Zado, V.; Bezlaj, H.; Petkov, M.; Gledatchev, J.; Radomirski, S.; Ribarska, T.; Kroes, B.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with reactor pressure vessel (RPV) boat sampling performed at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1, from August to November 1996. Kozloduy NPP, Unit 1 has no reactor vessel material surveillance program. Changes in the material fracture toughness resulting from the fast neutron irradiation which cannot be monitored without removal of the vessel material. Therefore, the main objective of the project was to cut samples from the RPV wall in order to obtain samples of the RPV material for further structural analyses. The most critical area, i.e. weld No. 4 was determined as a location for boat sampling. Replication technique was applied in order to obtain precise determination of the weld geometry necessary for positioning of the cutting tool prior to boat sampling, and determination of divot depth left after boat sampling and grinding of sample sites. Boat sampling was performed by electrical discharge machining (EDM). Grinding of sample sites was implemented to minimize stress concentration effects on sample sites, to eliminate surface irregularities resulting from EDM process, and to eliminate recast layer on the surface of the EDM cut. Ultrasonic, liquid penetrant, magnetic particles, and visual examinations were performed after grinding to establish baseline data in the boat sampling area. The project preparation activities, apart from EDM process, and the site organization lead was entrusted to INETEC. The activities were funded by the PHARE program of the European Commission. (orig.)

  5. Self-sustained carbon monoxide oxidation oscillations on size-selected platinum nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert; Andersen, Thomas; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2013-01-01

    High-quality mass spectrometry data of the oscillatory behavior of CO oxidation on SiO2 supported Pt-nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure have been acquired as a function of pressure, coverage, gas composition and nanoparticle size. The oscillations are self-sustained for several days at constant......, temperature, pressure and CO/O2 ratio. The frequency of the oscillations is very well defined and increases over time. The oscillation frequency is furthermore strongly temperature dependent with increasing temperature resulting in increasing frequency. A plausible mechanism for the oscillations is proposed...

  6. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge as a secondary excitation source: Assessment of plasma characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manard, Benjamin T.; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Sarkar, Arnab; Dong, Meirong; Chirinos, Jose; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as a secondary excitation source with a parametric evaluation regarding carrier gas flow rate, applied current, and electrode distance. With this parametric evaluation, plasma optical emission was monitored in order to obtain a fundamental understanding with regards to rotational temperature (Trot), excitation temperature (Texc), electron number density (ne), and plasma robustness. Incentive for these studies is not only for a greater overall fundamental knowledge of the APGD, but also in instrumenting a secondary excitation/ionization source following laser ablation (LA). Rotational temperatures were determined through experimentally fitting of the N2 and OH molecular emission bands while atomic excitation temperatures were calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of He and Mg atomic lines. The rotational and excitation temperatures were determined to be ~ 1000 K and ~ 2700 K respectively. Electron number density was calculated to be on the order of ~ 3 × 1015 cm- 3 utilizing Stark broadening effects of the Hα line of the Balmer series and a He I transition. In addition, those diagnostics were performed introducing magnesium (by solution feed and laser ablation) into the plasma in order to determine any perturbation under heavy matrix sampling. The so-called plasma robustness factor, derived by monitoring Mg II/Mg I emission ratios, is also employed as a reflection of potential perturbations in microplasma energetics across the various operation conditions and sample loadings. While truly a miniaturized source (laser ablation sample introduction.

  7. 7 CFR 58.643 - Frequency of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION... each type of mix, and for the finished frozen product one sample from each flavor made. (b) Composition... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  8. Low-frequency waves in magnetized dusty plasmas revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Khan, M.I.; Amin, R.; Nitta, H.; Shukla, P.K.

    2005-10-01

    The general dispersion relation of any wave is examined for low-frequency waves in a homogeneous dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field. The low-frequency parallel electromagnetic wave propagates as a dust cyclotron wave or a whistler in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. In the same frequency regime, the transverse electromagnetic magnetosonic wave is modified with a cutoff frequency at the dust-ion lower-hybrid frequency, which reduces to the usual magnetosonic wave in absence of the dust. Electrostatic dust-lower- hybrid mode is also recovered propagating nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field with finite ion temperature and cold dust particles which for strong ion-Larmor radius effect reduces to the usual dust-acoustic wave driven by the ion pressure. (author)

  9. Frequency, stability and differentiation of self-reported school fear and truancy in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzke Christa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR. Comparisons included a control group without indicators of school fear or truancy. The three groups were compared across questionnaires measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life-events, self-related cognitions, perceived parental behaviour, and perceived school environment. Results The frequency of self-reported school fear decreased over time (6.9 vs. 3.6% whereas there was an increase in truancy (5.0 vs. 18.4%. Subjects with school fear displayed a pattern of associated internalizing problems and truants were characterized by associated delinquent behaviour. Among other associated psychosocial features, the distress coming from the perceived school environment in students with school fear is most noteworthy. Conclusion These findings from a community study show that school fear and truancy are frequent and display different developmental trajectories. Furthermore, previous results are corroborated which are based on smaller and selected clinical samples indicating that the two groups display distinct types of school-related behaviour.

  10. Simulation of low frequency noise from a downwind wind turbine rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Johansen, Jeppe; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2007-01-01

    in the period from around 1980 to 1990. One of the common characteristics of this low frequency noise, emerging from analysis of the phenomenon, was that the sound pressure level is strongly varying in time. We have investigated this phenomenon using a model package by which the low frequency noise...... to the aero acoustic model. The results for a 5 MW two-bladed turbine with a downwind rotor showed an increase in the sound pressure level of 5-20 dB due to the unsteadiness in the wake caused mainly by vortex shedding. However, in some periods the sound pressure level can increase additionally 0-10 dB when...... the blades directly pass through the discrete shed vortices behind the tower. The present numerical results strongly confirm the experiences with full scale turbines showing big variations of sound pressure level in time due to the wake unsteadiness, as well as a considerable increase in sound pressure level...

  11. The Quasar Fraction in Low-Frequency Selected Complete Samples and Implications for Unified Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lacy, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Low-frequency radio surveys are ideal for selecting orientation-independent samples of extragalactic sources because the sample members are selected by virtue of their isotropic steep-spectrum extended emission. We use the new 7C Redshift Survey along with the brighter 3CRR and 6C samples to investigate the fraction of objects with observed broad emission lines - the 'quasar fraction' - as a function of redshift and of radio and narrow emission line luminosity. We find that the quasar fraction is more strongly dependent upon luminosity (both narrow line and radio) than it is on redshift. Above a narrow [OII] emission line luminosity of log(base 10) (L(sub [OII])/W) approximately > 35 [or radio luminosity log(base 10) (L(sub 151)/ W/Hz.sr) approximately > 26.5], the quasar fraction is virtually independent of redshift and luminosity; this is consistent with a simple unified scheme with an obscuring torus with a half-opening angle theta(sub trans) approximately equal 53 deg. For objects with less luminous narrow lines, the quasar fraction is lower. We show that this is not due to the difficulty of detecting lower-luminosity broad emission lines in a less luminous, but otherwise similar, quasar population. We discuss evidence which supports at least two probable physical causes for the drop in quasar fraction at low luminosity: (i) a gradual decrease in theta(sub trans) and/or a gradual increase in the fraction of lightly-reddened (0 approximately quasar luminosity; and (ii) the emergence of a distinct second population of low luminosity radio sources which, like M8T, lack a well-fed quasar nucleus and may well lack a thick obscuring torus.

  12. Development of sampling systems and special analyses for pressurized gasification processes; Paineistettujen kaasutusprosessien naeytteenottomenetelmien ja erityisanalytiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staahlberg, P.; Oesch, P.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Moilanen, A.; Nieminen, M.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of sampling methods used for measuring impurities contained in gasification gas were studied, and new methods were developed for sampling and sample analyses. The aim of the method development was to improve the representativeness of the samples and to speed up the analysis of gas composition. The study focused on tar, nitrogen and sulphur compounds contained in the gasification gas. In the study of the sampling reliability, the effects of probe and sampling line materials suitable for high temperatures and of the solids deposited in the sampling devices on gas samples drawn from the process were studied. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 250 - 850 deg C both in real conditions and in conditions simulating gasification gas. The durability of samples during storage was also studied. The other main aim of the study was to increase the amount of quick-measurable gas components by developing on-line analytical methods based on GC, FTIR and FI (flow injection) techniques for the measurements of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in gasification gas. As these methods are suitable only for the gases that do not contain condensing gas components disturbing the operation of analysers (heavy tar compounds, water), a sampling system operating in dilution principle was developed. The system operates at high pressures and temperatures and is suitable for gasification gases containing heavy tar compounds. The capabilities of analysing heavy tar compounds (mole weight >200 g mol) was improved by adding the amount of compounds identified and calibrated by model substances and by developing analytical methods based on the high-temperature-GC analysis and the thermogravimetric method. (author)

  13. Dietary Acid Load and Potassium Intake Associate with Blood Pressure and Hypertension Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the German Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Krupp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP. However, the relevance of potential renal acid load (PRAL for BP has not been compared with the relevance to BP of urinary biomarker (K-urine- and dietary food frequency questionnaire (K-FFQ-based estimates of potassium intake in a general adult population sample. For 6788 participants (aged 18–79 years of the representative German Health-Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1, associations of PRAL, K-urine, and K-FFQ with BP and hypertension prevalence were cross-sectionally examined in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. PRAL was significantly associated with higher systolic BP (p = 0.0002 and higher hypertension prevalence (Odds ratio [OR] high vs. low PRAL = 1.45, p = 0.0004 in models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, estimated sodium intake, kidney function, relevant medication, and further important covariates. Higher estimates of K-FFQ and K-urine were related to lower systolic BP (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001 and lower hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.82, p = 0.04 and OR = 0.77, p = 0.02 as well as a lower diastolic BP (p = 0.03 and p = 0.0003. Our results show, for the first time in a comparative analysis of a large representative population sample, significant relationships of BP and hypertension prevalence with questionnaire- and biomarker-based estimates of potassium intake and with an estimate of dietary acid load.

  14. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  15. Characteristics of fluctuating pressure generated in BWR main steam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shiro; Okuyama, Keita; Tamura, Akinori

    2009-01-01

    The BWR-3 steam dryer in the Quad Cities Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant was damaged by high cycle fatigue due to acoustic-induced vibration. The dryer failure was as attributed to flow-induced acoustic resonance at the stub pipes of safety relief valves (SRVs) in the main steam lines (MSLs). The acoustic resonance was considered to be generated by interaction between the sound field and an unstable shear layer across the closed side branches with SRV stub pipes. We have started a research program on BWR dryers to develop their loading evaluation methods. Moreover, it has been necessary to evaluate the dryer integrity of BWR-5 plants which are the main type of BWR in Japan. In the present study, we used 1/10-scale BWR tests and analyses to investigate the flow-induced acoustic resonance and acoustic characteristics in MSLs. The test apparatus consisted of a steam dryer, a steam dome and 4 MSLs with 20 SRV stub pipes. A finite element method (FEM) was applied for the calculation of three-dimensional wave equations in acoustic analysis. We demonstrated that remarkable fluctuating pressures occurred in high and low frequency regions. High frequency fluctuating pressures was generated by the flow-induced acoustic resonance in the SRV stub pipes. Low frequency fluctuating pressure was generated in an MSL with the dead leg. The frequency of the latter almost coincided with the natural frequency of the MSL with the dead leg. The amplitude of the fluctuating pressures in the multiple stub pipes became more intense because of interaction between them compared with that in the single stub pipe. Acoustic analysis results showed that the multiple stub pipes caused several natural frequencies in the vicinity of the natural frequency of the single stub pipe and several modes of the standing wave in the MSLs. (author)

  16. In-cylinder pressure resonance analysis for trapped mass estimation in automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Bares Moreno, Pau

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a new application for in-cylinder pressure sensors in internal combustion engines. The new method takes profit of the high-frequency content of the in-cylinder pressure signal to determine the speed of sound evolution during the expansion stroke and combines this estimation with the low-frequency content of the pressure signal and a volume estimation to obtain a measurement of the trapped mass. The new method is based on the studies of the resonance phenomenon in pent...

  17. Measurement of pressure on a surface using bubble acoustic resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldham, Ben; Manasseh, Richard; Liffman, Kurt; Šutalo, Ilija D; Illesinghe, Suhith; Ooi, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The frequency response of gas bubbles as a function of liquid ambient pressure was measured and compared with theory. A bubble size with equivalent spherical radius of 2.29 mm was used over a frequency range of 1000–1500 Hz. The ultimate aim is to develop an acoustic sensor that can measure static pressure and is sensitive to variations as small as a few kPa. The classical bubble resonance frequency is known to vary with ambient pressure. Experiments were conducted with a driven bubble in a pressurizable tank with a signal processing system designed to extract the resonant peak. Since the background response of the containing tank is significant, particularly near tank-modal resonances, it must be carefully removed from the bubble response signal. A dual-hydrophone method was developed to allow rapid and reliable real-time measurements. The expected pressure dependence was found. In order to obtain a reasonable match with theory, the classical theory was modified by the introduction of a 'mirror bubble' to account for the influence of a nearby surface. (technical design note)

  18. Investigation of an Axial Fan—Blade Stress and Vibration Due to Aerodynamic Pressure Field and Centrifugal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Amano, Ryoichi Samuel; Lee, Eng Kwong

    A 1.829m (6ft) diameter industrial large flow-rate axial fan operated at 1770rpm was studied experimentally in laboratory conditions. The flow characteristics on the fan blade surfaces were investigated by measuring the pressure distributions on the blade suction and pressure surfaces and the results were discussed by comparing with analytical formulations and CFD. Flow visualizations were also performed to validate the flow characteristics near the blade surface and it was demonstrated that the flow characteristics near the fan blade surface were dominated by the centrifugal force of the fan rotation which resulted in strong three-dimensional flows. The time-dependent pressure measurement showed that the pressure oscillations on the fan blade were significantly dominated by vortex shedding from the fan blades. It was further demonstrated that the pressure distributions during the fan start-up were highly unsteady, and the main frequency variation of the static pressure was much smaller than the fan rotational frequency. The time-dependent pressure measurement when the fan operated at a constant speed showed that the magnitude of the blade pressure variation with time and the main variation frequency was much smaller than the fan rotational frequency. The pressure variations that were related to the vortex shedding were slightly smaller than the fan rotational frequency. The strain gages were used to measure the blade stress and the results were compared with FEA results.

  19. Implementation of a new policy results in a decrease of pressure ulcer frequency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, E.H. de; Schoonhoven, L.; Pickkers, P.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Achterberg, T. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a new policy on the efficiency of pressure ulcer care. DESIGN: Series of 1-day pressure ulcer surveys before and after the implementation. SETTING: A 900-bed University Medical Centre in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: On the days of the surveys, 657 patients

  20. Investigation of the spatial variability and possible origins of wind-induced air pressure fluctuations responsible for pressure pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Manuel; Laemmel, Thomas; Maier, Martin; Zeeman, Matthias; Longdoz, Bernard; Schindler, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The exchange of greenhouse gases between the soil and the atmosphere is highly relevant for the climate of the Earth. Recent research suggests that wind-induced air pressure fluctuations can alter the soil gas transport and therefore soil gas efflux significantly. Using a newly developed method, we measured soil gas transport in situ in a well aerated forest soil. Results from these measurements showed that the commonly used soil gas diffusion coefficient is enhanced up to 30% during periods of strong wind-induced air pressure fluctuations. The air pressure fluctuations above the forest floor are only induced at high above-canopy wind speeds (> 5 m s-1) and lie in the frequency range 0.01-0.1 Hz. Moreover, the amplitudes of air pressure fluctuations in this frequency range show a clear quadratic dependence on mean above-canopy wind speed. However, the origin of these wind-induced pressure fluctuations is still unclear. Airflow measurements and high-precision air pressure measurements were conducted at three different vegetation-covered sites (conifer forest, deciduous forest, grassland) to investigate the spatial variability of dominant air pressure fluctuations, their origin and vegetation-dependent characteristics. At the conifer forest site, a vertical profile of air pressure fluctuations was measured and an array consisting of five pressure sensors were installed at the forest floor. At the grassland site, the air pressure measurements were compared with wind observations made by ground-based LIDAR and spatial temperature observations from a fibre-optic sensing network (ScaleX Campaign 2016). Preliminary results show that at all sites the amplitudes of relevant air pressure fluctuations increase with increasing wind speed. Data from the array measurements reveal that there are no time lags between the air pressure signals of different heights, but a time lag existed between the air pressure signals of the sensors distributed laterally on the forest floor

  1. Pressure-driven one-step solid phase-based on-chip sample preparation on a microfabricated plastic device and integration with flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hong Hanh; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we fabricate a monolithic poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice on which solid phase-based DNA preparation and flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) units were functionally integrated for one-step sample preparation and amplification operated by pressure. Chelex resin, which is used as a solid support for DNA preparation, can capture denatured proteins but releases DNA, and the purified DNA can then be used as a template in a subsequent amplification process. Using the PMMA microdevices, DNA was successfully purified from both Escherichia coli and human hair sample, and the plasmid vector inserted in E. coli and the D1S80 locus in human genomic DNA were successfully amplified from on-chip purified E. coli and human hair samples. Furthermore, the integration potential of the proposed sample preparation and flow-through PCR units was successfully demonstrate on a monolithic PMMA microdevice with a seamless flow, which could pave the way for a pressure-driven, simple one-step sample preparation and amplification with greatly decreased manufacture cost and enhanced device disposability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood pressure and its influencing factors in a national representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Ardalan, Gelayol; Gheiratmand, Riaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Delavari, Alireza; Heshmat, Ramin; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Razaghi, Emran Mohammad; Motaghian, Molouk; Mokhtari, Mohammad Reza; Barekati, Hamed; Arabi, Minoo Sadat Mahmoud

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the blood pressure (BP) percentile curves by height, as well as to assess the prevalence of high BP and its influencing factors among children in the first national survey in this field in Iran. A multicentre national cross-sectional survey. This study was performed in 23 provinces among a representative sample of 21,111 students aged 6-18 years. Age and sex-specific percentile curves of systolic and diastolic BP were obtained by height. A comparison of the values obtained corresponding to the 90th percentiles with the Second Task Force cut-offs showed that the BP values and trends were relatively similar in both studies. The overall prevalence of systolic, diastolic as well as systolic or diastolic hypertension according to the Second Task Force study 95th percentile cut-off points were 4.2, 5.4 and 7.7%, respectively, without a significant sex difference. A history of low birthweight, overweight, taller height, the consumption of solid hydrogenated fat, as well as the frequency of fast food consumption increased the risk of both systolic and diastolic hypertension. Male sex, large waist, and low education of the mother were the risks for systolic hypertension, whereas the risk of diastolic hypertension rose with living in an urban area, attending public school, low physical activity level, having a housewife mother, and a positive family history of obesity, especially in the parents. Considering the effect of modifiable environmental factors on the childrens' BP, encouraging breast feeding and a healthy lifestyle may have an important effect on public health.

  3. Pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunlin; Yang Xiaoyong; Li Changjun; Jia Fei; Zhao Binjuan

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump, this study used the technique of ANSYS-Workbench and CFX fluid solid heat coupling to do numerical simulation analysis for model pump. According to the situation of pressure fluctuation of time domain and frequency domain, the main cause of pressure fluctuation was discussed. For different flow, the pressure fluctuations were compared. This study shows it is feasible that large eddy simulation method is used for the research of pressure fluctuation. The pressure fluctuation amplitudes of four sections are increasing from wheel hub to wheel rim. The pressure fluctuation of inlet and outlet of impeller depends on the rotational frequency of impeller. Along with the fluid flowing away from the impeller, the effect of the impeller on the fluid pressure fluctuation weakens gradually. Comparing the different results of three flow conditions, the pressure fluctuation in design condition flow is superior to the others. (authors)

  4. Short communication: Is consumption of a cheese rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting peptides, such as the Norwegian cheese Gamalost, associated with reduced blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, R; Pripp, A H; Høstmark, A T; Haug, A; Skeie, S

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting peptides derived from dairy products may decrease blood pressure. These peptides have been identified in many cheeses, and Gamalost, a traditional Norwegian cheese, is particularly rich in these peptides. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether frequency of Gamalost intake was associated with blood pressure in a Norwegian population sample. Blood pressure and other clinical measurements, including the factors of metabolic syndrome, were obtained from 168 participants (56% female, mean age = 51 yr) who completed a questionnaire about dietary habits and other health-related factors. Mean Gamalost intake was 2 servings per week. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.8% in the population, with mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 128 and 78 mmHg, respectively. Intake of Gamalost was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure. Each increase in frequency unit of Gamalost intake corresponded to a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 0.72 mmHg, after controlling for sex, age, education, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status, and dairy food intake. Results from this study indicate that consumption of Gamalost (or other foods rich in ACE-inhibiting peptides) may reduce blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ISO 3171 production hydrocarbons allocation sampling for challenging ''tie-ins''with pressures close to RVP breakout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiskoot, Mark

    2005-07-01

    There are an increasing number of applications where sampling is required for crude oils and condensates at close to vapour breakout in production environments. These are typified where the quality measurement must be extracted/made in the ''oil'' leg of a separator. The exertion of back pressure (pressure loss) on the liquid leg to expand the operating envelope is generally not acceptable due to the effect that this will have on the separator efficiency and this frequently precludes the use of normal metering technologies. These conditions represent some of the hardest for quality determination. In conventional separators, velocities are low to promote separation of the gas and liquids and the therefore the gas pressure within the liquid phase is close to breakout. Frequently there is an envelope of less than 0.5 bar below the operating pressure at which the fluid will start to cavitate. Concurrent with the low velocity is the expectation of some free water that would require mixing to ensure representativity. There are frequently also severe restrictions on space and the piping arrangement in which to achieve a representative off-take. The ''rules'' that are applied to representative sampling are equally applicable to the use of water monitors (water cut, OWD) and to densitometers. An integrated quality measurement system that prevents any impact on the process and also provides the required mixing to allow extraction of a representative off take that can be used for physical samplers as well as process instrumentation such as densitometers, viscometers and water cut monitors can be achieved by careful design. Jiskoot has adapted its CoJetix technology to meet these goals. (author) (tk)

  6. Impact of frequency control on PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantieux, Thierry; Gautier, Alain; Deat, Max.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with experimental data that were recorded at TIHANGE 1, a Belgo-French nuclear power reactor, while the plant was performing frequency control with no load regulation. Frequency control induces quasi-permanent reactor power variations, whose effects on the following equipment must be analyzed carefully: rod mechanisms, fuel cladding and pressurizer components. A comparison of the experimental data with calculations performed on a hybrid computer is presented, together with a brief description of the hybrid program, DELTA, which was developed by FRAMATOME

  7. Battery-Free Smart Sock for Abnormal Relative Plantar Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyou; Seet, Boon-Chong

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new design of a wearable plantar pressure monitoring system in the form of a smart sock for sensing abnormal relative pressure changes. One advantage of this approach is that with a battery-free design, this system can be powered solely by radio frequency (RF) energy harvested from a radio frequency identification (RFID) reader unit hosted on a smartphone of the wearer. At the same time, this RFID reader can read foot pressure values from an embedded sensor-tag in the sock. A pressure sensing matrix made of conductive fabric and flexible piezo-resistive material is integrated into the sock during the knitting process. Sensed foot pressures are digitized and stored in the memory of a sensor-tag, thus allowing relative foot pressure values to be tracked. The control unit of the smart sock is assembled on a flexible printed circuit board (FPC) that can be strapped to the lower limb and detached easily when it is not in use. Experiments show that the system can operate reliably in both tasks of RF energy harvesting and pressure measurement.

  8. Energy-Based Tetrahedron Sensor for High-Temperature, High-Pressure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.; Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic energy-based probe has been developed that incorporates multiple acoustic sensing elements in order to obtain the acoustic pressure and three-dimensional acoustic particle velocity. With these quantities, the user can obtain various energy-based quantities, including acoustic energy density, acoustic intensity, and acoustic impedance. In this specific development, the probe has been designed to operate in an environment characterized by high temperatures and high pressures as is found in the close vicinity of rocket plumes. Given these capabilities, the probe is designed to be used to investigate the acoustic conditions within the plume of a rocket engine or jet engine to facilitate greater understanding of the noise generation mechanisms in those plumes. The probe features sensors mounted inside a solid sphere. The associated electronics for the probe are contained within the sphere and the associated handle for the probe. More importantly, the design of the probe has desirable properties that reduce the bias errors associated with determining the acoustic pressure and velocity using finite sum and difference techniques. The diameter of the probe dictates the lower and upper operating frequencies for the probe, where accurate measurements can be acquired. The current probe design implements a sphere diameter of 1 in. (2.5 cm), which limits the upper operating frequency to about 4.5 kHz. The sensors are operational up to much higher frequencies, and could be used to acquire pressure data at higher frequencies, but the energy-based measurements are limited to that upper frequency. Larger or smaller spherical probes could be designed to go to lower or higher frequency range

  9. Suppression of Squeal Noise Excited by the Pressure Pulsation from the Flapper-Nozzle Valve inside a Hydraulic Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Squeal noise often occurs in a two-stage electrohydraulic servo-valve, which is an unfavorable issue of modern hydraulic energy systems. The root causes of such noise from the servo-valve are still unclear. The objective of this paper is to explore the noise mechanism in a servo-valve excited by the pressure pulsations from the hydraulic energy system perspective. The suppressing capability of squeal noise energy is investigated by changing the pressure pulsation frequency and natural frequency of the flapper-armature assembly. The frequencies of the pressure pulsations are adjusted by setting different speeds of the hydraulic pump varying from 10,400–14,400 rpm, and two flapper-armature assemblies with different armature lengths are used in the tested hydraulic energy system. The first eight vibration mode shapes and natural frequencies of the flapper-armature assembly are obtained by numerical modal analysis using two different armature lengths. The characteristics of pressure pulsations at the pump outlet and in the chamber of the flapper-nozzle valve, armature vibration and noise are tested and compared with the natural frequencies of the flapper-armature assembly. The results reveal that the flapper-armature assembly vibrates and makes the noise with the same frequencies as the pressure pulsations inside the hydraulic energy system. Resonance appears when the frequency of the pressure pulsations coincides with the natural frequency of the flapper-armature assembly. Therefore, it can be concluded that the pressure pulsation energy from the power supply may excite the vibration of the flapper-armature assembly, which may consequently cause the squeal noise inside the servo-valve. It is verified by the numerical simulations and experiments that setting the pressure pulsation frequencies different from the natural frequencies of the flapper-armature assembly can suppress the resonance and squeal noise.

  10. Diffusion of HTO, {sup 36}Cl{sup -}, {sup 125}I{sup -} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} in Opalinus Clay: Effect of Confining Pressure, Sample Orientation, Sample Depth and Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Loon, L.R.; Soler, J.M

    2004-02-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients (D{sub e}), rock capacity factors ({alpha}) and diffusion-accessible porosities ({epsilon}) were measured using the through-diffusion technique. Transport (diffusion) was measured both perpendicular and parallel to the bedding. Special cells that allowed the application of an axial confining pressure were designed. The pressures applied ranged from 1 to 5 MPa for Mont Terri samples and between 4 and 15 MPa for Benken samples, the upper values representing the in-situ confining pressure at both locations. The test solutions used in the experiments were synthetic Opalinus Clay pore water, which has Na and Cl as main components (Mont Terri: I = 0.39 M; Benken: I = 0.20 M). Pressure only had a small effect on the value of the effective diffusion coefficients. In the case of Mont Terri samples, increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 MPa resulted in a decrease of the effective diffusion coefficient of 20% for HTO, 27% for {sup 36}Cl{sup -}, 29% for {sup 125}I{sup -} and 17 % for {sup 22}Na{sup +}. In the case of Benken samples, increasing the pressure from 4 to 15 MPa resulted in a decrease of D{sub e} of 17% for HTO, 22% for {sup 36}Cl{sup -}, 32% for {sup 125}I{sup -} and 17 % for {sup 22}Na{sup +}. Moreover, the effective diffusion coefficients for for {sup 36}Cl{sup -}are smaller than for HTO, which is consistent with an effect arising from anion exclusion. This ion exclusion effect is smaller in samples from Mont Terri than in samples from Benken, which can be explained by the higher ionic strength of the Mont Terri water used in the experiments. The diffusion of {sup 22}Na{sup +} is similar to that of HTO in the case of Mont Terri OPA. For Benken OPA, the D{sub e} value of {sup 22}Na{sup +} is a factor of 2 higher than that of HTO. This last observation cannot be explained so far but is comparable to experimental data from ANDRA (1999) on Callovo-Oxfordian claystones from the Meuse/Haute Same site. {sup 125}I{sup -} is retarded with

  11. Modified Pippard relationship describing the Raman frequency shifts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We relate in this study the thermal expansivity, αP, to the Raman frequency shift (1/ν)(∂ν/∂P)T for the rotatory lattice (librational) mode in ammonia solid II near its melting point. We have used our calculated Raman frequencies of this mode for pressures of 3⋅65, 5⋅02 and 6⋅57 kbars for this crystalline system.

  12. The pressure-temperature phase diagram of pressure induced organic superconductors β-(BDA-TTP){2}MCl{4} (M = Ga, Fe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E. S.; Graf, D.; Brooks, J. S.; Yamada, J.; Tokumoto, M.

    2004-04-01

    We investigate the pressure-temperature phase diagram of β -(BDA-TTP){2}MCl{4} (M=Ga, Fe), which shows a metal-insulator (MI) transition around 120 K at ambient pressure. By applying pressure, the insulating phase is suppressed. When the pressure is higher than 5.5 kbar, the superconducting phase appears in both salts with Tc ˜ 3 K for M=Ga and 2.2 K for M=Fe. We also observed Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations at high magnetic field in both salts, where the SdH frequencies are found to be very similar each other. Key words. organic superconductor, pressure, phase diagram.

  13. A note on measurement of sound pressure with intensity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter; Jacobsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    be improved under a variety of realistic sound field conditions by applying a different weighting of the two pressure signals from the probe. The improved intensity probe can measure the sound pressure more accurately at high frequencies than an ordinary sound intensity probe or an ordinary sound level meter......The effect of scattering and diffraction on measurement of sound pressure with "two-microphone" sound intensity probes is examined using an axisymmetric boundary element model of the probe. Whereas it has been shown a few years ago that the sound intensity estimated with a two-microphone probe...... is reliable up to 10 kHz when using 0.5 in. microphones in the usual face-to-face arrangement separated by a 12 mm spacer, the sound pressure measured with the same instrument will typically be underestimated at high frequencies. It is shown in this paper that the estimate of the sound pressure can...

  14. Downsampling Non-Uniformly Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Gustafsson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Decimating a uniformly sampled signal a factor D involves low-pass antialias filtering with normalized cutoff frequency 1/D followed by picking out every Dth sample. Alternatively, decimation can be done in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, after zero-padding the signal and truncating the FFT. We outline three approaches to decimate non-uniformly sampled signals, which are all based on interpolation. The interpolation is done in different domains, and the inter-sample behavior does not need to be known. The first one interpolates the signal to a uniformly sampling, after which standard decimation can be applied. The second one interpolates a continuous-time convolution integral, that implements the antialias filter, after which every Dth sample can be picked out. The third frequency domain approach computes an approximate Fourier transform, after which truncation and IFFT give the desired result. Simulations indicate that the second approach is particularly useful. A thorough analysis is therefore performed for this case, using the assumption that the non-uniformly distributed sampling instants are generated by a stochastic process.

  15. Plasma emission induced by an Nd-YAG laser at low pressure on solid organic sample, its mechanism, and analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Sardy, Sar; Kusnowo, Anung; Hedwig, Rinda; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, T.J.; Pardede, Marincan; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Tjia, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    An Nd-YAG laser (1064 nm, 120 mJ, 8 ns) was focused on various types of solid organic samples such as a black acrylic plate, a black polyvinyl chloride plastic sheet, and a methoxy polyaniline film coated on the surface of a glass substrate, under a surrounding air pressure of 2 Torr. A modulated plasma technique was used to study the mechanism of excitation of the emission of the organic material. As a result, we conclude that ablated atoms and molecules are excited by a shock-wave mechanism, similar to the case of hard samples such as metal. The ablation speed of hydrogen emission (H I 656.2 nm) was examined and the results show that the release speed of the ablated atoms is relatively low (less than Mach 10) and persists for a longer period of time (around 1 μs); this phenomenon can be understood by assuming that the soft target absorbs recoil energy, causing a low release speed of ablated atoms which would form the shock wave. This was overcome by placing a subtarget on the back of the soft sample so as to enhance the repelling force, thus increasing the release speed of the atoms. A possible application of the low-pressure plasma on an organic solid was demonstrated in the detection of chlorine in a black polyvinyl chloride plastic sheet

  16. A Dictionary of Basic Pashto Frequency List I, Project Description and Samples, and Frequency List II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heston, Wilma

    The three-volume set of materials describes and presents the results to date of a federally-funded project to develop Pashto-English and English-Pashto dictionaries. The goal was to produce a list of 12,000 basic Pashto words for English-speaking users. Words were selected based on frequency in various kinds of oral and written materials, and were…

  17. Weak Defect Identification for Centrifugal Compressor Blade Crack Based on Pressure Sensors and Genetic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongkun; He, Changbo; Malekian, Reza; Li, Zhixiong

    2018-04-19

    The Centrifugal compressor is a piece of key equipment for petrochemical factories. As the core component of a compressor, the blades suffer periodic vibration and flow induced excitation mechanism, which will lead to the occurrence of crack defect. Moreover, the induced blade defect usually has a serious impact on the normal operation of compressors and the safety of operators. Therefore, an effective blade crack identification method is particularly important for the reliable operation of compressors. Conventional non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) methods can detect the blade defect effectively, however, the compressors should shut down during the testing process which is time-consuming and costly. In addition, it can be known these methods are not suitable for the long-term on-line condition monitoring and cannot identify the blade defect in time. Therefore, the effective on-line condition monitoring and weak defect identification method should be further studied and proposed. Considering the blade vibration information is difficult to measure directly, pressure sensors mounted on the casing are used to sample airflow pressure pulsation signal on-line near the rotating impeller for the purpose of monitoring the blade condition indirectly in this paper. A big problem is that the blade abnormal vibration amplitude induced by the crack is always small and this feature information will be much weaker in the pressure signal. Therefore, it is usually difficult to identify blade defect characteristic frequency embedded in pressure pulsation signal by general signal processing methods due to the weakness of the feature information and the interference of strong noise. In this paper, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is used to pre-process the sampled signal first. Then, the method of bistable stochastic resonance (SR) based on Woods-Saxon and Gaussian (WSG) potential is applied to enhance the weak characteristic frequency contained in the pressure

  18. Dual frequency modulation with two cantilevers in series: a possible means to rapidly acquire tip–sample interaction force curves with dynamic AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solares, Santiago D; Chawla, Gaurav

    2008-01-01

    One common application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the acquisition of tip–sample interaction force curves. However, this can be a slow process when the user is interested in studying non-uniform samples, because existing contact- and dynamic-mode methods require that the measurement be performed at one fixed surface point at a time. This paper proposes an AFM method based on dual frequency modulation using two cantilevers in series, which could be used to measure the tip–sample interaction force curves and topography of the entire sample with a single surface scan, in a time that is comparable to the time needed to collect a topographic image with current AFM imaging modes. Numerical simulation results are provided along with recommended parameters to characterize tip–sample interactions resembling those of conventional silicon tips and carbon nanotube tips tapping on silicon surfaces

  19. Ultrasound and orientational relaxation of nematic liquid crystals at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabibullaev, P.K.; Oribjonov, Kh.J.; Lagunov, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic properties of the nematic liquid crystal N-96 and its benzene solution in anisotropic phase are investigated in rotational magnetic field. The effects of concentration, temperature, pressure, and frequency of magnetic field rotation on ultrasonic absorption anisotropy are studied. Critical frequency values are experimentally determined. The relationship between the diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy rotational viscosities was calculated, and its dependences on the pressure and temperature are also discussed. (author)

  20. The Effect of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence on Intracochlear Sound Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Pisano, Dominic V.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a pathological opening in the bony wall of the inner ear that can result in conductive hearing loss. The hearing loss is variable across patients, and the precise mechanism and source of variability is not fully understood. We use intracochlear sound pressure measurements in cadaveric preparations to study the effects of SCD size. Simultaneous measurement of basal intracochlear sound pressures in scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) quantifies the complex differential pressure across the cochlear partition, the stimulus that excites the partition. Sound-induced pressures in SV and ST, as well as stapes velocity and ear-canal pressure are measured simultaneously for various sizes of SCD followed by SCD patching. At low frequencies (<600 Hz) our results show that SCD decreases the pressure in both SV and ST, as well as differential pressure, and these effects become more pronounced as dehiscence size is increased. For frequencies above 1 kHz, the smallest pinpoint dehiscence can have the larger effect on the differential pressure in some ears. These effects due to SCD are reversible by patching the dehiscence.

  1. Raman studies of pressure and temperature induced phase transformations in calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exarhos, G.J.; Hess, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes phase stability in the calcium carbonate system investigated as a simultaneous function of pressure and temperature up to 40 kbar and several hundred degrees Kelvin. Micro-Raman techniques were used to interrogate samples constrained within a resistively heated diamond anvil cell. Measured spectra allow unequivocal identification of crystalline phases and are used to refine the P,T phase diagram. Calcium carbonate was found to exhibit both reversible and irreversible transformation phenomena among the four known phases which exist under these conditions. Time-dependent Raman intensity variations as the material is perturbed from its equilibrium state allow real-time kinetics measurements to be performed. Evidence suggests that the order of certain observed transformations may be pressure dependent. The utility of Raman spectroscopy to follow transformation phenomena and to estimate fundamental thermophysical properties from the stress dependence of vibrational mode frequencies is demonstrated

  2. Frequency-Dependent Tidal Triggering of Low Frequency Earthquakes Near Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of small periodic stress perturbations on earthquake generation is not clear, however, the rate of low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) near Parkfield, California has been found to be strongly correlated with solid earth tides. Laboratory experiments and theoretical analyses show that the period of imposed forcing and source properties affect the sensitivity to triggering and the phase relation of the peak seismicity rate and the periodic stress, but frequency-dependent triggering has not been quantitatively explored in the field. Tidal forcing acts over a wide range of frequencies, therefore the sensitivity to tidal triggering of LFEs provides a good probe to the physical mechanisms affecting earthquake generation. In this study, we consider the tidal triggering of LFEs near Parkfield, California since 2001. We find the LFEs rate is correlated with tidal shear stress, normal stress rate and shear stress rate. The occurrence of LFEs can also be independently modulated by groups of tidal constituents at semi-diurnal, diurnal and fortnightly frequencies. The strength of the response of LFEs to the different tidal constituents varies between LFE families. Each LFE family has an optimal triggering frequency, which does not appear to be depth dependent or systematically related to other known properties. This suggests the period of the applied forcing plays an important role in the triggering process, and the interaction of periods of loading history and source region properties, such as friction, effective normal stress and pore fluid pressure, produces the observed frequency-dependent tidal triggering of LFEs.

  3. Variation in size frequency distribution of coral populations under different fishing pressures in two contrasting locations in the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsditch, G; Pisapia, C; Huck, M; Karisa, J; Obura, D; Sweet, M

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess how the size-frequency distributions of coral genera varied between reefs under different fishing pressures in two contrasting Indian Ocean locations (the Maldives and East Africa). Using generalized linear mixed models, we were able to demonstrate that complex interactions occurred between coral genera, coral size class and fishing pressure. In both locations, we found Acropora coral species to be more abundant in non-fished compared to fished sites (a pattern which was consistent for nearly all the assessed size classes). Coral genera classified as 'stress tolerant' showed a contrasting pattern i.e. were higher in abundance in fished compared to non-fished sites. Site specific variations were also observed. For example, Maldivian reefs exhibited a significantly higher abundance in all size classes of 'competitive' corals compared to East Africa. This possibly indicates that East African reefs have already been subjected to higher levels of stress and are therefore less suitable environments for 'competitive' corals. This study also highlights the potential structure and composition of reefs under future degradation scenarios, for example with a loss of Acropora corals and an increase in dominance of 'stress tolerant' and 'generalist' coral genera. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Numerical simulation of pressure fluctuation of a pump-turbine with MGV at no-load condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J T; Wang, L Q; Liu, S H; Sun, Y K; Wu, Y L

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyse the pressure fluctuation caused by misaligned guide vanes (MGV) during starting period at no-load condition, 3-D (three dimensional), unsteady flows in a pump-turbine were numerically studied. Pressure fluctuations of different points at no-load condition are obtained. Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) was used to analyse the frequency spectrum of pressure fluctuations. The amplitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuation at vaneless space between the runner and guide vane, as well as the inlet of draft tube, was investigated. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation of the pump-turbine with MGV device is twice that of synchronous vanes. This might be caused by the non-uniform flow in the pump-turbine due to the pre-opened guide vanes. The pump-turbine with synchronous vanes has a low frequency which is 0.33f n , while the low frequency changes into 0.63f n when the MGV device is used. The vortex rope in the draft tube is large than that of synchronize vanes. Resultsof pressure fluctuations with synchronous vanes agree with each other between computational and testing results. The numerical study of pressure fluctuations with MGV can provide a basic understanding for the improvement of the instability of a pump-turbine.

  5. High pressure gas laser technology for atmospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a fixed frequency chirp-free and highly stable intense pulsed laser made for Doppler wind velocity measurements with accurate ranging is described. Energy extraction from a high pressure CO2 laser at a tunable single mode frequency is also examined.

  6. Comparison of a hybrid model to a global model of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, C; Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J; Chabert, P

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional hybrid analytical-numerical global model of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency (rf) driven capacitive discharges, previously developed, is compared with a basic global model. A helium feed gas with small admixtures of oxygen is studied. For the hybrid model, the electrical characteristics are calculated analytically as a current-driven homogeneous discharge. The electron power balance is solved analytically to determine a time-varying Maxwellian electron temperature, which oscillates on the rf timescale. Averaging over the rf period yields effective rate coefficients for gas phase activated processes. For the basic global model, the electron temperature is constant in time and the sheath physics is neglected. For both models, the particle balance relations for all species are integrated numerically to determine the equilibrium discharge parameters. Variations of discharge parameters with composition and rf power are determined and compared. The rate coefficients for electron-activated processes are strongly temperature dependent, leading to significantly larger neutral and charged particle densities for the hybrid model. For small devices, finite sheath widths limit the operating regimes to low O 2 fractions. This is captured by the hybrid model but cannot be predicted from the basic global model.

  7. Low frequency noise from large wind turbines - updated 2011; Lavfrekvent stoej fra store vindmoeller - opdateret 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.; Sejer Pedersen, C.; Pedersen, Steffen

    2011-07-01

    The study analyzed measurements of noise from 65 wind turbines, 25 large turbines (2.3 to 3.6 MW) and 40 small ones (up to 2 MW). The large mills (2.3 to 3.6 MW) emit relatively more low frequency noise than the small ones (up to 2 MW). The difference is statistically significant for the frequency range 63-250 Hz, regardless of whether calculations are performed on all the large mills or only on new wind turbines. There are no significant differences between prototype turbines and the new mills. Because of wind noise in the measurements of the small mills, it is not possible to determine whether the difference between small and large turbines continues further down in frequency. Looking at the A-weighted sound pressure in relevant neighbor distances, the lower frequencies constitute an essential part of the noise from the large mills, and there is no doubt that the low frequency noise is both audible and annoying. When the total A-weighted sound pressure level is the same, there will on average be about 3 dB more low frequency noise from large turbines than from small ones. At large distances the noise character becomes yet more low frequency because atmospheric absorption reduces the high frequencies more than the low frequencies. Depending on the sound insulation the low frequency noise can also be annoying indoors. If the total A-weighted sound pressure level outdoors is 44 dB, the low frequency noise can be heard indoors in all the houses and for all the large turbines. The sound pressure level will in many cases exceed the indoor limit for evening night at 20 dB. (ln)

  8. Combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bingchai; Lu Jiaben; Wang Zongwu; Chen Tiehe

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberration, micronucleus and transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied. The results indicated that there were no significant influence for effects of high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberrations, transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced γ-ray radiation, and that high atmospheric pressure increased effect of micronucleus in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro induced γ-ray radiation

  9. Systems and methods for self-synchronized digital sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jr., John R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for self-synchronized data sampling are provided. In one embodiment, a system for capturing synchronous data samples is provided. The system includes an analog to digital converter adapted to capture signals from one or more sensors and convert the signals into a stream of digital data samples at a sampling frequency determined by a sampling control signal; and a synchronizer coupled to the analog to digital converter and adapted to receive a rotational frequency signal from a rotating machine, wherein the synchronizer is further adapted to generate the sampling control signal, and wherein the sampling control signal is based on the rotational frequency signal.

  10. High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Bryan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency oscillatory (HFO ventilation using low tidal volume and peak airway pressures is extremely efficient at eliminating carbon dioxide and raising pH in the newborn infant with acute respiratory failure. Improvement in oxygenation requires a strategy of sustained or repetitive inflations to 25 to 30 cm H2O in order to place the lung on the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curve. This strategy has also been shown to decrease the amount of secondary lung injury in animal models. Experience of the use of HFO ventilation as a rescue therapy as well as several published controlled trials have shown improved outcomes and a decrease in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation when it has been used in newborns.

  11. Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System for Aircraft Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a packaged silicon carbide (SiC) based MEMS pressure sensor system designed specifically for a conventional turbofan engine. The electronic circuit is based on a Clapp-type oscillator that incorporates a 6H-SiC MESFET, a SiCN MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, titanate MIM capacitors, wirewound inductors, and thick film resistors. The pressure sensor serves as the capacitor in the LC tank circuit, thereby linking pressure to the resonant frequency of the oscillator. The oscillator and DC bias circuitry were fabricated on an alumina substrate and secured inside a metal housing. The packaged sensing system reliably operates at 0 to 350 psi and 25 to 540C. The system has a pressure sensitivity of 6.8 x 10E-2 MHzpsi. The packaged system shows negligible difference in frequency response between 25 and 400C. The fully packaged sensor passed standard benchtop acceptance tests and was evaluated on a flight-worthy engine.

  12. High-pressure Raman study of vibrational spectra in crystalline acetanilide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masamichi; Kuroda, Noritaka; Nishina, Yuichiro

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the effect of pressure on the low-frequency lattice modes and the amide-I (N-CO stretching) vibrational modes in crystalline acetanilide (C6H5NHCOCH3) in the temperature range 80-300 K by means of Raman spectroscopy. The Raman intensity of the 1650-cm-1 band, which appears upon cooling, is enhanced by applying pressure. The energy difference between the amide-I phonon (Ag mode) and the 1650-cm-1 bands does not change appreciably under pressure up to at least 4 GPa. These results are analyzed in terms of the self-trapped model in which a single lattice mode couples with the amide-I excitation by taking into account the effect of pressure on the low-frequency lattice modes and on the dipole-dipole interactions associated with the amide-I vibration. A band is observed at 30 cm-1 below the amide-I phonon band at low temperatures with a pressure above ~2 GPa.

  13. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  14. An environmentally-friendly, highly efficient, gas pressure-assisted sample introduction system for ICP-MS and its application to detection of cadmium and lead in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yupin; Deng, Biyang; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli

    2017-05-15

    An environmentally friendly and highly efficient gas pressure-assisted sample introduction system (GPASIS) was developed for inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A GPASIS consisting of a gas-pressure control device, a customized nebulizer, and a custom-made spray chamber was fabricated. The advantages of this GPASIS derive from its high nebulization efficiencies, small sample volume requirements, low memory effects, good precision, and zero waste emission. A GPASIS can continuously, and stably, nebulize 10% NaCl solution for more than an hour without clogging. Sensitivity, detection limits, precision, long-term stability, double charge and oxide ion levels, nebulization efficiencies, and matrix effects of the sample introduction system were evaluated. Experimental results indicated that the performance of this GPASIS, was equivalent to, or better than, those obtained by conventional sample introduction systems. This GPASIS was successfully used to determine Cd and Pb by ICP-MS in human plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface acoustic wave oxygen pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transducer for the measurement of absolute gas-state oxygen pressure from pressures of less than 100 Pa to atmospheric pressure (1.01 x 10(exp 5) Pa) is based on a standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The piezoelectric material of the SAW device is coated with a compound which will selectively and reversibly bind oxygen. When oxygen is bound by the coating, the mass of the coating increases by an amount equal to the mass of the bound oxygen. Such an increase in the mass of the coating causes a corresponding decrease in the resonant frequency of the SAW device.

  16. Sintering and characterization of SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 obtained by high-pressure processing at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricson R.; Kirchner, Rejane K.; Jurado, Jose R.; Pereira, Altair S.; Sousa, Vânia C.

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure processing is a very attractive approach for the production of materials with new and/or improved properties. In this work, pressures in the order of 7.7 GPa and 2.5 GPa were induced in SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 samples at different temperatures placed in a specific reaction cell and generated different effects on phase formation. The microstructural evolution during high-pressure processing was investigated by scanning electron microscopy in association with energy dispersion spectroscopy and with the support of an X-ray diffraction analyzer. Frequency response analysis was used to obtain the dielectric curves by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 single-phase sample, treated at 2.5 GPa and 900 °C, was used to evaluate the electrical properties, obtaining a dielectric response similar to SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 samples sintered by conventional processes at temperatures above 1000 °C. In addition, by this method, it was possible to obtain ceramics with uniform microstructure and a relative density of 93%. - Highlights: • The first production of SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 using the technique of high-pressure processing. • The ability to produce single-phase SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 treated at 2.5 GPa and 900 °C. • The electrical properties are compatible with SBT sintered at high temperatures.

  17. Differences in Orgasm Frequency Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men and Women in a U.S. National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; John, H Kate St; Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2018-01-01

    There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102). Heterosexual men were most likely to say they usually-always orgasmed when sexually intimate (95%), followed by gay men (89%), bisexual men (88%), lesbian women (86%), bisexual women (66%), and heterosexual women (65%). Compared to women who orgasmed less frequently, women who orgasmed more frequently were more likely to: receive more oral sex, have longer duration of last sex, be more satisfied with their relationship, ask for what they want in bed, praise their partner for something they did in bed, call/email to tease about doing something sexual, wear sexy lingerie, try new sexual positions, anal stimulation, act out fantasies, incorporate sexy talk, and express love during sex. Women were more likely to orgasm if their last sexual encounter included deep kissing, manual genital stimulation, and/or oral sex in addition to vaginal intercourse. We consider sociocultural and evolutionary explanations for these orgasm gaps. The results suggest a variety of behaviors couples can try to increase orgasm frequency.

  18. Innovation in pressure tube life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guler, B.; Kalenchuk, D.; Celovsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrogen equivalent concentration and the rate of hydrogen ingress (in particular, deuterium) in pressure tubes are important parameters that must be assessed to determine the fitness-for-service of CANDU reactors. This paper presents the latest refinement in a process referred to as 'Pressure Tube Sampling', which is the only fully qualified and proven method that allows accurate determination of both the hydrogen equivalent concentration and the rate deuterium ingress without performing an expensive fuel channel removal. Pressure Tube Sampling has evolved over the past fifteen years during which over 2,300 samples have been obtained from CANDU reactors around the globe. In-reactor sampling is the standard method for determining the hydrogen equivalent concentrations and deuterium ingress rates in CANDU reactors. Over the past fifteen years, continual improvements in the Pressure Tube Sampling process have resulted in: the capability to obtain circumferential and axial samples, reduced 'on-face' time, reduced cost, reduced dose to workers, and improved analysis accuracy. Most recently, the new Multi-Head Sampling Tool (MHST) has been developed that continues this trend by using one tool to sampl