WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool period ages

  1. [The structure of intestinal dysbioses in children of preschool age during long-term period of monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchenko, U M; Rakova, E B; Popkova, S M; Savelkaeva, M V; Ivanova, E I; Kungurtseva, E A; Serduk, L V; Shabanova, N M

    2015-02-01

    The study was organized to examine long-term (1990-2011) structure of intestinal dysbioses in children of preschool age residing in Irkutsk. The significant decrease of expression of micro-ecological shifts (IV and III degrees) to the end of period of monitoring and almost total lacking of cases of eubiosis and statistically reliable (p ≤ 0.05) increasing of rate of dysbioses of I and II degrees were established. The given circumstance can be related to ongoing on the territory ecological pressure on organism of negative factors of environment including factors of anthropogenic character.

  2. Early introduction and cumulative consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during the pre-school period and risk of obesity at 8-14 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, A; Téllez-Rojo, M M; Ettinger, A S; Hu, H; Hernández-Ávila, M; Peterson, K

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with risk of obesity, but little evidence exists to evaluate if age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption increases risk in children. The objective of the study was to estimate the relationship between age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption with risk of obesity in 227 Mexican children. SSB intake was measured every 6 months; age of introduction and cumulative consumption during the pre-school period were calculated. Height, weight, waist circumference, SSB intake and other relevant variables were measured at age 8-14 years and obesity defined using standard criteria. All participants were introduced to SSB before age 24 months and most (73%) before 12 months. Early SSB introduction (≤12 months) was not significantly associated with increased odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 4.59). However, children in the highest tertile of cumulative SSB consumption, compared with the lowest, had almost three times the odds of general (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.27, 7.00) and abdominal (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.03) obesity at age 8-14 years. High SSB consumption increased the likelihood of obesity in 8-14-year-old children. Our results suggest that SSB intake should be delayed and excessive SSB consumption in pre-school period should be avoided. © 2015 World Obesity.

  3. Assessment of intelligence in the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Leonberger, Katherine Ann

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence testing has a long and revered history in psychological measurement in childhood. Yet, the years between infancy and early childhood have been understudied with respect to emergent intellectual and cognitive functioning. Factor analytic models of intelligence that have demonstrated applicability when testing older children and adults often appear inadequate in the preschool period. As more is learned about brain development in typically developing children during these crucial years the distinctive relationships between neural system development and intellectual functioning are being revealed more completely. The aim of this paper was to provide a brief historical background as a foundation for discussion of intelligence testing, review what is known about the dynamic course of brain development during the preschool years, acknowledge limitations specific to intelligence testing in young children, and provide support for maintaining a comprehensive neuropsychological perspective that considers the wider range of variables that influence intellectual functioning in the preschool period.

  4. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  5. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  6. PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN PRESCHOOL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖZYÜREK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is known as a critical period for development and fundamental movement skills. Growing and development of children have an effect on gaining fundamental movement skills. Besides, the opportu nities and movement education provided for the students play an essential role on developing fundamental movement skills poisedly. In preschool education, physical training is the leading activity given the least importance. From the early years of child hood on, promoting basic skills of children such as walking, running, jumping besides bending over, twisting, flinging something away have great importance because it is closely connected to the other zones of development. Physical training strengthens co gnitive skills such as inquiring mind, problem solving skills and concept acquisition. Besides, fine and gross motor development is consistent with emotional and social life skills. In virtue of physical training, awareness level of children is heightened and a basis for lifelong sport habits is provided. Consequently, children acquire much more than movement skills thanks to physical training. In this study, the importance of physical training and sports activities, the points to be paid attention to while practicing, basic activities in physical training, and education models and methods used have been issued relevantly.

  7. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania. During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993 picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysis using CHILDES software. During the analysis, the syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, and general productivity (MLUw and type/token ratio of the narratives were investigated. The results indicated the main microstructural tendencies of Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa8.02

  8. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  9. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  10. Age, Emotion Regulation Strategies, Temperament, Creative Drama, and Preschoolers' Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Chu; Li, Me-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Based on Yeh's (2004) "Ecological Systems Model of Creativity Development", this study investigated the effects that age, the use of emotion regulation strategies, temperament, and exposure to creative drama instruction have on the development of creativity among preschool children. Participants were 116 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. This…

  11. Working with fairytales in preschool period in different media

    OpenAIRE

    Lah, Mateja

    2011-01-01

    By reading stories we introduce preschoolers to the world of literature. With proper selection of stories we can expand and enrich the child's literary selection and introduce them to the literary arts. We need to pay attention to the quality of stories, the child's age, his ability to comprehend and experience, and to the appropriate means of conveying stories. Listening to stories is the best incentive for the child’s development; in this way we influence the child’s emotional, intellectual...

  12. Manifestation and coping aggressiveness in the pre-school age

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor thesis occupies with manifestation of aggressive behaviour in kindergartens and designs ways how to prevent their implications. Theoretical part is about aggressiveness as a problem of present society with accent to the pre-school and primary school age, to its manifestations, implications and presumption to its coping. Practical part contains observation of aggressiveness in the kindergarten by pre-school teachers, development is made as a question {--} form. It contains games and a...

  13. [Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among preschool- and school-aged pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonyte, Zaneta; Kacerauskiene, Justina; Budryte, Brigita; Keizeris, Tadas; Junevicius, Jonas; Pavilonis, Alvydas

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool- and school-aged pupils and susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial materials. A study of 243 preschool- and 300 school-aged pupils was conducted during 2003-2004. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus was made with plasmacoagulase and DNase tests. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics, beta-lactamase activity, phagotypes, and phage groups were determined. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for resistance to methicillin by performing disc diffusion method using commercial discs (Oxoid) (methicillin 5 microg per disk and oxacillin 1 microg per disk). A total of 292 (53.8%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and identified (113 (46.5%) from preschool- and 179 (59.7%) from school-aged pupils). The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool-aged pupils varied from 46.5% to 47%. It increased to 59.0% (P>0.05) among schoolchildren aged from 11 to 15 years and to 73.0% (Ppreschool-aged and four (2.2%) from school-aged pupils. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains with beta-lactamase activity increased from 70.7 to 76.6% in preschool-aged pupils, and it varied from 72.0 to 79.0% in school-aged pupils (P>0.05). Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage group II (32.2-43.4%) were prevailing; nontypable Staphylococcus aureus strains made up 19.2-33.6%. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus among preschool-aged children is 41.7 to 48.8%, and it increases among 9th-12th-grade pupils (73.0%, Ppreschool- and school-aged pupils. Pupils were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains belonging to phage group III phagotype 83A and 77.

  14. The Emergence of the Teaching/Learning Process in Preschoolers: Theory of Mind and Age Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leila

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the gradual emergence of the teaching/learning process by examining theory of mind (ToM) acquisition and age effects in the preschool period. We observed five dyads performing a jigsaw task drawn from a previous study. Three stages were identified. In the first one, the teacher focuses on the execution of her/his own task…

  15. Manifestations of sexual abuse in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, M M

    1995-01-01

    All adults who interact with preschool children need to be aware of possible indicators of sexual abuse. This information is especially important to advanced practice psychiatric/mental health nurses who interact with preschool-aged children in clinical, therapeutic, educational, research, legal, and community settings and to other nurses working in pediatric settings. Because there are few, if any, absolute physical indicators of child sexual abuse, the identification of empirically based emotional and behavioral indicators is important. This article reviews six studies that sought to identify such indicators for the preschool population. Studies reviewed confirm that not all sexually abused children are equally traumatized. When sexually abused children were compared to groups of non-sexually abused children receiving psychiatric services only one discriminating variable consistently arose. When overt sexual behavior, inappropriate for age, is manifested by a preschool-aged child, sexual abuse should be suspected. The identification of manifestations of sexual abuse in preschool-aged children is an appropriate topic for nursing research.

  16. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  17. Energy cost of activities in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...

  18. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  19. Elevated inflammatory markers at preschool age precede persistent wheezing at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kant, Kim D. G.; Jansen, Maria A.; Klaassen, Ester M. M.; van der Grinten, Chris P.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Muris, Jean W. M.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Jobsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Background: Wheeze is a heterogeneous symptom in preschool children. At preschool age it is hard to predict whether symptoms will pass or persist and develop into asthma. Our objective is to prospectively study whether inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and pre- and post-broncho

  20. Differences in balance in preschool children aged 1 and 3 years

    OpenAIRE

    Petrič, Melita

    2016-01-01

    The main part of motor development happens in the preschool period. This means that this period provides the foundation for specialised movement later in life. However, children at that age are the most susceptible to various influences from the environment, which affect motor as well as other areas of development, hence the expression comprehensive development of the child. From the teacher's perspective, comprehensive development means comprehensive planning and a challenge of determining i...

  1. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  2. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  3. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  4. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  5. [Physical fitness for sports in the preschool age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, F

    1991-11-01

    The preschool years are characterized by the learning of combinations of movements that make it possible for children to attain an astonishingly high level of physical performance. With regard to their metabolism and cardiovascular/cardiopulmonary system, they have at their disposal good prerequisites for aerobic endurance training. However, it is a matter of the natural movements involved in playing rather than striving to reach a high level of performance. Sports during the preschool age advances physical development and serves as a form of early prevention of the diseases of civilization.

  6. Trajectories of preschool disorders to full DSM depression at school age and early adolescence: continuity of preschool depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; April, Laura M; Belden, Andy C

    2014-07-01

    Preschool-onset depression, a developmentally adapted form of depression arising between ages 3 and 6, has demonstrated numerous validated features, including characteristic alterations in stress reactivity and brain function. This syndrome is characterized by subthreshold DSM criteria for major depressive disorder, raising questions about its clinical significance. To clarify the utility and public health significance of the preschool-onset depression construct, the authors investigated diagnostic outcomes of preschool children at school age and in adolescence. In a longitudinal prospective study of preschool children, the authors assessed the likelihood of meeting full criteria for major depressive disorder at age 6 or later as a function of preschool depression, other preschool axis I disorders, maternal history of depression, nonsupportive parenting, and traumatic life events. Preschool-onset depression emerged as a robust predictor of major depressive disorder in later childhood even after accounting for the effect of maternal history of depression and other risk factors. Preschool-onset conduct disorder also predicted major depression in later childhood, but this association was partially mediated by nonsupportive parenting, reducing by 21% the effect of preschool conduct disorder in predicting major depression. Study findings provide evidence that this preschool depressive syndrome is a robust risk factor for developing full criteria for major depression in later childhood, over and above other established risk factors. The results suggest that attention to preschool depression and conduct disorder in addition to maternal history of depression and exposure to trauma may be important in identifying young children at highest risk for later major depression and applying early interventions.

  7. Language development and assessment in the preschool period.

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    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Most young children make significant progress in learning language during the first 4 years of life. Delays or differences in patterns of language acquisition are sensitive indicators of developmental problems. The dynamic, complex nature of language and the variability in the timing of its acquisition poses a number of challenges for the assessment of young children. This paper summarises the key developmental milestones of language development in the preschool years, providing a backdrop for understanding difficulties with language learning. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are characterised illustrating the types of language difficulties they exhibit. Genetic evidence for language impairment suggests complex interactions among multiple genes of small effect. There are few consistent neurobiological abnormalities and currently there is no identified neurobiological signature for language difficulties. The assessment of young children's language skills thus focuses on the evaluation of their performances in comparison to typically developing peers. Assessment of language abilities in preschool children should involve an evaluation of both expressive and receptive skills and should include an evaluation of more than one dimension of language. The use of a single measure of a language component, such as vocabulary, is considered inadequate for determining whether preschool children have typical language or language impairment. Available evidence supports the inclusion of measures of phonological short-term memory in the assessment of the language abilities of preschool children. Further study of genetic, neurobiological and early behavioural correlates of language impairments in preschool children is needed.

  8. The temperament of preterm infant in preschool age

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    Morales M Regina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study deals with the characteristics of temperament of preterm infants during their preschool age in order to not only investigate likely "difficult or problematic profiles", guided by impairments driven by their preterm birth, but also to provide guidelines for the activation of interventions of prevention, functional to improve the quality of preterm infant's life. Methods The study involved a group of 105 children where 50 preterm children at the average age of 5 years and 2 months, enrolled in preschools of Palermo. The research planned the child reference teachers to be administered a specific questionnaire, the QUIT, made up of 60 items investigating six specific typical dimensions of temperament (Motor control activity - related to the ability of practicing motor control activity; Attention - related to the ability of guiding and keeping the focus of attention on a certain stimulus; Inhibition to novelty - regarding with emotional reactivity in front of environmental stimuli; Social orientation - meant in terms of attention and interest towards social stimuli; Positive and negative emotionality - regarding the tendency to mainly express positive or negative emotions. Results The results show in general how preschool-aged preterm infants, identified by such a study, compared with full-term children, are characterized by "normal" temperament based on a strong inclination and orientation in mainly expressing positive feelings. Yet, an impairment of the areas most relating to attention and motor control activity seems to emerge. Conclusions The data suggest specific interventions for preterm infant development and their reference systems and, at the same time, can guide paediatrician and neonatologist dealing with preterm infants, in focalizing and monitoring, even since health status assessments, specific areas of development that, since preschool age, can highlight the presence of real forerunners of maladjustments

  9. Tour as a form of cognitive activity of children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya Shanc

    2016-01-01

    In article the author considers theoretical approaches to the concept of "activity", "cognitive activity", especially the development of cognitive activity in preschool age; reveals the role of excursions in the development of cognitive activity of preschool children, justifies the need for the organization of excursion activity in the conditions of preschool educational organization.

  10. Unique features of creative designing at the preschool age

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    Bilа Iryna Mykolayivna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to studying the specificity of creative designing at the preschool age. The author identifies the systematic approach on the design work and creative designing, knowledge adjustment, as well as the assessment criteria and performance indicators of creative designing by children at the preschool age. The article considers the psychological structure of the design activity, clarifies its characteristics and defines the role of each component of creative designing process at the preschool age. As a result of the empirical study it was proved that in the process of understanding the challenges pre-schoolers’s mind makes mental acts of comparison predominant. Their creative intention is determined by the focus on the structural and structural-functional characteristics of the subjects. The whole structure of the pre-schooler’s solution in the process of working with creative tasks on designing is integrated with the individual and regulatory aspect of creative designing that appears in the subjective mental actions, trends, and practice.

  11. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

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    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  12. Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: Language development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernhart, C.B.; Greene, T. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level lead exposure and child development. This inconsistency is seen for both prenatal exposure and exposure in the preschool years. The primary outcome measures in most reports are indices of cognitive development, including IQ. Verbal skills may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. The fact that 2 y of age is both a time of peak exposure and also a time of rapid language development suggests that this may be a critical period for such an effect. The later prenatal and early infancy period, at which time the nervous system is developing rapidly, may also be critical exposure period. We examined the relationship of maternal and cord blood lead (PbB) at birth and venous PbB at 6 mo, 2 y, and 3 y with language measures at 1, 2, and 3 y of age. The sample consisted of disadvantaged urban children. Multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship of either prenatal PbB or early preschool PbB with language measures after control of cofactors. Supplementary partial correlations revealed a marginal relationship of cord PbB and mean length of utterance (MLU), which describes a child's ability to form meaningful word combinations. Because this analysis was one of a large number of analyses with both positive and negative regression coefficients, the possibility that this was a chance effect was considered. If there is an effect of low-level lead exposure on language development, that effect is not robust.

  13. Preschool-aged children's jumps: imitation performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Ramanantsoa, Marie-Martine; Golomer, Eveline

    2010-04-01

    Imitative behavior underlaid by perception and action links during children's development in complex locomotor skills has been the object of relatively few studies. In order to explore children's motor coordination modes, 130 children divided into five age groups from 3.5 to 7.5 years were instructed to imitate jumping tasks in spontaneous motor situation and in various imitative contexts by an adult providing verbal orders and gestural demonstrations. Their conformity to the model, stability and variability scores were coded from a video analysis when they performed jumps with obstacles. To evaluate their postural-motor control level, the durations of the preparatory phase and jumping flights were also timed. Results showed that all age groups generated the demonstrator's goal but not necessarily the same coordination modes of jumping. In imitation with temporal proximity, the model helped the youngest age groups to adopt his coordination modes and stabilized only the oldest age groups' performances starting from 5.5 years old, without effect on learning imitation. Differences between the youngest and oldest children in the jump duration suggested that the reproduction of a complex motor activity such as jumping with a one foot take-off would require resolution and adjustment of main postural stability.

  14. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age) from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania). During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993) picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysi...

  15. Physical Activity Promotion in the Preschool Years: A Critical Period to Intervene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Goldfield

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this paper is to provide a rationale for the necessity of intervening with a physical activity intervention in the preschool years and why the daycare environment is amenable to such intervention. We also review the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity in the preschool population and the impact that these lifestyle behaviours and conditions have on the health of preschool aged children, as secondary objectives. Moreover we discuss implications for intervention and research using a “lessons learned” model based on our research team’s experience of conducting a randomized controlled trial aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour and improving motor skill development and body composition in preschoolers. Lastly, we make conclusions based on the literature and highlight issues and directions that need to be addressed in future research in order to maximize health promotion and chronic disease prevention in the pediatric population.

  16. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

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    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  17. TEACHING MATHEMATICS BY LULLABIES IN PRE-SCHOOL PERIOD

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    Gülçin OFLAZ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the oral literature products of Turkish culture which is shared from centuries before is called lullaby (Baby songs. Lullabies contain Turkish Nation’s common cultural items that gather us together. Recent researches show that the lullabies which are sung for babies has an educational dimension. With their rich themes lullabies tells about the main problems that the babies and children may confront in their school life and further years. The relation between lullabies and mathematics has been searched at this research. For this purpose the concepts of pre-school education for 3-6 year-old children has been dealt with and a categorising has been made. Then the product called “Turkish Lullabies 1” has been analysed by utilising context analysing of these categorising. According to the findings of the research, the lullabies that have been sung for centuries contain more educational concept than the concepts that are planned to be applied at the pre-school educational programme.

  18. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  19. Predictors of Care-Giver Stress in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

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    Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…

  20. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  1. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  2. DISPOSING CHILDREN WITH PSYCHPHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES AT PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Saso KOCANKOVSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The findings that I present in this paper, are gained through 12 years of work of the commission for disposing children with psychophysical developmental difficulties, working at the service for care and improvement of mental health of children and adolescents in Bitola.In the period from 1984 to 1996 at the age of 0-7, 191 were disposing children (103 male and 88 female, that from the total number of persons 1638 is 11,66 %.If we make an analyze according to the type and degree of the difficulty, we’ll have the following situation:· from the total number of disposed persons with psychical difficulties in the development, 7,3 % are children at this age, more are male, and usually they are with severe frustration.· from the total number of disposed persons with speech and voice difficulties, 58,8 %, are children at the age of 7, and the most common are developmental disphasyas.· from all the disposed persons with hearing difficulties, 10,9 % are children at preschool age, and are usually deaf.· from the total number of the persons with damaged eyesight 8,8 are children at preschool age and they are all blind.· from all the disposed persons, physically impaired are 8 % at this age and more of them are male.· from all the disposed persons with combined difficulties 15,6 % are children at preschool age. They usually have psychical, physical and speech difficulties.

  3. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood.

  4. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka;

    2014-01-01

    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity...... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...... teachers. Danish National Registers were used to measure the outcome of any first time ICD-10 diagnosis for hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit disorder and/or prescription of central stimulants during years 2005-2012. Screening potentials of the SDQ's predictive algorithms were described, and Cox...

  5. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  6. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  7. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  8. The student`s training to creating computer games for preschool-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мардарова И.К.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the special aspects of future kindergartner training to creating computer games for children of preschool age. The scratch-projects technology and recommendation for use at kindergarten pedagogical process are described in it.

  9. Potential Consequences of Abandonment in Preschool-Age: Neuropsychological Findings in Institutionalized Children

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    Juan F. Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several longitudinal studies had shown that early deprivation and institutionalization during the first six months of life affects the emotional, cognitive, social and neurophysiologic development. Nevertheless, our understanding of possible similar effects of delayed institutionalization, in preschool-age remains unclear to this day. The goal of this study is to evaluate the cognitive performance of institutionalized children with history of preschool-age physical abandonment.

  10. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin; Kotz, Rainer; Ledl, Thomas; Hauser, Gertrude; Sluga, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Our aim with this study was to establish the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 3- to 6-year-old children to evaluate cofactors such as age, weight, and gender and to estimate the number of unnecessary treatments performed. A total of 835 children (411 girls and 424 boys) were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis of flat foot was based on a valgus position of the heel and a poor formation of the arch. Feet of the children were scanned (while they were in a standing position) by using a laser surface scanner, and rearfoot angle was measured. Rearfoot angle was defined as the angle of the upper Achilles tendon and the distal extension of the rearfoot. Prevalence of flexible flat foot in the group of 3- to 6-year-old children was 44%. Prevalence of pathological flat foot was flat foot decreases significantly with age: in the group of 3-year-old children 54% showed a flat foot, whereas in the group of 6-year-old children only 24% had a flat foot. Average rearfoot angle was 5.5 degrees of valgus. Boys had a significant greater tendency for flat foot than girls: the prevalence of flat foot in boys was 52% and 36% in girls. Thirteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. Significant differences in prevalence of flat foot between overweight, obese, and normal-weight children were observed. This study is the first to use a three-dimensional laser surface scanner to measure the rearfoot valgus in preschool-aged children. The data demonstrate that the prevalence of flat foot is influenced by 3 factors: age, gender, and weight. In overweight children and in boys, a highly significant prevalence of flat foot was observed; in addition, a retarded development of the medial arch in the boys was discovered. At the time of the study, > 90% of the treatments were unnecessary.

  11. Maternal Responsiveness as a Predictor of Self-Regulation Development and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms Across Preschool Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Schloß, Susan; Becker, Katja

    2017-04-12

    Preschool-age "hot" executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms. A sample of 125 preschoolers and their families were seen at the ages of 4 and 5 years. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity was assessed via home observations, RRC by neuropsychological tasks, and ADHD symptoms by a structured clinical parent interview. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicted RRC development. The negative link between maternal responsiveness/sensitivity at 4 years and ADHD symptoms at 5 years was mediated by RRC performance at 5 years. Preschoolers showing ADHD symptoms combined with low RRC capacity in particular might benefit from responsive/sensitive parenting.

  12. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  13. Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek U

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulla Ek1, Fritjof Norrelgen3,4, Joakim Westerlund2, Andrea Dahlman5, Elizabeth Hultby5, Elisabeth Fernell61Department of Special Education, 2Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 5CLINTEC/Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6The Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and the Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenAim: Ten years ago, we published developmental data on a representative group of children (n = 25 with moderate or severe speech and language impairment, who were attending special preschools for children. The aim of this study was to perform a follow-up of these children as teenagers.Methods: Parents of 23 teenagers participated in a clinical interview that requested information on the child's current academic achievement, type of school, previous clinical assessments, and developmental diagnoses. Fifteen children participated in a speech and language evaluation, and 13 participated in a psychological evaluation.Results: Seven of the 23 teenagers had a mild intellectual disability, and another three had borderline intellectual functioning. Nine had symptoms of disorders on the autism spectrum; five of these had an autism spectrum disorder, and four had clear autistic traits. Six met criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/subthreshold ADHD. Thirteen of 15 teenagers had a moderate or severe language impairment, and 13 of 15 had a moderate or severe reading impairment. Overlapping disorders were frequent. None of the individuals who underwent the clinical evaluation were free from developmental problems.Conclusion: A large number of children with speech and language impairment at preschool age had persistent language problems and/or met the

  14. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

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    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  15. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  16. Escitalopram in Preschool-Age Children Diagnosed with ‎Obsessive ‎Compulsive‏ ‏Disorder: A Case Report‎

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    Kemal Utku Yazici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When a literature review on pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is ‎performed, it is observed that there is a dearth of research on preschool period OCD ‎cases. Although cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended as the first line of ‎treatment in preschool OCD cases when patients do not show adequate response to ‎CBT, psychopharmacological treatment offers an alternative. The first line used in ‎psychopharmacological treatment is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s. ‎However, no SSRI’s (or any other drug group have been approved by the FDA for this ‎age group. Moreover, studies related to psychopharmacology in preschool OCD are very ‎limited in the literature, consisting mostly of case reports related to sertraline and ‎fluoxetine. In those studies, it is reported that sertraline and fluoxetine are effective in ‎preschool OCD and generally well-tolerated. In this paper, we discussed the treatment ‎and six-month follow-up period of a 3.5 year-old (42 months female diagnosed with ‎OCD and for whom escitalopram was used. In the literature, there is a retrospective case ‎series related to this subject consisting of eleven cases, where improvement in symptoms ‎is reported with escitalopram treatment in the five of six cases diagnosed with OCD. As ‎far as we could find in literature, our paper is the second report on this subject. Our case ‎also included the youngest patient to receive escitalopram for preschool period OCD ‎and report its benefits.‎

  17. Rehabilitation of socially withdrawn preschool children through mixed-age and same-age socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, W; Rahe, D F; Hartup, W W

    1979-12-01

    24 socially withdrawn preschool children were located through classroom observations and assigned to 3 conditions: (a) socialization with a younger child during 10 play sessions, (b) socialization with an age mate during a similar series of sessions, and (c) no treatment. The socialization sessions, particularly those with a younger partner, were found to increase the sociability of the withdrawn children in their classrooms. Significant increases occurred mainly in the rate with which positive social reinforcement was emitted. Generally, the results support a leadership deficit theory of social isolation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed changes are discussed.

  18. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions of Rough and Tumble Play vs. Aggression in Preschool-Aged Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Ota, Carrie; Jenkins, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Rough and tumble play has been found to be positive for physical, social and cognitive development; it is often erroneously misinterpreted as aggression and generally stopped by preschool teachers. The current study sought to examine the relationship between teacher training and education and judgements about aggression in children. Ninety-four…

  19. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions of Rough and Tumble Play vs. Aggression in Preschool-Aged Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Ota, Carrie; Jenkins, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Rough and tumble play has been found to be positive for physical, social and cognitive development; it is often erroneously misinterpreted as aggression and generally stopped by preschool teachers. The current study sought to examine the relationship between teacher training and education and judgements about aggression in children. Ninety-four…

  20. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory…

  1. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  2. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  3. Assessment of sleep problems in preschool aged children: an adaptation of the children's sleep habits questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Penny; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel; Crowley, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of the children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) when used with preschool and toddler age children. Mothers of 105 children ages 2-5 completed the CSHQ, the child behavior checklist (CBCL), and a sleep diary. Internal consistency for the original subscales on the CSHQ ranged from .55 to .82 and factor analysis resulted in four factors that tap into critical aspects of sleep. The concurrent validity of the revised scales of the CSHQ was adequate. Overall the results from this study suggest a revised factor structure may be more appropriate for use with preschool and toddler age children.

  4. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  5. Effects of Age and Visual-Motor Skills on Preschool Children's Computer-Game Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strein, William

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)

  6. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  7. Structurally functional model of socially valuable behavior of children at the stage of transition from the senior preschool age to primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Bakhteeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the transition period from the senior preschool age to primary school age as optimum for development of preconditions of stable social behavior of the child. Special attention is given to the background of leading value of children's subculture in formation of experience of social behavior of 5–7 year old children. On the basis of the research, carried out by the author, the essence of the concept “socially-valuable behavior” is revealed. The components and structurally functional model of socially-valuable behavior are presented.

  8. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  9. Results from an experimental trial at a Head Start center to evaluate two meal service approaches to increase fruit and vegetable intake of preschool aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa J; Oakes, J Michael; French, Simone A; Rydell, Sarah A; Farah, Farhiyah M; Taylor, Gretchen L

    2012-04-30

    Strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption of preschool aged children are needed. Evaluate the independent effects of the following meal service strategies on intake of fruits and vegetables of preschool children: 1.) Serving fruits and vegetables in advance of other menu items as part of traditional family style meal service; and 2.) Serving meals portioned and plated by providers. Fifty-three preschool aged children completed a randomized crossover experiment conducted at a Head Start center in Minneapolis, MN. Over a six week trial period each of the experimental meal service strategies (serving fruits and vegetable first and serving meals portioned by providers) was implemented during lunch service for two one-week periods. Two one-week control periods (traditional family style meal service with all menu items served at once) were also included over the six week trial period. Childrens lunch intake was observed as a measure of food and nutrient intake during each experimental condition. Fruit intake was significantly higher (pprovider portioned compared with control condition. Serving fruits in advance of other meal items may be a low cost easy to implement strategy for increasing fruit intake in young children. However, serving vegetables first does not appear to increase vegetable intake. Results provide support for current recommendations for traditional family style meal service in preschool settings.

  10. Results from an experimental trial at a Head Start center to evaluate two meal service approaches to increase fruit and vegetable intake of preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnack Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption of preschool aged children are needed. Objectives Evaluate the independent effects of the following meal service strategies on intake of fruits and vegetables of preschool children: 1. Serving fruits and vegetables in advance of other menu items as part of traditional family style meal service; and 2. Serving meals portioned and plated by providers. Methods Fifty-three preschool aged children completed a randomized crossover experiment conducted at a Head Start center in Minneapolis, MN. Over a six week trial period each of the experimental meal service strategies (serving fruits and vegetable first and serving meals portioned by providers was implemented during lunch service for two one-week periods. Two one-week control periods (traditional family style meal service with all menu items served at once were also included over the six week trial period. Childrens lunch intake was observed as a measure of food and nutrient intake during each experimental condition. Results Fruit intake was significantly higher (p Conclusions Serving fruits in advance of other meal items may be a low cost easy to implement strategy for increasing fruit intake in young children. However, serving vegetables first does not appear to increase vegetable intake. Results provide support for current recommendations for traditional family style meal service in preschool settings.

  11. Song Recognition among Preschool-Age Children: An Investigation of Words and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John M.; Saunders, T. Clark; Getnick, Pamela E.; Holahan, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to discover whether listening to songs over an extended period of time contributes to a greater integration of words and music in memory among preschool children. Finds more accurate recognition of songs performed without text when they had heard them previously with texts and that melodic content influenced song-recognition ability. (DSK)

  12. Utterance Complexity and Stuttering on Function Words in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin; Buhr, Anthony; Conture, Edward; Ntourou, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation between utterance complexity and utterance position and the tendency to stutter on function words in preschool-age children who stutter (CWS). Two separate studies involving two different groups of participants (Study 1, n = 30; Study 2, n = 30) were conducted. Participants were…

  13. Language Maintenance and Loss in Preschool-Age Children of Mexican Immigrants: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…

  14. The Effect of Institutionalization on Psychomotor Development of Preschool Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kouliousi, Chrysoula; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Fahantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Development can be altered by several factors which can either facilitate or obstruct development. The aim of the current study was the examination and the detection of differences in the developmental profiles of preschool aged children living in conventional institution facilities (N = 28), in SOS villages (N = 20) and in natural family…

  15. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  16. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  17. Relations between Preschool Attention Span-Persistence and Age 25 Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Piccinin, Andrea; Rhea, Sally Ann; Stallings, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations between children's attention span-persistence in preschool and later school achievement and college completion. Children were drawn from the Colorado Adoption Project using adopted and non-adopted children (N = 430). Results of structural equation modeling indicated that children's age 4 attention span-persistence…

  18. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  19. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  20. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…

  1. Biofilms for Babies: Introducing Microbes and Biofilms to Preschool-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian M. Couto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are beneficial to life on our planet as they facilitate natural processes such as global nutrient cycling in our environment. This article details a 30-minute activity to introduce pre-school children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age to microbes and biofilms in the natural environment.

  2. Age, Sex, Intelligence and Parents' Occupation and the Moral Development of the Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    1984-01-01

    Results indicate that preschool children are capable of making moral judgments in both apology-restitution and guilt-innocence test contexts. Age and sex are significantly related to both moral judgment measures, while intelligence and parent occupation are unrelated to both measures. (Author/RH)

  3. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  4. Geographical epidemiology of antibacterials in the preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartabia Massimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thematic maps allow a more rapid and immediate reading of the geographical differences in the distribution of data referred to a specific territory. The aim of this study was to show, for the first time, the application of some statistical and cartographic tools in the analysis of drug utilization in the pediatric population of an Italian region, and to assess the intra-regional difference in the antibiotic prescriptions. Methods To assess the type of geographic distribution of the prescriptions, the analyses were based on the standardized prevalence rate (z-score calculated at the local health unit, health district, and municipality levels. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the correlation with hospitalization and the Moran’s I index was used to evaluate the existence of spatial autocorrelation. With the use of Getis-Ord’s G statistic, clusters of areas with high and low levels of prevalence were identified and mapped. The probability of receiving at least one prescription of antibacterials during the year for all the children included in the study was evaluated with a logistic regression model. Results With the use of the maps it was possible to see that the prescriptions were not correlated with the health status of the population, but with the tendency of the pediatrician to prescribe drugs. This was also confirmed by the logistic regression model constructed to estimate the probability of receiving at least one prescription of antibacterials considering, as independent variables: age, sex, prevalence of hospitalizations in the district of residence, prescriptive attitude of the pediatrician, sex of the pediatrician, pediatrician’s age group, and duration of the pediatrician’s contract with the local health unit (LHU. Conclusions The priority actions to rationalize the use of antibacterials in the preschool age should concentrate on the active participation of the pediatricians in

  5. Geographical epidemiology of antibacterials in the preschool age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Thematic maps allow a more rapid and immediate reading of the geographical differences in the distribution of data referred to a specific territory. The aim of this study was to show, for the first time, the application of some statistical and cartographic tools in the analysis of drug utilization in the pediatric population of an Italian region, and to assess the intra-regional difference in the antibiotic prescriptions. Methods To assess the type of geographic distribution of the prescriptions, the analyses were based on the standardized prevalence rate (z-score) calculated at the local health unit, health district, and municipality levels. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the correlation with hospitalization and the Moran’s I index was used to evaluate the existence of spatial autocorrelation. With the use of Getis-Ord’s G statistic, clusters of areas with high and low levels of prevalence were identified and mapped. The probability of receiving at least one prescription of antibacterials during the year for all the children included in the study was evaluated with a logistic regression model. Results With the use of the maps it was possible to see that the prescriptions were not correlated with the health status of the population, but with the tendency of the pediatrician to prescribe drugs. This was also confirmed by the logistic regression model constructed to estimate the probability of receiving at least one prescription of antibacterials considering, as independent variables: age, sex, prevalence of hospitalizations in the district of residence, prescriptive attitude of the pediatrician, sex of the pediatrician, pediatrician’s age group, and duration of the pediatrician’s contract with the local health unit (LHU). Conclusions The priority actions to rationalize the use of antibacterials in the preschool age should concentrate on the active participation of the pediatricians in permanent education

  6. Factors affecting the placement of preschool-aged deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, C R; Wilson, A K; Lindsay, P H

    1989-03-01

    The placement in and movement among preschool programs of 131 children with severe and profound hearing losses was monitored over four years. Longitudinal data were obtained on the children's linguistic and social development. In the first year of the study, most of the children were enrolled in auditory/oral (A/O) programs. By the final year, most were enrolled instead in total communication (TC) programs; similar movement occurred from individual to classroom programs. Children in A/O individual programs had the most hearing, highest intelligence and most favorable family profile, followed by children in A/O classes, TC individual programs, and TC classes. Scores on measures of spoken language followed the same pattern. On measures of receptive language and mother-child communication, children in A/O individual programs and those in TC classes had similar scores. Children in TC individual programs came next, and last were children in A/O classes. These findings have implications for the choice of programs for preschool deaf children.

  7. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  8. THE CAUSES AND THE COURSE OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE

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    T. Yu. Abaseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on etiology and clinical course of CKD stage  3 to 5 in children of preschool  age could help obstetricians, pediatricians, and nephrologists with proper diagnostics and management of this condition and prediction of outcomes. Aim: To study causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool  children. Materials and methods: The causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 were investigated in 55 preschool children aged from 7 months  to 8 years. Twenty four had  CKD stage  3 to 4 and  31 children with endstage  CKD  were  on  peritoneal  dialysis. Results:96% of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool children were due  to  congenital/genetic kidney abnormalities. Predictors  of renal  replacement therapy  beginning in the first 5 years of life were as follows: antenatal detection of congenital  abnormalities  of the kidney and urinary tract, oligohydroamnion, high neonatal  BUN levels.  Anemia, hyperparathyroidism, arterial hypertension were more prevalent  in children on the dialysis stage of CKD, and myocardial hypertrophy and/or of the left ventricle dilatation were found in 26% of them. Forty two percent of children had growth retardation, and 40% had delayed  speech  development. Conclusion: The course CKD in preschool  children is characterized by a combination of typical metabolic  disorders with the growth  retardation (often dramatic and delayed mental development that significantly limits the possibilities of the social adaptation of these children and social activities of their parents. Participation  of  neuropsychiatrists,  clinical psychologists, and teachers, rather than pediatricians and  nephrologists only, is desirable  in management of preschool children with CKD stage 3 to 5.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent Training and Emotion Socialization Program for Families of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…

  10. Preschool and Primary School Influences on the Development of Children's Early Numeracy Skills between the Ages of 3 and 7 Years in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Grosse, Christiane; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Ebert, Susanne; Weinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how preschool and primary school interact to influence children's cognitive development. The present investigation explores German children's numeracy skills between age 3 (1st year of preschool) and age 7 (1st year of primary school). We first identified the influence of preschool experience on development while…

  11. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE BY MEANS OF THEATRICAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Isaakyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the development of comm unicative  skills of  hearing impaired  children  of  preschool age. The changes that are taking place in the education system  now, relate to pre-school  education. There is a change in the direction of education from the orientation on the formation of knowledge, knacks and skills to the all-round development. This highlights the challenge to identify the ways of such development at all  age levels.  The development of speech is a unique, sophisticated process flowing differently in  different  children,  especially hearing impaired children. It is important for the successful development of hearing-impaired children that they have   acquired   from   childhood   vital   information about the surrounding objects and phenomena. Modern pedagogical science, which considers education as the playback of human spiritual potential , suggests the using a variety spheres of education influence on the child. The sphere of art is proposed by  the  authors  as  a  space  conducive  to  the  fo rmation   of   social   and   aesthetic   activity  hearing impaired  children of preschool age.  Given  that the game at the preschool age is the leading type of a ctivity, and it was one of the most simple and effective way to develop communication skills in hearing impaired children of preschool age. The main motive for using a theatrical play’s activities to development of hearing impaired children of preschool age is identified; it is the role communication during the concerted activities with each other.   The results of experimental activities on the development of co mmunicative skills of hearing impaired children of preschool age by means of theatrical activities are depicted in article.

  13. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

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    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  14. The development of Self-control of Cognitive Activity in Preschool Age

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    Chernokova T.E.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of self-control formation in the context of metacognitive development of children. The hypothesis of the study was that in the preschool age, the structure of self-cognition begins to form, which includes anticipating, process and final self-control. The aim of the study was to identify the dynamics of self-control of cognitive activity in the preschool years. We used an experimental technique in which children were asked to identify the problem and plan of the learning activities, implement it and evaluate the results. The study involved 60 children aged 4 to 7 years. In all age groups higher rates of current and total self-control were found, but the most intensive dynamics were identified in terms of predictive self-control. In the preschool age children occasionally show a formal self-control. At the age of 5-6 years old, the children start to develop the self-control structure, and significant correlations were found between the indicators of current and final self. The most advanced children demonstrate meaningful self-control. This is due not only to the development of self-awareness, arbitrariness and traditionally described cognitive processes, but also to the development of dialectical thinking and metacognitions.

  15. Teacher-Child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…

  16. Nephrologic Problems in Old Age Period

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    Demet YAVUZ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The elderly are a fast growing population in the world, and they have a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease. The function of the kidney changes markedly with age. The glomerular fi ltration rate falls progressively, independent of overt pathology. Declining renal function with age has important implications, not only for individual homeostasis but also for the use of drug therapy and for the receipt and donation of organs for transplantation. Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the kidney. The adaptive capacity of kidney to stress and disease in the elderly is restricted. The clinician should be aware of these alterations in order to anticipate and better treat the clinical conditions that occur in great frequency in elderly. Age-related changes has been reviewed in this manuscript.

  17. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory factor analyses to test for longitudinal measurement invariance of ADHD symptoms and semi-parametric finite mixture models to identify prototypic pattern...

  18. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  19. A Comparison of the Age-MLU Relation in Normal and Specifically Language-Impaired Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Thomas; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mean length of utterance (MLU) and age were significantly correlated in both language impaired (N=24) and normal preschool children with rates of MLU change also similar for both groups of children. (DB)

  20. How is this child feeling? Preschool-aged children’s ability to recognize emotion in faces and body poses

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined children’s recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children (N = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills, which included five tasks (three with faces and two with bodies). Parents and teachers reported on children’s aggressive behaviors and social skills. Children’s emotion accuracy o...

  1. Analysis of Educational App roaches of Gifted Children in Preschool Age

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    Mojca Jedlovčnik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to approach the education of gifted children in preschool age to take advantage of all their natural potentials?Purpose:The aim of the research study was to categorize appropriate educational methods that can be used for gifted children in preschool age and to show that the classical form of punishment in such cases is not appropriate and effective. In addition, the purpose of this study is to inform all educators and parents of gifted children on the most appropriate approach that should be used with a gifted child and how to promote their talent and not suppressed it.Method:A qualitative method was used that used the interview approach with the application of the seven steps rule.Results:The study showed that gifted children in preschool age need a specialized approach to education and to punish such a child canlead to the inhibition of his/her abilities.Organization:The study will help educators that work with gifted children.Society:The research presents to parents and society the difficulties thatthey might encounter with gifted children in preschool age in cases where they do not establish an appropriate relationship.Originality:This research study examines the issue of gifted children’s reaction to punishment. Such studies are not common and are original in its method and sample.Limitations/Future Research:The study here is restricted to two cases of gifted children.A further direction of research would be to include more examples andexplore the various viewpoints of educators.

  2. Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis in Infants and Preschool-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar-Marques, J; Carreiro-Martins, P.; Papoila, AL; Caires, I; Pedro, C; Araújo-Martins, J; Virella, D; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Leiria-Pinto, P; Neuparth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) prevalence data in infants and preschool-age children are sparse, and proposed risk factors lack confirmation. In this study, 19 children’s day care centers (DCC) from 2 main Portuguese cities were selected after stratification and cluster analysis. An ISAAC’s (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) derived health questionnaire was applied to a sample of children attending DCCs. Outcomes were FA parental report and anaphylaxis. Logistic regression wa...

  3. Sex Education for my Preschooler (ages 3 to 5)? Parents’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study in...

  4. Influence of pre-school swimming on level of swimming abilities of early schol age children

    OpenAIRE

    Velová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on children swimming from their birth to early school age. The pivotal part of the paper is the comparison of swimming abilities between primary school children who have passed pre-school swimming training and those who have had no training at all. Theoretical framework of the paper is then focused on general swimming theory, characteristics of children's evolutionary stages within the context of swimming and definition of basic swimming skills.

  5. Parenting approaches and digital technology use of preschool age children in a Chinese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Fowler, Cathrine; Lam, Winsome Yuk Yin; Wong, Ho Ting; Wong, Charmaine Hei Man; Yuen Loke, Alice

    2014-05-07

    Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers' developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children's DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants' demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child's DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. In the multiple linear regression model, the 'restrictive approach score' was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT use. It is suggested that parents practice a combination of restrictive, instructive and co-using approaches, rather than a predominately restrictive approach, to facilitate their child's growth and development. Further studies are needed to explore the parent-child relationship and parents' self-efficacy when managing the parent-child DT use, to develop

  6. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

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    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  7. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  8. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  9. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    Childhood obesity continues to be a leading public health concern that disproportionately affects low-income and minority children. Children who are obese in their preschool years are more likely to be obese in adolescence and adulthood and to develop diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and sleep apnea. One of the Healthy People 2010 objectives (19-3) is to reduce to 5% the proportion of children and adolescents who are obese. CDC's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is the only source of nationally compiled obesity surveillance data obtained at the state and local level for low-income, preschool-aged children participating in federally funded health and nutrition programs. To describe progress in reducing childhood obesity, CDC examined trends and current prevalence in obesity using PedNSS data submitted by participating states, territories, and Indian tribal organizations during 1998-2008. The findings indicated that obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children increased steadily from 12.4% in 1998 to 14.5% in 2003, but subsequently remained essentially the same, with a 14.6% prevalence in 2008. Reducing childhood obesity will require effective prevention strategies that focus on environments and policies promoting physical activity and a healthy diet for families, child care centers, and communities.

  11. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

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    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  12. Investigation of habitual pitch during free play activities for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.

  13. Motor function at school age in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Richard I; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Shevell, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate fine motor (FM) and gross motor (GM) function shortly after school entry in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment (DLI). A cohort of children (n = 70) diagnosed at pre-school age with DLI was reevaluated in elementary school. Language, cognitive, and motor outcomes were assessed through the use of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). Language was further assessed through the use of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary, and Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Tests. Performance below -1.5 SD of the normative mean on any test was considered to represent impairment. Forty-three children (mean age, 7.4 +/- 0.7 years) underwent reassessment at a mean of 3.8 +/- 0.7 years after initial preschool assessment. Mean scores for BDI motor domains (FM, 78.3 +/- 11.4; GM, 84.9 +/- 13.3) fell below normative values. Twenty-two children (52%) had motor impairment (FM, 17 of 42; GM, 15 of 42); 35 of 43 (81%) continued to have language impairment. BDI communication raw scores correlated most strongly with FM (rho = 0.73, P < .001) and GM (rho = 0.58, P = .003) raw scores but showed only moderate correlations with cognitive raw scores (rho = 0.41, P = .05). Impaired motor function is an important comorbidity in DLI. Factors critical to motor performance may also contribute to language deficits in DLI.

  14. The curious relation between theory of mind and sharing in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Jason M; Samek, Anya; List, John; Decety, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Young children have long been known to act selfishly and gradually appear to become more generous across middle childhood. While this apparent change has been well documented, the underlying mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. The current study examined the role of early theory of mind and executive functioning in facilitating sharing in a large sample (N = 98) of preschoolers. Results reveal a curious relation between early false-belief understanding and sharing behavior. Contrary to many commonsense notions and predominant theories, competence in this ability is actually related to less sharing. Thus, the relation between developing theory of mind and sharing may not be as straightforward as it seems in preschool age children. It is precisely the children who can engage in theory of mind that decide to share less with others.

  15. Validation of an age-modified caries risk assessment program (Cariogram) in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Twetman, Svante; Stecksèn-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    to children with a lower risk in the control group (pchildren remained in the same risk category at both ages, despite a largely unchanged consumption pattern...... of sugar. The majority of the children who changed category displayed a lowered risk at 7 years. The intervention program seemed to impair the predictive abilities of Cariogram. CONCLUSION: A modified Cariogram applied on preschool children was not particularly useful in identifying high caries risk......OBJECTIVES: (i) To validate caries risk profiles assessed with a computer program against actual caries development in preschool children, (ii) to study the possible impact of a preventive program on the risk profiles, and (iii) to compare the individual risk profiles longitudinally. MATERIAL...

  16. The Relation among Temperament, Age, and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    Research on preschoolers' friendships has focused on superficial similarities but has not examined whether similarities exist between friends in personality characteristics such as temperament. This study examined the hypothesis that friends would have similar temperaments and that the relationship between temperament and friendship would be…

  17. Age differences in body size stereotyping in a sample of preschool girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriger, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that societal concerns about dieting and body size have led to an increase in negative attitudes toward obese people and that girls as young as 3 years old endorse similar body size stereotypes as have been previously found with adults. Few studies, however, have examined age differences in their participants. A sample of 102 girls (3-5-years-old) completed measures of body size stereotyping. Results indicate that while body-size stereotyping is present by age 3, pro-thin beliefs may develop prior to anti-fat beliefs. Implications and future directions for research with preschool children are discussed.

  18. Temperament and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…

  19. Common household chemicals and the allergy risks in pre-school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden. METHODS: In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls, air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs. RESULTS: A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 - 15.65 µg/m(3 was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.1, 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 - 2.3, 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 - 4.7, and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.3, accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.8 compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs. CONCLUSION: We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively.

  20. Development and tracking of body mass index from preschool age into adolescence in rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, K D; Monyeki, M A; Brits, S J; Kemper, H C G; Makgae, P J

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this observational prospective cohort study was to investigate the development and tracking of body mass index (BMI) of Ellisras rural children from preschool age into late adolescence from the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Heights and weights of children were measured according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry twice a year from 1996 to 2003. In total, 2,225 children--550 preschool and 1,675 primary school--aged 3-10 years (birth cohorts 1993 to 1986) were enrolled at baseline in 1996 and followed through out the eight-year periodic surveys. In 2003, 1,771 children--489 preschool and 1,282 primary school--were still in the study. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among girls (range 1.6-15.5%) compared to boys (range 0.3-4.9%) from age 9.1 years to 14.9 years. The prevalence of thinness (severe, moderate, and mild) ranged from 7.1% to 53.7% for preschool children and from 8.0% to 47.6% for primary school children. Both preschool and primary school children showed a significant association between the first measurements of BMI and the subsequent measurement which ranged from B=0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.4) to B=0.8 (95% CI 0.6-0.9) for preschool and B=0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.3) to B=0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.8) for primary children. A significant tracking of BMI during 4-12 years of life was more consistent for preschool children (B=0.6 (95% CI 0.6-0.7) and for primary school children (B=0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.6). Investigation of nutritional intake and physical activity patterns will shed light on how healthy these children are and their lifestyle.

  1. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jessica Hrudey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469 children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics.

  2. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  3. Teacher-child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YOLERİ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how children’s temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher–child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 195 preschool children. According to the results, a negative significant relationship was found between the teacher-child relationships scores and the reactivity sub-dimension of temperament. Also, there are positive significant relationships between teacher-child relationship scores and language skills. In addition, both the reactivity sub dimension of temperament and language skills demonstrate a predictor effect on the teacher-child relationships. Reactivity was the most important temperament trait factor affecting relationships.

  4. Latino Parents' Insight on Optimal Sleep for Their Preschool-Age Child: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Thompson-Lastad, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is a risk factor for pediatric obesity. Latino children are among those groups in which both short sleep duration and obesity are prevalent. Therefore, this study sought to explore Latino parents' views about ideal sleep duration and sleep-related practices for their preschool-age children in an urban setting. Between October 2013 and January 2014, Latino parents of 2- to 5-year-old children were interviewed at 3 pediatric clinics (San Francisco, Calif). Using a semistructured interview guide, parents were asked to describe bedtime routines and sleep practices of their preschool-age children, including behavioral, parental, social, and contextual factors that may affect children's sleep. Interviews were conducted in Spanish and English. Parents also completed a brief survey on demographic information. Interviews were analyzed on the basis of a priori and emergent themes. Latino parents (n = 18) were mostly female, with a mean age of 31 years; most were foreign born; and more than half had a monthly household income of $2000 or less. The following themes emerged: parents' ideas about optimal sleep duration for their preschool-age child, consistent bedtime routines, room sharing and bed sharing, parent work and child school schedules that affect children's sleep, and crowded housing and neighborhood noise that disrupt children's sleep. These findings increase our understanding of the factors related to achieving optimal sleep duration among Latino children living in urban and often crowded housing. Findings could be used to inform future research on how to increase parental knowledge of healthy sleep practices and adequate sleep among Latino parents of young children. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The association of television and video viewing with fast food intake by preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Sandora, Thomas J; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2006-11-01

    To examine the extent to which television (TV) and video viewing is associated with consumption of fast food by preschool-age children. In a cross-sectional study of 240 parents of children ages 2.0 to 5.9 years, parents reported the number of hours their child watched TV/videos on an average weekday and weekend day in the past month; a daily, weighted average of TV/video viewing was then calculated. The main outcome was parents' report of their children's fast food intake, using the question, "How many times a week does your child eat at fast food restaurants such as McDonald's, Burger King, or Kentucky Fried Chicken?" dichotomized to (never/ or =1 time/wk). The association of TV/video viewing with fast food intake was evaluated by multiple logistic regression before and after adjusting for several potential confounders. Twenty-two percent of parents reported that their child ate at fast food restaurants at least once per week. After adjusting for parents' age, race/ethnicity, and household income as well as child's age and sex, for each 1-hour increase of TV/video watched per day, the odds ratio (OR) for consuming fast food > or =1 time per week was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 2.49). After further adjustment for socio-environmental factors that might serve as proxies for the availability of healthy food options, such as parental time constraints and the availability and high cost of fresh fruits and vegetables in their neighborhoods, the OR for consuming fast food > or =1 time per week was minimally attenuated (OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 2.31). TV/video viewing was correlated with fast food consumption among preschool children in this study. Our findings raise the possibility that greater exposure to TV and videos may influence preschool children's consumption of unhealthful foods.

  6. Work of the Psychologist on Correction of Senior Preschool Children Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Marina V.; Bykova, Svetlana S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is due to the need of self-correction of senior preschoolers. Adequate self-esteem of preschoolers will give us an opportunity to prepare them for school more effectively, as well as to create some positive character traits. The preschool age is the initial period of development of a child's self-esteem. This is the most…

  7. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  8. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF THE ORGANIZED ACTIVITIES ON CHILDREN WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTURBANCES AT PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina KARADZOVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In this presented material it’s stressed that upon the psychological aspect, the problem of activities of mentally retarded children should be treated in the context of possibilities for orientation, their attitude towards the difficulties and their relation towards the gained results. Practically this can be presented in three ways: forming of habits and gaining knowledge of practical life, creating possibilities for nonverbal communication and speech development. In that way special suggestions are given for creating activities with mentally retarded children at pre-school period.

  9. Cognitive Control Deficits in Shifting and Inhibition in Preschool Age Children are Associated with Increased Depression and Anxiety Over 7.5 Years of Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Belden, Andy C; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Although depression and anxiety are common in youth (Costello et al. 2003), factors that put children at risk for such symptoms are not well understood. The current study examined associations between early childhood cognitive control deficits and depression and anxiety over the course of development through school age. Participants were 188 children (at baseline M = 5.42 years, SD = 0.79 years) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed ratings of children's executive functioning at preschool age and measures of depression and anxiety severity over seven assessment waves (a period of approximately 7.5 years). Longitudinal multilevel linear models were used to examine the effect of attention shifting and inhibition deficits on depression and anxiety. Inhibition deficits at preschool were associated with significantly greater depression severity scores at each subsequent assessment wave (up until 7.5 years later). Inhibition deficits were associated with greater anxiety severity from 3.5 to 7.5 years later. Greater shifting deficits at preschool age were associated with greater depression severity up to 5.5 years later. Shifting deficits were also associated with significantly greater anxiety severity up to 3.5 years later. Importantly, these effects were significant even after accounting for the influence of other key predictors including assessment wave/time, gender, parental education, IQ, and symptom severity at preschool age, suggesting that effects are robust. Overall, findings indicate that cognitive control deficits are an early vulnerability factor for developing affective symptoms. Timely assessment and intervention may be beneficial as an early prevention strategy.

  10. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  11. Treatment of renal stones with flexible ureteroscopy in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkurt, Bulent; Caskurlu, Turhan; Atis, Gokhan; Gurbuz, Cenk; Arikan, Ozgur; Pelit, Eyup Sabri; Altay, Bulent; Erdogan, Firat; Yildirim, Asif

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) to treat renal stones in preschool age (4 mm, a second-stage RIRS was performed. The pre-operative, operative and post-operative data of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 65 patients with a mean age of 4.31 ± 1.99 years (6 months-7 years) were included in the present study. The mean stone size was 14.66 ± 6.12 mm (7-30 mm). The mean operative time was 46.47 ± 18.27 min. In 5 (7.69%) patients, the initial procedure failed to reach the renal collecting system and ended with the insertion of a pigtail stent. The stone-free rates were 83.07 and 92.3% after the first and second procedures, respectively. Complications were observed in 18 (27.7%) patients and classified according to the Clavien system. Post-operative hematuria (Clavien I) occurred in 6 (9.2%) patients, post-operative urinary tract infection with fever (Clavien II) was observed in 10 (15.4%) patients, and ureteral wall injury (Clavien III) was noted in 2 (3%) patients. RIRS is an effective and safe procedure that can be used to manage renal stones in preschool age children.

  12. Estimation of physical and mental development of children of the senior pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnyk V.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work is conducted physical and mental development of children of the senior preschool age. In the experiment, 90 children took part in the fifth year of life, among which 55 boys and 35 girls. It is noted that the children surveyed rate the physical development of the index corresponds to level - above the average. It was determined that the parameters of the functional state of preschool age children meet the age norm. It is revealed that in determining physical performance among boys set a good level, and satisfactory in girls. It is established that the results of physical fitness of boys is slightly higher than in girls. It was found that the diagnosis of the level of mental development in children fifth year of life, the average productivity and stability of attention, visual and auditory memory, visual-imagery and visual-thinking, and perception of speech correspond to the average level, and cognitive processes such as switching and distribution attention, imagination - a low level.

  13. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  14. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  15. Measurement Properties and Classification Accuracy of Two Spanish Parent Surveys of Language Development for Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 2 Spanish parent surveys of language development, the Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ; Squires, Potter, & Bricker, 1999) and the Pilot Inventario-III (Pilot INV-III; Guiberson, 2008a). Method: Forty-eight Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children…

  16. Measurement Properties and Classification Accuracy of Two Spanish Parent Surveys of Language Development for Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 2 Spanish parent surveys of language development, the Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ; Squires, Potter, & Bricker, 1999) and the Pilot Inventario-III (Pilot INV-III; Guiberson, 2008a). Method: Forty-eight Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children…

  17. Age at introduction of ultra-processed food among preschool children attending day-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Silveira, Jonas Augusto C; Menezes, Rísia Cristina Egito de; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar

    To identify the age of introduction of ultra-processed food and its associated factors among preschool children. Cross-sectional study carried out from March to June 2014 with 359 preschool children aged 17 to 63 months attending day-care centers. Time until ultra-processed food introduction (outcome variable) was described by the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival functions of independent variables. Factors associated with ultra-processed food introduction were investigated using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. The results were shown as hazard ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The median time until ultra-processed food introduction was six months. Between the 3rd and 6th months, there is a significant increase in the probability of introducing ultra-processed food in the children's diet; and while the probability in the 3rd month varies from 0.15 to 0.25, at six months the variation ranges from 0.6 to 1.0. The final Cox proportional hazards model showed that unplanned pregnancy (1.32 [1.05-1.65]), absence of prenatal care (2.50 [1.02-6.16]), and income >2 minimum wages (1, 50 [1.09-2.06]) were independent risk factors for the introduction of ultra-processed food. Up to the 6th month of life, approximately 75% of preschool children had received one or more ultra-processed food in their diet. In addition, it was observed that the poorest families, as well as unfavorable prenatal factors, were associated with early introduction of ultra-processed food. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. Relations between Preschool Attention Span-Persistence and Age 25 Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M; Acock, Alan C; Piccinin, Andrea; Rhea, Sally Ann; Stallings, Michael C

    2013-04-01

    This study examined relations between children's attention span-persistence in preschool and later school achievement and college completion. Children were drawn from the Colorado Adoption Project using adopted and non-adopted children (N = 430). Results of structural equation modeling indicated that children's age 4 attention span-persistence significantly predicted math and reading achievement at age 21 after controlling for achievement levels at age 7, adopted status, child vocabulary skills, gender, and maternal education level. Relations between attention span-persistence and later achievement were not fully mediated by age 7 achievement levels. Logistic regressions also revealed that age 4 attention span-persistence skills significantly predicted the odds of completing college by age 25. The majority of this relationship was direct and was not significantly mediated by math or reading skills at age 7 or age 21. Specifically, children who were rated one standard deviation higher on attention span-persistence at age 4 had 48.7% greater odds of completing college by age 25. Discussion focuses on the importance of children's early attention span-persistence for later school achievement and educational attainment.

  19. Study of phonological awareness of preschool and school aged children with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarianzadeh, Niloufar; Shahbodaghi, Mohammadrahim; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enables children to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities in their preschool and school years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether children who had cochlear implantation before 18 months of age will develop better skills in phonological awareness than children who had cochlear implants in 18-36 months of age. A third purpose of this study was to examine whether some factors like the child's age or sex would have any effects on developing of age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities. 48 children with 70 to 95 months of age who had been utilizing their cochlear implant(s) before 36 months of age (CI group) and 30 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Child's age had a significant effect on phonological awareness, but sex had absolutely no effect in each group. Children in the cochlear implanted group were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in the area of phonological awareness, especially in phonemic awareness. The age of implantation was another significant variable. Although children with a younger age at implantation got better scores in phonological awareness test, they were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in this area.

  20. Mortality in Danish women: age, period and cohort analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    While the life expectancy of Danish women ranked at the top of life expectancies in the OECD countries in 1970 this had changed drastically in 1990 where Danish women ranked at the bottom. This reflected a relative stagnation in the increase in Danish women’s life expectancy during the period 1960....... Smoking was suggested as the reason for the high mortality of middle-aged Danish women. The analysis focussed on the age-period effects. However, calculations based only on age and period may lead to erroneous conclusions, as the birth cohort may be an important factor for understanding trends...... in mortality and diseases. The aims of the present study were therefore: 1. To examine the long term mortality trends of women in Denmark to evaluate the influence of age, period and cohort, and thereby to suggest where to search for causes for the low life expectancy of Danish women. 2. To assess differences...

  1. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  2. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  3. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: exposure times and functional outcomes at preschool age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine [George Washington University, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Children' s National Health System, Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research Laboratory, Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Du Plessis, Adre J. [Children' s National Health System, Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Robertson, Richard L. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Limperopoulos, Catherine [Children' s National Health System, Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research Laboratory, Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Children' s National Health System, Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been routinely used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for more than a decade; however, there is a paucity of follow-up studies examining the effects of prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI on developmental outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of 1.5-T fetal MRI by evaluating functional outcomes of preschool children who were exposed in utero. In the context of a prospective observational study, healthy pregnant women underwent a 1.5-T MRI study using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study was approved by the institutional review board at our institution, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. MRI scanning times were recorded, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were collected prospectively. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), a widely used, norm-referenced and psychometrically sound functional assessment. We studied 72 healthy pregnant women, who underwent fetal MRI at a mean gestational age of 30.5 ± 3.1 weeks. The cohort of fetuses was composed of 43% females, and 18 fetuses were scanned during the second trimester. All fetuses were born at term with appropriate birth weights (3.54 ± 0.5 kg) for gestational age. Mean age at follow-up testing was 24.5 ± 6.7 months. All children had age-appropriate scores in the communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills subdomains of the VABS (z-scores, P > 0.05). Furthermore, all children passed their newborn otoacoustic emission test and had normal hearing at preschool age. MRI study duration and exposure time to radio frequency waves and SSFSE sequences were not associated with adverse functional outcomes or hearing impairment. Prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI during the second or third trimester of pregnancy in a cohort of healthy fetuses is not associated with disturbances in functional outcomes or

  4. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: exposure times and functional outcomes at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine; du Plessis, Adré J; Robertson, Richard L; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been routinely used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for more than a decade; however, there is a paucity of follow-up studies examining the effects of prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI on developmental outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of 1.5-T fetal MRI by evaluating functional outcomes of preschool children who were exposed in utero. In the context of a prospective observational study, healthy pregnant women underwent a 1.5-T MRI study using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study was approved by the institutional review board at our institution, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. MRI scanning times were recorded, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were collected prospectively. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), a widely used, norm-referenced and psychometrically sound functional assessment. We studied 72 healthy pregnant women, who underwent fetal MRI at a mean gestational age of 30.5 ± 3.1 weeks. The cohort of fetuses was composed of 43% females, and 18 fetuses were scanned during the second trimester. All fetuses were born at term with appropriate birth weights (3.54 ± 0.5 kg) for gestational age. Mean age at follow-up testing was 24.5 ± 6.7 months. All children had age-appropriate scores in the communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills subdomains of the VABS (z-scores, P > 0.05). Furthermore, all children passed their newborn otoacoustic emission test and had normal hearing at preschool age. MRI study duration and exposure time to radio frequency waves and SSFSE sequences were not associated with adverse functional outcomes or hearing impairment. Prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI during the second or third trimester of pregnancy in a cohort of healthy fetuses is not associated with disturbances in

  5. Preschool Children (Ages 2 to 4 Years) - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preschool years are characterized as a time of increasing autonomy, expanding language skills, increasing ability to control behavior, and broadening social circumstances, such as attending preschool or staying with friends or relatives.

  6. Preschool-Age Problem Behavior and Teacher-Child Conflict in School: Direct and Moderation Effects by Preschool Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…

  7. Biostatic indicators of the senior preschool age children with disorders of the supporting-motor apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar O.M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The biostatic body's indexes of senior preschool age children are studied. 80 children of the age of 5-6 years old took part in research. To determine their biostatic indicators used methods for determining the common center of gravity and methods of determining the stability of the body. It is set that 12,5 % сhildren do not have a change of posture, 87,5 % inspected children have violations of posture. It is educed, that the biostatic indexes of children body (height of location of general body gravity centre in relation to the area of support, front and back, right and left moments of stability, radiuses of stability, front and back, right and left corners of stability change at violations of posture. The obtained data must be used for development of individual correction-prophylactic measures.

  8. Effect of Infant Prematurity on Auditory Brainstem Response at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hasani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is a risk factor for a number of conditions that requires comprehensive examination. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of preterm birth on the processing of auditory stimuli and brain structures at the brainstem level at a preschool age.   Materials and Methods: An auditory brainstem response (ABR test was performed with low rates of stimuli in 60 children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirty subjects had been born following a very preterm labor or late-preterm labor and 30 control subjects had been born following a full-term labor.   Results: Significant differences in the ABR test result were observed in terms of the inter-peak intervals of the I–III and III–V waves, and the absolute latency of the III wave (P

  9. HYPOKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS: AGE OF ONSET IN A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Harirchian

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a familial channelopathy inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The first attack of paralysis may be evolved at any age, but has been reported to be most common in the second decade, so that some authorities believe that an episodic weakness beginning after age 25 is almost never due to primary periodic paralysis. In this retrospective study, we reviewed 50 patients admitted in two hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 1992-2001 with acute flaccid weakness and hypokalemia, twenty-three of whom fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two patients showed first attack below age 15, 8 in 15-20, 4 in 20-25, 3 in 25-35, 4 in 35-45, and 2 beyond age 45. In our study, in contrast to previous ones, the first attack was beyond age 20 in 13 patients (56.5% and beyond 25 in 9 (39 %. Age at first attack is more than other studies, which seems to be due to a difference between our epidemiological characteristics compared to that in the West. In other words, in our epidemiological condition, periodic weakness, although started beyond second decade of age, could be due to primary periodic paralysis if secondary hypokalemia had been ruled out.

  10. Optics workshops designed to preschool children (age 3 to 6 years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Charvel; Solano, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Since 2005, it was decided in Mexico that children have to start their formal education at the age of 3 years, two years earlier that in many other countries. This change was done to increase activities that enhance the social interaction and stimulus (knowledge and skills) of the students to prepare them to the next academic level. The main drawback of the developed curriculum for the younger children is that it does not include enough scientific activities. The work presented here is the answer of a particular initiative of some teachers to implement scientific workshops in optics. We have found that preschoolers are attracted to scientific activities if the material is presented in the right way. While design any scientific activity it is important to remember that young children want to know about their world without changing it, they have to experience the principle without memorizing, therefore the language used to describe concepts, ideas or terms has to be carefully chosen to avoid confuse preschoolers that can lose track of the activity. The scientific information has to be very clear and limited to a single physical principle and the concepts have to be presented in a way to include games as a learning activity that allow them to experience with the results.

  11. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    BYUN, Tara McALLISTER

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  12. Crossover Effects Among Parental Hostility and Parent-Child Relationships During the Preschool Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    Parental hostility may have widespread effects across members of the family, whereby one parent's hostility might disrupt the other parent's ability to maintain a positive relationship with his or her children. The present study prospectively examined crossover effects of parental hostility on parent-child relationship quality in a sample of 210 families. At child ages 3, 4, and 5, mothers and fathers completed questionnaires assessing feelings of hostility. In addition, mother-child and father-child dyadic relationship quality were coded at each age during naturalistic home observations. Results from structural equation analyses indicated that mother and father hostility were relatively stable over the two year period. Further, results were consistent with notions of fathering vulnerability, such that the father-child relationship might be especially susceptible to parental hostility. Possible compensatory processes, wherein mothers may compensate for father hostility, were also explored. Child and parent gender add further complexity to the results, as the father-son relationship appears most susceptible to crossover effects of parental hostility, whereas the father-daughter relationship might be somewhat protected in the early childhood period. Findings from the current investigation highlight the need for broader perspectives on family functioning, considering influences across family subsystems and the effects of both parent and child gender.

  13. Classroom Age Composition and Vocabulary Development Among At-Risk Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Tompkins, Virginia; Justice, Laura; Petscher, Yaacov

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between classroom age composition and preschoolers' vocabulary gains over an academic year and also to examine whether these relations were moderated by classroom quality. In this study (N = 130 children in 16 classrooms representing a subset of all children enrolled in these classrooms), results showed a significant cross-level interaction between classroom age composition and children's age, suggesting positive effects of greater variance in classroom age composition for younger but not older children. The interaction between behavior management (1 dimension of classroom quality) and classroom age composition was also significant, indicating that a wider distribution of classroom age composition was positively related to children's vocabulary gains within classrooms characterized by better behavior management. Findings underscore the importance of children's social interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners in promoting their vocabulary development and signify the need to help teachers learn how to manage children's behaviors so as to provide a classroom that is optimal for child learning.

  14. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically.

  15. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  16. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  17. Evaluation of the Effects of Social Cue Cards for Preschool Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Amberly; Connell, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the effects of Social Cue Cards on the social communication skills of three preschool age children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using a multiple-baseline across-participants design, Social Cue Cards were implemented and direct observations of participants' identified target…

  18. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  19. New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in "Autism diagnostic interview-revised." Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The…

  20. The Age of Entry into High-Quality Preschool, Child and Family Factors, and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…

  1. Parents' Support during Different Writing Tasks: A Comparison between Parents of Precocious Readers, Preschoolers, and School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Dorit; Besser-Biron, Shira

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to deepen the understanding of parental sensitivity to their children's abilities and the nature of their scaffolding during writing tasks. We compared the parent-child writing interactions of three groups: precocious readers (PRs), same age preschoolers (SA), and older children with the same reading level (SRL) as the PRs. Each of…

  2. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  3. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  4. New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in "Autism diagnostic interview-revised." Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The…

  5. Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

  6. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  7. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  8. Development and Evaluation of Nutrition Education Competencies and a Competency-Based Resource Guide for Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Reed, Heather; Briggs, Marilyn; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate nutrition education competencies and a competency-based resource guide, Connecting the Dots...Healthy Foods, Healthy Choices, Healthy Kids (CTD), for preschool-aged children in California. Methods: Nutrition education experts and California Department of Education staff…

  9. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference f

  10. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  11. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Modeling and Prediction - BAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker J. Schmid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The software package BAMP provides a method of analyzing incidence or mortality data on the Lexis diagram, using a Bayesian version of an age-period-cohort model. A hierarchical model is assumed with a binomial model in the first-stage. As smoothing priors for the age, period and cohort parameters random walks of first and second order, with and without an additional unstructured component are available. Unstructured heterogeneity can also be included in the model. In order to evaluate the model fit, posterior deviance, DIC and predictive deviances are computed. By projecting the random walk prior into the future, future death rates can be predicted.

  12. The effects of perceptual motor development programs on balance and quickness at preschool children aged between 4 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Tüfekçioğlu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Preschool is the term that allows the most positive and permanent contributions to movements skills to be realized. This term includes the development stages that may shape whole life. It is known that, apporpriate education programs in sensitive age terms accelerate development at children. Therefore, the effects of perceptual motor development programs on balance and qucikness will be examined in this study.Pre-test Post-test control group model is carried out  in this study. 62 children, consisting of 30 for test group and 32 for control gorup and ages of which changing between 4 and 6 were participated in this study. Perceptual motor development activities were applied on test group for a period of 14 weeks and pre-test and post-test differences were analized by independent samples t test between the groups. Consequently; while significant differences (p<0.01 were seen at within-group measurements, there was no significant difference at between-group measurements (p>0.05 at the pre-test post test values of motor performance of test group and control gorup.

  13. The effects of perceptual motor development programs on balance and quickness at preschool children aged between 4 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Tüfekçioğlu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Preschool is the term that allows the most positive and permanent contributions to movements skills to be realized. This term includes the development stages that may shape whole life. It is known that, apporpriate education programs in sensitive age terms accelerate development at children. Therefore, the effects of perceptual motor development programs on balance and qucikness will be examined in this study.Pre-test Post-test control group model is carried out in this study. 62 children, consisting of 30 for test group and 32 for control gorup and ages of which changing between 4 and 6 were participated in this study. Perceptual motor development activities were applied on test group for a period of 14 weeks and pre-test and post-test differences were analized by independent samples t test between the groups. Consequently; while significant differences (p0.05 at the pre-test post test values of motor performance of test group and control gorup.

  14. Parents׳ experiences of raising pre-school aged children in an outer-Melbourne growth corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Fiona Jane; Rich, Stephanie; Stockdale, Rebecca; Shelley, Julia

    2014-05-01

    There is growing concern about the outer-suburbs in Australia as healthy places to raise children. This paper aimed to explore this from the perspectives of parents raising preschool-age children in an outer-Melbourne municipality. Findings showed that parents were positive about the natural environment as well as the provision of recreation areas and generally felt their neighbourhoods were a safe place for raising children. However, car-dependency, housing estate design and limited local job opportunities all appeared to contribute to social isolation amongst families. Using the Environments for Health Framework, this paper makes suggestions to improve liveability for families in this municipality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-08-29

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, informal musical activities can also influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-aged children.

  16. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Juhani Putkinen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere, which have begun to map how the developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, also informal musical activities can influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-age.

  17. The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…

  18. Fathers' and mothers' emotion talk with their girls and boys from toddlerhood to preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Lotte D; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van Berkel, Sheila R; Endendijk, Joyce J; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2015-12-01

    Goals of the current study were to examine fathers' and mothers' emotion talk from toddlerhood to preschool age, and to test whether parents socialize emotions differently in girls and boys. In a sample of 317 families, we observed both parents' emotion talk and their use of gender labels, while discussing a picture book with drawings of children displaying 4 basic emotions (anger, fear, sadness, and happiness), with their first- and second-born children when the children were 4 and 2 years of age, respectively, and again 12 months later. Findings revealed that parents generally elaborated more on emotions with the second-born children when the children were 3 years of age than when they were 2 years old. With their firstborn children parents elaborated less on emotions when the children were 5 years old than when they were 4 years of age. Further, mothers elaborated more on emotions than fathers. Parents' use of gender labels for the children in the pictures showed that parents associated anger more with boys, whereas they associated sadness and happiness more with girls. These findings suggest that parents adjust their emotion socialization strategies to their child's level of emotion understanding, and that both parents convey stereotypical gender messages during parent-child discussion of emotions.

  19. The Relationship Between Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Behavior Problems and Weight Status in Preschool Age Children in Head Start Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Mayra A.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a growing public health concern disproportionally affecting children and their families. Researchers have reported that of 85-90% of children who have witnessed IPV that occurs in the home, 47% of those are under the age of six (Graham-Bermann & Perkins, (2010). Surprisingly, few studies have explored the effects of IPV in preschool-age children. This study examined the relationship between maternal reports of exposure to IPV and preschool-age children’s beh...

  20. Stress and Its Consequences from Prenatal Period to Older Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Pekel Uludagli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human life includes numerous developmental changes starting from the mother's womb to old ages. Both age related physical, cognitive, and emotional changes and social roles that are expected to be fulfilled at every age period require individual to adapt new conditions. Even if these new conditions are sometimes desirable, they lead individuals to feel stress. Although there are a large number of studies about stress in the relevant literature, they either approached stress pathologically or focused on specific age groups; how stress affects an individual across the life span was not addressed holistically. This review examined the important life events that are experienced respectively in the infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and older ages and the effects of these life events on the individuals' health from the life span perspective. Accordingly, each individual's conditions such as the amount of social support, living in a disadvantaged district, healthy life habits, and coping skills determine to what extent the individual experiences stress. The stress that the individual experiences with varying degrees in each age period may affect his/her physical and psychological health negatively. Although developmental stress is inevitable, having positive and supportive social relations helps coping with stress effectively. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 189-208

  1. [Biological adaptation of children of preschool age with retardation of mental development (RMD) in conditions of pre-school correctional educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, L P; Sebirzyanov, M D

    2013-01-01

    The present study was devoted to the investigation of biological adaptation of children aged 6-7 years with retardation of mental development (RMD) in pre-school correctional educational institutions. Under supervision there were 69 children, out of them 34 RMD cases and 35 children in whom mental development corresponds to age-control group--35 persons. The increase in sympatico-adrenergic effects and centralized heart rhythm control was revealed in children of both groups under comparison, but in RMD cases these effects were more pronounced. Adaptation reserves in RMD children appeared to be lower than in children in whom mental development corresponds to the age. Gender differences of adaptive reserves in children have been established

  2. The informative value of motor, mental, and moral qualities in the personality structure of preschool children aged 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangelova N.E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the presence or usefulness of the main components of the relationship of physical and psycho-physiological state in the personality structure of children of preschool age. The experiment involved 107 children aged 4 years (54 male, 53 female. Factor analysis of the structure of the motor system, the intellectual and moral sphere of children. Found that it is determined six orthogonal factors. The results give reason to believe that the development of the physical, intellectual and moral sphere of children of this age is complex. The interpretation of these data in the pedagogical aspect suggests that pre-school children are becoming a person under the influence of biological and psychological factors. Their activation is possible in the process of physical education.

  3. FLUIDITY SPEECH FORMATION AS A QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ORAL STATEMENT OF PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN WITH STUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Borisova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to disclose the subject matter of speech therapy work focused on fluidity speech formation of preschool age children, suffering stutter. Stutter is a difficult disorder of articulation organs suchthat the tempo-rhythmical organisation of statements is distressed that leads to defects and failures of dialogue system, negatively influences on individual development of the child; more specifically it generates the mental stratifications, specific features of emotional-volitional sphere, and causes undesirable qualities ofcharacter such as shyness, indecision, isolation, negativism. The author notes that the problem of early stutter correction among junior preschool-aged children considered as topical and immediate issue. Methods. Concerning the clinical, physiological, psychological and psychologic-pedagogical positions, the author summarizes theoretical framework; an experimentally-practical approbation of an author's method of speech fluidity and stutter abolition of preschool children is described. Stage-by-stage process of correction,spontaneous and non-convulsive speech formation: 1. restraint mode application in order to decrease incorrect verbal output; 2. training exercises to long phonatory and speech expiration; 3. development of coordination and movements rhythm helping to pronounce words and phrases; 4. formation of situational speech, at first consisted of short sentences, then passing to long ones; 5. training to coherent text statements. The research demonstrates data analyses of postexperimental diagnostic examination of stuttering preschool children, proving the efficiency of the author’s applied method. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate a specific approach to correction and stutter abolition of preschool children. Proposed author’s approach consists of complementary to each other directions of speech therapy work which are combines in the following way: coherent speech

  4. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and correlated risk factors in preschool and school-aged children in rural Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Wang

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.

  5. NET-Works: Linking families, communities and primary care to prevent obesity in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E; French, Simone A; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Crain, A Lauren; Berge, Jerica; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Mitchell, Nathan; Senso, Meghan

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevention in children offers a unique window of opportunity to establish healthful eating and physical activity behaviors to maintain a healthful body weight and avoid the adverse proximal and distal long-term health consequences of obesity. Given that obesity is the result of a complex interaction between biological, behavioral, family-based, and community environmental factors, intervention at multiple levels and across multiple settings is critical for both short- and long-term effectiveness. The Minnesota NET-Works (Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthful Kids) study is one of four obesity prevention and/or treatment trials that are part of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment (COPTR) Consortium. The goal of the NET-Works study is to evaluate an intervention that integrates home, community, primary care and neighborhood strategies to promote healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight among low income, racially/ethnically diverse preschool-age children. Critical to the success of this intervention is the creation of linkages among the settings to support parents in making home environment and parenting behavior changes to foster healthful child growth. Five hundred racially/ethnically diverse, two-four year old children and their parent or primary caregiver will be randomized to the multi-component intervention or to a usual care comparison group for a three-year period. This paper describes the study design, measurement and intervention protocols, and statistical analysis plan for the NET-Works trial.

  6. Comparisons of Audio and Audiovisual Measures of Stuttering Frequency and Severity in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Isabelle; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether measures of stuttering frequency and measures of overall stuttering severity in preschoolers differ when made from audio-only recordings compared with audiovisual recordings. Method: Four blinded speech-language pathologists who had extensive experience with preschoolers who stutter measured stuttering frequency and…

  7. Comparisons of Audio and Audiovisual Measures of Stuttering Frequency and Severity in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Isabelle; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether measures of stuttering frequency and measures of overall stuttering severity in preschoolers differ when made from audio-only recordings compared with audiovisual recordings. Method: Four blinded speech-language pathologists who had extensive experience with preschoolers who stutter measured stuttering frequency and…

  8. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  9. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes...

  10. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  11. Regularities in the course of epilepsy during various age periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kalinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to optimize patient management tactics and disease prognosis, by detecting the regularities of the course of epilepsy during various age periods. Patients and methods. The results of following up 1632 patients with epilepsy in the Samara Region were given. Among them, there were 865 (53.0% men and 767 (47.0% women. The classification of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes (New Delhi, 1989 was used to establish the diagnosis. Each patient underwent neurological evaluation, electroencephalography (EEG and video-EEG monitoring, studies of long-latency visual evoked potentials, as well as neuroimaging examinations (brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Factor and principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to make a mathematical model to predict remission in epilepsy. Results. The specific features of the occurrence and course of epilepsy in various age periods were analyzed. According to the results of mathematical simulation, the age at the onset of late epilepsy can be considered to be 29 years. Remission of epilepsy was more frequently attained and absolute resistance was less frequently observed in the younger age group, except for infants with catastrophic epilepsy and epileptic syndromes. There were fewer remissions and much more patients with relative and absolute resistance and rare seizures in the older age group. Epilepsy in young patients is that of the immature brain and epilepsy of adulthood (late epilepsy of the involutional brain. Conclusion. Epilepsy runs a benign course in patients who fell ill in adolescence or adulthood and have minimal brain structural changes, as evidenced by MRI. Marked brain morphological changes most frequently determine the drug-resistant course of epilepsy, manifesting in early childhood and at an elderly age

  12. Modern knowledge about prevention and correction of functional disorders of the supporting-motor apparatus of the senior preschool age children in the process of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashuba V.A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of correction of violations of carriage is developed for the children of senior preschool age taking into account spatial organization of their body. Possibilities of application of technology are rotined in the system of physical education of child preschool age and in a medical physical culture. The flowsheet of organization of employments is offered correction-prophylactic macrocycle. Pulling in is selected in a chart, correcting and supporting sanitary the stages.

  13. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania

    This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0-6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness.

  14. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: trend from birth to age four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Cases, Amparo; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Ballester, Ferran

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008-2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations.

  15. Early attachment, mental well-being and development of Finnish children at preschool age:twinship – risk or opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Tirkkonen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study focuses on early attachment and its effects on later cognitive development and mental well-being in Finnish twins and singletons. Altogether 84 infants, including both singletons (N = 27) and twins (N = 57), were assessed at 18 months of age to determine their infant–mother and infant–father attachment using the Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA), a modification of the Ainsworth infant classification system. In the whole sample, approximately one third (37%) of t...

  16. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth,; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  17. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  18. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumu...

  19. "Snacks are not food". Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J O; Wright, G; Herman, A N; Malhotra, K; Serrano, E L; Foster, G D; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being "real food" (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.

  20. Interpersonal trust: An age-period-cohort analysis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, April K; Eisenstein, Marie A

    2013-03-01

    Building on the previous work of Robinson and Jackson(1), this study addresses the extent to which interpersonal trust in America is changing due to age, period, or cohort effects (APC). The importance of APC in explaining variations in trust stems from the understanding that the specific source of change can have important - albeit different and possibly, negative - consequences on society. Moreover, 3years after the previous study concluded, the country experienced the largest concerted terrorist attacks on US soil. Little is known about how the attacks affected the dynamics of interpersonal trust relative to the processes of birth, aging, and historical change - such an investigation has important implications for our understanding of the sources and consequences of interpersonal trust. Two analysis techniques for disentangling APC effects are used: constrained generalized linear models and intrinsic estimator models. The results show that while period effects are an important contributor to declining trust, the attacks exert little influence over one's decision to trust others. Also, the investigation provides further confirmation that trust in others has fallen dramatically in the US with the scarcity being led by individuals coming of age in the late 1940s, after which, trust falls with each successive cohort. If this trend continues, through the process of cohort replacement, we will become a society of "distrusters".

  1. From Research to Clinical Settings: Validation of the Affect in Play Scale – Preschool Brief Version in a Sample of Preschool and School Aged Italian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Di Riso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Affect in Play Scale-Preschool (APS-P is one of the few standardized tools to measure pretend play. APS-P is an effective measure of symbolic play, able to detect both cognitive and affective dimensions which classically designated play in children, but often are evaluated separately and are scarcely integrated. The scale uses 5 min standardized play task with a set of toys. Recently the scale was extended from 6 to 10 years old and validated in Italy preschool and school-aged children. Some of the main limitations of this measure are that it requires videotaping, verbatim transcripts, and an extensive scoring training, which could compromise its clinical utility. For these reasons, a Brief version of the measure was developed by the original authors. This paper will focus on an APS-P Brief Version and its Extended Version through ages (6–10 years, which consists “in vivo” coding. This study aimed to evaluate construct and external validity of this APS-P Brief Version and its Extended Version in a sample of 538 Italian children aged 4-to-10 years. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two correlated factor structure including an affective and a cognitive factor. APS-P-BR and its Extended Version factor scores strongly related to APS-P Extended Version factor scores. Significant relationships were found with a divergent thinking task. Results suggest that the APS-P-BR and its Extended Version is an encouraging brief measure assessing pretend play using toys. It would easily substitute the APS-P and its Extended Version in clinical and research settings, reducing time and difficulties in scoring procedures and maintaining the same strengths.

  2. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  3. Testing models of psychopathology in preschool-aged children using a structured interview-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Dougherty, Lea R; Bufferd, Sara J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents' (typically mothers') reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n = 541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology.

  4. Sex Education for my Preschooler (ages 3 to 5? Parents’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cevallos-Neira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study indicated that parents have a limited conception of sexuality, completely based on the biological aspect. In addition, it was clear that parents have traditional ideas, conceptions and beliefs, which are reflected when educating their children. This research shows parents’ lack of knowledge about sexuality and sex education and gives important data about the need for parents and the school to work jointly to provide children with adequate and appropriate sex education, as well as the need for parent training in order to establish a common language between home and school and to avoid a double discourse in children’s education and to ensure a proper implementation of sex education programs at this level.

  5. Validation of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale for preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, Christine S; Parlade, Meaghan V; McBee, Matthew T; Coman, Drew C; Owen, Taylor; Gutierrez, Anibal; Boyd, Brian; Odom, Samuel; Alessandri, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Joint attention, or the shared focus of attention between objects or events and a social partner, is a crucial milestone in the development of social communication and a notable area of deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. While valid parent-report screening measures of social communication are available, the majority of these measures are designed to assess a wide range of behaviors. Targeted assessment of joint attention and related skills is primarily limited to semi-structured, examiner-led interactions, which are time-consuming and laborious to score. The Pictorial Infant Communication Scale is an efficient parent-report measure of joint attention that can be used as a complement to structured assessments in fully characterizing early social communication development. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale. Results revealed a high degree of internal consistency and strong intercorrelations between subscales. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor model of joint attention. Furthermore, significant correlations between the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale and direct clinical measures of child joint attention, language skills, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity were suggestive of concurrent validity. Findings suggest that the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale is a promising tool for measuring joint attention skills in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

  6. Screening for elevated risk of liver disease in preschool children (aged 2–5 years being seen for obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Beacher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Elevated alanine aminotransferase can heighten concern for the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Guidelines recommend alanine aminotransferase screening of obese children start at the age of 10 years. We examined alanine aminotransferase values routinely obtained for tertiary obesity care among preschool (2–5 years and school-age children. Methods: Medical records of children attending a tertiary obesity clinic and with alanine aminotransferase measured within 6 months of the initial visit were reviewed. Children with known genetic abnormalities were excluded. Children were grouped by age to focus attention on groups not covered by screening guidelines. Associations with elevated alanine aminotransferase (>30 IU/L were examined. Results: A total of 284 records were analyzed (73 preschool, 143 young school-age (6–9 years, 68 older school-age (10–11 years. Children were primarily Hispanic and had body mass index ≥ 99th percentile (preschool children 92%, young school-age 73%, older school-age 59%. In all, 26% of preschool children had elevated alanine aminotransferase (young school-age 30%, older school-age 44%. Preschool children with elevated alanine aminotransferase had higher body mass index compared to preschool children with alanine aminotransferase ≤ 30 IU/L (median body mass index 27.8 kg/m2 vs 24.0 kg/m2; Mann–Whitney U test, p = 0.003, but there was no disparity for elevated alanine aminotransferase related to Hispanic ethnicity. For older children, Hispanic ethnicity, not body mass index, predicted elevated alanine aminotransferase. Conclusion: Alanine aminotransferase elevation was common in these preschool children. Screening severely obese children for elevated alanine aminotransferase should begin at the age of 2 years.

  7. An R package for fitting age, period and cohort models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Decarli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R implementation of a GLIM macro which fits age-period-cohort model following Osmond and Gardner. In addition to the estimates of the corresponding model, owing to the programming capability of R as an object oriented language, methods for printing, plotting and summarizing the results are provided. Furthermore, the researcher has fully access to the output of the main function (apc which returns all the models fitted within the function. It is so possible to critically evaluate the goodness of fit of the resulting model.

  8. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S.; Friederici, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network. PMID:27812160

  9. THE NUMERICAL REPRESENTATION OF CHILDREN WITH DAMAGED EYESIGHT ON THE TERRITORY OF SKOPJE AND WORK ORGANIZATION WITH THIS POPULATION AT PRESCHOOL PERIOD

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    Snezana TALEVSKA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The binocular function of the eyesight as a process develops as early as the first years of life.Taking into consideration the great number of inherent factors, which disturb the normal development of the eye-sight function, and the great number of causes of damages in the prenatal and natal period, the question of early detection of the reasons, diagnostics and treatment are of utmost importance.That’s possible, only if there is a cooperation among persons that are in the closest contacts with the child:· the mother;· the pediatrician;· the nurse;· the ophthalmologist;· the educator and· the physician.It’s not so necessary to talk about the importance of the sight in the human life, i.e. the importance of the binocular function of the children sight, from the early age when their psycho-physical development is the most flourishing.The importance of the early detection, diagnostics and treatment of the damaged eyesight is great. Especially, this is of great importance for ambliopia, which can be hardly detected at this early period, but it can be easily and successfully treated. We say it is hard to detect because of the delusion and inertness of parents, just during early years from birth to the 3 year, that the child is small and it’s too early to start a treatment.On the contrary, practice has shown that this time is lost and hardly can be compensate, either in means of cure of ambliopia and treatment or rehabilitation of amaurosis.The numerical data of children with damaged eyesight on the territory of Skopje and the need of organized work with this population of children at preschool age will be confirmed and enclosed.

  10. A longitudinal study of the role of children's altruism and forgiveness in the relation between parental aggressive discipline and anxiety of preschoolers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Gu, Minmin; Cheung, Andy P S

    2017-03-01

    Using data collected over a 1-year period on a stratified random sample of 368 parents with children studying in nurseries (mean age=3.97years), this study assessed the predictive effects of parental corporal punishment, parental psychological aggression, preschoolers' altruism, and preschoolers' forgiveness on preschoolers' anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong, China. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that parental psychological aggression, preschoolers' altruism and preschoolers' forgiveness at Time 1 significantly predicted preschoolers' anxiety at Time 2, when controlling for the initial level of preschoolers' anxiety and important demographic variables that co-vary with preschoolers' anxiety. Moreover, preschoolers' altruism moderated the predictive effect of parental psychological aggression on preschoolers' anxiety symptoms. The study has several significant contributions. First, the study supports the predictive effect of parental aggressive discipline on preschoolers' anxiety. Second, we provide evidence that preschoolers' altruism and forgiveness negatively predict preschoolers' anxiety symptoms. Third, preschoolers' altruism and forgiveness are shown to protect them against parental psychological aggression. A dual-focus approach to intervention and prevention is proposed to reduce aggressive discipline by parents as well as to enhance altruism and forgiveness in children. Parent training programs could be provided to teach parents positive discipline strategies. Home-based or school-based interventions could be designed for preschool children to foster and enhance their altruism and forgiveness.

  11. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment.

  12. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

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    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  13. Developmental and functional outcomes at school age of preschool children with global developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Michael; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Webster, Richard; Birnbaum, Rena

    2005-08-01

    The later developmental trajectory of young children diagnosed early with global developmental delay was determined. Using a prospective study, preschool children diagnosed with global developmental delay were systematically reassessed during the early school years with standardized developmental and functional outcome measures (Battelle Developmental Inventory and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale). Of an original cohort of 99 children assessed and diagnosed at a mean age of 3.4 +/- 1.1 years, 48 were reassessed at a mean age of 7.3 +/- 0.9 years. Group performance on the Battelle Developmental Inventory overall was 66.4 +/- 4.3 (mean 100 +/- 15). Between 75% and 100% of the cohort performed at least 1.5 SD below the normative mean on the individual domains of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Similarly, the group mean on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale overall was 63.5 +/- 20.8 (mean 100 +/- 15), with between 61% and 76% of the cohort scoring more than 1.5 SD below the mean on each of the domains. Univariate and multivariate analyses on potential predictor variables identified a lack of an underlying etiology as predictive of poorer performance on the Battelle Developmental Inventory fine motor and motor domains and increasing severity of initial delay as predictive of poorer performance on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale communication domain and overall score. Similarly, maternal employment and paternal postsecondary education improved Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale communication scores, whereas paternal postsecondary education alone predicted better socialization and total scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Children with early global developmental delay demonstrate persistent and consistently poor performance across all developmental and functional domains. Few variables are apparent at intake to predict later performance.

  14. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Rebagliato, Marisa [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Medicine Department, Jaume I University, Av. Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Cases, Amparo [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Amurrio, Ascensión [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish preschool children over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    performed in general practice were collected in 5580 children from two Funen birth cohorts (1992 and 2001, respectively) representing 48% of the total population at similar age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was classified using the IOTF definitions. Results:  In a Danish representative survey...

  16. Ratio of weight to height gain: a useful tool for identifying children at risk of becoming overweight or obese at preschool age

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    Viviane G. Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the usefulness of the weight gain/height gain ratio from birth to two and three years of age as a predictive risk indicator of excess weight at preschool age. METHODS: The weight and height/length of 409 preschool children at daycare centers were measured according to internationally recommended rules. The weight values and body mass indices of the children were transformed into a z-score per the standard method described by the World Health Organization. The Pearson correlation coefficients (rP and the linear regressions between the anthropometric parameters and the body mass index z-scores of preschool children were statistically analyzed (alpha = 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 3.2 years (± 0.3 years. The prevalence of excess weight was 28.8%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8.8%. The correlation coefficients between the body mass index z-scores of the preschool children and the birth weights or body mass indices at birth were low (0.09 and 0.10, respectively. There was a high correlation coefficient (rP = 0.79 between the mean monthly gain of weight and the body mass index z-score of preschool children. A higher coefficient (rP = 0.93 was observed between the ratio of the mean weight gain per height gain (g/cm and the preschool children body mass index z-score. The coefficients and their differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Regardless of weight or length at birth, the mean ratio between the weight gain per g/cm of height growth from birth presented a strong correlation with the body mass index of preschool children. These results suggest that this ratio may be a good indicator of the risk of excess weight and obesity in preschool-aged children.

  17. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age.

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    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities. In age 3-4 the role of level of development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities increases in the structure of complex preparedness, and in an age-dependent period 4-5 years again there is an increase of role of physical development with the maintain of role of physical preparedness and psycho-physiological possibilities.

  18. Therapeutic play in preparing for surgery: behavior of preschool children during the perioperative period

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    Camila Moreira Paladino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:to describe the behavior of children during the instructional session of therapeutic play (ITP in the preoperative period and to verify the behavior presented by them during the perioperative period. Methods: Exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach, developed in a large private hospital in Sao Paulo, in which the behaviors presented by 30 children between three and five years old, undergoing minor surgery were seen at the hospital during the session of TP and in the surgical center, from admission to awaken from anesthesia. Results: Most children participated in the ITP session (21; 70%, entered the surgical room spontaneously (22; 73.3% without resisting mother separation (24; 80%, collaborating with the anesthetic procedure (16; 53.3% and quietly awakening from anesthesia (26; 87%. Conclusion: The use of ITP led the child to understand the surgical procedure, making it less traumatic.

  19. Effects of the combined swimming, corrective and aqua gymnastics programme on body posture of preschool age children

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    Aldvin Torlaković

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research paper is aimed at identifying the possible effects that the implementation of the combined kinesiological programs of swimming and hydro-kinesiological therapy may have on thebody posture in preschool children.Methods: The survey was conducted on a sample of 50 boys selected from a number of Sarajevo kindergartens, in the age group of 5.2±0.6 yrs.; mean height=114±7 cm; mean weight= 21.8±4.7 kg. In order to evaluate the postural status, we used a reduced Napoleon Wolanski method. The activities were carried out within the period of 16 weeks, twice a week for 60 minutes.Results: The analysis of the initial and fi nal series of testing with t-test indicates a high level of statistical signifi cance in the variables of shoulder posture assessment, shoulder blade posture assessment, spinalcord posture assessment, leg posture assessment, feet posture assessment, overall body posture assessment according to Wolanski, whereas somewhat lower level of statistical signifi cance was found in thevariables of abdominal posture assessment and chest posture assessment. A relatively low level of statistical significance is observed only in the variable of head posture assessment.Conclusion: It can be concluded that a combined program of corrective gymnastics with games and exercises in water had signifi cant effects on improving the muscle tone in the respondents, which in turn had a direct impact on improving their body posture, both in terms of all of the individually surveyed body parts and in overall terms.

  20. Lunch is in the bag: increasing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches of preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Harrist, Ronald B; Staskel, Deanna M; Almansour, Fawaz D

    2010-07-01

    Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are important sources of nutrients for healthy growth and development of young children. Recent evidence suggests that sack lunches packed by parents for children to consume at child-care centers do not regularly meet the goal of one serving of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. Lunch Is In The Bag is a child-care center-based nutrition education program targeted at parents of preschool-aged children to increase the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches sent from home that was pilot tested in fall 2008. In a quasiexperimental design, six child-care centers were paired by size before being randomly assigned to intervention (n=3) and comparison (n=3) groups. The parents of caregivers with primary responsibility for preparing the sack lunches of the 3- to 5-year-old children attending the centers were enrolled as parent-child dyads. The intervention included parent handouts, classroom activities, education stations, and teacher training. The contents of the lunch sacks for both the intervention group and comparison group were recorded for 3 nonconsecutive days before and immediately after the intervention period to measure the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. A total of 132 parent-child dyads completed the study, 81 in the intervention group and 51 in the comparison group. Direct observation of children's lunches from the intervention group showed an increase in predicted mean number of servings of vegetables, from 0.41 to 0.65 (Pwhole grains, from 0.54 to 1.06 (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the mean number of servings of fruit. Lunch Is In The Bag, which is designed to fit in the child-care environment and targets parents of 3- to 5-year-old children, is a feasible intervention for improving the nutritional quality of sack lunches.

  1. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  2. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  3. Exposure of Preschool-Age Greek Children (RHEA Cohort) to Bisphenol A, Parabens, Phthalates, and Organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myridakis, Antonis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Fotou, Marianna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2016-01-19

    Phthalate esters (PEs), bisphenol A (BPA), and parabens (PBs), which are used in numerous consumer products, are known for their endocrine disrupting properties. Organophosphate chemicals (OPs), which form the basis of the majority of pesticides, are known for their neurotoxic activity in humans. All of these chemicals are associated with health problems to which children are more susceptible. Once they enter the human body, PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs are metabolized and/or conjugated and finally excreted via urine. Hence, human exposure to these substances is examined through a determination of the urinary concentrations of their metabolites. This study assessed the exposure of Greek preschool-age children to PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs by investigating the urinary levels of seven PEs metabolites, six PBs, BPA, and six dialkyl phosphate metabolites in five-hundred samples collected from 4-year-old children, subjects of the "RHEA" mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Daily intake of endocrine disruptors, calculated for 4 year old children, was lower than the corresponding daily intake for 2.5 year old children, which were determined in an earlier study of the same cohort. In some cases the daily intake levels exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values and the EFSA Reference Doses (RfD) (e.g., for di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate, 3.6% and 1% of the children exceeded RfD and TDi, respectively). Exposure was linked to three main sources: PEs-BPA to plastic, PBs-diethyl phthalate to personal hygiene products, and OPs to food.

  4. Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child. Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

  5. SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES AT CHILDREN OF EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS — PREDICTORS OF RHEUMATIC PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shabaldina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is the reason of rheumatism and a post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Primary colonization of mucosal with this microorganism develops in the period of early ontogenesis. It was confirmed that at a carriage of this microorganism children at them activate immunopathological reactions. Clinic and immune features of the children with recurrent respiratory infections of early and preschool age having the immune response to S. pyogenes were studied. Position of risk of formation of rheumatic diseases at these children was studied. 771 children, in an age interval of 2–6 years are examined. Immune and clinical indicators in two groups of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes (n = 306 and not having it (n = 465 were analyzed. It was shown that in group of the children with immune response to S. pyogenes were authentically higher: point of an hereditary predisposition, expressiveness of placental insufficiency and a fetal hypoxia during the real pregnancy, and in the post-natal period degree of a thymomegaly, a pharyngeal lymphoid ring hypertrophy, skin manifestations of food allergy on the first year of life, the frequency of sharp respiratory infections within one year — in comparison with control. The group of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes had a high level in a nasal secret of TNFα, IL-4, IFNα, and in blood — ASL-O, ASG, RF, CRP and immunoglobulin E. It was shown that at the children with a sensitization to S. pyogenes were lowered in peripheral blood: the general leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes (CD3 positive, T-helpery (CD3 and CD4 positive, an immunoregulatory index (the relation of CD4 of positive lymphocytes to CD8 to positive lymphocytes, phagocytosis (in test with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride — NBT and immunoglobulin A — in comparison with control. The atopic immune response to S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, H

  6. The Relationship Between Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Behavior Problems and Weight Status in Preschool Age Children in Head Start Programs

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    Rivas, Mayra A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is a growing public health concern disproportionally affecting children and their families. Researchers have reported that of 85-90% of children who have witnessed IPV that occurs in the home, 47% of those are under the age of six (Graham-Bermann & Perkins, (2010. Surprisingly, few studies have explored the effects of IPV in preschool-age children. This study examined the relationship between maternal reports of exposure to IPV and preschool-age children’s behavior and physical health, particularly obesity. Participants consisted of 100, predominantly African American (92% primary care givers of children enrolled in Head Start programs in the city of Detroit. The purpose of this study is to: (1 describe the level of potential IPV in the homes of primary caregivers with a child in Head Start, and (2 to examine the relationship between IPV and preschool-age children’s behavioral problems and obesity, so that programs may be developed to better serve preschool-age IPV survivors and their families. There are two hypotheses for this study: (1 Primary caregivers who report incidents of IPV will also report more internalizing and externalizing behaviorial problems in their preschool-age children, and (2 primary caregivers who report incidents of IPV will have children with higher BMIs compared to children whose mothers did not report incidents of IPV.

  7. Validation of Global Lung Function Initiative and All Ages Reference Equations for Forced Spirometry in Healthy Spanish Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín de Vicente, Carlos; de Mir Messa, Inés; Rovira Amigo, Sandra; Torrent Vernetta, Alba; Gartner, Silvia; Iglesias Serrano, Ignacio; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio; Moreno Galdó, Antonio

    2017-09-18

    Recent publication of multi-ethnic spirometry reference equations for subjects aged from 3-95 years aim to avoid age-related discontinuities and provide a worldwide standard for interpreting spirometric test results. To assess the agreement of the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI-2012) and All ages (FEV0.5) reference equations with the Spanish preschool lung function data. To verify the appropriateness of these reference values for clinical use in Spanish preschool children. Spirometric measurements were obtained from children aged 3 to 6 years attending 10 randomly selected schools in Barcelona (Spain). Stanojevic's quality control criteria were applied. Z-scores were calculated for the spirometry outcomes based on the GLI equations. If the z-score (mean) of each parameter was close to 0, with a maximum variance of ± 0.5 from the mean and a standard deviation of 1, the GLI-2012 equations would be applicable in our population. Of 543 children recruited, 405 (74.6%) were 'healthy', and of these, 380 were Caucasians. Of these 380, 81.6% (169 females, 141 males) performed technically acceptable and reproducible maneuvers to assess FEVt, and 69.5% achieved a clear end-expiratory plateau. Z-scores for FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEV0.75, FEV0.75/FVC, FEV0.5, FEF75 and FEF25-75 all fell within ± 0.5, except for FEV1/FVC (0.53 z-scores). GLI equations are appropriate for Spanish preschool children. These data provide further evidence to support widespread application of the GLI reference equations. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The “I” image like the mechanism of moral behavior regulation of preschool age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Korepanova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of 5–7-year old child experience in the regulation of ethical con-duct. The authors stress that the child's view of himself, his own “I” image justify the choice of strategy. The authors use the notion of "moral" image, which includes submission of a preschooler on his own moral qualities, features, displays, personal attitudes and prejudice the desire of children to choose and commit the moral act. The situations of pedagogical support of contact between the older preschooler with a cartoon with the purpose of forming of moral conduct are described.

  9. Gender and age effects interact in preschoolers' help-seeking: evidence for differential responses to changes in task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging puzzle with an adult. The goal was to document whether age and gender interact with fluctuating difficulty to affect children's spontaneous help-seeking. ANOVAs indicated that girls used more help-seeking during difficult segments of the task, despite performance equal to the boys. This pattern was strongest among older girls, who outperformed all other children and used the most help-seeking. Partial correlations, controlling for solving time, indicated that age predicted children's help-seeking during the most difficult segments of the task, but only among girls. Gender differences in social-linguistic maturation and cognitive development are discussed within the framework of Vygotskian theory and related educational practice.

  10. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Pham, Thu Trang; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Finch, Sarah L; El Hayek, Jessy; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry; Rodd, Celia J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between vitamin D status, bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and markers of calcium homeostasis in preschool-aged children. Children (n=488; age range: 1.8-6.0 y) were randomly recruited from Montreal. The distal forearm was scanned using a peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner (Lunar PIXI; GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT). A subset (n=81) had clinical dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (cDXA) scans (Hologic 4500A Discovery Series) of lumbar spine (LS) 1-4, whole body, and ultradistal forearm. All were assessed for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone concentrations (Liaison; Diasorin), ionized calcium (ABL80 FLEX; Radiometer Medical A/S), and dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes by survey. Age (p75 nmol/L positively associated with forearm and whole body BMC and aBMD (p<0.036). Sun index related to (p<0.029) cDXA forearm and LS 1-4 BMC and whole-body aBMD. Nutrient intakes did not relate to BMC or aBMD. In conclusion, higher vitamin D status is linked to higher BMC and aBMD of forearm and whole body in preschool-aged children.

  11. Preterm birth and behaviour problems in infants and preschool-age children: a review of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpi, Elena; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The behaviour problems of children born preterm at school age are well known, but there have been few studies on the behaviour problems of preterm-born infants during infancy and at preschool age. Fourteen cohort studies published in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2000 and 2012 were reviewed with a focus on the type, occurrence, comorbidity, stability, prediction, perinatal, social, and relational risk factors for behaviour problems of preterm-born children in infancy (0-2y) and at preschool age (3-5y). The relational risk factor was considered in an additional four papers. Very-preterm, very-low-birthweight, and moderately-preterm children, in both age groups, show more behaviour problems than term-born comparison children even after perinatal and social risk factors and cognitive performance have been controlled for. Poor social/interactive skills, poor behavioural and emotional self-regulation, emotional difficulties, and reduced attention are the most common behaviour problems. Behaviour problems in infancy are predictive of later behaviour problems and they should be included in follow-up programmes.

  12. Hydrokinezotherapy as the cause of physical rehabilitation of children of preschool age with cerebral paralysis of spastic form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baybuza I.V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work is considered effective influences of physical exercises in water. The dynamics of development of functional indexes is shown by the kardio-respirator and kinesthesia systems. In an experiment took part 15 children of preschool age with the cerebral paralysis of spastic form. It is well-proven that the most substantial changes happened at the estimation of indexes of dynamic force of muscles and goniometry of lower limbs. Leaning against the got results, it is possible to recommend a hydrokinezotherapy in treatment of patients with this pathology.

  13. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M; Messiah, Sarah E

    2016-04-01

    One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body mass index (BMI) among a multicultural sample of caregivers who were predominantly low-income and foreign-born. A total of 980 caregivers (72% Hispanic, 71% born outside of the United States) of preschool-age children (N= 1,105) were asked if their child was normal weight, overweight, or obese. Answers were compared to actual child BMI percentile category via chi-square analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of accurate perception of child BMI percentile category. More than one third of preschoolers were either overweight (18.4%) or obese (16.5%). The majority (92%) of caregivers of an overweight/obese child inaccurately perceived that their child was in a normal BMI category. Overall, foreign-born caregivers were significantly less likely to accurately perceive their child's BMI percentile category versus U.S.-born caregivers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-0.88). Specifically, those born in South America (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.36-0.98), Central America/Mexico (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.41-0.85), and Caribbean Hispanic nations (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35-0.83) were significantly less likely to accurately perceive their child's BMI category versus U.S.-born caregivers. The results of this study suggest that foreign-born caregivers of U.S. preschool-age overweight/obese children in particular do not accurately perceive their child's BMI status. Health care professionals serving foreign-born caregivers may consider additional culturally appropriate healthy weight counseling for these families. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Are Augmented Reality Picture Books Magic or Real for Preschool Children Aged Five to Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Kucuk, Sevda; Goktas, Yuksel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine preschool children's attitudes towards augmented reality picture books (ARPB), their story comprehension performance (SCP) and the relationships between these variables. The sample consisted of 92 five- and six-year-olds (49 boys, 43 girls). An attitude form, story comprehension test and interview form were…

  15. Development and Validation of a Behavioral Screener for Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine A.; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the development of a short behavioral scale that could be used to assess preschoolers' behavior while still retaining adequate scale coverage, reliability, and validity. Factor analysis and item analysis techniques were applied to data from a nationally representative, normative database to create a…

  16. Consapevolezza linguistica nei bambini di eta prescolare (Linguistic Awareness in Preschool-age Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devescovi, Antonella; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of a study designed to determine the metalinguistic awareness of 45 preschool children (15 elementary school children were included to determine the effect of school attendance). The children wre given 3 "metalinguistic" tasks: judging the acceptability of sentences, dividing words, and judging the coherence of discourse. (26…

  17. Higher rates of behavioural and emotional problems at preschool age in children born moderately preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bos, Arend F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare preschool children born moderately preterm (MP; 32-35 weeks' gestation) and children born at term (38-41 weeks' gestation) regarding the occurrence of behavioural and emotional problems, overall, for separate types of problems and by gender. Design Prospective cohort study consi

  18. Consapevolezza linguistica nei bambini di eta prescolare (Linguistic Awareness in Preschool-age Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devescovi, Antonella; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of a study designed to determine the metalinguistic awareness of 45 preschool children (15 elementary school children were included to determine the effect of school attendance). The children wre given 3 "metalinguistic" tasks: judging the acceptability of sentences, dividing words, and judging the coherence of…

  19. Bystanders' Roles and Children with Special Educational Needs in Bullying Situations among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence that the origins of bullying lie in early childhood, very little is known about the nature of the phenomenon in preschool groups. The current understanding among studies conducted in the school environment is that bullying prevention can only be effective if training with individual children takes place…

  20. Consapevolezza linguistica nei bambini di eta prescolare (Linguistic Awareness in Preschool-age Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devescovi, Antonella; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of a study designed to determine the metalinguistic awareness of 45 preschool children (15 elementary school children were included to determine the effect of school attendance). The children wre given 3 "metalinguistic" tasks: judging the acceptability of sentences, dividing words, and judging the coherence of…

  1. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  2. Second Step: A Violence-Prevention Curriculum. Preschool-Kindergarten (Ages 4-6). Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Children, Seattle, WA.

    "Second Step" for preschoolers and kindergartners is a curriculum kit designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in young children and to increase their levels of social competence by teaching skills in empathy, impulse control, and anger management. The kit, which is part of a series that includes curricula for grades 1-3,…

  3. A Digital Program Informs Low-Income Caregivers of Preschool-Age Children about Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara; Rifkin, Robin; Arnold, Kristen; Least, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the digital program, "Mealtime is Family Time", as a means of educating caregivers of preschoolers on the importance of family meals within the division of feeding responsibility framework. Methods: Descriptive design using 2 approaches: focus group program review and discussion or self-report survey after independent…

  4. Bystanders' Roles and Children with Special Educational Needs in Bullying Situations among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence that the origins of bullying lie in early childhood, very little is known about the nature of the phenomenon in preschool groups. The current understanding among studies conducted in the school environment is that bullying prevention can only be effective if training with individual children takes place…

  5. Quality Partnership as a Contextual Prerequisite of Successful Learning of Young and Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubetic, Maja; Ercegovac, Ina Reic; Koludrovic, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses quality partnership as a prerequisite for the functioning of the institutions of early and pre-school education and for the child's overall development and learning. Considering that child's development and learning take place in different contexts (family, educational institutions, clubs, local and wider communities), the…

  6. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Problems Among Preschool and School-Aged Group Children in a Primary Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe sleep patterns and sleep problems among preschool and school aged group children in a primary care setting in Iran. Material & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in two primary care pediatric clinics in Tehran from March 2006 to September 2006.Findings: Sleep patterns of 215 children studied (101 were in preschool age group; 2-6 years old, and 114 were in primary school age group; 7-12 years old. Sleep problems were common in study group, as follows: bedtime problems 21.05%-56.44%, excessive daytime sleepiness 26.73%-42.98%, awakening during the night 13.86%-32.46%, regularity and duration of sleep 17.54%-27.72%, sleep-disordered breathing 10.53%-17.82%.Conclusion: These high frequencies of sleep problems in children explains the importance and burden of sleep disorders in children  which unfortunately are not noticed by primary care providers in Iran and inadequate attention to them may have negative consequences on a host of functional domains, including mood, behavior, school performance, and health outcomes.

  7. Proximity to supermarkets associated with higher body mass index among overweight and obese preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechtner, Lauren; Block, Jason; Duncan, Dustin T; Gillman, Matthew W; Gortmaker, Steven L; Melly, Steven J; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine associations of proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI) among preschool-age children. We used baseline data from 438 children ages 2-6.9 years with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile participating in a RCT in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2009. We used a geographic information system to determine proximity to six types of food establishments: 1) convenience stores, 2) bakeries, coffee shops, candy stores, 3) full service restaurants, 4) large supermarkets, 5) small supermarkets, and 6) fast-food restaurants. The main outcome was child's BMI. Children's mean (SD) BMI was 19.2 (2.4)kg/m(2); 35% lived ≤ 1 mile from a large supermarket, 42% lived >1 to 2 miles, and 22% lived >2 miles. Compared to children living >2 miles from a large supermarket, those who lived within 1 mile had a BMI 1.06 kg/m(2) higher. Adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics and distance to fast-food restaurants attenuated this estimate to 0.77 kg/m(2). Living in any other distance category from a large supermarket and proximity to other food establishments were not associated with child BMI. Living closer to a large supermarket was associated with higher BMI among preschool-age children who were overweight or obese. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Analysis of Training, Generalization, and Maintenance Effects of Primary Care Triple P for Parents of Preschool-Aged Children with Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Cynthia L.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Lutzker, John R.; Prinz, Ronald J.; Shapiro, Cheri; Whitaker, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    A brief primary care intervention for parents of preschool-aged children with disruptive behavior was assessed using a multiple probe design. Primary Care Triple P, a four session behavioral intervention was sequentially introduced within a multiple probe format to each of 9 families to a total of 10 children aged between 3 and 7 years (males = 4,…

  9. Association between dental caries and age-specific body mass index in preschool children of an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association of dental caries and BMI-for-age in preschool children and whether BMI-for-age is similar or different between Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC and caries free children. Materials and Methods: Four hundred preschool children aged 30-70 months were entered into this study. The parameters examined in this study were weight, height, BMI-for-age and number of decayed, extracted and filled surfaces of deciduous teeth (defs. Based on dental caries, the subjects were also divided into S-ECC and caries-free groups. Then data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, multiple regression and logistic regression tests. Results: The mean and SD of defs index was 8.37 ± 11.2. In the underweight, normal-weight, at risk of overweight and overweight groups, these values were 4.89 ± 10.8, 8.84 ± 11.8, 8.68 ± 10.6, and 10.39 ± 10.2, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed a statistically a significant direct association between BMI-for-age and defs index (P = 0.001 after adjusting for gender and age. The percentage of subjects who were caries free and S-ECC was 44.8% and 51.2%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was statistically a significant inverse association between BMI-for-age scores and the frequency of caries-free (P = 0.001 and a significant direct association with S-ECC children (P = 0.001. Conclusions : The findings of this study demonstrated that there was an association between higher defs scores and severe early childhood caries with overweightness.

  10. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  11. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  12. Play as the Leading Activity of the Preschool Period: Insights from Vygotsky, Leont'ev, and Bakhtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert M.; Tarulli, Donato

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ideas from Vygotsky, Leont'ev and Bakhtin to show how fantasy play acts as its own zone of proximal development that contributes to the development of symbolic mediation, the appropriation of social roles and symbols, and the preschool child's preparation for elementary school. (JPB)

  13. Syndromic analysis of ADHD at preschool age according to A.R. Luria concept

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Solovieva; Luis Quintanar Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Different authors have studied attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children from different perspectives. Neuropsychological assessment can detect many kinds of cognitive difficulties, but the common syndromic picture has not yet been established. The idea of the existence of a specific neuropsychological syndrome based on A.R. Lurias concept differs from syndromes that are established in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4 th edition. The goa...

  14. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  15. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Omitola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  16. Intellectual Development Features and Status in the Nursery Group in Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyn V.A.,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of intellectual development of high-status, middle-status and low-status members of the educational preschool groups. It is shown that the intellectual development of high status and middle status 4-5 years old children is higher than their low-status peers, especially in such aspects as perception, attention, and memory. This integral indicator of high status subjects corresponds to the average or high level of intelligence, and for most of the subjects of this category is characterized by a high level. An integral component of intellectual development of middle-status children is comparable to the one in high-status. In fact, there is only one, but not least, difference between the two categories: among high-status children there is no kids whose integral indicator of intellectual development is below average. Integral indicator of intellectual development of most low-status subjects corresponds to the low intelligence level. We analyzed a dialectical relationship of intellectual, social, and psychological development of preschool children according to the concept of «interpersonal situation of development». The article presents methodical maintenance of structure definition of interpersonal relations in the preschool educational groups. The study proposed a number of scientific and practical recommendations.

  17. Genotyping NUDT15 can predict the dose reduction of 6-MP for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia especially at a preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hisato; Fukushima, Hiroko; Suzuki, Ryoko; Hosaka, Sho; Yamaki, Yuni; Kobayashi, Chie; Sakai, Aiko; Imagawa, Kazuo; Iwabuchi, Atsushi; Yoshimi, Ai; Nakao, Tomohei; Kato, Keisuke; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koike, Kazutoshi; Noguchi, Emiko; Fukushima, Takashi; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics among children has been altered dynamically. The difference between children and adults is caused by immaturity in things such as metabolic enzymes and transport proteins. The periods when these alterations happen vary from a few days to some years after birth. We hypothesized that the effect of gene polymorphisms associated with the dose of medicine could be influenced by age. In this study, we analyzed 51 patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) retrospectively. We examined the associations between the polymorphism in NUDT15 and clinical data, especially the dose of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Ten of the patients were heterozygous for the variant allele in NUDT15. In patients under 7 years old with NUDT15 variant allele, the average administered dose of 6-MP was lower than that for the patients homozygous for the wild-type allele (P=0.04). Genotyping of NUDT15 could be a beneficial to estimate the tolerated dose of 6-MP for patients with childhood ALL, especially at a preschool age in Japan. Furthermore, the analysis with stratification by age might be useful in pharmacogenomics among children.

  18. Materialism across the lifespan : An age-period-cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Esther; Pieters, Rik

    This research examined the development of materialism across the lifespan. Two initial studies revealed that: 1) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age; and 2) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has

  19. Ability to Taste 6-n-propylthiouracil and Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C.; Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Sitto, Jacinta R.; Kannan, Srimathi

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is genetically mediated. Sensitivity to PROP has been associated with weight status in both adults and children. Objective To determine whether there is an association between PROP sensitivity and body mass index (BMI) in low-income children of diverse race/ethnicity, among whom there is a high prevalence of obesity. Methods 81 preschool-aged children attending Head Start tasted a solution of 560 μmol/L PROP and reported whether it tasted “like water” or “like something else”. Mothers reported child race, age, maternal education, maternal weight and height, child’s reluctance to sample new foods via the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and child’s dietary intake via a food frequency questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated and for children, expressed in z-scores. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between child PROP taster status and BMI z-score, testing covariates child age, gender, race, maternal education and BMI, and child’s FNS score. Children’s dietary intake was compared by PROP taster status. Results PROP tasters, compared to non-tasters, had significantly higher BMI z-scores (0.99 (SD 1.24) v. 0.03 (1.12), p = .004) and had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (31.8% v. 5.6%, p = .025), but demonstrated no differences in reported dietary intake. The most parsimonious model predicting the child’s BMI z-score included only maternal BMI and the child’s PROP taster status (R2 = 22.3%). Discussion A genetically-mediated ability to taste bitter may contribute to obesity risk in low-income, preschool-aged children. PMID:18421272

  20. Ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil and BMI in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Cardinal, Tiffany M; Sitto, Jacinta R; Kannan, Srimathi

    2008-07-01

    Sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is genetically mediated. Sensitivity to PROP has been associated with weight status in both adults and children. To determine whether there is an association between PROP sensitivity and BMI in low-income children of diverse race/ethnicity, among whom there is a high prevalence of obesity. Eighty-one preschool-aged children attending Head Start tasted a solution of 560 micromol/l PROP and reported whether it tasted "like water" or "like something else". Mothers reported child's race, age, maternal education, maternal weight and height, child's reluctance to sample new foods via the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and child's dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated and for children, expressed in z-scores. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between child's PROP taster status and BMI z-score, testing covariates child's age, gender, race, maternal education and BMI, and child's FNS score. Children's dietary intake was compared by PROP taster status. PROP tasters, compared with nontasters, had significantly higher BMI z-scores (0.99 (s.d. 1.24) vs. 0.03 (1.12), P=0.004) and had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (31.8% vs. 5.6%, P=0.025), but demonstrated no differences in reported dietary intake. The most parsimonious model predicting the child's BMI z-score included only maternal BMI and the child's PROP taster status (R(2)=22.3%). A genetically mediated ability to taste bitter may contribute to obesity risk in low-income, preschool-aged children.

  1. Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes at preschool age for children with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.

  2. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peat Jennifer K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Methods Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%. Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity. Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED, non-sedentary (non-SED, light (LPA, moderate (MPA and vigorous (VPA physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC or kappa (κ values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Results Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day-1 and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day-1, was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day-1 and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day-1 or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day-1 cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA was 20.9 mins.day-1 and 45.2 mins.day-1. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from

  3. Parental feeding behaviour and motivations regarding pre-school age children: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylatt, Louise; Cartwright, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Poor childhood diet is a major risk factor for disease and obesity, and parents of pre-school children are in a powerful position to influence diet for life. The technique of thematic synthesis (Thomas & Harden, 2008) was used to synthesise recent qualitative research on parental feeding of pre-school age children (18 months-6 years). The aim was to inform development of nutrition advice by gaining a comprehensive picture of parental feeding behaviours and motivations. Six key parental feeding behaviours were identified: modelling, rewards, pressure and encouragement, repeated exposure, creativity, and limiting intake. Four overarching themes regarding motivations were identified: promoting good health (balance and variety, and weight control); building positive relationships (child involvement, and parental engagement and responsiveness); practicalities and constraints (time, cost, and lack of culinary skill, and pressure and flexibility); and emotional motivations (problem avoidance, and emotional investment). Practicalities and constraints, and emotional motivations impacted more significantly on low income parents. In order to be effective, nutrition advice ought to tap into parents' strong desire to build positive relationships and promote good health while remaining sensitive to the significant constraints and practicalities faced.

  4. Feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Gromis, Judy C; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Thirty-two parents of 2- to 6-year-old children. The feeding practices and styles of low-income parents of preschoolers. Qualitative interviews analyzed iteratively following a thematic approach; quantitative data analyzed using nonparametric and chi-square tests. Qualitative analyses revealed parents used a myriad of feeding practices to accomplish child-feeding goals. Racial/ethnic differences were seen; East Asian parents used more child-focused decision-making processes, whereas black parents used more parent-focused decision-making processes. Quantitative analyses substantiated racial/ethnic differences; black parents placed significantly higher demands on children for the amounts (H = 5.89, 2 df, P = .05; Kruskal-Wallis) and types (H = 8.39, 2 df, P = .01; Kruskal-Wallis) of food eaten compared to parents of other races/ethnicities. In contrast, significantly higher proportions of East Asian parents were classified as having an indulgent feeding style compared to black parents and parents of other races/ethnicities (chi(2)[4, n = 32] = 9.29, P < .05). Findings provide support for tailoring nutrition education programs to meet the diverse needs of this target audience. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vascular aging and hemodynamic stability in the intraoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrante S. Gragasin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of elderly people in the population is steadily increasing, and the inevitable consequence is that this subpopulation is more frequently represented in common medical procedures and surgeries. Understanding the circulatory changes that accompany the aging process is therefore becoming increasingly timely and relevant. In this short review, we discuss aspects of vascular control in aging that are particularly relevant in the maintenance of intraoperative hemodynamic stability. We subsequently review the effects of certain notable anesthetic agents with respect to the aging vasculature.

  6. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1 prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2 use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3 be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1 being nagged by children’s food requests, 2 being

  7. Cognitive-behavioural physical activity treatment in African-American pre-schoolers: effects of age, sex, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Tennant, Gisèle

    2013-02-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children of 5 years and younger has greatly increased in countries including Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA, with African-Americans most affected in the USA. Low amounts of physical activity may be a primary cause. Interventions intended to increase physical activity during pre-school have had minimal effects. A physical activity intervention derived from self-efficacy and social cognitive theory administered by pre-school teachers in the USA (Start For Life) was contrasted with typical care over 8 weeks. The 30-min-per-day treatment incorporated structured gross motor skill physical activities and training in self-management and self-regulation skills. The African-American children in the treatment (n = 154, 21 classrooms) and control (n = 121, 11 classrooms) groups ranged in age from 3.5 to 5.6 years. Mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variances indicated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in the treatment group when both the children and classrooms were the unit of analysis. Time in sedentary activities was not affected. Together, age, sex and body mass index (BMI) percentile significantly predicted treatment-related changes in MVPA (R(2) = 0.11) and VPA (R(2) = 0.11), with age (β = -0.22 and β = -0.23, respectively) and BMI percentile (β = -0.24 and β = -0.23, respectively) contributing uniquely to the explained variances indicating greater treatment effects for participants who were younger and had a lower BMI percentile. The Start For Life treatment was associated with increased MVPA by approximately 1 h per week, with most of that change being in VPA. After sufficient replication, adjustments may be made to maximise treatment effects. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  9. [Clinical features and characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia associated with iron deficiency anemia in children of pre-school age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiian, O I; Romanova, T O; Vasylyshyn, Kh I; Bynda, T P; Popov, S V; Vasyl'ieva, O H; Lypovs'ka, V V

    2014-01-01

    The most common clinical signs of community-acquired pneumonia associated with iron deficiency anemia in children of pre-preschool age are defined. Indicators of immunity cellular link in children with community-acquired pneumonia are studied. It is established that acute illness is characterized by disturbances in cellular immunity that are more expressed in patients with concomitant iron deficiency anemia.

  10. Can They Use Their Words? An Investigation of the Relationship between Language Competence and Emotion Regulation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimowicz, Tamara D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language competence and emotion regulation in children between the ages of 48 and 60 months. Thirty-one children who attended subsidized preschool programs serving children from low SES families participated, along with their primary caretaker. The children's receptive and expressive language…

  11. The Influence of Horticultural Activities on Preschool-Aged Children's Peer Interaction and Task Engagement in an Inclusive Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedeman-Rouse, Teri

    2012-01-01

    There is great concern by teachers, school administrators and parents regarding the increase in the number of preschool-aged students who exhibit challenging behavior in early childhood settings (Benedict, Horner & Squires 2007), need for early intervention procedures that focus on young children who may be at risk for developing patterns of…

  12. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  13. Preschool-Age Male Psychiatric Patients with Specific Developmental Disorders and Those Without: Do They Differ in Behavior Problems and Treatment Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Becke, Johanna; Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Romer, Georg; Müller, Jörg Michael

    2014-01-01

    Specific developmental disorders of speech, language, and motor function in children are associated with a wide range of mental health problems. We examined whether preschool-age psychiatric patients with specific developmental disorders and those without differed in the severity of emotional and behavior problems. In addition, we examined whether…

  14. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  15. E-Journals Come of Age. Periodical Price Survey 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham-Van Orsdel, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Print journals still outnumber e-journals by more than 60 to 1, yet these electronic resources will profoundly change the serials marketplace, as well as the world of scholarly research. This year's periodicals price study looks at these changes, along with currency and historical pricing, to predict 1999 subscription prices. (AEF)

  16. E-Journals Come of Age. Periodical Price Survey 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham-Van Orsdel, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Print journals still outnumber e-journals by more than 60 to 1, yet these electronic resources will profoundly change the serials marketplace, as well as the world of scholarly research. This year's periodicals price study looks at these changes, along with currency and historical pricing, to predict 1999 subscription prices. (AEF)

  17. Studying of preconditions of introduction of integrating-utilizing balls in the process of physical education of children of the senior preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnyk V. M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of introduction of integrating-utilizing balls in process of physical education of children of the senior preschool age is considered. In research is used the data of questionnaire of 95 teachers of preschool educational establishments of Lvov. It is established that all interrogated are interested in innovations in physical education process. It is noticed that the majority of respondents 54, 6 % prefer sports employment with elements of games, entertainments and relay races. Determined that 72, 9 % interrogated combined sports employment with other subjects. It is shown that impellent activity promotes mental development of children. By the overwhelming majority of respondents of 98, 8 % are noticed that in the course of physical education it is expedient to combine impellent and informative activity. It is established that all respondents would like to introduce is integrating-utilizing balls in process of physical education of the pre-school educational establishments and see expedient working out of methodical recommendations.

  18. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production. PMID:26347687

  19. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eDegé

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading. Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory in 55 preschoolers (27 boys. Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production.

  20. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production.

  1. [Behaviour problems of children with Down syndrome in preschool-age – Results from the Heidelberg Down syndrome study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2017-04-21

    We report on the frequency and the correlations of behaviour problems among children with Down syndrome in preschool-age. Method: As part of a longitudinal study 48 mothers of children with Down syndrome completed the German version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” (SDQ-D) and the Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI). The mothers were asked to fill out the questionnaires when the children had a mean age of five years. The results were compared to norms from children with typical development. Thirty per cent of the children with Down syndrome were rated as abnormal. Specifically, mean scores indicating problems with children of the same age and hyperactivity were elevated. A regression analysis predicting the total problem score of the SDQ-D revealed maternal educational level, optimistic attitude, and subjective parental stress at the age of one year and the degree of behavioural abnormalities at the age of three years as significant influential factors. Early intervention for Down syndrome children should include supporting parenting competence and coping skills in order to prevent behaviour problems.

  2. Regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals increases risk of overweight among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly

    2007-06-01

    To examine the relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (eg, nondiet carbonated drinks and fruit drinks) and the prevalence of overweight among preschool-aged children living in Canada. Data come from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998-2002). A representative sample (n=2,103) of children born in 1998 in Québec, Canada. A total of 1,944 children (still representative of the same-age children in this population) remaining at 4 to 5 years in 2002 participated in the nutrition study. Data were collected via 24-hour dietary recall interview. Frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals at age 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years was recorded and children's height and weight were measured. Multivariate regression analysis was done with Statistical Analysis System software. Weighted data were adjusted for within-child variability and significance level was set at 5%. Overall, 6.9% of children who were nonconsumers of sugar-sweetened beverages between meals between the ages of 2.5 to 4.5 years were overweight at 4.5 years, compared to 15.4% of regular consumers (four to six times or more per week) at ages 2.5 years, 3.5 years, and 4.5 years. According to multivariate analysis, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals more than doubles the odds of being overweight when other important factors are considered in multivariate analysis. Children from families with insufficient income who consume sugar-sweetened beverages regularly between the ages of 2.5 and 4.5 years are more than three times more likely to be overweight at age 4.5 years compared to nonconsuming children from sufficient income households. Regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals may put some young children at a greater risk for overweight. Parents should limit the quantity of sweetened beverages consumed during preschool years because it may increase propensity to gain weight.

  3. Physical activity in Ontario preschoolers: prevalence and measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Joyce; Nguyen, Thanh; Gabel, Leigh; Timmons, Brian W

    2011-04-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of active living behaviours; however, very little is known about the physical activity levels of preschoolers from Canada. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine physical activity in a sample of Ontario preschoolers by using high-frequency accelerometry to determine activity and step counts; (ii) assess the relationship between step counts and physical activity; (iii) examine the influence of epoch length or sampling interval on physical activity; and (iv) compare measured physical activity to existing recommendations. Thirty 3- to 5-year-old children wore accelerometers to monitor habitual physical activity in 3-s epochs over a 7-day period. Preschoolers engaged in an average of 220 min of daily physical activity, 75 min of which were spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and they accumulated 7529 ± 1539 steps·day(-1). Preschoolers who engaged in more MVPA also took more steps on a daily basis (r = 0.81, p physical activity per day for preschool-age children. Our data highlight important methodological considerations when measuring physical activity in preschoolers and the need for preschool-specific physical activity guidelines for Canadian children.

  4. Single versus double dose praziquantel comparison on efficacy and Schistosoma mansoni re-infection in preschool-age children in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, Allen; Nuwaha, Fred; Tukahebwa, Edridah Muheki;

    2015-01-01

    , abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Overall re-infection rate 8 months post treatment was 44.5%. CONCLUSIONS: PZQ is efficacious and relatively safe to use in preschool-age children but there is still an unmet need to improve its formulation to suit small children. Two PZQ doses lead to significant......BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection is proven to be a major health problem of preschool-age children in sub-Saharan Africa, yet this age category is not part of the schistosomiasis control program. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of single and double dose praziquantel...... (PZQ) treatment on cure rates (CRs), egg reduction rates (ERRs) and re-infection rates 8 months later, in children aged 1-5 years living along Lake Victoria, Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infected children (n= 1017) were randomized to receive either a single or double dose of PZQ. Initially...

  5. Disentangling the Age, Period, and Cohort Effects using a Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portrait, France; Alessie, R.J.M.; Deeg, Dorly

    2002-01-01

    Disentangling age, period, and cohort effects in explaining health trends is crucial to assess future prevalences of health disorders. The identification problem -- age, period, and cohort effects are perfectly linearly related -- is tackled by modeling cohort and period effects using lifetime

  6. Disentangling the Age, Period, and Cohort Effects using a Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portrait, France; Alessie, R.J.M.; Deeg, Dorly

    2002-01-01

    Disentangling age, period, and cohort effects in explaining health trends is crucial to assess future prevalences of health disorders. The identification problem -- age, period, and cohort effects are perfectly linearly related -- is tackled by modeling cohort and period effects using lifetime macro

  7. Developmental outcomes at preschool age after fetal exposure to valproic acid and lamotrigine: cognitive, motor, sensory and behavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtman, Tanya; Parush, Shula; Ornoy, Asher

    2013-11-01

    This prospective, observational study assessed the development of preschool children aged 3-6 years, 11 months (n=124) after in-utero anti-epileptic drug (AED) monotherapy exposure to valproic acid (VPA) (n=30, mean age 52.00[±15.22] months) and lamotrigine (LT) (n=42, mean age 50.12[±12.77] months), compared to non-exposed control children (n=52, mean age 59.96[±14.51] months). As a combined group, AED-exposed children showed reduced non-verbal IQ scores, and lower scores on motor measures, sensory measures, and parent-report executive function, behavioral and attentional measures. When the VPA- and LT-exposed groups were analyzed separately, no cognitive differences were found, but control-VPA and control-LT differences emerged for most motor and sensory measures as well as control-VPA parent-report behavioral and attentional differences. No differences were noted between the VPA and LT groups. These findings suggest that VPA- and LT-exposed children should be monitored on a wider range of developmental measures than currently used, and at differing developmental stages.

  8. Transforming the representations of preschool-age children regarding geophysical entities and physical geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KAMPEZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A semi-structured interview was individually administered to 76 preschoolers. The interview raised questions about the conceptual understanding of certain geophysical entities. A teaching intervention designed to attempt an understanding of the relationship between them and earth’s surface was implemented with groups of 5-9 children in order to help children construct a more “realistic” model of earth. The intervention’s effectiveness was consequently evaluated (after two weeks using an interview similar to that conducted prior to the intervention. The results of the study indicated that prior to the intervention many children faced difficulties in descriptive understanding of even familiar geographic features, such as rivers, lakes and islands. After the intervention the majority of children readily conceptualized certain aspects of most of the geophysical entities and correlated them with earth’s surface. Educational and research implications are discussed.

  9. AGE, PERIOD, AND COHORT EFFECTS ON PULMONARY-FUNCTION IN A 24-YEAR LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, XP; LAIRD, N; DOCKERY, DW; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B; WEISS, ST

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function meas

  10. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  11. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  12. Enterobiasis and Strongyloidiasis and Associated Co-infections and Morbidity Markers in Infants, Preschool- and School-aged Children from Rural Coastal Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, N; Schindler, T.; Abdul, U.; Rothen, J.; B. Genton; Lweno, O; Mohammed, A.S.; Masimba, J.; Kwaba, D.; Abdulla, S; TANNER, M; Daubenberger, C.; Knopp, S

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data pertaining to the epidemiology and public health impact of Enterobius vermicularis and Strongyloides stercoralis infections. We aimed to determine the extent of enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, and other helminth infections and their association with asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitaemia, anaemia, nutritional status, and blood cell counts in infants, preschool-aged (PSAC), and school-aged children (SAC) from rural coastal Tanzania. Methods A total of 1,033 ...

  13. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  14. The Frankfurt early intervention program FFIP for preschool aged children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Valerian, Jennifer; Teufel, Karoline; Wilker, Christian

    2012-09-01

    Different early intervention programs, developed predominantly in the US, for preschool aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been published. Several systematic review articles including a German Health Technology Assessment on behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with ASD reported insufficient evidence and a substantial problem of generalisability to the German context. In Germany, approx. 2-5 h early intervention is supported by social services. Here, we report the results of a 1 year pre-post pilot study on a developmentally based social pragmatic approach, the Frankfurt Early Intervention program FFIP. In FFIP, individual 2:1, behaviourally and developmentally based therapy with the child is combined with parent training and training of kindergarten teachers. Treatment frequency is 2 h/week. Outcome measures were the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales II (VABS), mental age and the ADOS severity score. Improvements after 1 year were observed for the VABS socialisation scale and the mental age quotient/IQ (medium effect sizes). Results are comparable with several other studies with a similar or slightly higher therapeutic intensity implementing comparable or different early intervention methods or programs. Compared to most high-intensity programs (30-40 h/week), lower cognitive gains were observed. Results have to be replicated and assessed by a randomized-controlled study before any final conclusions can be drawn.

  15. Compact attractors for time-periodic age-structured population models

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    Pierre Magal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of compact attractors for time-periodic age-structured models. So doing we investigate the eventual compactness of a class of abstract non-autonomous semiflow (non necessarily periodic. We apply this result to non-autonomous age-structured models. In the time periodic case, we obtain the existence of a periodic family of compact subsets that is invariant by the semiflow, and attract the solutions of the system.

  16. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

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    Petrenko N.B.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  18. Mobile-based intervention intended to stop obesity in preschool-aged children: the MINISTOP randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Christine Delisle; Sandin, Sven; Henriksson, Pontus; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2017-06-01

    Background: Traditional obesity prevention programs are time- and cost-intensive. Mobile phone technology has been successful in changing behaviors and managing weight; however, to our knowledge, its potential in young children has yet to be examined.Objective: We assessed the effectiveness of a mobile health (mHealth) obesity prevention program on body fat, dietary habits, and physical activity in healthy Swedish children aged 4.5 y.Design: From 2014 to 2015, 315 children were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Parents in the intervention group received a 6-mo mHealth program. The primary outcome was fat mass index (FMI), whereas the secondary outcomes were intakes of fruits, vegetables, candy, and sweetened beverages and time spent sedentary and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Composite scores for the primary and secondary outcomes were computed.Results: No statistically significant intervention effect was observed for FMI between the intervention and control group (mean ± SD: -0.23 ± 0.56 compared with -0.20 ± 0.49 kg/m(2)). However, the intervention group increased their mean composite score from baseline to follow-up, whereas the control group did not (+0.36 ± 1.47 compared with -0.06 ± 1.33 units; P = 0.021). This improvement was more pronounced among the children with an FMI above the median (4.11 kg/m(2)) (P = 0.019). The odds of increasing the composite score for the 6 dietary and physical activity behaviors were 99% higher for the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.008).Conclusions: This mHealth obesity prevention study in preschool-aged children found no difference between the intervention and control group for FMI. However, the intervention group showed a considerably higher postintervention composite score (a secondary outcome) than the control group, especially in children with a higher FMI. Further studies targeting specific obesity classes within preschool-aged children are warranted. This trial was

  19. Individualization of the preventive approach among children of preschool age with speech infringements. Preventive measures for preschool children with speech disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharitonova T.L.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Preschool children with speech infringements are group of the raised risk of development of caries and parodentium diseases, therefore need the especial approach to preventive maintenance. Application of photoactivated disinfection «FotoSan» as an alternative method of treatment of parodentium diseases with speech infringements has allowed to achieve desirable results of the preventive program spent by us from children

  20. The pace of vocabulary growth during preschool predicts cortical structure at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Small, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    Children vary greatly in their vocabulary development during preschool years. Importantly, the pace of this early vocabulary growth predicts vocabulary size at school entrance. Despite its importance for later academic success, not much is known about the relation between individual differences in early vocabulary development and later brain structure and function. Here we examined the association between vocabulary growth in children, as estimated from longitudinal measurements from 14 to 58 months, and individual differences in brain structure measured in 3rd and 4th grade (8-10 years old). Our results show that the pace of vocabulary growth uniquely predicts cortical thickness in the left supramarginal gyrus. Probabilistic tractography revealed that this region is directly connected to the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis) and the ventral premotor cortex, via what is most probably the superior longitudinal fasciculus III. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the relation between the pace of vocabulary learning in children and a specific change in the structure of the cerebral cortex, specifically, cortical thickness in the left supramarginal gyrus. They also highlight the fact that differences in the pace of vocabulary growth are associated with the dorsal language stream, which is thought to support speech perception and articulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of behavioral inhibition among preschool aged children in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the identified risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood is inhibited behaviors in childhood. The present study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral inhibition with some of the internal (personal and external (family environment factors in a sample of preschool children in kindergartens. In a cross sectional study in 2009, data was collected trough a structured questionnaire completed by parents and teachers in day-care centers. A total of 1403 children were assessed. Analysis was performed through complex sample analysis. The results showed that 7.4% (CI95%= 6.1%-9.1% of children according to parents' and 8.1% (CI95%= 6%- 10.7% according to teachers' evaluation classified as behaviorally inhibited. The higher levels of behavioral inhibition were shown by girls, first children, single parent families and older children. Birth year before 2004, birth rank, living in a single parent family and maternal level of education were independent predictors for behavioral inhibition in logistic regression modeling. There is relatively high prevalence of inhibited behaviors among Iranian children. Further examination of diagnosed children with behavioral inhibition by experienced psychiatrists is needed. Also establishing consultation centers for behaviorally inhibited children and instructing their parents and teachers are recommended.

  2. The semantic associative ability in preschoolers with different age of language onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Di Giacomo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to verify the semantic associative abilities in children with different language onset times: early, typical, and delayed talkers. The study was conducted on the sample of 74 preschool children who performed a Perceptual Associative Task, in order to evaluate the ability to link concepts by four associative strategies (function, part/whole, contiguity, and superordinate strategies. The results evidenced that the children with delayed language onset performed significantly better than the children with early language production. No difference was found between typical and delayed language groups. Our results showed that the children with early language onset presented weakness in the flexibility of elaboration of the concepts. The typical and delayed language onset groups overlapped performance in the associative abilities. The time of language onset appeared to be a predictive factor in the use of semantic associative strategies; the early talkers might present a slow pattern of conceptual processing, whereas the typical and late talkers may have protective factors.

  3. Family Representations of Preschool Age Children Living in Families of Different Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A child’s family representation is one of the crucial factors of psychological and social development in older preschoolers. The article emphasizes that the relationships between a child’s family socioeconomic status (SES and family representation are mediated. Family members’ perception and evaluation of their socioeconomic status are conditioned with subjective economic well- being. It influences family functioning which, in its turn, conditions particular characteristics of a child’s emotional experiences in family situation and his/her family representations. The analysis of relationships between subjective economic well-being of family members and a child’s family representations demonstrates the trend to increase in severity of poor well-being markers in case of increase of parental markers of financial stress, financial deprivation and financial anxiety. An empirical classification of family representation types in children from families with various SES is provided. It includes positive family representation “Favorable family”, family representation with some elements of disharmony “Unstable family”, representation of a distant family “Distant family”, conflict family representation “Conflict family”, negative family representation “Unfavorable family”.

  4. [Caries severity and associated factors in preschool children aged 3-6 years old in Campeche City, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Villanueva, América; Estrella-Rodríguez, Ramon; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2005-01-01

    To identify individuals affected by severe carious lesions, according to the size of lesion, and to determine the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1303 children aged 3 to 6 from 10 public preschools with a public preventive dental program. Presence and severity of dental caries were diagnosed using standard criteria (magnitude of carious lesion), which contained four lesion types based on their severity or size. The mothers completed questionnaires to supply information on hygienic habits of the child, and socio-demographics and socioeconomic status variables for the family. Children were examined by one of three calibrated and standardized examiners (kappa>0.85). Adjusted ordinal logistic regression (odds proportional model) was performed to identify associations between caries severity and risk indicators. The percentages of subjects in severity groups I, II, III and IV were 77.3%, 4.8%, 12% and 5.9%, respectively. We observed that subjects with dmft>4 (sum of decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary teeth), presented the severest carious lesions (71.4% vs 6.7%; p<0.001). The variables associated to caries severity were: older age of the child, mother's negative attitude toward dental health, regular and inadequate level of oral hygiene, and an interaction between low socioeconomic level and presence of structural enamel defects. We observed a low percentage (17.8%) of subjects affected by severe lesion of dental caries (groups III & IV). Well-defined arrays of variables were associated with caries severity.

  5. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  6. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Jessy El; Egeland, Grace; Weiler, Hope

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N). Materials and methods Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.). Results Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required. PMID:22789515

  7. Parenting among low-income, African American single mothers with preschool-age children: patterns, predictors, and developmental correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroder, S M

    2000-01-01

    Dimensions and patterns of parenting were examined in a sample of 193 low-income African American single mothers with preschool-age children. Factor analyses yielded three dimensions: Aggravation, Nurturance, and Cognitive Stimulation. Cluster analysis yielded four patterns of parenting: Aggravated but Nurturant; Cognitively Stimulating; Patient and Nurturant; and Low Nurturance. Discriminant function analysis was used to predict membership in each of the four parenting clusters. Two composite functions emerged, the first representing maternal well-being (locus of control, depressive symptoms), the second representing sociodemographic characteristics (maternal education, duration on welfare, age at first birth), accounting for 93% of between-groups variability. Children's scores on measures of cognitive school readiness and personal maturity were significantly related to parenting pattern, even after controlling for significant predictors of parenting pattern; children's verbal ability was no longer related to parenting pattern once significant maternal characteristics were controlled. Findings are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature on parenting and in terms of implications for welfare policy and programs.

  8. No association between elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH at birth and parent-reported problem behavior at preschool age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Trumpff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mild level of iodine deficiency during pregnancy may reduce maternal thyroid hormone production and supply to the fetus hence affecting brain neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between elevated neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level (>5 mU/L, used as a marker of maternal mild iodine deficiency during late pregnancy, and behavioral development of preschool children.Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 310 Belgian mothers and their children aged 4-5 years old with TSH levels in the range of 0.45-15 mU/L at birth. The TSH level was measured in dried blood spots on filter paper collected by heel stick three to five days after birth. Low birth weight, prematurely born children or children with congenital hypothyroidism were excluded. The degree of behavioral problems was evaluated using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL for age 1½ to 5 Years questionnaire. Relevant socioeconomic, maternal and child factors were also collected.Results: TSH concentrations and CBCL scores were not associated both in univariate analysis and when adjusting for confounding factors in multivariate analysis.Discussion: Elevated TSH concentrations measured at birth was not associated with behavioral development scores.

  9. Continuity in sex-typed behavior from preschool to adolescence: a longitudinal population study of boys and girls aged 3-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2012-06-01

    Sex-typed behavior was assessed at age 3 using the Pre-School Activities Inventory, and at age 13 using the Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale, in 54 masculine boys, 57 masculine girls, 75 feminine boys, 65 feminine girls, 61 control boys, and 65 control girls. At age 13, girls who had been masculine at age 3 felt less similar to other girls, were less content being a girl, and had greater self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control girls, and girls who had been feminine at age 3 had greater self-efficacy for female-typed activities. Boys who had been feminine at age 3 felt less similar to other boys and had lower self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control boys at age 13, and boys who had been masculine at age 3 felt more competent in agentic roles. Thus, sex-typed behavior at age 3 predicted sex-typed behavior at age 13. It was concluded that the degree of sex-typed behavior shown by preschool children is a good indicator of their degree of sex-typed behavior following the transition to adolescence.

  10. Empirical Bayes Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Retrospective Incidence Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogata, Yosihiko; Katsura, Koichi; Keiding, Niels;

    2000-01-01

    ABIC, age-period-cohort decomposition, anisotropic smoothness prior, B-spline, detection rate, diabetes incidence, integrated likelihood, intensity function, Lexis diagram, random deletion......ABIC, age-period-cohort decomposition, anisotropic smoothness prior, B-spline, detection rate, diabetes incidence, integrated likelihood, intensity function, Lexis diagram, random deletion...

  11. Prevention of obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Julie; Barber, Sally; Singhal, Atul

    2010-05-01

    Obesity is a serious problem that affects children from diverse ethnic backgrounds in both industrialised and developing countries. Worldwide, an estimated twenty-two million children obese by 2050. Recent evidence suggests that most obesity is established during the preschool years, and because one in five obese 4 year olds will become obese adults this situation has major implications for public health. The causes of obesity in preschool children are complex and multifactorial. Although 30-50% of the predisposition towards obesity in preschool children can be explained by genetic factors, environmental influences also play a crucial role. The preschool period in particular is a pivotal time during which long-term dietary and physical activity habits are established, with potential lifelong effects on health. However, research in this age-group is limited. Previous studies have aimed to improve diet, increase physical activity and achieve behavioural change. However, few of these studies have been successful and there is an urgent need, therefore, for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at the prevention of preschool obesity.

  12. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H

    2001-01-01

    into account. Assuming the age dependency of the incidence pattern in old age to be common for the Nordic countries, an internal comparison could be made among the four countries of the cohort effects and the period effects. The study indicated that the period effects have been of importance for the increase......The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have been...

  13. Prevention of communication disorders--screening pre-school and school-age children for problems with hearing, vision and speech: European Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarżyński, Henryk; Piotrowska, Anna

    2012-04-01

    Communication is an integral part of human behaviour. Communication disorders are associated mainly with impairment in hearing, vision, and/or speech, which influences the ability to receive, comprehend, produce, and express verbal, nonverbal, and graphic information. When unrecognized and unmanaged, these very often "invisible" conditions can have a significant detrimental effect on a child's development, affecting educational, social, and psychological progress. A panel of experts discussed the screening of pre-school and school-age children for problems with hearing, vision, and speech during the 10th Congress of the European Federation of Audiology Societies (EFAS), held in Warsaw, Poland, on 22 June, 2011. The European Consensus Statement on Hearing, Vision, and Speech Screening in Pre-School and School-Age Children was the result of the scientific discussions. It was endorsed by experts in audiology, otolaryngology, phoniatry, ophthalmology, and speech language pathology from throughout Europe. Key elements of the consensus, as described herein, are: 1) defining the role of screening programmes in the identification and treatment of communication disorders; 2) identifying the target population; 3) promoting general awareness about the consequences of communication disorders; 4) recognizing the need for a quality control system in screening programmes; 5) encouraging cooperation among European countries to provide a high level of public health services for the prevention, identification, and treatment of communication disorders. The European Consensus Statement on Hearing, Vision, and Speech Screening in Pre-School and School-Age Children will encourage the appropriate authorities of the various countries involved to initiate screening for communication disorders in pre-school and school-age children.

  14. Educational program on buccal health for mothers of preschool age children. Programa educativo sobre salud bucal para madres con niños en edad preescolar.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background: Since buccal diseases are no mortal, people often fail to notice their importance. This kind of diseases appear at very early stages, however, it is possible to avoid them teaching correct behaviors in the familiar context. Objective: to prove the effectiveness of an educational intervention strategy for mothers of preschool age children. Method: A cuasi-experimental, educational intervention st...

  15. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  16. Support for Marijuana (Cannabis) Legalization: Untangling Age, Period, and Cohort Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, William; Twenge, Jean; Carter, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    In three large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. 12th graders, college students, and adults (N = 9 million) conducted 1968–2015, Americans became significantly more supportive of legal marijuana (cannabis) starting in the mid-1980’s. Hierarchical models using age-period-cohort analysis on the adult (General Social Survey) sample showed that the increased support for legalization is primarily a time period effect rather than generational or age effect; thus, Americans of all ages beca...

  17. Comparison between hearing screening-detected cases and sporadic cases of delayed-onset hearing loss in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jingrong; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Yan; Li, Yun; Mei, Ling; Yao, Guoyin; Wang, Yu; Shen, Xiaoming; Wu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnosis and ages of intervention for cases of delayed-onset hearing loss identified sporadically or via a preschool hearing screening program. Retrospective study with the comparative analysis of two groups of children. Cases identified from screening were selected from 34 321 preschool children who underwent screening for delayed-onset hearing loss between October 2009 and May 2011. Sporadic cases of delayed-onset hearing loss were selected from pediatric clinical records. Cases from the first group were excluded from the latter to avoid duplication. Two groups were given the same questionnaire to record risk indicators, diagnosis, and age at intervention. The average age of 26 children at the time of diagnosis in the screening group (52.81 ± 13.23 months) was significantly earlier than in the 33 cases identified in the sporadic group (62.03 ± 12.86 months; p hearing loss in the screening group (50.40 ± 10.76 months) was also earlier than in the sporadic group (62.73 ± 13.77 months; p hearing screening for preschool children with no significant symptoms of delayed-onset hearing loss.

  18. Perceived benefits and challenges for low-income mothers of having family meals with preschool-aged children: childhood memories matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Khushi; Herman, Allison N; Wright, Gretchen; Bruton, Yasmeen; Fisher, Jennifer O; Whitaker, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Eating regular family meals is associated with a lower risk of obesity among preschool-aged children. Children in lower-income households are at higher risk for obesity, but there is little information about their mothers' perceptions of family meals, and such information could improve nutrition counseling. To identify the perceived benefits and challenges of having family meals, four focus groups were conducted with 20 mothers of preschool-aged children living in low-income households in Philadelphia, PA. Three authors independently analyzed verbatim transcripts using an inductive method of open coding, and themes were established by consensus among all authors. Of the 20 mothers, 18 were black, 11 had education beyond high school, and 12 were living with an adult partner or husband. Mothers' strong childhood memories of mealtimes, both negative and positive, motivated them to have family meals because of the opportunities afforded by mealtimes to build strong relationships with their children. However, mothers also described needing help, especially from other household adults, in preparing meals and establishing calm and order with their children during mealtimes. To identify what motivates the mothers of low-income, preschool-aged children to have family meals, registered dietitians can benefit from asking about the mothers' own childhood experiences of family meals. Studies are needed to examine whether such an approach to identifying maternal motivations, when combined with practical advice about overcoming challenges with meal preparation and managing children's mealtime behavior, could lead to more frequent and nutritious family meals in this population.

  19. [Rocuronium or vecuronium for intubation for short operations in the preschool age? Effects on time in the operating room and postoperative phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, G; Uhlig, T; Unrein, H; Rothhammer, A

    2001-01-01

    This prospective randomized study compares the effects of rocuronium (R) and vecuronium (V) on the early postoperative period in infants. Forty-eight infants between the ages of three and six, scheduled for elective ENT procedures, were studied after prior approval of local ethics committee and informed parental consent. All children were premedicated with chlorprotixene and belladonna. Anaesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg thiopentone and 1 vol.-% halothane. Subsequently, 0.4 mg/kg rocuronium or 0.075 mg/kg vecuronium were administered, respectively. Anaesthesia and post-operative care were conducted by independent anaesthetists, who were unaware of the drug used and of the relaxometric data obtained. All children were monitored in the recovery room by pulse oximetry until they reached a Steward Score of 6. Demographic data did not differ between the groups. No differences were recorded between the non-depolarizing relaxants regarding intubation time (R: 24.1 +/- 4.2 min, V: 25.8 +/- 6.8 min) and the time interval from end extubation to leaving the operating theatre (R: 2.3 +/- 0.8 min, V: 2.6 +/- 1.2 min), respectively. Similarly, no differences in SaO2 were noted during the recovery period in the recovery room. Significant differences between the non-depolarizing relaxants were found in the TOF-ratios at extubation (R: 0.73 +/- 0.31 min, V: 0.48 +/- 0.34 min) and arrival in the recovery room (R: 0.88 +/- 0.21 min, V: 0.69 +/- 0.26 min). 0.4 mg/kg Rocuronium and 0.075 mg/kg vecuronium can be used for intubation during short operations on pre-school children. Rocuronium may be the better alternative, due to its faster neuromuscular recovery properties.

  20. Factors associated with foot and ankle strength in healthy preschool-age children and age-matched cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kristy J; Burns, Joshua; North, Kathryn N

    2010-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affects foot and ankle strength from the earliest stages of the disease; however, little is known about factors influencing normal strength development or the pathogenesis of foot weakness and deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The authors investigated factors associated with foot and ankle strength in healthy preschool-age children and compared to age-matched cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. In healthy children, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion was one of the strongest independent correlates of foot and ankle strength. Compared with healthy children, those with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A had significantly less dorsiflexion strength and range as well as imbalance in inversion-to-eversion and plantarflexion-to-dorsiflexion strength ratios. Given the association between ankle dorsiflexion strength and range in the healthy children, and the abnormality of these parameters in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, investigation of the cause-effect relationship is warranted to identify more targeted therapy and further understand the pathogenesis of foot deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the school and home language environments of preschool-aged children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sloane; Audet, Lisa; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to begin to characterize and compare the school and home language environments of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Naturalistic language samples were collected from each child, utilizing Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) digital voice recorder technology, at 3-month intervals over the course of one year. LENA software was used to identify 15-min segments of each sample that represented the highest number of adult words used during interactions with each child for all school and home language samples. Selected segments were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT). LENA data was utilized to evaluate quantitative characteristics of the school and home language environments and SALT data was utilized to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics of language environment. Results revealed many similarities in home and school language environments including the degree of semantic richness, and complexity of adult language, types of utterances, and pragmatic functions of utterances used by adults during interactions with child participants. Study implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. The reader will be able to, (1) describe how two language sampling technologies can be utilized together to collect and analyze language samples, (2) describe characteristics of the school and home language environments of young children with ASD, and (3) identify environmental factors that may lead to more positive expressive language outcomes of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Motor Coordination and Social-Emotional Behaviour in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Jan P.; Bradbury, Greer S.; Elsley, Sharon C.; Tate, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    School-age children with movement problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have social and emotional difficulties. However, little research has investigated younger children to determine whether these problems emerge at school age or are present earlier. The aim of the current study was to investigate the…

  3. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  4. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  5. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-age children in an endemic area of Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samwel Bushukatale Ng`weng`weta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the magnitude of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium infection and the factors associated with exposure of preschool children in Kigogo Ward, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey of Class I pupils (preschool-age in 2015 was carried out from May to June 2016 to examine the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection and associated factors. Urine samples were examined for haematuria, S. haematobium eggs and intensity. Parents or guardians were interviewed on their awareness and level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis disease (symptoms, mode of transmission, treatment and prevention, as well as their perceived risk of infection to young children. Potential sites of transmission were identified and searched for Bulinus spp., snails and the activities that exposed young children to infection were recorded. Results: A total of 424 pupils and 408 female parents or guardians were recruited. Haematuria was detected in 51 (12.0% pupils, S. haematobium eggs were observed in 8 (1.9% pupils and all were light infection. Bulinus spp., snails were identified mostly at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (91.7% of parents or guardians were aware of urinary schistosomiasis disease, but three quarter (76% did not consider it as a health problem. More than two thirds (71.3% reported that anybody could get urinary schistosomiasis; two thirds (65.9% reported that infection was likely to be acquired at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (> 90% had the notion that young children could be exposed; and all the activities that might lead a child to come into contact with potentially infested waters were judged to be risk factors. The larger majority (83.6% had a high level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis (transmission, symptoms, availability of modern treatment and the preventive measures, reflecting the ongoing advocacy campaigns. Conclusions: Young children left

  6. Ways to Offer Preschool Education for Infants From 0 and 3 Years of Age%0-3岁儿童教育的途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文青; 黄少芸

    2012-01-01

    Early education on infants from 0 and 3 years of age is the enlightenment education of human life,which is a critical stage for children's growth.The quality of preschool education on infants from 0 and 3 years of age has been related to improving the overall quality of the entire people of the nation.With the increasing demand for preschool education,there should be other ways to provide better preschool education rather then the family did to satisfy the needs of qualified education.The paper hold that an excellent educational service can be obtained through the community preschool education,kindergarten and parents-children kindergarten for infants from 0 and 3 years of age and their parents.%0-3岁儿童的早期教育,是人生开端的教育,是人一生中发展最为迅速和关键的时期,关系到国民整体素质的提高。随着学前教育社会需求量的加大,0-3岁儿童的教育除了在家庭中进行,还需要一些其它的教育途径来满足家长的需求,能为0-3岁儿童提供优质的教育服务。根据城乡的不同特点,通过社区学前教育、幼儿园、亲子园等教育途径,为0-3岁儿童和家长提供早期保育和教育服务。

  7. Life satisfaction and age : Dealing with underidentification in age-period-cohort models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ree, Joppe; Alessie, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature typically finds a U shaped relationship between life satisfaction and age. Age profiles, however, are not identified without forcing arbitrary restrictions on the cohort and/or time profiles. In this paper we report what can be identified about the relationship between life satisfa

  8. Preschool Participation and BMI at Kindergarten Entry: The Case for Early Behavioral Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. McGrady

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschool years (ages 3–5 are a critical period in growth and development. Emerging studies suggest that preschool attendance may be linked to future weight, and perhaps obesity. This study examined relationships between public preschool attendance, demographic variables, and weight at kindergarten entry. Participants included 2,400 children entering kindergarten in 2006. Height and weight were used to calculate a child's BMI category based on CDC norms. At kindergarten entry, 17% of participants were overweight, and 18% were obese. Children attending a public preschool were at an increased risk for overweight (OR=1.06 and obesity (OR=1.34 at kindergarten entry, χ2(2=6.81, P=.03 relative to children who did not attend preschool. No significant trends relationships between demographics and weight status were found, but demographic variables are summarized descriptively. Policy and clinical implications are provided.

  9. Disruptive behavior in preschool children: distinguishing normal misbehavior from markers of current and later childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji S; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    To investigate which disruptive behaviors in preschool were normative and transient vs markers of conduct disorder, as well as which disruptive behaviors predicted the persistence of conduct disorder into school age. Data from a longitudinal study of preschool children were used to investigate disruptive behaviors. Caregivers of preschoolers ages 3.0-5.11 years (n = 273) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment to derive the following diagnostic groups: conduct disorder, externalizing disorder without conduct disorder, internalizing disorder without externalizing disorder, and healthy. At school age, participants were again assessed via an age-appropriate diagnostic interview. Logistic and linear regression with pairwise group comparisons was used to investigate clinical markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Losing one's temper, low-intensity destruction of property, and low-intensity deceitfulness/stealing in the preschool period were found in both healthy and disordered groups. In contrast, high-intensity argument/defiant behavior, both low- and high-intensity aggression to people/animals, high-intensity destruction of property, high-intensity deceitfulness/stealing, and high-intensity peer problems were markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Inappropriate sexual behavior was not a marker for preschool conduct disorder but was a predictor of school age conduct disorder. These findings provide a guide for primary care clinicians to help identify preschoolers with clinical conduct disorder and those who are at risk for persistent conduct disorder in childhood. Preschoolers displaying these symptoms should be targeted for mental health assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rotation periods and seismic ages of KOIs - comparison with stars without detected planets from Kepler observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceillier, T.; van Saders, J.; García, R. A.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Creevey, O.; Mathis, S.; Mathur, S.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Salabert, D.; Tayar, J.

    2016-02-01

    One of the most difficult properties to derive for stars is their age. For cool main-sequence stars, gyrochronology relations can be used to infer stellar ages from measured rotation periods and Hertzsprung Russell diagram positions. These relations have few calibrators with known ages for old, long rotation period stars. There is a significant sample of old Kepler objects of interest, or KOIs, which have both measurable surface rotation periods and precise asteroseismic measurements from which ages can be accurately derived. In this work, we determine the age and the rotation period of solar-like pulsating KOIs to both compare the rotation properties of stars with and without known planets and enlarge the gyrochronology calibration sample for old stars. We use Kepler photometric light curves to derive the stellar surface rotation periods while ages are obtained with asteroseismology using the Asteroseismic Modelling Portal in which individual mode frequencies are combined with high-resolution spectroscopic parameters. We thus determine surface rotation periods and ages for 11 planet-hosting stars, all over 2 Gyr old. We find that the planet-hosting stars exhibit a rotational behaviour that is consistent with the latest age-rotation models and similar to the rotational behaviour of stars without detected planets. We conclude that these old KOIs can be used to test and calibrate gyrochronology along with stars not known to host planets.

  11. The development of communicative competence of the preschool-aged children in context of curricular reform of Czech education

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis introduces the problems of the communicative competence development in the Frame work educational programme for pre-school education (below RVP PV) and describes how to include this issue in the school educational programme of the kindergarten, where I work. The main objective is to create an experimental programme to support pre-school children communication skills development followed by subsequent verification of its effectivity. The theoretical part of the thesis deal...

  12. Left-Handed Preschool Children with Orthopedic Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Katharine M.

    1983-01-01

    The mental development of 332 preschool-age children with orthopedic disabilities was assessed at a children's hospital over a 10-year period, and comparisons were made for right-handed and left-handed. The left-handed children were slower than right-handed children in learning speech and language skills (Author/SEW)

  13. Comparison of the Lea Symbols and HOTV charts for preschool vision screening from age 3 to 4.5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the applicability and the development of the normal visual acuity from age 3 to 3.5 years using Lea Symbols and HOTV charts.METHODS: It was a survey research study. Totally, 133 preschoolers(266 eyesbetween 3 to 4.5 years old recruited from two kid-gardens in Guangzhou were tested with both the Lea Symbols chart and the HOTV chart. Outcome measures were monocular logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution(logMARvisual acuity and inter-eye acuity difference in logMAR units for each test. RESULTS: The testability rates of the two charts were high(96.24% vs 92.48%, respectively, but difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The difference between the two kind of monocular vision was not statistically significant(the right eye: t=0.517, P=0.606; the left eye: t=-0.618, P=0.538. There was no significant difference between different eye(Lea Symbols chart: t=0.638, P=0.525; HOTV chart: t=-0.897, P=0.372. The visual acuities of the boys were better than those of the girls, but the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The results which came from visual acuities with the two charts for the corresponding age groups(3-year-old group, 3.5-year-old group, 4-year-old group, 4.5-year-old groupindicated that the visual acuities of the preschoolers were improving with increasing age, but the difference among the visual acuities with the Lea Symbols chart was not statistically significant(the right eye: F=2.662, P=0.052; the left eye: F=1.850, P=0.143. However the difference among the visual acuities with the HOTV chart was statistically significant(the right eye: F=4.518, P=0.005; the left eye: F=3.893, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Both Lea Symbols and HOTV chars are accepted and appropriate for preschool vision screening from 3 to 4.5 years old. The monocular visual acuity of preschoolers from age 3 to 4.5 years could be assessed was similar using the two charts. There is no correlation between visual acuity and different eye

  14. Lessons from implementing mass drug administration for soil transmitted helminths among pre-school aged children during school based deworming program at the Kenyan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musuva, Rosemary M; Matey, Elizabeth; Masaku, Janet; Odhiambo, Gladys; Mwende, Faith; Thuita, Isaac; Kihara, Jimmy; Njomo, Doris

    2017-06-14

    The 2012 London declaration which committed to "sustaining, expanding and extending drug access programmes to ensure the necessary supply of drugs and other interventions to help control soil-transmitted helminths (STH) by 2020" has seen many countries in Africa roll out mass drug administration (MDA) especially among school age children. In Kenya, however, during the National school-based deworming exercise, pre-school aged children (PSAC) have to access treatment at primary schools as the pre-school teachers are not trained to carry out deworming. With studies being conducted on the effectiveness of MDAs, the experiences of key education stakeholders which could improve the programme by giving best practices, and challenges experienced have not been documented. This was a cross-sectional qualitative study using Focus group discussions (FGDs) and Key informant interviews (KIIs). It was conducted in 4 sub-counties with high STH prevalence at the Kenyan coast (Matuga, Malindi, Lunga Lunga and Msambweni) to understand best practices for implementing MDA among PSAC.FGDs categorized by gender were conducted among local community members, whereas KIIs involved pre-school teachers, primary school teachers, community health extension workers (CHEWs) and opinion leaders. Participants were purposefully selected with the saturation model determining the number of interviews and focus groups. Voice data collected was transcribed verbatim then coded and analyzed using ATLAS.Ti version 6. Majority of the primary school teachers and CHEWs reported that they were satisfied with the method of mobilization used and the training tools. This was however not echoed by the pre-school teachers, parents and chiefs who complained of being left out of the process. Best practices mentioned included timely drug delivery, support from pre-school teachers, and management of side effects. Overcrowding during the drug administration day, complexity of the forms (for instance the 'S form') and

  15. Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.5-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Rescorla, Leslie A; Harder, Valerie S; Ang, Rebecca P; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Gudmundsson, Halldor S; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G; Woo, Bernardine S C; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R; Verhulst, Frank C

    2010-12-01

    To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture-general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5-5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison of High and Low Dosages of a Component of Milieu Teaching Strategies for Two Preschool-Age Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Hannah M; Reichle, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The intersection of treatment intensity and communication intervention is an emerging area of investigation. Milieu teaching (MT) approaches for teaching communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a substantial evidence base (see Goldstein, 2002). However, a relatively small percentage (37.8%) of MT studies have fully detailed the parameters that are required to determine treatment intensity (Parker-McGowan et al., 2014). This study compared the effect of two dosages of the modeling component of milieu teaching on acquisition and maintenance of new vocabulary for two preschoolers with ASD. Low- and high-dosage conditions were compared within an adapted alternating treatments design. Participants were two preschool-age children with ASD. Results suggested a functional relationship between dose of MT models and acquisition of vocabulary items. For 1 participant, a high-dose application yielded more efficient acquisition. For the second participant, a low-dose application yielded more efficient acquisition. The results of this study highlight the influence of individual differences in ostensibly similar persons and response to intervention. The need for better quantifying dosage parameters and examining the relationship between dosage and intervention approaches for preschool-age learners with ASD is discussed.

  17. Morphological Characteristics of the Cartilaginous Tissue of Human Auricle in Different Age Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, V P; Savchenko, S V; Pyatkova, E V; Nadeev, A P; Ageeva, T A; Chikinev, Yu V; Polyakevich, A S

    2016-04-01

    A complex morphological study of the auricle to determine the human age was performed by evaluating the metric sizes between fixed points in each auricle with axial guidelines. The auricular elastic cartilage in different age periods was characterized by thickening of the cartilaginous plate, different mature and immature cartilage zone ratio, variations in the volume density of the intercellular substance and elastic fibers, and change in the numerical density of individual chondrocytes and isogroups. Aggrecan content in the cartilage was shown to increase in different age periods. Age-related structural changes in the auricular cartilage expand the possibilities of forensic medical examination and hold much promise for the identification of personality.

  18. Parasite and maternal risk factors for malnutrition in preschool-age children in Belen, Peru using the new WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Núñez, Carmen; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-12-01

    Child malnutrition, including wasting, underweight and stunting, is associated with infections, poor nutrient intake, and environmental and socio-demographic factors. Preschool-age children are especially vulnerable due to their high growth requirements. To target interventions for preschool-age children in a community of extreme poverty in Peru, we conducted a household survey between October 2005 and January 2006 to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its risk factors. Of 252 children Child Growth Standards. Risk factors for wasting were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.06, 5.93); (2) hookworm infection (OR 6.67; 95 % CI 1.08, 41.05); (3) age (OR6-month 1.27; 95 % CI 1.11, 1.46); (4) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 5.77; 95 % CI 2.38, 13.99); and (5) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.12; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.23). Risk factors for underweight were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 4.74; 95 % CI 1.99, 11.32); (2) age (OR6-month 1.22; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.38); (3) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 2.92; 95 % CI 1.40, 6.12); and (4) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21). Risk factors for stunting were: (1) age (OR6-month 1.14; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.27) and (2) decreasing maternal height (OR1 cm 1.12; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.20). Overall, risk factors for malnutrition included both child and maternal determinants. Based on these data, locally appropriate and cost-effective dietary, de-worming and educational programmes should be targeted to mothers and preschool-age children.

  19. Prevalence of iron and zinc deficiencies among preschool children ages 3 to 5 y in Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motadi, Selekane Ananias; Mbhenyane, Xikombiso G; Mbhatsani, Hlekani V; Mabapa, Ngoako S; Mamabolo, Ramoteme L

    2015-03-01

    Children under the age of 5 y constitute the most vulnerable group for iron and zinc deficiencies and their nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of zinc and iron deficiency among preschool children aged 3 to 5 y in Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa. This study included 349 preschool children recruited from two municipalities of Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa. Municipalities were purposively selected and simple random sampling was used to choose children. Body weight and height were measured using standard techniques. Serum zinc, iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, transferrin and C-reactive protein levels were also assessed, as were hemoglobin levels. The prevalence of wasting, stunting, and underweight was 1.4%, 18.6%, and 0.3%, respectively; whereas 20.9% of the children were overweight and 9.7% were obese. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 42.6% and anemia was 28%; both were higher in girls than in boys. When using serum ferritin and transferrin saturation 7 (2%) of the children had iron-deficiency anemia. Combined iron and zinc deficiencies using ferritin was found in 8 (2.3%) of the children; when using transferrin saturation these deficiencies were found in 42 (12%) of the children. Iron and zinc deficiencies as well as anemia, accompanied by high prevalence of stunting; and overweight and obesity, were common in preschool children. The results observed here call for interventions to combat the escalating problem of child malnutrition in the form of nutritional education for mothers and food handlers at preschools to ensure food diversification in these children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cephalic measures in normal pre-school children 3 to 7-years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Diament

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study designed to determine standards for the Developmental Neurological Examination (DNE several measures of the head were also recorded. The study consisted in the examination of 200 children, half from each sex, 40 from each age group (3 to 7-years of age. These children were selected among 755 normal pre-school-age children, living in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. The criteria for selection were both anamnestic and clinic. The following measures of the head were recorded: cephalic perimeter, biauricular and antero-posterior distances (Diament, 1967. A new cephalic index (nCI was also determined (Diament, 1968. This index is useful in detecting changes in head shape mainly in cases of precocious cranioestenosis (Diament, 1968; Facure, 1972. The statistical analysis consisted in determining means and standard errors for each measure. For the new cephalic index it was shown through the Kruskal-Wallis test that there were no significant difference between age and sex. Therefore we considered all groups together to find out the tolerance region for the new index which turned out to be given by the interval: 0.848-1.002. This result is based in 186 cases since 14 were excluded because of some problems in the recording process. Therefore we expect with a confidence of 95% that the above interval covers 90% of the population, in the 3 to 7 years age-groups independently of sex.

  1. The Effects of Age, Period, and Cohort on Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jie; Li, Boyang; Li, Jingjing; Sun, Yang

    2017-01-01

    In contrast with most developed countries, mortality due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) continues to rise in China. We examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality in urban and rural populations from 1987 to 2013 to identify the drivers of this trend. Region-specific data on annual IHD mortality among adults aged 20 to 84 years and corresponding population statistics were collected. We then tested for age, period, and cohort effects using the Intrinsic Estimator approach. Our results indicated that IHD mortality in China increased significantly over the three decades studied. There was a log-linear increase in the age effect on IHD mortality as those aged 80–84 showed 277 and 161 times greater IHD mortality risk than those aged 20–24 in urban and rural populations, respectively. While there was an upward trend in the period effect in both populations, the influence of the cohort effect on mortality decreased over time for those born from 1904 to 1993. The age, period, and cohort effects on mortality in China were generally comparable between urban and rural populations. The results suggest that population aging is a major driver behind the rapid rise in IHD mortality. Increased exposure to air pollution may also have played a role in driving the period effect

  2. Mapping the risk of anaemia in preschool-age children: the contribution of malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Soares Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood anaemia is considered a severe public health problem in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the geographical distribution of prevalence of anaemia and mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb in children aged 1-4 y (preschool children in West Africa. The aim was to estimate the geographical risk profile of anaemia accounting for malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections, the risk of anaemia attributable to these factors, and the number of anaemia cases in preschool children for 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: National cross-sectional household-based demographic health surveys were conducted in 7,147 children aged 1-4 y in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mali in 2003-2006. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict the geographical distribution of mean Hb and anaemia risk, adjusting for the nutritional status of preschool children, the location of their residence, predicted Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in the 2- to 10-y age group (Pf PR(2-10, and predicted prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections. In the four countries, prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia was 21%, 66%, and 13% in Burkina Faso; 28%, 65%, and 7% in Ghana, and 26%, 62%, and 12% in Mali. The mean Hb was lowest in Burkina Faso (89 g/l, in males (93 g/l, and for children 1-2 y (88 g/l. In West Africa, severe malnutrition, Pf PR(2-10, and biological synergisms between S. haematobium and hookworm infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk; an estimated 36.8%, 14.9%, 3.7%, 4.2%, and 0.9% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria, S. haematobium infections, hookworm infections, and S. haematobium/hookworm coinfections, respectively. A large spatial cluster of low mean Hb (95% was predicted for an area shared by Burkina Faso and Mali. We estimate that in 2011, approximately 6.7 million children aged 1-4 y are anaemic in the three study countries. CONCLUSIONS: By

  3. Mapping the Risk of Anaemia in Preschool-Age Children: The Contribution of Malnutrition, Malaria, and Helminth Infections in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood anaemia is considered a severe public health problem in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the geographical distribution of prevalence of anaemia and mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) in children aged 1–4 y (preschool children) in West Africa. The aim was to estimate the geographical risk profile of anaemia accounting for malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections, the risk of anaemia attributable to these factors, and the number of anaemia cases in preschool children for 2011. Methods and Findings National cross-sectional household-based demographic health surveys were conducted in 7,147 children aged 1–4 y in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mali in 2003–2006. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict the geographical distribution of mean Hb and anaemia risk, adjusting for the nutritional status of preschool children, the location of their residence, predicted Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in the 2- to 10-y age group (Pf PR2–10), and predicted prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections. In the four countries, prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia was 21%, 66%, and 13% in Burkina Faso; 28%, 65%, and 7% in Ghana, and 26%, 62%, and 12% in Mali. The mean Hb was lowest in Burkina Faso (89 g/l), in males (93 g/l), and for children 1–2 y (88 g/l). In West Africa, severe malnutrition, Pf PR2–10, and biological synergisms between S. haematobium and hookworm infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk; an estimated 36.8%, 14.9%, 3.7%, 4.2%, and 0.9% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria, S. haematobium infections, hookworm infections, and S. haematobium/hookworm coinfections, respectively. A large spatial cluster of low mean Hb (anaemia (>95%) was predicted for an area shared by Burkina Faso and Mali. We estimate that in 2011, approximately 6.7 million children aged 1–4 y are anaemic in the three study countries. Conclusions By

  4. TABLET DEVICES, SMARTPHONES, GAME CONSOLES INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN’S SOCIALIZATION, PLAY ACTIVITY AND CHILD-PARENT RELATIONSHIPS OF CHILDREN IN TENDER AGE AND PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousova, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of 130 families having children of early and preschool age are given. The contingent of investigated has been divided into 2 groups: group №1 - children without speech and cognitive violations (n=80, group № 2 - are diagnosed manifestations of the general underdevelopment of the speech combined with like-autistic disturbances (n=50. All the children were divided into 2 groups: group №1 (n = 80, children are without speech disorders, group №2 (n = 50: signs of general underdevelopment of children’s speech are diagnosed, combined with like-autistic disturbances. Features of formation of skills of social interaction, development of a subject role-playing game and the child parent relations at against the active use of tablet devices and smartphones by them are studied. In both groups intensive and unfairly early game interaction with gadgets is marked. There is a clear hierarchy transformation of the family system towards the loss of parents dominant influence on children without an ability to use gadget as an obedience and encourage. Patterns of parental behavior in the study families demonstrate the priority of spending time with the gadget to joint leisure time and active integration of the gadget into child's life with delegating him an authority of development and game interaction with him.

  5. The influence of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot on the biomechanics characteristics of foot of children of pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychuk I.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is defined linear and angular biomechanics descriptions of children's foot of senior preschool age. It is analysed the dynamics and increase of the explored indexes during realization of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot in the teaching process. In experiment took part teachers and instructors of physical culture; control and experimental group consist of 20 children at the age of 5-6 years old. Efficiency of the offered program of prophylaxis of flat foot is proved.

  6. Exploring the influence of age and the role of critical period in second language acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨彤

    2016-01-01

    In the process of second language acquisition, age is one of the influencial factors.This article will mainly focus on the effect of age on second language acquisition and the role of critical period, whether it is the only best time to achieve proficiency? If the critical period really exists what should we do in teaching to make advantage of this chance to master a second language successfully?

  7. Evaluation of the Teaching of English to German Children of Pre-School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Schonbein, Gisela

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some reasons offered for the ease with which young children learn a second language. Children of kindergarten age can learn language in a playlike atmosphere in groups no larger than 10-12 children. Pronunciation is the outstanding skill, but comprehension and active speaking also show favorable results. (PJM)

  8. Construction of Graphic Symbol Sequences by Preschool-Aged Children: Learning, Training, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…

  9. Block Play: Spatial Language with Preschool and School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn E.; Emmons, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Implementing a play-based curriculum presents challenges for pre-service and in-service teachers given the current climate of standards and didactic pedagogies. This study highlights the value of playful learning and its rightful place in early childhood classrooms for children of all ages. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the…

  10. The Effects of Age, Singing Ability, and Instrumental Experiences on Preschool Children's Melodic Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jonny H.

    1983-01-01

    Study results revealed the following: (1) age affected the children's perception of melodic rhythm, contour, and interval; (2) high-ability singers scored higher than low-ability singers on perception of melodic rhythm, contour, and interval and tonal center; and (3) instrumental experience did not significantly affect perception of melodic…

  11. Individual Differences and Age-Related Changes in Divergent Thinking in Toddlers and Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with children…

  12. School-Based Social Skills Training for Preschool-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Hanglein, Jeanine; Arak, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder display impairments in social interactions and communication that appear at early ages and result in short- and long-term negative outcomes. As such, there is a need for effective social skills training programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder--particularly interventions capable of being…

  13. Examination of the Social Behavior of 4 Age Old Preschool Children According to Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Dervise; Kivanç Öztug, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to compare the social behavior of children according to the teacher interviews. Screening model method has been used at this research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research was created totally 691 children, from the age group of 4, which were observed at least 8 weeks…

  14. Gender Concept Development and Preschool-Aged Children in the United States and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerscheid, Jean D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested the gender understanding of 31 American and 31 Egyptian children. American children had a higher mean score on gender identity than Egyptian children. Found significant positive relationships between subject's age and two gender constructs, identity and stability. (Author/BJV)

  15. [The sagittal and transverse thoracic diameter in children in the pre-school age (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, F; Schwalbe, D

    1979-01-01

    Important factors in assessing the development of the trunk are, among others, the relative thoracic data, for example, measurement of the width and depth of the thorax and calculation of the relative thoracic diameter, as well as the thoracic index. The normal values recorded in 196 healthy boys and girls aged 3-6 years, are stated.

  16. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  17. OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM FOR A PERIODIC PREDATOR-PREY MODEL WITH AGE-DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate optimal policy for periodic predator-prey system with age-dependence.Namely,we consider the model with periodic vital rates and initial distribution.The existence of optimal control strategy is discussed by Mazur's theorem and optimality condition is derived by means of normal cone.

  18. Latina Mothers’ Perceptions of Healthcare Professional Weight Assessments of Preschool-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Alma D.; Slusser, Wendelin M.; Barreto, Patricia M.; Rosales, Norma F.; Kuo, Alice A.

    2010-01-01

    To understand Latina mothers’ definitions of health and obesity in their children and perceptions of physician weight assessments. 24 low-income Spanish speaking Mexican mothers of children ages 2–5 years were recruited to participate in 4 focus groups. Half of the mothers had overweight or obese children and half had healthy weight children. Focus group comments were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. Themes and supporting comments were identified independently by 3 reviewers fo...

  19. Individual differences and age-related changes in divergent thinking in toddlers and preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with children as young as 2 years. The Unusual Box test is a nonverbal and nonimitative test in which children play individually with a novel toy and novel objects. Divergent thinking is scored as the number of different actions performed. Study 1 shows that the Unusual Box test is a valid measure of divergent thinking as it correlates with standard measures of divergent thinking in 3- and 4-year-olds. Study 2 indicates that the test can be used with 2-year-olds, as it shows high test-retest reliability, demonstrating that 2-year-olds can think divergently. Across both studies, individual differences and age-related changes were found, indicating that some children are better at divergent thinking than others and that children's divergent thinking increases with age. This test will allow researchers to gain insight into the early emergence of divergent thinking.

  20. Examining the Dutch Trends in the Nineteen-nineties: Age, Period and Cohort Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portrait, F.; Deeg, D.; Alessie, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074624385

    2004-01-01

    The paper focuses on changes in the prevalence of disability at older ages in the Netherlands during the nineteen-nineties. Disability is characterized by two self-reported indicators of mild and severe disability and two self-reported and objectivemeasures of functional limitations. Age, period, an

  1. Leucine 7 to proline 7 polymorphism in the preproneuropeptide Y is associated with birth weight and serum triglyceride concentration in preschool aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, M K; Koulu, M; Pesonen, U; Uusitupa, M I; Tammi, A; Viikari, J; Simell, O; Rönnemaa, T

    2000-04-01

    The Leu7Pro gene variant of the signal peptide part of neuropeptide Y (NPY), has been shown to affect cholesterol metabolism in obese adults. This study investigates whether the Leu7Pro polymorphism in the prepro-NPY has an impact on serum lipid concentrations in preschool-aged children at 5 and 7 yr of age. As birth weight may influence future lipid values, we also investigated whether Leu7Pro polymorphism is associated with birth weight. The study comprised 688 children participating in the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. Fasting lipid concentrations were determined first at the age of 5 yr and again at the age of 7 yr. The Leu7Pro polymorphism was not associated with serum total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol values in boys or in girls. However, Pro7 substitution in prepro-NPY was constantly associated with 14-17% higher mean serum triglyceride values in the boys at the ages of 5 and 7 yr (P = 0.023). In addition, boys with the Pro7 substitution had, on the average, a 193-g higher birth weight than boys homozygous for Leu7 (P = 0.03). The Leu7Pro polymorphism may thus be linked with serum triglyceride concentrations, but not with serum cholesterol concentrations, in gender-specific manner in preschoolers.

  2. Association of childcare arrangement with overweight and obesity in preschool-aged children: a narrative review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyden, K; Sisson, S B; Lora, K; Castle, S; Copeland, K A

    2017-01-01

    The time children spend in childcare overlaps with daily meals and opportunities to be active. Thus these environments have the opportunity to promote-or hinder-healthy weight gain among children who attend them. The purpose of this narrative review was to compile findings from studies examining childcare type and weight outcomes among preschool-age children. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and ERIC. Inclusion criteria were infant- to 5-year-old children exposed to any type of childcare with a cross-sectional or longitudinal weight outcome. Among 385 studies screened, 18 were included. For comparison across studies, type of childcare was categorized as: childcare center, Head Start, nanny/babysitter, non-relative care/family childcare home and relative care. Four studies found no association with childcare type and obesity, and 10 studies reported mixed results by type of care or subpopulation analyses. Two studies found an overall positive association, and two reported an inverse association. There were differences in direction of associations and findings by type of care arrangement. For Head Start, three of eight studies demonstrated a negative relationship with obesity; none demonstrated a positive association. No other childcare type demonstrated this inverse association. Informal types of care (relative and non-relative care in a home) were positively associated with child obesity in 3 of 10 studies. This association was less commonly reported among formal childcare centers (2 of 15 studies). The majority of studies, however, reported mixed findings or no association by childcare type. Results suggested no consistent evidence for a relationship between childcare and obesity risk, except Head Start. This review exposed the need for a consistent definition of childcare type and the exploration of unmeasured confounders, such as the nutrition and physical activity environment of childcare settings, to understand how they contribute to

  3. [Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.

  4. Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on Mortality From Ischemic Heart Disease in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Mayoral-Cortés, José María; Fernández-Ajuria, Alberto; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Martín-Olmedo, Piedad; Blanco-Reina, Encarnación

    2015-05-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death and one of the top 4 causes of burden of disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate age-period-cohort effects on mortality from ischemic heart disease in Andalusia (southern Spain) and in each of its 8 provinces during the period 1981-2008. A population-based ecological study was conducted. In all, 145 539 deaths from ischemic heart disease were analyzed for individuals aged between 30 and 84 years who died in Andalusia in the study period. A nonlinear regression model was estimated for each sex and geographical area using spline functions. There was an upward trend in male and female mortality rate by age from the age of 30 years. The risk of death for men and women showed a downward trend for cohorts born after 1920, decreasing after 1960 with a steep slope among men. Analysis of the period effect showed that male and female death risk first remained steady from 1981 to 1990 and then increased between 1990 and 2000, only to decrease again until 2008. There were similar age-period-cohort effects on mortality in all the provinces of Andalusia and for Andalusia as a whole. If the observed cohort and period effects persist, male and female mortality from ischemic heart disease will continue to decline. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  6. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in Eastern China: results from screening of preschool children aged 36-72 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuejuan; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Jiajia; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Chen, Ji; Gong, Yu; Zhu, Hui; Yu, Rongbing; Liu, Hu

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in preschool children in Eastern China. The Nanjing Pediatric Vision Project was a cross-sectional, population-based cohort study conducted in preschool children aged 36-72 months from 2011 to 2012 in Yuhua District, Nanjing, China, using an age-stratified random sampling procedure. A questionnaire totalling 117 items was sent to be completed by the corresponding parents or legal guardians of each eligible child. Comprehensive eye examinations, including visual acuity, anterior segment examination, autorefraction, cover test and ocular motility, were conducted. Postcycloplegic refraction and fundus examinations were performed if necessary. Amblyopia was present in 68 children (1.20%, 95% CI 0.92% to 1.48%), with no statistical differences in gender (p=0.903) and age (p=0.835). Among these, 27 had bilateral amblyopia and 41 had unilateral amblyopia, including 26 anisometropic without strabismus, 26 binocular refractive, 7 strabismic, 6 combined strabismic/anisometropic and 3 deprivation amblyopia. Strabismus was found in 320 children (5.65%, 95% CI 5.05% to 6.25%), including 43 with concomitant esotropia, 259 with concomitant exotropia (1 esotropia at near but exotropia at distance), 8 with microtropia (3 esotropia and 5 exotropia), 10 with pure vertical strabismus (3 dissociated vertical deviation and 7 oblique muscle dysfunction) and 1 with Type I Duane syndrome. The prevalence of strabismus had no statistical differences in gender (p=0.952), but had significant statistical differences between different age groups (p=0.021). The prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in preschool children in Eastern China were 1.20% and 5.65%, respectively. The refractive and strabismus are the main factors associated with amblyopia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Risk factors for vitamin A deficiency among preschool aged children in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Carrie M; Sullivan, Kevin M; van der Haar, Frits; Auerbach, Steven B; Iohp, Kidsen K

    2004-02-01

    In 1993, the Department of Health of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) conducted a population-based stratified random survey among 355 children aged 24-48 months in Pohnpei, one of the four FSM States. The objective was to determine the prevalence, and explore risk factors for vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Trained field workers collected data from a range of demographic, dietary and socioeconomic variables related to the children. The serum retinol concentration was 19.4 +/- 7.5 microg/dl (mean +/- SD), and the VAD prevalence (serum retinol <20 microg/dl) 53.1 per cent. The significant independent risk factors, determined by logistic regression, were: mother's work at home, sibling <2 years older, rural household located on the main island, early weaning, and child anemia, controlling for pipe water and electricity in the household. If compared with a reference of apparently healthy children of similar age in the USA, the distribution of serum retinol among young Pohnpei children was shifted entirely to low levels. We conclude that eliminating the pervasive VAD problem in Pohnpei would require a multi-pronged tactical approach that combines dietary improvement strategies with the ongoing supplementation effort.

  8. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  9. Socioeconomic differences and the impact of being small for gestational age on neurodevelopment among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Schieve, Laura A; Kable, Julie; Coles, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Studies of small for gestational age (SGA) birth and subsequent childhood cognitive outcomes are inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether effects varied by socioeconomic status (SES). To assess child cognitive and behavioral outcomes according to SGA and severe SGA (VABS). The mother completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Among AGA children, the mean DAS score was >1 standard deviation lower for children born at the public vs. the private hospital (75.2 vs. 95.7 among boys; 76.3 vs. 101.8 among girls). Being SGA had a weaker effect on DAS scores, overall. Severe SGA had a significant effect on DAS scores of children born at the private hospital (average reduction 8.0 +/- 2.5 points), but not on children born at the public hospital (average reduction 1.1 +/- 2.2 points). In the latter group, severe SGA was associated with a lower VABS score (average reduction 9.2 +/- 2.5 points). Poor fetal growth influences neurodevelopment, but this influence is modified by postnatal environment. Adverse effects associated with low SES might mask or attenuate associations between prenatal exposures and developmental outcomes in some populations.

  10. Age-period-cohort analyses of obesity prevalence in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2016-12-01

    Age-period-cohort analysis is a stream of methodologies that decompose the temporal trends for disease risk into three time scales-age, calendar year (period) and year of birth (cohort). This study conducted age-period-cohort analyses of obesity prevalence in US adults. Retrospective data analysis. We constructed regression models based on anthropometric data from the 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to correct for the self-reported height/weight in the 1984-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We estimated fixed-effects age-period-cohort models based on the BRFSS data for the overall adult sample (n = 6,093,293) and by sex and race/ethnicity, adjusting for individual characteristics and the BRFSS survey design. An inverted U-shaped age effect on obesity and a positive period effect characterized by over-time increase in obesity risk independent of age and cohort influences were identified in the overall sample and subgroups by sex and race/ethnicity. From 1984 to 2014, the adjusted obesity prevalence increased by 21.1 percentage points among US adults, and 20.9, 21.6, 21.0, 26.4 and 20.1 percentage points in men, women, non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and Hispanics, respectively. In contrast, no consistent evidence was found in support of the cohort effect-the adjusted obesity risk was comparable across birth cohorts after accounting for the age and period effects. Shifts in the age distribution and nationwide secular changes may have fuelled the obesity epidemic in the USA over the past decades. Reversing the obesity epidemic may require understanding of the nationwide changes over time that affect weight gain across all population subgroups and promoting universal changes to diet, physical activity and the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy and safety of praziquantel in preschool-aged children in an area co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa the recommended strategy to control schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy. Emphasis is placed on school-aged children, but in high endemicity areas, preschool-aged children are also at risk, and hence might need treatment with praziquantel. Since a pediatric formulation (e.g., syrup is not available outside of Egypt, crushed praziquantel tablets are used, but the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen is insufficiently studied. METHODOLOGY: We assessed the efficacy and safety of crushed praziquantel tablets among preschool-aged children (<6 years in the Azaguié district, south Côte d'Ivoire, where Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium coexist. Using a cross-sectional design, children provided two stool and two urine samples before and 3 weeks after treatment. Crushed praziquantel tablets, mixed with water, were administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Adverse events were assessed and graded 4 and 24 hours posttreatment by interviewing mothers/guardians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 160 preschool-aged children had at least one stool and one urine sample examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette for S. mansoni, and urine filtration for S. haematobium diagnosis before and 3 weeks after praziquantel administration. According to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration results, we found high efficacy against S. mansoni (cure rate (CR, 88.6%; egg reduction rate (ERR, 96.7% and S. haematobium (CR, 88.9%; ERR, 98.0%. POC-CCA revealed considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni (CR, 53.8%. Treatment was generally well tolerated, but moderately severe adverse events (i.e., body and face inflammation, were observed in four Schistosoma egg-negative children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Crushed praziquantel administered to preschool-aged children at a dose of 40 mg/kg is efficacious against S. mansoni and S. haematobium in a co-endemic setting of C

  12. INTERLEUKIN 1 AND INTERLEUKIN 4 GENES POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES

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    A. V. Shabaldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus pyogenes infection and sensitization to its antigens is considered to be an unfavorable factor for the induction of rheumatic pathology. The search for genetic predictors of rheumatic diseases in general, and sensitization to S. pyogenes, in particular, is of high relevance in modern medicine.Objective. To study the associations between interleukin 1 and interleukin 4 gene polymorphisms and the development of sensitization to antigens of S. pyogenes in toddlers and preschool children.Materials and methods. 771 children aged 2–6 years with recurrent acute respiratory tract infections treated by allergist-immunologist and otorhinolaryngologist were included in the study. Antibodies against S. pyogenes were determined by ELISA using commercial kits “Immunoteks” (Stavropol, Russia in all children. Children with IgG immune response to S. pyogenes were assigned to the study group (n = 306, whereas children without this response were assigned to the control group (n = 465. Both groups underwent gene typing of IL1B (+3953, C→T, rs 114634, IL1Ra (VNTR, intron 2, 89 bp and IL4 (VNTR intron 3, 70 bp gene polymorphisms in the Laboratory for Pharmacogenomics, ICBFM SB RAS. The data were processed using routine statistical methods for genetic analysis and the statistical software package Statistica 6.0. There were no deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium across all loci, suggesting validity of association studies between individual and combined genotypes and sensitization to antigens of S. pyogenes.Results. Positive association between sensitization to antigens of S. pyogenes and individual genotypes have been found: IL1B (+3953, C→T*C,T (52.6% in the study group vs. 39.8% in the control group, p = 0.001; OR = 2.02; CI(99% 0.47–5.93, IL1Ra (VNTR, intron 2, 89 bp*2r,5r (7.19% in the study group vs. 1.29% in the control group, p = 0.001; OR = 5.59; CI(99% 1.58–19.77, IL4 (VNTR intron 3, 70 bp*2r,2r (6

  13. Exposure to traumatic events and health-related quality of life in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Ferguson, Monette; Crusto, Cindy A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the association of lifetime exposure to traumatic events with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial health in children aged 3 through 5 years. This study is a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 170 children and their parents. Traumatic events were assessed by the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory-Parent Report Revised using criteria for potentially traumatic events in young childhood outlined by the Zero to Three working group. HRQOL of young children was measured using the 97-item Infant/Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire, and psychosocial health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5. One hundred and twenty-three (72 %) of children had experienced at least one type of trauma event. Children who had been exposed to 1-3 types of trauma and those exposed to 4 or more types of trauma had significantly worse HRQOL and psychosocial health than children not exposed to trauma. Significant effect sizes between children exposed to low levels or high levels of traumatic events and children not exposed to trauma ranged from small to large. Exposure to traumatic events in early childhood is associated with less positive HRQOL and psychosocial health. Cumulative trauma exposure led to significant effects in outcome variables in this population. Interventions to decrease trauma exposure and to reduce significant stress in early childhood associated with exposure to trauma may be appropriate strategies for preventing negative health conditions throughout the life span.

  14. Latina mothers' perceptions of healthcare professional weight assessments of preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Slusser, Wendelin M; Barreto, Patricia M; Rosales, Norma F; Kuo, Alice A

    2011-11-01

    To understand Latina mothers' definitions of health and obesity in their children and perceptions of physician weight assessments. 24 low-income Spanish speaking Mexican mothers of children ages 2-5 years were recruited to participate in 4 focus groups. Half of the mothers had overweight or obese children and half had healthy weight children. Focus group comments were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. Themes and supporting comments were identified independently by 3 reviewers for triangulation. A fourth reader independently confirmed common themes. Mothers define health as a function of their child's ability to play and engage in all aspects of life. Obesity was defined with declining physical abilities. Mothers state health care provider assessments help determine a child's overweight status. Causative factors of obesity included family role-modeling and psycho-social stress, physical inactivity, and high-fat foods consumed outside the home. Controlling food intake was the primary approach to preventing and managing obesity but mothers described family conflict related to children's eating habits. These findings held constant with mothers regardless of whether their children were overweight, obese, or at a healthy weight. Mothers utilize physical limitations and health care professional's assessment of their child's weight as indicators of an overweight status. These results highlight the importance of calculating and communicating body mass indices (BMI) for Latino children. Eliminating non-nutritive foods from the home, increasing physical activity, and involving family members in the discussion of health and weight maintenance are important strategies for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.

  15. Immigrant enclaves and obesity in preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Chaparro, M Pia; Crespi, Catherine M; Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E

    2013-09-01

    While neighborhood environments are increasingly recognized as important contributors to obesity risk, less has been reported on the socio-cultural aspects of neighborhoods that influence obesity development. This is especially true among immigrants, who may lack the necessary language skills to navigate their new living environments. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young children of immigrants would be at lower obesity risk if they lived in neighborhoods where neighbors share the same language and culture. Using 2000 Census data and 2003-2009 data from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Los Angeles County, we examined the relation between BMI z-scores in low-income children aged 2-5 years (N = 250,029) and the concentration of neighborhood residents who spoke the same language as the children's mothers. Using multi-level modeling and adjusting for child's gender and race/ethnicity, household education, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and year the child was examined, we found that percent of neighborhood residents who spoke the same language as the child's mother was negatively associated with BMI z-scores. This relation varied by child's race/ethnicity and mother's preferred language. The relation was linear and negative among children of English-speaking Hispanic mothers and Chinese-speaking mothers. However, for Hispanic children of Spanish-speaking mothers the relation was curvilinear, initially exhibiting a positive relation which reversed at higher neighborhood concentrations of Spanish-speaking residents. Our findings suggest that living in neighborhoods where residents share the same language may influence obesity-related behaviors (namely diet and physical activity) possibly through mechanisms involving social networks, support, and norms.

  16. Parenting among Low-Income, African American Single Mothers with Preschool-Age Children: Patterns, Predictors, and Developmental Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroder, Sharon M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined dimensions and patterns of parenting among 193 low-income African American single mothers with preschoolers. Identified four parenting patterns (aggravated but nurturant, cognitively stimulating, patient and nurturant, and low nurturance). Found that maternal well-being and sociodemographic characteristics accounted for 93 percent of…

  17. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-02

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  18. Analysing the Peer Relationships of Obese and Normal-Weight Preschool Children Aged between Five and Six Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçer, Zarife; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether the peer relationships of preschool children who are determined to be obese, based on their body mass index (BMI), differentiate or not. The study was conducted within the frame of a relational survey model. A total of 114 five- to six-year-old children (57 normal-weight children and 57 obese…

  19. Sleep and Daytime Functioning: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Three Preschool-Age Comparison Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Thomas; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Tang, Karen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep, sleepiness, and daytime performance in 68 children with autism, 57 children with intellectual disability (ID), and 69 typically developing preschool children. Children in the autism and ID groups had poorer daytime performance and behaviors than the typically developing children. Children in the ID group also were…

  20. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, van den G.; Liakopoulos, A.; Mevius, D.J.; Geurts, Y.; Fluit, A.C.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pelt, van W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria

  1. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  2. Bystanders' Roles and Children with Special Educational Needs in Bullying Situations among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence that the origins of bullying lie in early childhood, very little is known about the nature of the phenomenon in preschool groups. The current understanding among studies conducted in the school environment is that bullying prevention can only be effective if training with individual children takes place…

  3. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

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    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian, the Latvian Language Program of X preschool education establishment, teaching resources (teaching aid kits, didactic handouts as well as the Latvian language as the second language study content. The conclusion is drawn that the theory of communicative competence and the systemic functional grammar theory prevail as well as the basic principles of the behavioral theory can be discerned. In the teaching resources and learning process it is advisable to more often incorporate the same language material repetition in different situations and new combinations. Consideration must be given to more positive and negative transfer (interference emphasis. To prevent children’s errors it is advisable to provide and incorporate special exercises in the teaching resources as well as methodological recommendations for the Latvian language teachers.

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2008-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  5. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life......The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... risk load and environmental stress given the social and cultural context....

  6. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life......The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... risk load and environmental stress given the social and cultural context....

  7. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  8. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  9. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Carter, Knute D; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended parallel process model was used as a theoretical framework for this research. This model suggests that people will act if the perceived threat (severity and susceptibility) is high enough and if efficacy levels (self-efficacy and response efficacy) are likewise high. Following Witte's method of categorizing people's perceptions and emotions into one of four categories based on levels of threat and efficacy, this article describes four groups (high threat/high efficacy, high threat/low efficacy, low threat/high efficacy, and low threat/low efficacy) of parents and how they compare to each other. Using logistic regression to model if a child had a preventive visit, results indicate that parents with low threat/high efficacy and parents with high threat/high efficacy had approximately 2.5 times the odds of having a child with a preventive oral health visit compared to parents with low threat/low efficacy, when controlling for perceived oral health status, health literacy, and child's age. The importance of efficacy needs to be incorporated in interventions aimed at increasing preventive dental visits for young children.

  10. Patterns of lung cancer mortality in 23 countries: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort model

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    Huang Yi-Chia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking habits do not seem to be the main explanation of the epidemiological characteristics of female lung cancer mortality in Asian countries. However, Asian countries are often excluded from studies of geographical differences in trends for lung cancer mortality. We thus examined lung cancer trends from 1971 to 1995 among men and women for 23 countries, including four in Asia. Methods International and national data were used to analyze lung cancer mortality from 1971 to 1995 in both sexes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR were analyzed in five consecutive five-year periods and for each five-year age group in the age range 30 to 79. The age-period-cohort (APC model was used to estimate the period effect (adjusted for age and cohort effects for mortality from lung cancer. Results The sex ratio of the ASMR for lung cancer was lower in Asian countries, while the sex ratio of smoking prevalence was higher in Asian countries. The mean values of the sex ratio of the ASMR from lung cancer in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan for the five 5-year period were 2.10, 2.39, 3.07, and 3.55, respectively. These values not only remained quite constant over each five-year period, but were also lower than seen in the western countries. The period effect, for lung cancer mortality as derived for the 23 countries from the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Conclusion Period effects for both men and women in 23 countries, as derived using the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Four Asian countries have a relatively low sex ratio in lung cancer mortality and a relatively high sex ratio in smoking prevalence. Factors other than smoking might be important, especially for women in Asian countries.

  11. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  12. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  13. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  14. Clinic attenders with autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: cognitive profile at school age and its relationship to preschool indicators of language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile specifically to the age at which these children were first flagged up (or not) as suspected from language delay during the preschool years. Forty clinic children with ASD, ADHD, or the combination of the two (without clinical suspicion of learning disability) were assessed cognitively and as regards language development and language function at a mean age of 7.3 years. They were contrasted with a group of 21 children from the community who had been flagged at 2.5 years as suspected of language delay, and who had been followed up neuropsyhiatrically/neuropsychologically and in respect of language at a mean age of 7.9 years. Mean WISC-III full scale IQ was lower than population norms (in spite of the exclusion in both samples of cases with obvious learning disability) and similar across diagnostic groups (ASD and ADHD), and across settings (clinic and community). WISC-III Kaufman factor profiles separated the diagnostic groups as regards Perceptual Organisation. Early concern about language delay was a strong predictor of lower IQ and of distinguishing between "pure" cases of ASD and ADHD. School age clinic children who present with ASD and ADHD have a similar cognitive and early language development profile as do those children from the community, followed prospectively, who present with a suspicion of early preschool language delay and are shown at school age to suffer from ASD or ADHD. Concern about early language delay in the preschool age should prompt assessments (psychiatric and cognitively) for ASD and ADHD in a multidisciplinary setting much more often than is currently the case. In many cases early language delay, even in

  15. Calculation of Economic Rotation Period for Even-Aged Stand in Croatia

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    Karlo Beljan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Even-aged forests prevail in Croatia’s forestry. Rotation period is based mostly on natural parameters. In practice, rotation period is given by Croatian Rulebook of forest management. Cutting age is determined based on inventory data and many other stand characteristics. Rotation period is a planned time and it always has to be unique for particular tree species, and cutting age is the age of a stand at the moment of the final cut. The aim of the paper is to compare rotation period based on economic parameters and rotation period determined by using forest inventory data. Material and Methods: Owing to absence of long term stand calculation data, research object was taken from Forest Management Handbook (1995. Mean annual increment (MAI and current annual increment (CAI provided fundamental data for calculations. The research was conducted at one hectare Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stand. Assortment structure and value of timber was estimated by the present cutting value method calculated by using Croatian forests Ltd. Price list for the year 2008. Labor costs in forest exploitation were also taken into account. Results and Conclusion: In order to achieve cost-effective management of common beech stands, it is necessary to adjust current optimal rotation period. Optimal rotation period should be based on management goals as the main factors. So far the most common criterion adopted in Croatian forestry has been the rotation of maximum sustained yield or maximum Mean annual increment. The presented results indicate that common forest management practice should be changed in order to achieve cost-effective management of beech stands in the future.

  16. Age-period-cohort analysis in the 1870s: Diagrams, stereograms, and the basic differential equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The period 1868–1880 saw a dramatic development in analytical and graphical descriptions of mortality, varying with time and age; this took place almost entirely in the German language. This report attempts a survey of these developments with brief notes on other graphical representations...

  17. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  18. Coordination difficulties in preschool-aged children are associated with maternal parenting stress: A community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michio; Adachi, Masaki; Takayanagi, Nobuya; Yasuda, Sayura; Tanaka, Masanori; Osato-Kaneda, Ayako; Masuda, Takahito; Nakai, Akio; Saito, Manabu; Kuribayashi, Michito; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-30

    Although coordination difficulties are sometimes observed even in children in the general population, no empirical studies have examined the impact of these difficulties on parenting stress. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between coordination difficulties and parenting stress in a community-based sample of preschool-aged children and their mothers. The study included 1691 families. Mothers with 4- or 5-year-old children completed questionnaires about parenting stress and children's coordination difficulties, as well as traits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that coordination difficulties, and ADHD and ASD traits were each independent predictors of parenting stress. Among the significant predictive factors, impaired general coordination, as well as hyperactivity-impulsivity, showed a strong impact on parenting stress. In addition, a gender difference was observed in the manner in which coordination difficulties influenced parenting stress. Coordination difficulties in preschool-aged children in the general population increased maternal parenting stress (as did ADHD and ASD traits). This highlights the need to provide support for mothers who have children with coordination difficulties, even when there is no clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.

  20. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires......, the relative size of the effects suggests that either (a) a positive effect of period is neutralized by a negative effect of birth cohort, resulting in a zero net effect for the period under investigation, or (b) that both effects are peripheral, caused by an underlying biological-ageing effect. Total...... consumption of lean fish, on the other hand, is clearly falling in Norway, whereas total consumption of processed fish is rising, suggesting clear areas for marketing action. Abstract is published in Appetite, 2002, vol. 39, p. 258...

  1. Suicide Mortality in Canada and Quebec, 1926-2008: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Thibodeau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide rates raise with age has remained consistent for more than 150 years but over the last 50 years major changes occurred. We examined Age-Period-Cohort (APC effects on suicide mortality rate by gender in Canada and in Quebec from 1926 to 2008. Durkheim theoretical framework is used to interpret our findings. Descriptive analysis and APC models relating to the Intrinsic Estimator (IE were used to assess these effects. IE model shows suicide net age effect for men in Canada and Quebec as death rate increased until 25 years old before reaching a plateau. For women it’s an inverted "U" shape peaking at mid-adulthood. While period effect differs, a net cohort effect is found for men born in 1941, and women in 1981 until most recent cohorts.

  2. MLE and Bayesian inference of age-dependent sensitivity and transition probability in periodic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongfeng; Rosner, Gary L; Broemeling, Lyle

    2005-12-01

    This article extends previous probability models for periodic breast cancer screening examinations. The specific aim is to provide statistical inference for age dependence of sensitivity and the transition probability from the disease free to the preclinical state. The setting is a periodic screening program in which a cohort of initially asymptomatic women undergo a sequence of breast cancer screening exams. We use age as a covariate in the estimation of screening sensitivity and the transition probability simultaneously, both from a frequentist point of view and within a Bayesian framework. We apply our method to the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York study of female breast cancer and give age-dependent sensitivity and transition probability density estimates. The inferential methodology we develop is also applicable when analyzing studies of modalities for early detection of other types of progressive chronic diseases.

  3. Valeo-pedagogical culture of parents and its role in forming healthy way of life of preschool age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshyn O. R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered organizationally-methodical aspects of work with family on forming health for young people. Maintenance is reflected, forms of organization of work with families in the conditions of valeology of preschool education. In research were questionnaire 45 parents, 25 educators and 25 children in the free mode during two weeks. The results of questionnaires proved that only 20% parents spare certain attention in families to forming of healthy way of life of children, 30% consider that an example of adults in this question is fundamental principle, but almost 68% parents have an insufficient level of pedagogical valeological culture. The analysis of results of questionnaire of children testifies that respondents have necessary pre-conditions for forming knowledge, abilities and skills of healthy way of life, accessible understanding of value of own health and health of near them. Methodical recommendations are brought for activations of co-operation of preschool educational establishment and family on forming of health of preschool children.

  4. The capacity to generate alternative ideas is more important than inhibition for logical reasoning in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chantal, Pier-Luc; Markovits, Henry

    2017-02-01

    There is little consensus about the nature of logical reasoning and, equally important, about how it develops. To address this, we looked at the early origins of deductive reasoning in preschool children. We examined the contribution of two factors to the reasoning ability of very young children: inhibitory capacity and the capacity to generate alternative ideas. In a first study, a total of 32 preschool children were all given generation, inhibition, and logical reasoning measures. Logical reasoning was measured using knowledge-based premises such as "All dogs have legs," and two different inferences: modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent. Results revealed that correctly reasoning with both inferences is not related to the measure of inhibition, but is rather related to the capacity to generate alternative ideas. In a second study, 32 preschool children were given either the generation or the inhibition task before the logical reasoning measure. Results showed that receiving the generation task beforehand significantly improved logical reasoning compared to the inhibition task given beforehand. Overall, these results provide evidence for the greater importance of idea generation in the early development of logical reasoning.

  5. A developmental examination of the psychometric properties and predictive utility of a revised psychological self-concept measure for preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-age children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., sociability, control, and assurance) from the lower order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for sociability and assurance, not for control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the 3 latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-Short Form (SCBE-SF; LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. From restrained golden age to creeping platinum age: A periodization of Latin American development in the Robinsonian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS VERNENGO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper analyzes Joan Robinson's growth model, and then adapted in order to provide an exploratory taxonomy of Growth Eras. The Growth Eras or Ages were for Robinson a way to provide logical connections among output growth, capital accumulation, the degree of thriftiness, the real wage and illustrate a catalogue of growth possibilities. This modified taxonomy follows the spirit of Robinson's work, but it takes different theoretical approaches, which imply that some of her classifications do not fit perfectly the ones here suggested. Latin America has moved from a Golden Age in the 1950s and 1960s, to a Leaden Age in the 1980s, having two traverse periods, one in which the process of growth and industrialization accelerated in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which is here referred to as a Galloping Platinum Age, and one in which a process of deindustrialization, and reprimarization and maquilization of the productive structure took place, starting in the 1990s, which could be referred to as a Creeping Platinum Age.

  7. [Mortality by avoidable causes in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurán, Albenia; López, Elizabeth; Pinilla, Consuelo; Sierra, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The infant-mortality rate in children aged less than five is an indicator of the general state of health of a population and directly reflects the quality of life and the level of socio-economic development of a country. Avoidable mortality was assessed in preschool children as a reflection of Colombia quality of life and socio-economic development. Mortality trends were analyzed in preschool children aged less than five throughout Colombia during a 20-year period from 1985-2004, and focused on mortality causes that were considered avoidable. This was a descriptive, retrospective study; the sources of information were Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística records of deaths and population projections 1985-2004. Mortality rate due to avoidable causes was the statistical indicator. In children aged less than one, the reducible mortality due to "early diagnosis and medical treatment" occupied the first place amongst causes for every year of the study period and accounted for more than 50% of recorded deaths. In children aged 1 to 4, the category "other important reducible causes" was associated with 40% of recorded deaths-deaths due mainly to respiratory diseases. Over the 20-year period, the avoidable mortality rate decreased by 34% in children aged less than one, in children 1-4, it decreased by 23%. Although the infant-mortality rate in preschool children was reduced, the decrease was small, from 80% to 77%. The situation requires more analysis with respect to strategies in public health, particularly concerning preventable diseases of the infancy.

  8. Dissecting Long-Term Glucose Metabolism Identifies New Susceptibility Period for Metabolic Dysfunction in Aged Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Chauhan

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders, like diabetes and obesity, are pathogenic outcomes of imbalance in glucose metabolism. Nutrient excess and mitochondrial imbalance are implicated in dysfunctional glucose metabolism with age. We used conplastic mouse strains with defined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations on a common nuclear genomic background, and administered a high-fat diet up to 18 months of age. The conplastic mouse strain B6-mtFVB, with a mutation in the mt-Atp8 gene, conferred β-cell dysfunction and impaired glucose tolerance after high-fat diet. To our surprise, despite of this functional deficit, blood glucose levels adapted to perturbations with age. Blood glucose levels were particularly sensitive to perturbations at the early age of 3 to 6 months. Overall the dynamics consisted of a peak between 3-6 months followed by adaptation by 12 months of age. With the help of mathematical modeling we delineate how body weight, insulin and leptin regulate this non-linear blood glucose dynamics. The model predicted a second rise in glucose between 15 and 21 months, which could be experimentally confirmed as a secondary peak. We therefore hypothesize that these two peaks correspond to two sensitive periods of life, where perturbations to the basal metabolism can mark the system for vulnerability to pathologies at later age. Further mathematical modeling may perspectively allow the design of targeted periods for therapeutic interventions and could predict effects on weight loss and insulin levels under conditions of pre-diabetic obesity.

  9. Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Liu, Cuiying; Jin, Xin; Jiang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Maseno Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Bioavailability is mainly influenced by aging and desorption of contaminants in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil and to investigate whether chemical extractions are suitable for the bioavailability assessment of CBs in soil. A soil spiked with CBs and aged for different periods was extracted with Tenax, hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and butanol to assess the bioavailability of CBs in soil, respectively. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) accumulation was used as bioassay in parallel experiments to evaluate the chemical extractions. The results showed that desorption of CBs from soil with consecutive Tenax extraction fitted into triphasic kinetics model. Different chemical methods extracted different amounts of CBs over different aging periods. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the extraction efficiency was in the order of butanol > Tenax-6h > HPCD extraction, while the order of butanol > HPCD > Tenax-6h extraction for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The bioaccumulation by earthworm decreased with increasing aging period and was significantly higher for HCB than for PeCB (p < 0.05). Earthworm accumulated CBs correlated well with all the three chemical extracted CBs. However, HPCD extraction showed the converse extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs. Chemical extraction could be used to assess the bioavailability of contaminants in soil; however, they were method and compound specific. Tenax and butanol extractions were more reliable than HPCD extraction for bioavailability assessment of the tested CBs and the soil used since they showed the consistent extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs.

  10. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.

  11. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Acute appendicitis in preschoolers: a study of two different populations of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivridis Efthimios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the incidence and the risk factors implicated in acute appendicitis in preschoolers in our region. Methods Over a 7-year period, 352 children underwent appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis. Of these, data for 23 children were excluded because no inflammation of the appendix was found on subsequent histology. Of the remaining 329, 82 were ≤ 5 years old (i.e., preschool children and 247 were 5-14 years old. These two groups of children were further divided according to their religion into Muslims and Christian Orthodox: 43 of the children aged ≤ 5 years were Muslims and 39 were Christian Orthodox. A household questionnaire was designed to collect data concerning age, gender, type of residence area, living conditions, vegetable consumption, and family history of surgery for acute appendicitis as preschool children. The removed appendices were also assessed histologically for the amount of lymphoid tissue. Results Acute appendicitis of preschoolers developed more frequently in Muslims (39.4% than in Christians (17.7%; p p p > 0.05. Conclusions In our region, the percentage of preschool-aged Muslim children with acute appendicitis was remarkably high. One possible explanation for this finding could be the higher amount of lymphoid tissue in the wall of the appendix in Muslim preschool children together with their low standard of hygiene.

  13. Assessing executive functions in preschoolers using Shape School Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nieto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of the development of executive functions in preschool children due to their relationship with different cognitive, psychological, social and academic domains. Early detection of individual differences in executive functioning can have major implications for basic and applied research. Consequently, there is a key need for assessment tools adapted to preschool skills: Shape School has been shown to be a suitable task for this purpose. Our study uses Shape School as the main task to analyze development of inhibition, task-switching and working memory in a sample of 304 preschoolers (age range 3.25-6.50 years. Additionally, we include cognitive tasks for the evaluation of verbal variables (vocabulary, word reasoning and short-term memory and performance variables (picture completion and symbol search, so as to analyze their relationship with executive functions. Our results show age-associated improvements in executive functions and the cognitive variables assessed. Furthermore, correlation analyses reveal positive relationships between executive functions and the other cognitive variables. More specifically, using structural equation modeling and including age direct and indirect effects, our results suggest that executive functions explain to a greater extent performance on verbal and performance tasks. These findings provide further information to support research that considers preschool age to be a crucial period for the development of executive functions and their relationship with other cognitive processes

  14. Age, period and cohort effects on suicide mortality in Russia, 1956-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukkala, Tanya; Stickley, Andrew; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Baburin, Aleksei; Sparén, Pär

    2017-03-07

    Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005. Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed. Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts. Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.

  15. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives: To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months. Design: Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Results: Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (p<0.05 lower mean daily intakes of key nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, folate, phosphorous, potassium, carotene, retinol, and dietary fibre. They also had lower (p<0.05 intakes of vegetables, fish and fish dishes, meat and infant/toddler milks and higher intakes of processed foods and non-milk beverages, confectionery, sugars and savoury snack foods indicative of poorer dietary quality. Areas under the curve values of 84.7 and 75.6% were achieved for ‘medium’ and ‘high’ dietary risk when compared with expert risk ratings indicating good consistency between the two methods. Conclusion: NutricheQ is a valid method of quickly assessing dietary quality in preschoolers and in identifying those at increased nutritional risk.In ContextAnalysis of data from national food and nutrition surveys typically identifies shortfalls in dietary intakes or quality of young children. This can relate to intakes of micronutrients such as iron or vitamin D as well as to the balance of macronutrients they consume (e.g. fat or sugar. Alongside this lie concerns regarding overweight and obesity and physical inactivity. This combination of

  16. Associations between social isolation, pro-social behaviour and emotional development in preschool aged children: a population based survey of kindergarten staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marryat, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Minnis, Helen; Wilson, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The impact of peer relationships has been extensively reported during adolescence, when peer influence is generally considered to be at its greatest. Research on social isolation during childhood has found associations with school achievement, future relationships and adult mental health. Much of the evidence is derived from either parent or child-rated assessment of peer relationships, each of which have their limitations. We report findings from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), completed by staff in preschool establishments for over 10,000 children in their preschool year (aged 4-5), linked with routine demographic data. Correlations between scores and demographics were explored. Regression models examined the independent relationships between three social isolation variables, taken from the SDQ Peer Relationship Problems, Pro-social Behaviour and Emotional Symptoms subscales, controlling for demographics. There were substantial overlaps between problem scores. Regression models found all social isolation variables to be significantly correlated with social and emotional functioning. Different types of social isolation appeared to relate to different psychological domains, with unpopularity having a stronger relationship with poor pro-social skills, whereas being solitary was more strongly linked to poorer emotional functioning. Social isolation does have a significant association with reported child social and emotional difficulties, independent of demographic characteristics. The analysis highlights the complexity of measuring social isolation in young children. Different types of social isolation were found to have relationships with specific areas of social and emotional functioning.

  17. Age-specific contributions to changes in the period and cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Schoen, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Period life expectancy has increased more slowly than its cohort counterpart. This paper explores the differences between life expectancies at a given time (the gap) and the time required for period life expectancy to reach the current level of cohort life expectancy (the lag). Additionally......, to understand the disparity between the two life expectancies we identify and compare age-specific contributions to change in life expectancy. Using mortality models and historical data for Sweden, we examine the effect of mortality changes over time. Our results indicate that the widening of the gap between...... the two life expectancies is primarily a consequence of the dramatic mortality decline at older ages that occurred during the twentieth century. These results imply that the divergence between the two measures is likely to become even greater in the future as reductions in deaths are concentrated at older...

  18. Age-period-cohort models using smoothing splines: a generalized additive model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Carriere, Keumhee C

    2014-02-20

    Age-period-cohort (APC) models are used to analyze temporal trends in disease or mortality rates, dealing with linear dependency among associated effects of age, period, and cohort. However, the nature of sparseness in such data has severely limited the use of APC models. To deal with these practical limitations and issues, we advocate cubic smoothing splines. We show that the methods of estimable functions proposed in the framework of generalized linear models can still be considered to solve the non-identifiability problem when the model fitting is within the framework of generalized additive models with cubic smoothing splines. Through simulation studies, we evaluate the performance of the cubic smoothing splines in terms of the mean squared errors of estimable functions. Our results support the use of cubic smoothing splines for APC modeling with sparse but unaggregated data from a Lexis diagram.

  19. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  20. Age-specific infectious period shapes dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K; Manlove, Kezia R; Besser, Thomas E; Páez, David J; Andrews, Kimberly R; Matthews, Patrick E; Waits, Lisette P; Hudson, Peter J; Cassirer, E Frances

    2017-09-04

    Superspreading, the phenomenon where a small proportion of individuals contribute disproportionately to new infections, has profound effects on disease dynamics. Superspreading can arise through variation in contacts, infectiousness or infectious periods. The latter has received little attention, yet it drives the dynamics of many diseases of critical public health, livestock health and conservation concern. Here, we present rare evidence of variation in infectious periods underlying a superspreading phenomenon in a free-ranging wildlife system. We detected persistent infections of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, the primary causative agent of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), in a small number of older individuals that were homozygous at an immunologically relevant genetic locus. Interactions among age-structure, genetic composition and infectious periods may drive feedbacks in disease dynamics that determine the magnitude of population response to infection. Accordingly, variation in initial conditions may explain divergent population responses to infection that range from recovery to catastrophic decline and extirpation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jill L; Loveman, Emma; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Mead, Emma; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2016-03-10

    Child overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years. We performed a systematic literature search in the databases Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and LILACS, as well as in the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We also checked references of identified trials and systematic reviews. We applied no language restrictions. The date of the last search was March 2015 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in preschool children aged 0 to 6 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument, and extracted data following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 7 RCTs with a total of 923 participants: 529 randomised to an intervention and 394 to a comparator. The number of participants per trial ranged from 18 to 475. Six trials were parallel RCTs, and one was a cluster RCT. Two trials were three-arm trials, each comparing two interventions with a control group. The interventions and comparators in the trials varied. We categorised the comparisons into two groups: multicomponent interventions and dietary interventions. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low, and six trials had a high risk of bias on individual 'Risk of bias' criteria. The children in the included trials were followed up for between six months and three years.In trials comparing a multicomponent intervention with usual care, enhanced usual care, or information control, we found a greater reduction in body mass index (BMI

  2. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. METHODOLOGY: A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering 'trace' as negative (t-, and single CCA with 'trace' as positive (t+, was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t- as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t- or CCA(t+ was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t- and CCA(t+ was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are warranted

  3. Accuracy of Urine Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in Preschool-Aged Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; N'Gbesso, Yves K.; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; van Dam, Govert J.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. Methodology A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years) submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. Principal Findings Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering ‘trace’ as negative (t−), and single CCA with ‘trace’ as positive (t+), was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t−)) as diagnostic ‘gold’ standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t−) or CCA(t+) was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t−) and CCA(t+) was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04). Conclusions/Significance A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are

  4. La Comprensión Narrativa en Edad Preescolar: Un Instrumento para su Medición Narrative Comprehension in the Preschool Age: An Assessment Instrument

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    Katherine Strasser

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La comprensión narrativa es una habilidad fundamental en la alfabetización infantil, poco atendida por investigadores y educadores por las dificultades para comprenderla y medirla, sobre todo a edades tempranas. Se reportan resultados de un estudio cuyo objetivo fue elaborar y validar un instrumento para la medición de la comprensión narrativa en niños en edad preescolar. Participaron 117 niños y niñas chilenos entre 3 años 6 meses y 5 años 1 mes de edad, pertenecientes a jardines infantiles de la Región Metropolitana. Se encontró evidencia que apoya la confiabilidad y la validez concurrente del instrumento, de fácil y rápida aplicación y codificación. Se discuten las implicancias de contar con un instrumento para medir comprensión narrativa que sea adecuado a la población preescolar chilena, así como estudios futuros necesarios para mejorar el instrumento.Narrative comprehension is a fundamental ability for children's literacy development that has been largely ignored by researchers and educators, due to the difficulties in understanding and measuring it, particularly in the early ages. The results of a study, whose goal was to construct and validate an instrument to measure narrative comprehension in preschool age children, are presented. Participants were 117 Chilean children aged 3 years and 6 months to 5 years and 1 month. Evidence was found to support the reliability and concurrent validity of the instrument, which is simple and quick to administer and code. The implications of having an instrument to measure narrative comprehension that is adequate for the Chilean preschool population are discussed, as are future studies to improve the instrument.

  5. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  6. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.

  7. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos prescolares y escolares: encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Barquera; Rivera, Juan A.; Margarita Safdie; Mario Flores; Ismael Campos-Nonato; Fabricio Campirano

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309) and school (n=2 611) children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-i...

  8. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  9. ROLE OF THE FAMILY IN THE FORMATION OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AND PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Nikolaevna Istratova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: examine the components of cognitive activity of children in preschool and primary school from wealthy families and disharmonious and - in orphanages.Methodology: the theoretical analysis of the problem highlighted components of cognitive activity and factors of its development in childhood. Methods of the study were the analysis of the scientific literature, diagnostic techniques, statistical methods of data processing (criterion angular transformation φ * Fisher.Results: the results showed that, compared with children of harmonious families, children, emotionally rejected by their parents, have a low level of cognitive interest, descriptive and practical type of questioning and research activity, the prevalence of medium indicators of cognitive activity. For the younger students is manifested in the instability of the focus on learning activities.Preschoolers from the orphanage have a decrease of all components of cognitive activity (cognitive interest, questioning and research activities, the success of cognitive activity.The paper concludes the importance of the emotional component of communication of the parents with the child to develop his cognitive activity and further social and psychological adaptation.Practical implications: materials can be used in the practice of educational institutions for professionals working with families to correct parent-child relationship and optimization of cognitive and personality development of children.

  10. Trends in mortality from septicaemia and pneumonia with economic development: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O L Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hong Kong population has experienced drastic changes in its economic development in the 1940s. Taking advantage of Hong Kong's unique demographic and socioeconomic history, characterized by massive, punctuated migration waves from Southern China, and recent, rapid transition from a pre-industrialized society to the first ethnic Chinese community reaching "first world" status over the last 60 years (i.e., in two or three generations, we examined the longitudinal trends in infection related mortality including septicemia compared to trends in non-bacterial pneumonia to generate hypotheses for further testing in other recently transitioned economies and to provide generalized aetiological insights on how economic transition affects infection-related mortality. METHODS: We used deaths from septicemia and pneumonia not specified as bacterial, and population figures in Hong Kong from 1976-2005. We fitted age-period-cohort models to decompose septicemia and non-bacterial pneumonia mortality rates into age, period and cohort effects. RESULTS: Septicaemia-related deaths increased exponentially with age, with a downturn by period. The birth cohort curves had downward inflections in both sexes in the 1940s, with a steeper deceleration for women. Non-bacterial pneumonia-related deaths also increased exponentially with age, but the birth cohort patterns showed no downturns for those born in the 1940s. CONCLUSION: The observed changes appeared to suggest that better early life conditions may enable better development of adaptive immunity, thus enhancing immunity against bacterial infections, with greater benefits for women than men. Given the interaction between the immune system and the gonadotropic axis, these observations are compatible with the hypothesis that upregulation of the gonadotropic axis underlies some of the changes in disease patterns with economic development.

  11. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.

  12. Math and Calculation – A Test for Diagnosing Concepts at Pre-school Age – An Example of a Level-oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Ricken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Process-oriented diagnostics require a theoretical framework which allows to describe and interpret individual competence changes. For MARKO-test, a corresponding dimension/scale of mathematical achievement in preschool age was developed on the basis of theoretical assumptions and empirical data. Five essential concepts are: numbers as counting sequence, ordinal number line, cardinal understanding, part – part – whole and concept of congruent intervals. There is empirical evidence for the validity of the model, using a unidimensional Rasch model. Therefore, a concept of testing is available which on the one hand allows to compare individual data with a social norm and on the other hand is usable to make valid statements about individual changes and the current development status of a child.

  13. Effects of parental nativity and length of stay in the US on fruit and vegetable intake among WIC-enrolled preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Langellier, B A; Wang, M C; Koleilat, M; Whaley, S E

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to US culture is negatively associated with fruits and vegetables (F&V) intake. Our goal was to investigate how parent's nativity and length of stay in the US influences preschoolers' F&V intake. We analyzed survey data from 2,352 children, aged 36-60 months, who participate in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles County. Using multiple linear regression, we examined children's F&V intake by parent's nativity and years in the US, adjusting for possible confounders. Children of foreign born parents who had lived in the US for US born parents and of foreign born parents who had lived in the US for ≥10 years. Children of newer immigrant families may be at greater risk for consuming poor-quality diets. Research to identify determinants of poor diet quality among children of immigrant families may increase the effectiveness of WIC in addressing this population's nutritional needs.

  14. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: Results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case–control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n = 198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n = 253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference −21.4, 95% CI: −24.0, −18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference −5.1, 95% CI: −9.5, −0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born

  15. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  16. Formation of Future Pre-School Teachers' Readiness to Work in the Conditions of Educational Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktagirova, Gulnara F.; Khitryuk, Vera V.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education becomes a social reality and needs to ensure its quality. Preschool age is a sensitive period of the process of personality's socialization and the formation of moral qualities, providing interaction and communication between people pattern, among which are: respect for "otherness", cooperation, support and mutual…

  17. Aggressive behaviour in preschool children. Neuropsychological correlates, costs of service use, and preventive efforts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    At ages two and three the vast majority of children shows a high level of aggression. During the preschool period the level of aggression generally declines. However, some children continue to show a high level of aggression and are at risk for the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD),

  18. Evaluating Period of Accelerated Skeletal Maturation in Gujarati Children between Ages 8+ and 14+ Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjit Singh Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the level of skeletal maturation and period of accelerated growth in 70 boys and 70 girls between the ages (8+ and (14+ years using CVMS index. Materials and methods: Lateral cephalogram of 140 individuals were selected, i.e. 70 girls and 70 boys, each of age group from 8+ to 14+ years. It is observed that CVMS index used is highly significant for this purpose. It is observed that this index is highly effective for this purpose. Conclusion: Females′ vertebrae mature earlier than males at each stage. The maturation rate is not constant between the various stages and period of accelerated growth is experienced at different ages and levels in males and females. Need arises to confirm that early maturation in females is not because of their smaller sized vertebra. Further, the time duration recorded between the two subsequent stages is different not because the changes required to be done by nature is different. Longitudinal growth studies of the jaws proper are desired to be conducted for this purpose.

  19. FORMATION OF THE PRECONDITIONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF GENDER PSYCHOLOGY IN MIDDLE AGES PERIOD

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    Veronika Olegovna Mokhova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the main ideas of the Medieval Period authors in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the most important theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of gender psychology. It is being considered the role of Christianity and the emergence of the women's education issue in the formation of gender stereotypes. In this article the Middle Ages period is being considered as a separate historical phase for the basic ideas formation in the gender psychology, which is a new approach to the history of gender science. To estimate medieval texts - European and Russian, the method of qualitative content analysis is used, by means of which the most relevant to the period ideas associated with the sexes are identified. For Europe, it inter-sexual features, for Russia - different behavioral requirements of the society associated with sexes. Conclusions contain ideas of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia that are relevant to the development and establishment of gender psychology. In Europe: the continuation of the ancient thesis of the initial androgyny of a human being; impact of the woman's education on her ability for development; consideration of sexuality as sinful; the issue of women's emancipation, the declining value of the large numerous families despite of a ban on interference in the reproductive cycle in the middle of the Medieval period. In Russia: the perception of inter-sexual characteristics as defined by the God; unconditional obedience of a woman to her husband; androgyny in the distribution of the farmers’ responsibilities.Objective: To analyze the main ideas of the authors of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the significant theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of the gender psychology.Method of the research work: A qualitative content analysis of the texts by the authors

  20. The sensitive period for auditory localization in barn owls is limited by age, not by experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, E I; Knudsen, P F

    1986-07-01

    Early in life, the barn owl passes through a sensitive period during which it can interpret and make use of abnormal auditory cues for accurate sound localization. This capacity is lost at about 8 weeks of age, just after the head and ears reach adult size (knudsen et al. 1984a). The end of the sensitive period could be triggered either by an age-dependent process or by the exposure of the auditory system to stable or adult-like cues. To distinguish between these alternatives, we subjected baby owls to constant abnormal cues (chronic monaural occlusion) or to frequently changing abnormal cues (alternating monaural occlusion) throughout the sensitive period. In the first group of animals (n = 2), one ear was plugged continuously until 73 or 79 d of age, respectively, and then the earplug was switched to the opposite ear. Although these animals adjusted sound localization accuracy during the initial chronic monaural occlusion, they could not localize sounds at all after the earplug was switched to the opposite ear, and they remained unable to localize sounds as long as the opposite ear remained occluded (7 and 27 weeks, respectively). When the second monaural occlusion was finally removed, both birds localized sounds with errors that were similar to the errors they exhibited immediately after removal of the first monaural occlusion. One bird that was 127-d-old at the time the second earplug was removed corrected its localization error; the other bird, 250-d-old when the second earplug was removed, did not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Planning and Evaluating Educational Work in Slovene Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistic Zorec, Marcela; Hocevar, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    The present article examines the changes in Slovene preschools subsequent to Slovenia's independence in 1991. In the socialist period, the national education programme for preschools was highly structured, goal and content-oriented and subject to schoolization. The Curriculum for Preschools (1999) brought conceptual changes towards education…

  2. Adaptation of a paradigm for examining the development of fear beliefs through the verbal information pathway in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Lara S; Schofield, Casey A; Beard, Courtney; Armstrong, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Verbal threat information has been shown to induce fear beliefs in school-age children (i.e. 6-12 years; for a review see Muris & Field, 2010). The current study adapted an existing paradigm (Field & Lawson, 2003) to examine the impact of verbal threat information on self-report and behavioral measures of fear in preschool-age children. Thirty children (aged 3-5) were provided with threat, positive, or no information about three novel Australian marsupials. There was a significant increase in fear belief for the animal associated with threat information compared to the animal associated with positive or no information. Verbal threat information did not impact behavioral avoidance in the complete sample; however, findings from an exploratory subgroup analysis excluding three-year-olds indicated that children demonstrated significant behavioral avoidance for the threat condition compared to the positive condition. These findings provide additional support for Rachman's theory of fear acquisition (1977, 1991) and suggest this paradigm may be used to examine the age at which verbal threat information becomes a relevant mode of fear acquisition for young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related alterations in the neural coding of envelope periodicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joseph P; Simon, Henry; Frisina, Robert D

    2002-08-01

    This research was guided by the working hypothesis that the aging auditory system progressively loses its ability to process rapid acoustic transients efficiently, and in elderly listeners, this results in difficulties in speech perception. Neural correlates of age-related deficits in temporal processing were investigated by recording from inferior colliculus (IC) neurons from young adult and old CBA mice. Single-unit responses were recorded to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) noise carriers, presented at 65-80 dB SPL, having modulation frequencies (MFs) that ranged from 10 to 800 Hz. Because phasic-type temporal response patterns dominate responses to tone and noise in mammalian IC, we limited our analyses to only phasic units. Modulation transfer functions (MTF) for both rate (rMTF) and synchronization (sMTF) measures were used to derive respective best modulation frequencies (rBMF and sBMF). The main age-related finding was that there was an overall increase in response rate to SAM noise carriers and a decrease in the median upper cutoff frequency in units from old mice. At rBMF, the median spike count from units from old animals was 1.63 times greater, and at the sBMF, the median spike count was 2.29 times greater than the young adult sample. We explored whether the increase in driven activity was due to a change in the transient (first cycle response) or periodic (remaining response) component of the response to SAM noise. Median spike counts of the transient component decreased with increasing MF for both young adult and old units, with median counts consistently greater in the old sample as compared with young. Median spike counts for the periodic response remained relatively constant as a function of MF; however, there was a significantly greater (3 times) response for older units in a restricted range of MFs. The greater median spike counts found for the transient and periodic response was also evident when we analyzed the cycle-by-cycle response

  4. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  5. Using social marketing principles to guide the development of a nutrition education initiative for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Beckstrom, Leslie; Bellows, Laura; Johnson, Susan L

    2004-01-01

    Within the field of nutrition education, social marketing has become a promising framework to systematically approach problems related to nutrition behavior. In 1997, the Colorado Nutrition Network began developing a social marketing campaign to promote healthful food choices among low-income Coloradans. A multifaceted formative evaluation plan that included focus groups, campaign concept pretesting, and a food frequency questionnaire was used to segment and scrutinize the target audience. The resulting pilot program was a blend of educational and marketing strategies targeting preschoolers that was implemented in Head Start classrooms. The 12-week intervention contained a narrow, behavior-based "try new foods" message, multiple nutrition education activities, and repeated opportunities to taste 13 novel foods. Key strategies used and findings from the formative evaluation process are presented herein in an effort to provide insight for nutrition educators interested in developing similar interventions.

  6. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  7. Theory-guided Therapeutic Function of Music to facilitate emotion regulation development in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena Moore, Kimberly; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is an umbrella term to describe interactive, goal-dependent explicit, and implicit processes that are intended to help an individual manage and shift an emotional experience. The primary window for appropriate ER development occurs during the infant, toddler, and preschool years. Atypical ER development is considered a risk factor for mental health problems and has been implicated as a primary mechanism underlying childhood pathologies. Current treatments are predominantly verbal- and behavioral-based and lack the opportunity to practice in-the-moment management of emotionally charged situations. There is also an absence of caregiver–child interaction in these treatment strategies. Based on behavioral and neural support for music as a therapeutic mechanism, the incorporation of intentional music experiences, facilitated by a music therapist, may be one way to address these limitations. Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation (MCRF) is an interactive therapist-child music-based intervention for ER development practice in preschoolers. The MCRF intervention uses the deliberate contour and temporal structure of a music therapy session to mirror the changing flow of the caregiver–child interaction through the alternation of high arousal and low arousal music experiences. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Therapeutic Function of Music (TFM), a theory-based description of the structural characteristics for a music-based stimulus to musically facilitate developmentally appropriate high arousal and low arousal in-the-moment ER experiences. The TFM analysis is based on a review of the music theory, music neuroscience, and music development literature and provides a preliminary model of the structural characteristics of the music as a core component of the MCRF intervention. PMID:26528171

  8. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Lee Jones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs, and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥ 7 hours/night and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score. The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥ 10 hours/night, family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤ 2 hours/day of TV, video, DVD, and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  9. Theory-guided Therapeutic Function of Music to facilitate emotion regulation development in preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eSena Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is an umbrella term to describe interactive, goal-dependent explicit and implicit processes that are intended to help an individual manage and shift an emotional experience. The primary window for appropriate emotion regulation development occurs during the infant, toddler, and preschool years. Atypical emotion regulation development is considered a risk factor for mental health problems and has been implicated as a primary mechanism underlying childhood pathologies. Current treatments are predominantly verbal- and behavioral-based and lack the opportunity to practice in-the-moment management of emotionally charged situations. There is also an absence of caregiver-child interaction in these treatment strategies. Based on behavioral and neural support for music as a therapeutic mechanism, the incorporation of intentional music experiences, facilitated by a music therapist, may be one way to address these limitations. Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation is an interactive therapist-child music-based intervention for emotion regulation development practice in preschoolers. The Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation intervention uses the deliberate contour and temporal structure of a music therapy session to mirror the changing flow of the caregiver-child interaction through the alternation of high arousal and low arousal music experiences. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Therapeutic Function of Music, a theory-based description of the structural characteristics for a music-based stimulus to musically facilitate developmentally appropriate high arousal and low arousal in-the-moment emotion regulation experiences. The Therapeutic Function of Music analysis is based on a review of the music theory, music neuroscience, and music development literature and provides a preliminary model of the structural characteristics of the music as a core component of the Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation intervention.

  10. Peer Responses to Stuttering in the Preschool Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Marilyn; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated peer responses to preschoolers' stuttering in preschool and sought to determine whether specific characteristics of participants' stuttering patterns elicited negative peer responses. Method: Four outdoor free-play sessions of 4 preschoolers age 3-4 years who stutter were videotaped. Stutters were identified on…

  11. Early versus Late Entry to Preschool: Some Developmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between cognitive, motor, social and personality development of 3-year-old children and the age of their entry into preschool, which ranged from 10 to 45 months. 247 children from 17 preschools in different regions of Slovenia, all implementing the same National Curriculum, participated. Preschool teachers…

  12. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  13. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  14. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  15. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 404.1585 Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. If you become eligible for... before you became blind or became 55 years old, whichever is later; or (b) Your last previous work ended... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or...

  16. Motor performance and functional ability in preschool- and early school-aged children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe the level of motor performance and functional skills in young children with JIA. Methods In a cross-sectional study in 56 preschool-aged (PSA and early school- aged children (ESA with JIA according to ILAR classification, motor performance was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. Functional skills were measured with the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI. Disease outcome was measured with a joint count on swelling/range of joint motion, functional ability and joint pain. Results Twenty two PSA children (mean age 2.1 years with a mean Developmental Index of the BSID2 of 77.9 indicating a delayed motor performance; 45% of PSA children showed a severe delayed motor performance. Mean PEDI scores were normal, 38% of PSA scored below -2 SD in one or more domains of the PEDI. Thirty four ESA children (mean age 5.2 years with a mean M-ABC 42.7, indicating a normal motor performance, 12% of ESA children had an abnormal score. Mean PEDI scores showed impaired mobility skills, 70% of ESA children scored below -2 SD in one or more domains of the PEDI. Disease outcome in both age groups demonstrated low to moderate scores. Significant correlations were found between age at disease onset, disease duration and BSID2 or M-ABC and between disease outcome and PEDI in both age cohorts. Conclusion More PSA children have more impaired motor performance than impaired functional skills, while ESA children have more impairment in functional skills. Disease onset and disease duration are correlated with motor performance in both groups. Impaired motor performance and delayed functional skills is primarily found in children with a polyarticular disease course. Clinical follow up and rehabilitation programs should also focus on motor performance and functional skills development in young children with JIA.

  17. Preschool executive functioning abilities predict early mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Pritchard, Verena E; Woodward, Lianne J

    2010-09-01

    Impairments in executive function have been documented in school-age children with mathematical learning difficulties. However, the utility and specificity of preschool executive function abilities in predicting later mathematical achievement are poorly understood. This study examined linkages between children's developing executive function abilities at age 4 and children's subsequent achievement in mathematics at age 6, 1 year after school entry. The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 children followed prospectively from ages 2 to 6 years. At age 4, children completed a battery of executive function tasks that assessed planning, set shifting, and inhibitory control. Teachers completed the preschool version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Clinical and classroom measures of children's mathematical achievement were collected at age 6. Results showed that children's performance on set shifting, inhibitory control, and general executive behavior measures during the preschool period accounted for substantial variability in children's early mathematical achievement at school. These associations persisted even after individual differences in general cognitive ability and reading achievement were taken into account. Findings suggest that early measures of executive function may be useful in identifying children who may experience difficulties learning mathematical skills and concepts. They also suggest that the scaffolding of these executive skills could potentially be a useful additional component in early mathematics education.

  18. Time trend and age-period-cohort effects on acute myocardial infarction mortality in Korean adults from 1988 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Ho; Cho, Sung-Il

    2011-05-01

    We examined time trend and age-period-cohort effects on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality in Korean adults from 1988 to 2007. Annual AMI mortality data and population statistics from 1988 to 2007 were obtained from the STATISTICS KOREA website. Age adjusted mortality for four 5-yr calendar periods (1988-1992 to 2003-2007) was calculated by direct standardization using the Year 2000 WHO world standard population. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on AMI mortality. In both genders, age-adjusted AMI mortality increased from period one (1988-1992) to period three (1998-2002) but decreased in period four (2003-2007). An exponential age effect was noted in both genders. The rate ratio of the cohort effect increased up to the 1943 birth cohort and decreased gradually thereafter, and the rate ratio of the period effect increased up to period three (1998-2002) and decreased thereafter. Our results suggest that AMI mortality in Korean adults has decreased since the period 1998-2002 and age, period, and cohort effects have influenced on AMI mortality.

  19. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ewing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001, having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05, and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05. Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05. Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001, while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01 whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01. Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.

  20. Color stability of modern composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). A polytetrafluorethylene matrix (10 x 2 mm) was used to fabricate 24 test specimens of three different composites (n=8): Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar/Vivadent); Filtek P90 and Z250 (3M ESPE), shade A3. After light activation for 20 s (FlashLite 1401), polishing and initial color readout (Spectrophotometer PCB 687; BYK Gardner), the test specimens were subjected to AAA (C-UV; Comexim), in 8-h cycles: 4 h exposure to UV-B rays at 50°C and 4 h condensation at 50°C. At the end of each cycle, color readouts were taken and the test ended when the mean value of ΔE attained a level ≥3.30. Tetric Ceram presented alteration in ΔE equal to 3.33 in the first aging cycle. For Filtek P90 and Z250, two (ΔE=3.60) and four (ΔE=3.42) AAA cycles were necessary. After each cycle, there was a reduction of luminosity in all the samples (ΔL). It was concluded that a short period of AAA was sufficient to promote clinically unacceptable color alteration in composites, and that this alteration was material-dependent.

  1. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Pre-Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    This paper investigates the role of pre-school quality for children’s cognitive development at the end of elementary schooling (age 16). We use a unique dataset based on Danish admini-strative registers where pre-school children are linked to their pre-school and its pre-school teachers. Based...

  2. Prevalence, intensity of infection and risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EU Amuta; RS Houmsou

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection and the risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed to process urine specimens and to determine presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Questionnaires were also administered to children to collect information on socio-demographic data and water-contact activities. Results: An overall prevalence of 55.0% (165/300) was recorded out of the 300 urine samples examined. Prevalence of infection varied between 36.0%-64.0% with a significant difference (χ2= 11.59, P=0.041) between the different communities visited. Males were more infected (60.6%, 103/170) than females (47.7%, 62/130) with a significant difference (χ2= 4.95, P=0.026). The age-related prevalence showed higher prevalence (70.5%, 36/52) in the 11-15 year old children than that in the 1-5 year old ones (44.9%, 53/118). A significant difference was observed in the prevalence between the age groups (χ2=10.56, P=0.014). The prevalence of light intensity of infection (1-49 eggs/10 mL of urine) (86.6%) was significantly higher than that of heavy intensity of infection (≥50 eggs/10 mL of urine) (13.3%) in the area (t=16.48, P=0.000). Water contact activities of the children revealed that children that were involved in irrigation and those that went swimming in water bodies were observed to be at higher risk of becoming infected with urinary schistosomiasis in the area with odd ratios (risk factors) of 2.756 (1.334-5.693) and 2.366 (1.131-4.948) respectively at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: The study revealed the hyperendemicity of urinary schistosomiasis in the pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area. It is therefore recommended that praziquantel should be administered to children in the area and systematic epidemiological

  3. Single Versus Double Dose Praziquantel Comparison on Efficacy and Schistosoma mansoni Re-Infection in Preschool-Age Children in Uganda: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Nalugwa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni infection is proven to be a major health problem of preschool-age children in sub-Saharan Africa, yet this age category is not part of the schistosomiasis control program. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of single and double dose praziquantel (PZQ treatment on cure rates (CRs, egg reduction rates (ERRs and re-infection rates 8 months later, in children aged 1-5 years living along Lake Victoria, Uganda.Infected children (n= 1017 were randomized to receive either a single or double dose of PZQ. Initially all children were treated with a single standard oral dose 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ. Two weeks later a second dose was administered to children in the double dose treatment arm. Side effects were monitored at 30 minutes to 24 hours after each treatment. Efficacy in terms of CRs and ERRs for the two treatments was assessed and compared 1 month after the second treatment. Re-infection with S. mansoni was assessed in the same children 8 months following the second treatment. CRs were non-significantly higher in children treated with two 40 mg/kg PZQ doses (85.5%; 290/339 compared to a single dose (83.2%; 297/357. ERRs were significantly higher in the double dose with 99.3 (95%CI: 99.2-99.5 compared with 98.9 (95%CI: 98.7-99.1 using a single dose, (P = 0.01. Side effects occurred more frequently during the first round of drug administration and were mild and short-lived; these included vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Overall re-infection rate 8 months post treatment was 44.5%.PZQ is efficacious and relatively safe to use in preschool-age children but there is still an unmet need to improve its formulation to suit small children. Two PZQ doses lead to significant reduction in egg excretion compared to a single dose. Re-infection rates with S. mansoni 8 months post treatment is the same among children irrespective of the treatment regimen.

  4. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  5. Sedentary Behavior in Preschoolers: How Many Days of Accelerometer Monitoring Is Needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonwoo Byun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of accelerometry for measuring sedentary behavior in preschoolers has not been determined, thus we determined how many days of accelerometry monitoring are necessary to reliably estimate daily time spent in sedentary behavior in preschoolers. In total, 191 and 150 preschoolers (three to five years wore ActiGraph accelerometers (15-s epoch during the in-school (≥4 days and the total-day (≥6 days period respectively. Accelerometry data were summarized as time spent in sedentary behavior (min/h using three different cutpoints developed for preschool-age children (<37.5, <200, and <373 counts/15 s. The intraclass correlations (ICCs and Spearman-Brown prophecy formula were used to estimate the reliability of accelerometer for measuring sedentary behavior. Across different cutpoints, the ICCs ranged from 0.81 to 0.92 for in-school sedentary behavior, and from 0.75 to 0.81 for total-day sedentary behavior, respectively. To achieve an ICC of ≥0.8, two to four days or six to nine days of monitoring were needed for in-school sedentary behavior and total-day sedentary behavior, respectively. These findings provide important guidance for future research on sedentary behavior in preschool children using accelerometry. Understanding the reliability of accelerometry will facilitate the conduct of research designed to inform policies and practices aimed at reducing sedentary behavior in preschool children.

  6. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-01-01

    Background The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. Objective This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. Methods The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Results Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app’s WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative

  7. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela; Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-08-02

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app's WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative feedback highlighted several barriers that

  8. Changes in prevalence, aetiology, age at detection, and associated disabilities in preschool children with hearing impairment born in Göteborg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, N; Hanner, P; Thiringer, K

    1997-12-01

    The prevalence of hearing impairment (HI) in preschool children born in Göteborg in 1980 to 1984 was 2.0 per 1000. This was significantly lower than the 3.8 per 1000 found in a previous study for 1970 to 1974. The decrease took place in the moderate to severe range of HI, while deafness and mild HI remained unchanged during the period. The cause was considered to be prenatal in 58% with heredity in 33% as the main causative factor. Following the introduction of the MPR (Morbilli-Parotitis-Rubella) vaccination programme in Sweden, no cases of rubella- or mumps-induced HI could be found. The number of HI of perinatal origin decreased by half, in spite of the fact that the figures for preterm baby survival almost doubled during the period. Associated disabilities were diagnosed in 62% of the children with HI; speech retardation in 33%, visual abnormalities in 30%, mental retardation in 12% and neuropsychiatric disorders in 9% of the cases. The importance of collaborative efforts between the otolaryngologist and the neurologically and neuropsychiatrically interested paediatrician in the complete evaluation of additional difficulties in the HI child is emphasized.

  9. Factors associated with inflammation in preschool children and women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Rebecca D; Burke, Rachel M; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Serdula, Mary K; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2017-07-01

    Background: In many settings, populations experience recurrent exposure to inflammatory agents that catalyze fluctuations in the concentrations of acute-phase proteins and certain micronutrient biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), ferritin, and retinol. Few data are available on the prevalence and predictors of inflammation in diverse settings.Objective: We aimed to assess the relation between inflammation (CRP concentration >5 mg/L or AGP concentration >1 g/L) and covariates, such as demographics, reported illness, and anthropometric status, in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y).Design: Cross-sectional data from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project from 29,765 PSC in 16 surveys and 25,731 WRA in 10 surveys were used to model bivariable and multivariable relations.Results: The inflammation prevalence was 6.0-40.2% in PSC and 7.9-29.5% in WRA (elevated CRP) and 21.2-64.3% in PSC and 7.1-26.7% in WRA (elevated AGP). In PSC, inflammation was consistently positively associated with recent fever and malaria but not with other recent illnesses. In multivariable models that were adjusted for age, sex, urban or rural residence, and socioeconomic status, elevated AGP was positively associated with stunting (height-for-age z score inflammation. In a pooled analysis of surveys that measured malaria, stunting was associated with elevated AGP but not CRP in PSC, and obesity was associated with both elevated CRP and AGP in WRA.Conclusions: Recent morbidity and abnormal anthropometric status are consistently associated with inflammation across a range of environments, whereas more commonly collected demographic covariates were not. Because of the challenge of defining a general demographic population or environmental profile that is more likely to experience inflammation, inflammatory markers should be measured in

  10. Human Metapneumovirus Infection is Associated with Severe Respiratory Disease in Preschool Children with History of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F.; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Nino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, but it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with history of severe prematurity. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all PCR-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool age children (≤5 yrs.) with and without history of severe prematurity (<32 weeks gestation). Respiratory distress scores were developed to examine the clinical severity of HMPV infections. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained from reviewing electronic medical records (EMR). Results A total of 571 pre-school children were identified by PCR-confirmed viral respiratory tract infection during the study period. HMPV was identified as a causative organism in 63 cases (11%). Fifty–eight (n=58) preschool age children with HMPV infection were included in this study after excluding those with significant co-morbidities. Our data demonstrated that 32.7% of children admitted with HMPV had history of severe prematurity. Preschool children with history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity and history of asthma. Conclusion Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. PMID:26117550

  11. Age-dependent branching processes for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases with incubation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia N Bojkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the recent results of the authors in the area of infectious disease modelling by means of branching stochastic processes. This is a new approach involving age-dependent branching models, which turned out to be more appropriate and flexible for describing the spread of an infection in a given population, than discrete time ones. Concretely, Bellman-Harris and Sevast’yanov’s branching processes are investigated. It is justified that the proposed models are proper candidates as models of infectious diseases with incubation period like measles, mumps, avian flu, etc. It is worth to notice that in general the developed methodology is applicable to the diseases that follow the so-called SIR (susceptible- infected-removed scheme in terms of epidemiological models. Two policies of extra-vaccination level are proposed and compared on the ground of simulation examples.

  12. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age in the Daihai Area,North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金章东; 王苏民

    2003-01-01

    Rb/Sr ratio,CaCO3 content,organic carbon ( Cog ) concentration,magnetic suscep-tibility and clay mineralogy of 4.0 m sediments samples recovered from Daihai Lake,northern China,are presented in the paper. Weathering and paleoclimatic change history during the last2300 years is reconstructed in terms of the variations of Rb/Sr ratios in the sediment sequence,including the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Our results suggest that the evolution processes of weathering and paleoclimate can be rebuilt in terms of the variations of Rb/Sr ratios in the lake sediment sequence,in combination with magnetic susceptibility,Corg,CaCO3 contents and clay mineralogy.

  13. Improvement in health expectancy at ages 50 and 65 in Denmark during the period 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, Bernard; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: In Denmark life expectancy (LE) has increased since 1995 after a long period of stagnation. Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at age 65 increased more than LE during the period 1987-2005. The aim of the study was to determine the trend in HLE in Denmark at ages 50 and 65 during the period 2004...... into contributions from changes in mortality and prevalence of activity limitations. RESULTS: During the period 2004-2011 LE increased by about 1 year at both age 50 and age 65. However, the increase in expected lifetime in self-rated good health, without long-term health problems and without activity limitations...... was even longer in both genders and it increased by 1.5-4.0 years depending on age, gender and health indicator. Consequently, expected lifetime in an unhealthy state decreased and the proportions of lifetime in a healthy state increased. The disability effect of the health gain was stronger than...

  14. Morphological and functional features of the thymus of rats of different age periods in health and at experimental immunostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrysheva I.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data on the structure of the thymus of white rats with experimental immunostimulation in age aspect presented only in a few publications. Objective. Morphofunctional features of the thymus of white male rats of three age periods: pubertal, reproductive and of expressed age-related changes, administered immunomodulator imunofan were studied. Methods. Features of the histological structure of the thymus were studied using an image analyzer based on microscope Olympus CX-41. Areas of subcapsular zone, the cortex and medulla, the total number of cells, lymphocytes and epitelioreticular cells conditional on a standard area (104 μm2 were determined; limphoepitelial index was calculated. Results. The thymus has specific morphological features of the structure in each age group of animals. The thymus of rats of pubertal period has the highest morphometric parameters which somewhat decreased in animals of reproductive period. Animals with expressed age-related changes have signs of age involution of the thymus (replacing of parenchyme of the organ by adipose and connective tissue, a sharp decline in morphometric parameters of morphofunctional zones. Conclusion. Application of imunofan causes unidirectional positive changes of morphometric parameters of the thymus in the rats of all age periods on 7-60 day of observation. In animals of the reproductive period and the period of expressed age-related changes injections of immunomodulator cause a decrease in the intensity of the involutive processes in the thymus.

  15. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yajun; Bi, Hua; Ekure, Edgar; Ding, Gang; Wei, Nan; Hua, Ning; Qian, Xuehan; Li, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children. Methods One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes), aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years) underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Result The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE) = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, Pamblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves. PMID:26882106

  16. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks.

  17. PROVISION OF SOCIALIZATION OF THE PERSONALITY IN THE PRESCHOOL CHILDHOOD IN THE MULTICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF TRANSCARPATHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Reho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid tempo of social changes is inherent in the modern Ukrainian society that has resulted in the actual and problematic personality socialization questions in preschool childhood. This period is exactly that sensitive period for the primary child world view formation, consciousness, social features etc. The stay in preschool educational institution plays an important role in preschool age child personality development. Transcarpathian region is the region situated on the southwest of Ukraine within the western part of Ukrainian Carpathians and Transcarpathian lowland. At about 80% of the region’s territory is covered by the Carpathian Mountains. In accordance with the Ukrainian Law “On the Status of Mountainous Settlements in Ukraine”, until recently 192 settlements (31% out of the total quantity belong to the mountainous. Volovets and Mizhgirya districts fully subject to the action of the above indicated law, while in other districts the portion of settlements with the mountainous settlements status is presented from 13,6 (in Mukachevo district up to 84,4 percent (in Rakhiv disctrict. In our publication we will pay attention to four mountainous districts of Transcarpathian region: Velykyi Bereznyi, Volovets, Mizhgirya and Rakhiv districts. This publication presents the comparative status analysis of preschool age children support carried out by the preschool educational institutions in Transcarpathian region in the period starting from the year of 2000 until 2013. In the mountainous districts of Transcarpathian region the preschool educational institutions establishment, quantity of children in them and preschool institutions loading tendency analysis is completed. The distribution of preschool educational institutions as per children educational languages is given in this article.The above mentioned confirms, that in recent years, active attention has been paid to the new preschool institutions creation, namely in mountainous and

  18. The Free Preschool Year in Ireland: The Perspectives of Early Childhood Educators and Policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Ozonyia, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the introduction of the Free Preschool Year (FPY) in Ireland from the early childhood 'educators' and 'policymakers' perspectives. Under the new FPY initiative introduced in 2010, all children between the ages of 3.2 - 4.7 are offered free preschool hours for a period of one year prior to their entrance into primary school. This research identified the need to study the introduction of FPY as research into this topic to date has been limited. The purpose of this research ...

  19. Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains from the dimensions of the girdle bones in the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Spake, Laure; Humphrey, Louise T

    2017-08-01

    This study provides classical calibration regression formulae for age estimation from the dimensions of unfused shoulder and pelvic girdle bones. Age estimation models were derived from a sample of 160 known age and sex individuals (63 females and 97 males) aged birth to 12 years, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. The sample was divided into two age groups at the age of 2 years, and formulae were obtained for the sexes separately and combined. Measurements of the pelvis provide more precise age estimates than the shoulder. In the younger age group, the height and width of the ilium, and the height of the glenoid yield the most precise age estimates. In the older age group, the length of the clavicle provides the most precise estimates, followed by measurements of the pubis and ischium. In the younger individuals (remains from such environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Observed temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive observational data set, consisting of more than 106 SF6 vertical profiles from MIPAS measurements distributed over the whole globe has been condensed into monthly zonal means of mean age of air for the period September 2002 to January 2010, binned at 10° latitude and 1–2 km altitude. The data were analysed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal absolute age of air and its linear increase was assessed and found to be small.

    The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009 for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the lowermost and the upper stratospheric tropics, for parts of Southern mid-latitudes, and for the Northern polar regions. Analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal variation shed light on the coupling of stratospheric regions to each other. In particular, the Northern mid-latitude stratosphere is well coupled to the tropics, while the Northern lowermost mid-latitudinal stratosphere is decoupled, confirming the separation of the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation from the deep branch. We suggest an overall increased tropical upwelling, together with weakening of mixing barriers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, as a hypothetical model to explain the observed pattern of linear multi-year increase/decrease, and amplitudes

  1. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane F. Maggi; Lívia C. Magalhães; Alexandre F. Campos; Bouzada,Maria Cândida F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory...

  2. Genetics study on circumference in preschool-age twins%学龄前双生子儿童围度指标的遗传学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾天抒; 李玉玲; 陆舜华; 刘燕; 郑玉娜; 赵曼

    2012-01-01

    [Objective! To assess the genetic and environmental influences on body circumference of preschool-age children,and the effect of sex and age. [Methods] A total of 101 twin pairs aged 3~6 years old were measured.including 42 monozygotic (MZ),30 like-sex and 29 opposite-sex dizygotic (DZ). The circumference items included head circumference, chest circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, arm circumference and calf circumference. The structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the heritability of each circumference item. [Results] Except head circumference 's fitting model was AES,others were ACES,which indicated that the circumference items were influenced by genetic,environmental factors and age effects. After adjusting age, the heritabilities of head circumference, chest circumference, waist circumference,hip circumference,arm circumference and calf circumference were 0. 83,0. 56,0. 77,0. 49,0. 58,0. 82 in boys, and 0. 75,0. 43,0. 72,0. 63,0. 36,0. 76 in girls respectively. [Conclusion] The circumference of head, waist and calf of preschool-age children are mainly influenced by genetic factors, the circumferences of chest, hip and arm are mainly influenced on environmental ones.%[目的]分析遗传和环境因素对学龄前双生子儿童围度发育的影响及其性别和年龄因素的作用. [方法]对3~6岁101对双生子(同卵双生子42对、同性别异卵双生子30对,异性别异卵双生子29对)的头围、胸围、腰围、臀围、上臂围及小腿围进行测量;对测量结果进行结构方程模型拟合,并估算各指标遗传度. [结果]最佳模型除头围为AES外,其他各指标均为ACES模型,遗传、环境、年龄因素对各指标均有不同程度影响.校正年龄后,各指标遗传度为:头围(男0.83,女0.75)、胸围(男0.56,女0.43)、腰围(男0.77,女0.72)、臀围(男0.49,女0.63)、上臂围(男0.58,女0.36)、小腿围(男0.82,女0.76). [结论]学龄前儿童头围、腰围、小腿围

  3. The Influence of Theatre on a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    KRÁTKÁ, Pavlína

    2009-01-01

    The aim of work is to highlight the impact of theater on the personality development of children preschool age and education elements of theater. The theoretical part is aimed at the preschool age child's personality and the importance of pre-term for shaping the child's own identity. It is aimed at the game and its importance in the lives of children preschool age and the specificities of the performing arts working in the preschool age child. The practical part is devoted to research and to...

  4. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  5. Effect of preschool working memory, language, and narrative abilities on inferential comprehension at school-age in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Meredith; Swank, Paul; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Barnes, Marcia A

    2013-04-01

    Children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) are more likely to display a pattern of good-decoding/poor comprehension than their neurologically intact peers. The goals of the current study were to (1) examine the cognitive origins of one of the component skills of comprehension, bridging inferences, from a developmental perspective and (2) to test the effects of those relations on reading comprehension achievement. Data from a sample of children with SBM and a control group (n = 78) who participated in a longitudinal study were taken from age 36-month and 9.5-year time points. A multiple mediation model provided evidence that three preschool cognitive abilities (working memory/inhibitory control, oral comprehension, narrative recall), could partially explain the relation between group and bridging inference skill. A second mediation model supported that each of the 36-month abilities had an indirect effect on reading comprehension through bridging inference skill. Findings contribute to an understanding of both typical and atypical comprehension development, blending theories from the developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological literature.

  6. Using Language Sample Analysis in Clinical Practice: Measures of Grammatical Accuracy for Identifying Language Impairment in Preschool and School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on the diagnostic accuracy of two grammatical accuracy measures for differentiating children with and without language impairment (LI) at preschool and early school age based on language samples. The first measure, the finite verb morphology composite (FVMC), is a narrow grammatical measure that computes children's overall accuracy of four verb tense morphemes. The second measure, percent grammatical utterances (PGU), is a broader grammatical measure that computes children's accuracy in producing grammatical utterances. The extant studies show that FVMC demonstrates acceptable (i.e., 80 to 89% accurate) to good (i.e., 90% accurate or higher) diagnostic accuracy for children between 4;0 (years;months) and 6;11 in conversational or narrative samples. In contrast, PGU yields acceptable to good diagnostic accuracy for children between 3;0 and 8;11 regardless of sample types. Given the diagnostic accuracy shown in the literature, we suggest that FVMC and PGU can be used as one piece of evidence for identifying children with LI in assessment when appropriate. However, FVMC or PGU should not be used as therapy goals directly. Instead, when children are low in FVMC or PGU, we suggest that follow-up analyses should be conducted to determine the verb tense morphemes or grammatical structures that children have difficulty with.

  7. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children--New York City and Los Angeles County, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    Recent studies have reported evidence of a leveling and decline in childhood obesity prevalence in New York and California. However, some areas of the United States continue to experience increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity. To assess differences and changes over time in early childhood obesity in the two most populous cities in the United States, obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in New York City (NYC) was compared with obesity prevalence among WIC-enrolled children in Los Angeles County (LAC) during 2003-2011. In NYC, from 2003 to 2011, obesity prevalence decreased among blacks, whites, and Hispanics, but increased among Asians. In LAC, obesity prevalence decreased among Asians and increased and then decreased among blacks and Hispanics from 2003 to 2011. Hispanic WIC-enrolled children had the greatest prevalence of obesity for all years in both areas. In 2011, the obesity prevalence among Hispanics in NYC was 19.1%, compared with 21.7% in LAC. Comparisons of obesity prevalence data among cities and states might suggest interventions and policies to help reverse childhood obesity increases in some populations.

  8. The relationship of violent fathers, posttraumatically stressed mothers and symptomatic children in a preschool-age inner-city pediatrics clinic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to understand if greater severity of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), related to maternal report of interpersonal violence, mediates the effects of such violence on (a) child PTSS as well as on (b) child externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Study participants were mothers (N = 77) and children 18 to 48 months recruited from community pediatric clinics. Data were analyzed continuously via bivariate correlations and then multiple linear regression. Post hoc Sobel tests were performed to confirm mediation. Paternal violence accounted for 15% of the variance of child PTSS on the PCIP-OR (β = .39, p ≤ .001). While the child's father being violent significantly predicts child PTSS related to domestic violence, as mentioned, when maternal PTSS is included in the multiple regression model, father's being violent becomes less significant, while maternal PTSS remains strongly predictive. Sobel tests confirmed that maternal PTSS severity mediated effects of paternal violence on clinician-assessed child PTSS as well as on maternal report of child externalizing and internalizing symptoms. When presented with a preschool-aged child who is brought to consultation for behavioral difficulties, dysregulated aggression, and/or unexplained fears, clinicians should evaluate maternal psychological functioning as well as assess and treat the effects of interpersonal violence, which otherwise may be avoided during the consultation.

  9. Current status of soil-transmitted helminthiases among pre-school and school-aged children from Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, O A; Asaolu, S O

    2011-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths among pre-school and school-aged children attending nursery and primary schools in Ile-Ife. Single stool samples were collected between January and March, 2009 from 352 children randomly selected from a total of 456 children attending both private and government schools. The stool samples were processed using the modified Kato-Katz technique, and then examined for the eggs of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). One hundred and twenty-one (34.4%) samples were positive for STH eggs. The overall prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm were 33.2%, 3.7% and 0.9%, respectively. The prevalence of STH infection in government schools (47.8%) was significantly higher than in private schools (16.1%) (P Ife and that the burden of parasitic infections is greater in government schools than in private schools.

  10. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis in Preschool Age Children in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga South District, Kirinyaga County, and Their Potential Effect on Physical Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH, schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information. Both intestinal helminth and protozoan infections were detected, and, among the soil-transmitted helminth parasites, there were Ascaris lumbricoides (prevalence, 3%, Ancylostoma duodenale (<1%, and Trichuris trichiura (<1%. Other intestinal helminths were Hymenolepis nana (prevalence, 3.6% and Enterobius vermicularis (<1%. Schistosoma mansoni occurred at a prevalence of 5.5%. Interestingly, the protozoan, Giardia lamblia (prevalence, 14.7%, was the most common among the PSAC. Other protozoans were Entamoeba coli (3.9% and Entamoeba histolytica (<1. Anthropometric indices showed evidence of malnutrition. Intestinal parasites were associated with hand washing behavior, family size, water purification, and home location. These findings suggest that G. lamblia infection and malnutrition may be significant causes of ill health among the PSAC in Mwea, and, therefore, an intervention plan is needed.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  12. Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaédi, southern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touray, Sunkaru; Bâ, Hampâté; Bâ, Ousmane; Koïta, Mohamedou; Salem, Cheikh B Ould Ahmed; Keïta, Moussa; Traoré, Doulo; Sy, Ibrahima; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2012-09-07

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Senegal River Gorgol valley, southern Mauritania, requires particular attention in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental and climate changes. While "malaria cases" are reported in health facilities throughout the year, past and current climatic and ecological conditions do not favour transmission in the dry season (lack of rainfall and very high temperatures). Moreover, entomological investigations in neighbouring regions point to an absence of malaria transmission in mosquito vectors in the dry season. Because the clinical signs of malaria are non-specific and overlap with those of other diseases (e.g. acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea), new research is needed to better understand malaria transmission patterns in this region to improve adaptive, preventive and curative measures. We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaédi in April 2011 (dry season), assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6-59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were the two other diseases investigated, administering a parental questionnaire to determine the reported prevalence among participating children. No Plasmodium infection was found in any of the 371 surveyed preschool-aged children using two different diagnostic methods. Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were reported in 43.4% and 35.0% of the participants, respectively. About two thirds of the children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea required medical follow-up by a health worker. Malaria was absent in the present dry season survey in the capital of the Gorgol valley of Mauritania, while acute respiratory infections and diarrhea were highly prevalent. Surveys should be repeated

  13. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustical measurement of singing accuracy in relationship to speech fundamental frequency, speech fundamental frequency range, age and gender in preschool-aged children. Seventy subjects from Southeastern Pennsylvania; the San Francisco Bay Area, California; and Terre Haute, Indiana, participated in the study. Speech frequency was measured by having the subjects participate in spontaneous and guided speech activities with the researcher, with 18 diverse samples extracted from each subject's recording for acoustical analysis for fundamental frequency in Hz with the CSpeech computer program. The fundamental frequencies were averaged together to derive a mean speech frequency score for each subject. Speech range was calculated by subtracting the lowest fundamental frequency produced from the highest fundamental frequency produced, resulting in a speech range measured in increments of Hz. Singing accuracy was measured by having the subjects each echo-sing six randomized patterns using the pitches Middle C, D, E, F♯, G and A (440), using the solfege syllables of Do and Re, which were recorded by a 5-year-old female model. For each subject, 18 samples of singing were recorded. All samples were analyzed by the CSpeech for fundamental frequency. For each subject, deviation scores in Hz were derived by calculating the difference between what the model sang in Hz and what the subject sang in response in Hz. Individual scores for each child consisted of an overall mean total deviation frequency, mean frequency deviations for each pattern, and mean frequency deviation for each pitch. Pearson correlations, MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, Multiple Regressions and Discriminant Analysis revealed the following findings: (1) moderate but significant (p development, overall use in singing, and pitch-matching accuracy.

  14. A Novel Approach for Analysis of the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model: Application to Lung Cancer Incidence

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    Tengiz Mdzinarishvili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, computationally efficient procedure for analyses of the time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of cancers is proposed. Assuming that cohort effects for neighboring cohorts are almost equal and using the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model, this procedure allows one to evaluate temporal trends and birth cohort variations of any type of cancer without prior knowledge of the hazard function. This procedure was used to estimate the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of first primary, microscopically confirmed lung cancer (LC cases from the SEER9 database. It was shown that since 1975, the time period effect coefficients for men increase up to 1980 and then decrease until 2004. For women, these coefficients increase from 1975 up to 1990 and then remain nearly constant. The LC birth cohort effect coefficients for men and women increase from the cohort of 1890–94 until the cohort of 1925–29, then decrease until the cohort of 1950–54 and then remain almost unchanged. Overall, LC incidence rates, adjusted by period and cohort effects, increase up to the age of about 72–75, turn over, and then fall after the age of 75–78. The peak of the adjusted rates in men is around the age of 77–78, while in women, it is around the age of 72–73. Therefore, these results suggest that the age distribution of the incidence rates in men and women fall at old ages.

  15. The prevalence of anemia decreased in Mexican preschool and school-age children from 1999 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; García-Guerra, Armando; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Domínguez, Clara; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    To compare the distribution of anemia in children, based on information from Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) and Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN-99), and examine the association of anemia with potentially explanatory variables. Adjusted prevalence and means as well as associations with potentially explanatory variables were assessed by multiple linear and logistic regression models for complex samples. From 1999 to 2006, the prevalence of anemia decreased 13.8 percentage points (pp) in toddlers and 7.8 pp in children 24-35 months of age; it also decreased 0.7 pp/year in urban and rural populations, 1.8 pp/year in indigenous and 0.61 pp/year in non-indigenous toddlers, 1.5 pp/year in children 5-8 years of age and 0.78 pp/year in children 9-11 years of age. In toddlers served by Oportunidades, Hb was inversely associated with indigenous ethnicity (p=0.1) and they had a lower risk of anemia (OR=0.002). In school-age children, age (OR=0.98), affiliation to Liconsa (OR=0.42) and living in the central region (OR=0.56) were protective factors for anemia. The national prevalence of anemia in Mexico has decreased in the past seven years, especially in toddlers. Being a beneficiary of Liconsa or Oportunidades was protective for anemia.

  16. Persistent pulmonary hypertension – The neonatal period and evaluation at 2 years of age

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    Ricardo Mota

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN is a condition in which the pulmonary vessels fail to dilate at birth. It can be the consequence of a wide array of diseases, such as pneumonia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration syndrome and hyaline membrane disease. It has an incidence of 1-2 per 1,000 newborns and it can have pulmonary, neurologic and developmental consequences. We conducted a retrospective study with the aim of analyzing the causes, morbidities and comorbidities, management and mortality of PPHN in newborns hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and to evaluate respiratory, neurologic and developmental morbidity at 2 years of age. A total of 77 children, born between 1996 and 2012, were studied. Twenty-six (33.8% deceased. The mortality, as well as the need for resuscitation, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO, diuretics, and vasopressor support, was higher in patients with the severe form of PPHN. The need for vasopressor support was the only factor associated with a higher mortality. We found a reduction of 17.8% in mortality rates after the introduction of iNO, sildenafil and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia was the most common cause of PPHN. Pneumonia was more frequent before 2003. There was no significant difference in the morbidity and mortality between the two time periods (before and after 2003. On the follow-up of 37 of the remaining 51 patients, we did not find differences in the morbidity of patients comparing those with the severe vs. non-severe forms of the condition.An evaluation over the years of admitted newborns with PPHN in our NICU is mandatory to confirm a relationship between the new treatment strategies and the better outcome of the patients.

  17. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary tract morbidity in school-aged and preschool-aged children infected with Schistosoma haematobium and its evolution after praziquantel treatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barda, Beatrice; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Hatz, Christoph; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background Schistosoma haematobium infections are responsible for significant urinary tract (UT) complications. Schistosomiasis control programs aim to reduce morbidity, yet the extent of morbidity in preschool-aged children and the impact of treatment on morbidity reduction are not well studied. Methodology Our study was embedded in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial in Côte d’Ivoire, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of praziquantel in school-aged (SAC) and preschool-aged (PSAC) children infected with S. haematobium. Enrolled children were invited to participate in an ultrasound examination prior and six months after treatment. At these time points 3 urine samples were collected for parasitological and clinical examinations. Principal findings 162 PSAC and 141 SAC participated in the ultrasound examination at baseline, of which 128 PSAC and 122 SAC were present at follow-up. At baseline 43% (70/162) of PSAC had UT morbidity, mostly at bladder level and 7% had hydronephrosis. 67% (94/141) of SAC revealed mainly moderate UT pathology, 4% presented pseudopolyps on the bladder wall, and 6% had pyelectasis. At follow up, 45% of PSAC and 58% of SAC were S. haematobium positive, mostly harboring light infection intensities (41% and 51%, respectively). Microhematuria was present in 33% of PSAC and 42% of SAC and leukocyturia in 53% and 40% of PSAC and SAC, respectively. 50% (64/128) of PSAC and 58% (71/122) of SAC presented urinary tract morbidity, which was mainly mild. A significant correlation (p<0.05) was observed between praziquantel treatment and reversal of S. haematobium induced morbidity. Progression of UT pathology decreased with increasing praziquantel dosages. A worsening of morbidity was observed among children in the placebo group. Conclusion/Significance Bladder morbidity is widespread among PSAC. Praziquantel treatment is significantly associated with the reversal of S. haematobium induced

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary tract morbidity in school-aged and preschool-aged children infected with Schistosoma haematobium and its evolution after praziquantel treatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barda, Beatrice; Coulibaly, Jean T; Hatz, Christoph; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Schistosoma haematobium infections are responsible for significant urinary tract (UT) complications. Schistosomiasis control programs aim to reduce morbidity, yet the extent of morbidity in preschool-aged children and the impact of treatment on morbidity reduction are not well studied. Our study was embedded in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial in Côte d'Ivoire, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of praziquantel in school-aged (SAC) and preschool-aged (PSAC) children infected with S. haematobium. Enrolled children were invited to participate in an ultrasound examination prior and six months after treatment. At these time points 3 urine samples were collected for parasitological and clinical examinations. 162 PSAC and 141 SAC participated in the ultrasound examination at baseline, of which 128 PSAC and 122 SAC were present at follow-up. At baseline 43% (70/162) of PSAC had UT morbidity, mostly at bladder level and 7% had hydronephrosis. 67% (94/141) of SAC revealed mainly moderate UT pathology, 4% presented pseudopolyps on the bladder wall, and 6% had pyelectasis. At follow up, 45% of PSAC and 58% of SAC were S. haematobium positive, mostly harboring light infection intensities (41% and 51%, respectively). Microhematuria was present in 33% of PSAC and 42% of SAC and leukocyturia in 53% and 40% of PSAC and SAC, respectively. 50% (64/128) of PSAC and 58% (71/122) of SAC presented urinary tract morbidity, which was mainly mild. A significant correlation (p<0.05) was observed between praziquantel treatment and reversal of S. haematobium induced morbidity. Progression of UT pathology decreased with increasing praziquantel dosages. A worsening of morbidity was observed among children in the placebo group. Bladder morbidity is widespread among PSAC. Praziquantel treatment is significantly associated with the reversal of S. haematobium induced morbidity, which underscores the importance of preventive chemotherapy

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of urinary tract morbidity in school-aged and preschool-aged children infected with Schistosoma haematobium and its evolution after praziquantel treatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Barda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium infections are responsible for significant urinary tract (UT complications. Schistosomiasis control programs aim to reduce morbidity, yet the extent of morbidity in preschool-aged children and the impact of treatment on morbidity reduction are not well studied.Our study was embedded in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial in Côte d'Ivoire, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg of praziquantel in school-aged (SAC and preschool-aged (PSAC children infected with S. haematobium. Enrolled children were invited to participate in an ultrasound examination prior and six months after treatment. At these time points 3 urine samples were collected for parasitological and clinical examinations.162 PSAC and 141 SAC participated in the ultrasound examination at baseline, of which 128 PSAC and 122 SAC were present at follow-up. At baseline 43% (70/162 of PSAC had UT morbidity, mostly at bladder level and 7% had hydronephrosis. 67% (94/141 of SAC revealed mainly moderate UT pathology, 4% presented pseudopolyps on the bladder wall, and 6% had pyelectasis. At follow up, 45% of PSAC and 58% of SAC were S. haematobium positive, mostly harboring light infection intensities (41% and 51%, respectively. Microhematuria was present in 33% of PSAC and 42% of SAC and leukocyturia in 53% and 40% of PSAC and SAC, respectively. 50% (64/128 of PSAC and 58% (71/122 of SAC presented urinary tract morbidity, which was mainly mild. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was observed between praziquantel treatment and reversal of S. haematobium induced morbidity. Progression of UT pathology decreased with increasing praziquantel dosages. A worsening of morbidity was observed among children in the placebo group.Bladder morbidity is widespread among PSAC. Praziquantel treatment is significantly associated with the reversal of S. haematobium induced morbidity, which underscores the importance of preventive

  20. Mortality of breast cancer in Taiwan, 1971-2010: temporal changes and an age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M-L; Hsiao, Y-H; Su, S-Y; Chou, M-C; Liaw, Y-P

    2015-01-01

    The current paper describes the age, period and cohort effects on breast cancer mortality in Taiwan. Female breast cancer mortality data were collected from the Taiwan death registries for 1971-2010. The annual percentage changes, age- standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and age-period-cohort model were calculated. The mortality rates increased with advancing age groups when fixing the period. The percentage change in the breast cancer mortality rate increased from 54.79% at aged 20-44 years, to 149.78% in those aged 45-64 years (between 1971-75 and 2006-10). The mortality rates in the 45-64 age group increased steadily from 1971 to 1975 and 2006-10. The 1951 birth cohorts (actual birth cohort; 1947-55) showed peak mortalities in both the 50-54 and 45-49 age groups. We found that the 1951 birth cohorts had the greatest mortality risk from breast cancer. This might be attributed to the DDT that was used in large amounts to prevent deaths from malaria in Taiwan. However, future researches require DDT data to evaluate the association between breast cancer and DDT use.