Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…
Qian, Miao K.; Quinn, Paul C.; Heyman, Gail D.; Pascalis, Olivier; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Two studies with preschool-age children examined the effectiveness of perceptual individuation training at reducing racial bias (Study 1, N = 32; Study 2, N = 56). We found that training preschool-age children to individuate other-race faces resulted in a reduction in implicit racial bias while mere exposure to other-race faces produced no such…
Judu V Ilavarasu
Conclusions: Implicit measures may be used in the yoga field to assess constructs, which are difficult to self-report or may have social desirability threat. Y-IAT may be used to evaluate implicit preference toward yoga.
Ames, S.L.; Grenard, J.L.; Stacy, A.W.; Xiao, L.; He, Q.; Wong, S.W; Xue, G.; Wiers, R.W.; Bechara, A.
This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe
Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)
Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.
Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…
Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)
Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias
Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Leeuwen, M.L. van; Baaren, R.B. van; Chakhssi, F.; Loonen, M.G.M.; Lippman, Maarten; Dijksterhuis, A.J.
Offences committed by pedophiles are crimes that evoke serious public concern and outrage. Although recent research using implicit measures has shown promise in detecting deviant sexual associations, the discriminatory and predictive quality of implicit tasks has not yet surpassed traditional
Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah E; Greenwald, Anthony G; Gordon, Judith; Widdop, Chris
The development and psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitude toward smoking among fifth grade children were described. The IAT with "sweets" as the contrast category resulted in higher correlations with explicit attitudes than did the IAT with "healthy foods" as the contrast category. Children with family members who smoked (versus non-smoking) and children who were high in sensation seeking (versus low) had a significantly more favorable implicit attitude toward smoking. Further, implicit attitudes became less favorable after engaging in tobacco prevention activities targeting risk perceptions of addiction. Results support the reliability and validity of this version of the IAT and illustrate its usefulness in assessing young children's implicit attitude toward smoking.
Werntz, Alexandra J; Steinman, Shari A; Glenn, Jeffrey J; Nock, Matthew K; Teachman, Bethany A
Implicit associations are relatively uncontrollable associations between concepts in memory. The current investigation focuses on implicit associations in four mental health domains (alcohol use, anxiety, depression, and eating disorders) and how these implicit associations: a) relate to explicit associations and b) self-reported clinical symptoms within the same domains, and c) vary based on demographic characteristics (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and education). Participants (volunteers over age 18 to a research website) completed implicit association (Implicit Association Tests), explicit association (self + psychopathology or attitudes toward food, using semantic differential items), and symptom measures at the Project Implicit Mental Health website tied to: alcohol use (N = 12,387), anxiety (N = 21,304), depression (N = 24,126), or eating disorders (N = 10,115). Within each domain, implicit associations showed small to moderate associations with explicit associations and symptoms, and predicted self-reported symptoms beyond explicit associations. In general, implicit association strength varied little by race and ethnicity, but showed small ties to age, gender, and education. This research was conducted on a public research and education website, where participants could take more than one of the studies. Among a large and diverse sample, implicit associations in the four domains are congruent with explicit associations and self-reported symptoms, and also add to our prediction of self-reported symptoms over and above explicit associations, pointing to the potential future clinical utility and validity of using implicit association measures with diverse populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korfage, I.J.; Kwaadsteniet, E.W. de; Voorst, A. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Pieterse, A.H.
Objectives: Implicit associations influence behaviour, but their impact on cancer screening intentions is unknown. Methods: We assessed implicit associations with cervical cancer screening using an evaluative priming task. Participants were shown primes ('Pap test', neutral or non-word) followed by
van Leeuwen, Matthijs L; van Baaren, Rick B; Chakhssi, Farid; Loonen, Marijke G M; Lippman, Maarten; Dijksterhuis, Ap
Offences committed by pedophiles are crimes that evoke serious public concern and outrage. Although recent research using implicit measures has shown promise in detecting deviant sexual associations, the discriminatory and predictive quality of implicit tasks has not yet surpassed traditional assessment methods such as questionnaires and phallometry. The current research extended previous findings by examining whether a combination of two implicit tasks, the Implicit Association Task (IAT) and the Picture Association Task (PAT), was capable of differentiating pedophiles from non-pedophiles, and whether the PAT, which allows separate analysis for male, female, boy and girl stimulus categories, was more sensitive to specific sexual associations in pedophiles than the IAT. A total of 20 male self-reported pedophiles (10 offender and 10 non-offenders) and 20 male self-reported heterosexual controls completed the two implicit measures. Results indicated that the combination of both tasks produced the strongest results to date in detecting implicit pedophilic preferences (AUC = .97). Additionally, the PAT showed promise in decomposing the sexual associations in pedophiles. Interestingly, as there was an equal distribution of offenders and non-offenders in the pedophile group, it was possible to test for implicit association differences between these groups. This comparison showed no clear link between having these implicit sexual associations and actual offending.
Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Gordon, Judith; Widdop, Chris
The development and psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitude toward smoking among fifth grade children were described. The IAT with “sweets” as the contrast category resulted in higher correlations with explicit attitudes than did the IAT with “healthy foods” as the contrast category. Children with family members who smoked (versus non-smoking) and children who were high in sensation seeking (versus low) had a significantly more favorable impli...
Full Text Available One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-hour ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 minutes thereafter (cortisol awakening response. Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems.
Houben, K.; Nosek, B.; Wiers, R.W.
Dual-process models propose that addictive behaviors are determined by an implicit, impulsive system and an explicit, reflective system. Consistent with these models, research has demonstrated implicit affective associations with alcohol, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), that predict
Gattol, Valentin; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Carbon, Claus-Christian
The authors present a procedural extension of the popular Implicit Association Test (IAT) that allows for indirect measurement of attitudes on multiple dimensions (e.g., safe-unsafe; young-old; innovative-conventional, etc.) rather than on a single evaluative dimension only (e.g., good-bad). In two within-subjects studies, attitudes toward three automobile brands were measured on six attribute dimensions. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the methodological appropriateness of the new procedure, providing strong evidence for its reliability, validity, and sensitivity. This new procedure yields detailed information on the multifaceted nature of brand associations that can add up to a more abstract overall attitude. Just as the IAT, its multi-dimensional extension/application (dubbed md-IAT) is suited for reliably measuring attitudes consumers may not be consciously aware of, able to express, or willing to share with the researcher.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of theory of mind, age and mother tongue on the implicit causality effect in preschoolers from two different language backgrounds. Serbian and Hungarian native speakers aged 3–7 years participated in the study. After taking part in a Theory of Mind task, children were presented verbs in simple „Subject verb Object” sentences describing interactions between two participants, with the interactions being based on emotional, mental or visual experiences. Children were asked “Why does S verb O?” and their responses were categorized as containing an inference about the sentence-S or the sentence-O. The results show that Theory of Mind is a significant factor in the emergence of implicit causality, with age of participants and mother tongue being also contributing to explaining patterns of implicit causality.
Green, James A; Hohmann, Cynthia; Lister, Kelsi; Albertyn, Riani; Bradshaw, Renee; Johnson, Christine
This study examined associations between anticipated future health behaviour and participants' attitudes. Three Implicit Association Tests were developed to assess safety, efficacy and overall attitude. They were used to examine preference associations between conventional versus complementary and alternative medicine among 186 participants. A structural equation model suggested only a single implicit association, rather than three separate domains. However, this single implicit association predicted additional variance in anticipated future use of complementary and alternative medicine beyond explicit. Implicit measures should give further insight into motivation for complementary and alternative medicine use. © The Author(s) 2014.
Andrea L Martin-Pichora
Full Text Available Andrea L Martin-Pichora1,2, Tsipora D. Mankovsky-Arnold3, Joel Katz11Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Centre for Student Development and Counseling, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: The present study examined whether 1 placebo hypoalgesia can be generated through implicit associative learning (ie, conditioning in the absence of conscious awareness and 2 the magnitude of placebo hypoalgesia changes when expectations about pain are made explicit. The temperature of heat pain stimuli was surreptitiously lowered during conditioning trials for the placebo cream and the magnitude of the placebo effect was assessed during a subsequent set of trials when the temperature was the same for both placebo and control conditions. To assess whether placebo hypoalgesia could be generated from an implicit tactile stimulus, a 2 × 2 design was used with direction of cream application as one factor and verbal information about which cream was being applied as the second factor. A significant placebo effect was observed when participants received verbal information about which cream was being applied but not following implicit conditioning alone. However, 87.5% of those who showed a placebo response as the result of implicit conditioning were able to accurately guess the order of cream application during the final trial, despite a lack of awareness about the sensory manipulation and low confidence in their ratings, suggesting implicit learning in some participants. In summary, implicit associative learning was evident in some participants but it was not sufficient to produce a placebo effect suggesting some level of explicit expectation or cognitive mediation may be necessary. Notably, the placebo response was abolished when expectations were made explicit, suggesting a delicate interplay between attention and expectation.Keywords: placebo hypoalgesia
Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A
The current study investigates an experimental anxiety reduction intervention among a highly socially anxious sample (N=108; n=36 per Condition; 80 women). Using a conditioning paradigm, our goal was to modify implicit social anxiety associations to directly test the premise from cognitive models that biased cognitive processing may be causally related to anxious responding. Participants were trained to preferentially process non-threatening information through repeated pairings of self-relevant stimuli and faces indicating positive social feedback. As expected, participants in this positive training condition (relative to our two control conditions) displayed less negative implicit associations following training, and were more likely to complete an impromptu speech (though they did not report less anxiety during the speech). These findings offer partial support for cognitive models and indicate that implicit associations are not only correlated with social anxiety, they may be causally related to anxiety reduction as well. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…
Macinnis, Cara C; Hodson, Gordon
Some theorists propose that homophobia stems from underlying same-sex attraction. A few studies have tested this hypothesis, yet without a clear measure of implicit sexual attraction, producing mixed results. For the first time, we test this attraction-based account of homophobia among both men and women using an implicit measure of sexual attraction. No evidence of an attraction-based account of homophobia emerged. Instead, implicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians among female participants. Even in targeted analyses examining the relation between implicit same-sex attraction and homosexual evaluations among only those theoretically most likely to demonstrate an attraction-based homophobic effect, implicit same-sex attraction was not associated with evaluations of homosexuals or was associated with more positive evaluations of homosexuals. In addition, explicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians for male participants. These results are more in keeping with the attitude-similarity effect (i.e., people like, rather than dislike, similar others).
Harrison, Jamie; Lakin, Joni
Teacher attitudes toward inclusion of English Learners (ELs) in the mainstream classroom have primarily focused on explicit beliefs as accessed through observation, case studies, and self-report surveys. The authors explore implicit mainstream teacher beliefs about ELs using the newly created Implicit Association Test-EL, with correlations to…
Katharina von Kriegstein
Full Text Available Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.
Gaja Zager Kocjan
Full Text Available Psychology has recently seen a noticeable increase in interest for implicit measures of attitudes and personality characteristics. The far most known implicit measure is the Implicit Association Test – IAT. We adapted this test in order to assess the Big Five personality dimensions (B5 IAT. We examined B5 IAT measurement characteristics on two samples. Based on the findings of the first sample (N = 62, improvements were made in the B5 IAT, to be tested again on another sample (N = 75. The two studies have shown similar results. The reliabilities of the personality dimensions measured with the B5 IAT failed to achieve a satisfactory level in most cases. The reason probably lies in a lower adequacy of certain stimuli and in the considerable length of the test procedure. The convergent validity of the B5 IAT with explicit measures of personality was low, which may be due to different structures underlying implicit and explicit measures. Results obtained on the first sample have shown that the correlations between IAT adjectives are adequately explained by five latent dimensions. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to B5 IAT low reliabilities and small sample sizes. The second sample proved to be very unstable, thus the confirmatory factor analysis could not be conducted. Since this is the first attempt to adapt B5 IAT to Slovene language, it is hardly surprising that the results are not entirely consistent with the expectations. As implicit measures currently fail to meet relevant psychometric characteristics, they are not yet applicable in psychological practice. Nevertheless, they have great potential in exploring personality and individual differences, as they overcome many limitations of existing explicit measures.
Park, Jin Young; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Won-Jung; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang
Although self-esteem is thought to be an important psychological factor in bipolar disorder, little is known about implicit and explicit self-esteem in manic patients. In this study, we investigated differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem among bipolar manic patients, bipolar euthymic patients, and healthy controls using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants included 19 manic patients, 27 euthymic patients, and 27 healthy controls. Participants completed a self-esteem scale to evaluate explicit self-esteem and performed the self-esteem IAT to evaluate implicit self-esteem. There were no differences among groups in explicit self-esteem. However, there were significant differences among groups in implicit self-esteem. Manic patients had higher IAT scores than euthymic patients and a trend toward higher IAT scores than healthy controls. Our findings suggest that, on the latent level, a manic state is not simply the opposite of a depressed state. Furthermore, there may be a discontinuity of implicit self-esteem between manic and euthymic states. These unexpected results may be due to characteristics of the study participants or the methods used to assess implicit self-esteem. Nevertheless, they provide greater insights on the psychological status of manic patients. © 2014.
João Gabriel Modesto
Full Text Available The present research aim ed to develop and produc e evidence of t he validity of an I mplicit Association Test (IAT for BJW. T wo studies were developed to achieve this objective . Study 1 tested the convergent validity of a preliminary version of an IAT with an explicit measure (Global Belief in Just World Scale . The sam ple consisted of 119 participants who took part via the internet . After adjustments of the preliminary version, two IATs were developed, one for the general dimension (G - IAT and an other for the personal dimension of BJW (P - IAT . Both implicit measures and the explicit BJW measure were applied to 139 participants in a study conducted online. Both IATs demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties and only the G - IAT correlates with the GBJWS as hypothesized.
Beraha, E.M.; Cousijn, J.; Hermanides, E.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Wiers, R.W.
Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative
Li, En; Langham, Erika; Browne, Matthew; Rockloff, Matthew; Thorne, Hannah
This study examined whether an implicit association existed between gambling and sport among underage youth in Australia, and whether this implicit association could shape their explicit intention to gamble. A sample of 14-17 year old Australian participants completed two phases of tasks, including an implicit association test based online experiment, and a post-experiment online survey. The results supported the existence of an implicit association between gambling and sport among the participants. This implicit association became stronger when they saw sport-relevant (vs. sport-irrelevant) gambling logos, or gambling-relevant (vs. gambling-irrelevant) sport names. In addition, this implicit association was positively related to the amount of sport viewing, but only among those participants who had more favorable gambling attitudes. Lastly, gambling attitudes and advertising knowledge, rather than the implicit association, turned out to be significant predictors of the explicit intention to gamble.
Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Venuti, Paola; Giordano, Francesca; Napolitano, Maria; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H
In this study a novel auditory version of the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT-A) was developed to investigate (a) the valence of adults' associations to infant cries and laughs, (b) moderation of implicit associations by gender and empathy, and (c) the robustness of implicit associations controlling for auditory sensitivity. Eighty adults (50% females) were administered two SC-IAT-As, the Empathy Quotient, and the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale. Adults showed positive implicit associations to infant laugh and negative ones to infant cry; only the implicit associations with the infant laugh were negatively related to empathy scores, and no gender differences were observed. Finally, implicit associations to infant cry were affected by noise sensitivity. The SC-IAT-A is useful to evaluate the valence of implicit reactions to infant auditory cues and could provide fresh insights into understanding processes that regulate the quality of adult-infant relationships.
Full Text Available Figurative language, the built environment, and our perceptuo-motor experiences frequently associate social status with physical space. Linguistic references such as high status or climbing the corporate ladder, and built places such as the U.S. Capitol building link social and physical hierarchies. In three experiments we examine the source and extent of these associations by testing whether people implicitly associate abstract social status indicators with concrete representations of spatial topography (level versus mountainous land and relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north. Experiment 1 demonstrates speeded performance during an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998 when average social status is paired with level topography and high status with mountainous topography. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate a similar effect but with relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north, with speeded performance when average and powerful social status are paired with south and north coordinate space, respectively. Abstract concepts of social status are perceived and understood in an inherently spatial world, resulting in powerful associations between abstract social concepts and concrete and abstract notions of physical axes. These associations may prove influential in guiding daily judgments and actions.
Full Text Available Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations towards cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between these implicit affective associations and explicit expectancies, subjective craving, cannabis use, and cannabis related problems. Results show that heavy cannabis users had stronger implicit positive-arousal associations but weaker implicit negative associations towards cannabis compared to controls. Moreover, heavy cannabis users had stronger sedation but weaker negative explicit expectancies towards cannabis compared to controls. Within heavy cannabis users, more cannabis use was associated with stronger implicit negative associations whereas more cannabis use related problems was associated with stronger explicit negative expectancies, decreasing the overall difference on negative associations between cannabis users and controls. No other associations were observed between implicit associations, explicit expectancies, measures of cannabis use, cannabis use related problems, or subjective craving. These findings indicate that, in contrast to other substances of abuse like alcohol and tobacco, the relationship between implicit associations and cannabis use appears to be weak in heavy cannabis users.
de Bruijn, G.-J.; Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Rhodes, R.
An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit
Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian
The current study aimed to assess the implicit attitudes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians towards meat and vegetables, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Both measures involved asking participants to respond, under time pressure, to pictures of meat or vegetables as either positive…
Dew, Ilana T Z; Giovanello, Kelly S
Older adults show disproportionate declines in explicit memory for associative relative to item information. However, the source of these declines is still uncertain. One explanation is a generalized impairment in the processing of associative information. A second explanation is a more specialized impairment in the strategic, effortful recollection of associative information, leaving less effortful forms of associative retrieval preserved. Assessing implicit memory of new associations is a way to distinguish between these viewpoints. To date, mixed findings have emerged from studies of associative priming in aging. One factor that may account for the variability is whether the manipulations inadvertently involve strategic, explicit processes. In two experiments we present a novel paradigm of conceptual associative priming in which subjects make speeded associative judgments about unrelated objects. Using a size classification task, Experiment 1 showed equivalent associative priming between young and older adults. Experiment 2 generalized the results of Experiment 1 to an inside/outside classification task, while replicating the typical age-related impairment in associative but not item recognition. Taken together, the findings support the viewpoint that older adults can incidentally encode and retrieve new meaningful associations despite difficulty with the intentional recollection of the same information. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.
This study examined 241 early adolescents' implicit and explicit associations with popularity. The peer status and gender of both the targets and the perceivers were considered. Explicit associations with popularity were assessed with sociometric methods. Implicit associations with popularity were assessed with an approach-avoidance task (AAT).…
Agerstrom, Jens; Bjorklund, Fredrik; Carlsson, Rickard
Employing new measures (Implicit Association Test) to study the classic issue of moral orientations, we predicted and found gender differences in implicit associations to the concepts of justice and care. Specifically, we found that men more strongly associate justice vs. care with importance and with themselves than women. However, participants'…
Ireland, Jane Louise; Adams, Christine
The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and Social Cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (PUZZLE Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current b...
Full Text Available We present modular implicits, an extension to the OCaml language for ad-hoc polymorphism inspired by Scala implicits and modular type classes. Modular implicits are based on type-directed implicit module parameters, and elaborate straightforwardly into OCaml's first-class functors. Basing the design on OCaml's modules leads to a system that naturally supports many features from other languages with systematic ad-hoc overloading, including inheritance, instance constraints, constructor classes and associated types.
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been suggested to play a major role in plasticity, neurogenesis and learning in the adult brain. The BDNF gene contains a common val66met polymorphism associated with decreased activity-dependent excretion of BDNF and a potential influence on behaviour, more specifically, on motor learning. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the BDNF val66met polymorphism on short-term implicit associative learning and whether its influence is cognitive domain-specific (motor vs. language. A sample of 38 young healthy participants was genotyped, screened for background and neuropsychological differences, and tested with two associative implicit learning paradigms in two different cognitive domains, i.e., motor and vocabulary learning. Subjects performed the serial reaction time task (SRTT to determine implicit motor learning and a recently established associative vocabulary learning task (AVL for implicit learning of action and object words. To determine the influence of the BDNF polymorphism on domain-specific implicit learning, behavioural improvements in the two tasks were compared between val/val (n = 22 and met carriers (val/met: n = 15 and met/met: n = 1. There was no evidence for an impact of the BDNF val66met polymorphism on the behavioural outcome in implicit short-term learning paradigms in young healthy subjects. Whether this polymorphism plays a relevant role in long-term training paradigms or in subjects with impaired neuronal plasticity or reduced learning capacity, such as aged individuals, demented patients or patients with brain lesions, has to be determined in future studies.
Schnabel, Konrad; Banse, Rainer; Asendorpf, Jens B
This study explored the psychometric properties of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) when it is employed for the assessment of two personality traits within one sample. The sequence of an anxiousness and an angriness IAT was counterbalanced across 100 participants and the IATs' predictive validity for anxious versus angry behaviour after emotion inductions was examined and compared to direct self-report measures. The anxiousness IAT added incremental validity over direct measures for the prediction of anxious behaviour. The angriness IAT was affected by an order effect. When the angriness IAT was completed after the anxiousness IAT both tests correlated with r=.46 whereas they were not significantly correlated when the angriness IAT was completed first. Direct anxiousness and angriness measures were uncorrelated. Implications for the assessment of multiple implicit personality self-concept dimensions are discussed.
Hughes, Sean; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; De Houwer, Jan
In the present article we re-examine one of the most deeply entrenched assumptions in modern attitude research, namely, that implicit social cognition is a product of associations between mental representations. More precisely, we argue that the analysis of implicit social cognition in psychology is curtailed by the widespread adoption of the…
van Lankveld, Jacques; Odekerken, Ingrid; Kok-Verhoeven, Lydia; van Hooren, Susan; de Vries, Peter; van den Hout, Anja; Verboon, Peter
Although conceptual models of sexual functioning have suggested a major role for implicit cognitive processing in sexual functioning, this has thus far, only been investigated in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of implicit cognition in sexual functioning in men. Men with (N = 29) and without sexual dysfunction (N = 31) were compared. Participants performed two single-target implicit association tests (ST-IAT), measuring the implicit association of visual erotic stimuli with attributes representing, respectively, valence ('liking') and motivation ('wanting'). Participants also rated the erotic pictures that were shown in the ST-IAT on the dimensions of valence, attractiveness, and sexual excitement to assess their explicit associations with these erotic stimuli. Participants completed the International Index of Erectile Functioning for a continuous measure of sexual functioning. Unexpectedly, compared with sexually functional men, sexually dysfunctional men were found to show stronger implicit associations of erotic stimuli with positive valence than with negative valence. Level of sexual functioning, however, was not predicted by explicit nor implicit associations. Level of sexual distress was predicted by explicit valence ratings, with positive ratings predicting higher levels of sexual distress. Men with and without sexual dysfunction differed significantly with regard to implicit liking. Research recommendations and implications are discussed. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Bandell, Myrthe; Bastin-Hurek, Eva; van Beurden, Myra; Araz, Suzan
Conceptual models of sexual functioning have suggested a major role for implicit cognitive processing in sexual functioning. The present study aimed to investigate implicit and explicit cognition in sexual functioning in women. Gynecological patients with (N = 38) and without self-reported sexual problems (N = 41) were compared. Participants performed two Single-Target Implicit Association Tests (ST-IAT), measuring the implicit association of visual erotic stimuli with attributes representing, respectively, valence and motivation. Participants also rated the erotic pictures that were shown in the ST-IATs on the dimensions of valence, attractiveness, and sexual excitement, to assess their explicit associations with these erotic stimuli. Participants completed the Female Sexual Functioning Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale for continuous measures of sexual functioning, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms. Compared to nonsymptomatic women, women with sexual problems were found to show more negative implicit associations of erotic stimuli with wanting (implicit sexual motivation). Across both groups, stronger implicit associations of erotic stimuli with wanting predicted higher level of sexual functioning. More positive explicit ratings of erotic stimuli predicted lower level of sexual distress across both groups.
Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin
If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, "bad me" (self-blaming) paranoia and "poor me" (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia.
Latu, Ioana M.; Stewart, Tracie L.; Myers, Ashley C.; Lisco, Claire G.; Estes, Sarah Beth; Donahue, Dana K.
In two studies, we investigated implicit gender stereotypes of successful managers. Using an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) named the Successful Manager IAT (SM-IAT) in Study 1, we found that male participants were more likely to implicitly associate men with successful manager traits and women with unsuccessful manager traits…
Tanja H. Kakebeeke
Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.
Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.
Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…
Background: Anemia is a major nutritional health problem throughout the world. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and the factors associated with anemia among Kuwaiti children aged 4–5 years. Design: A sample of 578 Kuwaiti preschool children (4–5 years of age) and their mothers were selected from ongoing ...
Sabol, Terri J.; Hoyt, Lindsay Till
The current study examines the extent to which participation in preschool at age 4 is associated with blood pressure, body mass index, and awakening cortisol at age 15. We capitalize on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine differences in adolescent health…
Helm, Rebecca K; Ceci, Stephen J; Burd, Kayla A
Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face. We also show that implicit associations between negative attributions such as guilt and eyewitnesses' final pick from a line-up can help to distinguish between true and false memory (especially where the witness has been subject to the suggestive nature of a prior blank line-up). Specifically, the more a witness implicitly associates an individual face with a particular crime, the more likely it is that a memory they have for that person committing the crime is false. These findings are consistent with existing findings in the memory and neuroscience literature showing that false memories can be caused by implicit associations that are outside conscious awareness. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
João Gabriel Silva Souza
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data from national oral health survey (SB Brazil carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors, as well as clinical examinations in children. Descriptive, bivariate and mutiple analyzes were performed, described in odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (OR/95%CI. Results: 7280 preschoolers were included. Of these, 1520 (21.1% had dental pain in the last 6 months. The chance of the occurrence of dental pain was higher among those who used dental services (1.51/1.02–2.23, with tooth decay (3.08/2.08–4.56, that self-perceveid the need for dental treatment (3.96/2.48–6.34, whose parents reported dissatisfaction by children with their teeth and mouth (1.47/1.04–2.10 and those who reported impact of oral problems on quality of life (5.76/3.90–8.49. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental pain among Brazilian preschool children was relatively high, being associated with the use of dental services and the normative and subjective oral health status.
Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C
This study examined the association between implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the natural history of smoking who also completed a web-based assessment of implicit attitudes toward smoking (N = 1,337). Multiple regression was used to test the association between covariates (sex, age, educational attainment, parent status, and smoking status), implicit attitude toward smoking, and explicit attitude toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. The moderating effect of the covariates on the relation between attitudes and support for policies was also tested. Females, those with higher educational attainment, parents, and nonsmokers expressed more support for tobacco control policy measures. For nonsmokers, only explicit attitude was significantly associated with support for policies. For smokers, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significantly associated with support. The effect of explicit attitude was stronger for those with lower educational attainment. Both explicit and implicit smoking attitudes are important for building support for tobacco control policies, particularly among smokers. More research is needed on how to influence explicit and implicit attitudes to inform policy advocacy campaigns.
von Collani, Gernot; Werner, Ronny; Moritz, Steffen
It has been theorised that patients with persecutory delusions display a lack of covert self-esteem (formerly termed the 'inferiority complex'), while at the same time displaying normal or even heightened levels of explicit self-esteem. However, the empirical basis for this assumption is inconsistent. Methods. In view of apparent shortcomings of prior studies to assess implicit self-esteem, the Implicit Association Test was utilised to readdress this theory. The Rosenberg scale served as an i...
Jaime W. Thomson; Shilpa Patel; Steven M. Platek; Todd K. Shackelford
Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms that solve sex specific adaptive problems. There have been few cognitive-based investigations of jealousy, however. Here we investigated sex differences in implicit processing of jealousy-based information. In Experiment 1, we used the implicit association test (IAT) to investigate sex-differentiated biases in classifying sexual or emot...
Stefanutti, Luca; Robusto, Egidio; Vianello, Michelangelo; Anselmi, Pasquale
A formal model is proposed that decomposes the implicit association test (IAT) effect into three process components: stimuli discrimination, automatic association, and termination criterion. Both response accuracy and reaction time are considered. Four independent and parallel Poisson processes, one for each of the four label categories of the IAT, are assumed. The model parameters are the rate at which information accrues on the counter of each process and the amount of information that is needed before a response is given. The aim of this study is to present the model and an illustrative application in which the process components of a Coca-Pepsi IAT are decomposed.
Waller, Tabitha; Lampman, Claudia; Lupfer-Johnson, Gwen
To determine the implicit or unconscious attitudes of Nursing and Psychology majors towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. Obesity is a leading health concern today, which impacts both physical and psychological health. Overweight individuals confront social biases in many aspects of their lives including health care. Examining the views of Nursing and Psychology students may reveal implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals that may lead to prejudiced behaviours. A mixed design experiment with one between-subjects variable (student major: Nursing or Psychology) and one within-subjects variable (condition: congruent or incongruent) was used to assess implicit attitudes in two convenience samples of Nursing and Psychology students. A computerised implicit association test was used to determine implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. A total of 90 students from Nursing (n= 45) and Psychology (n = 45) were recruited to complete an implicit association test. Reaction times in milliseconds between the congruent trials (stereotype consistent) and incongruent trials (stereotype inconsistent) were compared with determine adherence to social stereotypes or weight bias. A statistically significant implicit bias towards overweight individuals was detected in both subject groups and in both target settings (medical vs. non-medical). Stronger weight bias was found when the stimulus targets were female than male. Findings from this study expand understanding of the implicit attitudes and social biases of Nursing and Psychology students. The views held by these future healthcare professionals may negatively impact patient care. Providing education and support to overweight individuals is central to Nursing practice in a society struggling to manage obesity. Negative stereotypes or beliefs about these individuals may result in poor patient care. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals
Full Text Available The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile, overweight (ࣙ85th and <95th percentile, and obesity (ࣙ95th percentile. Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66–1.58, obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68–1.30, and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.
Nakamura, Mitsuo; Hayakawa, Tomomi; Okamura, Aiko; Kohigashi, Mutsumi; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin
Background If delusions serve as a defense mechanism in schizophrenia patients with paranoia, then they should show normal or high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that there are two types of paranoia, “bad me” (self-blaming) paranoia and “poor me” (non-self-blaming) paranoia. We thus examined implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-blaming tendency in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We hypothesized that patients with paranoia would show lower implicit self-esteem and only those with non-self-blaming paranoia would experience a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Methods Participants consisted of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder recruited from a day hospital (N=71). Participants were assessed for psychotic symptoms, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and self-blaming tendency, using the brief COPE. We also assessed explicit self-esteem, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), implicit self-esteem, using Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), and discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, implicit self-esteem in paranoia and nonparanoia showed no statistical difference. As expected, only patients with non-self-blaming paranoia experienced a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem; other groups showed no such discrepancy. Conclusion These results suggest that persecutory delusion plays a defensive role in non-self-blaming paranoia. PMID:25565849
Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
Implicit associations of the self to concepts like “calm” have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n = 47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n = 44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. PMID:24983794
Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J
Implicit associations of the self to concepts like "calm" have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n=47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n=44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima
To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data of the national oral health survey (SB Brazil) carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors), as well as clinical examinations in children. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyzes were performed, described in odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (OR/95%CI). 7,280 preschoolers were included. Of these, 1520 (21.1%) had had dental pain in the last 6 months. The chance of the occurrence of dental pain was higher among those who used dental services (1.51 / 1.02 to 2.23), with tooth decay (3.08 / 2.08 to 4.56), that realized the need for dental treatment (3.96 / 2.48 to 6.34), whose parents reported dissatisfaction by children with their teeth and mouth (1.47 / 1.04 to 2.10) and those who reported impact of oral problems on quality of life (5.76 / 3.90 to 8.49). The prevalence of dental pain among Brazilian preschool children was relatively high, being associated with the use of dental services and the normative and subjective oral health status. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.
By assessing the association strength with TRUE and FALSE, the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772–780.
van Ravenzwaaij, D.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.
Research using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) has shown that names labeled as Caucasian elicit more positive associations than names labeled as non-Caucasian. One interpretation of this result is that the IAT measures latent racial prejudice. An alternative explanation is that the result is due
Pavlović Maša D.
Full Text Available We employed the Brief Implicit Association Test (a recently developed short version of IAT to measure implicit political attitudes toward four political parties running for Serbian parliament. To test its criterion validity, we measured voting intention and actual voting behavior. In addition, we introduced political involvement as a potential moderator of the BIAT’s predictive and incremental validity. The BIAT demonstrated good internal and predictive validity, but lacked incremental validity over self-report measures. Predictive power of the BIAT was moderated by political involvement - the BIAT scores were stronger predictors of voting intention and behavior among voters highly involved in politics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018
Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui
Human adults usually respond faster to their own faces rather than to those of others. We tested the hypothesis that an implicit positive association (IPA) with self mediates self-advantage in face recognition through 4 experiments. Using a self-concept threat (SCT) priming that associated the self with negative personal traits and led to a…
Rae, James R.; Olson, Kristina R.
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many…
Shannon S. Bosshard
Full Text Available Consumers’ attitudes towards established brands were tested using implicit and explicit measures. In particular, late positive potential (LPP effects were assessed as an implicit neurophysiological measure of motivational significance. The Implicit Association Test (IAT was used as an implicit behavioural measure of valence-related aspects (affective content of brand attitude. We constructed individualised stimulus lists of liked and disliked brand types from participants’ subjective pre-assessment. Participants then re-rated these visually presented brands whilst brain potential changes were recorded via electroencephalography (EEG. First, self-report measures during the test confirmed pre-assessed attitudes underlining consistent explicit rating performance. Second, liked brands elicited significantly more positive going waveforms (LPPs than disliked brands over right parietal cortical areas starting at about 800 ms post stimulus onset (reaching statistical significance at around 1,000 ms and lasting until the end of the recording epoch (2,000 ms. In accordance to the literature, this finding is interpreted as reflecting positive affect-related motivational aspects of liked brands. Finally, the IAT revealed that both liked and disliked brands indeed are associated with affect-related valence. The increased levels of motivation associated with liked brands is interpreted as potentially reflecting increased purchasing intention, but this is of course only speculation at this stage.
Fujii, Tsutomu; Uebuchi, Hisashi; Yamada, Kotono; Saito, Masahiro; Ito, Eriko; Tonegawa, Akiko; Uebuchi, Marie
The purposes of the present study were (a) to use both a relational-anxiety Go/No-Go Association Task (GNAT) and an avoidance-of-intimacy GNAT in order to assess an implicit Internal Working Model (IWM) of attachment; (b) to verify the effects of both measured implicit relational anxiety and implicit avoidance of intimacy on information processing. The implicit IWM measured by GNAT differed from the explicit IWM measured by questionnaires in terms of the effects on information processing. In particular, in subliminal priming tasks involving with others, implicit avoidance of intimacy predicted accelerated response times with negative stimulus words about attachment. Moreover, after subliminally priming stimulus words about self, implicit relational anxiety predicted delayed response times with negative stimulus words about attachment.
Thomas, Justin; Quadflieg, Susanne; O'Hara, Lily
Studies exploring the relationship between acculturation and eating disorders symptoms have proven equivocal. Socially desirable responding associated with the use of explicit measures may account for these mixed findings. This study explores the relationship between in-group identity, acculturation and eating disorders symptoms using both implicit and explicit assessments. Emirati female college students (N=94) completed an affective priming task (APT) designed to implicitly assess Emirati in-group evaluations. Participants also completed explicit measures, including the Westernization Survey and the Multicomponent In-group Identification Scale. Eating disorders symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test. Only implicit in-group evaluations were correlated with eating disorders symptoms. Specifically, increases in in-group preference were associated with lower levels of eating disorders symptomatology. Furthermore, participants with an actual out-group preference had significantly higher levels of eating disorders symptomatology compared with those demonstrating an in-group preference. These findings support the acculturative stress hypothesis, and suggest that the relationship between eating disorders and acculturation may be better understood with reference to implicit rather than explicit in-group evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Girardi, Giovanna; Nico, Daniele
In order to assess associative learning between two task-irrelevant features in cueing spatial attention, we devised a task in which participants have to make an identity comparison between two sequential visual stimuli. Unbeknownst to them, location of the second stimulus could be predicted by the colour of the first or a concurrent sound. Albeit unnecessary to perform the identity-matching judgment the predictive features thus provided an arbitrary association favouring the spatial anticipation of the second stimulus. A significant advantage was found with faster responses at predicted compared to non-predicted locations. Results clearly demonstrated an associative cueing of attention via a second-order arbitrary feature/location association but with a substantial discrepancy depending on the sensory modality of the predictive feature. With colour as predictive feature, significant advantages emerged only after the completion of three blocks of trials. On the contrary, sound affected responses from the first block of trials and significant advantages were manifest from the beginning of the second. The possible mechanisms underlying the associative cueing of attention in both conditions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
manipulated space at both small and large scales, from footwear to city planning, to convey social sta- tus (Hodder, 1987; Bourdieu , 1989; Margolies, 2003...posit that associ- ations between abstract concepts and physical percepts develop in response to everyday experiences (e.g., Hebb, 1949; Bourdieu ...The United States Capitol building was intentionally placed atop Jenkin’s Hill, described by the original architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant as a
Lai, Calvin; Nosek, Brian; Hoffman, Kelly
Implicit prejudice are social preferences that exist outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. We summarize evidence for three mechanisms that influence the expression of implicit prejudice: associative change, contextual change, and change in control over implicit prejudice. We then review the evidence (or lack thereof) for five open issues in implicit prejudice reduction research: 1) what shows effectiveness in real-world application; 2) what doesn’t work for implicit prejudice r...
Full Text Available Most people prefer smoothly curved shapes over more angular shapes. We investigated the origin of this effect using abstract shapes and implicit measures of semantic association and preference. In Experiment 1 we used a multidimensional Implicit Association Test (IAT to verify the strength of the association of curved and angular polygons with danger (safe vs. danger words, valence (positive vs. negative words and gender (female vs. male names. Results showed that curved polygons were associated with safe and positive concepts and with female names, whereas angular polygons were associated with danger and negative concepts and with male names. Experiment 2 used a different implicit measure, which avoided any need to categorise the stimuli. Using a revised version of the Stimulus Response Compatibility (SRC task we tested with a stick figure (i.e., the manikin approach and avoidance reactions to curved and angular polygons. We found that RTs for approaching vs. avoiding angular polygons did not differ, even in the condition where the angles were more pronounced. By contrast participants were faster and more accurate when moving the manikin towards curved shapes. Experiment 2 suggests that preference for curvature cannot derive entirely from an association of angles with threat. We conclude that smoothly curved contours make these abstract shapes more pleasant. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of such a preference.
Gray, Heather M.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Bannon, Brittany L.; Ambady, Nalini; Shaffer, Howard J.
Alcohol identity is the extent to which an individual perceives drinking alcohol to be a defining characteristic of his or her self-identity. Although alcohol identity might play an important role in risky college drinking practices, there is currently no easily administered, implicit measure of this concept. Therefore we developed a computerized implicit measure of alcohol identity (the Alcohol Identity Implicit Associations Test; AI-IAT) and assessed its reliability and predictive validity in relation to risky college drinking practices. One hundred forty-one college students completed the AI-IAT. Again 3- and 6-months later, we administered the AI-IAT and indices of engagement in risky college drinking practices. A subset of participants also completed the previously-validated implicit measure of alcohol identity. Scores on the AI-IAT were stable over time, internally consistent, and positively correlated with the previously-validated measure of alcohol identity. Baseline AI-IAT scores predicted future engagement in risky college drinking practices, even after controlling for standard alcohol consumption measures. We conclude that the AI-IAT reliably measures alcohol identity, a concept that appears to play an important role in risky college drinking practices. PMID:21621924
Nuske, Heather Joy; Hedley, Darren; Tseng, Chen Hsiang; Begeer, Sander; Dissanayake, Cheryl
Children with autism experience challenges with emotion regulation. It is unclear how children's management of their emotions is associated with their family's quality of life. Forty-three preschoolers with autism and 28 typically developing preschoolers were coded on emotion regulation strategies used during low-level stress tasks. Parents…
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.
Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…
Harris, Matthew; Macinko, James; Jimenez, Geronimo; Mullachery, Pricila
With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries. Computer-based Implicit Association Test (IAT) distributed to healthcare professionals and researchers. Stimuli representing Rich Countries were chosen from OECD members in the top ten (>$36,000 per capita) World Bank rankings and Poor Countries were chosen from the bottom thirty (based medicine and diffusion of innovations.
Lynott, Dermot; Kansal, Himanshu; Connell, Louise; O'Brien, Kerry
People often have thoughts, attitudes and biases that are not themselves consciously aware of or that they would rather not share with others. To assess such attitudes, researchers use paradigms like the Implicit Association Test (IAT) that do not rely on explicit responding to determine the level of bias a person holds towards a particular target concept (e.g., race, gender, age). Responses in the IAT are assumed to reflect deeply held beliefs and attitudes, and not shallow, superficial asso...
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…
Kettler, Todd; Oveross, Mattie E.; Salman, Rania C.
This descriptive study investigated the challenges related to implementing gifted education services in preschool centers. Participants were 254 licensed preschool center directors in a southern state. Participants completed a researcher-created survey including both selected response items and constructed response items to examine the perceived…
Pikramenou, V; Dimitraki, D; Zoumpoulakis, M; Verykouki, E; Kotsanos, N
This was to explore the association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) by conducting a cross-sectional study of a sample of preschool children from a major Greek city. The sample consisted of 2180 children aged 2.5-5.9 years from 33 private day care centres of Thessaloniki. The examinations were performed on site in ample day light by one examiner using disposable dental mirrors and a penlight. Oral examinations included recording of dental caries by dmfs index. Subject's height and weight were measured using a portable measuring unit and a digital scale, respectively. The overall prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children in each BMI-based weight category was 11.8, 72.2, 12.8, and 3.2 %, respectively. The mean age of the total sample was 50.09 (±10.28) months, mean dmfs was 0.36 (±1.9) and the caries-free children were 90.0 %. Overweight children were 1.36 times and obese children 1.99 times more likely to have higher dmfs than normal weight children. The mean dmfs values of underweight children did not significantly differ than that of children with normal weight. The relatively higher dmfs of the obese and overweight children was mostly evident in the older (60-71 months) age group. Caries prevalence in this sample of Greek children attending private day care centres was low. Overweight and obese preschool children were at higher risk of dental caries than normal- and underweight children.
Harrison, Dominique P; Stritzke, Werner G K; Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark; Hudaib, Abdul-Rahman
Assessment of implicit self-associations with death relative to life, measured by a death/suicide implicit association test (d/s-IAT), has shown promise in the prediction of suicide risk. The current study examined whether the d/s-IAT reflects an individual's desire to die or a diminished desire to live and whether the predictive utility of implicit cognition is mediated by life-oriented beliefs. Four hundred eight undergraduate students (285 female; Mage = 20.36 years, SD = 4.72) participated. Participants completed the d/s-IAT and self-report measures assessing 6 indicators of suicide risk (suicide ideation frequency and intensity, depression, nonsuicidal self-harm thoughts frequency and intensity, and nonsuicidal self-harm attempts), as well as survival and coping beliefs and history of prior suicide attempts. The d/s-IAT significantly predicted 5 out of the 6 indicators of suicide risk above and beyond the strongest traditional indicator of risk, history of prior suicide attempts. However, the effect of the d/s-IAT on each of the risk indicators was mediated by individuals' survival and coping beliefs. Moreover, the distribution of d/s-IAT scores primarily reflected variability in self-associations with life. Implicit suicide-related cognition appears to reflect a gradual diminishing of the desire to live, rather than a desire to die. Contemporary theories of suicide and risk assessment protocols need to account for the dynamic relationship between both risk and life-oriented resilience factors, and intervention strategies aimed at enhancing engagement with life should be a routine part of suicide risk management. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Chevance, Guillaume; Héraud, Nelly; Varray, Alain; Boiché, Julie
The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to determine whether Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables and implicit attitudes toward physical activity and sedentary behavior would change during a 5-week pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program, and (b) to investigate the relationships between behavioral intentions, implicit attitudes, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in postrehabilitation. Out of 142 patients with respiratory disease included in this study, 119 completed 2 questionnaires measuring TPB variables with regard to physical activity and sedentary behavior, and an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitudes toward physical activity in contrast to sedentary behavior. The TPB questionnaires and the IAT were administered at the beginning (Time 1) and the end of the program (Time 2). Six months after the program (Time 3), 62 patients provided self-reported measures of their recreational physical activity and screen-based, leisure-time sedentary behavior. Over the course of pulmonary rehabilitation, perceived behavioral control and intentions toward physical activity increased, as did social norms and perceived behavioral control toward sedentary behavior; implicit attitudes were also more positive toward physical activity. Implicit attitudes at the end of PR (Time 2) were significantly associated with postrehabilitation physical activity (Time 3). TPB variables toward physical activity and sedentary behavior as well as implicit attitudes were enhanced during PR. At 6 months, implicit attitudes were significantly associated with physical activity. These results suggest that motivation, particularly implicit attitudes, should be targeted in future behavioral interventions in order to optimize the effects of rehabilitation on physical activity maintenance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The genetic origins of altruism, defined here as a costly act aimed to benefit non-kin individuals, have not been examined in young children. However, previous findings concerning adults pointed at the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A gene as a possible candidate. AVPR1A has been associated with a range of behaviors including aggressive, affiliative and altruistic phenotypes, and recently a specific allele (327 bp of one of its promoter region polymorphisms (RS3 has been singled out in particular. We modeled altruistic behavior in preschoolers using a laboratory-based economic paradigm, a modified dictator game (DG, and tested for association between DG allocations and the RS3 "target allele." Using both population and family-based analyses we show a significant link between lower allocations and the RS3 "target allele," associating it, for the first time, with a lower proclivity toward altruistic behavior in children. This finding helps further the understanding of the intricate mechanisms underlying early altruistic behavior.
Steffens, Melanie C; Kirschbaum, Michael; Glados, Petra
Implicit Association Tests (IATs) are supposed to measure associations between concepts. In order to achieve that aim, participants are required to assign individual stimuli to those concepts under time pressure in two different tasks. Previous research has shown that not only the associations of the concepts with each other, but also the stimuli's cross-category associations influence the observed reaction time difference between these tasks (i.e. the IAT effect). Little is known about adequate stimulus selection. In this article, we introduce a variant of the IAT, the Concept Association Task (CAT) in which the concepts themselves or synonyms of them are used as stimuli. Three experiments on Germans' attitudes towards foreigners yielded evidence for the convergent validity of the CAT: (1) it correlated well with other IAT versions; (2) it correlated higher with spontaneous attitude-related judgements than other IAT versions; and (3) it correlated with response-window priming, another implicit measure based on reaction times. Furthermore, we showed that the CAT yielded reasonable findings when other IAT versions appear to yield distorted ones.
Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M
Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice.
Pirutinsky, Steven; Carp, Sean; Rosmarin, David H
Psychological research on the relationship between spirituality/religion and mental health has grown considerably over the past several decades and now constitutes a sizable body of scholarship. Among dimensions of S/R, positive beliefs about God have been significantly related to better mental health outcomes, and conversely negative beliefs about God are generally associated with more distress. However, prior research on this topic has relied heavily upon self-report Likert-type scales, which are vulnerable to self-report biases and measure only explicit cognitive processes. In this study, we developed and validated an implicit social cognition task, the Positive/Negative God Go/No-go Association Task (PNG-GNAT), for use in psychological research on spirituality and religion (S/R). Preliminary evidence in a large sample (N = 381) suggests that the PNG-GNAT demonstrates internal consistency, test-retest and split-half reliability, and concurrent evidence of validity. Further, our results suggest that PNG-GNAT scores represent different underlying dimensions of S/R than explicit self-report measures, and incrementally predict mental health above and beyond self-report assessment. The PNG-GNAT appears to be an effective tool for measuring implicit positive/negative beliefs about God.
Gustav J W Lundberg
Full Text Available Across two experiments, we examined whether implicit stereotypes linking younger (~28-year-old Black versus White men with violence and criminality extend to older (~68-year-old Black versus White men. In Experiment 1, participants completed a sequential priming task wherein they categorized objects as guns or tools after seeing briefly-presented facial images of men who varied in age (younger versus older and race (Black versus White. In Experiment 2, we used different face primes of younger and older Black and White men, and participants categorized words as 'threatening' or 'safe.' Results consistently revealed robust racial biases in object and word identification: Dangerous objects and words were identified more easily (faster response times, lower error rates, and non-dangerous objects and words were identified less easily, after seeing Black face primes than after seeing White face primes. Process dissociation procedure analyses, which aim to isolate the unique contributions of automatic and controlled processes to task performance, further indicated that these effects were driven entirely by racial biases in automatic processing. In neither experiment did prime age moderate racial bias, suggesting that the implicit danger associations commonly evoked by younger Black versus White men appear to generalize to older Black versus White men.
Jaime W. Thomson
Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms that solve sex specific adaptive problems. There have been few cognitive-based investigations of jealousy, however. Here we investigated sex differences in implicit processing of jealousy-based information. In Experiment 1, we used the implicit association test (IAT to investigate sex-differentiated biases in classifying sexual or emotional infidelity information as being positive or negative. Men made significantly more errors when asked to classify as pleasant, words indicating sexual infidelity. In Experiment 2, we modified the Stroop task to include words that depicted infidelity-related topics in three priming conditions: sexual infidelity priming, emotional infidelity priming, and a no priming control. Men were significantly slower to respond after being primed with sexual infidelity scenarios. The effect of sexual infidelity priming was not word-category specific, suggesting that cognition about a partner's sexual infidelity hijacks general cognitive and attentional processing. These findings suggest that men may automatically classify information about sexual infidelity as negative and that the automatic negative processing of sexual infidelity takes precedent over other types of immediate cognition.
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Burrows, Christopher N
Psychometricians strive to eliminate random error from their psychological inventories. When random error affecting tests is diminished, tests more accurately characterize people on the psychological dimension of interest. We document an unusual property of the scoring algorithm for a measure used to assess a wide range of psychological states. The "D-score" algorithm for coding the Implicit Association Test (IAT) requires the presence of random noise in order to obtain variability. Without consequential degrees of random noise, all individuals receive extreme scores. We present results from an algebraic proof, a computer simulation, and an online survey of implicit racial attitudes to show how trial error can bias IAT assessments. We argue as a result that the D-score algorithm should not be used for formal assessment purposes, and we offer an alternative to this approach based on multiple regression. Our critique focuses primarily on the IAT designed to measure unconscious racial attitudes, but it applies to any IAT developed to provide psychological assessments within clinical, organizational, and developmental branches of psychology-and in any other field where the IAT might be used. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L.; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J.; Snowden, Robert J.; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C
Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this
Full Text Available The autobiographical IAT (aIAT is an implicit behavioral instrument that can detect autobiographical memories encoded in an individual’s mind by measuring how quickly this person can categorize and associate sentences related to a specific event with the logical dimensions true and false. Faster categorization when an event (e.g., I went to Paris is associated with the dimension true than false indicates that that specific event is encoded as true in the individual’s mind. The aim of this study is to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of the aIAT, used as a memory-detection technique (i.e., to identify which of two events is true. To this end, we recorded ERPs while participants performed an aIAT assessing which of two playing cards they had previously selected. We found an increased N200 and a decreased LPC (or P300 at the fronto-central sites when participants associated the selected playing card with the dimension false than true. Notably, both components have been previously and consistently reported in studies investigating deception. These results suggest that associating a true autobiographical event with the concept of false may involve the same cognitive processes associated with deception.
Chad Edward Forbes
Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is a popular behavioral measure that assesses the associative strength between outgroup members and stereotypical and counterstereotypical traits. Less is known, however, about the degree to which the IAT reflects automatic processing. Two studies examined automatic processing contributions to a gender-IAT using a data driven, social neuroscience approach. Performance on congruent (e.g., categorizing male names with synonyms of strength and incongruent (e.g., categorizing female names with synonyms of strength IAT blocks were separately analyzed using EEG (event-related potentials, or ERPs, and coherence; Study 1 and lesion (Study 2 methodologies. Compared to incongruent blocks, performance on congruent IAT blocks was associated with more positive ERPs that manifested in frontal and occipital regions at automatic processing speeds, occipital regions at more controlled processing speeds and was compromised by volume loss in the anterior temporal lobe, insula and medial PFC. Performance on incongruent blocks was associated with volume loss in supplementary motor areas, cingulate gyrus and a region in medial PFC similar to that found for congruent blocks. Greater coherence was found between frontal and occipital regions to the extent individuals exhibited more bias. This suggests there are separable neural contributions to congruent and incongruent blocks of the IAT but there is also a surprising amount of overlap. Given the temporal and regional neural distinctions, these results provide converging evidence that stereotypic associative strength assessed by the IAT indexes automatic processing to a degree.
Stillman, Chelsea M; You, Xiaozhen; Seaman, Kendra L; Vaidya, Chandan J; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V
Accumulating evidence shows a positive relationship between mindfulness and explicit cognitive functioning, i.e., that which occurs with conscious intent and awareness. However, recent evidence suggests that there may be a negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit types of learning, or those that occur without conscious awareness or intent. Here we examined the neural mechanisms underlying the recently reported negative relationship between dispositional mindfulness and implicit probabilistic sequence learning in both younger and older adults. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship is mediated by communication, or functional connectivity, of brain regions once traditionally considered to be central to dissociable learning systems: the caudate, medial temporal lobe (MTL), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). We first replicated the negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit learning in a sample of healthy older adults (60-90 years old) who completed three event-related runs of an implicit sequence learning task. Then, using a seed-based connectivity approach, we identified task-related connectivity associated with individual differences in both learning and mindfulness. The main finding was that caudate-MTL connectivity (bilaterally) was positively correlated with learning and negatively correlated with mindfulness. Further, the strength of task-related connectivity between these regions mediated the negative relationship between mindfulness and learning. This pattern of results was limited to the older adults. Thus, at least in healthy older adults, the functional communication between two interactive learning-relevant systems can account for the relationship between mindfulness and implicit probabilistic sequence learning.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; De Houwer, Jan; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Van Damme, Stefaan; De Schryver, Maarten; Crombez, Geert
Chronic pain often interferes with daily functioning, and may become a threat to an individual's sense of self. Despite the development of a recent theoretical account focussing upon the relationship between the presence of chronic pain and a person's self, research investigating this idea is limited. In the present study we aimed to (1) compare the strength of association between self- and pain schema in patients with chronic pain and healthy control subjects and (2) research whether the strength of association between self- and pain-schema is related to particular pain-related outcomes and individual differences of patients with chronic pain. Seventy-three patients with chronic pain (M(age) = 49.95; SD = 9.76) and 53 healthy volunteers (M(age) = 48.53; SD = 10.37) performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess the strength of association between pain- and self-schema. Patients with chronic pain also filled out self-report measures of pain severity, pain suffering, disability, depression, anxiety, acceptance, and helplessness. Results indicated that the pain- and self-schema were more strongly associated in patients with chronic pain than in healthy control subjects. Second, results indicated that, in patients with chronic pain, a stronger association between self- and pain-schema, as measured with the IAT, is related to a heightened level of pain severity, pain suffering, anxiety, and helplessness. Current findings give first support for the use of an IAT to investigate the strength of association between self- and pain-schema in patients with chronic pain and suggest that pain therapies may incorporate techniques that intervene on the level of self-pain enmeshment. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ahern, Amy L; Bennett, Kate M; Hetherington, Marion M
This study examined whether young women who make implicit associations between underweight models and positive attributes report elevated eating disorder symptoms. Ninety nine female undergraduates completed a weight based implicit association test (IAT) and self report measures of body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization and eating disorder symptoms. IAT scores were associated with drive for thinness (r = -0.26, p fashion and being attractive. The IAT used in the current study is sensitive enough to discriminate between participants on drive for thinness. Women who have developed cognitive schemas that associate being underweight with positive attributes report higher eating disorder symptoms. Attitude importance is highlighted as a key construct in thin ideal internalization.
Curenton, Stephanie M.; Craig, Michelle Jones
Dyadic shared-reading and oral storytelling practices and their association to American preschoolers' (N = 33) prosocial and problem behaviour was examined. The frequency (how often dyads read) and history (the child's age at first reading) were examined within shared-reading; emotion state talk and evaluative judgments were examined in both…
Saito, Aya; Stickley, Andrew; Haraguchi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Kamio, Yoko
Although children with a greater number of autistic traits are likely to have other mental health problems, research on the association between earlier autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/behavioral outcomes is scarce. Using data from 189 Japanese community-based children, this study examined whether autistic traits at age 5…
Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca
This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…
Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Neves, Érick Tássio; Perazzo, Matheus França; Souza, Emilly Gabrielle Carlos de; Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia
The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with sleep bruxism in five-year-old preschool children. A preschool-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 761 pairs of children and their parents/caregivers. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed using a questionnaire administered to the parents/caregivers, who also answered questionnaires addressing sociodemographic data and parent's/caregiver's sense of coherence. Clinical oral evaluations of the children to determine dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, malocclusion and tooth wear were performed by two researchers who had undergone a training exercise (interexaminer Kappa: 0.70 to 0.91; intraexaminer Kappa: 0.81 to 1.00). Descriptive analysis and logistic regression for complex samples were carried out (α = 5%). The prevalence of sleep bruxism among the preschool children was 26.9%. The multivariate analysis revealed that bruxism was associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 2.93; 95 CI: 1.52-5.65) and tooth wear (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.39-3.96). In the present study, sleep bruxism among preschool children was associated with tooth wear and poor sleep quality of the child. In contrast, psychosocial aspects (sense of coherence) were not associated with sleep bruxism.
Ball, Courtney L.; Smetana, Judith G.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Suor, Jennifer H.; Skibo, Michael A.
Associations among moral judgments, neighborhood risk, and maternal discipline were examined in 118 socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 41.84 months, SD = 1.42). Children rated the severity and punishment deserved for 6 prototypical moral transgressions entailing physical and psychological harm and unfairness. They also…
Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea
This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…
Verneau, Fabio; La Barbera, Francesco; Kolle, Susanne; Amato, Mario; Del Giudice, Teresa; Grunert, Klaus
It has been widely noted that the introduction of insects in Westerns' diet might be a promising path towards a more sustainable food consumption. However, Westerns' are almost disgusted and sceptical about the eating of insects. In the current paper we report the results of an experiment conducted in two European countries-Denmark and Italy-different for food culture and familiarity with the topic of eating insects. We investigated the possibility to foster people's willingness to eat insect-based food through communication, also comparing messages based on individual vs. societal benefits of the eating of insects. Communication proved to be effective on intention and behaviour, and the societal message appeared to be more robust over time. The communication effect is significant across nation, gender, and previous knowledge about the topic. In addition, we investigated the impact of non-conscious negative associations with insects on the choice to eat vs. not eat insect-based food. Implicit attitudes proved to be a powerful factor in relation to behaviour, yet they did not impede the effectiveness of communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rae, James R; Olson, Kristina R
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many factors simultaneously (lag-time between testing administrations, domain, etc.), it is difficult to discern what factors may explain variability in existing test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates. Across five studies (total N = 519; ages 6- to 11-years-old), we manipulated two factors that have varied in previous developmental research-lag-time and domain. An internal meta-analysis of these studies revealed that, across three different methods of analyzing the data, mean test-retest (rs of .48, .38, and .34) and predictive validity (rs of .46, .20, and .10) effect sizes were significantly greater than zero. While lag-time did not moderate the magnitude of test-retest coefficients, whether we observed domain differences in test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates was contingent on other factors, such as how we scored the IAT or whether we included estimates from a unique sample (i.e., a sample containing gender typical and gender diverse children). Recommendations are made for developmental researchers that utilize the IAT in their research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Downing, Katherine L; Hinkley, Trina; Hesketh, Kylie D
There is little current understanding of the influences on sedentary behavior and screen time in preschool children. This study investigated socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental rules as potential correlates of preschool children's sedentary behavior and screen time. Data from the Healthy Active Preschool Years (HAPPY) Study were used. Participating parents reported their child's usual weekly screen time and their rules to regulate their child's screen time. Children wore accelerometers for 8 days to objectively measure sedentary time. Children whose parents limited television viewing spent significantly less time in that behavior and in total screen time; however, overall sedentary behavior was unaffected. An association between parents limiting computer/electronic game use and time spent on the computer was found for girls only. SEP was inversely associated with girls', but not boys', total screen time and television viewing. As parental rules were generally associated with lower levels of screen time, intervention strategies could potentially encourage parents to set limits on, and switch off, screen devices. Intervention strategies should target preschool children across all SEP areas, as there was no difference by SEP in overall sedentary behavior or screen time for boys.
Luciana Neri NOBRE
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Study the prevalence of iron depletion and iron-deficiency anemia and their associated factors in preschool children. Methods: Cross-sectional study with five-year old preschool children from a birth cohort of the city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Socioeconomic, demographic, and dietary characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire administered to each child mother or guardian. Iron depletion (normal hemoglobin and low serum ferritin levels and iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin level than 11g/dL were detected after collecting 5mL of venous blood of preschool children. Poisson regression was used to identify the factors associated with iron depletion and iron-deficiency anemia. Results: A total of 228 preschool were evaluated, corresponding to 97.4% of the children from a cohort study followed-up up to the end of their first year of life. Iron depletion and iron-deficiency anemia were detected, respectively, in 15.9% and 18.9% of the preschool children evaluated. Iron depletion was not associated with any variable studied, while low maternal education level was associated with iron-deficiency anemia (PR=1.83; P=0.03. Conclusion: Iron-deficiency anemia is considered as a mild public health problem among 5-year old children in the city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais. Higher maternal education level was a protective factor against this deficiency, and therefore it is as an important marker for the occurrence of iron-deficiency anemia in the population studied.
Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett
By assessing the association strength with TRUE and FALSE, the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772-780. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02156.x ] aims to determine which of two contrasting statements is true. To efficiently run well-powered aIAT experiments, we propose a web-based aIAT (web-aIAT). Experiment 1 (n = 522) is a web-based replication study of the first published aIAT study [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772-780. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02156.x ; Experiment 1]. We conclude that the replication was successful as the web-based aIAT could accurately detect which of two playing cards participants chose (AUC = .88; Hit rate = 81%). In Experiment 2 (n = 424), we investigated whether the use of affirmative versus negative sentences may partly explain the variability in aIAT accuracy findings. The aIAT could detect the chosen card when using affirmative (AUC = .90; Hit rate = 81%), but not when using negative sentences (AUC = .60; Hit rate = 53%). The web-based aIAT seems to be a valuable tool to facilitate aIAT research and may help to further identify moderators of the test's accuracy.
Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Georgiadis, Janniko R
Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-'hot' vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-'hot') associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli.
de Jong, Peter J.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.
Lifetime experiences shape people’s attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile–vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-‘hot’ vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-‘hot’) associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli. PMID:23051899
Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun
The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abiliti...
Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja; Kissler, Johanna M; Brand, Ralf
Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed.
Chelsea M Stillman
Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity improves explicit memory and executive cognitive functioning at the extreme ends of the lifespan (i.e., in older adults and children. However, it is unknown whether these associations hold for younger adults who are considered to be in their cognitive prime, or for implicit cognitive functions that do not depend on motor sequencing. Here we report the results of a study in which we examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and (1 explicit relational memory, (2 executive control, and (3 implicit probabilistic sequence learning in a sample of healthy, college-aged adults. The main finding was that physical activity was positively associated with explicit relational memory and executive control (replicating previous research, but negatively associated with implicit learning, particularly in females. These results raise the intriguing possibility that physical activity upregulates some cognitive processes, but downregulates others. Possible implications of this pattern of results for physical health and health habits are discussed.
Gratz, Kim L.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Tull, Matthew T.
Despite the growing consensus that negative reinforcement in the form of emotional relief plays a key role in the maintenance of deliberate self-harm (DSH), most of the research in this area has relied exclusively on self-report measures of the perceived motives for and emotional consequences of DSH. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to extend extant research on the role of emotional relief in DSH by examining the strength of the association of DSH with emotional relief using a novel version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The strength of the DSH-relief association among both participants with (vs. without) DSH and self-harming participants with (vs. without) BPD, as well as its associations with relevant clinical constructs (including DSH characteristics, self-reported motives for DSH, BPD pathology, and emotion dysregulation and avoidance) were examined in a community sample of young adults (113 with recent recurrent DSH; 135 without DSH). As hypothesized, results revealed stronger associations between DSH and relief among participants with versus without DSH, as well as among DSH participants with versus without BPD. Moreover, the strength of the DSH-relief association was positively associated with DSH frequency and versatility (both lifetime and at 6-month follow-up), BPD pathology, emotion dysregulation, experiential avoidance, and self-reported emotion relief motives for DSH. Findings provide support for theories emphasizing the role of emotional relief in DSH (particularly among individuals with BPD), as well as the construct validity, predictive utility, and incremental validity (relative to self-reported emotion relief motives) of this IAT. PMID:26147069
Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Westgate, E.; Greenwald, A.G.
There is an imperative to predict hazardous drinking among college students. Implicit measures have been useful in predicting unique variance in drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, they have been developed to test different theories of drinking and have rarely been directly compared with
Hornikx, J.M.A.; Meurs, W.F.J. van
Brands can position themselves as belonging to a foreign culture by using foreign languages (FLs) in advertising. FLs in ads have been suggested to be implicit country-of-origin (COO) cues. This paper examines the expectations that FLs operate through the COO effect (Study 1), and that they evoke
Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.
Background and objectives The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we
Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.
Background and objectives: The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we
The concept of sound iconicity implies that phonemes are intrinsically associated with non-acoustic phenomena, such as emotional expression, object size or shape, or other perceptual features. In this respect, sound iconicity is related to other forms of cross-modal associations in which stimuli from different sensory modalities are associated with each other due to the implicitly perceived correspondence of their primal features. One prominent example is the association between vowels, categorized according to their place of articulation, and size, with back vowels being associated with bigness and front vowels with smallness. However, to date the relative influence of perceptual and conceptual cognitive processing on this association is not clear. To bridge this gap, three experiments were conducted in which associations between nonsense words and pictures of animals or emotional body postures were tested. In these experiments participants had to infer the relation between visual stimuli and the notion of size from the content of the pictures, while directly perceivable features did not support-or even contradicted-the predicted association. Results show that implicit associations between articulatory-acoustic characteristics of phonemes and pictures are mainly influenced by semantic features, i.e., the content of a picture, whereas the influence of perceivable features, i.e., size or shape, is overridden. This suggests that abstract semantic concepts can function as an interface between different sensory modalities, facilitating cross-modal associations.
Suslow, Thomas; Donges, Uta-Susan
Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.
Full Text Available Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.
Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás
We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.
Andritsou, Fotini; Benetou, Vassiliki; Michail, Koralia A.; Pantazis, Nikolaos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D.
The increasing trend of administering nonprescribed medicines in children is a significant public health issue. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of medication without a prescription (MWP), including both nonprescribed medication (NPM) and prescription-only medication (POM), and identify associated factors, among preschoolers in Athens, Greece. A predesigned questionnaire was distributed to parents from May through June 2011. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis ...
Tam, Wilson W.S.; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K.H.; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K.S.; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E. Anthony S.
Abstract This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program. Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of f...
Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani
Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...
Kidwell, Katherine M; Kozikowski, Chelsea; Roth, Taylor; Lundahl, Alyssa; Nelson, Timothy D
To examine the associations among negative/reactive temperament, feeding styles, and selective eating in a sample of preschoolers because preschool eating behaviors likely have lasting implications for children's health. A community sample of preschoolers aged 3-5 years (M = 4.49 years, 49.5% female, 75.7% European American) in the Midwest of the United States was recruited to participate in the study (N = 297). Parents completed measures of temperament and feeding styles at two time points 6 months apart. A series of regressions indicated that children who had temperaments high in negative affectivity were significantly more likely to experience instrumental and emotional feeding styles. They were also significantly more likely to be selective eaters. These associations were present when examined both concurrently and after 6 months. This study provides a novel investigation of child temperament and eating behaviors, allowing for a better understanding of how negative affectivity is associated with instrumental feeding, emotional feeding, and selective eating. These results inform interventions to improve child health.
Tillmann, Barbara; Justus, Timothy; Bigand, Emmanuel
Recent findings suggest the involvement of the cerebellum in perceptual and cognitive tasks. Our study investigated whether cerebellar patients show musical priming based on implicit knowledge of tonal-harmonic music. Participants performed speeded phoneme identification on sung target chords, which were either related or less-related to prime contexts in terms of the tonal-harmonic system. As groups, both cerebellar patients and age-matched controls showed facilitated processing for related targets, as previously observed for healthy young adults. The outcome suggests that an intact cerebellum is not mandatory for accessing implicit knowledge stored in long-term memory and for its influence on perception. One patient showed facilitated processing for less-related targets (suggesting sensory priming). The findings suggest directions for future research on auditory perception in cerebellar patients to further our understanding of cerebellar functions.
Rohrer-Baumgartner, Nina; Zeiner, Pål; Egeland, Jens; Gustavson, Kristin; Skogan, Annette Holth; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi
Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low.
Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A
The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's ( N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.
Roh, Daeyoung; Bhang, Soo-Young; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kweon, Yong Sil; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Potenza, Marc N
Background Potential concerns are increasing that smartphone and Internet addictions may have deleterious effects on the mental health. Despite the recognition of the important role that implicit associations may have over explicit processes in addiction, such implicit associations have not been comprehensively investigated with respect to Internet addiction. Therefore, we modified the Implicit Association Test (IAT) for smartphone and Internet addictions and investigated its validity in children and adolescents. Methods In this experimental study, 78 at-risk children and adolescents ranging in age from 7 to 17 years completed an IAT modified with pictures captured from the most popular Internet games among youth. Furthermore, measures of Internet and smartphone addictions, mental health and problem behaviors, impulsive tendencies, self-esteem, daily stress, and quality of life were assessed simultaneously. Results Significant correlations were found between IAT D2SD scores and standardized scales for Internet (r = .28, p smartphone (r = .33, p addictions. There were no significant correlations between IAT parameters and other scales measuring the constructs that are less relevant to the features of addiction, such as daily stress levels, impulsivity, and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the IAT D2SD was independently and positively associated with smartphone addiction (p = .03) after controlling for other clinical correlates. Conclusions This study demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity of this IAT as a novel measurement relating to Internet and smartphone addictions. Further longitudinal and prospective studies are needed to evaluate its potential utility in clinical and community settings.
Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.
Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868
Full Text Available Evidence for number-space associations in implicit and explicit magnitude processing tasks comes from the parity and magnitude SNARC effect respectively. Different spatial accounts were suggested to underlie these spatial-numerical associations (SNAs with some inconsistencies in the literature. To determine whether the parity and magnitude SNAs arise from a single predominant account or task-dependent coding mechanisms, we adopted an individual differences approach to study their correlation and the extent of their association with arithmetic performance, spatial visualization ability and visualization profile. Additionally, we performed moderation analyses to determine whether the relation between these SNAs depended on individual differences in those cognitive factors. The parity and magnitude SNAs did not correlate and were differentially predicted by arithmetic performance and visualization profile respectively. These variables, however, also moderated the relation between the SNAs. While positive correlations were observed in object-visualizers with lower arithmetic performances, correlations were negative in spatial-visualizers with higher arithmetic performances. This suggests the predominance of a single account for both implicit and explicit SNAs in the two types of visualizers. However, the spatial nature of the account differs between object- and spatial-visualizers. No relation occurred in mixed-visualizers, indicating the activation of task-dependent coding mechanisms. Individual differences in arithmetic performance and visualization profile thus determined whether SNAs in implicit and explicit tasks co-varied and supposedly relied on similar or unrelated spatial coding mechanisms. This explains some inconsistencies in the literature regarding SNAs and highlights the usefulness of moderation analyses for understanding how the relation between different numerical concepts varies between individuals.
Washington, Karla N
To determine whether (a) expressive grammar intervention facilitated social and emergent literacy outcomes better than no intervention and (b) expressive grammar gains and/or initial expressive grammar level predicted social and emergent literacy outcomes. This investigation was a follow-up to a recently published study exploring the impact of grammatical language intervention on expressive grammar outcomes for preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty-two 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers received ten 20-minute intervention sessions addressing primary deficits in grammatical morphology. Participants' social and emergent literacy skills were not targeted. Twelve children awaiting intervention, chosen from the same selection pool as intervention participants, served as controls. Blind assessments of social and emergent literacy outcomes were completed at preintervention, immediately postintervention, and 3 months postintervention. Only intervention participants experienced significant gains in social and emergent literacy outcomes and maintained these gains for 3 months postintervention. Expressive grammar gains was the only single significant predictor of these outcomes. Expressive grammar intervention was associated with broad impacts on social and emergent literacy outcomes that were maintained beyond the intervention period. Gains in expressive grammar predicted these outcomes. Social and emergent literacy skills were positively affected for preschoolers with SLI during a grammatical language intervention program.
Mantonanaki, Magdalini; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Papaioannou, William
The aims of the study were to investigate dental erosion prevalence, distribution and severity in Greek preschool children attending public kindergartens in the prefecture of Attica, Greece and to determine the effect of dental caries, oral hygiene level, socio-economic factors, dental behavior, erosion related medication and chronic illness. A random and stratified sample of 605 Greek preschool children was clinically examined for dental erosion using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination Index (ΒΕWE). Dental caries (dmfs) and Simplified Debris Index were also recorded. The data concerning possible risk indicators were derived by a questionnaire. Zero-inflated Poisson regression was generated to test the predictive effects of the independent variables on dental erosion. The prevalence of dental erosion was 78.8 %, and the mean and SE of BEWE index was 3.64 ± 0.15. High monthly family income was positively related to ΒΕWE cumulative scores [RR = 1.204 (1.016-1.427)], while high maternal education level [RR = 0.872 (0.771-0.986)] and poor oral hygiene level [DI-s, RR = 0.584 (0.450-0.756)] showed a negative association. Dental erosion is a common oral disease in Greek preschool children in Attica, related to oral hygiene and socio-economic factors. Programs aimed at erosion prevention should begin at an early age for all children.
An implicit measure of associations with mental illness versus physical illness: response latency decomposition and stimuli differential functioning in relation to IAT order of associative conditions and accuracy.
Mannarini, Stefania; Boffo, Marilisa
The present study aimed at the definition of a latent measurement dimension underlying an implicit measure of automatic associations between the concept of mental illness and the psychosocial and biogenetic causal explanatory attributes. To this end, an Implicit Association Test (IAT) assessing the association between the Mental Illness and Physical Illness target categories to the Psychological and Biologic attribute categories, representative of the causal explanation domains, was developed. The IAT presented 22 stimuli (words and pictures) to be categorized into the four categories. After 360 university students completed the IAT, a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM) modelling approach was applied. The model specified a person latency parameter and a stimulus latency parameter. Two additional parameters were introduced to denote the order of presentation of the task associative conditions and the general response accuracy. Beyond the overall definition of the latent measurement dimension, the MFRM was also applied to disentangle the effect of the task block order and the general response accuracy on the stimuli response latency. Further, the MFRM allowed detecting any differential functioning of each stimulus in relation to both block ordering and accuracy. The results evidenced: a) the existence of a latency measurement dimension underlying the Mental Illness versus Physical Illness - Implicit Association Test; b) significant effects of block order and accuracy on the overall latency; c) a differential functioning of specific stimuli. The results of the present study can contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of an implicit measure of semantic associations with mental illness and give a first blueprint for the examination of relevant issues in the development of an IAT.
Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi
Constipation is a common complaint in children, which is not fatal but can affect quality of life. Several lifestyle-related risk factors for constipation have been reported, particularly dietary factors, but results have been inconsistent. Here, we examined the relationship of dietary and lifestyle factors with constipation in Japanese preschool children using data of a nationwide study. Subjects were 5,309 children aged 5 to 6 years at 380 nursery schools in 44 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Children having three or fewer bowel movements per week were considered constipated. Dietary intake data was collected using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children, and information about general lifestyle was collected using a 4-page questionnaire designed for this study. Multivariateadjusted odds ratios for constipation were calculated by logistic regression. Higher dietary fiber intake was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of constipation (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62, p for trend: 0.005), but higher carbohydrate intake was marginally associated with a higher prevalence of constipation. Intake of potatoes, pulses, vegetables, and fruits intake decreased constipation prevalence, whereas higher rice intake was significantly and independently associated with higher prevalence of constipation. Regarding lifestyle factors, high physical activity and sufficient preparation time for breakfast and dinner for guardians were significantly associated with lower prevalence. Prevalence tended to be negatively associated with a higher educational background of the mother. Several lifestyle factors were associated with a lower prevalence of constipation among Japanese preschool children, including dietary fiber intake.
Hammer, Jennifer L; Marsh, Abigail A
Despite communicating a "negative" emotion, fearful facial expressions predominantly elicit behavioral approach from perceivers. It has been hypothesized that this seemingly paradoxical effect may occur due to fearful expressions' resemblance to vulnerable, infantile faces. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We used a combined approach-avoidance/implicit association test (IAT) to test this hypothesis. Participants completed an approach-avoidance lever task during which they responded to fearful and angry facial expressions as well as neutral infant and adult faces presented in an IAT format. Results demonstrated an implicit association between fearful facial expressions and infant faces and showed that both fearful expressions and infant faces primarily elicit behavioral approach. The dominance of approach responses to both fearful expressions and infant faces decreased as a function of psychopathic personality traits. Results suggest that the prosocial responses to fearful expressions observed in most individuals may stem from their associations with infantile faces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas
The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gold, Zachary Samuel
Engineering play is a new perspective on preschool education that views constructive play as an engineering design process that parallels the way engineers think and work when they develop engineered solutions to human problems (Bairaktarova, Evangelou, Bagiati, & Brophy, 2011). Early research from this perspective supports its use in framing play as a key learning context. However, no research to date has examined associations between engineering play and other factors linked with early school success, such as executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Additionally, more research is needed to further validate a new engineering play observational measure. This study had two main goals: (1) to gather early validity data on the engineering play measure as a potentially useful instrument for documenting the occurrence of children's engineering play behaviors in educational contexts, such as block play. This was done by testing the factor structure of the engineering play behaviors in this sample and their association with preschoolers' planning, a key aspect of the engineering design process; (2) to explore associations between preschoolers' engineering play and executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Participants included 110 preschoolers (62 girls; 48 boys; M = 58.47 months) from 10 classrooms in the Midwest United States coded for their frequency of engagement in each of the nine engineering play behaviors. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in one engineering play factor including six of the engineering play behaviors. A series of marginal regression models revealed that the engineering play factor was significantly and positively associated with the spatial horizontal rotation transformation. However, engineering play was not significantly related to planning ability, executive function, informal mathematical abilities, or other spatial transformation skills. Follow-up analyses revealed significant positive
Androutsos, Odysseas; Moschonis, George; Ierodiakonou, Despo; Karatzi, Kalliopi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Iotova, Violeta; Zych, Kamila; Moreno, Luis A; Koletzko, Berthold; Manios, Yannis
This study aimed to explore the associations among perinatal, sociodemographic, and behavioral factors and preschool overweight/obesity. Data were collected from 7541 European preschoolers in May/June 2012. Children's anthropometrics were measured, and parents self-reported all other data via questionnaires. Level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Certain perinatal factors (i.e., maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, maternal excess gestational weight gain, excess birth weight, and "rapid growth velocity"), children's energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, increased screen time, reduced active-play time), family sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., Eastern or Southern Europe, low maternal and paternal education), and parental overweight/obesity were identified as correlates of preschoolers' overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, children's "rapid growth velocity," and increased screen time mediated by 21.2%, 12.5%, and 5.7%, respectively, the association between maternal education and preschoolers' body mass index. This study highlighted positive associations of preschooler's overweight/obesity with excess maternal prepregnancy and gestational weight gain, excess birth weight and "rapid growth velocity," Southern or Eastern European region, and parental overweight/obesity. Moreover, maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity, children's "rapid growth velocity," and increased screen time partially mediated the association between maternal education and preschoolers' body mass index. The findings of the present study may support childhood obesity prevention initiatives, because vulnerable population groups and most specifically low-educated families should be prioritized. Among other fields, these intervention initiatives should also focus on the importance of normal prepregnancy maternal weight status, normal growth velocity during infancy, and retaining
Malanchini, Margherita; Tosto, Maria G.; Garfield, Victoria; Dirik, Aysegul; Czerwik, Adrian; Arden, Rosalind; Malykh, Sergey; Kovas, Yulia
The study examined the etiology of individual differences in early drawing and of its longitudinal association with school mathematics. Participants (N = 14,760), members of the Twins Early Development Study, were assessed on their ability to draw a human figure, including number of features, symmetry, and proportionality. Human figure drawing was…
Malanchini, Margherita; Tosto, Maria G; Garfield, Victoria; Dirik, Aysegul; Czerwik, Adrian; Arden, Rosalind; Malykh, Sergey; Kovas, Yulia
The study examined the etiology of individual differences in early drawing and of its longitudinal association with school mathematics. Participants (N = 14,760), members of the Twins Early Development Study, were assessed on their ability to draw a human figure, including number of features, symmetry, and proportionality. Human figure drawing was moderately stable across 6 months (average r = .40). Individual differences in drawing at age 4½ were influenced by genetic (.21), shared environmental (.30), and nonshared environmental (.49) factors. Drawing was related to later (age 12) mathematical ability (average r = .24). This association was explained by genetic and shared environmental factors that also influenced general intelligence. Some genetic factors, unrelated to intelligence, also contributed to individual differences in drawing. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Malanchini, M.; Tosto, M.G.; Garfield, V.; Czerwik, A.; Dirik, A.; Arden, R.; Malykh, S.
The study examined the aetiology of individual differences in early drawing and of its longitudinal association with school mathematics. Participants (N = 14,760), members of the Twins Early Development Study, were assessed on their ability to draw a human figure, including number of features, symmetry and proportionality. Human figure drawing was moderately stable across six months (average r = .40). Individual differences in drawing at age 4½ were influenced by genetic (.21), shared environmental (.30) and non-shared environmental (.49) factors. Drawing was related to later (age 12) mathematical ability (average r = .24). This association was explained by genetic and shared environmental factors that also influenced general intelligence. Some genetic factors, unrelated to intelligence, also contributed to individual differences in drawing. PMID:27079561
Gampe, Anja; Daum, Moritz M
Children from the age of 3years understand social norms as such and enforce these norms in interactions with others. Differences in parental and institutional education across cultures make it likely that children receive divergent information about how to act in cases of norm violations. In the current study, we investigated whether cultural values are associated with the ways in which children react to norm violations. We tested 80 bicultural 3-year-olds with a norm enforcement paradigm and analyzed their reactions to norm violations. The reactions were correlated to the children's parental cultural values using the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) scales, and these results show that parental culture was associated with children's reactions to norm violations. The three strongest correlations were found for institutional collectivism, performance orientation, and assertiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caldwell, A R; Terhorst, L; Skidmore, E R; Bendixen, R M
The present study aimed to examine the associations between frequency of family meals and low fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. Promoting healthy nutrition early in life is recommended for combating childhood obesity. Frequency of family meals is associated with fruit and vegetable intake in school-age children and adolescents; the relationship in young children is less clear. We completed a secondary analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Participants included children, born in the year 2001, to mothers who were >15 years old (n = 8 950). Data were extracted from structured parent interviews during the year prior to kindergarten. We used hierarchical logistic regression to describe the relationships between frequency of family meals and low fruit and vegetable intake. Frequency of family meals was associated with low fruit and vegetable intake. The odds of low fruit and vegetable intake were greater for preschoolers who shared less than three evening family meals per week (odds ratio = 1.5, β = 0.376, P meal with family every night. Fruit and vegetable intake is related to frequency of family meals in preschool-age children. Educating parents about the potential benefits of frequent shared meals may lead to a higher fruit and vegetable consumption among preschoolers. Future studies should address other factors that likely contribute to eating patterns during the preschool years. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Perez, Lori A.; Peynircioglu, Zehra F.; Blaxton, Teresa A.
Compared perceptual and conceptual implicit and explicit memory performance of preschool, elementary, and college students. Found that conceptual explicit memory improved with age. Perceptual explicit memory and implicit memory showed no developmental change. Perceptual processing during study led to better performance than conceptual processing…
Escolano-Pérez, Elena; Herrero-Nivela, Maria Luisa; Blanco-Villaseñor, Angel; Anguera, M Teresa
Executive functions (EFs) are high-level cognitive processes that allow us to coordinate our actions, thoughts, and emotions, enabling us to perform complex tasks. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the role of EFs in building a solid foundation for subsequent development and learning and shown that EFs are associated with good adjustment and academic skills. The main objective of this study was to analyze whether EF levels in 44 Spanish children in the last year of preschool were associated with levels of literacy and math skills the following year, that is, in the first year of compulsory education. We used a multi-method design, which consisted of systematic observation to observe preschool children during play and selective methodology to assess their reading, writing, and math skills in the first year of compulsory primary education. General linear modeling was used to estimate the percentage of variability in academic skills in the first year of primary school that was explained by preschool EF abilities. The results showed that preschool EF level, together with participants and the instrument used to assess academic skills, explained 99% of the variance of subsequent academic performance. Another objective was to determine whether our findings were generalizable to the reference population. To make this determination, we estimated the optimal sample size for assessing preschool EFs. To do this, we performed a generalizability analysis. The resulting generalizability coefficient showed that our sample of 44 students was sufficient for assessing preschool EFs. Therefore, our results are generalizable to the reference population. Our results are consistent with previous reports that preschool EF abilities may be associated with subsequent literacy and math skills. Early assessment of EFs may therefore contribute to identifying children who are likely to experience later learning difficulties and guide the design of suitable interventions for the
Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun
The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production.
Full Text Available The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading. Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory in 55 preschoolers (27 boys. Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production.
Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G
People typically want to feel good. At times, however, they seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect. The prevalence of such contrahedonic motivation has been related to simultaneous experiences of positive and negative (i.e., mixed) affect. We investigated the role that implicit mental representations of affect valence may play in this regard in a study with N = 400 participants aged 11-88 years. Results demonstrated the age-fairness and reliability of the affect-valence Implicit Association Test, a newly developed implicit measure of interindividual differences in mental representations of affect valence. The older participants were, the more distinctively they implicitly associated happiness with pleasantness and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness. Participants furthermore carried mobile phones as assessment instruments with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants on average 54 times to report their momentary affective experience and affect-regulation motivation. Contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect were most prevalent among adolescents and least prevalent among older adults, and thus showed a similar pattern of age differences as the affect-valence Implicit Association Test. Furthermore, the more distinctive participants' implicit associations of happiness with pleasantness, and/or unhappiness with unpleasantness, the less likely participants were to report contrahedonic motivation and mixed affect in their daily lives. These findings contribute to a refined understanding of the mixed-affect perspective on contrahedonic motivation by demonstrating the respective role of implicit affect-valence representations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Nagamori, Chizuko; Hara, Keiko; Ohta, Katsuya; Akaza, Miho; Sumi, Yuki
Public attitudes and stigma toward epilepsy may limit patient motivation for treatment and participation in social activities. Stigma research requiring individuals to report personal beliefs is useful but is subject to social desirability bias. Self-reporting methods often do not capture implicit attitudes; therefore, in this study, implicit stigma was measured using the implicit association test (IAT), which is a word sorting task to minimize this bias. Recently, in Japan, several serious car accidents caused by people with epilepsy (PWE) resulted in pedestrian fatalities. Traffic accidents involving PWE have been reported extensively and repeatedly in the media since 2011. The present study aimed to examine differences in implicit stigma toward epilepsy among medical students in 2010, 2013, and 2016. We recruited 41 medical students in 2010, 44 medical students in 2013 and 42 medical students in 2016. We investigated the strength of conceptual associations between the words "Epilepsy" or "Hypertension", and "Safety" or "Danger" in the IAT. The association between the words "Epilepsy" and "Danger" was stronger in 2013 compared with that in 2010; however, the association was weaker in 2016 compared with that in 2013. There was no significant difference between 2010 and 2016. The change in IAT results between 2010 and 2013 might be due to the traffic accident involving PWE in Japan. However, the result in 2016 might indicate that the implicit attitudes toward epilepsy were improved to the same level as those in 2010. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article aims to measure implicit sexual attitude in heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals. A Many-Facet Rasch Measurement analysis was used to disentangle the contribution of specific associations to the overall IAT measure. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in heterosexual respondents, driven most by associating positive attributes with heterosexuals rather than negative attributes with homosexuals. Differently, neither the negative nor the positive evaluation of any of the target groups play a prominent role in driving the preference for homosexuals observed in gay respondents. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in bisexual respondents, that results most from ascribing negative attributes to homosexuals rather than positive attributes to heterosexuals. The results are consistent with the expression of the need for achieving a positive self-image and with the influence of shared social norms concerning sexuality.
Camodeca, Marina; Caravita, Simona C S; Coppola, Gabrielle
The different roles of bullying participation (bully, follower, victim, defender of the victim, and outsider) have not been investigated in preschool children. The aims of this study were to use a peer-report measure to assess these roles and to investigate their associations with social competence among pre-schoolers. We also explored whether status among peers, indicated by being socially preferred, mediates the relationship between social competence and bullying roles. Three hundred twenty 3- to 6-year-old children participated in the study. Bullying roles and social preference were assessed by means of peer reports, whereas social competence was investigated with a Q-Sort methodology, based on observations in classrooms. Bullying was also assessed by means of teacher reports. The results showed quite a clear distinction among roles and a correspondence between peer and teacher assessments, except for the role of outsider. The role of defender was positively associated with social competence, whereas the other roles were negatively associated. In a subsample, social preference statistically predicted the role of bully and mediated between social competence and bullying. The findings are discussed in terms of the importance of assessing bullying and its correlates at a very young age, although roles may further develop when children grow up. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Liu, Fengyang; Yang, Xubo; Tang, Angcang; Liu, Longqian
To determine whether mode of delivery has any impact on astigmatism. This case-control study was performed in the Department of Ophthalmology in 2015. Exposure was mode of delivery [vaginal delivery (VD) or caesarean section (CS), which here included both elective and emergency CS]. Outcome was astigmatism (≥2.5 D), which was determined by cycloplegic refraction. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed to assess the associations between mode of delivery and astigmatism from logistic regression models. Of the 659 children studied here (341 boys; mean age, 4.37 years), 440 were born by CS and 219 by VD. The incidence of severe astigmatism (≥2.5 D) in the CS and VD groups was 22.06% and 13.24%, respectively. Children delivered by CS had a 77.9% higher risk of severe astigmatism compared with vaginally delivered children (OR = 1.779; 95% CI, 1.121 to 2.824). After dividing CS into elective CS and emergency CS, children delivered by elective CS had an 87.3% increased risk of severe astigmatism (OR = 1.873; 95% CI, 1.157 to 3.032), but children delivered by emergency CS did not differ from vaginally delivered children. In addition, the children whose mothers had histories of breastfeeding had a 44.6% lower risk of severe astigmatism than children whose mother did not breastfeed them (OR = 0.554, 95% CI, 0.335-0.914). Birth by CS, especially elective CS, increases the risk of severe astigmatism (≥2.50 D) in childhood. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…
Powers, Abigail; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Bradley, Bekh; Jovanovic, Tanja
Childhood abuse is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including increased risk for development of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the present study was to examine associations between child abuse, PTSD symptoms, and performance on an emotional conflict regulation task that assesses implicit emotion regulation abilities. The sample consisted of 67 (94% African American) females recruited from a public, urban hospital. Childhood abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was measured using the modified PTSD Symptom Scale. Task accuracy and implicit emotion regulation were measured through an emotional conflict regulation behavioral task. A multivariate analysis of covariance showed that exposure to moderate to severe childhood abuse was significantly related to worse emotional conflict regulation scores independent of current PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and adult trauma exposure, suggesting a deficit in implicit emotion regulation. We also found an interaction between PTSD symptoms and abuse exposure in predicting accuracy on the behavioral task; high levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer task accuracy among individuals who reported moderate to severe exposure to childhood abuse. However, no relationship between implicit emotion regulation abilities and overall PTSD symptom severity was found. This study provides preliminary evidence of an implicit emotion regulation deficit for individuals exposed to significant childhood abuse and further supports the growing evidence that addressing various aspects of emotion dysregulation, such as awareness of emotions and strategies to manage strong emotions, in the context of treatment would be valuable.
Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Clementino, Marayza Alves; Pinto-Sarmento, Tassia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins
Dental caries and traumatic dental injury (TDI) can play an important role in the emergence of parental guilt, since parents feel responsible for their child's health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of oral health problems among preschool children on parental guilt. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 832 preschool children between three and five years of age in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS). The item "parental guilt" was the dependent variable. Questionnaires addressing socio-demographic variables (child's sex, child's age, parent's/caregiver's age, mother's schooling, type of preschool and household income), history of toothache and health perceptions (general and oral) were also administered. Clinical exams for dental caries and TDI were performed by three dentists who had undergone a training and calibration exercise (Kappa: 0.85-0.90). Poisson hierarchical regression was used to determine the significance of associations between parental guilt and oral health problems (α = 5%). The multivariate model was carried out on three levels using a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic aspects; 2) health perceptions; and 3) oral health problems. The frequency of parental guilt was 22.8%. The following variables were significantly associated with parental guilt: parental perception of child's oral health as poor (PR = 2.010; 95% CI: 1.502-2.688), history of toothache (PR = 2.344; 95% CI: 1.755-3.130), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.002; 95% CI: 1.388-2.887), avulsion/luxation (PR = 2.029; 95% CI: 1.141-3.610) and tooth discoloration (PR = 1.540; 95% CI: 1.169-2.028). Based on the present findings, parental guilt increases with the occurrence of oral health problems that require treatment, such as dental caries and TDI of greater severity. Parental perceptions of
Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.
Full Text Available Meta-analytic data highlight the value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT as an indirect measure of personality. Based on evidence suggesting that confounding factors such as cognitive abilities contribute to the IAT effect, this study provides a first investigation of whether basic personality traits explain unwanted variance in the IAT. In a gender-balanced sample of 204 volunteers, the Big-Five dimensions were assessed via self-report, peer-report, and IAT. By means of structural equation modeling, latent Big-Five personality factors (based on self- and peer-report were estimated and their predictive value for unwanted variance in the IAT was examined. In a first analysis, unwanted variance was defined in the sense of method-specific variance which may result from differences in task demands between the two IAT block conditions and which can be mirrored by the absolute size of the IAT effects. In a second analysis, unwanted variance was examined in a broader sense defined as those systematic variance components in the raw IAT scores that are not explained by the latent implicit personality factors. In contrast to the absolute IAT scores, this also considers biases associated with the direction of IAT effects (i.e., whether they are positive or negative in sign, biases that might result, for example, from the IAT’s stimulus or category features. None of the explicit Big-Five factors was predictive for method-specific variance in the IATs (first analysis. However, when considering unwanted variance that goes beyond pure method-specific variance (second analysis, a substantial effect of neuroticism occurred that may have been driven by the affective valence of IAT attribute categories and the facilitated processing of negative stimuli, typically associated with neuroticism. The findings thus point to the necessity of using attribute category labels and stimuli of similar affective valence in personality IATs to avoid confounding due to
Kourlaba, Georgia; Kondaki, Katerina; Liarigkovinos, Thodoris; Manios, Yannis
The aim of this work was to describe the television (TV) viewing time of preschoolers and to examine factors that may be associated with it. A representative sample of 2374 Greek children aged 1-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). Several anthropometric, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. The mean value of children's TV viewing time was 1.32 h/day. Twenty six percent of participants spent > or =2 h/day in TV viewing. The percentage of children whose TV viewing time was longer than 2 h/day was higher in children aged 3-5 years (32.2%) than in those aged 1-2 years (11.1%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that the time parents spent viewing TV and the region of residence were significantly associated with child's TV viewing time among children aged 3-5 years. Among children aged 1-2 years, the maternal educational status, the region of residence and the maternal TV viewing time were found to be related to child's TV viewing time. The current findings suggest that almost one third of Greek preschoolers exceed the limit of 2 h/day TV viewing and that parental TV viewing time may be the most important determinant of children's TV viewing time.
Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio
Images of "seion" (unvoiced sound), "dakuon" (voiced sound), and "handakuon" (semi-voiced sound) in Japanese onomatopoeia were investigated by using two methods: the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the semantic differential (SD). Undergraduate students (n=25) completed the six kinds of IATs and SD questionnaires related to the images. The results indicated that "dakuon" was evaluated as being more dynamic and heavier, and "seion" and "handakuon" were evaluated as being more static and lighter by both the IAT and SD methods. However, "seion" was evaluated as being more static and lighter than "handakuon" by the IAT, whereas "handakuon" was evaluated as being more static and lighter than "seion" by the SD method. The differences in evaluation by the two methods are discussed.
Kawakami, Naoaki; Yoshida, Fujio
This study investigated the effects of subliminal mere exposure to ingroup or outgroup members on intergroup evaluation as measured in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants first memorized the members of two groups. Then, they were assigned to either group by lot, and completed the IAT for intergroup evaluation (Time 1). In the next phase, half the participants were subliminally exposed to ingroup members and half to outgroup members. Upon completion of the exposure, the same IAT was administered at Time 2. The results showed that participants who were exposed to ingroup members evaluated the ingroup more positively at Time 2 than at Time 1. Participants who were exposed to outgroup members did not show an effect toward the outgroup. The finding that the mere exposure effect occurred only for the ingroup exposure condition suggests that unconscious awareness of the ingroup enhances the mere exposure effect.
Background Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes’ intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes’ attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Method Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. Results As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (η2 = .11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r = .50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r = .36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (r tt = .66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. Conclusions The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available “open source”. The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs. PMID:24479865
Brand, Ralf; Heck, Philipp; Ziegler, Matthias
Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes' intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes' attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (η2 = .11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r = .50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r = .36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (rtt = .66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available "open source". The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs.
Meehan, Sean K.; Randhawa, Bubblepreet; Wessel, Brenda; Boyd, Lara A.
Implicit motor learning is preserved after stroke, but how the brain compensates for damage to facilitate learning is unclear. We used a random effects analysis to determine how stroke alters patterns of brain activity during implicit sequence-specific motor learning as compared to general improvements in motor control. Nine healthy participants and 9 individuals with chronic, right focal sub-cortical stroke performed a continuous joystick-based tracking task during an initial fMRI session, over 5 days of practice, and a retention test during a separate fMRI session. Sequence-specific implicit motor learning was differentiated from general improvements in motor control by comparing tracking performance on a novel, repeated tracking sequences during early practice and again at the retention test. Both groups demonstrated implicit sequence-specific motor learning at the retention test, yet substantial differences were apparent. At retention, healthy control participants demonstrated increased BOLD response in left dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) but decreased BOLD response left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 9) during repeated sequence tracking. In contrast, at retention individuals with stroke did not show this reduction in DLPFC during repeated tracking. Instead implicit sequence-specific motor learning and general improvements in motor control were associated with increased BOLD response in the left middle frontal gyrus BA 8, regardless of sequence type after stroke. These data emphasize the potential importance of a prefrontal-based attentional network for implicit motor learning after stroke. The present study is the first to highlight the importance of the prefrontal cortex for implicit sequence-specific motor learning after stroke. PMID:20725908
Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Phillips, Beth M
Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills.
Full Text Available The oppression of women in rural China is more severe than in urban China, not only because the two areas differ in terms of social hierarchy, but also because urban women are more likely to fight against their subordination, which is endorsed by conventional social views on gender. To independently assess these relationships, we applied the Quadruple Process model to measure the processes underlying implicit gender attitudes in a sample of urban and rural females. The results indicated that the urban women had higher in-group favoritism than did the rural women. Application of the Quad model, however, showed that pro-women associations were similarly activated among urban and rural women, but that women in rural settings more effectively inhibited activated associations. Differences in inhibition, rather than in activated associations, appear to account for the less favorable attitudes among rural women. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses among urban and rural women exaggerate the differences in underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and conceal differences in self-regulating the expression of those associations.
Full Text Available This is a predictive validity study examining the extent to which developmental vulnerability at kindergarten entry (as measured by the Early Development Instrument, EDI is associated with children's basic skills in 4th grade (as measured by the Foundation Skills Assessment, FSA.Relative risk analysis was performed on a large database linking individual-level EDI ratings to the scores the same children obtained on a provincial assessment of academic skills (FSA--Foundation Skills Assessment four years later. We found that early vulnerability in kindergarten is associated with the basic skills that underlie populations of children's academic achievement in reading, writing and math, indicating that the Early Development Instrument permits to predict achievement-related skills four years in advance.The EDI can be used to predict children's educational trends at the population level and can help select early prevention and intervention programs targeting pre-school populations at minimum cost.
López Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Galván, Marcos; Silva Maldonado, Isabela; Chávez Dossetti, Michel
Iodine deficiency is a public health problem in many developing countries where pregnant women and children are the more susceptible populations. To evaluate the association of iodine nutritional status with the weather, availability of iodine in salt, and degree of social exclusion in preschool children of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Cross-sectional study in 1,333 children marginalization in the localities where they lived was recorded. 24.5% of children evaluated had marginalization was less than with low marginalization (23.5 ± 1.2 and 32.9 ± 2.7 ppm, respectively; p marginalization of the locations were associated with lower iodine content of salt and urinary iodine in children evaluated.
Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye
Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…
Slusser, Wendelin; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Prelip, Michael; Fischer, Heidi; Cumberland, William G.; Frankel, Fred; Neumann, Charlotte
Parents are in an ideal position to promote long-term healthy dietary behaviours for their children. This study aimed to determine parent and child characteristics and to test their associations in a cross-sectional sample of urban low-income, low-education Latino immigrants with preschool-age children. Also determined were family demographic…
Craeynest, Mietje; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Cognitive-motivational accounts of fat food intake propose an association between fat food and action dispositions, which are according to the biphasic emotion theory of Lang [(1995). The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372-385; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, M.M. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation and action. In P.J. Lang, R.F. Simons & M.T. Balaban (Eds.). Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.] characterized by high levels of arousal. In two experiments, this association was investigated in lean and overweight youngsters. In the first experiment, 29 overweight and 29 lean youngsters conducted two Implicit Association Tasks (IAT; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.). In a positive arousal IAT, implicit associations between fat vs. lean food, and high and low arousal words with a positive valence were assessed. In a negative arousal IAT, high and low arousal words with a negative valence were used. A second experiment was conducted to replicate Experiment 1 in 29 youngsters with severe obesity and 29 lean peers. The results revealed strong implicit associations between fat food and arousal in both the overweight and the control group. No differences were found between the groups, nor between the positive and the negative arousal task. These results are related to cognitive-motivational theories of fat food intake.
Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza Mireya; Saldívar-González, Atenógenes Humberto; Lin-Ochoa, Dolores; Martinez-Perales, Gerardo Manuel; Joffre-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel
The aim of this study was to determine the association between obesity and caries by utilizing the data of a cohort of preschool children aged 4-5 years. Data were obtained from a cohort of 1,160 children. Dental caries detection was performed according to the World Health Organization criteria. The caries index was measured as the number of decayed (d), extracted (e), and filled (f) teeth (t) (deft), or surfaces (defs). The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), at-risk overweight (> or = 85th- or = 95th percentile). Odds ratios were determined for at-risk overweight and overweight children using logistic regression. The prevalence of dental caries was 17.9 percent. A slightly higher percentage of dental caries was found in boys (19.6 percent) than in girls (16.4 percent). From the total sample, the mean BMI was 17.10 +/- 3.83. Approximately 53.7 percent of children were classified as normal weight, 14.2 percent as at-risk overweight, and 32.1 percent as overweight. At-risk overweight children were higher among girls (17.1 percent) than among boys (11.3 percent). When adjusted for covariates, the logistic regression model showed that there was a significant association between at-risk overweight children (P Obesity appears to be associated with dental caries in the primary dentition of preschool Mexican children.
Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ferreira, Simone Helena; Spiguel, Mônica Hermann; Marquezan, Marcela
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children using Poisson regression analysis with robust variance. The study population comprised 888 children aged 3- to 5-year-old attending public nurseries in Canoas, southern Brazil. Questionnaires assessing information related to the independent variables (age, gender, race, mother's educational level and family income) were completed by the parents. Clinical examinations were carried out by five trained examiners in order to assess traumatic dental injuries (TDI) according to Andreasen's classification. One of the five examiners was calibrated to assess orthodontic characteristics (open bite and overjet). Multivariable Poisson regression analysis with robust variance was used to determine the factors associated with dental trauma as well as the strengths of association. Traditional logistic regression was also performed in order to compare the estimates obtained by both methods of statistical analysis. 36.4% (323/888) of the children suffered dental trauma and there was no difference in prevalence rates from 3 to 5 years of age. Poisson regression analysis showed that the probability of the outcome was almost 30% higher for children whose mothers had more than 8 years of education (Prevalence Ratio = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60) and 63% higher for children with an overjet greater than 2 mm (Prevalence Ratio = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.31-2.03). Odds ratios clearly overestimated the size of the effect when compared with prevalence ratios. These findings indicate the need for preventive orientation regarding TDI, in order to educate parents and caregivers about supervising infants, particularly those with increased overjet and whose mothers have a higher level of education. Poisson regression with robust variance represents a better alternative than logistic regression to estimate the risk of dental trauma in preschool children.
Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hatcher, Ruth M; Tazzyman, Sarah; Flowe, Heather D; Palmer, Emma J; Frosch, Caren A; O'Reilly, Michelle; Jones, Ceri; Buckley, Chloe; Knieps, Melanie; Cutts, Katie
Three studies were conducted to investigate people's conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, a factor analysis of participants' ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low self-confidence, viciousness, uneducated, amusement) as most salient. In Study 2, participants evaluated hypothetical profiles of online trolling messages to establish the validity of the five factors. Three constructs (attention-conflict seeking, viciousness, and uneducated) were actively employed when people considered profiles of online trolling scenarios. Study 3 introduced a 20-item 'Conceptions of Online Trolls scale' to examine the extent to which the five group factors were associated with resilience to trolling. Results indicated that viewing online trolls as seeking conflict or attention was associated with a decrease in individuals' negative affect around previous trolling incidents. Overall, the findings suggest that adopting an implicit theories approach can further our understanding and measurement of conceptions towards trolling through the identification of five salient factors, of which at least one factor may act as a resilience strategy. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M
The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...
Glashouwer, Klaske A.; Vroling, Maartje S.; de Jong, Peter J.; Lange, Wolf-Gero; de Keijser, Jos
Background and Objectives: Negative automatic associations towards the self and social cues are assumed to play an-important role in social anxiety disorder. We tested whether social anxiety disorder patients (n = 45) showed stronger dysfunctional automatic associations than non-clinical controls (n
Glashouwer, K.A.; Vroling, M.S.; Jong, P.J. de; Lange, W.G.; Keijser, J. de
Background and Objectives Negative automatic associations towards the self and social cues are assumed to play an important role in social anxiety disorder. We tested whether social anxiety disorder patients (n = 45) showed stronger dysfunctional automatic associations than non-clinical controls (n
Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…
Dina Di Giacomo
Full Text Available Aim of the study is to verify the semantic associative abilities in children with different language onset times: early, typical, and delayed talkers. The study was conducted on the sample of 74 preschool children who performed a Perceptual Associative Task, in order to evaluate the ability to link concepts by four associative strategies (function, part/whole, contiguity, and superordinate strategies. The results evidenced that the children with delayed language onset performed significantly better than the children with early language production. No difference was found between typical and delayed language groups. Our results showed that the children with early language onset presented weakness in the flexibility of elaboration of the concepts. The typical and delayed language onset groups overlapped performance in the associative abilities. The time of language onset appeared to be a predictive factor in the use of semantic associative strategies; the early talkers might present a slow pattern of conceptual processing, whereas the typical and late talkers may have protective factors.
Jose Cazuza Farias Junior
Full Text Available Available studies show that environmental factors may influence how parentes choose to commute their children from home to school. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between the characteristics of the physical and social environment near school and active commuting to school among preschool children. A school-based cross-sectional study with a sample of children aged 3to 5 years (n=914 was undertaken. Participants were selected by a single-stage cluster sampling process. To obtain data on commuting to school and demographicand socioeconomic variables, a previously validated questionnaire was used while an audit tool was used to assess the environment near school. Binarylogistic regression was used to analyze the association and results were presented as Odds Ratio values. Results showed that 28.3% (95%CI 25.5-31.3 ofthe children were active commuters from home to school. A positive association was found between public transportation (p=0.002 and social environment(p=0.004 domains and active commuting. However, this association was foundonly among children from families that did not have a car. The likelihood of achild being an active commuter was higher among those who are enrolled in schools with better environmental surroundings (OR=1.88; 95%CI 1.31-2.70. It was concluded that there was a positive association between some of the environmental factors near school and active commuting to school among children from families that did not have a car.
Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry
Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.
Loan Minh Do
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.
Weertman, A.; Arntz, A.R.; Jong, P.J. de; Rinck, M.
This study investigated automatic associations with the self and with others in the context of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). Participants scoring high (n=20) or low (n=20) on DSM-IV OCPD traits performed three irrelevant-feature tasks in which language of the words (Dutch vs.
Tam, Wilson W.S.; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K.H.; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K.S.; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E. Anthony S.
Abstract This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program. Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of families, children's history of chickenpox infection and vaccination, and reasons for getting children vaccinated. Logistic regression was applied to examine the factors associated with vaccination. From the 3484 completed questionnaires, the calculated rates of varicella infection and vaccination were 20.7% and 69.0%, respectively. Barriers to vaccination included parental uncertainties about vaccine effectiveness, lack of recommendation from the government, and concerns on adverse effects. Overall, 71.8%, 69.0%, and 45.7% of the parents rated family doctors, specialists, and the government, respectively, as very important motivators of vaccination. Higher parental educational level and family income, better perceived knowledge of varicella and chance of infection, discussion with a family doctor, and positive health belief towards vaccination were associated with vaccination (all P vaccination in Hong Kong was higher than that of some other countries that also did not include the vaccine in their routine immunization programs. More positive parental attitudes, higher socioeconomic status, and discussion with a family doctor are associated with greater vaccination rates. The important roles that health professionals and the government play in promoting varicella vaccination were emphasized. PMID:26356725
Brega, A G; Thomas, J F; Henderson, W G; Batliner, T S; Quissell, D O; Braun, P A; Wilson, A; Bryant, L L; Nadeau, K J; Albino, J
Health literacy is 'the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions'. Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale studies have assessed these relationships among American Indians, a population at risk for limited health literacy and oral health problems. This analysis was conducted as part of a clinical trial aimed at reducing dental decay among preschoolers in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Using baseline data for 1016 parent-child dyads, we examined the association of parental health literacy with parents' oral health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, as well as indicators of parental and pediatric oral health. More limited health literacy was associated with lower levels of oral health knowledge, more negative oral health attitudes, and lower levels of adherence to recommended oral health behavior. Parents with more limited health literacy also had significantly worse oral health status (OHS) and reported their children to have significantly worse oral health-related quality of life. These results highlight the importance of oral health promotion interventions that are sensitive to the needs of participants with limited health literacy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tourino, Luciana Fonseca Pádua; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paiva, Saul Martins; Vale, Miriam Pimenta Parreira do
This study sought to determine the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) among preschool children and investigate associations with sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors and weight status. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 118 children aged 3 to 5 years. Data were collected via clinical examinations and a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents. The diagnosis of DDE was performed using the modified DDE Index. Information on socioeconomic indicators (mother's schooling, monthly income per capita), child's sex and age, and age of mother at the birth of the child were obtained by questionnaire. The children's weight status was determined based on weight-for-age at the time of the exam. Statistical analysis involved the chi-squared test and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of DDE was 50.0%. DDE were more frequent in males (p = 0.025) and children whose families were classified as being at poverty line (p = 0.040). In the Poisson model controlled for child's sex and mother's schooling, children whose families were classified as being at the poverty line had a greater prevalence rate of DDE. In conclusion, the prevalence of DDE was high in the present sample and associated with lower household income. Weight status was not associated with DDE.
Hinkley, Trina; Brown, Helen; Carson, Valerie; Teychenne, Megan
Screen time and physical activity behaviours develop during the crucial early childhood period (0-5 years) and impact multiple health and developmental outcomes, including psychosocial wellbeing. Social skills, one component of psychosocial wellbeing, are vital for children's school readiness and future mental health. This study investigates potential associations of screen time and outdoor play (as a proxy for physical activity) with social skills. Cross sectional data were available for 575 mothers with a child (54% boys) aged 2-5 years. Mothers reported their child's screen time, outdoor play time and social skills (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASBI). Multiple linear regression analyses assessed associations of screen and outdoor play time (Model 1) and compliance with screen time and physical activity recommendations (Model 2) with three ASBI subscales. Boys and girls spent a mean of 2.0 and 2.2 hours per day in screen time, and 3.3 and 2.9 hours per day in outdoor play, respectively. Girls scores for express and comply skills were significantly higher than boys (p<0.005). After applying the Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure to adjust for multiple associations, children's television/DVD/video viewing was inversely associated with their compliant scores (B = -0.35 95% CI -0.26, -0.14; p = 0.001) and outdoor play time was positively associated with both expressive (B = 0.20 95% CI 0.07, 0.34; p = 0.004) and compliant (B = 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.36; p = 0.002) scores. Findings indicate that television/DVD/video viewing may be adversely, and outdoor play favourably, associated with preschool children's social skills. Future research is required to identify the direction of causation and explore potential mechanisms of association.
Massignan, C; Ximenes, M; da Silva Pereira, C; Dias, L; Bolan, M; Cardoso, M
This was to evaluate the prevalence of the developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in primary teeth and its association with dental caries. A cross-sectional study with a randomised representative sample was carried out with 1101 children aged 2-5 years enrolled in public preschools (50% prevalence of DDE in primary teeth, a standard error of 3%, and a confidence level of 95%). Three calibrated dentists (K > 0.62) performed clinical examination. Data collected were: sex, age, DDE (Modified DDE Index) and dental caries (WHO). Descriptive analysis, Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Among children, 565 (51.3%) were boys; mean age was 3.7 (±0.9 years). The prevalence of enamel defect was 39.1%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 25.3, 19.1 and 6.1%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 31.0%, with mean def-t 1.14 (±2.44). Primary teeth with enamel hypoplasia had three times the odds of having dental caries than those with absence of enamel defects (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.91, 5.01). The presence of enamel defects was moderate and associated with dental caries.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.
Congiu, Giovanna; Campus, Guglielmo; Sale, Silvana; Spano, Giovanni; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Lugliè, Pietrina Francesca
This study evaluates the influence of several determinants on the presence of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children living in northern Sardinia, Italy. These determinants include the educational level and occupational status of the parents as a proxy for the socioeconomical level (SES) and behavioral factors (dietary and oral hygiene). An observational cross-sectional study was designed with a dental examination and a standardized questionnaire. Five hundred forty-four subjects (260 girls and 284 boys) were enrolled and categorized into two age groups: 359 children were aged 18-47 months and 185 children were aged 48-60 months. The total caries prevalence was 15.99%. Caries risk increased with lower parents' educational level (P = 0.01), increased number of siblings (P family was associated with caries (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.20-2.40). ECC prevalence evaluated was similar to other western countries, and SES and behavioral habits influence the development of ECC. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
João Gabriel Guimarães Luz
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the associated risk factors in children attending preschools located in areas with different socioeconomic and structural features in the city of Rondonópolis, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2015 and 2016 among four-to-five years old children. Initially, urban neighborhoods with preschools were classified into five risk strata for parasitic infections, which were defined on the basis of socioeconomic and structural variables. Then, one school from each stratum was randomly chosen for data collection. After obtaining the written informed consent from parents or guardians, the children provided stool samples for examination. Interviews were conducted with parents or guardians to determine the associated risk factors. Results: Coproparasitological tests were performed on 215 (46.5% preschoolers, and the overall prevalence was 22.8%. The occurrence of such infections increased with the increase in risk stratum of the neighborhood. Protozoa infections, mainly by Entamoeba coli (11.2% and Giardia duodenalis (9.8%, were the most frequent. The consumption of tap water (OR = 3.56, P = 0.002, no washing of fruits and vegetables before consumption (OR = 3.44, P = 0.002, and no hand washing before eating (OR = 2.63, P = 0.004 were associated with these infections. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites among Rondonópolis preschoolers is relevant and associated with precarious hygienic–sanitary behavior, especially in areas with poor socioeconomic and structural conditions.
Al-Hoorie, Ali H.
This paper reports the first investigation in the second language acquisition field assessing learners' implicit attitudes using the Implicit Association Test, a computerized reaction-time measure. Examination of the explicit and implicit attitudes of Arab learners of English (N = 365) showed that, particularly for males, implicit attitudes toward…
Phelan, Sean M; Burke, Sara E; Hardeman, Rachel R; White, Richard O; Przedworski, Julia; Dovidio, John F; Perry, Sylvia P; Plankey, Michael; A Cunningham, Brooke; Finstad, Deborah; W Yeazel, Mark; van Ryn, Michelle
Implicit and explicit bias among providers can influence the quality of healthcare. Efforts to address sexual orientation bias in new physicians are hampered by a lack of knowledge of school factors that influence bias among students. To determine whether medical school curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities predict bias among graduating students against gay and lesbian people. Prospective cohort study. A sample of 4732 first-year medical students was recruited from a stratified random sample of 49 US medical schools in the fall of 2010 (81% response; 55% of eligible), of which 94.5% (4473) identified as heterosexual. Seventy-eight percent of baseline respondents (3492) completed a follow-up survey in their final semester (spring 2014). Medical school predictors included formal curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities. Outcomes were year 4 implicit and explicit bias against gay men and lesbian women, adjusted for bias at year 1. In multivariate models, lower explicit bias against gay men and lesbian women was associated with more favorable contact with LGBT faculty, residents, students, and patients, and perceived skill and preparedness for providing care to LGBT patients. Greater explicit bias against lesbian women was associated with discrimination reported by sexual minority students (b = 1.43 [0.16, 2.71]; p = 0.03). Lower implicit sexual orientation bias was associated with more frequent contact with LGBT faculty, residents, students, and patients (b = -0.04 [-0.07, -0.01); p = 0.008). Greater implicit bias was associated with more faculty role modeling of discriminatory behavior (b = 0.34 [0.11, 0.57); p = 0.004). Medical schools may reduce bias against sexual minority patients by reducing negative role modeling, improving the diversity climate, and improving student preparedness to care for this population.
Full Text Available Aims. The study is part of the pilot project “children in preschools” and aims to detect developmental risks of preschool children in the context of their socioeconomic status (SES as a base to initiate individual intervention strategies. Methods. The “Dortmund Developmental Screening for the Kindergarten” was used in 12 preschools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MWP to detect early developmental risks in children aged 3 to 6 years (n=870. Socioeconomic data from n=530 parents were collected by a standardised questionnaire. Results. Significant differences between the SES groups were identified especially in the field of fine motor skills (P<0.05. In gross motor development differences were not statistically significant. Prevalence rate of fine motor developmental risks ranges from 1.7% to 20.9%; the rate of gross motor developmental risks tops out at 14.4%. The prevalence rates are associated with age and sex. Conclusions. Fine motor skills in 3–6 years old preschool children are significantly associated with the socioeconomic status. In gross motor skills an association could not be identified. In this study, motor development was more affected by sex than by SES.
Sorrie, Muluken Bekele; Yesuf, Melkie Edris; GebreMichael, Tsgehana GebreGyorgis
Overweight and obesity among children has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century, which is a predictor of adulthood obesity, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar City from February 14 to March 4, 2016. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 504 preschool children. Data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO 2007 Anthro version 2.0.4 software. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify associated factors. P values 2hr/day [AOR = 4.01 (95%CI;2.22, 7.26)] and mother's education at secondary level [AOR = 0.35 (95% CI; 0.12, 0.96)] were associated with overweight/obesity among preschool children. Once considered a high income country problem, result of this study in urban city like Gondar reveals that overweight/obesity is on the rise in urban Ethiopia, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years.
Muluken Bekele Sorrie
Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among children has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century, which is a predictor of adulthood obesity, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight /obesity and associated factors among preschool children.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar City from February 14 to March 4, 2016. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 504 preschool children. Data were collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO 2007 Anthro version 2.0.4 software. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify associated factors. P values 2hr/day [AOR = 4.01 (95%CI;2.22, 7.26] and mother's education at secondary level [AOR = 0.35 (95% CI; 0.12, 0.96] were associated with overweight/obesity among preschool children.Once considered a high income country problem, result of this study in urban city like Gondar reveals that overweight/obesity is on the rise in urban Ethiopia, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years.
Screen time and physical activity behaviours develop during the crucial early childhood period (0–5 years) and impact multiple health and developmental outcomes, including psychosocial wellbeing. Social skills, one component of psychosocial wellbeing, are vital for children’s school readiness and future mental health. This study investigates potential associations of screen time and outdoor play (as a proxy for physical activity) with social skills. Cross sectional data were available for 575 mothers with a child (54% boys) aged 2–5 years. Mothers reported their child’s screen time, outdoor play time and social skills (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASBI). Multiple linear regression analyses assessed associations of screen and outdoor play time (Model 1) and compliance with screen time and physical activity recommendations (Model 2) with three ASBI subscales. Boys and girls spent a mean of 2.0 and 2.2 hours per day in screen time, and 3.3 and 2.9 hours per day in outdoor play, respectively. Girls scores for express and comply skills were significantly higher than boys (poutdoor play time was positively associated with both expressive (B = 0.20 95% CI 0.07, 0.34; p = 0.004) and compliant (B = 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.36; p = 0.002) scores. Findings indicate that television/DVD/video viewing may be adversely, and outdoor play favourably, associated with preschool children’s social skills. Future research is required to identify the direction of causation and explore potential mechanisms of association. PMID:29617366
Al-Mendalawi, Mahmood Dhahir; Karam, Nadia Taha
Tooth decay (TD) is common in children with significant consequences on systemic well-being, growth and quality of life, as well as increasing the risk of decay in the permanent teeth. The aim of the present study is to define risk factors associated with deciduous TD (DTD) in Iraqi preschool children. From the 1(st) June to 31(st) December 2012, a case-control study was carried out on 684 children under the age of 6 years who attended Al-Aulwyiah pediatric teaching hospital in Baghdad. Clinical examination and World Health Organization caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were applied. Data including gender, residence, socio-economic status (SES), parental education level, parental smoking, tooth brushing frequency, type of feeding during infancy and the presence of any systemic disease in the child were sought. The mean DMFT score in the case group was 2.03 ± 1.39, of which decayed teeth formed 1.93. Males had a higher mean DMFT (2.10 ± 1.08) than females (1.96 ± 1.70) but with no statistically significant difference. The study revealed that residence, SES, parental education level and tooth brushing frequency were dependent risk factors significantly associated with DTD. However, gender, parental smoking and pattern of feeding during infancy were not significantly associated with DTD. Only four children with systemic disorders (1.2%), namely asthma and congenital heart diseases, were noticed to have DTD. Pediatricians and dentists could provide dental preventive and screening measures. Confronting relevant risk factors associated with DTD and improving access to oral care services are suggested. In addition, promotion of oral health programs through school curricula is needed.
Doucette, Margaret R; Kurth, Salome; Chevalier, Nicolas; Munakata, Yuko; LeBourgeois, Monique K
Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major neuronal refinement. We calculated EEG power for slow (10-13 Hz) and fast (13.25-17 Hz) sigma power from all-night high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in a cross-sectional sample of healthy preschool children (n = 10, 4.3 ± 1.0 years). Processing speed was assessed as simple reaction time. On average, reaction time was 1409 ± 251 ms; slow sigma power was 4.0 ± 1.5 μV²; and fast sigma power was 0.9 ± 0.2 μV². Both slow and fast sigma power predominated over central areas. Only slow sigma power was correlated with processing speed in a large parietal electrode cluster (p power predicted faster reaction time. Our findings indicate regional correlates between sigma power and processing speed that are specific to early childhood and provide novel insights into the neurobiological features of the EEG that may underlie developing cognitive abilities.
Kaufman-Shriqui, V; Fraser, D; Novack, Y; Bilenko, N; Vardi, H; Abu-Saad, K; Elhadad, N; Feine, Z; Mor, K; Shahar, D R
To identify modifiable risk factors for obesity among low socioeconomic status (LSES) children. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 238 4-7-year-old children and 224 mothers from LSES preschools. Anthropometric measurements were obtained; mothers were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, perceptions and beliefs. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) among children was 29.8% based on the new World Health Organization (WHO) growth standard. Prevalence of OWOB (body mass index ≥25) among mothers was 51.8%. Mean age, sleeping hours, gender distribution and poverty level were similar between normal and OWOB children. Over 82% of mothers underestimated their child's weight status. Of the 62 OWOB children, 74.2% were perceived by their mothers as having 'normal weight' (NW) and 8% were perceived as 'thin'. Mothers perceived 67 out of 158 NW children (42.4%) as 'thin' (Pmaternal underestimation on child's OWOB may be mediated through child's daily sedentary hours (P=0.06). In a multivariable logistic-regression analysis controlling for maternal obesity, knowledge regarding breakfast's importance and child's daily sedentary hours, maternal underestimation of the child's weight status (odds ratio=7.33; 95% confidence interval (CI):2.41-22.37; PMaternal perception of child's weight status and parental smoking are associated with childhood OWOB among LSES children. These parameters can help identify children at risk for obesity. Maternal perception may be amenable to intervention.
Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M
The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N
Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior: children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children's emotional development and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions.
Mond, J M; Stich, H; Hay, P J; Kraemer, A; Baune, B T
To examine associations between obesity and impairment in developmental functioning in a general population sample of pre-school children. Standardized medical examinations were conducted in nine consecutive cohorts of male and female children (n=9415) aged between 4.4 and 8.6 years (mean=6.0, s.d.=0.37) residing in the Lower Bavaria region of Germany. Tests designed to assess performance in subdivisions representing four broad developmental domains, namely, motor development, speech development, cognitive development and psycho-social development, were completed by all participants. Boys had significantly higher rates of impairment than girls. The prevalence of obesity in boys was 2.4%, whereas in girls it was 4.3% (chi (2)=21.51, Pmotor skills was higher among obese male children than normal-weight male children (adjusted odds ratio=1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02, 3.01, Pability to focus attention was higher in obese female children than normal-weight female children (adjusted odds ratio=1.86, 95% CI=1.00, 3.44, Pobesity and impairment in specific aspects of developmental functioning may be evident in younger children.
Margaret R. Doucette
Full Text Available Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG, little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major neuronal refinement. We calculated EEG power for slow (10–13 Hz and fast (13.25–17 Hz sigma power from all-night high-density electroencephalography (EEG in a cross-sectional sample of healthy preschool children (n = 10, 4.3 ± 1.0 years. Processing speed was assessed as simple reaction time. On average, reaction time was 1409 ± 251 ms; slow sigma power was 4.0 ± 1.5 μV2; and fast sigma power was 0.9 ± 0.2 μV2. Both slow and fast sigma power predominated over central areas. Only slow sigma power was correlated with processing speed in a large parietal electrode cluster (p < 0.05, r ranging from −0.6 to −0.8, such that greater power predicted faster reaction time. Our findings indicate regional correlates between sigma power and processing speed that are specific to early childhood and provide novel insights into the neurobiological features of the EEG that may underlie developing cognitive abilities.
O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A
How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Endendijk, Joyce J; Spencer, Hannah; Bos, Peter A; Derks, Belle
Processes like gender socialization (the ways in which parents convey information to their children about how girls and boys should behave) often happen unconsciously and might therefore be studied best with neuroscientific measures. We examined whether neural processing of gender-stereotype-congruent and incongruent information is more robustly related to mothers' gendered socialization of their child than mothers' implicit and explicit gender stereotypes. To this end, we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers (N = 35) completing an implicit gender-stereotype task and mothers' gender stereotypes in relation to observed gendered communication with their child (2-6 years old) in a naturalistic picture-book-reading setting. Increased N2 activity (previously related to attentional processes) to gender stimuli in the implicit gender-stereotype task was associated with mothers' positive evaluation of similar gendered behaviors and activities in the picture book they read with their child. Increased P300 activity (previously related to attention to unexpected events) to incongruent trials in the gender-stereotype task was associated with a more positive evaluation of congruent versus incongruent pictures. Compared to mothers' gender stereotypes, neural processing of gendered information was more robustly related to how mothers talk to their children about boys' and girls' stereotype-congruent and incongruent behavior, and masculine and feminine activities.
Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E
Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children.
Tarullo, Amanda R.; Mliner, Shanna; Gunnar, Megan R.
Associations between behavioral inhibition and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, a stress-sensitive neuroendocrine system indexed by salivary cortisol, have varied widely across studies. In the current study, we examined the role of peer social experiences in moderating patterns of association between…
Hankey, Maren; Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti
To examine the relation between preschoolers' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) and the moderating role of permissive parent feeding styles in these associations. Cross-sectional study involving mothers' report of food-related parenting styles and child eating behaviors. Small city in southern Mississippi. Mother-preschooler dyads (n = 104). Child body BMIz. Moderated multiple regression. An uninvolved feeding style moderated the relationship between emotional eating and BMIz such that children with higher emotional overeating scores had higher a BMIz in the presence of an uninvolved feeding style (B = 2.16; P = .01). An uninvolved feeding style may be a risk factor for higher BMIz in preschoolers who tend to overeat to cope with negative emotions. For other children in this population, self-regulatory aspects of eating may be more important than mothers' feeding style in the maintenance of healthy weight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meysamie, Alipasha; Ghalehtaki, Reza; Ghazanfari, Arash; Daneshvar-Fard, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza
Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression. In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. According to parents' rating, the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%), 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on teachers' rating the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% -6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.
Full Text Available Objective:Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression Methods:In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results:According to parents’rating, the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4% , 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6% and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%, respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%, 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% - 6.0% and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%, respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p<0.05.Conclusion:This study revealed that children’s family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child’s potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.
Jones, Caroline Helen Dorothy; Ball, Helen Louise
Age-independent variability in childrens' napping duration may be influenced by parental preference and attitudes and childrens' availability or lack of opportunity to nap. Our study examined English preschool childrens' napping duration, frequency and location, and the association of daily nap duration with parents' attitudes towards napping. Parents of three-year-old children in deprived and nondeprived areas of a town in North-East England were interviewed regarding their attitudes towards child napping and completed four-day and five night sleep diaries documenting their childrens' daytime and nighttime sleep. Of 84 children, half had at least one nap during the four-day study period (median [interquartile range] daily nap duration across all children was 1  min; for nappers only was 21  min). Naps tended to be infrequent and short and few (6%) occurred in a bedroom. Children whose parents allowed or encouraged napping had significantly longer daily nap duration (n=25, median [interquartile range] daily nap duration 21  min) compared to those whose parents tried to prevent them from napping (n=29, 1  min), and those whose parents reported that children did not want to nap (n=30, 0  min) (U=23.21; pnapping was associated with longer child nap duration. Napping appeared to be mainly sporadic and opportunistic and was negatively perceived and prevented by one-third of parents. The consequences of premature nap cessation are not known; given the importance of sufficient sleep in childhood, we should possibly consider enabling young children to nap more freely. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Redondo, Juliana; Fuster, Valentín; Peñalvo, José L
Program SI! is a multi-level, school-based intervention for the promotion of cardiovascular health from early childhood. The aim of this paper is to characterize the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure in the preschoolers enrolled in the study, and to compare various criteria for classifying obesity. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial including 24 state schools in Madrid (Spain). Weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2011 children (1009 boys and 1002 girls) aged 3 to 5 years (3.7 [0.9]). Body mass index and blood pressure were classified by corresponding task force criteria. Obesity was studied by 6 different criteria. Associations of body mass index, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference on blood pressure were examined, and the risk of high blood pressure in relation to tertiles of body mass index was calculated. The prevalence of obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force varied from 2% at age 3 to 8% at age 5, and the overall prevalence of high blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile) was 20%. Sex- and age-specific criteria for obesity showed better agreement with the reference than a single generalized cutoff. The risk of high blood pressure was higher for the highest tertile of body mass index distribution. The highest prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure was found among older children. The classification of obesity in children was more accurate using sex- and age-specific cutoffs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Scroggins, W Anthony; Mackie, Diane M; Allen, Thomas J; Sherman, Jeffrey W
In three experiments, we used a novel Implicit Association Test procedure to investigate the impact of group memberships on implicit bias and implicit group boundaries. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that categorizing targets using a shared category reduced implicit bias by increasing the extent to which positivity was associated with Blacks. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that shared group membership, but not mere positivity of a group membership, was necessary to reduce implicit bias. Quadruple process model analyses indicated that changes in implicit bias caused by shared group membership are due to changes in the way that targets are evaluated, not to changes in the regulation of evaluative bias. Results from Experiment 3 showed that categorizing Black targets into shared group memberships expanded implicit group boundaries. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Mental processing and mental experience is not the same thing. The former is the operation of the mind; the latter is the subjective life that emerges from these operations. In social evaluation, implicit and explicit attitudes express this distinction. https://implicit.harvard.edu/ was created to provide experience with the Implicit Association Test (IAT) a procedure designed to measure social knowledge that may operate outside of awareness. In this paper we examined the relationships betwee...
Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…
Bruening, Meg; Afuso, Kevin; Mason, Maureen
Background: School breakfast may contribute to increased risk for obesity because children may be consuming two breakfasts: at home and at school. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of preschoolers consuming two breakfasts and to assess relationships with overweight/obesity and other factors. Method: Head Start parents (n =…
Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim Amin
The purpose of this study was to explore whether preschool teachers' self-reported beliefs could predict their self-reported practices about developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). A related purpose was to examine whether classroom size and teachers' experience are significant predictors of their self-reported beliefs and practices. A total…
Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Fussell, Jill J.
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preschool children's social outcomes in the classroom (including hyperactivity, aggression, and social skills) and their media viewing habits (including the amount of television they watch and whether they watch videos/movies that are rated as inappropriate for…
Arnold, David H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Marshall, Nastassja A.
This study examined the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development in a sample of 467 preschool children (M=55.9 months old, SD=3.8). Teachers reported on children's aggression, attention problems, and prosocial skills. Preliteracy, language, and early mathematics skills were assessed with standardized tests. Better…
Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol; Lawrence, Frank R.
It is well established that monolingual preschoolers' oral language development (vocabulary and oral comprehension) contributes to their later reading abilities; however, less is known about this relationship in bilingual populations where children are developing knowledge of two languages. It may be that children's abilities in one language do…
Silveira, Jonas Augusto C; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio B; Cocetti, Monize; Taddei, José Augusto A C
to describe the secular trends in overweight among preschool children in the years 1989, 1996, and 2006, and to identify risk factors associated with this condition in 2006. anthropometric data from three surveys (1989, 1996, and 2006) with a representative sample of the population were analyzed. Overweight was defined as the weight-for-height Z-score. The multivariable models of overweight association with risk factors were generated by Poisson regression, and the estimates were shown as prevalence ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals (PR [95% CI]). throughout the 17-year period studied, the relative prevalence of overweight in preschoolers increased by 160% in Brazil, representing an increase of 9.4% per year. Based on data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006/07, four multivariable models were created (macro-environmental, maternal, individual, and final model) assuming hierarchy among the risk factors. In the final model, only the following remained associated with overweight: regions South/Southeast (1.55 [1.17 to 2.06]), middle-class (1.35 [1.02 to 1.77]), maternal obesity (1.66 [1.22 to 2.27]), birth weight ≥ 3.9kg (1.87 [1.31 to 2.67]), and being an only child or having only one sibling (1.81 [1.31 to 2.49]). the prevalence of overweight among preschool children in Brazil has increased dramatically over the past 17 years, and it was higher in the 1996-2006 period. Future strategies for prevention and control of overweight in public health should focus or intensify actions in communities that are characterized by the presence of the risks identified in the present study. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger
Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.
Jonas Augusto C. Silveira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe the secular trends in overweight among preschool children in the years 1989, 1996, and 2006, and to identify risk factors associated with this condition in 2006. METHODS: anthropometric data from three surveys (1989, 1996, and 2006 with a representative sample of the population were analyzed. Overweight was defined as the weight-for-height Z-score. The multivariable models of overweight association with risk factors were generated by Poisson regression, and the estimates were shown as prevalence ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals (PR [95% CI]. RESULTS: throughout the 17-year period studied, the relative prevalence of overweight in preschoolers increased by 160% in Brazil, representing an increase of 9.4% per year. Based on data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006/07, four multivariable models were created (macro-environmental, maternal, individual, and final model assuming hierarchy among the risk factors. In the final model, only the following remained associated with overweight: regions South/Southeast (1.55 [1.17 to 2.06], middle-class (1.35 [1.02 to 1.77], maternal obesity (1.66 [1.22 to 2.27], birth weight > 3.9 kg (1.87 [1.31 to 2.67], and being an only child or having only one sibling (1.81 [1.31 to 2.49]. CONCLUSION: the prevalence of overweight among preschool children in Brazil has increased dramatically over the past 17 years, and it was higher in the 1996-2006 period. Future strategies for prevention and control of overweight in public health should focus or intensify actions in communities that are characterized by the presence of the risks identified in the present study.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily
Albeit limited, some emerging work, using convenience-based samples, has demonstrated that greater motor skill development is associated with higher physical activity among preschool-aged children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this topic using data from the 2012 National Youth Fitness Survey that included 329 preschool-aged children (3-5 years). Parents proxy-reported their child's physical activity, with motor skill level assessed from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition (TGMD2). Motor skill levels (Gross Motor Quotient, locomotor or object control) were not associated with preschool free-living physical activity in any analytic model. Thus, in this large sample of preschoolers, contrary to research with older children, motor skill level was not associated with physical activity. Findings are discussed in terms of study limitations of (a) a reliance on parent report of children's physical activity levels and (b) the possibility that physical activity data within the national survey were too limited in range to show possible associations to motor skill development with higher levels of free-living physical activity in preschoolers.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of implicit (automatic attitudes to explain the weak attitude-behaviour relationships often found in green consumer behaviour research. Therefore, not only explicit but also implicit attitudes toward green consumer behaviour were measured by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT. Explicit measures revealed positive attitudes, while the IAT showed more positive attitudes toward the ecological than toward the traditional product (Experiment 1 or no differences in these attitudes (Experiment 2 and follow-up study. When existing products were involved, implicit attitudes related to behavioural intention, even where the explicit attitude measure did not.
Machado, Geovanna C M; Daher, Anelise; Costa, Luciane R
Many parents rely on emergency services to deal with their children's dental problems, mostly pain and infection associated with dental caries. This cross-sectional study analyzed the factors associated with not doing an oral procedure in preschoolers with toothache attending public dental emergency services. Data were obtained from the clinical files of preschoolers treated at all nine dental emergency centers in Goiania, Brazil, in 2011. Data were children's age and sex, involved teeth, oral procedures, radiography request, medications prescribed and referrals. A total of 531 files of children under 6 years old with toothache out of 1,108 examined were selected. Children's mean age was 4.1 (SD 1.0) years (range 1-5 years) and 51.6% were girls. No oral procedures were performed in 49.2% of cases; in the other 50.8%, most of the oral procedures reported were endodontic intervention and temporary restorations. Primary molars were involved in 48.4% of cases. With the exception of "sex", the independent variables tested in the regression analysis significantly associated with non-performance of oral procedures: age (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.8), radiography request (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.7-8.2), medication prescribed (OR 7.5; 95% CI 4.9-11.5) and patient referred to another service (OR 5.7; 3.0-10.9). Many children with toothache received no oral procedure for pain relief.
Gewa, Constance A
To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.
Letícia M. dos Santos
Full Text Available Objective:To identify the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preschoolers from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, and their associations with maternal mental health and family characteristics.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 349 children aged 49 to 72 months, randomly selected from 20,000 households representing the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador. In 1999, we assessed sociodemographic variables and family environment characteristics. In 2001, we used the Child Behavior Checklist to measure and describe the frequencies of behavior problems. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to estimate associations between family and maternal factors and prevalence of behavior problems.Results:The overall prevalence of behavior problems was 23.5%. The prevalence of internalizing problems was 9.7%, and that of externalizing problems, 25.2%. Behavior problems were associated with several maternal mental health variables, namely: presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis (odds radio [OR] 3.01, 95%CI 1.75-5.18, anxiety disorder (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.20-3.46, affective disorder (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.21-3.65, and mental health disorders due to use of psychoactive substances (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.18-4.55.Conclusion:The observed prevalence of child behavior problems fell within the range reported in previous studies. Maternal mental health is an important risk factor for behavior problems in preschool-aged children.
Reynolds, Arthur J; Richardson, Brandt A; Hayakawa, Momoko; Lease, Erin M; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Englund, Michelle M; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Sullivan, Molly
Early childhood interventions have demonstrated positive effects on well-being. Whether full-day vs part-day attendance improves outcomes is unknown. To evaluate the association between a full- vs part-day early childhood program and school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement. End-of-preschool follow-up of a nonrandomized, matched-group cohort of predominantly low-income, ethnic minority children enrolled in the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for the full day (7 hours; n = 409) or part day (3 hours on average; n = 573) in the 2012-2013 school year in 11 schools in Chicago, Illinois. The Midwest CPC Education Program provides comprehensive instruction, family-support, and health services from preschool to third grade. School readiness skills at the end of preschool, attendance and chronic absences, and parental involvement. The readiness domains in the Teaching Strategies GOLD Assessment System include a total of 49 items with a score range of 105-418. The specific domains are socioemotional with 9 items (score range, 20-81), language with 6 items (score range, 15-54), literacy with 12 items (score range, 9-104), math with 7 items (score, 8-60), physical health with 5 items (score range, 14-45), and cognitive development with 10 items (score range, 18-90). Full-day preschool participants had higher scores than part-day peers on socioemotional development (58.6 vs 54.5; difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 0.5-7.6; P = .03), language (39.9 vs 37.3; difference, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.6-4.6; P = .01), math (40.0 vs 36.4; difference, 3.6; 95% CI, 0.5-6.7; P = .02), physical health (35.5 vs 33.6; difference, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.5-3.2; P = .006), and the total score (298.1 vs 278.2; difference, 19.9; 95% CI, 1.2-38.4; P = .04). Literacy (64.5 vs 58.6; difference, 5.9; 95% CI, -0.07 to 12.4; P = .08) and cognitive development (59.7 vs 57.7; difference, 2.0; 95% CI, -2.4 to 6.3; P = .38) were not significant. Full-day preschool graduates also had higher
Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same family as that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, however, it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with a history of severe prematurity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool-age children (≤5 years) with and without history of severe prematurity (prematurity. Preschool children with a history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity, and history of asthma. Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with a history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Munzer, Tiffany G; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Contreras, Dawn; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C; Radesky, Jenny
Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015). Screen media exposure was measured by daily screen media exposure (hr/d), television (TV) in the bedroom, frequency of background TV, and TV with meals (1 = rarely/never, 4 = frequently). Child self-regulatory behaviors were measured by the following: child ability to delay gratification, a standardized waiting paradigm; teacher-reported Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation; and parent-reported difficult temperament on the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Multivariate regression analyses modeled screen media exposure predicting each self-regulatory measure, adjusting for child age, sex, parent age, education, marital status, income-to-needs ratio, number of adults in household, parent depressive symptoms, and sensitivity. Children were aged 4.1 years (SD = 0.5), parents were aged 29.6 years (SD = 6.8), 48% had high school education or less, and 67% were married. Daily screen media exposure and background TV were associated with weaker observed self-regulation (β: -10.30 seconds for each hr/d media, -12.63 seconds for 1-point increase, respectively). Background TV and TV with meals were associated with greater parent-reported difficult temperament (β: 0.04 and 0.05 CBQ, respectively, for 1-point increase). Greater screen media exposure had small but significant associations with weaker observed and parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, self-regulatory behaviors. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the directionality of associations.
Schmand, B.; Kop, W. J.; Kuipers, T.; Bosveld, J.
Implicit verbal learning of psychotic patients (n = 59) and non-psychotic control patients (n = 20) was studied using stem completion and association tasks in lexical and semantic priming paradigms. Performance on these tasks was contrasted with explicit memory on Rey's verbal learning test.
Miguel-Berges, María L; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Mouratidou, Theodora; Androutsos, Odysseas; de Craemer, Marieke; Pinket, An-Sofie; Birnbaum, Julia; Koletzko, Berthold; Iotova, Violeta; Usheva, Natalia; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Gozdz, Magdalena; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis A
To examine the association between food and beverage consumption and time spent in different sedentary behaviours such as watching TV and DVDs, playing computer/video games and quiet play/activities in preschoolers. A sample of 6431 (51.8 % males) European preschoolers aged 3.5-5.5 years from six survey centres was included in the data analyses. Data on dietary habits and sedentary behaviours [watching TV, playing computer and quiet play (both during weekdays and weekend days)] were collected via standardized proxy-administered questionnaires. One-way analysis of covariance and general linear model (adjusted for sex, maternal education, body mass index and centre) were conducted. The results of the generalized linear model showed that the more strong associations in both males and females who were watching TV for > 1 h/day during weekdays were positively associated with increased consumption of fizzy drinks (β = 0.136 for males and β = 0.156 for females), fresh and packed juices (β = 0.069, β = 0.089), sweetened milk (β = 0.119, β = 0.078), cakes and biscuits (β = 0.116, β = 0.145), chocolate (β = 0.052, β = 0.090), sugar-based desserts and pastries (β = 0.234, β = 0.250), salty snacks (β = 0.067, β = 0.056), meat/poultry/processed meat (β = 0.067, β = 0.090) and potatoes (β = 0.071, β = 0.067), and negative associations were observed for the consumption of fruits (β = -0.057, β = -0.099), vegetables (β = -0.056, β = -0.082) and fish (β = -0.013, β = -0.013). During weekend days, results were comparable. In European preschoolers, sedentary behaviours were associated with consumption of energy-dense foods and fizzy drinks. The present findings will contribute to improve the strategies to prevent overweight, obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases from early childhood.
Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E
Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems.
Md Shakeel Anjum
Full Text Available Introduction: Children choose sweet, energy dense foods in preference to more nutritious options. Despite being aware about healthy food, mothers regularly purchase, prepare and allow their children to eat unhealthy food. Aims: To explore the association between the knowledge of mothers of preschool children about making food choices and oral health of their children and to assess the association with their children′s sugar consumption and caries status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 mother and child pairs from preschools and Anganwadi centers in the Vikarabad town of Ranga Reddy district in Telangana using simple random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire filled by their mothers who gathered their views on choices about food; a 3-day diet chart and clinical assessment of the children′s caries status. Chi-square, t-test and ANOVA were used. Results: Majority of mothers were motivated by their child′s preferences (51%, availability and accessibility of food products (19% and affordability (15% when making food choices for their children. Though, mothers had a favorable knowledge regarding food choices for their children and about oral health, it was not found to be associated with caries status of their children. However, the association between the sweet scores of the children and their caries status was significant. Conclusion:Though the mothers had favorable knowledge about providing healthy foods to their children, it did not reflect in their behavior when choosing foods. Higher sugar consumption of the children was associated with more dental caries.
Wang, Yanping; Nomura, Yoko; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Doppelt, Osnat; Abramovitz, Robert; Brom, Daniel; Chemtob, Claude
This study examined the differential impact of various types of trauma exposure on emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children. Participants were 95 mothers of 1- to 4-year-old children in Israel. Results suggested a differential pattern of associations between the types of trauma exposure (i.e., direct exposure to terrorism, media exposure to terrorism, and other trauma) and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This line of research is important for the identification of risk factors and the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies to promote resilience in preschool children exposed to specific type(s) of trauma.
Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R
The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Shuang; Ma, Li; Zhang, Jian-Xin
The present study is aimed at examining implicit and explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities among Chinese college students. The "Implicit Association Test" was used to measure their implicit attitudes, whereas their explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities were measured by using a scale of three items.…
van Stralen, M.M.; te Velde, S.J.; van Nassau, F.; Brug, J.; Grammatikaki, E.; Maes, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Verbestel, V.; Galcheva, S.; Iotova, V.; Koletzko, B.V.; von Kries, R.; Bayer, O.; Kulaga, Z.; Serra-Majem, L.; Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Manios, Y.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.
This study aimed to (i) gain insight in the prevalence of overweight indices in European preschoolers (4-7 years); (ii) identify energy balance-related behaviours associated with overweight/obesity; and (iii) identify children at risk for overweight/obesity. Secondary analyses of six European data
Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Silva, Júlia Prestes da Rocha; Silva, Agnes Soares da; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves
In Brazil, there are scarce data on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination, especially for more vulnerable populations such as preschool children. In this paper, we answer two questions: (1) What are the exposure levels of lead and cadmium in preschool children, in Sao Paulo, Brazil? and (2) What are the risk factors associated with this exposure? This cross-sectional study included 50 day care centers (DCCs), totaling 2463 children aged 1-4 years. Venous blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Questionnaires were administered to the parents. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs) and potential risk factors. The geometric mean for BLLs was 2.16 μg/dL (95% CI: 2.10-2.22 μg/dL), and the 97.5th percentile was 13.9 μg/dL (95% CI: 10.0-17.3 μg/dL). For cadmium exposure, the geometric mean for BCLs was 0.48 μg/L (95% CI: 0.47-0.50 μg/L), and the 95th percentile was 2.57 μg/L (95% CI: 2.26-2.75 μg/L). The DCCs' geographic region was associated with high BLLs and BCLs, indicating hot spots for lead and cadmium exposures. In addition, it was found that the higher the vehicles flow, the higher were the BLLs in children. Red lead in household gates was also an important risk factor for lead exposure. Comparing these results with the findings of the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals by CDC-2013, it was found that in Brazilian preschool children the BLLs are almost three times higher (97.5th percentile) and the BCLs are almost twelve times higher (95th percentile) than those in U.S. children. This information is essential to formulate public health policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon; Potvin Kent, Monique; Farmer, Anna; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola
To examine the association between skipping breakfast, daily energy, macronutrients and food intakes, and BMI in pre-school children. A cross-sectional study using information on children's food consumption and measured height and weight. Energy and macronutrient intakes of the children were derived from parent/day-care attendant's responses to 24 h recall interviews and eating behaviour questionnaires. Data obtained from a representative sample (n 2,103) of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1998. One thousand five hundred and forty-nine children, with a mean age of 49 (sd 3.12) months. Ten per cent of children ate breakfast on fewer than 7 days per week. This behaviour was associated with a lower diet quality and concentrated energy intakes through higher protein intakes at lunch and the consumption of snacks higher in energy and carbohydrate in the afternoon and evening; yet total daily energy intakes were not significantly different from those of pre-school children who ate breakfast every day. Breakfast skippers' mean BMI increased as intake of energy, carbohydrates or servings of grain products increased; however, this was not the case for breakfast eaters. When Cole's cut-off for overweight/obesity was used, overweight/obesity in breakfast skippers was related to the dinner-time consumption of approximately 3,000 kJ (700 kcal) or more for energy intake, approximately 100 g or more of carbohydrates, or approximately 3 servings or more of grain products. Eating breakfast every day is associated with having a healthy body weight, likely due to a more even distribution of energy intake across meals throughout the day.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Scheeringa, Michael S; Drury, Stacy S
The present study sought to replicate previous findings of an association between the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptomatology in a novel age group, preschool children. COMT genotype was determined in a sample of 171 3-6-year-old trauma-exposed children. PTSD was assessed with a semistructured interview. Accounting for sex, trauma type, and age, genotype was examined in relation to categorical and continuous measures of PTSD both controlling for race and within the two largest racial categories (African American [AA] and European American [EA]). Race significantly moderated the association between genotype and PTSD. Specifically, the genotype associated with increased PTSD symptoms in one racial group had the opposite association in the other racial group. For AA children the met/met genotype was associated with more PTSD symptoms. However, for EA children, val allele carriers had more PTSD symptoms. Whereas every AA child with the met/met genotype met criteria for PTSD, none of the EA children with the met/met genotype did. This genetic association with COMT genotype, in both races but in opposite directions, was most associated with increased arousal symptoms. These findings replicate previous findings in participants of African descent, highlight the moderating effect of race on the association between COMT genotype and PTSD, and provide direct evidence that consideration of population stratification within gene-by-environment studies is valuable to prevent false negative findings.
Speirs, Katherine E; Liechty, Janet M; Wu, Chi-Fang
It has been established that the more time mothers spend working outside of the home, the more likely their preschool-aged children are to be overweight. However, the mechanisms explaining this relationship are not well understood. Our objective was to explore child sleep, dietary habits, TV time, and family mealtime routines as mediators of the relationship between maternal employment status (full-time, part-time, and no or minimal employment) and child body mass index (BMI) percentile. Data were drawn from waves 1 and 2 of STRONG Kids, a prospective panel study examining childhood obesity among parent-preschooler dyads (n = 247). Mothers reported their own work hours, their child's hours of nighttime sleep, dietary habits, TV time, and mealtime routines. Trained staff measured child height and weight. Compared to working 0-19 h/week, both full-time (>35 h/week) and part-time (20-34 h/week) employment predicted higher child BMI percentile 1 year later. Hours of child nighttime sleep partially mediated the association between maternal full-time employment and child BMI percentile. Adjusting for individual and family characteristics, children whose mothers were employed full time were less likely to sleep longer hours than children whose mothers were employed 0-19 h/week (b = -0.49, p < 0.04). Shorter child nighttime sleep was associated with higher BMI percentile (b = -7.31, p < 0.001). None of the other mediation pathways tested were significant. These findings add to the growing literature on the importance of adequate sleep for young children's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Kathleen S; Shin, Myoungju
Media multitasking refers to the simultaneous use of different forms of media. Previous research comparing heavy media multitaskers and light media multitaskers suggests that heavy media multitaskers have a broader scope of attention. The present study explored whether these differences in attentional scope would lead to a greater degree of implicit learning for heavy media multitaskers. The study also examined whether media multitasking behaviour is associated with differences in visual working memory, and whether visual working memory differentially affects the ability to process contextual information. In addition to comparing extreme groups (heavy and light media multitaskers) the study included analysis of people who media multitask in moderation (intermediate media multitaskers). Ninety-four participants were divided into groups based on responses to the media use questionnaire, and completed the contextual cueing and n-back tasks. Results indicated that the speed at which implicit learning occurred was slower in heavy media multitaskers relative to both light and intermediate media multitaskers. There was no relationship between working memory performance and media multitasking group, and no relationship between working memory and implicit learning. There was also no evidence for superior performance of intermediate media multitaskers. A deficit in implicit learning observed in heavy media multitaskers is consistent with previous literature, which suggests that heavy media multitaskers perform more poorly than light media multitaskers in attentional tasks due to their wider attentional scope.
Lang, Jason E; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Mauger, David T; Guilbert, Theresa W; Jackson, Daniel J; Lemanske, Robert F; Martinez, Fernando D; Strunk, Robert C; Zeiger, Robert S; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Bacharier, Leonard B; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Holguin, Fernando; Cabana, Michael D; Covar, Ronina A; Raissy, Hengameh H; Tang, Monica; Szefler, Stanley J
Overweight/obesity (OW) is linked to worse asthma and poorer inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) response in older children and adults. We sought to describe the relationships between OW and asthma severity and response to ICS in preschool children. This post hoc study of 3 large multicenter trials involving 2- to 5-year-old children compared annualized asthma symptom days and exacerbations among normal weight (NW) (body mass index: 10th-84th percentiles) versus OW (body mass index: ≥85th percentile) participants. Participants had been randomized to daily ICS, intermittent ICS, or daily placebo. Simple and multivariable linear regression was used to compare body mass index groups. Within the group not treated with a daily controller, OW children had more asthma symptom days (90.7 vs 53.2, P = .020) and exacerbations (1.4 vs 0.8, P = .009) thanNW children did. Within the ICS-treated groups, OW and NW children had similar asthma symptom days (daily ICS: 47.2 vs 44.0 days, P = .44; short-term ICS: 61.8 vs 52.9 days, P = .46; as-needed ICS: 53.3 vs 47.3 days, P = .53), and similar exacerbations (daily ICS: 0.6 vs 0.8, P = .10; short-term ICS: 1.1 vs 0.8 days, P = .25; as-needed ICS: 1.0 vs 1.1, P = .72). Compared with placebo, daily ICS in OW led to fewer annualized asthma symptom days (90.7 vs 41.2, P = .004) and exacerbations (1.4 vs 0.6, P = .006), while similar protective ICS effects were less apparent among NW. In preschool children off controller therapy, OW is associated with greater asthma impairment and exacerbations. However, unlike older asthmatic patients, OW preschool children do not demonstrate reduced responsiveness to ICS therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roskos-Ewoldsen, David R.
Explores whether individuals have implicit theories of persuasion. Examines how persuasive strategies are cognitively represented--identifies types of tactics in attitude change and social acceptability of persuasive strategies. Finds implicit theories of persuasion reflect the audience's familiarity with the topic. Finds also that implicit…
Implicit time integration methods have been used extensively in numerical modelling of slowly varying phenomena in systems that also support rapid variation. Examples include diffusion, hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. This article discussed implementation of implicit time integration in plasma codes of the ''particle-in-cell'' family, and the benefits to be gained
Anderson, Joel; Antalikova, Radka
Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit...... and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified...... by the participants’ religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion...
Full Text Available Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children's microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children's antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2-7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676.
Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Shetty, Priya; Thennarasu, K; Raman, Vijaya; Khanna, Deepti; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
Executive functions (EFs) are essential and important for achieving success in children's everyday lives and play a fundamental role in children's cognitive, academic, social, emotional and behavioral functioning. A cross-sectional study was carried out to develop age- and sex-specific norms for EFs using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) among 2- to 5-year-olds from urban Bangalore, India. In addition, the association between EFs and anthropometric measures, a marker of nutritional status, is also examined. Primary caregivers of 412 children, equally distributed by age and sex, participated. Raw scores for each domain and indices were converted to standard t-scores and percentiles were computed. A t-score at or above 63 corresponding to the 90th percentile was considered as the cutoff for executive dysfunction in this sample. The prevalence of executive dysfunction is 10% based on the Global Executive Composite score of the BRIEF-P. The cutoff score for identifying executive dysfunction using existing United States (US) norms is higher compared to the cutoff score obtained in the current study. Therefore, using US norms for Indian children could result in the prevalence of executive dysfunction been underestimated. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that stunted and underweight children have significantly elevated EF scores after adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES; p < .01). A greater understanding of EFs in preschool children is important for the early identification of executive dysfunction and implementing interventions to improve their future prospects. This study also shows that undernourished children are more likely to have executive dysfunction.
Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Yoonna
To examine the association between feeding practices and both fruit and vegetable intakes of preschoolers. Cross-sectional; data collected from 2009 to 2010. Child care centers enrolled in the cohort of the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids program. Three hundred and sixteen mother-child dyads were recruited in the baseline survey as primary caregivers of children aged 2-5 years. Ten aspects of maternal feeding practices were measured using a Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. The frequency of children's fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated by mothers. Spearman's rank order correlation and linear regression analysis between parental feeding practices and both fruit and vegetable consumption were adjusted for potential confounders. Pearson's correlation coefficients among 10 parental feeding practices were calculated. Children in the study consumed fruit 1.7 ± 0.9 times per day and vegetables 1.4 ± 0.8 times per day. Feeding practices of building a healthy home food environment and involvement were positively related and those of restriction for health were negatively related to children's vegetable consumption (P < .001); moreover, encouraging balance and variety and monitoring were positively related to children's fruit consumption (P < .001). The results of this study suggest that both fruit and vegetable intakes of preschool children are more likely to increase if parents employ feeding practices that encourage child autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chantawarangul, Karaked; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Sritippayawan, Suchada
Although wheezing is very common in preschoolers, epidemiologic studies in Thailand are quite limited. The likelihood of having a second wheezing episode following the first attack remains unclearly established. This study aims to investigate the incidence of recurrent wheezing in preschool children presenting with first wheezing episode and identify the associated factors. The study is an observational prospective study conducted at the inpatient pediatric department. Patients admitted with first episode of wheezing were followed up as an outpatient approximately one week after hospital discharge and subsequently followed up by telephone 3-monthly with a structured questionnaire seeking information concerning recurrent wheezing, defined as having a second wheezing episode requiring bronchodilator within a 1-year period. The total of 97 patients, aged 6 months to 5 years, were recruited from June 2014 to November 2015. Thirty-five patients were excluded because of inaccessibility for telephone follow-up. Amongst the remaining 62 patients, twenty-eight (45.2%) had recurrent wheezing within one year. The mean lapse duration was 4.7 ± 3.7 months after the first episode. Having an allergic sensitization to aeroallergen was a risk factor for recurrent wheezing (OR 2.48, 95%CI 1.81-3.4). Although not statistically significant, having an allergic sensitization to food seems to be another related factor (OR 2.36, 95%CI 1.75-3.18). The recurrent rate of wheezing was 45%, which was considerably significant. Allergic sensitization to aeroallergen might increase the risk. These patients should be followed up, especially within the first year after their first wheezing episode.
Watanabe, E; Lee, J S; Kawakubo, K
Maternal employment has been shown to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity (Ow/Ob), but the presence of family members who care for children in place of the mothers might influence children's Ow/Ob and lifestyles. The influence of maternal employment on children's Ow/Ob should be examined together with the presence of caregivers such as grandparents. The effects of maternal employment and the presence of grandparents on lifestyles and Ow/Ob in Japanese pre-school children were investigated. Cross-sectional study on 2114 children aged 3-6 years who attended all childcare facilities in a city and primary caregivers was conducted. Children's weight and height, family environments (family members, maternal employment, single parent, number of siblings and parental Ow/Ob) and lifestyles (dietary, physical activity and sleeping habits) were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Ow/Ob was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. The eligible participants were 1765 children. The prevalence of Ow/Ob was 8.4% in boys and 9.9% in girls. Maternal employment was associated positively with irregular mealtimes, unfixed snacking times, bedtime after 10 p.m. and nighttime sleep duration of less than 10 h, whereas three-generation families were associated negatively with irregular mealtimes after adjustment for children's characteristics and family environments. Irregular mealtimes (OR (95% CI); 2.03 (1.36, 3.06)) and nighttime sleep duration of less than 10 h (1.96 (1.28, 3.01)) were associated with increased risks of being Ow/Ob. Both maternal employment and three-generation families were significantly associated with children's Ow/Ob. However, three-generation families maintained a significant association (1.59 (1.08, 2.35)) after adjustment for maternal employment. These study results suggest that the grandparents who care for pre-school children in place of mothers are more likely to contribute to childhood Ow/Ob than maternal
Ettlinger, Marc; Margulis, Elizabeth H; Wong, Patrick C M
Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system.
Alemu, Agersew; Tegegne, Yalewayker; Damte, Demekech; Melku, Mulugeta
Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Of the total children, 141 (35.2 %) harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 %) of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 %) followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %). The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %). After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97-17.95), being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27-25.4), using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2-12.3) and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01-3.64) were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in Chuahit. This finding calls for a need of public health education
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Results Of the total children, 141 (35.2 % harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 % of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 % followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %. The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %. After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97–17.95, being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27–25.4, using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2–12.3 and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01–3.64 were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. Conclusion The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in
Tam, Wilson W S; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K H; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K S; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E Anthony S
This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program.Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of families, children's history of chickenpox infection and vaccination, and reasons for getting children vaccinated. Logistic regression was applied to examine the factors associated with vaccination.From the 3484 completed questionnaires, the calculated rates of varicella infection and vaccination were 20.7% and 69.0%, respectively. Barriers to vaccination included parental uncertainties about vaccine effectiveness, lack of recommendation from the government, and concerns on adverse effects. Overall, 71.8%, 69.0%, and 45.7% of the parents rated family doctors, specialists, and the government, respectively, as very important motivators of vaccination. Higher parental educational level and family income, better perceived knowledge of varicella and chance of infection, discussion with a family doctor, and positive health belief towards vaccination were associated with vaccination (all P vaccination in Hong Kong was higher than that of some other countries that also did not include the vaccine in their routine immunization programs. More positive parental attitudes, higher socioeconomic status, and discussion with a family doctor are associated with greater vaccination rates. The important roles that health professionals and the government play in promoting varicella vaccination were emphasized.
Camargo, Diana Marina; Orozco, Luis Carlos
The increased availability of electronic media has changed the behavior in children and young people by encouraging sedentary lifestile, with health effects from a very young age. To characterize the availability and use of electronic media and its associated factors in children from preschool through 4 th grade. A cross-sectional study with cluster sampling was carried out. Parents filled out the demographic survey, the availability and use of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate prevalence ratios adjusted for the sampling. Seven hundred and ten parents answered. The average age of the children was 6.7 years and 49.7% were male. Factors such as the mother working out of the house and family income were positively associated with the availability of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. The availability of a TV, computer and console in the child´s room, contributes to longer use of these electronic media. Both, the male gender and age of the child, were positively associated with the availability and use of electronic media. This is the first study in Colombia that reports the availability and use of electronic media in children. It is clear that modern life encourages sedentary behavior from the earliest years of life, which has been associated with health problems from early childhood. Intervention studies are needed aimed at reducing these behaviors in our context.
Swyden, K; Sisson, S B; Lora, K; Castle, S; Copeland, K A
The time children spend in childcare overlaps with daily meals and opportunities to be active. Thus these environments have the opportunity to promote-or hinder-healthy weight gain among children who attend them. The purpose of this narrative review was to compile findings from studies examining childcare type and weight outcomes among preschool-age children. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and ERIC. Inclusion criteria were infant- to 5-year-old children exposed to any type of childcare with a cross-sectional or longitudinal weight outcome. Among 385 studies screened, 18 were included. For comparison across studies, type of childcare was categorized as: childcare center, Head Start, nanny/babysitter, non-relative care/family childcare home and relative care. Four studies found no association with childcare type and obesity, and 10 studies reported mixed results by type of care or subpopulation analyses. Two studies found an overall positive association, and two reported an inverse association. There were differences in direction of associations and findings by type of care arrangement. For Head Start, three of eight studies demonstrated a negative relationship with obesity; none demonstrated a positive association. No other childcare type demonstrated this inverse association. Informal types of care (relative and non-relative care in a home) were positively associated with child obesity in 3 of 10 studies. This association was less commonly reported among formal childcare centers (2 of 15 studies). The majority of studies, however, reported mixed findings or no association by childcare type. Results suggested no consistent evidence for a relationship between childcare and obesity risk, except Head Start. This review exposed the need for a consistent definition of childcare type and the exploration of unmeasured confounders, such as the nutrition and physical activity environment of childcare settings, to understand how they contribute to
Shimbo, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Ikeda, Masayuki
Dietary intake of tin has seldom been studied in children although they probably have a high intake. This study was initiated to investigate dietary tin intake (Sn-D) of children in Japan. In this study, 24-h food duplicate samples were collected from 296 preschool children in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. Sn in the samples were analyzed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry, after homogenization and wet digestion. Sn-D by the children was low, with 4.2 μg/day as a median. The distribution was however wide, from 0.4 μg/day up to >3 μg/day. Canned foods were the major dietary Sn source, whereas rice contributed essentially little. Sn-D among canned food consumers was 30.2 μg/day as a geometric mean (10.6 μg/day as a median), whereas Sn-D among the non-consumers of canned foods was distributed log-normally, with 3.3 μg/day as a geometric mean (2.5 μg/day as a median). Sn levels in urine did not differ between children who consumed canned foods on the day previous to urine collection and those who did not. The Sn-D was far below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (14 mg/kg body weight/week) set by the 2001 Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Nevertheless, children took more Sn than adults when compared on a body-weight basis. Canned foods were the major source of dietary Sn intake for preschool children studied. Thus, median Sn-D was higher for the canned food consumers (10.6 μg/day) than for non-consumers of canned foods (2.5 μg/day). Sn-D by canned food-consuming children was, however, substantially lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake. No difference was detected in Sn levels in urine between canned food-consuming and non-consuming children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005, fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006 and accessibility (p = 0.012, the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables
Sulik, Michael J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M
We tested whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to each of three self-regulation tasks (bird and dragon; knock-tap; and gift wrap) would predict self-regulation performance in a sample of 101 preschool-age children (M age = 4.49, SD = .64). While controlling for baseline RSA, decreases in RSA from bird and dragon to knock-tap (but not from baseline to bird and dragon) predicted a latent variable measuring self-regulation. Furthermore, increases in RSA from the knock-tap to gift wrap-the only task involving delay of gratification-were related to concurrent task performance while controlling for the relation between RSA reactivity and the latent self-regulation variable. Results suggest that the relations between RSA reactivity and self-regulatory ability are influenced by task-specific demands and possibly by task order. Furthermore, RSA reactivity appears to relate differently to performance on motivationally salient self-regulation tasks such as delay of gratification relative to cool executive function tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC in children and investigate the influence of sociodemographic variables, quality of oral hygiene and child-related aspects. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 593 children aged three to five years. Data were collected through clinical examinations and interviews with parents. Interviews with parents of the children were conducted to acquire information on sociodemographic aspects, breastfeeding, bottle feeding and harmful oral habits. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and the Poisson regression. The prevalence of ECC was 53.6%. The occurrence of ECC was greater among children with unsatisfactory oral hygiene (PR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.42-3.60 and those from a family with a lower monthly household income (PR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.24-2.10. In conclusion, unsatisfactory oral hygiene and monthly income exerted an influence on the occurrence of ECC among preschoolers.
Mothers from poor families in India have a compelling need to work, but childcare for their young children is a constraint. This paper examines how far the public daycare helps in loosening this constraint. Todo this, I look at the effect on maternal labor force participation, of daycare implicit in the preschooling provided to young children, through India’s largest child development program - Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS). Besides preschooling, the ICDS program provides a whole...
Full Text Available The extant literature offers extensive support for the significant role played by institutions in financial markets, but implicit regulation and monitoring have yet to be examined. This study fills this void in the literature by employing unique Chinese datasets to explore the implicit regulation and penalties imposed by the Chinese government in regulating the initial public offering (IPO market. Of particular interest are the economic consequences of underwriting IPO deals for client firms that violate regulatory rules in China’s capital market. We provide evidence to show that the associated underwriters’ reputations are impaired and their market share declines. We further explore whether such negative consequences result from a market disciplinary mechanism or a penalty imposed by the government. To analyze the possibility of a market disciplinary mechanism at work, we investigate (1 the market reaction to other client firms whose IPO deals were underwritten by underwriters associated with a violation at the time the violation was publicly disclosed and (2 the under-pricing of IPO deals undertaken by these underwriters after such disclosure. To analyze whether the government imposes an implicit penalty, we examine the application processing time for future IPO deals underwritten by the associated underwriters and find it to be significantly longer than for IPO deals underwritten by other underwriters. Overall, there is little evidence to suggest that the market penalizes underwriters for the rule-violating behavior of their client firms in China. Instead, the Chinese government implicitly penalizes them by imposing more stringent criteria on and lengthening the processing time of the IPO deals they subsequently underwrite.
Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.; Paynter, Diane E.
Preschool and kindergarten teachers can help young learners meet early literacy standards without sacrificing developmentally appropriate practice. Several professional associations have described appropriate expectations for children of different age levels known as milestones, developmental accomplishments, and benchmarks. (MLH)
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Jin, Bora; Krishnakumar, Ambika
This study assessed the moderating role of Indo-Guyanese mothers' warmth and affection on the associations between harshness and justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours and anger in preschoolers. One hundred and thirty-nine rural Indo-Guyanese mothers filled out Rohner's Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PARQ) and Physical Punishment Questionnaires (PPQ). Teachers provided assessments of children's prosocial behaviours and anger in preschool settings. Maternal warmth did not moderate the relationship between harshness of physical punishment and children's prosocial behaviours and anger, but it did moderate the relationship between justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours for sons as well as the association between justness of physical punishment and anger for daughters. In Caribbean societies where harsh punishment is normative, maternal warmth may work more effectively with justness, and not with harshness of physical punishment, to lower negative childhood behavioural outcomes. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Kraus, Alexandra; Scholderer, Joachim
According to recent neurobiological models, food choices are influenced by two separate reward systems: motivational wanting (incentive salience of the reward) and affective liking (hedonic pleasure associated with the reward). Both are assumed to have conscious and unconscious components. Applying...... such promising conceptual frameworks within consumer research would not only be helpful for understanding human appetite but also has implications for predicting consumer behaviour. Since the affective liking system has strong similarities to contemporary attitude theories, implicit and explicit measures...... of evaluation could be applied. However, no comparable procedures have been developed for the motivational wanting component; generally accepted “low-tech” measures are therefore still lacking! Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and test implicit measures of wanting that can be used as dependent...
Interesting modelling of intense electron flow has been done with implicit particle-in-cell simulation codes. In this report, the direct implicit PIC simulation approach is applied to simulations that include full electromagnetic fields. The resulting algorithm offers advantages relative to moment implicit electromagnetic algorithms and may help in our quest for robust and simpler implicit codes
Berry, Tanya R; Rodgers, Wendy M; Markland, David; Hall, Craig R
Investigating implicit-explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations. Attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between implicit associations of exercise with health and health motives. Identified regulations significantly moderated implicit-explicit concordance with respect to associations with appearance. These results suggest that implicit and explicit exercise-related cognitions are not necessarily independent and their relationship to each other may be moderated by attitudes or some forms of behavioral regulation. Future research that takes a dual-processing approach to exercise behavior should consider potential theoretical moderators of concordance.
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette
; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....
Carlsen, A.J.; Wenstoep, F.; Strand, J.
The ranking of hydropower projects under the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources is used to derive implicit government preferences for a number of environmental attributes described by ordinal scores for each project. Higher negative scores are generally associated with greater implicit willingness to pay to avoid the environmental damage tied to the attribute, caused by hydropower development. The total (ordinary economic and implicit environmental) cost for each project are derived, and the environmental costs per capacity unit are found to be on the same order as the economic costs, lower for projects ranked for early exploitation, and higher for projects to be saved permanently. An implicit long-run marginal cost curve for Norwegian hydropower development is derived, which is generally upward sloping, but not uniformly so. This can be due to the model specification problems or ranking inconsistencies, both of which are likely to be present. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Maltby, John; Day, Liza; Hatcher, Ruth; Tazzyman, Sarah; Flowe, Heather D; Palmer, Emma J; Frosch, Caren A; O'Reilly, Michelle; Jones, Ceri; Buckley, Chloe; Knieps, Melanie; Cutts, Katie J
Three studies were conducted to investigate people’s conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, factor analytic analysis of participants’ ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with both a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low selfconfidence,\\ud vicio...
Full Text Available The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096 completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables, activity (sum of 6 variables, media (sum of 5 variables, and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5 home environments. These were categorized into 'obesogenic risk' tertiles.Children in 'higher-risk' food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27-0.57 and vegetables (0.47; 0.34-0.64, and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16-5.62 and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10-5.81 than children in 'lower-risk' food environments. Children in 'higher-risk' activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32-0.59 than children in 'lower-risk' activity environments. Children in 'higher-risk' media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48-4.96 than children in 'lower-risk' media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI.Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.
Valmórbida, Julia L; Vitolo, Márcia R
To evaluate factors associated with low consumption of fruits and vegetables among preschoolers from families treated at basic health centers in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. This was a cohort study nested in a randomized field trial. Data collection was performed through structured questionnaires to obtain demographic and dietary data, combined with two 24-hour recalls in the age groups 12-16 months and again at 2-3 years of age. Data on the consumption of one daily serving of fruits (80 g) and vegetables (60 g) were evaluated, as well as consumption of non-recommended foods such as candy, chocolate, and soft drinks. Statistical analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust estimation. A total of 388 children aged 2-3 years were evaluated; of these, 58% and 87.4% did not consume one daily serving of fruits and vegetables, respectively. The following factors were negatively associated with fruit consumption: family income higher than four minimum wages, (p=0.024), lower paternal educational level (p=0.03), and lower fruit consumption at 12-16 months (p=0.002). Factors negatively associated with the consumption of vegetables were low paternal educational level (p=0.033) and consumption of high-sugar content beverages at 12-16 months (p=0.014). This study demonstrated a high prevalence of children who consumed less than one daily serving of fruit and vegetables; early feeding practices, parental education, and family income were associated with this process. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Gashu, Dawd; Stoecker, Barbara J; Bougma, Karim; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Marquis, Grace S
Anthropometric characteristics and iron status affect cognitive performance in children. In addition, selenium can influence cognitive outcomes; protection of the brain from oxidative stress and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism are putative mechanisms. To investigate their association with cognitive performance, anthropometric indicators, iron biomarkers, and serum selenium of children (n = 541) of 54-60mo of age from rural Ethiopia were assessed. Cognitive assessment was conducted with the administration of two reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the school readiness test. Stunting was found in 41.4 % of children, 28.7 % were underweight, and 6.3 % were wasted. The mean score of stunted children was lower than that of non-stunted children on non-verbal reasoning (7.0 ± 3.2vs7.9 ± 3.1; p = 0.01) and the school readiness tests (4.3 ± 2.2 vs 3.3 ± 2.1; p 0.05). Selenium deficient children had lower scores on all cognitive tests than normal children (p malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency and address cognitive development in children.
Basso, Frédéric; Petit, Olivia; Le Bellu, Sophie; Lahlou, Saadi; Cancel, Aïda; Anton, Jean-Luc
Every day, people are exposed to images of appetizing foods that can lead to high-calorie intake and contribute to overweight and obesity. Research has documented that manipulating the visual perspective from which eating is viewed helps resist temptation by altering the appraisal of unhealthy foods. However, the neural basis of this effect has not yet been examined using neuroimaging methods. Moreover, it is not known whether the benefits of this strategy can be observed when people, especially overweight, are not explicitly asked to imagine themselves eating. Last, it remains to be investigated if visual perspective could be used to promote healthy foods. The present work manipulated camera angles and tested whether visual perspective modulates activity in brain regions associated with taste and reward processing while participants watch videos featuring a hand grasping (unhealthy or healthy) foods from a plate during functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI). The plate was filmed from the perspective of the participant (first-person perspective; 1PP), or from a frontal view as if watching someone else eating (third-person perspective; 3PP). Our findings reveal that merely viewing unhealthy food cues from a 1PP (vs. 3PP) increases activity in brain regions that underlie representations of rewarding (appetitive) experiences (amygdala) and food intake (superior parietal gyrus). Additionally, our results show that ventral striatal activity is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during exposure to unhealthy foods from a 1PP (vs. 3PP). These findings suggest that unhealthy foods should be promoted through third-person (video) images to weaken the reward associated with their simulated consumption, especially amongst overweight people. It appears however that, as such, manipulating visual perspective fails to enhance the perception of healthy foods. Their promotion thus requires complementary solutions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wilson, Ander; Coull, Brent A; Pendo, Mathew P; Baccarelli, Andrea; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Taveras, Elsie M; Wright, Rosalind J
Evolving animal studies and limited epidemiological data show that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood obesity. Timing of exposure and child sex may play an important role in these associations. We applied an innovative method to examine sex-specific sensitive prenatal windows of exposure to PM 2.5 on anthropometric measures in preschool-aged children. Analyses included 239 children born ≥ 37 weeks gestation in an ethnically-mixed lower-income urban birth cohort. Prenatal daily PM 2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), fat mass, % body fat, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed at age 4.0 ± 0.7 years. Using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs), we examined sex differences in sensitive windows of weekly averaged PM 2.5 levels on these measures, adjusting for child age, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Mothers were primarily Hispanic (55%) or Black (26%), had ≤ 12 years of education (66%) and never smoked (80%). Increased PM 2.5 exposure 8-17 and 15-22 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased BMI z-scores and fat mass in boys, but not in girls. Higher PM 2.5 exposure 10-29 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased WHR in girls, but not in boys. Prenatal PM 2.5 was not significantly associated with other measures of body composition. Estimated cumulative effects across pregnancy, accounting for sensitive windows and within-window effects, were 0.21 (95%CI = 0.01-0.37) for BMI-z and 0.36 (95%CI = 0.12-0.68) for fat mass (kg) in boys, and 0.02 (95%CI = 0.01-0.03) for WHR in girls, all per µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 . Increased prenatal PM 2.5 exposure was more strongly associated with indices of increased whole body size in boys and with an indicator of body shape in girls. Methods to better characterize
Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020 in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90% completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers.
Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Zhu, Hui; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Chen, Ji; Fu, Zhujun; Pan, Chen-Wei; Liu, Hu
To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its association with refraction in Chinese preschool children. The Yuhuatai Pediatric Eye Disease Study, a cross-sectional, population-based study, was conducted in children aged 36-48 months in Yuhuatai District, Nanjing, China, in 2015. Visual acuity was measured in 1695 eligible children. Of the 1695 subjects, manifested amblyopia was detected in 25 children (1.47%, 95% CI 0.90% to 2.05%), including 11 and 14 with bilateral and unilateral amblyopia, respectively. Amblyopia prevalence did not differ by gender (p=0.77). Significant refractive errors were found in 22 (88.0%) of children with amblyopia, and strabismus was found in 6 (24.0%) children with amblyopia. In multivariate analysis, amblyopia was significantly associated with hyperopia (≥+2.00 dioptres (D); OR 8.81, 95% CI 3.27 to 23.69, p<0.0001), astigmatism (≥2.00 D; OR 17.90, 95% CI 6.78 to 47.21, p<0.0001) and anisometropia (≥2.00 D; OR 5.87, 95% CI 1.52 to 22.77, p<0.05). The prevalence of amblyopia in children 36-48 months old in Eastern China was 1.47%. The refractive error is a major risk factor for amblyopia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
da Rocha Silva, Júlia Prestes; Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Leroux, Isabelle Nogueira; da Silva Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone; da Silva, Agnes Soares; Assunção, Nilson Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Sayuri Sato, Ana Paula; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro
A previous study observed high blood lead levels (BLL) in preschool children attending 50 day care centers (DCC) in São Paulo, Brazil. To identify whether lead levels found in both homes and DCC environments are associated with high blood lead levels. Children attending 4 DCCs, quoted here as NR, VA, PS and PF, were divided into two groups according to BLL: high exposure (HE: ≥13.9 μg/dL; 97.5 percentile of the 2013 year sample) and low exposure (LE: 600 μg/g, whereas such levels were observed in 77.1% of NR playground measurements. In VA DCC, 22% and 23% of the measurements in the building and in the playgrounds had levels higher than 600 μg/g, respectively. The percentage of high lead levels in the children's houses of the LE group was 5.9% (95% CI: 4.3-7.6%) and 13.2 (95% CI: 8.3-18.0%) in the HE group. Moreover, a significant association was found between high BLLs and lead levels found both in households and DCCs (p < 0.001). Most of the high lead measurements were found in tiles and playground equipment. Lead exposure estimated from the DCCs, where children spend about 10 h/day, can be as relevant as their household exposure. Therefore, public authorities should render efforts to provide a rigorous surveillance for lead-free painting supplies and for all objects offered to children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hedrick, Alexis N.; Berlin, Heather A.
Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measure...
Alaa Gamaleldin Sulieman
Full Text Available Background. Traumatic dental injury (TDI is a challenging public health problem. Its incidence and prevalence vary within countries, states, and different social groups. Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary incisors among 3–5-year-old Sudanese preschool children and associated factors such as age, sex, and size of overjet and anterior open bite. Materials and Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 600 preschool children (3–5 years old selected by multistage cluster technique from preschools located in Khartoum city, Sudan. The data regarding age, sex, causes, and treatment of TDI were collected from the mothers through structured interview questionnaire. Children were examined in an upright position, using mouth mirror and torch. A single examiner assessed the type of trauma, the tooth involved, and overbite/overjet. The data were analyzed statistically through descriptive analysis, and the chi-square test was used to compare between different variables with P<0.05. Results. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs was 18.5%. Enamel fractures were the most common type (74.8%, followed by enamel and dentin (11.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly affected teeth, and the home was most common place for TDI. The prevalence rate was 45% in boys and 55% in girls with a statistically significant difference (P=0.02. Conclusions. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to the primary anterior teeth among the Sudanese preschool children was relatively high (18.5%. Factors such as overjet size, overbite size, and lip competency were not significantly correlated with dental trauma among the studied population.
Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Roh, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Eun; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Jisun; Lee, So-Yeon; Cho, Young Ah; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Hong, Soo-Jong
Children aged ≤6years reportedly account for 52% of victims of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries. To evaluate the association of humidifier disinfectants with lung injury risk among children aged ≤6years. Patients with humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries (n=214) who were clinically evaluated to have a definite (n=108), probable (n=49), or possible (n=57) association with humidifier disinfectants as well as control patients (n=123) with lung injury deemed unlikely to be associated with humidifier disinfectant use were evaluated to determine factors associated with increased risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. For estimated airborne humidifier disinfectant concentrations, risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury increased ≥two-fold in a dose-dependent manner in the highest quartile (Q4, 135-1443μg/m 3 ) compared with that in the lowest quartile (Q1, ≤33μg/m 3 ). Registered patients using more than two humidifier disinfectant brands were at an increased risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury (adjusted OR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) compared with those using only one brand. With respect to the duration of humidifier disinfectant use, risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury increased ≥two-fold in the lowest quartile (≤5months) compared with that in the highest quartile (≥14months; adjusted OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6). Younger children are more vulnerable to HDLI when exposed to HD chemicals within short period in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony
Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The…
Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly
The present paper examines the relationship between social factors, food consumption during television viewing, and overall television viewing and how these are associated with BMI when the role of familial and social factors are considered in a population-based birth cohort of pre-school children from Québec (Canada). The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998-2002) (LSCDQ). The study follows a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. A nutrition assessment was conducted on 1549 children aged 4.5 years and included a 24 h dietary recall, an eating behaviour and television viewing questionnaire, and a measurement of children's heights and weights. Statistical analyses were performed. Nearly one-quarter of children ate at least twice daily in front of the television. Children who consumed snacks while watching television on a daily basis had higher BMI than children who did so less frequently. Children who ate snacks in front of the television every day, or some times during the week, ate more carbohydrates (total), more fat and less protein, fewer fruits and vegetables, and drank soft drinks more often than children who never ate snacks in front of the television. Health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity with focused strategies to help children change the types of foods consumed during television viewing and to reduce the time spent watching television, particularly during meal times, which may change children's dietary intake and eating patterns.
Chorozoglou, Maria; Smith, Elizabeth; Koerting, Johanna; Thompson, Margaret J; Sayal, Kapil; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S
Preschool hyperactivity is an early risk factor for adult mental health problems and criminality. Little is known about; (a) the patterns of long-term service costs associated with this behavioural marker in the general population and (b) the specific factors predicting hyperactivity-related costs. We undertook a prospective study investigating associations between preschool hyperactivity and average individual annual service costs up to late adolescent and young adulthood. One-hundred and seventy individuals rated as hyperactive by their parents and 88 nonhyperactive controls were identified from a community sample of 4,215 three years olds. Baseline information about behaviour/emotional problems and background characteristics were collected. At follow-up (when individuals were aged between 14 and 25 years) information was obtained on service use, and associated costs since the age of three. Based on this information we calculated the average cost per annum incurred by each individual. Compared to controls, preschoolers with hyperactivity had 17.6 times higher average costs per annum across domains (apart from nonmental health costs). These were £562 for each hyperactive individual compared with £30 for controls. Average annual costs decreased as a function of age, with higher costs incurred at younger ages. The effects of hyperactivity remained significant when other baseline factors were added to the model. Effects were fully mediated by later psychiatric morbidity. When the hyperactive group were examined separately, costs were consistently predicted by male gender and, for some cost codes, by conduct problems. Preventative approaches targeting early hyperactivity may be of value. Services should be targeted towards high-risk individuals with careful consideration given to the cost-to-benefit trade-off of early intervention strategies. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association
Nasreddine, Lara; Shatila, Hiba; Itani, Leila; Hwalla, Nahla; Jomaa, Lamis; Naja, Farah
The high burden of preschool overweight in the Middle East and North Africa highlights the need for rigorous investigations of its determinants. This study aims at identifying dietary patterns amongst preschoolers in Lebanon and assessing their association with overweight and obesity. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2-5-year-old children (n = 525). Socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle and anthropometric variables were collected. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Overweight/obesity was defined based on the World Health Organization 2006 criteria (BMI-for-age z-score > + 2). Two patterns, "Fast Food and Sweets" and "Traditional Lebanese", were identified. The "Fast Food and Sweets" pattern was characterized by higher consumption of sweetened beverages, fast foods, salty snacks and sweets. The "Traditional Lebanese" was driven by higher intakes of cereals, dairy products, fruits and vegetables. Children belonging to the 3rd tertile of the Traditional pattern scores had significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity compared to the 1st tertile (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.11, 0.97). Higher maternal education and higher frequency of eating with family predicted adherence to the traditional pattern, while the presence of a household helper was a negative determinant. Adherence to the Fast Food and Sweets pattern was positively associated with the child's age, and negatively associated with female gender and maternal education. The "Traditional Lebanese" pattern was associated with decreased risk of preschool overweight. Policies aiming at re-anchoring this traditional dietary pattern in contemporary lifestyles may be developed as potential preventive strategies against overweight in this age group.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V
People with mental illness often internalize negative stereotypes, resulting in self-stigma and low self-esteem ("People with mental illness are bad and therefore I am bad, too"). Despite strong evidence for self-stigma's negative impact as assessed by self-report measures, it is unclear whether self-stigma operates in an automatic, implicit manner, potentially outside conscious awareness and control. We therefore assessed (i) negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness and (ii) low implicit self-esteem using 2 Brief Implicit Association Tests in 85 people with mental illness. Implicit self-stigma was operationalized as the product of both implicit measures. Explicit self-stigma and quality of life were assessed by self-report. Greater implicit and explicit self-stigma independently predicted lower quality of life after controlling for depressive symptoms, diagnosis, and demographic variables. Our results suggest that implicit self-stigma is a measurable construct and is associated with negative outcomes. Attempts to reduce self-stigma should take implicit processes into account.
Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My; Svensson, Elisabeth; Friis, Svein; Zeiner, Pål
The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1,195), recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, were assessed with a semistructured parental psychiatric interview. Perinatal maternal symptoms of distress were assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL-5); Poisson regression was used to examine the associations. Mid-gestational maternal distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative risk [RR] = 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.43, 3.07]), CD (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = [1.33, 2.51]), and ODD (RR = 1.30; 95% CI = [1.03, 1.64]), with minor sex differences. Maternal distress during mid-gestation was associated with ADHD, behavioral, and emotional symptoms in preschool children. Continued exposure into the postnatal period may further increase these risk associations . © The Author(s) 2015.
Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis
Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…
Zeng, Zhijun; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Zhehong; Zhang, Yuling; Xu, Xijin
Environmental lead exposure leads to various deleterious effects on multiple organs and systems, including the hematopoietic system. To explore the effects of lead exposure on platelet indices in preschool children from an informal, lead-contaminated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, we collected venous blood samples from 466 preschool children (331 from an e-waste area (Guiyu) and 135 from a non-e-waste area (Haojiang)). Child blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while platelet indices were quantified using a Sysmex XT-1800i hematology analyzer. Higher blood lead levels are observed in e-waste lead-exposed preschool children. Significant relationships between high blood lead levels (exceeding current health limits) and elevated platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) were also uncovered. Furthermore, the median PLT and PCT levels of children from the exposed group both exceeded the respective recommended maximum reference range value, whereas the reference group did not. Location of child residence in Guiyu and BLLs were both risk factors related to platelet indices. These results suggest that high blood lead exposure from e-waste recycling may increase the risk of an amplified coagulation process through the activation of platelets in preschool children.
Brega, A. G.; Thomas, J. F.; Henderson, W. G.; Batliner, T. S.; Quissell, D. O.; Braun, P. A.; Wilson, A.; Bryant, L. L.; Nadeau, K. J.; Albino, J.
Health literacy is "the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions". Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale…
Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.
Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…
Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth
Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.
Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Clifford, Lisa M; Bandstra, Nancy F; Filigno, Stephanie S; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Rausch, Joseph R; Stark, Lori J
Preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) have been significantly underrepresented in the obesity treatment outcome literature, despite estimates that 12.1% are already obese. As such, little is known about the most important intervention targets for weight management within this age group. The aims of this study were (a) to examine lifestyle behavior changes for 30 obese preschoolers participating in a weight-control intervention and (b) to explore which lifestyle behavior changes predicted changes in body mass index (BMI) z score. Preschooler height, weight, diet (three 24-hr recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), and television use (parent report) were measured at baseline and posttreatment (6 months). A linear regression was conducted to examine pre- to posttreatment changes in diet (i.e., intake of calories, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruits and vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks) and activity (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous activity and television use) behaviors on changes in BMI z score. Despite significant reductions in sugar-sweetened beverage intake and television use, and increases in fruit and vegetable intake, only reductions in absolute caloric intake significantly predicted reductions in BMI z score. Our findings suggest that attaining healthy caloric goals may be the most important component of weight-control interventions for preschoolers. Future research using innovative methodologies, such as the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, may be helpful to prospectively identifying the lifestyle behavior changes that are most effective in helping families to achieve healthy weight outcomes for preschoolers and thereby improve intervention efficiency and decrease treatment burden for families. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Brega, A. G.; Thomas, J. F.; Henderson, W. G.; Batliner, T. S.; Quissell, D. O.; Braun, P. A.; Wilson, A.; Bryant, L. L.; Nadeau, K. J.; Albino, J.
Health literacy is ‘the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions’. Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale studies have assessed these relationships among American Indians, a population at risk for limited health literacy and oral health problems. This analysis was condu...
Full Text Available Abstract Background New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators. Methods Participants were 803 children (mean age: 3.5 years from cycles 2–4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of Canadians. Physical activity was accelerometer-derived, and screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported. Participants were classified as meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines if they met all three specific time recommendations for physical activity, screen time, and sleep. The adiposity indicators in this study were body mass index (BMI z-scores and BMI status (World Health Organization Growth Standards. Results A total of 12.7% of preschool-aged children met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and 3.3% met none of the three recommendations. A high proportion of children met the sleep duration (83.9% and physical activity (61.8% recommendations, while 24.4% met the screen time recommendation. No associations were found between meeting individual or combined recommendations and adiposity. Conclusions Very few preschool-aged children in Canada (~13% met all three recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. None of the combinations of recommendations were associated with adiposity in this sample. Future work should focus on identifying innovative ways to reduce screen time in this population, and should examine the associations of
Cliff, Dylan P; McNeill, Jade; Vella, Stewart A; Howard, Steven J; Santos, Rute; Batterham, Marijka; Melhuish, Edward; Okely, Anthony D; de Rosnay, Marc
The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys) participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry) and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC) and Theory of Mind (ToM)). Parents reported on children's screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i) individual guidelines, ii) combinations of two guidelines, or iii) all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1%) and sleep (88.7%) guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%). Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36, 2.47). Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41) and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05), respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05), while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p children are warranted. Supporting preschool children to meet
early behavioral interventions are the most effective treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but almost half of the children do not make...behavioral intervention . 2. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder , implicit learning, associative learning, individual differences, functional Magnetic...2 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0261 TITLE: Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL
Ramos, Miguel R.; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi; Moya, Miguel; Ferreira, Lucia; Calanchini, Jimmy
Two studies examined the effect of exposure to sexism on implicit gender bias, focusing specifically on stereotypes of men as competent and women as warm. Male and female participants were exposed to sexism or no sexism. In both Experiment 1 (Implicit Association Task; N = 115) and Experiment 2
Malcolmson, Kelly A.; Sinclair, Lisa
Implicit and explicit stereotypes toward the title Ms. were examined. Participants read a short description of a target person whose title of address varied (Ms., Mrs., Miss, Mr.). They then rated the person on agentic and communal traits and completed an Implicit Association Test. Replicating earlier research (Dion, 1987), at an explicit level,…
Adams, Virgil H., III; Devos, Thierry; Rivera, Luis M.; Smith, Heather; Vega, Luis A.
Social psychology instructors from five distinct state universities in California examined the effect of incorporating the implicit association test (IAT) in a teaching module on students' perceived knowledge of implicit biases and motivation to control prejudice. Students (N = 258) completed a knowledge survey on prejudice, stereotypes, and…
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
Nielsen, Anne Maj
The field of mindfulness and meditation has met growing interest in the western world during the last decades. Mindfulness aims to develop a friendly, accepting and mindful awareness in the present moment. Critiques have argued that this aim is deployed in a new kind of management technology where...... mindfulness is used for individualized stress-reduction in order to keep up with existing or worsened working conditions instead of stress-reducing changes in the common working conditions. Mindfulness research emphasizes positive outcomes in coping with demands and challenges in everyday life especially...... considering suffering (for example stress and pain). While explicit constructions of Utopia present ideas of specific societal communities in well-functioning harmony, the interest in mindfulness can in contradistinction be considered an implicit critique of present life-conditions and an “implicit utopia...
Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L
In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.
Roberts, Malcolm; Bowman, John C.
Implicit dealiasing is a method for computing in-place linear convolutions via fast Fourier transforms that decouples work memory from input data. It offers easier memory management and, for long one-dimensional input sequences, greater efficiency than conventional zero-padding. Furthermore, for convolutions of multidimensional data, the segregation of data and work buffers can be exploited to reduce memory usage and execution time significantly. This is accomplished by processing and discarding data as it is generated, allowing work memory to be reused, for greater data locality and performance. A multithreaded implementation of implicit dealiasing that accepts an arbitrary number of input and output vectors and a general multiplication operator is presented, along with an improved one-dimensional Hermitian convolution that avoids the loop dependency inherent in previous work. An alternate data format that can accommodate a Nyquist mode and enhance cache efficiency is also proposed.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.
Flusser, Jan; Kautský, J.; Šroubek, Filip
Roč. 86, č. 1 (2010), s. 72-86 ISSN 0920-5691 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/1593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Implicit invariants * Orthogonal polynomials * Polynomial image deformation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.930, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/flusser-0329394.pdf
Full Text Available Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system.
Full Text Available Impaired automatic emotion regulation (AER is closely related to major depressive disorder. Our research in adults has identified two AER-related components, Go N2 and NoGo P3, in an implicit emotional Go/NoGo paradigm. However, it is unclear whether Go N2 and NoGo P3 reflect the development of AER in adolescents and the relationship of these components with subclinical depressive symptoms and trait anhedonia. We collected EEG data from 55 adolescents while they completed the implicit emotional Go/NoGo task. After the experiment, the subjects completed the Chinese version of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Consistent with results in adults, we determined that Go N2 represents automatic top-down attention to emotions in Go trials, whereas NoGo P3 represents automatic response inhibition in NoGo trials. These AER components exhibited age-dependent improvement during adolescence. Additionally, NoGo P3 amplitudes elicited by viewing positive faces were positively correlated with trait anhedonia, whereas NoGo P3 amplitudes elicited by viewing negative faces were negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. Our observations provide further understanding of the neurodevelopmental mechanism of AER and yield new insight into dissociable impairments in AER in adolescents with major depressive disorder during positive and negative implicit processing.
Full Text Available Although the explicit attitudes of Chinese people toward the self over time are known (i.e., past = present < future, little is known about their implicit attitudes. Two studies were conducted to measure the implicit subjective temporal trajectory (STT of Chinese undergraduates. Study 1 used a Go/No-go association task to measure participants’ implicit attitudes toward their past, present, and future selves. The obtained implicit STT was different from the explicit pattern found in former research. It showed that the future self was viewed to be identical to the present self and participants implicitly evaluated their present self as better than the past self. Since this comparison of the past and present selves suggested a cultural difference, we aimed to replicate this finding in Study 2. Using an implicit association test, we again found that the present self was more easily associated with positive valence than the past self. Overall, both studies reveal an implicitly inclining-flat STT (i.e., past < present = future for Chinese undergraduates. Implications of this difference in explicit-implicit measures and the cultural differences of temporal self appraisals are discussed.
Dovidio, J.F.; Kawakami, K.L.; Gaertner, S.L.
The present research examined how implicit racial associations and explicit racial attitudes of Whites relate to behaviors and impressions in interracial interactions, Specifically, the authors examined how response latency and self-report measures predicted bias and perceptions of bias in verbal
Julia L. Valmórbida
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate factors associated with low consumption of fruits and vegetables among preschoolers from families treated at basic health centers in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Methods: This was a cohort study nested in a randomized field trial. Data collection was performed through structured questionnaires to obtain demographic and dietary data, combined with two 24-hour recalls in the age groups 12–16 months and again at 2–3 years of age. Data on the consumption of one daily serving of fruits (80 g and vegetables (60 g were evaluated, as well as consumption of non-recommended foods such as candy, chocolate, and soft drinks. Statistical analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust estimation. Results: A total of 388 children aged 2-3 years were evaluated; of these, 58% and 87.4% did not consume one daily serving of fruits and vegetables, respectively. The following factors were negatively associated with fruit consumption: family income higher than four minimum wages, (p = 0.024, lower paternal educational level (p = 0.03, and lower fruit consumption at 12–16 months (p = 0.002. Factors negatively associated with the consumption of vegetables were low paternal educational level (p = 0.033 and consumption of high-sugar content beverages at 12–16 months (p = 0.014. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of children who consumed less than one daily serving of fruit and vegetables; early feeding practices, parental education, and family income were associated with this process. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores associados ao baixo consumo de frutas e verduras entre pré-escolares de famílias usuárias da rede básica de saúde de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo de coorte aninhado a ensaio de campo randomizado. A coleta de dados foi feita por meio de questionários estruturados para obtenção de dados dietéticos e sociodemográficos, além de dois recordatórios de 24 horas nas
Coulthard, Helen; Sealy, Annemarie
The objective of the current study was to ascertain whether taking part in a sensory play activity with real fruits and vegetables (FV) can encourage tasting in preschool children, compared to a non-food activity or visual exposure to the activity. Three to four year old pre-school children (N = 62) were recruited from three preschool nursery classes from a school in Northamptonshire, UK. A between participants experimental study was conducted with each class assigned to one of three conditions; sensory FV play, sensory non-food play and visual FV exposure. Parental report of several baseline variables were taken; child baseline liking of the foods used in the study, parental and child FV consumption (portions/day), child neophobia and child tactile sensitivity. Outcome measures were the number of fruits and vegetables tasted in a post experiment taste test which featured (n = 5) or did not feature (n = 3) in the task. Analyses of covariance controlling for food neophobia and baseline liking of foods, showed that after the activity children in the sensory FV play condition tried more FV than both children in the non-food sensory play task (p foods used in the activity (p foods that were not used in the activity (p vegetables may encourage FV tasting in preschool children more than non food play or visual exposure alone. Long term intervention studies need to be carried out to see if these effects can be sustained over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Line Brinch
Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...
Topical silver diamine fluoride for dental caries arrest in preschool children: A randomized controlled trial and microbiological analysis of caries associated microbes and resistance gene expression.
Milgrom, Peter; Horst, Jeremy A; Ludwig, Sharity; Rothen, Marilynn; Chaffee, Benjamin W; Lyalina, Svetlana; Pollard, Katherine S; DeRisi, Joseph L; Mancl, Lloyd
The Stopping Cavities Trial investigated effectiveness and safety of 38% silver diamine fluoride in arresting caries lesions. The study was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled superiority trial with 2 parallel groups. The sites were Oregon preschools. Sixty-six preschool children with ≥1 lesion were enrolled. Silver diamine fluoride (38%) or placebo (blue-tinted water), applied topically to the lesion. The primary endpoint was caries arrest (lesion inactivity, Nyvad criteria) 14-21days post intervention. Dental plaque was collected from all children, and microbial composition was assessed by RNA sequencing from 2 lesions and 1 unaffected surface before treatment and at follow-up for 3 children from each group. Average proportion of arrested caries lesions in the silver diamine fluoride group was higher (0.72; 95% CI; 0.55, 0.84) than in the placebo group (0.05; 95% CI; 0.00, 0.16). Confirmatory analysis using generalized estimating equation log-linear regression, based on the number of arrested lesions and accounting for the number of treated surfaces and length of follow-up, indicates the risk of arrested caries was significantly higher in the treatment group (relative risk, 17.3; 95% CI: 4.3 to 69.4). No harms were observed. RNA sequencing analysis identified no consistent changes in relative abundance of caries-associated microbes, nor emergence of antibiotic or metal resistance gene expression. Topical 38% silver diamine fluoride is effective and safe in arresting cavities in preschool children. The treatment is applicable to primary care practice and may reduce the burden of untreated tooth decay in the population. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47. Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers.
Kozioł-Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Piórecka, Beata; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata
The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters. Cross-sectional survey performed in 2012-2013. The Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS) adapted by Wardle, Carnell and Cooke was used to assess the level of food neophobia. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ and dietary records from three days. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine children's nutritional status and BMI was computed based on Polish growth charts. Wilcoxon's rank test and Pearson's rank-correlation coefficient were applied to compare the level of food neophobia and frequency of consumption of food products and nutrient intakes. Kindergartens in southern Poland located in or near Cracow. Three hundred and twenty-five pre-school children and their parents. Low neophobia was observed in 12·3 % and high neophobia in 10·8 % of the children examined. Children with a high level of neophobia were significantly less likely (Pfood neophobia were observed. High levels of neophobia are associated with diet variation and may enhance the risk of nutritional deficiencies in children.
Cameron, C Daryl; Payne, B Keith; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Scheffer, Julian A; Inzlicht, Michael
Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias). Speeded response deadlines reduced Intentional Judgment but not Unintentional Judgment (Experiment 1). Unintentional Judgment was stronger toward moral transgression primes than non-moral negative primes (Experiments 2-4). Intentional Judgment was associated with increased error-related negativity, a neurophysiological indicator of behavioral control (Experiment 4). Finally, people who voted for an anti-gay marriage amendment had stronger Unintentional Judgment toward gay marriage primes (Experiment 5). Across Experiments 1-4, implicit moral evaluations converged with moral personality: Unintentional Judgment about wrong primes, but not negative primes, was negatively associated with psychopathic tendencies and positively associated with moral identity and guilt proneness. Theoretical and practical applications of formal modeling for moral psychology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike
Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers' perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers' life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children ( N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.
Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike
Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction. PMID:27933023
Full Text Available Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276. They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.
Burdette, Hillary L; Whitaker, Robert C; Kahn, Robert S; Harvey-Berino, Jean
Decreasing television (TV)-viewing time may improve child health and well-being. These viewing patterns are shaped during the preschool years. Because mothers play an important role in determining how much TV their preschool children watch, a better understanding is needed of the maternal factors that influence children's TV viewing. To examine the relationship of depressive symptoms and obesity in low-income mothers with TV-viewing time in their preschool children. Cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 295 low-income mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children (92% white) enrolled in the Vermont Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Mothers reported children's usual weekday and weekend-day TV-viewing time. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Maternal body mass index was calculated from self-reported height and weight measurements (weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Children watched a mean of 2.2 +/-1.2 hours of TV per day. Those in the upper quartile of TV-viewing time (high TV viewers) watched 3 or more hours of TV per day. Of the mothers, 12% had both obesity (BMI > or =30) and depressive symptoms (CES-D score > or =16), 19% were obese only, and 18% had depressive symptoms only. Children were more likely to be high TV viewers if their mothers had clinically significant depressive symptoms (35% vs 23%; P =.03) or if their mothers were obese (35% vs 22%; P =.03). Forty-two percent of children were high TV viewers if the mother had both depressive symptoms and obesity, 30% if the mother had only depressive symptoms, 29% if the mother had only obesity, and 20% if the mother had neither depressive symptoms nor obesity (P =.06 overall; P for trend =.009 using the chi2 test). Among low-income preschool children, those whose mothers had either depressive symptoms or obesity were more likely to watch 3 or more hours of TV a day. Strategies
Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My
,195), recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, were assessed with a semistructured parental psychiatric interview. Perinatal maternal symptoms of distress were assessed by Symptom Checklist (SCL-5); Poisson regression was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: Mid-gestational maternal......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. METHOD: Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1...... distress significantly increased the average number of child symptoms, ranging between 3.8% for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) and 8.7% for anxiety. The combination of high maternal scores of distress both pre- and postnatally were associated with increased risk of child symptoms of anxiety (relative...
Cornell, Amy H; Frick, Paul J
This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = .51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being behaviorally inhibited showed higher levels of parent-rated guilt and empathy than uninhibited children, irrespective of the type and quality of parenting they experienced. However, for uninhibited children, greater inconsistent discipline was associated with lower levels of guilt and lower levels of empathy, whereas higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with higher levels of guilt. These results support the presence of important interactions between temperament and parenting in explaining two critical dimensions of callous-unemotional traits.
Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.
This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…
Roediger, H L
Explicit measures of human memory, such as recall or recognition, reflect conscious recollection of the past. Implicit tests of retention measure transfer (or priming) from past experience on tasks that do not require conscious recollection of recent experiences for their performance. The article reviews research on the relation between explicit and implicit memory. The evidence points to substantial differences between standard explicit and implicit tests, because many variables create dissociations between these tests. For example, although pictures are remembered better than words on explicit tests, words produce more priming than do pictures on several implicit tests. These dissociations may implicate different memory systems that subserve distinct memorial functions, but the present argument is that many dissociations can be understood by appealing to general principles that apply to both explicit and implicit tests. Phenomena studied under the rubric of implicit memory may have important implications in many other fields, including social cognition, problem solving, and cognitive development.
Full Text Available Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity - predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/ between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals and national (i.e., across nations level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels.
Dylan P. Cliff
Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii 10–13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Methods Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC and Theory of Mind (ToM. Parents reported on children’s screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i individual guidelines, ii combinations of two guidelines, or iii all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. Results High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1% and sleep (88.7% guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%. Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.36, 2.47. Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41 and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = −0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05, respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = −0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05, while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p < 0.02 and To
Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Herberger, Eric R; Boomer, Joseph; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A
Contemporary theory in cognitive neuroscience distinguishes, among the processes and utilities that serve categorization, explicit and implicit systems of category learning that learn, respectively, category rules by active hypothesis testing or adaptive behaviors by association and reinforcement. Little is known about the time course of categorization within these systems. Accordingly, the present experiments contrasted tasks that fostered explicit categorization (because they had a one-dimensional, rule-based solution) or implicit categorization (because they had a two-dimensional, information-integration solution). In Experiment 1, participants learned categories under unspeeded or speeded conditions. In Experiment 2, they applied previously trained category knowledge under unspeeded or speeded conditions. Speeded conditions selectively impaired implicit category learning and implicit mature categorization. These results illuminate the processing dynamics of explicit/implicit categorization.
Nithya, Devanesan Jacinth; Bhavani, Ramanathapuram Vaidyanathan
Dietary diversity plays a critical role in infants as they need energy and nutrient dense foods for both physical and mental development. This study examines whether three dietary diversity indices validate against Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) and studies the relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of preschool children, in two districts of India: Wardha district in Maharashtra state and Koraput district in Odisha state. Dietary diversity was calculated using: individual food scores calculated using 24 hour diet recall (FS24hr) data; household dietary diversity using Berry's index (DDI) and food scores calculated using food frequency data (FSFFQ). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices. It was observed that 42.7% of 1 to 5 years children were underweight, 38% stunted and 27.6% wasted across both locations. The dietary diversity was found to be relatively better in Wardha when compared with Koraput with mean diversity of FS24hr 7, DDI 90 and FSFFQ 63 in both locations. Preschool children in both locations consumed a cereal based diet. Apart from protein in both locations and energy in Koraput, the NAR of all nutrients consumed was indicating that dietary diversity calculated using 24 hour diet recall ensures nutrient adequacy but showed association only with Height-for-Age scores. Dietary diversity calculated using three methods did not show any correlation with nutritional status of 1 to 5 years children.
Ziv, Yair; Sofri, Inbar; Capps Umphlet, Kristen L; Olarte, Stephanie; Venza, Jimmy
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver's and the child's exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver's outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control) and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver's exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.
Full Text Available Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver’s and the child’s exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver’s outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP. Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver’s exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.
Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Söderström, Margareta; Kreiner, Svend; Dørup, Jens; Lous, Jørgen
We tested "the Galker test", a speech reception in noise test developed for primary care for Danish preschool children, to explore if the children's ability to hear and understand speech was associated with gender, age, middle ear status, and the level of background noise. The Galker test is a 35-item audio-visual, computerized word discrimination test in background noise. Included were 370 normally developed children attending day care center. The children were examined with the Galker test, tympanometry, audiometry, and the Reynell test of verbal comprehension. Parents and daycare teachers completed questionnaires on the children's ability to hear and understand speech. As most of the variables were not assessed using interval scales, non-parametric statistics (Goodman-Kruskal's gamma) were used for analyzing associations with the Galker test score. For comparisons, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Interrelations were adjusted for using a non-parametric graphic model. In unadjusted analyses, the Galker test was associated with gender, age group, language development (Reynell revised scale), audiometry, and tympanometry. The Galker score was also associated with the parents' and day care teachers' reports on the children's vocabulary, sentence construction, and pronunciation. Type B tympanograms were associated with a mean hearing 5-6dB below that of than type A, C1, or C2. In the graphic analysis, Galker scores were closely and significantly related to Reynell test scores (Gamma (G)=0.35), the children's age group (G=0.33), and the day care teachers' assessment of the children's vocabulary (G=0.26). The Galker test of speech reception in noise appears promising as an easy and quick tool for evaluating preschool children's understanding of spoken words in noise, and it correlated well with the day care teachers' reports and less with the parents' reports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Validity of the toddler feeding questionnaire for measuring parent authoritative and indulgent feeding practices which are associated with stress and health literacy among Latino parents of preschool children.
Heerman, William J; Lounds-Taylor, Julie; Mitchell, Stephanie; Barkin, Shari L
Understanding the contribution of parental feeding practices to childhood obesity among Latino children is a solution-oriented approach that can lead to interventions supporting healthy childhood growth and lowering rates of obesity. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability and validity of the Toddler Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ) to measure parental feeding practices among a sample of Spanish-speaking parent-preschool child pairs (n = 529), and to test the hypothesis that parent characteristics of body mass index (BMI), stress, and health literacy are associated with more indulgent and less authoritative feeding practices. Standardized parent-report questionnaires were completed during baseline interviews in a randomized controlled trial of an obesity prevention intervention. The TFQ includes subscales for indulgent practices (11 items), authoritative practices (7 items), and environmental influences (6 items) with response options scored on a 5-point Likert scale and averaged. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Internal consistency was good for indulgent (α = 0.66) and authoritative (α = 0.65) practices but lower for environmental (α = 0.48). Spearman correlation showed indulgent practices and environmental influences were associated with unhealthy child diet patterns, whereas authoritative practices were associated with a healthier child diet. Multivariate linear regression showed higher parent stress was associated with higher indulgent and lower authoritative scores; higher parent health literacy was positively associated with indulgent scores. These results indicate the TFQ is a valid measure of authoritative and indulgent parent feeding practices among Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children and that stress and health literacy, potentially modifiable parent characteristics, could be targeted to support healthy feeding practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A construção de um novo instrumento para avaliar correlatos implícitos dos sintomas do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo: primeira versão do Teste de Associação Implícita The construction of a new instrument to assess implicit correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms: first version of the Implicit Association Test
Mara Sizino d Victoria
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A inexistência de uma medida implícita para sintomas do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC limita a avaliação às escalas e aos inventários tradicionais. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo foi construir um instrumento de avaliação de sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos que independa da autoavaliação pelo examinando [por exemplo, o Teste de Associação Implícita para transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TAI-TOC]. MÉTODOS: A fim de construir o TAI-TOC, foram consultados (1 estudos anteriores que utilizaram o TAI para avaliação de outros sintomas psiquiátricos, (2 psiquiatras e psicólogos com experiência na avaliação e tratamento de pacientes com TOC e (3 os próprios pacientes com TOC. RESULTADOS: Estímulos verbais e visuais foram selecionados para cada dimensão dos sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos (contaminação e lavagem, obsessões de checagem, simetria e colecionismo. Um software projetado para mensurar o tempo de reação em milissegundos (um programa para associação implícita foi desenvolvido. Uma versão final do TAI-TOC foi obtida. CONCLUSÕES: O TAI-TOC expande o arsenal existente para avaliação dos sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos, especialmente naqueles indivíduos que informam mal sobre seus sintomas.BACKGROUND: The lack of an implicit measure for the obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms limits its assessment to the traditional scales and inventories. OBJECTIVES: The aim is the construction of an instrument for the evaluation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms that is independent from examinee's self-evaluation [i.e. the Implicit Association Test for obsessive-compulsive disorder (IAT-OCD]. METHODS: In order to build the IAT-OCD, we consulted (1 previous studies that employed the IAT for the evaluation of other psychiatric symptoms; (2 expert psychiatrists and psychologists with experience in the assessment and treatment of patients with OCD; and (3 patients with OCD themselves. RESULTS: Specific verbal and visual stimuli
Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; Dereu, Mieke; Van den Abbeele, Dirk
In the present study, we have further explored implicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals. Since suicidal ideation is associated with lower self-esteem in depressed individuals, we measured both implicit and explicit self-esteem in a population of currently depressed (CD) individuals, with and without suicidal ideation (SI), and in a group of non-depressed controls (ND). The results indicate that only CD individuals with SI show a discrepancy between their implicit and explicit self-esteem: that is, they exhibit high implicit and low explicit self-esteem. CD individuals without SI exhibit both low implicit and low explicit self-esteem; and ND controls exhibit both normal implicit and normal explicit self-esteem. These results provide new insights in the study of implicit self-esteem and the combination of implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression.
Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.
This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…
Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda
Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation. A larger sample of 642 mothers completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum. Children's neuropsychological (MSCA) and behavioral (ADHDT and SDQ) development were assessed at 4 years of age. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. Regarding child neuropsychological development, increased postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with child's perceptual performance, whereas increased maternal psychoticism was linked with child's motor ability at 4 years of age. Furthermore, elevated levels of maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and the predisposing personality characteristics of trait anxiety and neuroticism, were associated with children's behavioral difficulties. A clinical diagnostic instrument for maternal mental health was not used and assessment of children's behavior was based on maternal report. These findings suggest that poor perinatal maternal mental health and an adverse personality profile may be associated with impaired child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Minshew, Reese; D'Andrea, Wendy
We investigated the relationship of implicit and explicit memory to a range of symptoms in a sample of 27 women with exposure to chronic interpersonal violence (IPV). Participants viewed the first 3 letters ("stems") of trauma-related, general threat, and neutral words; valenced words were matched with neutral words with the same stem. Free recall and a word-stem completion task were used to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively. Participants exhibited increased implicit memory for trauma-related words as compared with both general threat words and neutral "match" words. They also showed increased explicit memory for both general threat and trauma-related words. Finally, although neither implicit nor explicit memory was correlated with PTSD symptoms, implicit memory for trauma-related words was significantly correlated with symptoms associated with ongoing IPV. Interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and alexithymia were significantly correlated with implicit, but not explicit, memory for trauma words. Somatization, dissociation, and alexithymia were negatively correlated with explicit, but not implicit, memory for general-threat words. These findings suggest that memory processes in survivors of IPV are closely related to the symptom profile associated with complex trauma. Exploring memory processes in survivors of IPV may lend unique insight into the development and maintenance of the symptom profile associated with IPV. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Portella, André Krumel; Kennedy, James L; Gaudreau, Hélène; Davis, Caroline; Steiner, Meir; Soares, Claudio N; Matthews, Stephen G; Sokolowski, Marla B; Dubé, Laurette; Loucks, Eric B; Hamilton, Jill; Meaney, Michael J; Levitan, Robert D
Studies in adults show associations between the hypofunctional seven-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), increased eating behaviour and/or obesity, particularly in females. We examined whether 7R is associated with total caloric intake and/or food choices in pre-schoolers. 150 four-year-old children taking part in a birth cohort study in Canada were administered a snack test meal in a laboratory setting. Mothers also filled out a food frequency questionnaire to address childrens' habitual food consumption. Total caloric and individual macronutrient intakes during the snack meal and specific types of foods as reported in the food diaries were compared across 7R allele carriers vs. non-carriers, using current BMI as a co-variate. We found significant sex by genotype interactions for fat and protein intake during the snack test. Post hoc testing revealed that in girls, but not boys, 7R carriers ate more fat and protein than did non-carriers. Based on the food diaries, across both sexes, 7R carriers consumed more portions of ice cream and less vegetables, eggs, nuts and whole bread, suggesting a less healthy pattern of habitual food consumption. The 7R allele of DRD4 influences macronutrient intakes and specific food choices as early as four years of age. The specific pattern of results further suggests that prior associations between the 7R allele and adult overeating/obesity may originate in food choices observable in the preschool years. Longitudinal follow-up of these children will help establish the relevance of these findings for obesity risk and prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A number of neuropsychological studies have revealed that memory problems are relatively common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It may be useful to compare MS with conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD, which have been referred to as subcortical dementia. A characteristic of these conditions may be an impairment in implicit (unconscious memory, but not in explicit (conscious memory. The present study examined the functioning of explicit and implicit memory in MS. Results showed that implicit memory was not significantly impaired in the MS subjects, and that they were impaired on recall but not recognition. A correlation was found between implicit memory performance and disability status in MS patients. Findings also suggest the possibility of long-term priming of implicit memory in the control subjects. The implications of these results are discussed.
Schnack, D.D.; Barnes, D.C.; Mikic, Z.; Harned, D.S.; Caramana, E.J.
A semi-implicit algorithm for the solution of the nonlinear, three-dimensional, resistive MHD equations in cylindrical geometry is presented. The specific model assumes uniform density and pressure, although this is not a restriction of the method. The spatial approximation employs finite differences in the radial coordinate, and the pseudo-spectral algorithm in the periodic poloidal and axial coordinates. A leapfrog algorithm is used to advance wave-like terms; advective terms are treated with a simple predictor--corrector method. The semi-implicit term is introduced as a simple modification to the momentum equation. Dissipation is treated implicitly. The resulting algorithm is unconditionally stable with respect to normal modes. A general discussion of the semi-implicit method is given, and specific forms of the semi-implicit operator are compared in physically relevant test cases. Long-time simulations are presented. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc
User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...
Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.
Leiser, Kara; Heffelfinger, Amy; Kaugars, Astrida
To examine associations among parent-child relationship characteristics and child cognitive and language outcomes. Preschool children (n = 72) with early neurological insult completed assessments of cognitive and language functioning and participated in a parent-child semi-structured interaction. Quality of the parent-child relationship accounted for a significant amount of unique variance (12%) in predicting children's overall cognitive and language functioning. Impact of neurological insult was a significant predictor. Caregiver-child interactions that are harmonious and reciprocal as evidenced by affective and/or verbal exchanges support children's cognitive and language development. Observations of interactions can guide providers in facilitating child- and family-centered interventions.
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weiland, Christina; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
We have many reasons to invest in preschool programs, including persistent gaps in school readiness between children from poorer and wealthier families, large increases in maternal employment over the past several decades, and the rapid brain development that preschool-age children experience. But what do we know about preschool education's…
Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L. L.; Yang, Jing
Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association ...
Zwets, Almar J.; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Kanters, Thijs; Snowden, Robert J.; van Marle, Hjalmar
In order to investigate the relation between implicit attitudes toward violence and different aspects of violent and social behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients, an implicit association test was related to measures of psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors. Results
Burgers' equation; exponential finite difference method; implicit exponential finite difference method; ... This paper describes two new techniques which give improved exponential finite difference solutions of Burgers' equation. ... Current Issue
Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Coyle, Anne-Marie
Previous research has found environmental context effects for both conceptual explicit and conceptual implicit memory (Parker, Gellatly, & Waterman, 1999). The research presented here challenges these findings on methodological grounds. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of context change on category-exemplar generation (conceptual implicit memory test) and category-cued recall (conceptual explicit memory test). Experiment 2 assessed the effects of context change on word association (conceptual implicit memory test) and word associate cued recall (conceptual explicit memory test). In both experiments, study-test changes in environmental context were found to influence performance only on tests of explicit memory. It is concluded that when retrieval cues across explicit and implicit tests are matched, and the probability of explicit contamination is reduced, then only conceptual explicit test performance is reduced by study-test changes in environmental context.
Wolsiefer, Katie; Westfall, Jacob; Judd, Charles M
We explored the consequences of ignoring the sampling variation due to stimuli in the domain of implicit attitudes. A large literature in psycholinguistics has examined the statistical treatment of random stimulus materials, but the recommendations from this literature have not been applied to the social psychological literature on implicit attitudes. This is partly because of inherent complications in applying crossed random-effect models to some of the most common implicit attitude tasks, and partly because no work to date has demonstrated that random stimulus variation is in fact consequential in implicit attitude measurement. We addressed this problem by laying out statistically appropriate and practically feasible crossed random-effect models for three of the most commonly used implicit attitude measures-the Implicit Association Test, affect misattribution procedure, and evaluative priming task-and then applying these models to large datasets (average N = 3,206) that assess participants' implicit attitudes toward race, politics, and self-esteem. We showed that the test statistics from the traditional analyses are substantially (about 60 %) inflated relative to the more-appropriate analyses that incorporate stimulus variation. Because all three tasks used the same stimulus words and faces, we could also meaningfully compare the relative contributions of stimulus variation across the tasks. In an appendix, we give syntax in R, SAS, and SPSS for fitting the recommended crossed random-effects models to data from all three tasks, as well as instructions on how to structure the data file.
Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.
Klaassen, Ester M M; Penders, John; Jöbsis, Quirijn; van de Kant, Kim D G; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique; van Schayck, Constant P; van Eys, Guillaume; Koppelman, Gerard H; Dompeling, Edward
The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined. To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma. In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring) study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma) was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a pchildhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97) p = 0.04) and no association with preschool wheeze. Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma.
Zimmer, Hubert D; Steiner, Astrid; Ecker, Ullrich K H
Processing colored pictures of objects results in a preference to choose the former color for a specific object in a subsequent color choice test (Wippich & Mecklenbräuker, 1998). We tested whether this implicit memory effect is independent of performances in episodic color recollection (recognition). In the study phase of Experiment 1, the color of line drawings was either named or its appropriateness was judged. We found only weak implicit memory effects for categorical color information. In Experiment 2, silhouettes were colored by subjects during the study phase. Performances in both the implicit and the explicit test were good. Selections of "old" colors in the implicit test, though, were almost completely confined to items for which the color was also remembered explicitly. In Experiment 3, we applied the opposition technique in order to check whether we could find any implicit effects regarding items for which no explicit color recollection was possible. This was not the case. We therefore draw the conclusion that implicit color preference effects are not independent of explicit recollection, and that they are probably based on the same episodic memory traces that are used in explicit tests.
Padin, Avelina C; Emery, Charles F; Vasey, Michael; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K
Dual-process models of health behavior posit that implicit and explicit attitudes independently drive healthy behaviors. Prior evidence indicates that implicit attitudes may be related to weekly physical activity (PA) levels, but the extent to which self-regulation attenuates this link remains unknown. This study examined the associations between implicit attitudes and self-reported PA during leisure time among 150 highly active young adults and evaluated the extent to which effortful control (one aspect of self-regulation) moderated this relationship. Results indicated that implicit attitudes toward exercise were unrelated to average workout length among individuals with higher effortful control. However, those with lower effortful control and more negative implicit attitudes reported shorter average exercise sessions compared with those with more positive attitudes. Implicit and explicit attitudes were unrelated to total weekly PA. A combination of poorer self-regulation and negative implicit attitudes may leave individuals vulnerable to mental and physical health consequences of low PA.
Brener, Loren; Rose, Grenville; von Hippel, Courtney; Wilson, Hannah
The attitudes of mental health care workers toward their clients may influence the quality of care they provide. There is growing recognition of the role of implicit attitudes in behavior toward people with stigmatized illnesses, such as mental illness, and of the need to measure these separately from explicit attitudes. Seventy-four mental health workers completed implicit and explicit measure of attitudes toward people with mental illness. The participants were also asked about their intention to help people with mental illness and their emotional reactions toward people with a mental illness. The findings show that the implicit attitudes of the health workers toward clients with a mental illness are somewhat negative despite the fact that their explicit attitudes are somewhat positive. Although both implicit and explicit attitudes predicted negative emotions, only implicit attitudes were related to helping intentions. This study highlights the association between implicit attitudes and behavioral intentions and confirms the importance of addressing implicit attitudes in mental health research.
Falk, Carl F; Heine, Steven J; Takemura, Kosuke; Zhang, Cathy X J; Hsu, Chih-Wei
Our research utilized two popular theoretical conceptualizations of implicit self-esteem: 1) implicit self-esteem as a global automatic reaction to the self; and 2) implicit self-esteem as a context/domain specific construct. Under this framework, we present an extensive search for implicit self-esteem measure validity among different cultural groups (Study 1) and under several experimental manipulations (Study 2). In Study 1, Euro-Canadians (N = 107), Asian-Canadians (N = 187), and Japanese (N = 112) completed a battery of implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem, and criterion measures. Included implicit self-esteem measures were either popular or provided methodological improvements upon older methods. Criterion measures were sampled from previous research on implicit self-esteem and included self-report and independent ratings. In Study 2, Americans (N = 582) completed a shorter battery of these same types of measures under either a control condition, an explicit prime meant to activate the self-concept in a particular context, or prime meant to activate self-competence related implicit attitudes. Across both studies, explicit self-esteem measures far outperformed implicit self-esteem measures in all cultural groups and under all experimental manipulations. Implicit self-esteem measures are not valid for individual or cross-cultural comparisons. We speculate that individuals may not form implicit associations with the self as an attitudinal object. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mecklenbräuker, S; Hupbach, A; Wippich, W
Three experiments were conducted to examine age-related differences in colour memory. In Experiment 1, preschool age and elementary school age children were given a conceptual test of implicit colour memory (a colour-choice task). They were presented with the names or achromatic versions of previously studied coloured line drawings and asked to select an appropriate colour. Significant priming could be demonstrated: The children chose the previously seen colours more often than was expected by chance. Equivalent priming was found for both versions (pictorial and verbal) suggesting that colour priming may be conceptually mediated. Moreover, colour priming proved to be age invariant. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by using a wider age group (preschool, elementary school, and young adults) and by giving a perceptual implicit task (picture identification) in addition to a verbal colour-choice task. Colour did not affect priming in the perceptual task. Whereas priming showed no developmental change, age-related improvements were observed on an explicit colour memory task that differed only in the test instructions from the implicit colour-choice task (Experiments 2 and 3). Taken together, the results suggest that implicit colour memory may be mediated by conceptual processes that are age invariant.
Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin
The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2?years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not requ...
The aim of the article is to see the degree of implicit position and value correlation between the voters of particular political parties in Slovakia (SMER-SD, SaS, and SDKÚ-DS). The free association method is supposed to reveal implicit purposes of individual political issues, beliefs and values in the eyes of their voters. Social representations, public discourse and implicit purposes objectified and anchored in civil society by the political elites are obtained by the discrete association ...
Ester M M Klaassen
Full Text Available The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined.To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma.In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a p<0.10, replication analysis was performed in an independent birth cohort study (KOALA study, n = 248 included for the present analysis.In the ADEM study, the minor alleles of ADAM33 rs511898 and rs528557 and the ORMDL3/GSDMB rs7216389 polymorphisms were negatively associated, whereas the minor alleles of IL4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 polymorphisms were positively associated with childhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97 p = 0.04 and no association with preschool wheeze.Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. Results We found a direct correlation (p Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children.
Hillen, Thomas; Gafson, Leonie
Pre-school children placed in local authority care show elevated rates of mental health disorders when compared to the general population. This study investigated risk factors for mental health disorders relating to the period prior to entering care and while in care. A representative sample of 43 children in care aged 0-72 months in an inner London borough underwent comprehensive multidimensional assessments. Presence of emotional, behavioural, attachment and adaptive disorders was ascertained. Exposure to two pre-placement risk factors and six placement risk factors was compared between children with and without a disorder. A total of 26 children (60.5%) had at least one mental health disorder. The two pre-placement risk factors, multiple types of maltreatment and entry into care after the age of 6 months, were both significantly associated with mental health disorders. The three placement risk factors of sudden placement moves, multiple placement moves and child-carer alienation showed a significant association with mental health disorders. There was a strong correlation between the number of risk factors and the number of co-morbid mental health disorders per child (r = .67, p school mental health. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.
Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W
The aim of the present study was to examine whether explicit and implicit self-esteem, the interaction between these two constructs, and their discrepancy are associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the Name Letter Task to measure implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to assess explicit self-esteem. The results indicated that explicit but not implicit self-esteem was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. The interaction of implicit and explicit self-esteem was associated with suicidal ideation, indicating that participants with high implicit self-esteem combined with a low explicit self-esteem showed more suicidal ideation. Furthermore, the size of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem was positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, results showed that the direction of the discrepancy is an important: damaged self-esteem (high implicit self-esteem combined with low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness, while defensive or fragile self-esteem (high explicit and low implicit self-esteem) was not. Together, these findings provide new insights into the relationship of implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hedlin, Maria; Gunnarsson, Gunilla
The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasises preschool teachers' task to stimulate children's interest in science and technology. Technology education, however, has not always had a given place in Swedish early childhood education, and this has been associated with female preschool teachers' fear of technology. This qualitative study explores how…
Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Olson, Kristina R.
Despite a decline in explicit prejudice, adults and children from majority groups (e.g., White Americans) often express bias implicitly, as assessed by the Implicit Association Test. In contrast, minority-group (e.g., Black American) adults on average show no bias on the IAT. In the present research, representing the first empirical investigation of whether Black children’s IAT responses parallel those of Black adults, we examined implicit bias in 7–11-year-old White and Black American children. Replicating previous findings with adults, whereas White children showed a robust ingroup bias, Black children showed no bias. Additionally, we investigated the role of valuing status in the development of implicit bias. For Black children, explicit preference for high status predicted implicit outgroup bias: Black children who explicitly expressed high preference for rich (vs. poor) people showed an implicit preference for Whites comparable in magnitude to White children’s ingroup bias. Implications for research on intergroup bias are discussed. PMID:22184478
Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Torrent, Maties; de Cid, Rafael; Guxens, Mònica; Bustamante, Mariona; Künzli, Nino; Sunyer, Jordi
The authors investigated the association of early-life exposure to indoor air pollution with neuropsychological development in preschoolers and assessed whether this association differs by glutathione-S-transferase gene (GSTP1) polymorphisms. A prospective, population-based birth cohort was set up in Menorca, Spain, in 1997-1999 (n = 482). Children were assessed for cognitive functioning (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) and attention-hyperactivity behaviors (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) at age 4 years. During the first 3 months of life, information about gas appliances at home and indoor nitrogen dioxide concentration was collected at each participant's home (n = 398, 83%). Genotyping was conducted for the GSTP1 coding variant Ile105Val. Use of gas appliances was inversely associated with cognitive outcomes (beta coefficient for general cognition = -5.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): -9.92, -0.28; odds ratio for inattention symptoms = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.14, 11.33), independent of social class and other confounders. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were associated with cognitive function (a decrease of 0.27 point per 1 ppb, 95% CI: -0.48, -0.07) and inattention symptoms (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.12). The deleterious effect of indoor pollution from gas appliances on neuropsychological outcomes was stronger in children with the GSTP1 Val-105 allele. Early-life exposure to air pollution from indoor gas appliances may be negatively associated with neuropsychological development through the first 4 years of life, particularly among genetically susceptible children.
Oliver J. D. Barrowclough
Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.
Schmits, Emilie; Maurage, Pierre; Thirion, Romain; Quertemont, Etienne
Cannabis is one of the most commonly drugs used by teenagers. Expectancies about its effects play a crucial role in cannabis consumption. Various tools have been used to assess expectancies, mainly self-report questionnaires measuring explicit expectancies, but implicit measures based on experimental tasks have also been developed, measuring implicit expectancies. The aim of this study was to simultaneously assess implicit/explicit expectancies related to cannabis among adolescent users and non-users. 130 teenagers attending school (55 girls) were enrolled (Age: M=16.40 years); 43.84% had never used cannabis ("non-users") and 56.16% had used cannabis ("users"). They completed self-report questionnaires evaluating cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, effect expectancies (explicit expectancies), alcohol use, social and trait anxiety, depression, as well as three Implicit Association Tests (IAT) assessing implicit expectancies. Adolescents manifested more implicit affective associations (relaxation, excitation, negative) than neutral ones regarding cannabis. These were not related to explicit expectancies. Cannabis users reported more implicit relaxation expectancies and less negative explicit expectancies than non-users. The frequency of use and related problems were positively associated with the explicit expectancies regarding relaxation and enhancement, and were negatively associated with negative explicit expectancies and negative implicit expectancies. Findings indicate that implicit and explicit expectancies play different roles in cannabis use by adolescents. The implications for experimentation and prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; van den Hout, Marcel A
Associations between certain odors and for instance health effects may lead to positive or negative attitudes toward these odors. However, in experiments we conducted using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), we encountered attitudes even to odor "words." The IAT is based on the principle that reaction times measuring the association between words from a target dimension (in this case, odor vs. a neutral reference category) and an attribute dimension (i.e., positive or negative words) reflect the attitude to the target, where attitude-congruent associations between target and attribute are reflected by shorter reaction times. In a first experiment, we found distinctly positive attitudes to the concept odor in a student sample, which was replicated in a second experiment. In the main experiment, subjects in the aromatherapy group, who prefer using scented consumer products for relaxation purposes, showed a significantly more positive attitude toward odor words in the IAT than a control group, who did not have such a preference. The fact that results from the implicit test were not always associated with explicitly stated attitudes toward the odor words attests to the fact that the IAT measures the attitude of interest in a different way. As such, the IAT has added value in circumstances where explicit tests can be biased.
Full Text Available Increased noise, which is also below the occupational exposure values and is “hearing safe” noise, affects the exposed person’s health as a non-specific stressor. Increased noise level also creates an environment for additional vocal apparatus load. The objective of this study was to determine preschool personnel occupational noise and its relationship with subjective health complaints. Data were obtained with survey assistance through subjective answers of respondents about health complaints and noise exposure among Rīga preschool personnel. Objective noise measurements were made to assess real noise levels in the preschool environment. Data from 155 respondents and objective measurements of 37 preschool classrooms were obtained. The results showed that the average 8-h noise exposure among Rīga preschool educational institutions was 70 dB(A, which did not exceed the Latvian work environment noise limits, but exceeded the 35–40 dB(A noise limit in the educational environment guidelines recommended by the WHO. The survey results showed that loud noise is one of the most important workplace environmental factors (~70% of respondents feel a necessity to increase voice because of noise. A constant feeling of fatigue, headache, irritable feeling, and a desire to isolate oneself from others more often occurred in respondents exposed to increased noise, compared with those who noted that they were not exposed to increased noise. In general, loud noise was associated with increased subjective health complaints in preschool education institution personnel.
Complexity theory helps us predict and control resources, usually time and space, consumed by programs. Static analysis on specific syntactic criterion allows us to categorize some programs. A common approach is to observe the program’s data’s behavior. For instance, the detection of non...... evolution and a lot of research came from this theory. Until now, these implicit complexity theories were essentially applied on more or less toy languages. This thesis applies implicit computational complexity methods into “real life” programs by manipulating intermediate representation languages...
Liu, Huijuan; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Tao; Yang, Bo; Li, Duo
Childhood obesity is increasing. However, little is known about the changes in di-etary factors and supportive facilities associated with childhood obesity. We aimed to document the changes in various dietary factors and supportive facilities and their associations with obesity among pre-school children. Among 42,531 children 4-5 years old, recruited between 2004 and 2013 in the Jiax-ing Birth Cohort, we examined the changes in the prevalence of various dietary factors and supportive facilities and overweight/obesity over 10 years. We used logistic regression to investigate the cross-sectional association between these factors and childhood overweight/obesity risk, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity increased steadily from 11.8% (boy: 14.8%; girl: 9%) during 2004-2005 to 18% (boy: 21.4%%; girl: 15%) during 2012-2013. The prevalence of meal/snack frequency 3 times /day decreased substantially from 23% during 2004-2005 to 8% during 2012-2013, with more children having 5 times /day: from 32% to 45.6%. Children with a fair/bad appetite, compared with those with a good appetite, had a 45% (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.62) lower risk of overweight/obesity. Children with a meal frequency >=6 times/day (compared with 3 times/day) had a 0.12 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.2) higher BMI-z-score. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased substantially within a decade in southeast China. A better appetite and greater eating frequency were associated with the increased prevalence.
de Vos, Annerieke E.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; Aleman, Andre; van der Meer, Lisette
Introduction. Self-related processing (SRP) has been associated with clinical and cognitive insight. We investigated the relationship between implicit SRP (ISRP) and explicit SRP (ESRP) and insight. We first hypothesised that impaired insight is associated with the extent to which implicit feedback
Plotka, Irina; Blumenau, Nina; Vinogradova, Zhanna
The importance of studying attitudes towards gambling has been recently recognized in the field of gambling. Research aim is to examine whether non-gamblers and gamblers exhibit both positive and negative implicit attitudes towards gambling-related stimuli. Research questions: (I) What is the valence of implicit associations with gambling among gamblers and non-gamblers? (II) Are the differences in attitudes towards gambling revealed by explicit and implicit methods among gamblers and non–gam...
Maliszewski Norbert; Kuźmińska Anna O.; Wieczorkowska-Wierzbińska Grażyna; Werner-Maliszewska Anna
The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998) and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001).It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit) level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the w...
Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Hellman, Annette
In Sweden, preschool has been noted as being of a high quality compared to many other countries. However, dramatic changes in the preschool sector are taking place. A recent law states that it is a child's right to get a preschool place within a few months. As a consequence, the number of children in preschool has increased, which could influence…
Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Nichols, Sara R.; Voss, Joel; Zobel, Elvira; Carter, Alice S.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James; Wakschlag, Lauren S.
Background: Youth and adults with psychopathic traits display disrupted reinforcement learning. Advances in measurement now enable examination of this association in preschoolers. The current study examines relations between reinforcement learning in preschoolers and parent ratings of reduced responsiveness to socialization, conceptualized as a…
Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. Th...
Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L L; Yang, Jing
Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77). For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all psself-esteem and age was significant, r = -.25, p = 1. 10(-10). A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = -0.19, t = -3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse "U" shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition.
Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J
Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.
van Ditmarsch, H.; French, T.; Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.; Wáng, Y.N.
We compare different epistemic notions in the presence of awareness of propositional variables: the logic of implicit knowledge (in which explicit knowledge is definable), the logic of explicit knowledge, and the logic of speculative knowledge. Speculative knowledge is a novel epistemic notion that
.... A formal computational model for implicit invocation is presented. We develop a verification framework for implicit invocation that is based on Jones' rely/guarantee reasoning for concurrent systems Jon83,St(phi)91...
Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka
Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Friese, Malte; Smith, Colin Tucker; Plischke, Thomas; Bluemke, Matthias; Nosek, Brian A.
The prediction of voting behavior of undecided voters poses a challenge to psychologists and pollsters. Recently, researchers argued that implicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for undecided voters whereas explicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for decided voters. We tested this assumption in two studies in two countries with distinct political systems in the context of real political elections. Results revealed that (a) explicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better than implicit attitudes for both decided and undecided voters, and (b) implicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better for decided than undecided voters. We propose that greater elaboration of attitudes produces stronger convergence between implicit and explicit attitudes resulting in better predictive validity of both, and less incremental validity of implicit over explicit attitudes for the prediction of voting behavior. However, greater incremental predictive validity of implicit over explicit attitudes may be associated with less elaboration. PMID:22952898
Watanabe, Takumi; Karasawa, Kaori
This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker. Compared with explicit attitudes, the analyses of implicit attitudes revealed that participants showed a consistent implicit bias favoring standard-Japanese language use. The changing processes and relationships of explicit and implicit attitudes were discussed.
Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O
Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael J.; Møller, Mette
Self-report measures of driving-related attitudes and beliefs miss potentially important precursors of driving behaviour, namely, automatic and implicit thought processes. The present study used an adapted Go/No-go Association Task to measure implicit thought without relying on the participants......' self-reports. Implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving were measured in 53 Danish drivers (31 female, 22 male). Further, we explored the relationship between implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving, and self-reported driving behaviour and skills. The results suggest that implicit...... attitudes were significantly related to self-reported driving behaviour and skills for male (but not female) drivers. Pending future research with larger sample sizes, the difference between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical...
van Asselen, Marieke; Sampaio, Joana; Pina, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel
Implicit contextual cueing refers to a top-down mechanism in which visual search is facilitated by learned contextual features. In the current study we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying implicit contextual learning using object information as a contextual cue. Therefore, we measured eye movements during an object-based contextual cueing task. We demonstrated that visual search is facilitated by repeated object information and that this reduction in response times is associated with shorter fixation durations. This indicates that by memorizing associations between objects in our environment we can recognize objects faster, thereby facilitating visual search.
Song, Xiao-Li; Kim, Gwang-Won; Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
To evaluate the brain activation patterns in response to negative emotion during implicit and explicit memory in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls were included in this study. The 3.0T fMRI was obtained while the subjects performed the implicit and explicit retrievals with unpleasant words. The different predominant brain activation areas were observed during the implicit retrieval and explicit with unpleasant words. The differential neural mechanisms between implicit and explicit memory tasks associated with negative emotional processing in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Forrest, Lauren N; Smith, April R; Fussner, Lauren M; Dodd, Dorian R; Clerkin, Elise M
"Fast" (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; "slow" (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence.
Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn
We have previously shown that older adults hyper-bind, or form more extraneous associations than younger adults. For instance, when asked to perform a 1-back task on pictures superimposed with distracting words, older adults inadvertently form associations between target-distractor pairs and implicitly transfer these associations to a later paired associate learning task (showing a boost in relearning of preserved over disrupted pairs). We have argued that younger adults are better at suppressing the distracting words and thus, do not form these extraneous associations in the first place. However, an alternative explanation is that younger adults simply fail to access these associations during relearning, possibly because of their superior ability to form boundaries between episodes or shift mental contexts between tasks. In this study, we aimed to both replicate this original implicit transfer effect in older adults and to test whether younger adults show evidence of hyper-binding when informed about the relevance of past information. Our results suggest that regardless of the test conditions, younger adults do not hyper-bind. In contrast, older adults showed hyper-binding under (standard) implicit instructions, but not when made aware of a connection between tasks. These results replicate the original hyper-binding effect and reiterate its implicit nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J
Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.
Pelham, B.W.; Koole, S.L.; Hardin, C.D.; Hetts, J.J.; Seah, E.; DeHart, T.
Relative to men, women are more strongly socialized to trust their feelings and intuitions. We thus expected that the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem would be stronger for women than for men. That is, if implicit self-esteem contains a large intuitive, experiential or affective
Conclusion: These results suggest that explicit identities may be associated more with those beliefs about drinking that one is aware of than behavioral intention. In addition, explicit identities may not predict behavioral enactment well. Implicit identity shows effects on actual behavior and not behavioral intention. Together this highlights the differential influence of reflective (explicit and impulsive (implicit identity in-the-moment behavior.
Wiers, RW; van Woerden, N; Smulders, FTY; de Jong, Peter
Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were measured in 2 dimensions: positive-negative (valence) and arousal-sedation, with 2 versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. Schwartz) and related explicit measures. Heavy drinkers (h 24) strongly
Field, M.; Wiers, R.W.; Christiansen, P.; Fillmore, M.T.; Verster, J.C.
Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of
Lloyd, Sharon Henry
In the United States, a current initiative, Advancing Active STEM Education for Our Youngest Learners, aims to advance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to understand preschool teachers' proficiency with science and address the problem of whether or not science learning opportunities are provided to young children based on teachers' attitudes and beliefs. A theoretical framework for establishing teachers' attitudes toward science developed by van Aalderen-Smeets, van der Molen, and Asma, along with Bandura's theory of self-efficacy were the foundations for this research. Research questions explored preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science in general and how they differed based on education level and years of preschool teaching experience. Descriptive comparative data were collected from 48 preschool teacher participants using an online format with a self-reported measure and were analyzed using nonparametric tests to describe differences between groups based on identified factors of teacher comfort, child benefit, and challenges. Results indicated that the participants believed that early childhood science is developmentally appropriate and that young children benefit from science instruction through improved school-readiness skills. Preschool teachers with a state credential or an associate's degree and more teaching experience had more teacher comfort toward science based on attitudes and beliefs surveyed. The data indicated participating preschool teachers experienced few challenges in teaching science. The study may support positive social change through increased awareness of strengths and weaknesses of preschool teachers for the development of effective science professional development. Science is a crucial component of school-readiness skills, laying a foundation for success in later grades.
Eli, Karin; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Mokoena, Lincoln; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S; Nowicka, Paulina
Sense of Coherence (SOC) measures an individual's positive, or salutogenic, orientation toward her/his capacities, environment, future, and life. SOC comprises three factors: comprehensibility (the sense of one's own life as ordered and understandable); manageability (the perception of available resources and skills to manage stressors); and meaningfulness (the overall sense that life is filled with meaning and purpose). In numerous studies, SOC has been associated with resilience to stress. However, associations between parental SOC and controlling feeding practices have yet to be studied. This study examines the validity of the SOC 13-item, 3-factor questionnaire, associations between SOC and maternal and child characteristics, and associations between SOC and use of pressuring or restrictive feeding, among mothers of 4-year-olds. 565 mothers (23.5% of foreign origin, 30.3% with overweight/obesity) recruited via the Swedish population registry (response rate: 65%), completed the SOC-13, the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), and a background questionnaire. The validity of SOC-13 was examined using confirmatory factor analysis; associations with background characteristics and feeding practices were tested with structural equation modeling. SOC-13 validity testing showed acceptable fit (TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0.04) after allowing one pair of error terms to correlate. The Cronbach's alpha for meaningfulness was 0.73, comprehensibility 0.76, and manageability 0.75. SOC increased with mothers' Swedish background and education, and decreased with higher BMI. Child gender, age, and BMI, were not associated with SOC. Lower SOC was associated with controlling practices and with concern about child weight and eating. The associations between SOC and feeding suggest that SOC-related parameters could inform childhood obesity research, and that prevention should address the socioeconomic barriers that parents face in building resilience to stress
Keatley, David A; Clarke, David D; Ferguson, Eamonn; Hagger, Martin S
Research into individuals' intended behavior and performance has traditionally adopted explicitly measured, self-report constructs, and outcomes. More recently, research has shown that completing explicit self-report measures of constructs may effect subsequent behavior, termed the "mere measurement" effect. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether implicit measures of motivation showed a similar mere measurement effect on subsequent behavior. It may be the case that measuring the implicit systems affects subsequent implicit interventions (e.g., priming), observable on subsequent behavior. Priming manipulations were also given to participants in order to investigate the interaction between measurement and priming of motivation. Initially, a 2 [implicit association test (IAT: present vs. absent) ×2 (Prime: autonomous vs. absent) and a 2 (IAT: present vs. absent) × 2 (Prime: controlled vs. absent)] between participants designs were conducted, these were them combined into a 2 (IAT: present vs. absent) ×3 (Prime: autonomous vs. controlled vs. absent) between participants design, with attempts at a novel task taken as the outcome measure. Implicit measure completion significantly decreased behavioral engagement. Priming autonomous motivation significantly facilitated, and controlled motivation significantly inhibited performance. Finally, there was a significant implicit measurement × priming interaction, such that priming autonomous motivation only improved performance in the absence of the implicit measure. Overall, this research provides an insight into the effects of implicit measurement and priming of motivation and the combined effect of completing both tasks on behavior.
Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter
This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...
Kristjen B Lundberg
Full Text Available Implicit attitudes have been suggested as a key to unlock the hidden preferences of undecided voters. Past research, however, offered mixed support for this hypothesis. The present research used a large nationally representative sample and a longitudinal design to examine the predictive utility of implicit and explicit attitude measures in the 2008 U.S. presidential election. In our analyses, explicit attitudes toward candidates predicted voting better for decided than undecided voters, but implicit candidate attitudes were predictive of voting for both decided and undecided voters. Extending our examination to implicit and explicit racial attitudes, we found the same pattern. Taken together, these results provide convergent evidence that implicit attitudes predict voting about as well for undecided as for decided voters. We also assessed a novel explanation for these effects by evaluating whether implicit attitudes may predict the choices of undecided voters, in part, because they are neglected when people introspect about their confidence. Consistent with this idea, we found that the extremity of explicit but not implicit attitudes was associated with greater confidence. These analyses shed new light on the utility of implicit measures in predicting future behavior among individuals who feel undecided. Considering the prior studies together with this new evidence, the data seem to be consistent that implicit attitudes may be successful in predicting the behavior of undecided voters.
Banse, R; Seise, J; Zerbes, N
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) that was adapted to measure implicit attitudes towards homosexuality. In a first experiment, the validity of the Homosexuality-IAT was tested using a known group approach. Implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed in heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N = 101). The results provided compelling evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the Homosexuality-IAT as a measure of implicit attitudes. No evidence was found for two alternative explanations of IAT effects (familiarity with stimulus material and stereotype knowledge). The internal consistency of IAT scores was satisfactory (alpha s > .80), but retest correlations were lower. In a second experiment (N = 79) it was shown that uninformed participants were able to fake positive explicit but not implicit attitudes. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit attitudes towards homosexuality could be partially accounted for by individual differences in the motivation to control prejudiced behavior, thus providing independent evidence for the validity of the implicit attitude measure. Neither explicit nor implicit attitudes could be changed by persuasive messages. The results of both experiments are interpreted as evidence for a single construct account of implicit and explicit attitudes towards homosexuality.
Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.
Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517
Flusser, Jan; Kautsky, J.; Šroubek, Filip
Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 856-863 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Invariants * implicit invariants * moments * orthogonal polynomials * nonlinear object deformation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http:// staff .utia.cas.cz/sroubekf/papers/CAIP_07.pdf
Kelsey R Thompson
Full Text Available Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.
Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Ziliak
October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...
Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif
‘Nature and nature phenomena’ has formed a specific curriculum theme in Danish preschool since early childhood curriculum was prescribed by law in 2004. However, recent evaluations show that the implementation of an early childhood curriculum has not produced an increased pedagogical focus...... on ‘nature and nature phenomena’ in preschools (EVA 2012). This finding, along with an increased political interest in goals and measurable outcome of early childhood curriculum (Broström 2012), will be the starting point in our ambition to carry out a more thorough qualitative investigation into links...... between preschool teachers’ understanding and interest in teaching nature and the rather poor evaluation....
Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni
Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...
Giuliano, Ryan J; Roos, Leslie E; Farrar, Jessica D; Skowron, Elizabeth A
A child's cumulative risk for early exposure to stress has been linked to alterations of self-regulation outcomes, including neurobiological correlates of inhibitory control (IC). We examined whether children's ability to engage the parasympathetic nervous system impacts how risk affects IC. Children ages 3-5 years completed two laboratory measures of IC while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured, indexing parasympathetic activity. Children with greater risk demonstrated lower IC; risk also moderated associations between RSA reactivity and IC. For children with less risk, greater RSA withdrawal during IC tasks was associated with better IC. In contrast, greater risk was associated with poor IC, regardless of RSA withdrawal. Effects of risk were more pronounced for cumulative than individual measures. Results suggest that cumulative risk exposure disrupts connectivity between physiological and behavioral components of self-regulation in early childhood. Parasympathetic withdrawal to cognitive tasks may be less relevant for performance in developmental samples experiencing greater life stress. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice.
Martha Patricia Sánchez
Full Text Available The present investigation aims to inquire about the capacity of three implicit instruments to measure the attitude toward natural and urban environments. One hundred and three students from a Mexican public university participated in the investigation. The implicit instruments used were the affective priming technique, the implicit association test, and the affect misattribution procedure. Further, an explicit scale was used for comparison. The results showed that all instruments converge in the same way; the nature images were viewed as more pleasant compared to the city images. Also, most results indicated good effect size values, observed power, and reliability, with the exception of the affective priming technique, which established low values. In addition, all instruments indicated weak correlations between each other. The results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the instruments to measure environmental attitudes, and also possible theoretical and methodological implications.
Wijga, AH; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Boshuizen, HC; Brunekreef, B
Background: Environment and lifestyle contribute to the development of asthma in children. Understanding the relevant factors in this relationship may provide methods of prevention. The role of diet in the development of asthma in pre-school children was investigated. Methods: Data from 2978
Zhang, Chenyi; Bingham, Gary E.; Quinn, Margaret F.
The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among children's emergent literacy (early reading), language, executive function (EF), and invented spelling skills across prekindergarten. Participants included 123, primarily African American, 4-year-old children enrolled in a variety of prekindergarten settings. In addition to…
King, Elizabeth K.; Johnson, Amy V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Wang, Yudan C.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.
The current study examined associations among teachers' financial well-being, including teachers' wages and their perceptions of their ability to pay for basic expenses, and teachers' work time supports, including teachers' paid planning time, vacation days, and sick days, and children's positive emotional expressions and behaviors in preschool…
Hur, Eunhye; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.
Background: Early childhood teachers' child-centered beliefs, defined as teachers' attitudes about how children learn, have been associated with teachers' developmentally appropriate practices and positive child outcomes. The predictors of teachers' child-centered beliefs, however, are less frequently explored. Objective: This study tested whether…
Ali H. Al-Hoorie
Full Text Available This paper investigates the attitudinal/motivational predictors of second language (L2 academic achievement. Young adult learners of English as a foreign language (N = 311 completed several self-report measures and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test. Examination of the motivational profiles of high and low achievers revealed that attachment to the L1 community and the ought-to L2 self were negatively associated with achievement, while explicit attitudes toward the L2 course and implicit attitudes toward L2 speakers were positively associated with it. The relationship between implicit attitudes and achievement could not be explained either by social desirability or by other cognitive confounds, and remained significant after controlling for explicit self-report measures. Explicit–implicit congruence also revealed a similar pattern, in that congruent learners were more open to the L2 community and obtained higher achievement. The results also showed that neither the ideal L2 self nor intended effort had any association with actual L2 achievement, and that intended effort was particularly prone to social desirability biases. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Pieters, S.; Vorst, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.
Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1; N
Pieters, S.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1: N
Al-Hoorie, Ali H.
This paper investigates the attitudinal/motivational predictors of second language (L2) academic achievement. Young adult learners of English as a foreign language (N = 311) completed several self-report measures and the Single-Target Implicit Association Test. Examination of the motivational profiles of high and low achievers revealed that…
Chirumbolo, Antonio; Brizi, Ambra; Mastandrea, Stefano; Mannetti, Lucia
Art preferences are affected by a number of subjective factors. This paper reports two studies which investigated whether need for closure shapes implicit art preferences. It was predicted that higher need for closure would negatively affect implicit preferences for abstract art. In study one, 60 participants were tested for dispositional need for closure and then completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) task to measure their implicit preference for abstract (vs. figurative) paintings. In study two, 54 participants completed the same IAT task. In this experiment need for closure was both manipulated by cognitive load and tapped as a dispositional trait. Results of the studies converged in showing that after controlling for other important individual factors such as participants'expertise and cognitive ability, need for closure, both as a dispositional trait and as a situationally induced motivational state, was negatively associated with implicit preference for abstract art.
Full Text Available Art preferences are affected by a number of subjective factors. This paper reports two studies which investigated whether need for closure shapes implicit art preferences. It was predicted that higher need for closure would negatively affect implicit preferences for abstract art. In study one, 60 participants were tested for dispositional need for closure and then completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT task to measure their implicit preference for abstract (vs. figurative paintings. In study two, 54 participants completed the same IAT task. In this experiment need for closure was both manipulated by cognitive load and tapped as a dispositional trait. Results of the studies converged in showing that after controlling for other important individual factors such as participants'expertise and cognitive ability, need for closure, both as a dispositional trait and as a situationally induced motivational state, was negatively associated with implicit preference for abstract art.
Chirumbolo, Antonio; Brizi, Ambra; Mastandrea, Stefano; Mannetti, Lucia
Art preferences are affected by a number of subjective factors. This paper reports two studies which investigated whether need for closure shapes implicit art preferences. It was predicted that higher need for closure would negatively affect implicit preferences for abstract art. In study one, 60 participants were tested for dispositional need for closure and then completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) task to measure their implicit preference for abstract (vs. figurative) paintings. In study two, 54 participants completed the same IAT task. In this experiment need for closure was both manipulated by cognitive load and tapped as a dispositional trait. Results of the studies converged in showing that after controlling for other important individual factors such as participants'expertise and cognitive ability, need for closure, both as a dispositional trait and as a situationally induced motivational state, was negatively associated with implicit preference for abstract art. PMID:25360697
trigger wheeze are more likely to have asthma compared to those with ... The role of airway infections in preschool wheeze ... and immunocompromised patients, with children younger than five ... expiratory flows and volumes were observed in.
J Gordon Millichap
Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.
Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Alfter, Susanne; Mierke, Jan; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Kleiman, Alexandra; Koch, Anne Sarah; Conrad, Rupert
Self-esteem has been claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Whereas explicit self-esteem is usually reduced in depressed individuals, studies on implicitly measured self-esteem in depression exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of results, and the role of implicit self-esteem in depression is still ambiguous. Previous research on implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) revealed that implicit self-esteem can mirror processes of self-esteem compensation under conditions that threaten self-esteem. We assume that depressed individuals experience a permanent threat to their selves resulting in enduring processes of ISEC. We hypothesize that ISEC as measured by implicit self-esteem will decrease when individuals recover from depression. 45 patients with major depression received an integrative in-patient treatment in the Psychosomatic University Hospital Bonn, Germany. Depression was measured by the depression score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Self-esteem was assessed explicitly using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and implicitly by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Test (NLT). As expected for a successful treatment of depression, depression scores declined during the eight weeks of treatment and explicit self-esteem rose. In line with our hypothesis, both measures of implicit self-esteem decreased, indicating reduced processes of ISEC. It still remains unclear, under which conditions there is an overlap of measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. The results lend support to the concept of ISEC and demonstrate the relevance of implicit self-esteem and self-esteem compensation for the understanding of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jónsdóttir, Arna H.
The article examines the aims of the workplace-based learning of prospective preschool teachers in Iceland and associated cooperative practices between the University of Iceland and preschools. A "third space" of collaboration between these two sites is considered necessary if the education of preschool student teachers is to be…
The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...
Berglind, D; Ljung, R; Tynelius, P; Brooke, H L
Cross-sectional studies report that meeting the newly developed 24-h movement guidelines (≥60 min moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), ≤120 min screen time and 9-11 h sleep duration) are associated with lower adiposity indicators in children. However, prospective data are absent. The study sample consisted of 830 children from the PRIMROSE study with GT3X+ accelerometer measured physical activity and parent reported screen time and sleep duration at age 4 years and objectively measured anthropometrics at age 4 and 5 years. The main outcome variables were weight status, body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-score at ages 4 and 5 years. Exposure variables were defined as meeting vs. not meeting the 24-h movement guidelines and combinations of these recommendations. On average, 18.4% of the total study sample met the combination of MVPA, sleep duration and screen time recommendations. In isolation, the MVPA, screen time and sleep guidelines were met by 31%, 63% and 98% of the total study sample, respectively. Adherence to any single recommendation, or any combination of recommendations at age 4 years, was not associated with being overweight or obese nor with BMI and BMI z-score at age 4 or 5 years. In contrast to previous cross-sectional studies, neither individual movement behaviours nor combinations of behaviours at age 4 years was associated with overweight or obesity, BMI or BMI z-score at age 4 or 5 years. More prospective data are needed before effects on weight status from meeting the 24-h movement guidelines are elucidated. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.
Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G
Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.
Marini, M.; Sriram, N.; Schnabel, K.; Maliszewski, N.; Devos, T.; Ekehammer, B.; Wiers, R.; HuaJian, C.; Somogyi, M.; Shiomura, K.; Schnall, S.; Neto, F.; Bar-Anan, Y.; Vianello, M.; Ayala, A.; Dorantes, G.; Park, J.; Kesebir, S.; Pereira, A.; Tulbure, B.; Ortner, T.; Stepanikova, I.; Greenwald, A.G.; Nosek, B.A.
Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural
Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight--factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.
Svensson, Viktoria; Lundborg, Linda; Cao, Yingting; Nowicka, Paulina; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja
The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a
Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years, recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47. Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status
Sachs, Nicole M; Veysey, Bonita M; Rivera, Luis M
Past research on victimization has relied predominantly on individuals' awareness of and willingness to self-report a victimization experience and its effect on self and identity processes. The present research adopts theoretical and methodological innovations in implicit social cognition research to provide a new perspective on how a violent victimization experience might influence identity processes outside of conscious awareness. Our main goal was to test whether individuals who have victimization experience implicitly associate the self with victims (implicit victim identity) and their stereotypes (implicit victim self-stereotyping), and the relation of these associations to explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. Two pretests with undergraduate student participants ( Ns = 122 and 72) identified victim-related word stimuli for two Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) measures of implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. In Pretest Study A, participants read crime vignettes and listed words that described a victim, then in Pretest Study B, participants rated these words on victim relatedness and valence. The Main Study recruited undergraduate student participants ( N = 101) who completed the SC-IATs, self-report measures of explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, and victimization experiences. Three of our five hypotheses were supported. Individuals with past victimization experience exhibited strong explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, but not implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, relative to those with no victimization experience. Explicit and implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping were unrelated. Finally, among individuals with victimization experience, a strong implicit victim identity was associated with strong implicit victim self-stereotyping. This research has implications for understanding the processes underlying revictimization and for preventing further victimization.
Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and interpersonal traumatization are frequently associated with trauma-related guilt and shame. However, research on generalized guilt and shame in PTSD is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate generalized explicit and implicit guilt and shame in interpersonal traumatization and PTSD. Interpersonally traumatized women either with PTSD (n = 28) or without PTSD (n = 32) and 32 nontraumatized women completed the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 and the Implicit Association Test to measure explicit and implicit guilt and shame. Explicit guilt and shame were significantly higher in women with PTSD than in traumatized women without PTSD. Traumatized women without PTSD showed significantly higher levels of explicit guilt and shame than nontraumatized women did. PTSD was associated with implicit guilt but not implicit shame. In addition to trauma-related guilt and shame, generalized explicit guilt and shame and implicit guilt seem to play a crucial role in PTSD.
Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Choe, Myong-sun; Flax, Judy; Grant, P Ellen; Benasich, April A
Recently, structural MRI studies in children have been used to examine relations between brain volume and behavioral measures. However, most of these studies have been done in children older than 2 years of age. Obtaining volumetric measures in infants is considerably more difficult, as structures are less well defined and largely unmyelinated, making segmentation challenging. Moreover, it is still unclear whether individual anatomic variation across development, in healthy, normally developing infants, is reflected in the configuration and function of the mature brain and, as importantly, whether variation in infant brain structure might be related to later cognitive and linguistic abilities. In this longitudinal study, using T1 structural MRI, we identified links between amygdala volume in normally developing, naturally sleeping, 6-month infants and their subsequent language abilities at 2, 3 and 4 years. The images were processed and manually segmented using Cardviews to extract volumetric measures. Intra-rater reliability for repeated segmentation was 87.73% of common voxel agreement. Standardized language assessments were administered at 6 and 12 months and at 2, 3 and 4 years. Significant and consistent correlations were found between amygdala size and language abilities. Children with larger right amygdalae at 6 months had lower scores on expressive and receptive language measures at 2, 3, and 4 years. Associations between amygdala size and language outcomes have been reported in children with autism. The findings presented here extend this association to normally developing children, supporting the idea that the amygdalae might play an important but as yet unspecified role in mediating language acquisition. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer
This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…
Full Text Available Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory, as opposed to malleable (incremental theory, is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention. We propose the first study on conceptions of intelligence of persons with intellectual disabilities, here people with Down syndrome. Participants were 55 professionally qualified people working with individuals with intellectual disabilities and 81 adults from the community. We compared what both groups of participants believe about intelligence of typical people and what they believe about the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome. We also investigated implicit theories of intelligence as predictors of explicit judgments about intelligence and implicit attitudes toward people with Down syndrome. Whatever the work experience in the field of intellectual disability, implicit theories of intelligence were found to be less incremental when considering people with Down syndrome than when considering typical people; and the stronger the belief in entity theory, the more negative (and less positive the judgments expressed explicitly. Implicit theories of intelligence were also found to be predictors of negative implicit attitude but only in adults from the community. These findings offer prospects for improving practices by people working in the field of intellectual disability. They might interest a wide range of people caring for people with intellectual disabilities, such as teachers, but also other professional caregivers
Enea-Drapeau, Claire; Carlier, Michèle; Huguet, Pascal
Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence) are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory), as opposed to malleable (incremental theory), is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention. We propose the first study on conceptions of intelligence of persons with intellectual disabilities, here people with Down syndrome. Participants were 55 professionally qualified people working with individuals with intellectual disabilities and 81 adults from the community. We compared what both groups of participants believe about intelligence of typical people and what they believe about the intelligence of individuals with Down syndrome. We also investigated implicit theories of intelligence as predictors of explicit judgments about intelligence and implicit attitudes toward people with Down syndrome. Whatever the work experience in the field of intellectual disability, implicit theories of intelligence were found to be less incremental when considering people with Down syndrome than when considering typical people; and the stronger the belief in entity theory, the more negative (and less positive) the judgments expressed explicitly. Implicit theories of intelligence were also found to be predictors of negative implicit attitude but only in adults from the community. These findings offer prospects for improving practices by people working in the field of intellectual disability. They might interest a wide range of people caring for people with intellectual disabilities, such as teachers, but also other professional caregivers, and other
Full Text Available Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16. The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77. For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all ps<0.001. The simple correlation between implicit self-esteem and age was significant, r = -.25, p = 1. 10(-10. A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = -0.19, t = -3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse "U" shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition.
Benitez, Viridiana L; Vales, Catarina; Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B
Stability and flexibility are fundamental to an intelligent cognitive system. Here, we examined the relationship between stability in selective attention and explicit control of flexible attention. Preschoolers were tested on the Dimension Preference (DP) task, which measures the stability of selective attention to an implicitly primed dimension, and the Dimension Change Card Sort (DCCS) task, which measures flexible attention switching between dimensions. Children who successfully switched on the DCCS task were more likely than those who perseverated to sustain attention to the primed dimension on the DP task across trials. We propose that perseverators have less stable attention and distribute their attention between dimensions, whereas switchers can successfully stabilize attention to individual dimensions and, thus, show more enduring priming effects. Flexible attention may emerge, in part, from implicit processes that stabilize attention even in tasks not requiring switching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7% was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4% (P=0.009. There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P=0.023, respiratory infections (P=0.036, deep sleep (P=0.007, corporal punishment at school (P=0.036, anal itching (P=0.043, and history of seizures (P=0.043. Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.
Kvist, T; Zedrén-Sunemo, J; Graca, E; Dahllöf, G
To study if treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is associated with dental neglect or dental disability. This was a retrospective study. Dental records of all children in the age 0-6 years who underwent GA at a specialist paediatric dentistry clinic during 2006-2011 were studied with regard to decayed-missed-filled teeth, traumatic injuries, emergency visits, behaviour management problems and the history of attendance. The final sample consisted of 134 children. Matched controls were selected among recall patients who had not received treatment under GA. Fishers exact test or Pearson Chi-square test analysed response distribution and comparisons between groups, and for multivariate analyses, logistic regression was used. The results show that children treated under GA had significantly higher caries prevalence, apical periodontitis and infections due to pulpal necrosis. Dental neglect as well as dental disability was significantly more prevalent in the GA group compared to the control group. In a multivariate analysis with dental neglect as independent factor, dental disability was the only significant factor (p = 0.006). Children treated under general anaesthesia were significantly more often diagnosed with both dental neglect and dental disability. Dental disability was the only factor significantly related to dental neglect. There is a need for improved documentation in the dental records to better identify dental neglect and dental disability, and also a continued training of dentists regarding child protection.
Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza
Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.
Tóth, G.; Keppens, R.; Bochev, Mikhail A.
We describe and evaluate various implicit and semi-implicit time integration schemes applied to the numerical simulation of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical problems. The schemes were implemented recently in the software package Versatile Advection Code, which uses modern shock capturing
Knapp, Charles E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.
Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta
In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...
Rees, Heather Rose; Rivers, Andrew Michael; Sherman, Jeffrey W
Research has found that implementation intentions, if-then action plans (e.g., "if I see a Black face, I will think safe"), reduce stereotyping on implicit measures. However, it is unknown by what process(es) implementation intentions reduce implicit stereotyping. The present research examines the effects of implementation intentions on stereotype activation (e.g., extent to which stereotypic information is accessible) and stereotype application (e.g., extent to which accessible stereotypes are applied in judgment). In addition, we assessed the efficiency of implementation intentions by manipulating cognitive resources (e.g., digit-span, restricted response window) while participants made judgments on an implicit stereotyping measure. Across four studies, implementation intentions reduced implicit stereotyping. This decrease in stereotyping was associated with reductions in both stereotype activation and application. In addition, these effects of implementation intentions were highly efficient and associated with reduced stereotyping even for groups for which people may have little practice inhibiting stereotypes (e.g., gender).
Howe, David; Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A
Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Positive changes in explicit attitudes were observed both in participants with false memories and participants with false beliefs. In contrast, only participants with false memories exhibited more positive implicit attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of theories of explicit and implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Green, Jennifer S.; Teachman, Bethany A.
We examined the predictive validity of explicit and implicit measures of threat overestimation in relation to contamination-fear outcomes using structural equation modeling. Undergraduate students high in contamination fear (N = 56) completed explicit measures of contamination threat likelihood and severity, as well as looming vulnerability cognitions, in addition to an implicit measure of danger associations with potential contaminants. Participants also completed measures of contamination-fear symptoms, as well as subjective distress and avoidance during a behavioral avoidance task, and state looming vulnerability cognitions during an exposure task. The latent explicit (but not implicit) threat overestimation variable was a significant and unique predictor of contamination fear symptoms and self-reported affective and cognitive facets of contamination fear. On the contrary, the implicit (but not explicit) latent measure predicted behavioral avoidance (at the level of a trend). Results are discussed in terms of differential predictive validity of implicit versus explicit markers of threat processing and multiple fear response systems. PMID:24073390
Lazarević Ljiljana B.
Full Text Available Some authors state that one of the functions of explicit homophobia is defensive, and that it has roots in latent attraction towards same sex. Large body of evidence suggests that implicit techniques enable assessment of those cognitions hidden from conscious awareness. Sample of 277 heterosexuals completed several implicit (Implicit Association Test-IAT and Affective Priming-AP and explicit measures of attitude (Test of homophobia and Connotative differential. Multi-group SEM analysis was done to investigate cross-sample stability of the model postulating influence of IAT and AP factors on latent explicit factor. Analyses suggest that both in males and females IAT latent factor predicts negative explicit attitude. Results revealed that explicit homophobia is related to implicit, negative attitude toward homosexuals and not to implicit attraction towards same sex. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 179033
Dai, Wenlong; Woodward, P.R.
An iterative implicit-explicit hybrid scheme is proposed for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Each wave in a system may be implicitly, or explicitly, or partially implicitly and partially explicitly treated depending on its associated Courant number in each numerical cell, and the scheme is able to smoothly switch between implicit and explicit calculations. The scheme is of Godunov-type in both explicit and implicit regimes, is in a strict conservation form, and is accurate to second-order in both space and time for all Courant numbers. The computer code for the scheme is easy to vectorize. Multicolors proposed in this paper may reduce the number of iterations required to reach a converged solution by several orders for a large time step. The feature of the scheme is shown through numerical examples. 38 refs., 12 figs
Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.
Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J
Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.
Full Text Available Although the measurement of implicit (i.e., automatic evaluations is widespread, little is known about their origins. Some researchers have argued that implicit evaluations develop early in life through socialisation processes and are stable over time. In two studies this assumption was questioned for implicit anxiety by asking participants about their childhood fears and participants' mothers about their children's childhood fears (Study 1: 'N' = 230. Furthermore, pairs of siblings were asked about their parents rearing behaviour (Study 2: 'N' = 120 sibling pairs. Implicit anxiety (measured with the Implicit Association Test – IAT was not correlated with recalled anxiety in childhood, independent of whether the latter was self-assessed or rated by participants' mothers. Also, implicit anxiety (measured with the Single-Category-IAT was neither correlated with parents rearing behaviour nor had siblings similar implicit anxiety scores. These results suggest that implicit anxiety is either not built in childhood or not stable over time (or both. Possible explanations and implications for future research are discussed.
Schmid, Petra C; Amodio, David M
Power is thought to increase discrimination toward subordinate groups, yet its effect on different forms of implicit bias remains unclear. We tested whether power enhances implicit racial stereotyping, in addition to implicit prejudice (i.e., evaluative associations), and examined the effect of power on the automatic processing of faces during implicit tasks. Study 1 showed that manipulated high power increased both forms of implicit bias, relative to low power. Using a neural index of visual face processing (the N170 component of the ERP), Study 2 revealed that power affected the encoding of White ingroup vs. Black outgroup faces. Whereas high power increased the relative processing of outgroup faces during evaluative judgments in the prejudice task, it decreased the relative processing of outgroup faces during stereotype trait judgments. An indirect effect of power on implicit prejudice through enhanced processing of outgroup versus ingroup faces suggested a potential link between face processing and implicit bias. Together, these findings demonstrate that power can affect implicit prejudice and stereotyping as well as early processing of racial ingroup and outgroup faces.
Areljung, Sofie; Ottander, Christina; Due, Karin
This study explores if and how teachers combine practices of science and of preschool (children 1-5 years old) into preschool science practice. Views of knowing may differ between science practices, traditionally associated with masculinity and rationality, and preschool practices, traditionally associated with femininity and caring. Recognising this, we have chosen to focus on how teachers' talk constructs and relates to possible ways of gaining knowledge and reaching explanations of phenomena in preschool science. The analysis builds on two concept pairs often associated with gender as well as knowing: objective-subjective and logical-intuitive. The analysed material consists of 11 group interviews where preschool teachers talk about activities concerning science content. Our results show that several ways of knowing are possible in work with science content in preschool. These include ways of knowing more associated with subjectivity, such as `individual liking' and `whole-body perception', as well as more associated with objectivity, such as `noticing differences and similarities'. Furthermore, the results show that the teachers' talk moves readily between possibilities associated with femininity (subjective and intuitive) and masculinity (objective and logical). This indicates that the teachers in this study have found ways to handle science in preschool that goes against presumed tensions between science and preschool practices. The results contribute to more nuanced ways of describing and thinking about science in preschool and pave the way for further development of science education in early childhood education.
Effting, Marieke; Salemink, Elske; Verschuere, Bruno; Beckers, Tom
Avoidance behavior is central to several anxiety disorders. The current study tested whether avoidance behavior for spiders depends on a dynamic interplay between implicit and explicit processes, moderated by the availability to exert control through working memory capacity (WMC). A total of 63 participants completed an approach-avoidance task, an implicit association test, a spider fear questionnaire and a behavioral avoidance test that included an assessment of approach distance as well as approach speed. WMC was measured by a complex operation span task. It was hypothesized that in individuals with low WMC, implicit avoidance tendencies and implicit negative associations predict avoidance behavior for a spider better than the explicit measure, whereas in high WMC individuals, the explicit measure should better predict avoidance behavior than the implicit measures. Results revealed that WMC moderated the influence of implicit negative associations, but not implicit avoidance tendencies, on spider approach distance but not the speed of approaching. Although explicit spider fear directly influenced avoidance behavior, its impact was not modulated by WMC. Participants in our study were from a non-clinical sample, which limits the generalizability of our findings. These findings suggest that implicit processes might become more pertinent for fear behavior as the ability to control such processes wanes, which may be particularly relevant for anxiety disorders given their association with lowered executive control functioning. As such, training procedures that specifically target implicit processes or control abilities might improve treatment outcomes for anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phelan, Sean M.; Dovidio, John F.; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Burgess, Diana J.; Nelson, David B.; Yeazel, Mark W.; Hardeman, Rachel; Perry, Sylvia; van Ryn, Michelle
Objective To examine the magnitude of explicit and implicit weight biases compared to biases against other groups; and identify student factors predicting bias in a large national sample of medical students. Design and Methods A web-based survey was completed by 4732 1st year medical students from 49 medical schools as part of a longitudinal study of medical education. The survey included a validated measure of implicit weight bias, the implicit association test, and 2 measures of explicit bi...
weight was 14.4% (95% CI = 13.1% to 15.8% and in SC, 7.5% (95% CI = 6.5% to 8.7%. The variables associated with excess weight were number of household members, maternal education, marital status, number of children, mother's age at birth of first child, gestational age, and birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Children enrolled in public preschools in RS had a two-fold higher excess weight prevalence than that identified in SC, demonstrating a significant difference in the magnitude of childhood obesity in two Brazilian states located in the same region.
.... The two problems associated with this simulation; boundary layers and entering flows with non-aligned characteristics, have been successfully overcome through the combination of a plane-implicit solver and semicoarsening...
Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola
Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.
Silva-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Amanda; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge
The aim of this study was to examine the association between motor fitness (MF) and obesity status in preschool children. The sample comprised 467 children aged 3-6 years. Preschool children body mass index was classiﬁed according to International Obesity Task Force and categorised into three levels, normal, overweight and obesity. Total physical activity was assessed by accelerometer and MF test was assessed through two MF tests 10 × 5m shuttle run test (SRT) and a 7 m jumping distance on 2 feet test (J2F). Low MF was considered for MF if SD above 1. A single variable with three categories was created: low MF medium MF and high MF. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity was 67.6%, 22.7% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of SD > 1 for SRT was 13.7% and 14.4% for J2F, for single variable was 19.2%. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that obese preschoolers were more likely six times classified as having low MF level than their non-overweight counterparts (OR: 6.4; IC: 1.3-36.6). This study showed a considerable prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers. Obesity has already been associated with lower MF. Further longitudinal studies are needed to conﬁrm this data.
Phillips, Nicole A; Tannan, Shruti C; Kalliainen, Loree K
Although explicit sex-based discrimination has largely been deemed unacceptable in professional settings, implicit gender bias persists and results in a significant lack of parity in plastic surgery and beyond. Implicit gender bias is the result of a complex interplay of cultural and societal expectations, learned behaviors, and standardized associations. As such, both male and female surgeons are subject to its influence. A review of the literature was conducted, examining theories of gender bias, current manifestations of gender bias in plastic surgery and other fields, and interventions designed to address gender bias. Multiple studies demonstrate persistent gender bias that impacts female physicians at all levels of training. Several institutions have enacted successful interventions to identify and address gender bias. Explicit gender bias has largely disappeared, yet unconscious or implicit gender bias persists. A wide-scale commitment to addressing implicit gender bias in plastic surgery is necessary and overdue. Recommendations include immediate actions that can be undertaken on an individual basis, and changes that should be implemented at a national and international level by leaders in the field.
Full Text Available Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD and depersonalization disorder (DPD, fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n=18, DPD (n=18, and healthy control (n=35 participants. DPD participants had significantly higher implicit self-esteem and were more harm avoidant than BPD and control participants, while BPD participants had more ‘frontal’ behaviors and impulsivity and less self-directedness and cooperativeness than DPD and control participants. Thus, while BPD and DPD commonly overlap in terms of dissociative symptoms and emotional irregularities, differences in self-esteem, behavior, and temperament can help identify where they diverge in terms of their cognition, behavior, and ultimately underlying neurobiology.
Teachman, Bethany A; Woody, Sheila R; Magee, Joshua C
To evaluate cognitive theories of obsessions, the current study experimentally manipulated appraisals of the importance of intrusive thoughts. Undergraduate students (N = 156) completed measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and beliefs and were primed with a list of commonly reported unwanted thoughts. Participants were then informed that unwanted thoughts are either (1) significant and indicative of their personal values, or (2) meaningless, or participants (3) received no instructions about unwanted thoughts. Participants then completed implicit and explicit measures of self-evaluation and interpretations of their unwanted thoughts. Results indicated that the manipulation shifted implicit appraisals of unwanted thoughts in the expected direction, but not self-evaluations of morality or dangerousness. Interestingly, explicit self-esteem and beliefs about the significance of unwanted thoughts were associated with measures of OCD beliefs, whereas implicit self-evaluations of dangerousness were better predicted by the interaction of pre-existing OCD beliefs with the manipulation. Results are discussed in terms of divergent predictors of implicit and explicit responses to unwanted thoughts.
Full Text Available A reflection between a pair of contours is more rapidly detected than a translation, but this effect is stronger when the contours are closed to form a single object compared to when they are closed to form 2 objects with a gap between them. That is, grouping changes the relative salience of different regularities. We tested whether this manipulation would also change preference for reflection or translation. We measured preference for these patterns using the Implicit Association Test (IAT. On some trials, participants saw words that were either positive or negative and had to classify them as quickly as possible. On interleaved trials, they saw reflection or translation patterns and again had to classify them. Participants were faster when 1 button was used for reflection and positive words and another button was used for translation and negative words, compared to when the reverse response mapping was used (translation and positive vs. reflection and negative. This reaction time difference indicates an implicit preference for reflection over translation. However, the size of the implicit preference was significantly reduced in the Two-objects condition. We concluded that factors that affect perceptual sensitivity also systematically affect implicit preference formation.
Wolf, L.J.; Maio, G.R.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Leygue, C.
Because of the innocence and dependence of children, it would be reassuring to believe that implicit racial prejudice against out-group children is lower than implicit prejudice against out-group adults. Yet, prior research has not directly tested whether or not adults exhibit less spontaneous
Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.
The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…
De Houwer, Jan; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan; Moors, Agnes
Implicit measures can be defined as outcomes of measurement procedures that are caused in an automatic manner by psychological attributes. To establish that a measurement outcome is an implicit measure, one should examine (a) whether the outcome is causally produced by the psychological attribute it was designed to measure, (b) the nature of the…
Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.
Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina
Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children's food
Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Coenders, M.T.A.
We study effects of explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in hiring. Unlike explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes are characterised by reduced controllability, awareness or intention. Effects of implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in the labour
Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L. L.; Yang, Jing
Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77). For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all psself-esteem and age was significant, r = −.25, p = 1.0×10−10. A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = −0.19, t = −3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse “U” shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition. PMID:24587169
Keyes, David E.
The main goal of this project was efficient distributed parallel and workstation cluster implementations of Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) solvers for implicit Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD.) "Newton" refers to a quadratically convergent nonlinear iteration using gradient information based on the true residual, "Krylov" to an inner linear iteration that accesses the Jacobian matrix only through highly parallelizable sparse matrix-vector products, and "Schwarz" to a domain decomposition form of preconditioning the inner Krylov iterations with primarily neighbor-only exchange of data between the processors. Prior experience has established that Newton-Krylov methods are competitive solvers in the CFD context and that Krylov-Schwarz methods port well to distributed memory computers. The combination of the techniques into Newton-Krylov-Schwarz was implemented on 2D and 3D unstructured Euler codes on the parallel testbeds that used to be at LaRC and on several other parallel computers operated by other agencies or made available by the vendors. Early implementations were made directly in Massively Parallel Integration (MPI) with parallel solvers we adapted from legacy NASA codes and enhanced for full NKS functionality. Later implementations were made in the framework of the PETSC library from Argonne National Laboratory, which now includes pseudo-transient continuation Newton-Krylov-Schwarz solver capability (as a result of demands we made upon PETSC during our early porting experiences). A secondary project pursued with funding from this contract was parallel implicit solvers in acoustics, specifically in the Helmholtz formulation. A 2D acoustic inverse problem has been solved in parallel within the PETSC framework.
Chan, Derwin King Chung; Keatley, David A; Tang, Tracy C W; Dimmock, James A; Hagger, Martin S
This preliminary study examined whether implicit doping attitude, explicit doping attitude, or both, predicted athletes' vigilance towards unintentional doping. A cross-sectional correlational design. Australian athletes (N=143;M age =18.13, SD=4.63) completed measures of implicit doping attitude (brief single-category implicit association test), explicit doping attitude (Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale), avoidance of unintentional doping (Self-Reported Treatment Adherence Scale), and behavioural vigilance task of unintentional doping (reading the ingredients of an unfamiliar food product). Positive implicit doping attitude and explicit doping attitude were negatively related to athletes' likelihood of reading the ingredients table of an unfamiliar food product, and positively related to athletes' vigilance towards unintentional doping. Neither attitude measures predicted avoidance of unintentional doping. Overall, the magnitude of associations by implicit doping attitude appeared to be stronger than that of explicit doping attitude. Athletes with positive implicit and explicit doping attitudes were less likely to read the ingredients table of an unknown food product, but were more likely to be aware of the possible presence of banned substances in a certain food product. Implicit doping attitude appeared to explain athletes' behavioural response to the avoidance of unintentional doping beyond variance explained by explicit doping attitude. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Carol T; Varni, Susan E; Solomon, Sondra E; DeSarno, Michael J; Bunn, Janice Y
This study examined how community levels of implicit HIV prejudice are associated with the psychological and physical well-being of people with HIV living in those same communities. It also examined whether community motivation to control prejudice and/or explicit HIV prejudice moderates the relationship of implicit prejudice and well-being. Participants were 206 people with HIV living in 42 different communities in New England who completed measures that assessed psychological distress, thriving, and physical well-being. Telephone surveys of 347 residents of these same communities (selected via random digit dialing) were used to assess community explicit HIV prejudice and motivation to control HIV prejudice. These community residents then completed an online measure of implicit prejudice toward people with HIV, the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Multilevel analyses showed that higher community implicit HIV prejudice was associated with greater psychological distress among residents with HIV living in that community. The physical well-being of participants with HIV was negatively related to community implicit HIV prejudice in communities in which residents were unmotivated to control HIV prejudice or had high levels of explicit HIV prejudice. These findings indicate that implicit prejudice of residents of real-world communities may create an environment that may impair the well-being of stigmatized people. Implicit prejudice can therefore be considered an element of macro-level or structural stigma. The discussion considered the possible role of implicit HIV prejudice on a community's social capital as a pathway by which it compromises the well-being of residents with HIV. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Barch, Deanna M; Carter, Cameron S; Gold, James M; Johnson, Sheri L; Kring, Ann M; MacDonald, Angus W; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Ragland, J Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M; Strauss, Milton E
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically. None of the diagnostic groups differed significantly from controls on the implicit RL tasks in either bias toward a rewarded response or bias away from a punished response. However, on the explicit RL task, both the individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder performed significantly worse than controls, but the individuals with bipolar did not. Worse performance on the explicit RL task, but not the implicit RL task, was related to worse motivation and pleasure symptoms across all diagnostic categories. Performance on explicit RL, but not implicit RL, was related to working memory, which accounted for some of the diagnostic group differences. However, working memory did not account for the relationship of explicit RL to motivation and pleasure symptoms. These findings suggest transdiagnostic relationships across the spectrum of psychotic disorders between motivation and pleasure impairments and explicit RL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dimaro, Lian V; Roberts, Nicole A; Moghaddam, Nima G; Dawson, David L; Brown, Ian; Reuber, Markus
Self-esteem (SE), or one's sense of competence and worth, is reduced in many mental and physical disorders. Low SE is associated with perceived stigma and disability and poor treatment outcomes. The present study examined implicit and explicit SE (automatic and deliberate views about the self) in people with epilepsy and people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE have been found to correlate with psychological distress in disorders often associated with PNESs but are relatively unexplored in PNESs. We hypothesized that, compared with epilepsy, PNESs would be associated with lower self-reported SE and greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE. Thirty adults with PNESs, 25 adults with epilepsy, and 31 controls without a history of seizures were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale as a measure of explicit SE and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a measure of implicit SE. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (a somatic symptom inventory) were also administered. We found significant group differences in explicit (p<0.001) but not implicit SE. Patients with PNESs reported lower SE than the other groups. No group differences were found in implicit SE. Implicit-explicit SE discrepancies were larger in the group with PNESs than in the other groups (p<0.001). Higher frequency of PNESs (but not epileptic seizures) was associated with lower explicit SE (rs=-.83, p<0.01) and greater SE discrepancies (i.e., lower explicit relative to implicit SE; rs=.65, p<0.01). These relationships remained significant when controlling for anxiety and somatization. Patients with PNESs had lower explicit SE than those with epilepsy or healthy controls. In keeping with our expectations, there were greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE among patients with PNESs than in the other groups. Our results, including the strong relationship between
Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Corrigan, Patrick W
Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person ("genetic essentialism"), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, was assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with not only less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goff, Phillip Atiba; Eberhardt, Jennifer L; Williams, Melissa J; Jackson, Matthew Christian
Historical representations explicitly depicting Blacks as apelike have largely disappeared in the United States, yet a mental association between Blacks and apes remains. Here, the authors demonstrate that U.S. citizens implicitly associate Blacks and apes. In a series of laboratory studies, the authors reveal how this association influences study participants' basic cognitive processes and significantly alters their judgments in criminal justice contexts. Specifically, this Black-ape association alters visual perception and attention, and it increases endorsement of violence against Black suspects. In an archival study of actual criminal cases, the authors show that news articles written about Blacks who are convicted of capital crimes are more likely to contain ape-relevant language than news articles written about White convicts. Moreover, those who are implicitly portrayed as more apelike in these articles are more likely to be executed by the state than those who are not. The authors argue that examining the subtle persistence of specific historical representations such as these may not only enhance contemporary research on dehumanization, stereotyping, and implicit processes but also highlight common forms of discrimination that previously have gone unrecognized. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian
We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…
Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.
In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646
Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Bentall, Richard P
Self-esteem is a key feature of bipolar symptomatology. However, so far no study has examined the interaction between explicit and implicit self-esteem in individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional design was employed. Thirty children of parents with bipolar disorder and 30 offspring of control parents completed Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale, the Self-esteem Rating Scale and the Implicit Association Test. No differences between groups were revealed in levels of explicit or implicit self-esteem. However, bipolar offspring showed increased levels of symptoms of depression and mania. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were associated with low explicit self-esteem, whilst symptoms of mania were associated with low implicit self-esteem. When self-esteem discrepancies were examined, damaged self-esteem (i.e., low explicit but high implicit self-esteem) was associated with depression, whilst no associations between mania and self-esteem discrepancies were found. Not only explicit, but also implicit self-esteem, and the interactions between the two are of relevance in bipolar symptoms. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Explicit as well as implicit SE, and particularly their relationship, are relevant for mental health. Fluctuations in implicit SE may serve as an early indicator for risk of bipolarity. Psychotherapeutic approaches may be more suitable for one kind of SE challenge than the other. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Kindergarten in Victoria, Australia is the preschool year, attended by children who are four going on five, and who will go onto primary school the following year. These are part-time programs, run over a small number of sessions per week, typically for 3-5 hours per session for 10-12 hours per week. North West Brunswick Kindergarten, in the…
Arizona Department of Education, 2007
Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…
In emphasizing the importance of play and toys in a child's development, this article describes the kinds of toys suitable for preschool children of all ages. Floor toys, building and hammering toys, transport, and imaginative and creative play are some of the topics covered. (JK)
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Schulze-Halberg, A.; Garcia-Ravelo, J.; Pena Gil, Jose Juan
We generalize the semiclassical Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization rule to an exact, implicit spectral formula for linear, generalized Schroedinger equations admitting a discrete spectrum. Special cases include the position-dependent mass Schroedinger equation or the Schroedinger equation for weighted energy. Requiring knowledge of the potential and the solution associated with the lowest spectral value, our formula predicts the complete spectrum in its exact form. (author)
Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine
Research findings The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results indicated that children were afforded an average of 24 and 26 minutes of mathematics and science learning opportunities, respectively, corresponding to spending approximately 25% of total instructional time in each domain. Considerable variability existed, however, in the amounts and types of mathematics and science opportunities provided to children in their classrooms; to some extent, this variability was associated with teachers’ years of experience, teachers’ levels of education, and the socioeconomic status of children served in the program. Practice/policy Although results suggest greater integration of mathematics and science in preschool classrooms than previously established, there was considerable diversity in the amounts and types of learning opportunities provided in preschool classrooms. Affording mathematics and science experiences to all preschool children, as outlined in professional and state standards, may require additional professional development aimed at increasing preschool teachers’ understanding and implementation of learning opportunities in these two domains in their classrooms. PMID:25489205
Johansson, Emma Kristin; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger; Lind, Tomas; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Asad, Samina; Bradley, Maria; Liedén, Agne; Ballardini, Natalia; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik
Information on factors of importance for remission of eczema is scarce. This study explored factors related to the remission and course of preschool eczema (eczema at 1, 2 and/or 4 years of age) to 16 years of age (n = 889) in a Swedish cohort. Half of the children were in complete remission by school age. In multivariate prognostic models, persistent preschool eczema (eczema at 1, 2 and 4 years of age) (odds ratio 0.27 (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.41)), preschool eczema with sleep disturbance (due to itch at least once a week at 1, 2 and/or 4 years of age) (0.59 (0.43-0.81)), parental allergy (0.73 (0.55-0.96)), parental smoking at child's birth (0.70 (0.50-0.99)) and filaggrin mutation (R501X, R2447X, 2282del4) (0.47 (0.26-0.85)) were inversely associated with complete remission by school age. Male sex (1.37 (1.03-1.82)) and exclusive breastfeeding ≥4 months (1.44 (1.01-2.05)) were positively associated with complete remission by school age. In conclusion, half of the children with preschool eczema were in complete remission by school age. The most important prognostic factors were persistent preschool eczema and preschool eczema with sleep disturbance due to itch.
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fulton, Jessica J; McLemore, Chandler
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the association between explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes was moderated by implicit self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 210 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships to complete measures of their explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, mate retention strategies, and likelihood of future infidelity. Implicit self-esteem was found to moderate the association between high explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes for male participants such that men with discrepant high self-esteem (i.e., high explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem) reported less use of mate retention strategies and perceived a greater likelihood of future infidelity in their relationships during the next year. These findings provide additional support for the idea that fragile self-esteem may have consequences for the manner in which individuals perceive their relationships.
Pham, Xiuzhi; Smith, Katherine R; Sheppard, Suzette J; Bradshaw, Carolyn; Lo, Eric; Davidson, Andrew J
Implicit memory cannot be consciously recalled but may be revealed by changes in behavior. There is evidence for implicit memory formation during anesthesia in adults, but several studies in children have found no evidence for implicit memory. This may be due to insensitive testing. Also many of these tests were undertaken under controlled conditions. It remains unknown whether implicit memory is formed during routine pediatric anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia in children, using a degraded auditory stimulus recognition task. Three hundred and twelve children, aged 5-12 yr, were randomly assigned to be played either a sheep sound or white noise continuously through headphones during general anesthesia. No attempt was made to standardize the anesthetic. On recovery, children were played a sheep sound degraded by a white noise mask that progressively decreased over 60 s, with the outcome being the time taken to correctly recognize the sheep sound. Three hundred children completed the task. A comparison of the distribution of recognition times between the two groups found little evidence that exposure to a sheep sound during anesthesia was associated with postoperative time to recognition of a degraded sheep sound (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% CI of 0.90-1.43, P = 0.28). No implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia was demonstrated in children. It is increasingly likely that the potential clinical implications of implicit memory formation are less of a concern for pediatric anesthetists.
Gutierrez, Belinda; Kaatz, Anna; Chu, Sarah; Ramirez, Dennis; Samson-Samuel, Clem; Carnes, Molly
Having diverse faculty in academic health centers will help diversify the healthcare workforce and reduce health disparities. Implicit race bias is one factor that contributes to the underrepresentation of Black faculty. We designed the videogame "Fair Play" in which players assume the role of a Black graduate student named Jamal Davis. As Jamal, players experience subtle race bias while completing "quests" to obtain a science degree. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to play the game would have greater empathy for Jamal and lower implicit race bias than participants randomized to read narrative text describing Jamal's experience. University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate students were recruited via e-mail and randomly assigned to play "Fair Play" or read narrative text through an online link. Upon completion, participants took an Implicit Association Test to measure implicit bias and answered survey questions assessing empathy toward Jamal and awareness of bias. As hypothesized, gameplayers showed the least implicit bias but only when they also showed high empathy for Jamal (P=0.013). Gameplayers did not show greater empathy than text readers, and women in the text condition reported the greatest empathy for Jamal (P=0.008). However, high empathy only predicted lower levels of implicit bias among those who actively took Jamal's perspective through gameplay (P=0.014). A videogame in which players experience subtle race bias as a Black graduate student has the potential to reduce implicit bias, possibly because of a game's ability to foster empathy through active perspective taking.
Smeijers, Danique; Vrijsen, Janna N; van Oostrom, Iris; Isaac, Linda; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike
Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study. To measure ESE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Preference Task (NLPT) were used to assess ISE. RDs reported lower ESE than NDs. However, the two groups did not differ on ISE. RDs exhibited a damaged self-esteem or a low-congruent self-esteem, similar to what has been found in currently depressed patients. Moreover, damaged self-esteem was associated with residual depressive symptoms. The results need to be interpreted with care because the IAT and NLPT did not reveal the same associations with the clinical measures. Implicit and explicit self-esteem may be different constructs in depression and studying the combination is important. The present study provides evidence indicating that damaged self-esteem may be more detrimental than low congruent self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.