WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool deaf children

  1. Developing Preschool Deaf Children's Language and Literacy Learning from an Educational Media Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31)…

  2. Developing Preschool Deaf Children's Language and Literacy Learning from an Educational Media Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31)…

  3. Factors affecting the placement of preschool-aged deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, C R; Wilson, A K; Lindsay, P H

    1989-03-01

    The placement in and movement among preschool programs of 131 children with severe and profound hearing losses was monitored over four years. Longitudinal data were obtained on the children's linguistic and social development. In the first year of the study, most of the children were enrolled in auditory/oral (A/O) programs. By the final year, most were enrolled instead in total communication (TC) programs; similar movement occurred from individual to classroom programs. Children in A/O individual programs had the most hearing, highest intelligence and most favorable family profile, followed by children in A/O classes, TC individual programs, and TC classes. Scores on measures of spoken language followed the same pattern. On measures of receptive language and mother-child communication, children in A/O individual programs and those in TC classes had similar scores. Children in TC individual programs came next, and last were children in A/O classes. These findings have implications for the choice of programs for preschool deaf children.

  4. Two-Year Study of Northwest Regional Center's Summer Sessions for Preschool, Rubella, Deaf-Blind Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkovich, Paul

    The report describes the Summer Sessions for Preschool, Rubella, Deaf-Blind Children conducted in 1970 and 1971 by the Northwest Regional Center for Deaf-Blind Children in Vancouver, Washington. The summer programs were primarily designed to evaluate preschool deaf-blind children in a learning and living situation. The report is intended not only…

  5. Teacher-Assigned Literacy Events in a Bimodal, Bilingual Preschool with Deaf and Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Ann Elise; Simonsen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of literacy practices in a Norwegian preschool where deaf and hearing children are enrolled in the same group and where communication is based on both sign language and spoken language. The aim of the study was to explore pathways to literacy for young deaf children within this setting. Our implicit assumption is…

  6. Developing preschool deaf children's language and literacy learning from an educational media series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31) acquired targeted American Sign Language and literacy skills after viewing one video from an educational video series in ASL. Descriptive statistics were gathered and a split-plot ANOVA was conducted to determine whether targeted literacy scores increased from pretest to posttest and whether scores varied by baseline ASL skills. A significant improvement was found in the skills targeted in the video, which occurred regardless of the level of baseline ASL skills. The findings support the claim that learning ASL and literacy skills through educational media may benefit deaf children with varied levels of exposure to ASL.

  7. Early identification: Language skills and social functioning in deaf and hard of hearing preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-12-01

    Permanent childhood hearing impairment often results in speech and language problems that are already apparent in early childhood. Past studies show a clear link between language skills and the child's social-emotional functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the level of language and communication skills after the introduction of early identification services and their relation with social functioning and behavioral problems in deaf and hard of hearing children. Nationwide cross-sectional observation of a cohort of 85 early identified deaf and hard of hearing preschool children (aged 30-66 months). Parents reported on their child's communicative abilities (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III), social functioning and appearance of behavioral problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Receptive and expressive language skills were measured using the Reynell Developmental Language Scale and the Schlichting Expressive Language Test, derived from the child's medical records. Language and communicative abilities of early identified deaf and hard of hearing children are not on a par with hearing peers. Compared to normative scores from hearing children, parents of deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower social functioning and more behavioral problems. Higher communicative abilities were related to better social functioning and less behavioral problems. No relation was found between the degree of hearing loss, age at amplification, uni- or bilateral amplification, mode of communication and social functioning and behavioral problems. These results suggest that improving the communicative abilities of deaf and hard of hearing children could improve their social-emotional functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effectiveness of Low-Frequency Amplification and Filtered-Speech Testing for Preschool Deaf Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Carl W.

    During a 3-year period, 20 preschool deaf children were matched and given auditory training by the Verbo-tonal method using two different amplification systems (one which amplified from 200 to 5000 hertz and the other from 20 to 5000 hertz). There were three main goals: (1) to compare two different amplification systems to determine if the…

  9. Children, Deaf, of Deaf Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, A.E.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.

    2016-01-01

    Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that

  10. Children, Deaf, of Deaf Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Baker; B. van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that th

  11. An Investigation of the Verbotonal Method with Preschool Deaf Children: A Preliminary Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    The Verbotonal method of teaching the deaf (that is, training the deaf to make maximum use of their limited hearing) is considered in relation to the effect it has on verbal communication. Results from a sample of 50 nursery school students indicate that (1) the speech of the children taught by Verbotonal improved significantly more than did the…

  12. Communities of Practice: Literacy and Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Simonsen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to discuss young deaf children's access to literacy within a sociocultural perspective. We introduce the concept of communities of practice as an aspect in early literacy development for young deaf children. Preschools are learning communities and thus constitute communities of practice. Our discussion on the use of communities…

  13. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  14. Writing in Young Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri; Mayer, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research…

  15. Writing in Young Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri; Mayer, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research…

  16. Attention-getting skills of deaf children using American Sign Language in a preschool classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M

    2015-07-01

    Visual attention is a necessary prerequisite to successful communication in sign language. The current study investigated the development of attention-getting skills in deaf native-signing children during interactions with peers and teachers. Seven deaf children (aged 21-39 months) and five adults were videotaped during classroom activities for approximately 30 hr. Interactions were analyzed in depth to determine how children obtained and maintained attention. Contrary to previous reports, children were found to possess a high level of communicative competence from an early age. Analysis of peer interactions revealed that children used a range of behaviors to obtain attention with peers, including taps, waves, objects, and signs. Initiations were successful approximately 65% of the time. Children followed up failed initiation attempts by repeating the initiation, using a new initiation, or terminating the interaction. Older children engaged in longer and more complex interactions than younger children. Children's early exposure to and proficiency in American Sign Language is proposed as a likely mechanism that facilitated their communicative competence.

  17. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  18. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  19. Deaf Children of Hearing Mothers: Co-embodied Perspectives on Identity and Learning in a Preschool Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jennifer T.

    2015-01-01

    This is a study about the deaf child of hearing parents in a hearing world and the hearing mother in the world of her deaf child. It is about how they, mother and child, along with classmates and teachers, come to understand the hearingness and deafness and the space in-between. This research is not just about how we understand the embodied communicative practices of deaf children in relation to identity processes, but also of the hearing co-participants. It is a study of why the body matters...

  20. Children of Deaf Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaerde, B.; Baker, A.E.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.

    2016-01-01

    The hearing children of Deaf parents grow up in two cultures with two languages. They are similar to other bilingual, bicultural children in many ways but are special also. They can be in conflict between two worlds and often carry an extra burden of responsibility in functioning as a bridge between

  1. Comparing Motor Development of Deaf Children of Deaf Parents and Deaf Children of Hearing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Volding, Lori; Winnick, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    Deaf children of Deaf parents perform better academically (Ritter-Brinton & Stewart, 1992), linguistically (Courtin, 2000; M. Harris, 2001; Vaccari & Marschark, 1997), and socially (Hadadian & Rose, 1991; M. Harris, 2001) than Deaf children of hearing parents. Twenty-nine Deaf children in residential schools were assessed to determine if a…

  2. Factorial Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Test of Preschool Early Literacy-Phonological Awareness Test Among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Bingham, Gary E; Puranik, Cynthia S; Lederberg, Amy R

    2017-08-23

    Emerging evidence suggests that early phonological awareness in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing is significantly related to their reading acquisition, and the assessment of phonological awareness can play a critical role in preventing reading difficulties. Validation of the scores obtained from standardized assessments when used with DHH students is crucial to support the assessments' intended interpretations and implications of test scores. Using archival data sets, the aim of this study was twofold: (a) to establish the factorial validity of the item scores on the Test of Preschool Early Literacy-Phonological Awareness (TOPEL-PA) for DHH children with functional hearing and hearing children and (b) to test measurement invariance across these groups. Our archival data sets included assessments of DHH children, hearing children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, and hearing children from a range of SES backgrounds. We hypothesized that a second-order unifying ability, Phonological Awareness, along with four first-order subtest factors would explain inter-item associations among the 27 items on the TOPEL-PA. We further hypothesized that patterns of associations among the item scores would be similar across groups and that the individual items would function similarly across groups. Seven hundred and thirty-three children from three samples participated in the study; 171 were DHH children (Mage = 58.7 months old, SDage = 12.5 months old), 195 were low-SES hearing children (Mage = 55.5 months old, SDage = 3.5 months old), and 367 were diverse-SES hearing children (Mage = 53.4 months old, SDage = 8.9 months old). All DHH children were able to identify the referent of monosyllabic spoken words on the Early Speech Perception Test. Test of confirmatory item factor analyses of the hypothesized second-order factor structure revealed that a second-order unifying ability along with four first-order subtest factors well explained

  3. Evaluative expression in deaf children's written narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, E.M. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Deaf children vary in the use of and proficiency in signed language. The majority of studies on writing skills of children who are deaf did not assess deaf children's proficiency in signed language and/or grouped together deaf children with varying sign language skills. Aims: Adopting a

  4. Evaluative expression in deaf children's written narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, E.M. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Deaf children vary in the use of and proficiency in signed language. The majority of studies on writing skills of children who are deaf did not assess deaf children's proficiency in signed language and/or grouped together deaf children with varying sign language skills. Aims: Adopting a

  5. Confronting the language barrier: Theory of mind in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna C; Gutierrez, Roberto; Ludlow, Amanda K

    2015-01-01

    The current study addressed deaf children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development as measured by a battery of first- and second-order belief tasks. Both a chronological age-matched control group and a younger group of pre-school aged hearing children were compared to a group of deaf children born to hearing parents. A hearing native signer enacted each of the tasks, which were pre-recorded in video clips in English (SSE), British Sign Language (BSL) and spoken English, in order to consider all communication preferences of the deaf children. Results revealed no differences in performance between the deaf and the young hearing children. However, despite the inclusion of ToM tasks based on their preferred mode of communication, the deaf children performed significantly worse at the unexpected-content and second-order belief task compared with their age-matched controls. These findings imply a delay rather than a deficit in ToM in deaf children that could be attributed to limited opportunities to converse and overhear conversations about mental states. None. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Postural Control in Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Abbas Ebrahimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the reliability of static control evaluation with Synapsys Posturography System (SPS, Marseille, France and to compare the static postural control of deaf children with typically developing children. This study was conducted in 2 phases on 81 children of 7 to 12 years old in Tehran schools. The first phase examined the reliability of static balance evaluation with SPS. In this phase, a total of 12 children with typical development were evaluated and then do a re-test 1 week later. In the second phase, 30 children with profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and high risk in their balance (selected from Baghcheban Schools for the Deaf as the experimental group, and 37 children with typical development (selected randomly from 2 primary schools for girls and boys in District 12 of Tehran Department of Education as control group were enrolled in the study. They were all placed under sensory organization test evaluation. Based on the results of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the unilateral random effects model, test-retest reliability in different sensory conditions, the moderate to excellent results were obtained (ICC between 0.68 and 0.94. Also, the mean displacement of pressure center in all sensory conditions, the limits of stability (LOS area, the overall balance scores, and scores for balance sensory ratio (except the somatosensory ratio of children with typical development were better than the deaf peers (P˂0.05. The SPS has acceptable reliability to evaluate static posture in children between the ages of 7 and 12 years. Furthermore, deaf children as compared to children with typical development had a lower static postural control in all sensory conditions. This finding confirms the need to examine the postural control for identifying the extent of sensory deficit that has caused poor balance function, and also the need for early intervention to address the balance deficit in deaf

  7. [Etiology of deafness in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux de Fenffe, J; Deggouj, N; Dutilleux, D; Gersdorff, M

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective etiological study of 112 files of deaf children is presented. A prenatal etiology is found in 42.8%, a perinatal in 19.6% and a postnatal in 13.4% of the cases. No cause was suspected in 30.3% of the cases. These results emphasise existing literature.

  8. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  9. How hard-of-hearing and deaf children learn their names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, C J; Searfoss, L W

    1993-10-01

    Data from a qualitative study on the literacy development of preschool hard-of-hearing and deaf children were analyzed to discover how the children learned to read, write, and spell or fingerspell their names. The research was conducted for 9 months in two preschool classes for hard-of-hearing and deaf children. Four hard-of-hearing and three deaf children participated. Data sources included extensive descriptive and interpretive field notes on classroom observations of the children, and drawing and writing samples from the children. Analysis revealed that the children learned that names are powerful expressions of identity through teacher demonstrations, immersion in a literacy-rich environment, and numerous opportunities to explore written language.

  10. Deaf and hearing children's plural noun spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breadmore, Helen L; Olson, Andrew C; Krott, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines deaf and hearing children's spelling of plural nouns. Severe literacy impairments are well documented in the deaf, which are believed to be a consequence of phonological awareness limitations. Fifty deaf (mean chronological age 13;10 years, mean reading age 7;5 years) and 50 reading-age-matched hearing children produced spellings of regular, semiregular, and irregular plural nouns in Experiment 1 and nonword plurals in Experiment 2. Deaf children performed reading-age appropriately on rule-based (regular and semiregular) plurals but were significantly less accurate at spelling irregular plurals. Spelling of plural nonwords and spelling error analyses revealed clear evidence for use of morphology. Deaf children used morphological generalization to a greater degree than their reading-age-matched hearing counterparts. Also, hearing children combined use of phonology and morphology to guide spelling, whereas deaf children appeared to use morphology without phonological mediation. Therefore, use of morphology in spelling can be independent of phonology and is available to the deaf despite limited experience with spoken language. Indeed, deaf children appear to be learning about morphology from the orthography. Education on more complex morphological generalization and exceptions may be highly beneficial not only for the deaf but also for other populations with phonological awareness limitations.

  11. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  12. Development of Implanted Deaf Children's Conversational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaid; Dardier, Virginie; Pajon, Cecile; Tan-Bescond, Geraldine; David, Kristell; Deleau, Michel; Godey, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of preverbal development have highlighted the recurrent difficulties experienced by deaf children in acquiring knowledge of the social rules and social skills pertaining to discourse. We expected cochlear implants in children with bilateral profound deafness to improve their use of verbal language, so that their communication…

  13. Prevalence of Overweight among Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dair, Jessica; Ellis, M. Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the prevalence of overweight cases in a sample of 151 deaf children aged 6-11 years. Participants were deaf students attending six elementary schools, both regular and special, in four states. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using height and weight, plotted on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) U.S.…

  14. How do profoundly deaf children learn to read?

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 泰子

    2013-01-01

    We know that children who were born profoundly deaf have much difficulty to learn to speak English or Japanese. But is it possible that profoundly deaf children learn to read written English or Japanese? Some researchers mention that early exposure to fingerspelling actually helps deaf children become better readers. Then I tried to find the reason why fingerspelling helps deaf children develop their reading ability and examined how to develop deaf children’s reading ability with fingerspelli...

  15. Should All Deaf Children Learn Sign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Donna Jo; Mellon, Nancy K; Niparko, John K; Rathmann, Christian; Mathur, Gaurav; Humphries, Tom; Handley, Theresa; Scambler, Sasha; Lantos, John D

    2015-07-01

    Every year, 10,000 infants are born in the United States with sensorineural deafness. Deaf children of hearing (and nonsigning) parents are unique among all children in the world in that they cannot easily or naturally learn the language that their parents speak. These parents face tough choices. Should they seek a cochlear implant for their child? If so, should they also learn to sign? As pediatricians, we need to help parents understand the risks and benefits of different approaches to parent-child communication when the child is deaf [corrected].

  16. Phonological Awareness: Explicit Instruction for Young Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation,…

  17. Phonological Awareness: Explicit Instruction for Young Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation,…

  18. Language Facility and Theory of Mind Development in Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. Lyn

    2001-01-01

    Deaf children with signing parents, nonnative signing deaf children, children from a hearing impaired unit, oral deaf children, and hearing controls were tested on theory of Mind (ToM) tasks and a British sign language receptive language test. Language ability correlated positively and significantly with ToM ability. Age underpinned the…

  19. Self-Concept among Hearing Chinese Children of Deaf Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lik Man; Lui, Brian

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 42 Hong Kong Chinese deaf couples, their 70 hearing children, 41 hearing couples, and their 82 hearing children. No differences were found in the self-concepts of children of deaf parents compared to children of hearing parents, but deaf parents reported lower self-concepts than hearing parents. (Author/JDD)

  20. The Early Years: Parents and Young Deaf Children Reading Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Research is just beginning to describe the role of reading in the lives of families with deaf children. While the time that deaf children spend reading or being read to represents only a small part of their lives at home, research highlights its importance for young children--hearing as well as deaf. Children whose parents read to them at home…

  1. Emotion Understanding in Preschool Children with Mild-to-Severe Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing school-aged children are at risk for delayed development of emotion understanding; however, little is known about this during the preschool years. We compared the level of emotion understanding in a group of 35 4-5-year-old children who use hearing aids to that of 130 children with typical hearing. Moreover, we…

  2. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  3. Motor Proficiency Traits of Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Denis; Broadhead, Geoffrey D.

    1982-01-01

    Children at the Louisiana State School for the Deaf were tested for motor proficiency using the Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. The children appeared to lack balancing skills but scored better than hearing children in visual motor control. Sex and age differences are noted. (PP)

  4. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children.  Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software.   Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  5. Deaf Children with Disabilities: Rights under the IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children who are deaf and who have disabilities often face barriers in ensuring that their children receive the services they need. Some of these barriers include lack of awareness about deafness-disability constellations, shortages of professionals knowledgeable about how deaf children learn or the impact of the disability on deaf…

  6. Narrative Structure and Narrative Development in Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Christian; Mann, Wolfgang; Morgan, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Researchers, the Deaf community, teachers of deaf children and speech and language therapists all share a concern about how to improve deaf children's written language skills. One part of literacy is story writing or narrative. A finding from a small number of studies is that children exposed to sign language from early childhood onwards achieve…

  7. Deaf children's engagement in an educational video in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B

    2010-01-01

    Over time, children's educational television has successfully modified programming to incorporate research-based strategies to facilitate learning and engagement during viewing. However, research has been limited on whether these same strategies would work with preschool deaf children viewing videos in American Sign Language. In a descriptive study, engagement behaviors of 25 preschool deaf children during multiple viewings of an educational video in ASL were examined. The video incorporated research-based interactive strategies to facilitate engagement while targeting vocabulary through ASL, fingerspelling, and English print. Each of 3 viewing sessions was recorded; videos were transcribed and coded for frequency of children's movements, pointing, fingerspelling, and signing. Behaviors were analyzed for frequency within and across multiple viewings and by level of signing skills. It was found that each of these engagement behaviors occurred frequently throughout viewings and increased across multiple viewings regardless of a child's age or signing skills.

  8. Comparison of diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Zhihong Yao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diadochokinetic rate reflects the motion state and synergic level of oral, lingual and speech muscle group, and it is an important index to judge the speech articulation, it is also very significant in the training and evaluation of vocal ability and the correction and treatment of speech.OBJECTIVE: To compare the diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: College of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty deaf children and 20 normal children of 6-7 years old, half boys and half girls, were selected from Hangzhou Rehabilitation Center for Deaf Children and Hangzhou Fuxing Kindergarten between January and March, 2006. The influences of organic dysarthria on our study had been eliminated, including intellectual and oral diseases, etc. Informed consents were obtained from the guardians of all the enrolled children.METHODS: ① The deaf children all cooperated with the study after proper communication with them. They practiced to pronounce/pa/,/ta/,/ka/clearly in order, then pronounced them together, that was/pataka/. They should slow down at first in order to pronounce clearly and cohere them together, then speeded up to practice,so that the results could not be affected by the unfamiliar pronunciation. After practice, the deaf children were tested by pronouncing /pataka/ for five time continuously, and they were asked to pronounce clearly and correctly with uniform intensity, loudness, speed, etc. They were tested for three times by the same methods,and the durations of the three times were recorded to obtain the average value, then the velocity was calculated. The tests for the normal children were the same as those mentioned above. ② The differences of the measurement data were compared by the ttest.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of diadochokinetic rate compared between deaf children and normal children.RESULTS: All the 20

  9. Health promotion of families of deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the impact of hearing loss in the family dynamics of the deaf child; identify the family’s knowledge about deafness, understand how parents experience the diagnosis and treatment of child with hearing impairment. Methods: The study has aqualitative approach developed at the Center for Integrated Medical Care - NAMI, attached to the University of Fortaleza - UNIFOR located in Fortaleza - CE, Brazil. The participants were six mothers of children with hearing impairment. Data collection was carried outthrough participant observation and semi-structured interview. The Thematic Analysis of Bardin was used for processing the data. Results: After coding, some categories emerged from the discourse: Misinformation of Hearing Loss; impact of the discovery of hearingloss, caregivers and facilitators of the development of the deaf children. Conclusion: The birth of a deaf child alters the previous family balance, causing specific problems, such as the communication barrier, whose solution is related to how to handle the situation. Itis necessary to promote changes, emphasizing the involvement of caregivers and loved as facilitators of deaf child’s development. In Phonoaudiology, this attitude represents discovering new ways to identify the need for the subject, which requires strategies thatvalue their opinion, allowing the expression of expectations, perceptions, representations and feelings.

  10. Great expectations: perspectives on cochlear implantation of deaf children in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Eva; Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Hyde, Mervyn B; Hjulstad, Oddvar

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the use of cochlear implants with deaf children in Norway and examine how this intervention has raised new expectations and some tensions concerning the future of education for deaf students. They report on two studies of communication within school learning environments of young children with implants in Norwegian preschools and primary/elementary schools. These studies involved observations of classroom discourse and teaching activity and interviews with teachers, administrators, parents, and pupils. Results suggested varied patterns of use of Norwegian and of Norwegian Sign Language and several modes of communication, including speech alone, sign alone, and speech with sign. Conclusions are drawn regarding the reasons for the observed variations and the future impact of cochlear implantation on educational policies and services for deaf children and their families in Norway.

  11. Educating Deaf Children: Language, Cognition, and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschark, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that deaf children generally lag behind hearing peers in terms of academic achievement, and that lags in some areas may never be overcome fully. Hundreds of research and intervention studies have been aimed at improving the situation, but they have resulted in o

  12. Deaf Children's Bimodal Bilingualism and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the research into deaf children's bilingualism and bilingual education through a synthesis of studies published over the last 15 years. This review brings together the linguistic and pedagogical work on bimodal bilingualism to inform educational practice. The first section of the review provides a synthesis of…

  13. Toward More Effective Conversations with Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    The classroom teachers' style of conversing with deaf children is as important as the communication mode in the students' development of linguistic competence in English. Emphasis on a conversational style with low repair and low control should lead to increased student initiative and fewer misunderstandings of teachers' comments. (VW)

  14. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  15. A Comparison of Parenting Dimensions Between Deaf and Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakci, Ayse Ferda

    2016-06-01

    Effective parenting is vital for intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of a child. This study examined the differences between the parenting dimensions of deaf children and healthy ones. The sample of the study consisted of 292 children and their parents (146 of them deaf children and 146 of them healthy ones). Dimensions of parenting (warmth, rejection, structure, chaos, autonomy, and coercion) were measured using the Parent as Social Context Questionnaire. The mean scores of the positive parenting dimensions of warmth and autonomy of deaf children were significantly lower; however, the mean scores of the negative dimensions of chaos and coercion of deaf children were significantly higher than those of healthy ones. Deaf children can become successful adults with the help of their parents. Our results regarding parenting dimensions will be a guide for future nursing interventions planned to develop the relationships between deaf children and their parents.

  16. Pasos para Aprender: Un Manual para las Personas Que Trabajan con Ninos Sordos-Ciegos en Establecimientos Residenciales (Learning Steps: A Handbook for Persons Working with Deaf-Blind Children in Residential Settings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern Region Deaf-Blind Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Written in Spanish, the handbook for persons working with deaf blind children in residential settings includes general suggestions, specific teaching activities, and an introduction to sign language. The book is based on the John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf Blind Children. General suggestions are…

  17. Pasos para Aprender: Un Manual para las Personas Que Trabajan con Ninos Sordos-Ciegos en Establecimientos Residenciales (Learning Steps: A Handbook for Persons Working with Deaf-Blind Children in Residential Settings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern Region Deaf-Blind Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Written in Spanish, the handbook for persons working with deaf blind children in residential settings includes general suggestions, specific teaching activities, and an introduction to sign language. The book is based on the John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf Blind Children. General suggestions are…

  18. Influences on Facial Emotion Recognition in Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidera, Francesc; Amadó, Anna; Martínez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory research is aimed at studying facial emotion recognition abilities in deaf children and how they relate to linguistic skills and the characteristics of deafness. A total of 166 participants (75 deaf) aged 3-8 years were administered the following tasks: facial emotion recognition, naming vocabulary and cognitive ability. The…

  19. Motor Development of Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheysen, Freja; Loots, Gerrit; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cochlear implant (CI) on the motor development of deaf children. The study involved 36 mainstreamed deaf children (15 boys, 21 girls; 4- to 12-years old) without any developmental problems. Of these children, 20 had been implanted. Forty-three hearing children constituted a comparison…

  20. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for prescho

  1. Empathy and Theory of Mind in Deaf and Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C

    2016-04-01

    Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65 deaf children of hearing parents) aged 4-13 years were therefore designed to (a) compare levels of empathy in deaf and hearing children, and (b) explore correlations of ToM with empathy in deaf and hearing groups. Results showed that (a) deaf children scored lower in empathy than their hearing peers and (b) empathy and ToM were significantly correlated for deaf children but not for the hearing. Possible reasons for these divergent developmental patterns were considered, along with implications for future research.

  2. Malay Speech Intelligibility Test (MSIT for Deaf Malaysian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhairi Md. Yusof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to objectively measure speech intelligibility of deaf Malaysian children using nonsense syllables as test words. In this study, speech intelligibility of deaf children is measured through the ability to say simple syllables (consisting of a consonant and a vowel for all the 22 Malay consonants. The MSIT score should indicate how well these children can produce speech; the higher the score, the better their speech intelligibility. The MSIT have been tested with twenty deaf and ten normal hearning Malaysian children and has been verified by five naïve and two expert listeners. The application of the test is presented as speech intelligibility index for deaf children in a deaf school. The successful development of the MSIT system serves to assist speech pathologist, therapist, teachers and parents of deaf children to determine the level of Malay speech deficiencies and the effectiveness of corrective measures taken.

  3. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  4. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  5. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  6. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…

  7. Word-learning skills of deaf preschoolers: the development of novel mapping and rapid word-learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederberg, A R; Prezbindowski, A K; Spencer, P E

    2000-01-01

    Word-learning skills of 19 deaf/hard-of-hearing preschoolers were assessed by observing their ability to learn new words in two contexts. The first context required the use of a novel mapping strategy (i.e., making the inference that a novel word refers to a novel object) to learn the new words. The second context assessed the ability to learn new words after minimal exposure when reference was explicitly established. The children displayed three levels of word-learning skills. Eleven children learned words in both contexts. Five were able to learn new words rapidly only when reference was explicitly established. Two children did not learn new words rapidly in either context. The latter seven children were followed longitudinally. All children eventually acquired the ability to learn new words in both contexts. The deaf children's word-learning abilities were related to the size of their vocabularies. The present study suggests that word-learning strategies are acquired even when children are severely delayed in their language development and they learn language in an atypical environment.

  8. Representations of deaf characters in children's picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.

  9. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  10. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  11. Coordination in orientation games of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Erika

    2013-01-01

    In the thesis we studied how orientation games have effect on preschool children whilst growing up. Even though the games in available litterature are meant for school children some authors stress that the games are appropriate for preschool children though you do have to have be careful when implementing them for preschoolers. Orientation games in their original form improve orientation, endurance and encourage competition. With participation we can improve all motor functions but for presch...

  12. Complex word reading in Dutch deaf children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, A.H. van; Knoors, H.E.T.; Schreuder, R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex

  13. Affective Reactions in Some Parents of Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrie, Carolyn

    Emotional problems and behavioral patterns of parents who have deaf blind children are described clinically and in short case studies. Deaf blind young children are said to be isolated from their families due to lack of sensory cues; to display behaviors such as back arching and fear of walking; and to experience frequent health crises such as…

  14. Complex Word Reading in Dutch Deaf Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to…

  15. What We Can Learn from Hearing Parents of Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Hearing parents of deaf children face stresses and demands related to parenting a deaf child, including difficult choices about language, technologies, education and identity for their children (Marschark, 1997). To date, few researchers have discussed the unique challenges faced by this group. Through a series of semistructured, in-depth…

  16. Calendar systems and communication of deaf-blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain the calendar systems and their role in teaching deaf-blind children. Deaf-blind persons belong to a group of multiple disabled persons. This disability should not be observed as a simple composite of visual and hearing impairments, but as a combination of sensory impairments that require special assistance in the development, communication and training for independent living. In our environment, deaf-blind children are being educated in schools for children with visual impairments or in schools for children with hearing impairments (in accordance with the primary impairment. However, deaf-blind children cannot be trained by means of special programs for children with hearing impairment, visual impairment or other programs for students with developmental disabilities without specific attention required by such a combination of sensory impairments. Deaf-blindness must be observed as a multiple impairment that requires special work methods, especially in the field of communication, whose development is severely compromised. Communication skills in deaf-blind people can be developed by using the calendar systems. They are designed in such a manner that they can be easily attainable to children with various sensory impairments. Calendars can be used to encourage and develop communication between adult persons and a deaf-blind child.

  17. A Comparison of Deaf and Hearing Children's Reading Comprehension Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although deaf children typically exhibit severe delays in reading achievement, there is a paucity of research looking at their text-level comprehension skills. We present a comparison of deaf and normally hearing readers' profiles on a commonly used reading comprehension assessment: the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability II. Methods:…

  18. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  19. Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael

    2010-09-01

    We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics.

  20. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  1. Individual differences in sign language abilities in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meronen, Auli; Ahonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    The study attempted to identify characteristics of individual differences in sign language abilities among deaf children. Connections between sign language skills and rapid serial naming, hand motor skills, and early fluency were investigated. The sample consisted of 85 Finnish deaf children. Their first language was sign language. Simple correlations and multiple linear-regression analysis demonstrated the effect of early language development and serial hand movements on sign language abilities. Other significant factors were serial fingertapping and serial naming. Heterogeneity in poor sign language users was noted. Although identifying learning disorders in deaf children is complicated, developmental difficulties can be discovered by appropriate measurements. The study confirmed the results of earlier research demonstrating that the features of deaf and hearing children's learning resemble each other. Disorders in signed and spoken languages may have similar bases despite their different modalities.

  2. Introducing Sign Language Systems to Parents of Young Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Barbara Walsh

    1987-01-01

    The three major sign language systems (American Sign Language, Pidgin Sign English, and Manual English) are compared in table form. A brief description of each language highlights salient points that parents of deaf children need to understand. (DB)

  3. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  4. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  5. Comparison of sudden deafness in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Se Young; Kim, Myung Gu; Hong, Seok Min; Chung, Ji Hyun; Kang, Ho Min; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have assessed sudden deafness in adults, sudden deafness has not been evaluated in children. We therefore evaluated the differences in sudden deafness between children and adults. We compared clinical manifestations, including gender, audiogram pattern of initial hearing loss, and recovery rate after treatment in 87 children and 707 adults diagnosed with sudden deafness from September 2003 and August 2012. There were no differences in sex, side, or audiogram between children and adults (P>0.05 each). Hearing recovery rates in children and adults were 72.4% and 70.6%, respectively (P>0.05). Both children and adults with mild hearing loss showed significantly greater hearing recovery rates than individuals with profound hearing loss (P<0.05 each). The percentage with initially mild and moderate hearing loss was higher in children than in adults, as were the recovery rates of children compared to adults with initially mild, moderate-severe, and profound hearing loss (P<0.05 each). In regard to final hearing outcome after treatment, a low percentage of children showed no improvement whereas a high percentage showed complete recovery; a higher percentage of children than of adults showed complete recovery (P<0.05). Recovery rate from profound hearing loss was significantly higher in children than in adults (60.0% vs. 45.4%, P<0.05). Degree of hearing loss, gender, side, and recovery rate were similar in children and adults, but the rate of complete recovery was higher in children.

  6. Long QT in children with congenital deafness: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseraldin Akbari Asbagh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long QT syndromes (LQT are genetic abnormalities of ventricular repo-larization, with an estimated incidence of about one per 10000 births. It is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval in electrocardiogram (EKG and associated with a high risk for syncope and sudden death in patients. Type of this syndrome is association with congenital deafness. Our objective was to evaluate QT interval in children with congenital deafness.Methods: For 219 patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital audiometric clinic in 2011, questionnaire were completed. A total of 23 congenitally deaf children were incl-uded. All patients’ examinations were done by a pediatric cardiologist. Electrocardio-gram is conducted in all children (23 patients with sever and deep congenital deafness. Then the QT interval was measured based on Bazett’s formula. Echocardiography was also performed in these children to assess left ventricular function and the presence of mitral valve prolapse.Results: The overall patients were two hundred and nineteen children. A total of twenty three congenitally deaf children were included and electrocardiogram was obtained. Three children had obviously prolonged QTc (0.48±0.02 second. The median age of them was 6.1±5 year, the median weight was 18±11.3 kilogram and the median of QT interval was 0.48±0.02 second.Conclusion: The QT interval obtained 0.48±0.02 second. In the present study we found prolonged QT in congenital deafness, thus we recommend to evaluate the electrocardio-gram of children with congenital deafness.

  7. The development of theory of mind in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P A; Hosie, J A; Gray, C D; Scott, C; Hunter, N; Banks, J S; Macaulay, M C

    1998-09-01

    Deaf children aged 4 to 16 years were given a false-belief test of theory of mind. Although the children experienced difficulty with the test, relative to hearing children, confirming a report by Peterson and Siegal (1995), performance was age-related, with a significantly higher proportion of 13- to 16-year-olds passing the test. It was concluded that deaf children raised in a spoken language environment show a developmental delay in theory of mind acquisition. This delay is consistent with the assumption that their early opportunities for learning about mental states are relatively restricted and that the normal development of theory of mind is dependent upon such opportunities.

  8. Promoting Early Identification and Intervention for Children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing, Children with Vision Impairment, and Children with Deaf-Blind Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, Susan; Parnell, Leanne; Belhorn, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing with Vision Impairment have unique needs requiring adaptations to intervention strategies. However, there seems to be a gap in identification of children who are DeafBlind within Part C programming. Based on data from the National Center on DeafBlindness Census data, 6% of the total number of reported children who are DeafBlind are in the birth through two age range (Part C eligible). Within the three through five year age range (Part B eligible), the cen...

  9. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  10. Language and Theory of Mind: A Study of Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Brenda; de Villiers, Peter; de Villiers, Jill; Hoffmeister, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Theory-of-mind (ToM) abilities were studied in 176 deaf children aged 3 years 11 months to 8 years 3 months who use either American Sign Language (ASL) or oral English, with hearing parents or deaf parents. A battery of tasks tapping understanding of false belief and knowledge state and language skills, ASL or English, was given to each child.…

  11. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have...

  12. Pearls of Meaning: Preschool Children Respond to Multicultural Picturebooks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiufang Chen; Susan Browne

    2015-01-01

      Employing a qualitative practitioner research method, this study examined pre-school children's responses to multicultural picture books and gained insight into how pre-school children make meaning...

  13. Bilingual Education for Deaf Children in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartholm, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In 1981, Swedish Sign Language gained recognition by the Swedish Parliament as the language of deaf people, a decision that made Sweden the first country in the world to give a sign language the status of a language. Swedish was designated as a second language for deaf people, and the need for bilingualism among them was officially asserted. This…

  14. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    This Danish study investigates the relationship between children in preschool (age range 3-6.5 years) and the outdoor environments they use. The main aim is to describe and analyse the outdoor features of significance for children’s activities and of importance for design and management of green...... settings for preschools. The intent is to facilitate transfer of knowledge from preschools to planners and managers of green settings such as woodland, parks, green lots and playgrounds. The central concept applied is that of affordances, here defined as the meaningful action possibilities...... between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...

  15. STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS IN CONGENITALLY DEAF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Majority of congenitally deaf children are at risk of cardiac abnormalities in the form of long QT syndrome which could be due to an intracardiac abnormality or autonomic dysfunction. Altered sympathetic/parasympathetic balance as a result of the absence of auditory stimuli on the autonomic nervous system results in lower mean heart rate in congenitally deaf children. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the cardiovascular autonomic functions are altered in congenitally deaf children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 congenitally deaf children aged between 14 - 18 yrs and 30 age matched controls were included for the study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during valsalva maneuver. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed statistically significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure in response to immediate standing among congenitally deaf children suggestive of sympathetic imbalance and an early stage of autonomic dysfunction.

  16. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  17. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  18. THE VIEWS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ABOUT SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin AYDOĞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available People’s early experiences related with sports are the good determinants of their attitudes and behaviors about sports in their future life. Early childhood period is very critical in people’s life span getting children adopt different habits besides enhancing their development. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the views and expectations of preschoolers about sports. The sample is 24 preschoolers who are between 3 - and - 6 - year - olds. In this study q ualitative research design is used and semi - structured interviews are conducted with participants. Data are analyzed and interpreted under categories by using content analysis. The results of this study are determined as; children could not quite understan d the terms; sports and sportsman, children have limited knowledge about who do sports, and how and where do sport, children know football and swimming as sports. The results were discussed by adhering the literature and the supportive preschool sports ac tivites were suggested.

  19. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  20. Preschool Children's Expectations for Parental Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Angie Geertsen

    1998-01-01

    Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur. In this study,...

  1. An Art Appreciation Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Kim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week art appreciation curriculum on 17 preschool children's levels of self-esteem, art involvement, and art appreciation. Pre- and postintervention tests demonstrated that, as a result of the curriculum, the children's self-esteem increased and that they displayed greater interest and knowledge of art. (MDM)

  2. Selective Listening Asymmetry in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1977-01-01

    Forty-two right-handed preschool children listened to dichotic presentations of digit names and were told to report only the digit arriving at the designated ear. A significant right-ear superiority was found, demonstrating a left lateralization of verbal processing in children as young as three years of age. (Author/JMB)

  3. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  4. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  5. An Art Appreciation Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Kim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week art appreciation curriculum on 17 preschool children's levels of self-esteem, art involvement, and art appreciation. Pre- and postintervention tests demonstrated that, as a result of the curriculum, the children's self-esteem increased and that they displayed greater interest and knowledge of art. (MDM)

  6. Writing Profiles of Deaf Children Taught through British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Diana; Nunes, Terezinha; Evans, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Congenitally, profoundly deaf children whose first language is British Sign Language (BSL) and whose speech is largely unintelligible need to be literate to communicate effectively in a hearing society. Both spelling and writing skills of such children can be limited, to the extent that no currently available assessment method offers an adequate…

  7. Empathy and Theory of Mind in Deaf and Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65…

  8. Empathy and Theory of Mind in Deaf and Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65…

  9. Deaf Children and Bullying: Directions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M. T.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. schools are currently addressing bullying and its effects on children. Bullying is characterized as repetitive verbal teasing, threatening, physical intimidation, demeaning others, violent acts, torture, and other forms of verbal and physical aggression (Smith & Sharp, 1994a). Little is known about bullying and its impact on deaf children.…

  10. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-03-01

     Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  11. Phonological awareness: explicit instruction for young deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness.

  12. Prevention of obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Julie; Barber, Sally; Singhal, Atul

    2010-05-01

    Obesity is a serious problem that affects children from diverse ethnic backgrounds in both industrialised and developing countries. Worldwide, an estimated twenty-two million children obese by 2050. Recent evidence suggests that most obesity is established during the preschool years, and because one in five obese 4 year olds will become obese adults this situation has major implications for public health. The causes of obesity in preschool children are complex and multifactorial. Although 30-50% of the predisposition towards obesity in preschool children can be explained by genetic factors, environmental influences also play a crucial role. The preschool period in particular is a pivotal time during which long-term dietary and physical activity habits are established, with potential lifelong effects on health. However, research in this age-group is limited. Previous studies have aimed to improve diet, increase physical activity and achieve behavioural change. However, few of these studies have been successful and there is an urgent need, therefore, for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at the prevention of preschool obesity.

  13. Preschool teachers´ views on childrens learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Thorleif; Brostrøm, Stig; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning......? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children's learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children's learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...

  14. Parents' and Teachers' Views on Deaf Children's Literacy at Home: Do They Agree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the views of parents and teachers of the deaf on deaf children's literacy at home. We made DVD recordings of 12 young deaf children (aged 3-5) sharing books with their parents at home. Six families used British Sign Language (BSL) as their main means of communication and for interacting around books, and six used spoken…

  15. Quality of preschool education in preschool institution and children's social competence

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Lešnik; Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-01-01

    The present study addressed the relation between the quality of preschool education and children's social competence. The main purpose of the study was to examine how professional workers (preschool teachers and preschool teachers' assistants) evaluate their work with children in the context of stimulating children's social development, and to determine the relationship between the professional workers' self-evaluations and children's social competence. Professional worker...

  16. Prospective study of hearing loss in schools for deaf children in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hearing loss among children attending public schools for the deaf were ... Moderate to severe sensorineural deafness is a major disability and permanent hearing .... mon among the Saudi people and this was found to be mainly between first ...

  17. Effects of a Picture Racetrack Game on the Expressive Vocabulary of Deaf Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Carrie A; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R; Clancy, Shannon M; Kranak, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a picture racetrack game on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of picture labeling for 2 preschool students who are deaf. The game consisted of placing photographs representing individualized target vocabulary around a racetrack board and prompting the participant to sign each photo. A multiple baseline design across picture sets demonstrated that playing the picture racetrack game was functionally related to acquisition of vocabulary to 100% mastery on at least 3 consecutive sessions for each participant. Additionally, both participants maintained most of the vocabulary they acquired for at least 4 weeks after intervention, and they generalized picture labeling to a different presentation mode (i.e., a photo album). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B M; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous public judgments right before them. A follow-up study with 18 groups of 4 children between 4;0 and 4;6 years of age revealed that children did not change their "real" judgment of the situation, but only their public expression of it. Preschool children are subject to peer pressure, indicating sensitivity to peers as a primary social reference group already during the preschool years.

  19. Preschool Children's Control of Action Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good…

  20. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  2. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...

  3. The Moral Judgments of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)

  4. Development of Spanish Consonants in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Mary Ann

    1993-01-01

    This study tested the production of 18 Spanish consonants by 120 Mexican-American preschool children (ages 3-5), to determine the age of acquisition of Spanish consonants. Data are provided on percent of correct production of each sound at six different age levels and are graphically illustrated to compare age of acquisition with another study's…

  5. Semantic categorization: A comparison between deaf and hearing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, E.A.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Hermans, D.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In

  6. Bimodal Bilingual Language Development of Hearing Children of Deaf Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…

  7. Signed Statements and Delay of Gratification in Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Ritchie, Fiona K.

    Twenty-four deaf children (6 to 10 years old) were individually administered a task in which possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child stopping further accumulation. Ss, who under instruction periodically signed statements about the goodness of the reward, waited significantly longer before terminating the waiting…

  8. Semantic categorization: A comparison between deaf and hearing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, E.A.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Hermans, D.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In

  9. Phonological Representations in Deaf Children: Rethinking the "Functional Equivalence" Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2009-01-01

    The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…

  10. Auditory and speech performance in deaf children with deaf parents after cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ga Young; Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Chung, Eun-Wook; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the auditory and speech outcome in deaf children with deaf parents (CDP) after cochlear implantation (CI), emphasizing both the presence of additional caregiver and patients' main communication mode. Retrospective case review. Cochlear implant center at a tertiary referral hospital. Fourteen CDP and 14 age- and sex-matched deaf children with normal-hearing parents (CNH). The Korean version of Ling's stage (K-Ling) and Category of Auditory Perception (CAP) were administered to the children to assess the speech production and auditory perception abilities, preoperatively and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after CI. To elucidate the effects of the additional caregiver and main communication mode of the implanted child, the patients were divided into the following groups: with additional caregiver(s) who have normal hearing (n = 11) versus without additional caregiver (n = 3); sign language plus oral communication (S+O) group (n = 9) versus oral communication only (O) group (n = 5). CAP scores and K-Ling stages improved remarkably in both CDP and CNH, and no significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Within the CDP group, CAP scores and K-Ling stages improved significantly in CDP with an additional caregiver than those without. Auditory perception and speech production performances in the S+O group were similar to those in the O group. CDP can develop similarly to CNH in auditory perception and speech production, if an additional caregiver with normal hearing provides sufficient support and speech input. In addition, using sign language in addition to oral language might not be harmful, and these children can be a communication bridge between their deaf parents and society.

  11. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  12. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  13. Success in Two Languages: Focused Programming Provides On-Target Development for Maine Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Karen

    2017-01-01

    On Mackworth Island, not far from Portland, the Mackworth Island Preschool Program at the Maine Educational Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing/Governor Baxter School for the Deaf (MECDHH/GBSD) helps deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing children flourish. At MECDHH/GBSD, instructors immerse students, 3-5 years old, in American Sign Language…

  14. Preschool children's understanding of frame construction

    OpenAIRE

    Podstudenšek, Gašper

    2012-01-01

    Present study presents the preschool children’s understanding of framework concept, geometric forms in which framework can be represented and favorized by children. In addition the present study explores the extend of children’s knowledge of various materials, used in framework construction, and their conclusions of possible geometric forms, made by various materials in framework construction. 4 and 5 year old children were involved in present study by answering the questions before and after...

  15. Cochlear implantation in children with single-sided deafness: does aetiology and duration of deafness matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Susan; Prosse, Susanne; Laszig, Roland; Wesarg, Thomas; Aschendorff, Antje; Hassepass, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    For adult patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), treatment with a cochlear implant (CI) is well established as an acceptable and beneficial hearing rehabilitation method administered routinely in clinical practice. In contrast, for children with SSD, CI has been applied less often to date, with the rationale to decide either on a case-by-case basis or under the realm of clinical research. The aim of our clinical study was to evaluate the longitudinal benefits of CI for a group of children diagnosed with SSD and to compare their outcomes with respect to patient characteristics. Evaluating a pool of paediatric SSD patients presenting for possible CI surgery revealed that the primary aetiology of deafness was congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. A subgroup of children meeting the CI candidacy criteria for the affected ear (the majority with acquired hearing loss) were enrolled in the study. Preliminary group results suggest substantial improvements in speech comprehension in noise and in the ability to localise sound, which was demonstrated through objective and subjective assessments after CI treatment for the group, with results varying from patient to patient. Our study shows a trend towards superior outcomes for children with acquired hearing loss and a shorter duration of hearing loss compared to congenitally deafened children who had a longer duration of SSD. This indicates an interactive influence of the age at onset, aetiology and duration of deafness upon the restoration of binaural integration and the overall benefits of sound stimulation to two ears after CI treatment. Continued longitudinal investigation of these children and further studies in larger groups may provide more guidance on the optimal timing of treatment for paediatric patients with acquired and congenital SSD.

  16. Verbal and Spatial Analogical Reasoning in Deaf and Hearing Children: The Role of Grammar and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey; Figueras, Berta; Mellanby, Jane; Langdon, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which cognitive development and abilities are dependent on language remains controversial. In this study, the analogical reasoning skills of deaf and hard of hearing children are explored. Two groups of children (deaf and hard of hearing children with either cochlear implants or hearing aids and hearing children) completed tests of…

  17. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in dea

  18. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in

  19. Measuring phonological awareness in deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mi-young L; Lederberg, Amy R

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated psychometric properties of 2 phonological awareness (PA) tests normed for hearing children when used with deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. It also provides an in-depth description of these children's PA. One hundred and eight DHH children (mean age = 63.3 months) with cochlear implants or hearing aids were assessed in the fall and spring of the school year. Sixty-three percent communicated only with spoken language; 37% communicated with both sign and speech. Examiners administered PA subtests from the Phonological Awareness Test-2 and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy, along with assessments of speech perception and early literacy. Item analyses indicated that both tests showed good psychometric properties (e.g., high item discriminations and internal consistencies). DHH children scored higher on subtests and items that measured words, rhymes, and syllables than those that assessed phonemes. Although subtest difficulty influenced the factor structure in the fall, spring PA was best characterized as a single factor. PA correlated concurrently and predictively with early literacy. This study suggests that these 2 standardized tests are valid for use with DHH children with functional hearing. Although delayed, these children's PA was structurally similar to that of hearing children.

  20. CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY FOR CHILDREN PRE-SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  1. A Conceptual Design of Mobile Learning Applications for Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin; Kostadinova, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibilities of using mobile learning in the Bulgarian preschool education of young children. The state preschool educational regulations are presented and discussed. The problem concerning the children's safety when using mobile devices in terms of access to information on the Internet is revealed and analyzed. Two conceptual models of applications for mobile learning aimed at preschool children are designed. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined and di...

  2. A Conceptual Design of Mobile Learning Applications for Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin; Kostadinova, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibilities of using mobile learning in the Bulgarian preschool education of young children. The state preschool educational regulations are presented and discussed. The problem concerning the children's safety when using mobile devices in terms of access to information on the Internet is revealed and analyzed. Two conceptual models of applications for mobile learning aimed at preschool children are designed. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined and di...

  3. Should we teach thinking skills to deaf children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Tamsin Kelty

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to identify the benefits of developing thinking skills with KS1 deaf children who used British Sign Language (BSL. It arose as a response to the findings of a variety of researches who had reported a number of ‘failings’ apparent in the educational and learning activity of deaf children. It used a case study approach involving five profoundly deaf Key stage 1 children and explored the extent to which, using materials grounded in the Somerset Thinking Skills Course, the teaching of thinking skills in a supportive environment could remediate some of these issues. The strongly visual nature of the material supported pupil exchanges mediated by the use of sign language. Analysis of video film was used to plot individual pupil development of scanning skills, their use of nouns versus adjectives, micro-skills and macro-abilities. Pupil reasoning skills, how they were supported, their ownership and role of the facilitator were also examined. The results showed that within eight weeks (equivalent to four hours in total the children were more able to express their perceptions. They watched other children in order to access their signed information and appeared to use this to develop, elaborate, extend and provide reasons when it was their turn to present. There was also evidence of enhanced creativity and originality in their contributions. This pilot study urges the need for further research and suggests that a priority should be given to developing this approach in the teaching of deaf children. Due to the complexity of thinking skills it further recommends that this area should be taught as a separate topic that can inform other subjects.

  4. Preschool teachers’ views on children's learning: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning......? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children’s learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...

  5. Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalai, John S.; Caudle, Susan E.; Bentley, Barbara; Abaya, Homer; Lin, Jerry; Baker, Dian; Emery, Claudia; Bortfeld, Heather; Winzelberg, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Objective The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) are often unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD. Study Design Retrospective review Setting Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals Patients 204 children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and >1 year after implantation Main Outcome Measures The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index (PSI), and Preschool Language Scale (PLS). Results We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon DSM-IV criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD and 144 children did not. Prior to implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p0.1) compared to children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL, age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between two cohorts were reduced. Conclusions These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. While children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD, their

  6. Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalai, John S; Caudle, Susan E; Bentley, Barbara; Abaya, Homer; Lin, Jerry; Baker, Dian; Emery, Claudia; Bortfeld, Heather; Winzelberg, Jody

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) often are unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD. Retrospective review. Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Two hundred four children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and more than 1 year after implantation. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), vineland adaptive behavior scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index, and Preschool Language Scale. We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD, and 144 children did not. Before implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p 0.1) compared with children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL and age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between the 2 cohorts were reduced. These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. Although children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower, and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD

  7. Didactic computer games for preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski Gržinič, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is hard to imagine life without technology that surrounds everywhere we go. The game belongs to every child’s life and all the children know how to play games and they love doing it. Playing games is crucial for children as it helps them getting familiar with the world around them and helps them understand different life situations. In my thesis we work with preschool children playing games with the help of technology, more exactly with computers and tablets. Our main goal is tryi...

  8. Deaf children attending different school environments: sign language abilities and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.

  9. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  10. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  11. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  12. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  13. Preschool Children's Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined preschool children's conceptions of moral and conventional rules. Children judged the seriousness, rule contingency, rule relativism, and amount of deserved punishment for 10 depicted moral and conventional preschool transgressions. Constant across ages and sexes, children evaluated moral transgressions as more serious offenses and more…

  14. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  15. [Mortality by avoidable causes in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurán, Albenia; López, Elizabeth; Pinilla, Consuelo; Sierra, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The infant-mortality rate in children aged less than five is an indicator of the general state of health of a population and directly reflects the quality of life and the level of socio-economic development of a country. Avoidable mortality was assessed in preschool children as a reflection of Colombia quality of life and socio-economic development. Mortality trends were analyzed in preschool children aged less than five throughout Colombia during a 20-year period from 1985-2004, and focused on mortality causes that were considered avoidable. This was a descriptive, retrospective study; the sources of information were Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística records of deaths and population projections 1985-2004. Mortality rate due to avoidable causes was the statistical indicator. In children aged less than one, the reducible mortality due to "early diagnosis and medical treatment" occupied the first place amongst causes for every year of the study period and accounted for more than 50% of recorded deaths. In children aged 1 to 4, the category "other important reducible causes" was associated with 40% of recorded deaths-deaths due mainly to respiratory diseases. Over the 20-year period, the avoidable mortality rate decreased by 34% in children aged less than one, in children 1-4, it decreased by 23%. Although the infant-mortality rate in preschool children was reduced, the decrease was small, from 80% to 77%. The situation requires more analysis with respect to strategies in public health, particularly concerning preventable diseases of the infancy.

  16. Intersecting Cultures in Deaf Mental Health: An Ethnographic Study of NHS Professionals Diagnosing Autism in D/deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenman, Natassia F; Hiddinga, Anja; Wright, Barry

    2017-02-27

    Autism assessments for children who are deaf are particularly complex for a number of reasons, including overlapping cultural and clinical factors. We capture this in an ethnographic study of National Health Service child and adolescent mental health services in the United Kingdom, drawing on theoretical perspectives from transcultural psychiatry, which help to understand these services as a cultural system. Our objective was to analyse how mental health services interact with Deaf culture, as a source of cultural-linguistic identity. We ground the study in the practices and perceptions of 16 professionals, who have conducted autism assessments for deaf children aged 0-18. We adopt a framework of intersectionality to capture the multiple, mutually enforcing factors involved in this diagnostic process. We observed that professionals working in specialist Deaf services, or with experience working with the Deaf community, had intersectional understandings of assessments: the ways in which cultural, linguistic, sensory, and social factors work together to produce diagnoses. Working with a diagnostic system that focuses heavily on 'norms' based on populations from a hearing culture was a key source of frustration for professionals. We conclude that recognising the intersectionality of mental health and Deaf culture helps professionals provide sensitive diagnoses that acknowledge the multiplicity of D/deaf experiences.

  17. Relationship Between Parents and Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand children’s subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Children’s well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.

  18. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

  19. Sustained attention, selective attention and cognitive control in deaf and hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W G; Hauser, Peter C

    2014-03-01

    Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6-13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the course of several minutes, and a distractibility test provided a measure of the ability to ignore task irrelevant information - selective attention. Both tasks provided assessments of cognitive control through analysis of commission errors. The deaf and hearing children did not differ on measures of sustained attention. However, younger deaf children were more distracted by task-irrelevant information in their peripheral visual field, and deaf children produced a higher number of commission errors in the selective attention task. It is argued that this is not likely to be an effect of audition on cognitive processing, but may rather reflect difficulty in endogenous control of reallocated visual attention resources stemming from early profound deafness.

  20. Sustained attention, selective attention and cognitive control in deaf and hearing children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6–13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the course of several minutes, and a distractibility test provided a measure of the ability to ignore task irrelevant information – selective attention. Both tasks provided assessments of cognitive control through analysis of commission errors. The deaf and hearing children did not differ on measures of sustained attention. However, younger deaf children were more distracted by task-irrelevant information in their peripheral visual field, and deaf children produced a higher number of commission errors in the selective attention task. It is argued that this is not likely to be an effect of audition on cognitive processing, but may rather reflect difficulty in endogenous control of reallocated visual attention resources stemming from early profound deafness. PMID:24355653

  1. Reading books with young deaf children: strategies for mediating between American Sign Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Research on shared reading has shown positive results on children's literacy development in general and for deaf children specifically; however, reading techniques might differ between these two populations. Families with deaf children, especially those with deaf parents, often capitalize on their children's visual attributes rather than primarily auditory cues. These techniques are believed to provide a foundation for their deaf children's literacy skills. This study examined 10 deaf mother/deaf child dyads with children between 3 and 5 years of age. Dyads were videotaped in their homes on at least two occasions reading books that were provided by the researcher. Descriptive analysis showed specifically how deaf mothers mediate between the two languages, American Sign Language (ASL) and English, while reading. These techniques can be replicated and taught to all parents of deaf children so that they can engage in more effective shared reading activities. Research has shown that shared reading, or the interaction of a parent and child with a book, is an effective way to promote language and literacy, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, and metalinguistic awareness (Snow, 1983), making it critical for educators to promote shared reading activities at home between parent and child. Not all parents read to their children in the same way. For example, parents of deaf children may present the information in the book differently due to the fact that signed languages are visual rather than spoken. In this vein, we can learn more about what specific connections deaf parents make to the English print. Exploring strategies deaf mothers may use to link the English print through the use of ASL will provide educators with additional tools when working with all parents of deaf children. This article will include a review of the literature on the benefits of shared reading activities for all children, the relationship between ASL and English skill development, and the techniques

  2. Practitioner Talk on Deaf Children's Reading Comprehension: Analysing Multiple Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth A.; Kitchen, Ruth; Clarke, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different perspectives of deaf education practitioners on deafness and reading comprehension. This involved a full deaf education support team comprising teachers of the deaf, communication support workers, and deaf instructors from a UK citywide service covering early years, primary and secondary settings. Using a focus group…

  3. Metacognition and reading in children who are deaf: a review of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassman, B

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and synthesize the literature linking metacognition and reading in children who are deaf. Although this body of research is sparse, three issues emerge. First, the research implies that current instructional practices used to teach reading to deaf children might actually hinder their development of mature metacognitive knowledge and control. Second, the studies suggest that the low-level reading material typically given to deaf children might not provide the opportunity for them to develop, practice, or use metacognitive strategies. And third, the research shows that deaf students can benefit from metacognitive strategy instruction.

  4. DETECTION OF UNDERNUTRITION AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among Indian preschool children is very much prevalent and is the predisposing factor for various types of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To detect prevalence of under nutrition among preschool children and to find out sensitive tool for detection of under nutrition. Study design: A cross sectional study. Study subjects: Children of age group be low 6 years attending anganwadi. Sample size: Total 108 children attending anganwadi were included in the study. Data collection: Data was recorded in prestructured proforma, consisting information regarding personal data and anthropometric measurements li ke height, weight, head circumference, mid arm circumference etc. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of undernutrition according to weight for height, body mass index, weight for age by IAP classification and by Kanawati and Mc Laren index was 36.11%, 41.67%, 42.59% and 66.67%, respectively. Most sensitive tool observed was Kanawati and Mc Laren index to detect true positive undernutrition cases. CONCLUSION: Maximum number of undernutrition cases were detected by Kanawati and Mc Laren index, whose ability of d etecting true undernutrition cases is very much high in comparison with other indices, even though the sensitivity to detect normal children and predictive ability is less. So the Kanawati and Mc Laren index is considered superior to detect undernutrition in the community

  5. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  6. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  7. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  8. The Benefits of Reading Aloud to Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, Janel Christine

    Noting that reading aloud to preschool children significantly influences their reading development, this master's thesis examines the many benefits from reading aloud to preschoolers. The thesis reviews research indicating that when parents read aloud, they help their children learn vocabulary, complex sentence structure, and story structure.…

  9. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  10. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  11. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  12. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  13. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  14. GROUP OF HEARING MOTHERS OF DEAF CHILDREN: INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Fava de Quevedo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This experience report describes a group phenomenon, based upon a case study of a group of hearing mothers of deaf children. The weekly group, in operation for over three years, provides support for families with deaf children. At first, observations were made in the group for a subsequent analysis of the data and act on interventions. Categories containing the main features that emerged in the group were created in order to discuss the content found. The categories addressed by mothers included: independence/autonomy of the child; adolescence and sexuality; discovery of deafness and reorganization of family dynamics; and matters beyond the group goal. As for the categories related to the group process there are: resistance; containing function of the coordinator; transfer; interventions in the group field. The results lead to understanding the group as a facilitator and as a necessary support for the participants. Before that, interventions were carried out to expand the space for reflection offered by the group, which provides adaptations to the different situations experienced by the participants.

  15. Does Deafness Spell Disaster? An Analysis of the Written English Levels of Deaf Children in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Carolyn; Aylif, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an empirical comparative study in the Nelson Mandela Metropole investigating the difference between the written English of deaf children and the written English of hearing children and makes recommendations on how to improve the writing of deaf children. The psycholinguistic approach was used for the…

  16. Social competence of preschool children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, K; Timonen, S; Hagström, K; Hämäläinen, P; Eriksson, K; Nieminen, P

    2009-02-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the social competence of 3- to 6-year-old children with epilepsy (n=26) compared with that of age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=26). Social competence was assessed with the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised, and the Child Behavior Checklist. The results indicate that the children with epilepsy, especially with complicated epilepsy, had fewer age-appropriate social skills and more attention and behavior problems than the healthy children, as reported by parents. It is possible that the lack of age-appropriate social skills and the presence of attention problems predispose to behavioral problems. Also, epilepsy-related factors impaired the achievement of social competence. This study shows that the preschool children with complicated, early-onset epilepsy are at increased risk of difficulties in social competence.

  17. Assessment of nutritional status of preschool children of Gumbrit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of nutritional status of preschool children of Gumbrit, North West Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Conclusion: The nutritional status of children in rural communities is affected by low family income.

  18. A Tale of Two Schools: Educating Catholic Female Deaf Children in Ireland, 1846-1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Noel Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the contributions of the Dominican Sisters and Sisters of Mercy in running schools for female deaf children in Ireland during the period 1846 to 1946. The schools were established as part of an attempt to educate Catholics in the Catholic faith and provide literacy to female deaf children. In assuming the challenge of…

  19. Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…

  20. Parent influences on physical activity participation and physical fitness of deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J; Dummer, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that parents' values toward physical activity and fitness have strongly influenced the physical activity habits of hearing children (Welk, G. J., Wood, K., & Morss, G. [2003]. Parental influences on physical activity in children: An exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 19-33). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether similar findings are obtained for deaf (1) children. The influence of parents' hearing status and parents' involvement in Deaf sport (2) was assessed in addition to their values toward sports participation and physical fitness for their deaf children. Deaf children's physical activity habits were determined by the number of activities participated per week, and fitness levels by the number of scores within the Healthy Fitness Zone from the Fitnessgram test. Parents demonstrated positive values toward physical fitness regardless of hearing status; this finding was strongest among deaf parents of deaf children. Significant positive relationships were found among parents' values toward physical fitness and sport participation and children's physical activity and fitness levels, as well as between Deaf sport involvement by deaf parents and children's physical activity levels.

  1. Great Expectations: Perspectives on Cochlear Implantation of Deaf Children in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Eva; Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Hyde, Mervyn B.; Hjulstad, Oddvar

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the use of cochlear implants with deaf children in Norway and examine how this intervention has raised new expectations and some tensions concerning the future of education for deaf students. They report on two studies of communication within school learning environments of young children with implants in Norwegian preschools…

  2. The 2013 National Child Count of Children and Youth Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Deaf-Blindness, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Child Count of Children and Youth who are Deaf-Blind is the first and longest running registry and knowledge base of children who are deaf-blind in the world. It has been collaboratively designed, implemented and revised to serve as the common vehicle to meet federal grant requirements for both the State/Multi-State and National…

  3. A Factor Analysis Study of Intellectual Development in Deaf and Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweibel, Abraham; Mertens, Donna M.

    The Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test (SON) was administered to 251 deaf children (6-15 years old) and 101 hearing children (10-12 years old) in Israel. The SON was judged appropriate for measuring cognitive functioning in the deaf because it requires no verbal instructions or responses and includes a measure of abstract thinking ability.…

  4. Prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children in Ardabil, North Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Nemati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal children were selected by cluster sampling from elementary, guidance and high schools of Ardabil city and 423 couples parenting disabled children were selected non-randomly among which 130 had deaf children. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of consanguineous marriage and chi-square test to compare prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of normal and deaf children.Results: Descriptive analyses showed that 80 out of 130 (61.54% parents who had deaf children have had consanguineous marriage. Furthermore data analysis demonstrated that prevalence of consanguineous marriage was significantly higher among parents of deaf children (p<0.001.Conclusion: Consanguineous marriage plays a major role in expression of recessive genes and could lead to development of various handicaps including deafness. Increasing couples' awareness about consequences of consanguineous marriage and conducting genetic counseling are indispensable.

  5. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for

  6. Pre-energy reasoning in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITRIS KOLIOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper explores the degree to which preschool children have the ability to use mental representations which constitute precursor energy models. Twenty-five children (10 boys and 15 girls participated in the study. They were presented with two different phenomenological situations considered as important for the establishment of pre-energy reasoning: the movement of a toy car with the use of batteries and the movement of an identical car with the use of a spring. The children were involved in personal, semi-structured interviews, which aimed at eliciting their explanations about the movement of the two cars. The analysis of children’s explanations reveals that they tend to explain the movement of cars in both phenomenological situations in naturalistic terms. These naturalistic explanations were mainly agentive, that is they regard the batteries and the spring correspondingly as external agents causing the cars’ movement. The major percentage of agentive naturalistic explanations was given in terms of the function of the objects under discussion, while a number of them were formulated in terms of distribution. These findings designate a developing understanding of physical causality and a pre-energy character in children’s reasoning, since they are capable of accounting for the two phenomenological situations in terms of object chains. Therefore, an attempt to introduce the aspect of energy transfer in preschool education could be considered.

  7. Gender differences in preschool children's play

    OpenAIRE

    Tarman Starc, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the final thesis is to shed some light on gender-based differences which can be observed in the way preschool children (aged 3 to 6) play, focusing on differences in the type of play, the size of play groups of boys and girls as well as differences in their playing behaviour with special focus on prosocial and aggressive behaviour. Moreover, the educators' attitude towards play is examined, i.e. how they intervene in the play of boy and girls. In the theoretical part the key c...

  8. Executive Function and Language in Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Berta; Edwards, Lindsey; Langdon, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between language and executive function (EF) and their development in children have been the focus of recent debate and are of theoretical and clinical importance. Exploration of these functions in children with a peripheral hearing loss has the potential to be informative from both perspectives. This study compared the EF and…

  9. Behavioral Assessment of Prelingually Deaf Children Before Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L.; Pisoni, David B.; Sanders, Mary; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To determine whether scores from a behavioral assessment of prelingually deafened children who present for cochlear implant surgery are predictive of audiological outcomes Study Design Retrospective review of longitudinal data collected from 42 children with prelingual hearing loss who presented for a cochlear implant before age 5 years. Methods The Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS) was administered during the preimplant workup. Standardized scores reflect daily living skills, socialization, and motor development compared with a normative sample. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether any subject variables were related to VABS scores. Mixed-model analyses were computed to determine whether preimplant VABS scores were predictive of longitudinal spoken-language data obtained after cochlear implant surgery. Results Motor scores tended to be higher than nonmotor scores. Nonmotor scores were significantly lower than the normative mean and decreased with testing age. Children with acquired deafness demonstrated lower motor scores than children with congenital causes. Children with higher motor scores demonstrated significantly higher performance on language, vocabulary, and word recognition tests than children with lower motor scores. Nonmotor domains were not as robustly related to spoken-language measures, although similar trends were observed Conclusion Profound deafness and language delay may confound the assessment of daily living skills and socialization in the population studied. Motor development appears to proceed normally in prelingually deafened children and is a preimplant predictor of spoken-language outcome in young infants and children with cochlear implants, a finding consistent with the large body of work establishing links between perceptual-motor and language development. PMID:16148703

  10. Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, B; Roberts, I; Oakley, A

    2000-01-01

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  11. Correction and development of psychomotor function of deaf children of midchildhood by facilities of mobile games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction and development of psychomotor sphere of deaf children of midchildhood is considered by facilities of physical education, in particular by mobile games. The analysis of publications of research workers is resulted in relation to the problem of development of psychomotor function of deaf children in a theory and practice of correction work. In theory is grounded value of mobile games as effective mean of development of psychomotor sphere of deaf lower boys. The necessity of application of the specially adapted mobile games is set in the process of correction-pedagogical work with the deaf children of midchildhood. The pedagogical looking is presented after the features of playing activity of deaf children of 1-4 classes.

  12. DISPOSING CHILDREN WITH PSYCHPHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES AT PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saso KOCANKOVSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The findings that I present in this paper, are gained through 12 years of work of the commission for disposing children with psychophysical developmental difficulties, working at the service for care and improvement of mental health of children and adolescents in Bitola.In the period from 1984 to 1996 at the age of 0-7, 191 were disposing children (103 male and 88 female, that from the total number of persons 1638 is 11,66 %.If we make an analyze according to the type and degree of the difficulty, we’ll have the following situation:· from the total number of disposed persons with psychical difficulties in the development, 7,3 % are children at this age, more are male, and usually they are with severe frustration.· from the total number of disposed persons with speech and voice difficulties, 58,8 %, are children at the age of 7, and the most common are developmental disphasyas.· from all the disposed persons with hearing difficulties, 10,9 % are children at preschool age, and are usually deaf.· from the total number of the persons with damaged eyesight 8,8 are children at preschool age and they are all blind.· from all the disposed persons, physically impaired are 8 % at this age and more of them are male.· from all the disposed persons with combined difficulties 15,6 % are children at preschool age. They usually have psychical, physical and speech difficulties.

  13. Assessment of the Social and Emotional Functioning of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roy P.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews selected issues and techniques in interviewing, direct observation, rating scales, sociometry, and associative techniques as used in the context of preschool assessment. Special problems encountered in assessing the social and emotional functioning of preschool children are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  14. Language Competence and Social Focus among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naerland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how various aspects of language competence are related to social focus among preschoolers. The study presented is based on video-recorded observation of 64 children, aged 11-61 months, during free play at their kindergarten. A measure of social focus in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed…

  15. Preschool Predictors of Narrative Writing Skills in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Nelson, Lauren; Zeisel, Susan; Kasambira Fannin, Danai

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the preschool predictors of elementary school narrative writing skills. The sample included 65 typically developing African American children, ranging in age from 5.0 to 5.5 years, and was 44.6% male. Targeted preschool predictors included measures of phonological processing, core language abilities, prereading skills, and…

  16. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  17. Affective forecasting bias in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Shalini; Bulley, Adam; von Hippel, William; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning. The second study replicated this effect in another sample of 5-year-olds (n=34) and also found evidence of an intensity bias in 4-year-olds (n=30). These findings provide the first evidence of a negative intensity bias in affective forecasting among young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Science and technology awareness for preschool children: a working model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available these positive experiences as references to support their developing interests and attitudes towards Science and Technology. The Process TekkiTots started in 2006 when Morning Star Montessori preschool in the Pretoria area expressed the need for Science... to preschool children. I put together twenty-five lessons and presented it to a group of six children at a Montessori preschool once a week. It took on average an hour to complete a lesson. I observed the interest the children showed and eagerness to take...

  19. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  20. Left-Handed Preschool Children with Orthopedic Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Katharine M.

    1983-01-01

    The mental development of 332 preschool-age children with orthopedic disabilities was assessed at a children's hospital over a 10-year period, and comparisons were made for right-handed and left-handed. The left-handed children were slower than right-handed children in learning speech and language skills (Author/SEW)

  1. Spelling in oral deaf and hearing dyslexic children: A comparison of phonologically plausible errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Shergold, Z; Kyle, F E; Herman, R

    2014-11-01

    A written single word spelling to dictation test and a single word reading test were given to 68 severe-profoundly oral deaf 10-11-year-old children and 20 hearing children with a diagnosis of dyslexia. The literacy scores of the deaf children and the hearing children with dyslexia were lower than expected for children of their age and did not differ from each other. Three quarters of the spelling errors of hearing children with dyslexia compared with just over half the errors of the oral deaf group were phonologically plausible. Expressive vocabulary and speech intelligibility predicted the percentage of phonologically plausible errors in the deaf group only. Implications of findings for the phonological decoding self-teaching model and for supporting literacy development are discussed.

  2. Lexical Organization in Deaf Children Who Use British Sign Language: Evidence from a Semantic Fluency Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloe R.; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Herman, Rosalind; Morgan, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We adapted the semantic fluency task into British Sign Language (BSL). In Study 1, we present data from twenty-two deaf signers aged four to fifteen. We show that the same "cognitive signatures" that characterize this task in spoken languages are also present in deaf children, for example, the semantic clustering of responses. In Study…

  3. Role of sign language in intellectual and social development of deaf children: Review of foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhlova A. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of foreign psychological publications concerning the sign language as a means of communication in deaf people. The article addresses the question of sing language's impact on cognitive development, efficiency and positive way of interacting with parents as well as academic achievement increase in deaf children.

  4. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Adolescents in China: Their Fears and Anxieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the fears and anxieties of Chinese deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents, and the ability of parents and teachers to report the presence of these fears and anxieties. Chinese deaf youth are at risk due to a lack of trained teachers, an overemphasis on oral education in schools, negative stereotypes, and parental…

  5. Assessment of Sign Language Development: The Case of Deaf Children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we will describe the development of an assessment instrument for Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) for deaf children in bilingual education programs. The assessment instrument consists of nine computerized tests in which the receptive and expressive language skills of deaf chil

  6. "The Business of Life": Educating Catholic Deaf Children in Late Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangion, Carmen M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debates in late nineteenth-century Britain regarding the education of deaf children revolved around communication. For many Victorians, sign language was unacceptable; many proponents of oralism attempted to "normalise" the hearing impaired by replacing deaf methods of communication with spoken language and lipreading. While…

  7. "The Business of Life": Educating Catholic Deaf Children in Late Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangion, Carmen M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debates in late nineteenth-century Britain regarding the education of deaf children revolved around communication. For many Victorians, sign language was unacceptable; many proponents of oralism attempted to "normalise" the hearing impaired by replacing deaf methods of communication with spoken language and lipreading. While debates on…

  8. Emotional Coping and Literacy Intervention Decisions: How Hearing Parents Guide Their Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Christopher Jon

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the process by which eight hearing parents went about making decisions to promote language acquisition and literacy learning in their deaf children, who or what influenced that process, and how they coped emotionally with the impact of deafness on literacy and language acquisition. Data from interview…

  9. Visual Working Memory in Deaf Children with Diverse Communication Modes: Improvement by Differential Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, Maria Teresa; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential…

  10. Music in the lives of deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E; Vongpaisal, Tara; Nakata, Takayuki

    2009-07-01

    Present-day cochlear implants provide good temporal cues and coarse spectral cues. In general, these cues are adequate for perceiving speech in quiet backgrounds and for young children's acquisition of spoken language. They are inadequate, however, for conveying the rich pitch-patterning of music. As a result, many adults who become implant users after losing their hearing find music disappointing or unacceptable. By contrast, child implant users who were born deaf or became deaf as infants or toddlers typically find music interesting and enjoyable. They recognize popular songs that they hear regularly when the test materials match critical features of the original versions. For example, they can identify familiar songs from the original recordings with words and from versions that omit the words but preserve all other cues. They also recognize theme songs from their favorite television programs when presented in original or somewhat altered form. The motivation of children with implants for listening to music or melodious speech is evident well before they understand language. Within months after receiving their implant, they prefer singing to silence. They also prefer speech in the maternal style to typical adult speech and the sounds of their native language-to-be to those of a foreign language. An important task of future research is to ascertain the relative contributions of perceptual and motivational factors to the apparent differences between child and adult implant users.

  11. Deaf and hearing children's development of theory of mind, peer popularity, and leadership during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; O'Reilly, Karin; Wellman, Henry M

    2016-09-01

    This study had two primary aims. First, we compared deaf and hearing children during middle and late childhood on (a) cognitive understanding of basic and advanced theory of mind (ToM) and (b) social dimensions of peer group relations, including popularity, isolation, leadership, and the disposition to interact positively with peers. Second, using correlational analyses, we examined ToM's connections with these social variables to see whether and how ToM impacts children's social lives. A total of 57 children (36 deaf children of hearing parents and 21 hearing children) 6 to 14years of age completed a 6-step developmental ToM Scale, and their teachers reported on the social variables. Hearing children outperformed deaf children on ToM and all teacher-rated variables. For deaf children, popularity correlated positively, and social isolation correlated negatively, with ToM even after controlling for age, gender, and language ability. For hearing children, the only ToM link was a weak correlation with leadership. Possible reasons for the differences between deaf and hearing groups are discussed, together with the likelihood of bidirectional causal links and implications for deaf children's social development in school.

  12. Speech feature discrimination in deaf children following cochlear implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeson, Tonya R.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler

    2002-05-01

    Speech feature discrimination is a fundamental perceptual skill that is often assumed to underlie word recognition and sentence comprehension performance. To investigate the development of speech feature discrimination in deaf children with cochlear implants, we conducted a retrospective analysis of results from the Minimal Pairs Test (Robbins et al., 1988) selected from patients enrolled in a longitudinal study of speech perception and language development. The MP test uses a 2AFC procedure in which children hear a word and select one of two pictures (bat-pat). All 43 children were prelingually deafened, received a cochlear implant before 6 years of age or between ages 6 and 9, and used either oral or total communication. Children were tested once every 6 months to 1 year for 7 years; not all children were tested at each interval. By 2 years postimplant, the majority of these children achieved near-ceiling levels of discrimination performance for vowel height, vowel place, and consonant manner. Most of the children also achieved plateaus but did not reach ceiling performance for consonant place and voicing. The relationship between speech feature discrimination, spoken word recognition, and sentence comprehension will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD Research Grant No. R01DC00064 and NIH/NIDCD Training Grant No. T32DC00012.

  13. Narrative skills in deaf children who use spoken English: Dissociations between macro and microstructural devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A C; Toscano, E; Botting, N; Marshall, C R; Atkinson, J R; Denmark, T; Herman, R; Morgan, G

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills.

  14. rickets in rural kenyan preschool children: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-03

    Mar 3, 2013 ... Baseline clinical assessments performed for a nutrition intervention study in preschool children. (n=324) ... Committee of the University of Nairobi, School of. Medicine, and .... Program [Subgrant DAN-1328-G-00-0046-00]. The.

  15. Correlates of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Preschool Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)

  16. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL TRIBAL CHILDREN IN NORTH KERALA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bindu V; Thomas Bina; Biju George

    2017-01-01

    .... Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. The present study is an attempt to assess the nutritional status of pre-school children of Kozhikode district in Kerala...

  17. Anemia and associated factors among Kuwaiti preschool children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nawal Mubarak Al-Qaoud

    2014-07-25

    Jul 25, 2014 ... Design: A sample of 578 Kuwaiti preschool children (4–5 years of age) and their mothers were .... and weight without shoes and in light clothing to the nearest ..... Kuwait Nutrition Profile – Nutrition and Consumer Protection.

  18. Ethics in Researching Young Children's Play in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done...

  19. Health lifestyles of pre-school children in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Povlsen, Lene; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2013-01-01

    Holistic understanding of health is one of the key principles of health promotion indicating that the health status of individuals and populations is determined by a variety of environmental, economic, social and personal factors. Traditionally, research focus has been on school-aged children...... and school-based interventions and less on pre-school children and their families' engagement in promoting health in everyday life. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that parents of pre-school children in the Nordic countries experienced as influencing health lifestyles in their children......'s everyday lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 parents of pre-school children in the five Nordic countries. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The parents identified themselves as the primary shapers of their children's lifestyles and described influencing factors...

  20. Autism, Processing Speed, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Åsa Hedvall; Elisabeth Fernell; Anette Holm; Jakob Åsberg Johnels; Christopher Gillberg; Eva Billstedt

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Methods. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6–6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls) with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n = 77) or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (n = 113). Cognitive data wer...

  1. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  2. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  3. Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the meaning of Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school – analyzed from the children’s perspectives (Aronsson, Hedegaard, Højholt, & Ulvik, 2012).The text is based on an ethnographic study where a group of Danish children where followed...... participation possibilities within the children’s communities in preschool. This means that we need both cooperation with the children’s parents and professional collaboration and information sharing across preschool and school and professional cooperation within the school....

  4. Vowel acquisition by prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Marie-Eve; Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Ménard, Lucie; Goud, Marilyne; Cohen, Henri

    2004-05-01

    Phonetic transcriptions (study 1) and acoustic analysis (study 2) were used to clarify the nature and rhythm of vowel acquisition following the cochlear implantation of prelingually deaf children. In the first study, seven children were divided according to their degree of hearing loss (DHL): DHL I: 90-100 dB of hearing loss, 1 children; DHL II: 100-110 dB, 3 children; and DHL III: over 110 dB, 3 children. Spontaneous speech productions were recorded and videotaped 6 and 12 months postsurgery and vowel inventories were obtained by listing all vowels that occurred at least twice in the child's repertoire at the time of recording. Results showed that degree of hearing loss and age at implantation have a significant impact on vowel acquisition. Indeed, DHL I and II children demonstrated more diversified as well as more typical pattern of acquisition. In the second study, the values of the first and second formants were extracted. The results suggest evolving use of the acoustic space, reflecting the use of auditory feedback to produce the three phonological features exploited to contrast French vowels (height, place of articulation, and rounding). The possible influence of visual feedback before cochlear implant is discussed.

  5. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  6. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  7. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...... and time of day. Additionally, the between-preschool variation in mean PA was estimated using the intraclass correlation. METHODS: We invited 627 children 5-6 years of age attending 43 randomly selected preschools in Odense, Denmark. Aiming and catching MS was assessed using subtests of the Movement...

  8. Syntax and Prosody in Narratives: A Study of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Paola; Zampini, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco; D'Odorico, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines narrative competence and its relationships with syntactic and prosodic skills in preschool children. The narrative skills of 30 typically developing Italian children were assessed during their first year of kindergarten attendance (T1) and again one year later (T2). A picture book was used to elicit children's…

  9. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  10. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  11. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  12. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool Onset (PO) Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202

  13. Primeras interacciones con ninos sordo-ciegos. Hoja informativa (Early Interactions with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. Fact Sheet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Deborah

    This fact sheet presents numerous ways that parents can interact with their deaf-blind children. The challenges facing children with deaf-blindness are explained and compared to children without disabilities. Ways to recognize and then respond to children's actions are suggested and tips for developing good communication are presented, including…

  14. The missing link in language development of deaf and hard of hearing children: pragmatic language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberis, Dianne; Beams, Dinah; Dalpes, Molly; Abrisch, Amanda; Baca, Rosalinda; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2012-11-01

    This article will provide information about the Pragmatics Checklist, which consists of 45 items and is scored as: (1) not present, (2) present but preverbal, (3) present with one to three words, and (4) present with complex language. Information for both children who are deaf or hard of hearing and those with normal hearing are presented. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are significantly older when demonstrating skill with complex language than their normal hearing peers. In general, even at the age of 7 years, there are several items that are not mastered by 75% of the deaf or hard of hearing children. Additionally, the article will provide some suggestions of strategies that can be considered as a means to facilitate the development of these pragmatic language skills for children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

  15. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Free, Rolien H.; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J.; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Vermeulen, Anneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (Cl) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  16. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, E.; Langereis, M.C.; Frijns, J.H.; Free, R.H.; Goedegebure, A.; Smits, C.; Stokroos, R.J.; Ariens-Meijer, S.A.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Vermeulen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  17. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Free, Rolien H.; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J.; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Vermeulen, Anneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (Cl) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  18. Acquiring the Language of Learning: The Performance of Hawaiian Preschool Children on the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    The Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) was designed as a diagnostic tool for 3- to 6-year-old children to assess children's abilities to use language to solve thinking problems typically posed by teachers. The PLAI was developed after observing middle-class teachers in preschool classrooms encourage children to use language in…

  19. The history of education of deaf-blind children in Moscow region

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Basilova

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with deaf-blind children education in Moscow region and is devoted to 70th anniversary of beginning of experimental education of deaf-blind in Institution of defectology of Academy of pedagogical sciences of USSR and 50th anniversary of work of an orphanage of deaf-blind children in Sergiev Posad. This article tells about a little-known Moscow period of activity of pedagog I.A. Sokolyansky. And about how dramatically evolved his work in Moscow after moving from Kharkov, where...

  20. Hearing Mothers and Oral Deaf Children: An Atypical Relational Context for Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecciso, Flavia; Petrocchi, Serena; Marchetti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in a group of oral deaf children and in their hearing mothers using a battery of ToM tasks. It also investigated the connection between mother and child in ToM performance. Participants were: 17 oral deaf children (aged 5 to 14 years) were paired by gender, age, and mental age with 17 hearing…

  1. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  2. Psycho-pedagogіcal characteristic of adaptive mobile games for deaf children of primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conducted psycho-pedagogical and medico-biological basis of usage specially adapted mobile games in the psychophysical development of deaf children of primary school age. Determine the importance of mobile gaming as a means of physical education for this children's category. As a result of research found wellness, educational, educate and correctional importance of mobile games adapted deaf schoolchildren. Adaptive mobile games are effective media for psychophysical development of deaf children that brings to improvement of cognitions.

  3. Modeling reading vocabulary learning in deaf children in bilingual education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Ormel, Ellen; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    The acquisition of reading vocabulary is one of the major challenges for deaf children in bilingual education programs. Deaf children have to acquire a written lexicon that can effectively be used in reading. In this paper, we present a developmental model that describes reading vocabulary acquisition of deaf children in bilingual education programs. The model is inspired by Jiang's model of vocabulary development in a second language (N. Jiang, 2000, 2004a) and the hierarchical model of lexical representation and processing in bilinguals (J. F. Kroll & E. Stewart, 1988). We argue that lexical development in the written language often fossilizes and that many words deaf readers acquire will not reach the final stage of lexical development. We argue that this feature is consistent with many findings reported in the literature. Finally, we discuss the pedagogical implications of the model.

  4. Manifestations of sexual abuse in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, M M

    1995-01-01

    All adults who interact with preschool children need to be aware of possible indicators of sexual abuse. This information is especially important to advanced practice psychiatric/mental health nurses who interact with preschool-aged children in clinical, therapeutic, educational, research, legal, and community settings and to other nurses working in pediatric settings. Because there are few, if any, absolute physical indicators of child sexual abuse, the identification of empirically based emotional and behavioral indicators is important. This article reviews six studies that sought to identify such indicators for the preschool population. Studies reviewed confirm that not all sexually abused children are equally traumatized. When sexually abused children were compared to groups of non-sexually abused children receiving psychiatric services only one discriminating variable consistently arose. When overt sexual behavior, inappropriate for age, is manifested by a preschool-aged child, sexual abuse should be suspected. The identification of manifestations of sexual abuse in preschool-aged children is an appropriate topic for nursing research.

  5. [The role of music therapy in impaired hearing recovery. A survey among professionals working with deaf children and between users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comincini, Valeria; Del Piccolo, Lidia

    2013-02-01

    In this study, two groups are interviewed: the first study includes a sample of 60 physicians and health providers in the field of deafness, whose opinion on music therapy is collected by a specific questionnaire; the second involves 8 parents of deaf children attending music therapy lessons, who are asked to give an evaluation on the effect of music therapy, based on the experience of their children. Results show that health professionals know very little about the rehabilitative effectiveness of music therapy, whereas the parents of deaf children give a positive evaluation on the psychological, behavioral and linguistic benefits that music therapy gives to their deaf children.

  6. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  7. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  8. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  9. Evaluation of oral health awareness in parents of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Bhavneet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Little data are available on the initiative shown by the parents for dental health care of their preschool children in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the status of oral health awareness in parents of preschool children. Materials and Methods: A total of 230 preschool children were included in the study and their parents were analyzed for their child dental awareness by holding free dental checkups and interactive meetings with the help of their respective schools. Results and Conclusion: Results revealed that there is a low initiation of the parents when oral health care of small children is concerned; however, an active collective effort of the school and dental team can make awareness program effective.

  10. 76 FR 50202 - National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind; Final Extension of... for the National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind... waiver enables the currently funded National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children...

  11. 76 FR 32969 - National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind; Proposed Extension... project period and waiver for the National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who... currently funded National Technical Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind to...

  12. An institution based cross-sectional study on medical rehabilitation of deaf and dumb children in Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunal G. Varia

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Use of hearing aid improves attention and confidence among deaf children. Regular follow up is also necessary in these children. Collective efforts from government, ENT specialists and community are much needed for rehabilitation of deaf and dumb children. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1462-1465

  13. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in Urie…

  14. Storytelling with robots: Learning companions for preschool children's language development

    OpenAIRE

    Kory, Jacqueline Marie; Breazeal, Cynthia Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Children's oral language skills in preschool can predict their academic success later in life. As such, increasing children's skills early on could improve their success in middle and high school. To this end, we propose that a robotic learning companion could supplement children's early language education. The robot targets both the social nature of language learning and the adaptation necessary to help individual children. The robot is designed as a social character that interacts with chil...

  15. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  16. Prophylactic inhalation therapy in preschool children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.A. Tasche (Marjolein)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractRespiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity in preschool children. Confronted with young children with respiratory symptoms the physician faces many uncertainties regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, namely: • labelling of chronic and recurrent respiratory symptoms a

  17. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  18. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  19. Evaluating rehabilitation interventions in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) face limitations in their daily activities, in particular regarding mobility and self-care. Although many treatment ideas and approaches are available, evidence to show which intervention is the most effective for preschool children with CP is lacking. Furthermore,

  20. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  1. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  2. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  3. Energy cost of activities in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...

  4. Civic and Patriotic Education of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokeyeva, Ekaterina V.; Andreeva, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the current research devoted to civic and patriotic education of pre-school children is determined by the contradiction between the necessity of civic-patriotic education of children in the current context, their readiness to defend their Motherland and the lack of the development of this issue both in pedagogical theory and…

  5. Preschool Provision and Children of Migrants in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Nyland, Chris; Yan, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese children with an urban household registration ("hukou") normally attend subsidized preschools for three years prior to primary school. This is an experience available to relatively few of China's many millions of migrant children whose families are registered as rural residents but choose to migrate to urban areas. This paper…

  6. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  7. Social Skills Development for Preschool Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrenkopf, Carol; And Others

    Social skills development of preschool children with visual impairments is discussed. A review of the literature considers the field of child development and social cognition, the effect of blindness on child development, and the effects of blindness on social cognition. Three areas concerning the development of social skills for children with…

  8. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  9. Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, George M.; And Others

    As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

  10. Evaluating rehabilitation interventions in preschool children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) face limitations in their daily activities, in particular regarding mobility and self-care. Although many treatment ideas and approaches are available, evidence to show which intervention is the most effective for preschool children with CP is lacking. Furthermore,

  11. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  12. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  13. Auditory and Visual Electrophysiology of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Implications for Cross-modal Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Blau, Shane; LaMarr, Todd; Lawyer, Laurel A; Coffey-Corina, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Deaf children who receive a cochlear implant early in life and engage in intensive oral/aural therapy often make great strides in spoken language acquisition. However, despite clinicians' best efforts, there is a great deal of variability in language outcomes. One concern is that cortical regions which normally support auditory processing may become reorganized for visual function, leaving fewer available resources for auditory language acquisition. The conditions under which these changes occur are not well understood, but we may begin investigating this phenomenon by looking for interactions between auditory and visual evoked cortical potentials in deaf children. If children with abnormal auditory responses show increased sensitivity to visual stimuli, this may indicate the presence of maladaptive cortical plasticity. We recorded evoked potentials, using both auditory and visual paradigms, from 25 typical hearing children and 26 deaf children (ages 2-8 years) with cochlear implants. An auditory oddball paradigm was used (85% /ba/ syllables vs. 15% frequency modulated tone sweeps) to elicit an auditory P1 component. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded during presentation of an intermittent peripheral radial checkerboard while children watched a silent cartoon, eliciting a P1-N1 response. We observed reduced auditory P1 amplitudes and a lack of latency shift associated with normative aging in our deaf sample. We also observed shorter latencies in N1 VEPs to visual stimulus offset in deaf participants. While these data demonstrate cortical changes associated with auditory deprivation, we did not find evidence for a relationship between cortical auditory evoked potentials and the VEPs. This is consistent with descriptions of intra-modal plasticity within visual systems of deaf children, but do not provide evidence for cross-modal plasticity. In addition, we note that sign language experience had no effect on deaf children's early auditory and visual ERP

  14. The Influence of Phonological Mechanisms in Written Spelling of Profoundly Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lucia; Arfe, Barbara; Bronte, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of phonological and working memory mechanisms involved in spelling Italian single words was explored in two groups of children matched for grade level: a group of normally hearing children and a group of pre-verbally deaf children, with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Three-syllable and four-syllable familiar…

  15. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5-4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  16. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eROCHETTE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5 to 4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically-trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  17. Auditory and Visual Electrophysiology of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Implications for Cross-modal Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Blau, Shane; LaMarr, Todd; Lawyer, Laurel A.; Coffey-Corina, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Deaf children who receive a cochlear implant early in life and engage in intensive oral/aural therapy often make great strides in spoken language acquisition. However, despite clinicians’ best efforts, there is a great deal of variability in language outcomes. One concern is that cortical regions which normally support auditory processing may become reorganized for visual function, leaving fewer available resources for auditory language acquisition. The conditions under which these changes occur are not well understood, but we may begin investigating this phenomenon by looking for interactions between auditory and visual evoked cortical potentials in deaf children. If children with abnormal auditory responses show increased sensitivity to visual stimuli, this may indicate the presence of maladaptive cortical plasticity. We recorded evoked potentials, using both auditory and visual paradigms, from 25 typical hearing children and 26 deaf children (ages 2–8 years) with cochlear implants. An auditory oddball paradigm was used (85% /ba/ syllables vs. 15% frequency modulated tone sweeps) to elicit an auditory P1 component. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded during presentation of an intermittent peripheral radial checkerboard while children watched a silent cartoon, eliciting a P1–N1 response. We observed reduced auditory P1 amplitudes and a lack of latency shift associated with normative aging in our deaf sample. We also observed shorter latencies in N1 VEPs to visual stimulus offset in deaf participants. While these data demonstrate cortical changes associated with auditory deprivation, we did not find evidence for a relationship between cortical auditory evoked potentials and the VEPs. This is consistent with descriptions of intra-modal plasticity within visual systems of deaf children, but do not provide evidence for cross-modal plasticity. In addition, we note that sign language experience had no effect on deaf children’s early auditory and visual

  18. Reading skills in Persian deaf children with cochlear implants and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad; Rashedi, Vahid; Morasae, Esmaeil Khedmati

    2016-10-01

    Reading skills are necessary for educational development in children. Many studies have shown that children with hearing loss often experience delays in reading. This study aimed to examine reading skills of Persian deaf children with cochlear implant and hearing aid and compare them with normal hearing counterparts. The sample consisted of 72 s and third grade Persian-speaking children aged 8-12 years. They were divided into three equal groups including 24 children with cochlear implant (CI), 24 children with hearing aid (HA), and 24 children with normal hearing (NH). Reading performance of participants was evaluated by the "Nama" reading test. "Nama" provides normative data for hearing and deaf children and consists of 10 subtests and the sum of the scores is regarded as reading performance score. Results of ANOVA on reading test showed that NH children had significantly better reading performance than deaf children with CI and HA in both grades (P reading, word reading, and word comprehension skills (respectively, P = 0.976, P = 0.988, P = 0.998). Considering the findings, cochlear implantation is not significantly more effective than hearing aid for improvement of reading abilities. It is clear that even with considerable advances in hearing aid technology, many deaf children continue to find literacy a challenging struggle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-syndromic sensorineural prelingual deafness: the importance of genetic counseling in demystifying parents' beliefs about the cause of their children's deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fidjy; Paneque, Milena; Reis, Cláudia; Venâncio, Margarida; Sequeiros, Jorge; Saraiva, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics have allowed the determination of the genetic cause of some childhood non-syndromic deafness. In Portugal only a small proportion of families are referred to a clinical genetics service in order to clarify the etiology of the deafness and to provide genetic counseling. Consequently, there are no published studies of the prior beliefs of parents about the causes of hereditary deafness of their children and their genetic knowledge after receipt of genetic counseling. In order to evaluate the impact of genetic counseling, 44 parents of 24 children with the diagnosis of non-syndromic sensorineural prelingual deafness due to mutations in the GJB2 (connexin 26), completed surveys before and after genetic counseling. Before counseling 13.6 % of the parents knew the cause of deafness; at a post-counseling setting this percentage was significantly higher, with 84.1 % of the parents accurately identifying the etiology. No significant differences were found between the answers of mothers and fathers either before or after genetic counseling. Parents' level of education was a significant factor in pre-test knowledge. After genetic counseling 95.5 % of the parents stated that the consultation had met their expectations, 70.5 % remembered correctly the inheritance pattern, and 93.2 % correctly recalled the chance of risk of deafness. These results underline the importance of genetic counseling in demystifying parents' beliefs about the etiology of their children's deafness.

  20. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  1. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  2. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  3. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  4. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  5. SARS, Preschool Routines and Children's Behaviour: Observations from Preschools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    All schools in Hong Kong were closed in April 2003 to prevent the spread of SARS. This paper considers the influence of the SARS epidemic on children's routines and behaviour when preschools re-opened, after a six-week closure. Observations were made in 20 kindergartens and principals of another 10 kindergartens completed questionnaires. The…

  6. Language skills and nonverbal cognitive processes associated with reading comprehension in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, María Teresa; Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Ruiz-Cuadra, María del Mar; López-López, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language skills (vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness), nonverbal cognitive processes (attention, memory and executive functions) and reading comprehension in deaf children. Participants were thirty prelingually deaf children (10.7 ± 1.6 years old; 18 boys, 12 girls), who were classified as either good readers or poor readers by their scores on two reading comprehension tasks. The children were administered a rhyme judgment task and seven computerized neuropsychological tasks specifically designed and adapted for deaf children to evaluate vocabulary knowledge, attention, memory and executive functions in deaf children. A correlational approach was also used to assess the association between variables. Although the two groups did not show differences in phonological awareness, good readers showed better vocabulary and performed significantly better than poor readers on attention, memory and executive functions measures. Significant correlations were found between better scores in reading comprehension and better scores on tasks of vocabulary and non-verbal cognitive processes. The results suggest that in deaf children, vocabulary knowledge and nonverbal cognitive processes such as selective attention, visuo-spatial memory, abstract reasoning and sequential processing may be especially relevant for the development of reading comprehension.

  7. Nutritional status of preschool children attending kindergartens in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysha, Agim; Gjergji, Tahire M; Ploeger, Angelika

    2017-06-02

    There is very limited data on malnutrition of preschool children in Kosovo. The main objective of the study is to provide a nutritional status profile of preschool children attending kindergartens in Kosovo. Cross-sectional study of children aged 12-59 months (n = 352 children) and children aged 60-83 months (n = 134) enrolled in public and private kindergartens of Kosovo. Anthropometric measurements used for this study are weight and height of the preschoolers (12-83 months). A measuring board was used for measuring the length/height of children younger than 2 years, while digital weight and height scale Seca 763 was used for measuring of preschool children taller than 110 and Seca 213 was used for measuring the height for children who were shorter than 110 cm. Statistical analyses of underweight and overweight trends across sex and age groups as well as between children from public and private kindergartens were carried out. Qualitative variables were tested with a chi-square test. The differences between groups were assessed with a Student t test for normally distributed variables and a Mann-Whitney test for abnormally distributed numerical variables. The mean z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and BMI-for-age largely fell within 0.0 and 1.0. The percentage of stunted children is 3%, whereas child wasting is 1.9%. The overall percentage of obese children is 2.3%; furthermore, 8.9% are overweight and 27.3% have a possible risk of being overweight. The incidence of children underweight is slightly decreasing. The prevalence of overweight and obese children in sample chosen is evident.

  8. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure

  9. The written language of signals as a means of natural literacy of deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Fracari Hautrive

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking the theme literacy of deaf children is currently directing the eye to the practice teaching course that demands beyond the school. Questions moving to daily practice, became a challenge, requiring an investigative attitude. The article aims to problematize the process of literacy of deaf children. Reflection proposal emerges from daily practice. This structure is from yarns that include theoretical studies of Vigotskii (1989, 1994, 1996, 1998; Stumpf (2005, Quadros (1997; Bolzan (1998, 2002; Skliar (1997a, 1997b, 1998 . From which, problematizes the processes involved in the construction of written language. It is as a result, the importance of the instrumentalization of sign language as first language in education of deaf and learning of sign language writing. Important aspects for the deaf student is observed in the condition to be literate in their mother tongue. It points out the need for a redirect in the literacy of deaf children, so that important aspects of language and its role in the structuring of thought and its communicative aspect, are respected and considered in this process. Thus, it emphasizes the learning of the writing of sign language as fundamental, it should occupy a central role in the proposed teaching the class, encouraging the contradictions that put the student in a situation of cognitive conflict, while respecting the diversity inherent to each humans. It is considered that the production of sign language writing is an appropriate tool for the deaf students record their visual language.

  10. The inclusion of disadvantaged children in preschool programs: The children’s rights and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jager Jerneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.

  11. Prevalence and determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Berg, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    , the parents of the children were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 945 out of the 1201 eligible preschool children participated in the study (response rate = 79%). The children were aged 5-8 years. The majority were of German nationality (72.6%). Overall, 127 children (13......BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is among the most common infections in humans and has been recognized as major cause of various gastroduodenal diseases. There is limited knowledge, however, on the prevalence and determinants of this infection in children. We addressed these issues in a population......-based cross-sectional study in Southern Germany. METHODS: Study subjects were all preschool children in Ulm, a city in the South of Germany, who were screened for school fitness by physicians of the public health service in 1996. Infection status was determined by 13C-urea breath test. In addition...

  12. Quality of relationships between preschool children and their divorced mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrakouli Ε.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the consequences of parental divorce on preschool children aged 2,5 to 6,5 years old. More specifically, conflict, dependence and positive aspects of relationship were investigated. A total of 29 divorced mothers and their preschool children and 29 matched control married mothers and their children were ascertained from a general population. Mothers completed the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS developed by Pianta (1992. Mother –reported PCRS scores showed no differences on dependence and positive aspects of relationship, but conflict scale was significantly lower in children of divorce than in controls. However, younger children of divorced mothers (2,5 -4 years had significantly higher dependence on their mothers than the older ones (4-6,5. Additionally, mothers’ higher education was related to children less dependence and less conflict.

  13. The reading habits of parents of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The reading habits of parents of preschool children are very important for development of reading literacy. The role of parents in reading is very high. It is important that parents often read for themselves and for their children regardless of age, sex and education. With reading they are giving the children an example and attach great importance to reading. An important factor is the frequency of library visits and dealing with books. On the reading habits of parents have important influenc...

  14. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.

  15. Measuring the quality of education: the involvement of bilingually educated deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoors, H; Renting, B

    2000-07-01

    The levels of involvement of six young deaf children were observed during three educational tasks. These levels were used as indicators of quality of education. The children were bilingually educated. The possible connection between language of instruction, type of task, teaching style, and level of involvement was studied. The children's observed overall level of involvement was high. Involvement was influenced by the type of educational task, but also by the teacher and by the language of instruction: Involvement was greater during activities led by the deaf teacher, using Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN). Measurement of involvement of young deaf children turned out to be a good way to assess quality of education, not only for research purposes but in the context of general educational practice.

  16. Acquiring English as a second language via print: the task for deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Robert J; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L

    2014-08-01

    Only a minority of profoundly deaf children read at age-level. We contend this reflects cognitive and linguistic impediments from lack of exposure to a natural language in early childhood, as well as the inherent difficulty of learning English only through the written modality. Yet some deaf children do acquire English via print. The current paper describes a theoretical model of how children could, in principle, acquire a language via reading and writing. The model describes stages of learning which represent successive, conceptual insights necessary for second/foreign language learning via print. Our model highlights the logical difficulties present when one cannot practice a language outside of reading/writing, such as the necessity of translating to a first language, the need for explicit instruction, and difficulty that many deaf children experience in understanding figurative language. Our model explains why learning to read is often a protracted process for deaf children and why many fail to make progress after some initial success. Because language acquisition is thought to require social interaction, with meaning cued by extralinguistic context, the ability of some deaf individuals to acquire language through print represents an overlooked human achievement worthy of greater attention by cognitive scientists.

  17. Characteristics of Swedish Preschools That Provide Education and Care to Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…

  18. Examination of the Messages Preschool Teachers Use against Undesirable Behaviors of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeli, Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, through in-class observations, the messages preschool teachers use against children's undesirable behaviors, in order to warn the children and remove negative behaviors. The study group consisted of six preschool teachers. The messages used by preschool teachers against undesirable behaviors of children…

  19. The Impact of Pre-School on Young Children's Cognitive Attainments at Entry to Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Elliot, Karen; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of pre-school experience on young children's cognitive attainments at entry to primary school and analyses data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study, the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) project, which followed a large sample of young children attending 141 pre-school centres drawn from…

  20. The Relations among Young Children's Peer-Reported Trustworthiness, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, K. J.; Michalik, N.; Eisenberg, N.; Betts, L. R.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five (38 male and 27 female) preschool children (mean age=5 years 1 month) completed measures of peers' trustworthiness (promise keeping and secret keeping). Teachers rated the preschool children's inhibitory control, trustworthiness, and preschool adjustment. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yielded support for the hypothesized model. The…

  1. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  2. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  3. [Relationship between phonological awareness and behavioral problems in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Linda P; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2010-07-01

    Phonological awareness is a key precursor of reading and writing skills in preschool children. Many children with reading and spelling problems have comorbid disorders that have a negative impact on their development. Research to date has rarely focused on the interaction between behavioral problems and phonological awareness. The study investigates whether preschool children with difficulties in phonological awareness already show behavioral problems. Children (N = 188) were interviewed to assess their level of phonological awareness and teachers used the SDQ to rate their behavioral strengths and difficulties. Children with low levels of phonological awareness have more emotional problems, are more hyperactive, and have more problems with peers than children with higher levels of phonological awareness. No gender differences were found. The results indicate that already at preschool age children with low levels of phonological awareness show more behavioral problems than children with higher levels of phonological awareness. The results are comparable to those of school children who have writing and reading difficulties and behavioral problems.

  4. Nasal nitric oxide levels in healthy pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Peroni, D G; Sandri, M; Brunelli, M; Pigozzi, R; Boner, A L

    2010-12-01

    The evaluation of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has been proposed as a screening tool in children with clinically suspectable primary ciliary dyskinesia. Nevertheless, normal values have been reported for school-aged children. This study was designed to identify normal nNO levels in pre-school children. nNO was assessed in 300 healthy children aged between 1.5 and 7.2. Two hundred and fifty of them were unable to fulfill the guideline requirements for nNO measurement and were assessed by sampling the nasal air continuously with a constant trans-nasal aspiration flow for 30 s during tidal breathing. For those children who were able to cooperate, the average nNO concentration was calculated according to guidelines. A statistically significant relationship between nNO level and age was demonstrated in this study group of pre-school children (p < 0.001). An increase in nNO of about 100 ppb was observed in children older than 6 yr vs. those aged < 3. This study presents a description of normal nNO values in pre-school children. The effect of the age and the eventual presence of rhinitis and snoring need to be considered whenever nNO is evaluated in the clinical practice, in particular in non-cooperative children.

  5. Attitudes toward the Capabilities of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adults: Insights from the Parents of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharyanne; McKinnon, David H.; Ching, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) grow up in environments influenced by their parents' attitudes, which may facilitate or impede these children's development and participation (World Health Organization, 2007). The attitudes of 152 Australian parents of DHH children ages 3 years 7 months to 9 years 5 months (M = 6 years 5 months)…

  6. [Analysis of trace elements in the deaf-muted children among ethnic minorities in Urumchi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youledusi, Abudurusuli; Jian-ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    To explore the relationship between trace elements and auditory function in the deafness children among ethnic minorities in Urumchi. There were 27 deaf-muted children in this study and 30 children with normal hearing as control. Sample of serum and hair from two groups were collected, and we tested 17 kinds of trace elements by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. The content of trace elements in serum including Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Se, V and Pb from deaf-muted group was more higher than that of control group (P elements including Mn, Sr, Sn, and Bi was much lower than that of control group (P content of those trace elements including Ba, Cr, Ag, Co, Ti, and Ni in serum from both testing and control groups was found no significant difference with each other (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the content of the trace elements including Sn and Se in hairs from deaf-muted group was more higher than that of control group (P content of the trace elements including Zn, Fe, Co, Mn, Sr, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ti and Ba in hairs from deaf-muted group was much lower than that of control group (P content of the trace element including Cu, Ag, Cd, and Bi in hairs from deaf-muted group was found no significant difference between each other (P > 0.05). The content of some trace elements in serum and hairs of deaf-muted children is found a significant difference compared with children with normal hearing. This study indicates that some trace elements may relate to auditory function among ethnic minorities in Urumchi.

  7. Functional communication of children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Grether, Sandra; Phillips, Jannel; Choo, Daniel; Hibner, Julie; Barnard, Holly

    2014-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between language levels and communication and social function skills in young children who are deaf/hard-of-hearing. A cross-sectional design was used with participants sampled predominately from a single clinic setting. Children between 3 and 6 years of age with permanent bilateral hearing loss were enrolled in the study. All children received the Preschool Language Scales-Fifth Edition language assessment and a neurocognitive assessment using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised at the study visit. Communication and social function skills were measured using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II; mean 100 ± 15) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI; mean 50 ± 10). Analysis included 65 children with mild to profound bilateral hearing loss (mean age 56.8 months, SD ± 14.1); 52% had hearing loss in the mild to moderate range. The mean nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) was 95.7 (±18.8), the mean receptive language standard score was 83.7 (±18.6), and mean expressive language standard score was 83.0 (±18.5). The mean VABS-II communication standard score was 89.1 (±17.5), and the mean PEDI social function score was 39.6 (±15.3). Both nonverbal IQ and receptive language relative to nonverbal IQ (the ratio of language to IQ) were significantly associated with communication and social functioning, explaining more than 50% of the variance in communication function scores. Children with language commensurate with their IQ had significantly higher communication and social function scores than children with language significantly lower than IQ. This finding was consistent across different levels of IQ and independent of degree of hearing loss. Even with early identification and intervention, hearing loss continues to have a life-long impact on functioning. It is important to identify when language levels are not meeting a child's capabilities

  8. The Voice of the Practitioner: Sharing Fiction Books to Support the Understanding of Theory of Mind in Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, S.; Chilton, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing research interest in the development of theory of mind (ToM) in deaf children and young people and the conditions which might enable or suppress development of the set of skills involved. However, the views of practitioners working with deaf children have not been widely explored. This paper presents the…

  9. The Voice of the Practitioner: Sharing Fiction Books to Support the Understanding of Theory of Mind in Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, S.; Chilton, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing research interest in the development of theory of mind (ToM) in deaf children and young people and the conditions which might enable or suppress development of the set of skills involved. However, the views of practitioners working with deaf children have not been widely explored. This paper presents the…

  10. Sleep clinical record: what differences in school and preschool children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Villa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The sleep clinical record (SCR may be a valid method for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. This study aimed to evaluate whether there were differences in SCR depending on age and to identify the possible risk factors for OSA development. We enrolled children with sleep disordered breathing between 2013 and 2015, and divided them according to age into preschool- and school-age groups. All patients underwent SCR and polysomnography. OSA was detected in 81.1% and 83.6% of preschool- and school-age groups, respectively. Obesity, malocclusions, nasal septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent in school-age children (p6.5 had a sensitivity of 74% in predicting OSA in preschool children with positive predictive value of 86% (p=0.0001. Our study confirms the validity of the SCR as a screening tool for patient candidates for a PSG study for suspected OSA, in both school and preschool children.

  11. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL TRIBAL CHILDREN IN NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu V

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tribals are one of the most vulnerable groups in India. Under-nutrition and various morbidities go hand in hand, particularly in children. Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. The present study is an attempt to assess the nutritional status of pre-school children of Kozhikode district in Kerala. The objectives of this study were 1. To study the prevalence of malnutrition among the preschool tribal children 2. To study the associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a community-based, cross- sectional. Study was carried out in randomly selected 10 panchayaths in Kozhikode. Cluster sampling method was used. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Various indices of nutritional status were expressed in standard deviation units (z scores from the reference median. RESULTS More than half of the children say 57.6% (152/246 had deficits in at least one of the two anthropometric indicators. The prevalence of underweight and stunting was 47.3% and .38.6% respectively. The analysis showed significant associations between under-nutrition and educational status of mother, tribe to which the child belonged, large family size, high birth order and low preschool attendance. CONCLUSION The findings of the present study revealed the widespread prevalence of under-nutrition among pre-school tribal children and highlight a need for an integrated approach towards improving the child health as well as nutritional status in this area.

  12. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1996-10-01

    The role of demographic, developmental, and familial mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated. Sixty-seven sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions. At the completion of treatment, the parents and their children were reevaluated. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Preschool Symptom Self-Report to assess self-reported affective symptoms and the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to assess developmental level. Correlational analyses were conducted to analyze the relationships between the hypothesized mediating variables and the outcome measures at posttreatment across the two treatment groups. Multiple regression analyses were also performed. Both parental depression and parental emotional distress correlated significantly with several of the child outcome measures. Battelle scores were significantly negatively correlated with several outcome measures. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire remained a highly significant predictor of treatment outcome. The findings indicate a strong correlation between parental emotional distress related to the abuse and treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children, independent of the type of treatment provided. The findings indicate the importance of addressing parental distress related to the abuse in providing effective treatment to sexually abused

  13. Preschool children's caregivers' attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orawan Suwansingha; Praphasri Rirattanapong

    2014-01-01

    .... Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 320 caregivers of preschool children aged 3-6 years, who were attending the public preschools in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao, and they completed self-administered questionnaires...

  14. The Effect of Enhanced Storybook Interaction on Signing Deaf Children's Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Jessica W.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook…

  15. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  16. Hearing Experience and Receptive Vocabulary Development in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Mary K.; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third…

  17. The Effect of Enhanced Storybook Interaction on Signing Deaf Children's Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Jessica W.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook…

  18. Increasing Early Reading Skills in Young Signing Deaf Children Using Shared Book Reading: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jean F.; Liu, Hsiu-Tan; Liu, Chun-Jung; Gentry, Mary Anne; Smith, Zanthia

    2017-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to test a storybook intervention to increase early reading skills of 25 young signing deaf children of ages 4-9 in grades K through third grade. The children had wide ranges of hearing losses, non-verbal IQs, and signing skills. All were at risk for developing early reading skills, reading below the first grade…

  19. Deaf Children Attending Different School Environments: Sign Language Abilities and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf…

  20. Quantity Processing in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Evidence from Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Comparison Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Deaf Children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic…

  1. Building the Alphabetic Principle in Young Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jessica Page; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Miller, Elizabeth Malone; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, a key concept of the alphabetic principle, was examined in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) using a semantic association strategy embedded in two interventions, the Children's Early Intervention and Foundations for Literacy. Single-subject design experiments using multiple…

  2. The Application of Werner and Kaplan's Concept of "Distancing" to Children Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Through the process of distancing, children develop an understanding of the differences between themselves and others, themselves and objects, and objects and representations. Adults can support progressive distancing in children who are congenitally deaf-blind by applying strategies, such as the hand-under-hand exploration of objects, the…

  3. Physical Activity, Obesity Status, and Blood Pressure in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Susana; Trost, Stewart G; Rêgo, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Mota, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    To examine the combined effects of physical activity and weight status on blood pressure (BP) in preschool-aged children. The sample included 733 preschool-aged children (49% female). Physical activity was objectively assessed on 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. Children were categorized as sufficiently active if they met the recommendation of at least 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Body mass index was used to categorize children as nonoverweight or overweight/obese, according to the International Obesity Task Force benchmarks. BP was measured using an automated BP monitor and categorized as elevated or normal using BP percentile-based cut-points for age, sex, and height. The prevalence of elevated systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP was 7.7% and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 32%, and about 15% of children did not accomplish the recommended 60 minutes of daily MVPA. After controlling for age and sex, overweight/obese children who did not meet the daily MVPA recommendation were 3 times more likely (OR 3.8; CI 1.6-8.6) to have elevated SBP than nonoverweight children who met the daily MVPA recommendation. Overweight or obese preschool-aged children with insufficient levels of MVPA are at significantly greater risk for elevated SBP than their nonoverweight and sufficiently active counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ANXIETY AND STYLE OF FAMILY UPBRINGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mazurova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children personality is actively formed at the preschool period, as they enter wider circle of social relationships and everyday tasks become more complicated. The most common emotional problem among preschool children is anxiety as a possible precursor of neurosis. Aim: to study the character of anxiety and the main causes of its development in preschool children in order to determine the structure of psychological care. Patients and methods: 68 children, 68 mothers and 22 fathers were included into the study. We used the following methods: observation, interview, projective and test methods. Results: each third child was diagnosed increased level of anxiety. Anxiety-inducing situations were mainly associated with disturbances of safety feeling in family. Correlation between ineffective types of parental relationship and high level of children anxiety was established. Conclusions: decrease in children anxiety is impossible without harmonization of parental aims in accordance to age and special features of children development. Structure and duration of rehabilitation should be based on analysis of somatic and neuro-psychic state of children, as well as social situation of development.

  5. Language and literacy development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederberg, Amy R; Schick, Brenda; Spencer, Patricia E

    2013-01-01

    Childhood hearing loss presents challenges to language development, especially spoken language. In this article, we review existing literature on deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children's patterns and trajectories of language as well as development of theory of mind and literacy. Individual trajectories vary significantly, reflecting access to early identification/intervention, advanced technologies (e.g., cochlear implants), and perceptually accessible language models. DHH children develop sign language in a similar manner as hearing children develop spoken language, provided they are in a language-rich environment. This occurs naturally for DHH children of deaf parents, who constitute 5% of the deaf population. For DHH children of hearing parents, sign language development depends on the age that they are exposed to a perceptually accessible 1st language as well as the richness of input. Most DHH children are born to hearing families who have spoken language as a goal, and such development is now feasible for many children. Some DHH children develop spoken language in bilingual (sign-spoken language) contexts. For the majority of DHH children, spoken language development occurs in either auditory-only contexts or with sign supports. Although developmental trajectories of DHH children with hearing parents have improved with early identification and appropriate interventions, the majority of children are still delayed compared with hearing children. These DHH children show particular weaknesses in the development of grammar. Language deficits and differences have cascading effects in language-related areas of development, such as theory of mind and literacy development.

  6. The role of educational and clinical prevention of dental diseases in older preschool children in a preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Vanchakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 19 preschool children (8 ofthem with speech disorders, 19 parents, 4 preschool teacher were to identify low hygienic knowledge and skills of parents and children. Children in violation of the formation of speech found in the playback lag motor tasks on the space-time parameters, broke a sequence of elements of action, lowered its component parts, the longer formulated phrase. What to consider when creating training programs for oral health.

  7. The relations among young children's peer-reported trustworthiness, inhibitory control, and preschool adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Ken J. Rotenberg; Michalik, Nicole; Eisenberg, Nancy; Betts, Lucy R.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five (38 male and 27 female) preschool children (mean age = 5 years 1 month) completed measures of peers' trustworthiness (promise keeping and secret keeping). Teachers rated the preschool children's inhibitory control, trustworthiness, and preschool adjustment. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yielded support for the hypothesized model. The expected positive paths were found from (1) gender to preschool adjustment and inhibitory control, (2) age to peer-reported trustworthiness, (3) ...

  8. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  9. Helicobacter pylori among preschool children and their parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Berg, Gabriele

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed the role of parental infection status in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection in a large population-based sample of preschool-aged children. The subjects, who lived in Ulm, Germany, and in two nearby communities, were screened for school fitness between January...

  10. Processes of Curiosity and Exploration in Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…

  11. Preschool Impact on Children: Its Sustaining Effects into Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlind, Steven J.

    1980-01-01

    Children in kindergarten grade were studied comparing pupils who had previously attended preschool with those who had not. Reading (or reading readiness) and mathematics achievement, academic potential, social and emotional maturity, conformity to successful pupil behaviors, and adjustment to academic and social setting in the classroom were…

  12. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  13. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  14. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  15. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Noncompliance by Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, David A; Harris, Carelle; Reagan, Renee; Rasey, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that noncompliance occurred most often for 2 preschoolers when it resulted in termination of a preferred activity, suggesting that noncompliance was maintained by positive reinforcement. A differential reinforcement procedure, which involved contingent access to coupons that could be exchanged for uninterrupted access to the activity maintaining noncompliance, was successful in increasing compliance for both children.

  16. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  17. The Pedagogical Support for Preschool Children with Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…

  18. Bronchoprotection with a leukotriene receptor antagonist in asthmatic preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Nielsen, K G

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) could provide bronchoprotection against the cold, dry air-induced response in asthmatic preschool children. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of the specific LTRA montelukast at 5...

  19. Cold air challenge and specific airway resistance in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    prognosis in preschool children. Cold air challenge and plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) are feasible candidate methods for diagnosis, clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of lung growth and development. Methodology and practical aspects of cold air...

  20. A Piagetian Method of Evaluating Preschool Children's Development in Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance; Peper, Robert

    A preschool curriculum for lower class children was developed based on Piaget's theory. Evaluation procedures were developed to parallel a Piagetian curriculum. According to Piagetian theory, the mechanism of classification is the coordination of the intensive and extensive properties of a group of objects. The ability to dichotomously classify…

  1. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  2. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  3. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  4. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  5. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  6. Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town. ... Journal Home > Vol 79, No 6 (1991) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... by the screening process. Developmental milestones were similar to those studies reported in the literature. At 12 months the development correlated best with family stability.

  7. Diet Management of PKU for Infants and Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Phyllis B.; Wenz, Elizabeth

    The report focuses on the diet management of infant and preschool children with phenylketonuria (PKU), a congenital deficiency resulting in brain damage. The effective methods for rapidly lowering serum phenylalanine levels following diagnosis are discussed, a method for prescribing and calculating the phenylalanine-restricted diet is described,…

  8. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  9. Emergent Verbal Behavior in Preschool Children Learning a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…

  10. Language access and theory of mind reasoning: evidence from deaf children in bilingual and oralist environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Falkman, Kerstin W; Hjelmquist, Erland; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Surian, Luca; Siegal, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This investigation examined whether access to sign language as a medium for instruction influences theory of mind (ToM) reasoning in deaf children with similar home language environments. Experiment 1 involved 97 deaf Italian children ages 4-12 years: 56 were from deaf families and had LIS (Italian Sign Language) as their native language, and 41 had acquired LIS as late signers following contact with signers outside their hearing families. Children receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction in LIS together with Sign-Supported and spoken Italian significantly outperformed children in oralist schools in which communication was in Italian and often relied on lipreading. Experiment 2 involved 61 deaf children in Estonia and Sweden ages 6-16 years. On a wide variety of ToM tasks, bilingually instructed native signers in Estonian Sign Language and spoken Estonian succeeded at a level similar to age-matched hearing children. They outperformed bilingually instructed late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. Particularly for native signers, access to sign language in a bilingual environment may facilitate conversational exchanges that promote the expression of ToM by enabling children to monitor others' mental states effectively.

  11. Update on leukotriene receptor antagonists in preschool children wheezing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montella Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and various anatomical and emotional factors unique to young children present significant challenges in the clinical management of this problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy, mainly consisting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS, is the cornerstone of asthma management. Since Leukotrienes (LTs are chemical mediators of airway inflammation in asthma, the leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs are traditionally used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs in the long-term treatment of asthma in adults, adolescents, and school-age children. In particular, montelukast decreases airway inflammation, and has also a bronchoprotective effect. The main guidelines on asthma management have confirmed the clinical utility of LTRAs in children older than five years. In the present review we describe the most recent advances on the use of LTRAs in the treatment of preschool wheezing disorders. LTRAs are effective in young children with virus-induced wheeze and with multiple-trigger disease. Conflicting data do not allow to reach definitive conclusions on LTRAs efficacy in bronchiolitis or post-bronchiolitis wheeze, and in acute asthma. The excellent safety profile of montelukast and the possibility of oral administration, that entails better compliance from young children, represent the main strengths of its use in preschool children. Montelukast is a valid alternative to ICS especially in poorly compliant preschool children, or in subjects who show adverse effects related to long-term steroid therapy.

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS) with Preschool Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Synhorst, Lori; Epstein, Michael H.; Allen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS) is a standardized, norm-referenced instrument that assesses emotional and behavioral strengths of preschool children. This study investigated whether the PreBERS four-factor structure (i.e., emotional regulation, school readiness, social confidence, and family involvement)…

  13. Parental resources, parental stress, and socioemotional development of deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, empowerment and resource orientation have become vital guidelines for many of the sciences. For the field of deaf education, it is also highly important to look carefully at these guidelines if we are to acquire a better understanding as regards both the situation of the parents involved and the development of the deaf and hard of hearing children themselves. A resource-oriented approach to deaf education has therefore proved especially helpful. If both the theoretical and practical aspects of educating deaf and hard of hearing children are to benefit, research on parental experience with deafness and research on the socioemotional development of the children must always be combined and studied in the context of resource availability. In a study of 213 mothers and 213 fathers of deaf and hard of hearing children, we used an array of different questionnaires (PSI, SDQ, SOC, F-SozU, etc.) to examine the correlation between parental resources, sociodemographic variables, parental stress experience, and child socioemotional problems by way of a path analysis model. The results show that high parental stress is associated with frequent socioemotional problems in the children, thus emphasizing the importance of a resource-oriented consulting and support strategy in early intervention, because parental access to personal and social resources is associated with significantly lower stress experience. Child development seems to profit enormously from a resource-oriented support concept. In addition, the results confirm two earlier findings: parents with additionally handicapped children are especially stressed and the child's communicative competence makes for a more sound prediction than its linguistic medium (spoken language or sign). The path models for mothers and fathers agree in all essential factors. The results are discussed with a view to their meaning for pedagogical practice, and recommendations for further research are given (longitudinal data

  14. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children is increasing in many countries, including our country. It is believed that one of the two most important reasons for this increase is insufficient physical activity of children.The aim of this study was to examine the state of the level of nourishment of preschool children in relation to their level of physical activity. The survey was conducted in preschools in Pancevo. The sample consisted of 193 children (88 boys and 105 girls, aged 4 and 5 years. The assessment of the level of nourishment of the children and their parents was done after the standard anthropometric measurements of height, body weight, determining the body mass index and waist circumference and comparing the obtained values with the growth plates given by World Health Organization. Physical activity of the children was evaluated by a questionnaire which parents filled up. Inappropriate level of nourishment had 60 (31.1% children, of which 26 (13.5% with excessive body mass, obese 29 (15.0%, while 5 (2.5% were malnourished. Children are most attracted to sports such as ballet or folk dances, ball games and swimming, but only 22 (15.83% children are members of some sports club. The lack of finances and the lack of sports facilities and terrains are given as reasons by most parents. During the implementation of physical activities, 65.2% of children are never or sometimes exposed to excessive physical effort. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity among preschool children in Pancevo was high, particularly among children with excessive body weight and obese children. Socio-demographic and behavioral factors as well as behavior of parents significantly contributed to physical inactivity.

  15. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

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    Baune Bernhard T

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a pre-school and the duration of preschool attendance have on the prevalence of these impairments is not known. Methods In a retrospective survey spanning six years (1997–2002 we reviewed the records of 6,230 preschool children who had undergone routine school entry assessments. These children had been assessed utilising a modified manual of the "Bavarian Model" for school entry examinations. This model outlines specific criteria for impairments of motor, cognitive, behavioural and psychosocial functioning. Prevalence rates for physical and behavioural impairments were based on the results of these assessments. The relationship between the prevalence of impairments and the duration of preschool attendance and the location of the preschool attended was estimated utilizing logistic regression models. Results We found that 20.7% of children met the criteria for at least one type of impairment. Highest prevalence rates (11.5% were seen for speech impairments and lowest (3.5% for arithmetic impairments. Boys were disproportionately over represented, with 25.5% meeting the criteria for impairment, compared to 13.0% for girls. Children who had attended preschool for less than one year demonstrated higher rates of impairment (up to 19.1% for difficulties with memory, concentration or perseverance compared to those who had attended for a longer duration (up to 11.6% for difficulties with pronouncation. Children attending preschool in an urban location had slightly

  16. Cochlear implantation effect on deaf children with gap junction protein beta 2 gene mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ying; LIU Sha; WANG Su-ju; Li Shu-jing; LIANG Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Background The popularization and promotion of gene diagnosis technology makes it possible to detect deafness genes for children with congenital hearing impairment,and the proportion of gap junction protein beta 2 (GJB2) gene mutations in cochlear implant patients is 26.5% We did follow-up evaluation on auditory rehabilitation effect for all 31 deaf children with GJB2 gene mutation after cochlear implantation to provide a reference for such patients.Methods Application of “the genetic deafness gene chip detection kit” and “gene complete sequence analysis” were applied to conduct detection on common genetic deafness gene mutation hotspots of the hearing impaired children with cochlear implantation.To conduct auditory rehabilitation effect evaluation on all 31 cases of patients with GJB2 genetic deafness after 3,6 and 12 months of the operation respectively.The single factor repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to analysis whether there were significant difference among the results of initial consonant of a Chinese syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation,the results of vowel of a Chinese syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation,and the results of two-syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation.Results The 235delC is the high-incidence mutational site in 31 cases of patients with GJB2 genetic deafness,and the total detection rate is up to 90.3% (28/31).There were significant differences in the initial consonant and the vowel of a Chinese syllable recognition rate,and the two-syllable recognition rates at 3,6,and 12 months after the operation (P<0.01).Conclusion Cochlear implantation is a safe and effective measure for auditory reconstruction,enabling patients with GJB2 hereditary severe sensorineural deafness to achieve auditory speech recognition effectively.

  17. Adapted interactive writing instruction with kindergarten children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    The study describes an adapted form of interactive writing (McCarrier, Pinnell, & Fountas, 2000) and examines its effectiveness as an approach to beginning writing instruction for young children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Systematic videotape analysis was used to document the content of 45 adapted interactive writing lessons across an academic year. Findings of the study suggest that interactive writing has the potential to support early writing development in young deaf and hard of hearing children, if supplemented by techniques that make the phonology of English visible.

  18. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  19. Semantic and syntactic reading comprehension strategies used by deaf children with early and late cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, M Teresa; López-Higes, Ramón; Pisón, Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Deaf students have traditionally exhibited reading comprehension difficulties. In recent years, these comprehension problems have been partially offset through cochlear implantation (CI), and the subsequent improvement in spoken language skills. However, the use of cochlear implants has not managed to fully bridge the gap in language and reading between normally hearing (NH) and deaf children, as its efficacy depends on variables such as the age at implant. This study compared the reading comprehension of sentences in 19 children who received a cochlear implant before 24 months of age (early-CI) and 19 who received it after 24 months (late-CI) with a control group of 19 NH children. The task involved completing sentences in which the last word had been omitted. To complete each sentence children had to choose a word from among several alternatives that included one syntactic and two semantic foils in addition to the target word. The results showed that deaf children with late-CI performed this task significantly worse than NH children, while those with early-CI exhibited no significant differences with NH children, except under more demanding processing conditions (long sentences with infrequent target words). Further, the error analysis revealed a preference of deaf students with early-CI for selecting the syntactic foil over a semantic one, which suggests that they draw upon syntactic cues during sentence processing in the same way as NH children do. In contrast, deaf children with late-CI do not appear to use a syntactic strategy, but neither a semantic strategy based on the use of key words, as the literature suggests. Rather, the numerous errors of both kinds that the late-CI group made seem to indicate an inconsistent and erratic response when faced with a lack of comprehension. These findings are discussed in relation to differences in receptive vocabulary and short-term memory and their implications for sentence reading comprehension. Copyright © 2015

  20. Cochlear implant: Speech and language development in deaf and hard of hearing children following implantation

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    Ostojić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Almost 200 cochlear implantations were done in the four centers (two in Belgrade, per one in Novi Sad and Niš in Serbia from 2002 to 2009. Less than 10% of implantees were postlingually deaf adults. The vast majority, i.e. 90% were pre- and perilingually profoundly deaf children. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of improved auditory perception due to cochlear implantation on comprehension of abstract words in children as compared with hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids and normal hearing children. Methods. Thirty children were enrolled in this study: 20 hearing impaired and 10 normal hearing. The vocabulary test was used. Results. The overall results for the whole test (100 words showed a significant difference in favor of the normal hearing as compared with hearing impaired children. The normal hearing children successfully described or defined 77.93% of a total of 100 words. Success rate for the cochlear implanted children was 26.87% and for the hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids 20.32%. Conclusion. Testing for abstract words showed a statistically significant difference between the cochlear implanted and the hearing impaired children with hearing aids (Mann- Whitney U-test, p = 0.019 implying considerable advantage of cochlear implants over hearing aids regarding successful speech development in prelingually deaf children.

  1. Addressing qualified personnel shortages for children who are deaf or hard of hearing with an interdisciplinary service learning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulski, Lori A

    2011-12-01

    To describe the student training benefits for speech-language pathology graduate students involved in an interdisciplinary, community-based intervention program at a Midwestern university for families of preschool children who were deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and auditory-based spoken language users. The Auditory and Language Enriched Program was developed to provide graduate students with a clinically relevant service learning opportunity that also met some unique community needs of families in the community. Specifically, students learned to provide families with imaginative ways to expose their children who were DHH to language and literacy and nurture their natural curiosity and zest for learning. Statistically significant improvement was noted between pre- and postintervention questionnaires of knowledge and skill related to intervention for this population by a single group of students. An interdisciplinary service learning approach to intervention might provide opportunities for university graduate programs to address the immediate and long-term needs of families who have chosen a spoken language outcome for their young children who are DHH while simultaneously providing invaluable experience with low-incidence populations for their preservice graduate students.

  2. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    ’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives...

  3. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2004-02-01

    Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.

  4. Children´s and Preschool Teacher´s Photographs of New Preschool Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim

    . The aim of the project, (inspired from action research, new childhood sociology, phenomenology) is to create knowledge (on basis of experiences, narratives, observations/field notes, photos/visual knowledge) about the preschool environment, which might qualify the discourse of kindergartens and the new...... transparent (widespread use of glass in both interior and exterior walls). The new architecture is based on (neoliberal) ideas of flexibility and puts the emphasis on early childhood learning. But one thing is the ideas of politicians, architects and builders, another is how the buildings are "lived......" and coded/decoded (Bernstein) and experienced by the participants. The paper and presentation will focus on issues of interpretation visual data and dilemmas experienced during the process of cooperation with the preschool teachers and children. A key issue is the asymmetry between children and adults...

  5. Emotional development in deaf children: facial expression, emotional understanding, display rules, mixed emotions, and theory of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Movallali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Various studies indicate that deaf children compared with hearing children have problems in all aspects of emotional development, including facial expression, emotional understanding of display rules, mixed and contradictory emotions and theory of mind. This article reviews studies of impaired emotional development in children with hearing impairment.Recent Findings: Some findings indicate that young deaf children function similar to hearing children. The difficulty in understanding display rules experienced by deaf children can be explained by appealing to their inability to adequately express emotions in emotion-eliciting contexts, as opposed to their difficulty in understanding mental states. Overall, research findings indicate that emotional understanding in various aspects and dimensions is associated with children's language abilities.Conclusion: Results obtained show that more aspects of deaf children 's emotional development (such as interpretation and recognition of facial expression are similar to that of their peers. However, deaf children performed more poorly in tasks which required experience in understanding display rules and theory of mind . Recent findings generally demonstrate that language plays an important role in the emotional development of children. Therefore, deaf children in comparison to hearing children are less able performers.

  6. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  7. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  8. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

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    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference, a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference, no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a

  9. Screening Preschool Children for Visual Disorders: A Pilot Study

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    Suman Adhikari, BOptom

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular and/or vision defects are one of the most common reasons for the referral of young children to the hospital. Vision disorders are the fourth most common disability of children and the leading cause of handicapping conditions in childhood. In preschool-age children, amblyopia and amblyogenic risk factors, such as strabismus and significant refractive errors, are the most prevalent and important visual disorders. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of visual disorders in preschool children in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.Methods: Four hundred and eighty-four children attending eight preschools in Kathmandu Valley underwent detailed optometric examination. Visual acuity was assessed with either Sheridan Gardiner or Kay Picture chart monocularly. Binocularity was assessed with cover test and prism bar neutralisation. Refraction was carried out in all children. In most instances this was done without the use of a cycloplegic agent. Stereopsis was assessed with the Lang stereo test. Anterior and posterior segment abnormalities were assessed by using a pen light, hand-held slit lamp, and direct ophthalmoscope.Results: Refractive error was the most common visual disorder. Considering our criteria of refractive error for myopia ≥ 0.50 D, hyperopia ≥ 1.50 D, astigmatism ≥ 1.00 D, and anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D, the overall prevalence of refractive error in our study was 31.82%. The overall prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 24.17%, 2.48%, and 5.17%, respectively. Anisometropia was present in 1.65% of the participants, and 2%, 1.4%, and 0.2% had strabismus, amblyopia, and nystagmus, respectively.Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of refractive error in our studied population needs more attention. The results suggest that there is a need for a large-scale community-based preschool screening program in Nepal so that affected children can be identified early and appropriate treatment can be

  10. [Neuropsychic development in preschool children in conditions of the informatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, E A; Tarmaeva, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The new millennium was marked by the transition of humanity to a new stage of the development--the Information Society, which is an objective reality and affects on all aspects of living environment, including the health of children. The last decade was characterized by the increase of the use of means of informatization, the level of aggression and aggressiveness of children, the decrease of intellectual indices, deterioration of mental health, an increase of children with behavioral problems, hyperactivity, inattention, decrease of mental capacity. In a study on the example of preschool educational institution in the city of Irkutsk in the conditions of the changing of the informatization level of the society in the time period from 1998 to 2012, there were revealed the changes in indices of intellectual development, mental capacity and anxiety of children. Under observation there were 211 children aged from 5.5 to 6.5 years in the preschool institution of the central district of the city of Irkutsk. There were formed two groups of children: I group--children who attended kindergarten in 1998 and group II--children attending kindergarten in 2012. Age groups of preschool children were consistent with their calendar age: from 5 years 5 months 30 days to 6 years 5 months 30 days. In the study of intellectual development there has been shown the decrease of the number of children with average intelligence level and an increase in children with the below-average intelligence level, the increase of the speed (p < 0.05.) and the decrease of the quality (p < 0.05.) of the information processing in the Anfilov test for the mental performance and the increase the general level of anxiety, aggressive background and unmotivated fears "out" at the present time stage (2012).

  11. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  12. The Power of Implicit Teaching Practices: Continuities and Discontinuities in Pedagogical Approaches of Deaf and Hearing Preschools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Akiko; Tobin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Meisei Gakuen, a private school for the deaf in Tokyo, is the only school for the deaf in Japan that uses Japanese Sign Language (JSL) as the primary language of instruction and social interaction. We see Meisei as a useful case for bringing out core issues in Japanese deaf and early childhood education, as well as for making larger arguments…

  13. Using Language ENvironment Analysis to improve outcomes for children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Miranda; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Very little is known about the language environments of children in the United States in non-English-speaking homes. There is currently no published research that analyzes deaf or hard of hearing children in Spanish-speaking households, although the Colorado Home Intervention Program demographics indicate that these households account for 10 to 15% of the population of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. In other geographic regions in the United States, it is likely that the population of deaf and hard of hearing children from Spanish-speaking homes is considerably larger. The Spanish-speaking population in the United States has grown considerably within the last 5 to 10 years and will continue to expand. For these children to receive adequate treatment, research must be conducted to understand their language environment. The Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) System uses a small recording device to collect, analyze, and sort a child's language environment into multiple categories and analyzes variables such as child vocalizations, adult words, and conversational turn taking. The normative data for the LENA System are from families who are English-speaking. The article demonstrates the feasibility of using the LENA System to gain understanding of the language environment of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing in a Spanish-speaking household.

  14. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five......) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires...

  15. [Food insecurity and nutritional status of preschool children in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the relation between malnutrition and food insecurity (FI) in preschool children from Mexico. Information of 10 513 preschool children and their families was analyzed. The FI was measured through the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). Adjusted prevalence of FI and malnutrition with related variables were assessed by logistic regression. 31% of households had moderate and server FI. Rural and south, indigenous households, in the Q1 and Q2, showed the highest prevalence of moderate and severe FI as well. We observed a high tendency of malnutrition in the severe FI group; the prevalence of overweight was similar in the four groups of FI. Conclusions. The risk of chronic malnutrition is 42% bigger in children less than five years old with severe FI than in those that experienced food security.

  16. Preschool children's Collaborative Science Learning Scaffolded by Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridberg, Marie; Thulin, Susanne; Redfors, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on a project aiming to extend the current understanding of how emerging technologies, i.e. tablets, can be used in preschools to support collaborative learning of real-life science phenomena. The potential of tablets to support collaborative inquiry-based science learning and reflective thinking in preschool is investigated through the analysis of teacher-led activities on science, including children making timelapse photography and Slowmation movies. A qualitative analysis of verbal communication during different learning contexts gives rise to a number of categories that distinguish and identify different themes of the discussion. In this study, groups of children work with phase changes of water. We report enhanced and focused reasoning about this science phenomenon in situations where timelapse movies are used to stimulate recall. Furthermore, we show that children communicate in a more advanced manner about the phenomenon, and they focus more readily on problem solving when active in experimentation or Slowmation producing contexts.

  17. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  18. [Fluoride urinary excretion in Mexico City's preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Murrieta-Pruneda, Francisco; López-Jiménez, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of urinary fluoride excretion during dental developing stage has been reported for different countries with community fluoride programs. Also, one of the factors that could influence on retention and excretion of fluoride is the deficient nutrition so the aim of this study was to determine fluoride urinary excretion by a group of preschool children with and without malnutrition. Urinary samples from 24 hours were collected from 60 preschool children selected by convenience from Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, 30 with malnutrition and 30 with standard nutritrional status by weight for age. The samples were analyzed by fluoride especific electrode. Orion 720A. The average concentration of fluoride in urine from preschool children with and without malnutrition were 0.89 +/- 0.4 mg/L and 0.80 +/- 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The mean of 24 hours total fluoride excreted were 367 +/- 150 microg/24 hrs. in malnutrition children and 355 +/- 169 microg/24 hrs. for those with standard nutritional status. There were no differences statistically significant between groups. The urinary fluoride excretion for children with and without malnutrition were in the optimal range of fluoridation for the prevention of caries decay. Malnutrition was no associated with changes on fluoride orine concentration and excretion rates.

  19. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  20. Intelligence development of pre-lingual deaf children with unilateral cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Xun; Wu, Weijing; Xie, Dinghua; Xiao, Zi-An

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to test whether deaf children with unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) have higher intelligence quotients (IQ). We also try to find out the predictive factors of intelligence development in deaf children with CI. Totally, 186 children were enrolled into this study. They were divided into 3 groups: CI group (N = 66), hearing loss group (N = 54) and normal hearing group (N = 66). All children took the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude to assess the IQ. After that, we used Deafness gene chip, Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) methods to evaluate the genotype, auditory and speech performance, respectively. At baseline, the average IQ of hearing loss group (HL), CI group, normal hearing (NH) group were 98.3 ± 9.23, 100.03 ± 12.13 and 109.89 ± 10.56, while NH group scored higher significantly than HL and CI groups (p  0.05). The growth of SIR was positive correlated with the growth of IQ (r = 0.247, p = 0.046), while no significant correlation were found between IQ growth and other possible factors, i.e. gender, age of CI, use of hearing aid, genotype, implant device type, inner ear malformation and CAP growth (p > 0.05). Our study suggests that CI potentially improves the intelligence development in deaf children. Speech performance growth is significantly correlated with IQ growth of CI children. Deaf children accepted CI before 6 years can achieve a satisfying and undifferentiated short-term (12 months) development of intelligence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    OpenAIRE

    Baune Bernhard T; Stich Heribert L; Caniato Riccardo N; Krämer Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a p...

  2. The mind behind the message: Advancing theory of mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Children aged 3 to 12 years (n=184) with typical development, deafness, autism or Asperger Syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of Wellman and Liu’s (2004) 5-step ToM scale, added a statistically reliable sixth step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic groups, controlling age and language ability, showed that typical developers mastered the six ToM steps ahead of each of the three disabled groups, with implications for ToM theories. The final (sarcasm) task challenged even nondisabled 9-year-olds, demonstrating the new scale’s sensitivity to post-preschool ToM growth. PMID:22304467

  3. The mind behind the message: advancing theory-of-mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; Wellman, Henry M; Slaughter, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Children aged 3-12 years (n = 184) with typical development, deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of H. M. Wellman and D. Liu's (2004) 5-step ToM Scale, added a statistically reliable 6th step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic groups, controlling age, and language ability, showed that typical developers mastered the 6 ToM steps ahead of each of the 3 disabled groups, with implications for ToM theories. The final (sarcasm) task challenged even nondisabled 9-year-olds, demonstrating the new scale's sensitivity to post-preschool ToM growth.

  4. Tour as a form of cognitive activity of children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya Shanc

    2016-01-01

    In article the author considers theoretical approaches to the concept of "activity", "cognitive activity", especially the development of cognitive activity in preschool age; reveals the role of excursions in the development of cognitive activity of preschool children, justifies the need for the organization of excursion activity in the conditions of preschool educational organization.

  5. The Development of Preschool Children's Musical Abilities through Specific Types of Musical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolic, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the conducted research was to explore how much preschool teachers value certain types of musical activities, which positively influence the development of preschool children's musical abilities. The assumption in the research was that preschool teachers would choose musical games as the most prominent activity type in their educational…

  6. Comparison of intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraei, K; Amirsalari, S; Ajalloueyan, M

    2017-01-01

    Hearing impairment is a common type of sensory loss in children. Studies indicate that children with hearing impairment are deficient in social, cognitive and communication skills. This study compared the intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants. This research is causal-comparative. All 15 deaf children investigated had deaf parents and were selected from Baqiyatallah Cochlear Implant Center. The 15 children with cochlear implants were paired with similar children with hearing parents using purposive sampling. The findings show that the Hotelling trace of multivariate analysis of variance (F = 6.78, p children was significantly higher than for first-generation children for all intelligence scales except knowledge. It can be assumed that second-generation children joined their family in the use of sign language as the primary experience before a cochlear implant. The use of sign language before cochlear implants is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Daily Stress, Hearing-Specific Stress and Coping: Self-Reports from Deaf or Hard of Hearing Children and Children with Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbeck, Heike; Gillé, Vera; Heim-Dreger, Uwe; Schock, Alexandra; Schott, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated stressors and coping strategies in 70 children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) or with auditory processing disorder (APD) attending Grades 5 and 6 of a school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Everyday general stressors and more hearing-specific stressors were examined in a hearing-specific modified stress and…

  8. How Do Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some…

  9. How Are They Really Doing? Observation of Inclusionary Classroom Participation for Children with Mild-to-Moderate Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Christina M.; Barnett, David; Bauer, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observation was utilized to study how 5 children with mild-to-moderate deafness participated within inclusive classroom settings. Responses to practice and prompt opportunities, levels of prompting required to follow classroom directions, and engagement were analyzed across students with mild-to-moderate deafness and were compared to…

  10. Teaching Math to Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing (DHH) Children Using Mobile Games: Outcomes with Student and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Brett E.; Parlin, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Leveraging the use of mobile devices for education, such as instructional games, is an area of increasing interest for targeted subpopulations of students including those who are deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH). This paper outlines the perspectives of Deaf Education teachers and DHH children who participated in the GeePerS*Math project. Interviews and…

  11. How Do Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some…

  12. Preschool children learn about electric circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Jarc, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the theoretical part of my thesis, I first summarized what can be found in literature concerning electricity treatment (Labinowicz, Driver) and particularities of topics treatment in a preschool period, as well. I presented the concepts of electricity and electrical current, respectively, and several simple devices that operate on the basis of electricity, sources and the concept of electric energy. In the empirical part I first presented the questionnaire for identification of childr...

  13. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ewing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001, having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05, and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05. Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05. Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001, while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01 whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01. Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.

  14. Clinimetric Properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…

  15. The utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Weng, Rhay-Hung; Su, Hsun-Pi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Taiwanese government considers fluoride varnish to be a major component of preventive dental cares for preschool children. This study aimed to explore the extent of utilization of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among Taiwanese preschool children. Methods: Using preschool children under the age of 5 years as our participants, this study was conducted based on the 2008 Taiwan database of the Ministry of the Interior, linked with information gathered between 2006...

  16. Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases Among Preschool Children in Western Maharashtra, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh B Tondare , Vaishali V Raje, Satish V Kakade , Madhavi V Rayate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Malnutrition and infectious diseases both occur in the same unfortunate children and together they play a major role in causing the high morbidity and mortality in them. Out of all the childhood illnesses, acute respiratory tract infections, diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition are the principle causes of illness and death in the developing countries. Acute Diarrhoeal diseases (ADD’s are reported to be the 2nd leading cause of child morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To study the attack rate of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease among pre-school children and to study the socio-demographic variables of pre-school children suffering from Acute Diarrhoeal Disease. Methods: A Longitudinal study was conducted among preschool children (3-5years who were selected from Private pre-primary school of urban area and followed for the period of one year. Mother/guardian/teacher was interviewed by using pre-tested proforma during this period. Results: About 56% of children found suffering from ADD with 0.6 episodes per children per year among private pre-primary school. Higher proportions of ADD affected children were residing in nuclear type of family, belonging to middle socio-economic class, mothers were literate & housewives, born with order >2 compared to non ADD affected children. Conclusion: Maximum number of children from private pre-primary schools suffered with nearly one attack of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease with maternal illiteracy and working mothers found favorable factors. Immunization coverage, EBF and proper weaning play a very important role in prevention of infections."

  17. Peer Social Skills and Theory of Mind in Children with Autism, Deafness, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…

  18. Complement Syntax, Mental Verbs, and Theory of Mind in Children Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddington, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…

  19. Vocabulary acquisition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: Research and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Wauters, L.N.; Willemsen, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is fundamental to communication, language learning, and acquiring knowledge of the world. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face considerable challenges in acquiring age-appropriate vocabulary knowledge. The enhancement of children’s vocabulary knowledge is therefore one

  20. We Need to Communicate! Helping Hearing Parents of Deaf Children Learn American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kimberly A.; Starner, Thad

    2011-01-01

    Language immersion from birth is crucial to a child's language development. However, language immersion can be particularly challenging for hearing parents of deaf children to provide as they may have to overcome many difficulties while learning American Sign Language (ASL). We are in the process of creating a mobile application to help hearing…

  1. Sentence Production after Listener and Echoic Training by Prelingual Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfeto, Raquel M.; de Souza, Deisy G.

    2015-01-01

    Three children with neurosensory deafness who used cochlear implants were taught to match video clips to dictated sentences. We used matrix training with overlapping components and tested for recombinative generalization. Two 3?×?3 matrices generated 18 sentences. For each matrix, we taught 6 sentences and evaluated generalization with the…

  2. Modality Use in Joint Attention between Hearing Parents and Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDepowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined differences in modality use during episodes of joint attention between hearing parent-hearing child dyads and hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Hearing children were age-matched to deaf children. Dyads were video recorded in a free play session with analyses focused on uni- and multimodality use during joint attention episodes. Results revealed that adults in hearing parent-deaf child dyads spent a significantly greater proportion of time interacting with their children using multiple communicative modalities than adults in hearing parent-hearing child dyads, who tended to use the auditory modality (e.g., oral language most often. While these findings demonstrate that hearing parents accommodate their children's hearing status, we observed greater overall time spent in joint attention in hearing parent-hearing child dyads than hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Our results point to important avenues for future research on how parents can better accommodate their child’s hearing status through the use of multimodal communication strategies.

  3. Language Planning for the 21st Century: Revisiting Bilingual Language Policy for Deaf Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.

    2012-01-01

    For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological

  4. The Role of Sign Phonology and Iconicity During Sign Processing: The Case of Deaf Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, E.A.; Hermans, D.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sign phonology and iconicity during sign processing in deaf children, the roles of these sign features were examined using an experimental sign-picture verification paradigm. Participants had to make decisions about sign-picture pairs, manipulated according to

  5. A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Parents of a Child or Children Diagnosed with Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experiences of 12 parents who have a child or children diagnosed with deafness, and the meaning these parents have made of their experiences. The researcher conducted individual, semi-structured interviews and analyzed the data in accordance with the practices of phenomenological research. Thirty-seven…

  6. Language Planning for the 21st Century: Revisiting Bilingual Language Policy for Deaf Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.

    2012-01-01

    For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological

  7. Deaf Parents of Cochlear-Implanted Children: Beliefs on Bimodal Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated 17 Deaf families in North America with cochlear-implanted children about their attitudes, beliefs, and practices on bimodal bilingualism (defined as using both a visual/manual language and an aural/oral language) in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. A survey and follow-up interviews with 8 families were conducted.…

  8. The Influence of Computer Games on Visual-Motor Integration in Profoundly Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of specialised software on the visual-motor integration of profoundly deaf children. The research sample was made up of 70 students aged from seven to 10, 43 of whom formed the experimental group and 27 the control group. The students in the experimental group used computers once a week…

  9. Factors Associated with Social Interactions between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…

  10. Literacy and Linguistic Development in Bilingual Deaf Children: Implications of the "and" for Phonological Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Cumulating evidence suggests that the establishment of high-quality phonological representations is the "cognitive precursor" that facilitates the acquisition of language (spoken, signed, and written). The authors present two studies that contrast the nature of bilingual profoundly deaf children's phonological representations derived…

  11. A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Parents of a Child or Children Diagnosed with Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the lived experiences of 12 parents who have a child or children diagnosed with deafness, and the meaning these parents have made of their experiences. The researcher conducted individual, semi-structured interviews and analyzed the data in accordance with the practices of phenomenological research. Thirty-seven…

  12. Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Therapy for Deaf Children: Four Treatment Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rosalind; Ford, Katie; Thomas, Jane; Oyebade, Natalie; Bennett, Danita; Dodd, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether core vocabulary intervention (CVT) improved single word speech accuracy, consistency and intelligibility in four 9-11-year-old children with profound sensori-neural deafness fitted with cochlear implants and/or digital hearing aids. Their speech was characterized by inconsistent production of different error forms for…

  13. Language and Literacy Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Schick, Brenda; Spencer, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood hearing loss presents challenges to language development, especially spoken language. In this article, we review existing literature on deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children's patterns and trajectories of language as well as development of theory of mind and literacy. Individual trajectories vary significantly, reflecting access to…

  14. Child Modifiability as a Predictor of Language Abilities in Deaf Children Who Use American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Peña, Elizabeth D; Morgan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    This research explored the use of dynamic assessment (DA) for language-learning abilities in signing deaf children from deaf and hearing families. Thirty-seven deaf children, aged 6 to 11 years, were identified as either stronger (n = 26) or weaker (n = 11) language learners according to teacher or speech-language pathologist report. All children received 2 scripted, mediated learning experience sessions targeting vocabulary knowledge—specifically, the use of semantic categories that were carried out in American Sign Language. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of child modifiability. This index was determined separately at the end of the 2 individual sessions. It combined ratings reflecting each child's learning abilities and responses to mediation, including social-emotional behavior, cognitive arousal, and cognitive elaboration. Group results showed that modifiability ratings were significantly better for stronger language learners than for weaker language learners. The strongest predictors of language ability were cognitive arousal and cognitive elaboration. Mediator ratings of child modifiability (i.e., combined score of social-emotional factors and cognitive factors) are highly sensitive to language-learning abilities in deaf children who use sign language as their primary mode of communication. This method can be used to design targeted interventions.

  15. Relationship between Bruxism and Malocclusion among Preschool Children in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Maryam; Hajenourozali Tehrani, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Bruxism is defined as a habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. In younger children bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism and investigate the relationship between occlusal factors and bruxism among preschool children. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional survey, 400 3-6-year-old children were selected randomly from different preschools in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into two groups of bruxers and non-bruxers as determined by the clinical examination and their parents’ reports. The examiner recorded the primary canines (Class I, Class II, and Class III) and molars (mesial step, distal step, flash terminal plane) relationship, existence of anterior and posterior crossbite, open and deep bite. Also, rotated teeth, food impaction, sharp tooth edges, high restorations, extensive tooth caries, and painful teeth (categorized as irritating tooth conditions) were evaluated. The relationship between bruxism and occlusal factors and irritating tooth conditions was evaluated with chi-square test. Results Bruxism was seen in 12.75% of the subjects. Statistically significant relationships existed between bruxism and some occlusal factors, such as flash terminal plane (P = 0.023) and mesial step (P = 0.001) and also, between food impaction, extensive tooth caries, tooth pain, sharp tooth edge and bruxism. Conclusion The results showed significant relationship of bruxism with primary molar relationships and irritating tooth conditions among preschool children. PMID:23277860

  16. Association between obesity and asthma in preschool Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vàzquez-Nava, Francisco; Morales Romero, Jaime; Crodova Fernandez, José A; Saldívar-González, Atenogenes H; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Barrientos Gomez, Maria del C; Lin-Ochoa, Dolorez; Vázquez Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2010-07-07

    The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), overweight (> or =85th and obesity (> or =95th percentile). Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66-1.58), obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68-1.30), and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  17. Association between Obesity and Asthma in Preschool Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile, overweight (ࣙ85th and <95th percentile, and obesity (ࣙ95th percentile. Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66–1.58, obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68–1.30, and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  18. Autism, Processing Speed, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children

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    Åsa Hedvall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Methods. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6–6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n=77 or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III (n=113. Cognitive data were related to adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS. Results. Cognitive profiles were characterized by low verbal skills. Low processing speed quotients (PSQs were found in 66 (78% of the 85 children who were able to participate in the processing speed subtests. Except for Socialization, all VABS domains (Communication, Motor Skills, Daily Living Skills, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores correlated significantly with PSQ. Multiple regression analysis showed that PSQ predicted 38%, 35%, 34%, and 37% of the variance for Communication, Daily Living Skills, Motor Skills, and total Adaptive Composite scores, respectively. Conclusion. Preschool children with ASD had uneven cognitive profiles with low verbal skills, and, relatively, even lower PSQs. Except for Socialization, adaptive functioning was predicted to a considerable degree by PSQ.

  19. Autism, processing speed, and adaptive functioning in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Holm, Anette; Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6-6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls) with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n = 77) or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (n = 113). Cognitive data were related to adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Cognitive profiles were characterized by low verbal skills. Low processing speed quotients (PSQs) were found in 66 (78%) of the 85 children who were able to participate in the processing speed subtests. Except for Socialization, all VABS domains (Communication, Motor Skills, Daily Living Skills, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores) correlated significantly with PSQ. Multiple regression analysis showed that PSQ predicted 38%, 35%, 34%, and 37% of the variance for Communication, Daily Living Skills, Motor Skills, and total Adaptive Composite scores, respectively. Preschool children with ASD had uneven cognitive profiles with low verbal skills, and, relatively, even lower PSQs. Except for Socialization, adaptive functioning was predicted to a considerable degree by PSQ.

  20. Intellectual maturity and physical fitness in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Mora-López, David; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    There is an important connection between body growth, physical fitness and cognition. The association between physical fitness and cognitive function has been investigated in some studies, but little is known about the relationship between physical and motor performance and intellectual maturity in preschool children. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the association between intellectual maturity and physical and motor fitness in preschool children. A total of 1012 children aged 3-6 years participated voluntarily. A fitness test battery and the Goodenough-Harris drawing test (GHDT) were used. Boys did better in the standing broad jump and 20 m sprint (P test variables and GHDT. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between crude GHDT score and the fitness test variables. From an early age, physical-motor performance and intellectual maturity are linked. Fitness condition is able to predict intellectual maturity. Increasing the amount of time devoted to physical education can promote cognitive benefits in preschool children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Teachers' language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K

    2011-08-19

    Early childhood programs have long been known to be beneficial to children from low-income backgrounds, but recent studies have cast doubt on their ability to substantially increase the rate of children's academic achievement. This Review examines research on the role of language in later reading, describes home and classroom factors that foster early language growth, and reviews research on preschool interventions. It argues that one reason interventions are not having as great an impact as desired is because they fail to substantially change the capacity of teachers to support children's language and associated conceptual knowledge.

  2. Pets, pica, pathogens and pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, R W; Stack, Tom; Blair, R. E.; Keel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of pica in pre-school children was investigated by studying 192 children attending a general paediatric hospital clinic and 69 attending a general practice surgery. The incidence of pica was twice as common in those who kept pets in both study groups. Half of the pet-keeping children with pica had eaten their pet's food. Imitative behaviour is suggested as a probable cause. Pet-keeping compounds a child's risk of infestation not only by providing close contact with a reservoir o...

  3. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  4. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  5. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  6. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  7. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  8. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  9. Preschool Language Profiles of Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia: Continuities with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method: The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls.…

  10. Assessment of sleep problems in preschool aged children: an adaptation of the children's sleep habits questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Penny; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel; Crowley, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of the children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) when used with preschool and toddler age children. Mothers of 105 children ages 2-5 completed the CSHQ, the child behavior checklist (CBCL), and a sleep diary. Internal consistency for the original subscales on the CSHQ ranged from .55 to .82 and factor analysis resulted in four factors that tap into critical aspects of sleep. The concurrent validity of the revised scales of the CSHQ was adequate. Overall the results from this study suggest a revised factor structure may be more appropriate for use with preschool and toddler age children.

  11. Spelling of Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Heather; Kessler, Brett; Treiman, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The spellings of 39 profoundly deaf users of cochlear implants, aged 6 to 12 years, were compared with those of 39 hearing peers. When controlled for age and reading ability, the error rates of the 2 groups were not significantly different. Both groups evinced phonological spelling strategies, performing better on words with more typical…

  12. Communicating with Children Who Are Deaf: Pitfalls and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David; Wood, Heather

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes teacher communication with deaf students in terms of four dimensions: power, repair, pace, and linguistic complexity. Students interacting with teachers who used communicative features associated with power communicated less effectively than with teachers who exerted less power. Evidence that adults can change how they…

  13. Progression in vowel production: comparing deaf and hearing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, J.; Pols, L.C.W.; Wempe, T.G.

    2003-01-01

    An interesting but so far neglected topic in the development of infant sound production is the hypothesized progression toward adult vowel quality. Likely, this process is quite different for normally hearing babies and for deaf babies. A band filtering analysis method is used to measure the

  14. INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF DEAF CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRISINA, D. ROBERT; QUIGLEY, STEPHEN

    THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE IF RESIDENTIAL STUDENTS IN INSTITUTIONS FOR THE DEAF PERFORM AT A LOWER LEVEL ON MEASURES OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, SOCIAL MATURITY, AND COMMUNICATION ABILITY THAN A SIMILAR GROUP OF STUDENTS WHO ARE DAY STUDENTS AT THE SAME INSTITUTIONS. SAMPLES OF RESIDENTIAL AND DAY STUDENTS AT 15 INSTITUTIONS EDUCATING DEAF…

  15. A NONVERBAL HEARING TEST FOR CHILDREN WITH DEAFNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRISINA, D. ROBERT; JOHNSON, DONALD D.

    SERIES OF EIGHT CONSECUTIVE AND RELATED EXPERIMENTS WERE COMPLETED. THESE WERE PART OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND QUANTIFICATION OF VIBROTACTILE CONDITIONING PROCEDURES THAT LED TO THE MEASUREMENT OF HEARING IN DEAF AND HEARING SUBJECTS RANGING IN AGE FROM ADULTS TO AS YOUNG AS 2 AND 1/2 YEARS. A MODIFICATION OF THE RADIOEAR B-70A BONE CONDUCTION…

  16. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Marija; Vučinić Vesna; Jablan Branka; Eškirović Branka

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their ...

  17. Nutritional status of preschool children in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of preschool children (preparatory group - before starting school, aged 6 to 7 years. The survey was conducted in four kindergartens preschool 'Happy Childhood' in Novi Sad, in a sample of 209 children (116 boys and 92 girls. Anthropometric measurements were carried out in October 2012. Based on the results calculated BMI (body mass index (weight (kg / body height2 (m2 and determined the degree of nutritional status of each child. Parameter values of BMI were adjusted by age and gender. Survey results show that 116 boys, 72.41% has an normal weight, under nutrition were 5.17%, while moderate nutritional abnormalities observed at 13.79%, obesity was found in 8.62% boys. The girls have similar results, namely obesity was 9.78%, prone to obesity 7.61%, the optimal weight of 75% and under nutrition 7.61% girls.

  18. Preschool children's mathematical knowledge: The effect of teacher "math talk.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanoff, Raquel S; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Hedges, Larry V

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the amount of mathematical input in the speech of preschool or day-care teachers and the growth of children's conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year. Three main findings emerged. First, there were marked individual differences in children's conventional mathematical knowledge by 4 years of age that were associated with socioeconomic status. Second, there were dramatic differences in the amount of math-related talk teachers provided. Third, and most important, the amount of teachers' math-related talk was significantly related to the growth of preschoolers' conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year but was unrelated to their math knowledge at the start of the school year.

  19. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, P L P; Baraldi, E; Bisgaard, H

    2008-01-01

    preschool child with recurrent wheeze, but should be discontinued if there is no clear clinical benefit. Large well-designed randomised controlled trials with clear descriptions of patients are needed to improve the present recommendations on the treatment of these common syndromes.......There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze...... is recommended for the treatment of episodic (viral) wheeze and can be started when symptoms of a viral cold develop. Given the large overlap in phenotypes, and the fact that patients can move from one phenotype to another, inhaled corticosteroids and montelukast may be considered on a trial basis in almost any...

  20. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... bone mass and bone density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Background data and information regarding TV viewing and computer use was obtained from parent completed questionnaires. Physical activity during waking hours was filtered from body movements during nocturnal sleep...

  1. Assessing volume of accelerometry data for reliability in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; O'Connell, Eoin; Okely, Anthony D; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-01

    This study examines what volume of accelerometry data (h·d) is required to reliably estimate preschool children's physical activity and whether it is necessary to include weekday and weekend data. Accelerometry data from 493 to 799 (depending on wear time) preschool children from the Melbourne-based Healthy Active Preschool Years study were used. The percentage of wear time each child spent in total (light-vigorous) physical activity was the main outcome. Hourly increments of daily data were analyzed. t-tests, controlling for age and clustering by center of recruitment, assessed the differences between weekday and weekend physical activity. Intraclass correlation coefficients estimated reliability for an individual day. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula estimated the number of days required to reach reliability estimates of 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9. The children spent a significantly greater percentage of time being physically active on weekend compared with weekdays regardless of the minimum number of hours included (t = 12.49-16.76, P 8 d of data were required to reach a reliability estimate of 0.7 with 10 or more hours of data per day; 3.3-3.4 d were required to meet the same reliability estimate for days with 7 h of data. Future studies should ensure they include the minimum amount of data (hours per day and number of days) as identified in this study to meet at least a 0.7 reliability level and should report the level of reliability for their study. In addition to weekdays, at least one weekend day should be included in analyses to reliably estimate physical activity levels for preschool children.

  2. Relationship of maternal parenting behaviors to preschool children's temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F

    1981-01-01

    Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.

  3. Intelligence, parental depression, and behavior adaptability in deaf children being considered for cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties that can lead to parents' feelings of inadequacy and frustration. We sought to assess whether adaptive behavior in deaf children was associated with nonverbal intelligence and parental depression. Parents of precochlear implant patients seen for neuropsychological assessment were administered the Parenting Stress Index and Vineland Behavior Adaptive Scales to obtain measures of parental distress and child's behavioral adaptability. Precochlear implant patients' cognitive functioning was assessed via the Mullen Scales of Early Learning or the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, depending on the child's age at the time of testing. Regardless of age or neurological status, the deaf child's adaptive behavior consistently showed a strong relationship with intelligence. Moderate correlation between parental depression and the child's adaptive behavior was observed only in the younger group. The relationship between parental depression and communication subscale was moderated by intelligence for deaf children without neurological complications. The findings provide important implications for promoting family-centered interventions with early communication and language development.

  4. EMOTIONAL STATE OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FROM SOCIAL SHELTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Yu. Bruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of a study of the emotional state of preschool children who are in difficult circumstances and in social shelter. The study involved 10 children participated (6 boys and 4 girls aged 4-6 years of social shelter (Independent institution of social service of the population of the Tyumen Region Center for Social Assistance to Families and Children "Maria" Tyumen. The control group consisted of children who are brought up in a family and attending kindergarten number 123 Tyumen, in the amount of 16 people: 9 girls and 7 boys. The study of emotional states of preschoolers was conducted using projective techniques drawing tests "House Tree Person" in modification of R.F. Belyauskayte. To determine the anxiety of children in relation to a number of typical life situations of communication with other people was used the projective technique "Test of anxiety" of R. Temml, M. Dorki, V. Amena, obtained diagnostic data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Mathematical analysis of the significance of differences was determined by calculating the U Mann Whitney. Preschoolers from social shelter in contrast to the control group of children have higher levels of anxiety are the most intense  and  stressful  relations in  the  system  "childchild." They are closed, can not be influenced, so they can be naughty, which leads to difficulties interaction and understanding of others, so they need an individual approach on the part of the teacher in the educational process. These children have difficulty communicating, which are shown in the restriction or denial of contact with others, which causes problems with the development of communication skills and experience of negative emotions.

  5. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  6. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Penelo, Eva; Domènech, Josep M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM) estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5. The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high) or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers). Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way. Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  7. Sideropenic anemia in preschool children and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dušica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sideropenic anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. The children are at higher risk of iron deficiency than adults due to their rapid growth during infancy and relatively higher requirements of iron. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence of sideropenic anemia in pre-school children and relevant risk factors. METHOD: Study on sideropenic anemia of preschool children was performed in Zaječar Municipality in 2003. Subjects: all children, age 6-7 years, who lived in the Zaječar Municipality (554 children. The investigation included: interview of children's parents and laboratory analysis of blood. RESULTS: The frequency of sideropenic anemia was 5.23% in tested children (hemoglobin level less than 11g/dl. Sex and place of residence had no significant impact on hemoglobin concentration in blood of children. Likewise, social status and education of parents had no significant impact on iron deficiency anemia. Higher incidence of infections was found in children with lower hemoglobin concentration in blood (p<0.05. It made no difference if children attended the kindergarten or not. Nutrition of children in kindergarten does not correct domestic nutrition, which should be one of its basic roles. CONCLUSION: Since sideropenic anemia gives rise to serious health problems, such as poor cognitive and motor development and behavioral problems, it is important to take corrective measures regarding domestic and social nutrition of children. Therefore, it is necessary to take action in preventing the sideropenic anemia and provide normal growth and development.

  8. Parental education and physical activity in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, S; Ricardo, N; Soares-Miranda, L; Santos, R; Moreira, C; Mota, J

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively assess pre-school children's total physical activity (TPA) patterns and compliance with guidelines and to examine differences relative to parental education. The sample consisted on 509 healthy pre-school children, aged 3-6 years recruited from kindergartens located in the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal. The PA was assessed for 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. For TPA, we followed the guidelines of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (children who spent at least >120  min per day in active play). For TPA, we calculated the proportion of children who spent at least >120  min per day in active play and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), we calculated the proportion of children who spent at least >60  min per day in active play. Parental education was analysed according to the Portuguese education system. Children with parents in the highest education level were less active than children from low and middle education level (P ≤ 0.001) in all patterns of PA (week and weekend). Regarding TPA during the week we found that the majority of children from low and middle parental education meet the NASPE guidelines. On the other hand, more than half the children from high parental education did not meet these recommendations (P ≤ 0.001) and MVPA recommendations (P ≤ 0.05). In both recommendations, children from low parental education were twice more likely to meet the recommendations compared with children belonging to high parental education. Parent education was negatively associated with children's daily physical activity patterns and compliance with guidelines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Amblyopia prevalence and risk factors in Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Amy Shih-I; Rose, Kathryn A; Leone, Jody F; Sharbini, Sharimawati; Burlutsky, George; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with amblyopia in a sample of Australian preschool children. Population-based, cross-sectional study. The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study examined 2461 (73.8% participation) children aged between 6 and 72 months from 2007 to 2009. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed in children aged ≥ 30 months using the Electronic Visual Acuity system, and a subset using the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart. Amblyopia was categorized into unilateral and bilateral subtypes: Unilateral amblyopia was defined as a 2-line difference in reduced VA between the 2 eyes, in addition to strabismus, anisometropia, and/or visual axis obstruction; bilateral amblyopia was defined as bilateral reduced VA with either bilateral visual axis obstruction or significant bilateral ametropia. Information on ethnicity, birth parameters, and measures of socioeconomic status were collected in questionnaires completed by parents. Amblyopia. We included 1422 children aged 30 to 72 months, of whom 27 (1.9%) were found to have amblyopia or suspected amblyopia. Mean spherical equivalent for the amblyopic eyes was +3.57 diopters, with a mean VA of 20/50. Only 3 of the 27 amblyopic children had previous diagnoses or treatments for amblyopia. In regression analysis controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity, amblyopia was significantly associated with hyperopia (odds ratio [OR], 15.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5-36.4), astigmatism (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.5-12.7), anisometropia (OR, 27.8; 95% CI, 11.2-69.3), and strabismus (OR, 13.1; 95% CI, 4.3-40.4). There were no significant associations of amblyopia with low birthweight (0.05). Amblyopia was found in 1.9% of this Australian preschool sample, which is comparable with prevalence rates reported by other recent studies in preschool children. Refractive errors, particularly significant hyperopia and astigmatism, in addition to anisometropia and strabismus, were the major amblyogenic factors

  10. Parents Sharing Books with Young Deaf Children in Spoken English and in BSL: The Common and Diverse Features of Different Language Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth; Watson, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Twelve parents of young deaf children were recorded sharing books with their deaf child--six from families using British Sign Language (BSL) and six from families using spoken English. Although all families were engaged in sharing books with their deaf child and concerned to promote literacy development, they approached the task differently and…

  11. Attitudes toward the capabilities of deaf and hard of hearing adults: insights from the parents of deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; McKinnon, David H; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2015-01-01

    Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) grow up in environments influenced by their parents' attitudes, which may facilitate or impede these children's development and participation (World Health Organization, 2007). The attitudes of 152 Australian parents of DHH children ages 3 years 7 months to 9 years 5 months (M = 6 years 5 months) were investigated with the Opinions About Deaf People Scale (Berkay, Gardner, & Smith, 1995a). The parents' responses showed very positive attitudes toward the capabilities of DHH adults, particularly on items describing their intellectual and vocational capabilities. Parents' responses to most of the items on the scale were positively skewed, raising questions about its validity as a research tool when used with parents of DHH children. The study findings suggest that for these children, parents' attitudes may facilitate rather than present an environmental barrier to their development.

  12. Features of physical development of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavgorodnyaya R.V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphofunctional features of organism of children of primary school age are considered in intercommunication with their somatotype. The inspected contingent was made by 90 practically healthy children in age from 6 to 9 years. The anthropometric signs of children were characterized an increase gravimetric type-high indexes with predominance of asthenic somatotype and increase of normosthenic and hypersthenic to the end of the studied period. Complex anthropometric research of indexes of children allowed to estimate their physical development.

  13. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  14. Word Reading Strategy Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Siegler's (1996) overlapping waves model of strategy development applied to reading posits that children use multiple strategies to read words from the earliest stage of reading development, that these strategies coexist over a long period of time, and that experience results in gradual change in the strategies children use and the…

  15. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lapo Mughini-Gras; Roan Pijnacker; Moniek Heusinkveld; Remko Enserink; Rody Zuidema; Erwin Duizer; Titia Kortbeek; Wilfrid van Pelt

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children...

  16. INFLUENCE OF PROGRAMMED EXERCISE ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stanojević

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted on a sample of 36 examinees consisting of male children of preschool institutions in Niš, aged five and six ± 6 months. The main objective of the research was to determine the adaptive processes influenced by programmed exercise on the development of motor skills of preschool children. The aim was to provide the conditions for the establishment of rational procedures for optimal planning, programming and control of the motor exercise of preschool child...

  17. Enterobiasis among preschool children: a study from Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muge, Oguzkaya Artan; Baykan, Zeynep; Artan, Cem

    2008-11-01

    The infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis was investigated in 1,070 preschool children aged 5-7 years in Kayseri, Turkey by cellotape anal swab from May-September 2005. The children's parents were asked to complete questionnaires inquiring into the potential risk factors involved. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 5.1%. The infection rate among boys and girls was similar. The association between family size, household income/month, education level of the parents, employment status of the mother and enterobiasis were found to be significant.

  18. Iranian refugee children in Sweden: effects of organized violence and forced migration on preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, K; Brandell-Forsberg, M

    1995-04-01

    Using play techniques, individual assessments were made of 50 preschool children from 47 Iranian refugee families living in Sweden, while their parents were interviewed about the children's exposure to violence and separation. Reenacting play involving war and persecution was performed by 19 of the children, most of them eyewitnesses to violence. The study demonstrated ways of obtaining information directly from young children to supplement parental reports.

  19. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  20. An Evaluation of Social Adaptation Skills of Children with and without Preschool Education Background Based on Their Mothers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunindi, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…

  1. Learning Resource Units for Young Children: A Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Karen S., Comp.

    These learning resource units are based on the philosophy and goals for early childhood education which have been established for the school district of Pittsburgh. They are intended to assist teachers in planning for preschool children's educational experience. Activities in the learning resource units should be selected in response to children's…

  2. A Report of Survey on Conditions of Preschool Children's Family Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujuan

    2011-01-01

    The author composes a questionnaire about conditions of preschool children's family music education. The survey includes 280 preschool children in a city of Shandong province. It finds that most parents have recognized the importance of early childhood music education, but there is the tendency of utilitarian. The content of family music education…

  3. Making Differences and Reflecting on Diversities: Embodied Nationality among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on embodied practices in processes of nationalization among preschool children at the age of 6. It analyses how children define themselves and others, how they characterize and frame Finnishness through embodiment. The analysis is based on an ethnographic study in two preschool classes. It is argued that nationality works in a…

  4. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, P. L. N. Randima

    2016-01-01

    Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention…

  5. Mass media negative impact on the development and education of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Zarema Shhahytova; Anastasia Sitkova

    2014-01-01

    Globalization and modernization have both positive and negative sides. With the development of information technologies, new problems appear such as mass media influence on person, perception and education of preschool age children. The authors discuss the problem of mass media influence on preschool children education.

  6. Drawing Children into Reading: A Qualitative Case Study of a Preschool Drawing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFauw, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a qualitative case study of 24 preschool children engaged with step-by-step drawing instruction provided by five educators as they developed their fine motor skills and drew detailed objects using the Drawing Children Into Reading curriculum (Halperin, W. A. (2011a). "Project 50 preschool manual." South Haven, MI:…

  7. Predictors of Care-Giver Stress in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…

  8. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  9. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  10. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

  11. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  12. Development and Validation of a Musical Behavior Measure for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gina Jisun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their…

  13. A Latent Variable Approach to Determining the Structure of Executive Function in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Muller, Ulrich; McInerney, Robert J.; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of executive function (EF) in preschool children was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A sample of 129 children between 3 and 5 years of age completed a battery of EF tasks. Using performance indicators of working memory and inhibition similar to previous CFA studies with preschoolers, we replicated a unitary EF…

  14. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  15. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  16. Children's Meaning-Making of Nature in an Outdoor-Oriented and Democratic Swedish Preschool Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, Susanne; Öhman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the Swedish preschool educational tradition is characterised by outdoor-oriented and democratic approaches. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate what consequences these approaches have for preschool children's meaning-making of nature, when studied in practice, in children's spontaneous outdoor…

  17. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  18. Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

  19. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  20. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  1. The Effectiveness of Preschool for Children from Low-Income Families: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Edith

    This report, one of several background papers for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education, examines the effects of preschool experience on Illinois children from low income families. The 1980 U. S. Census for Illinois identified 81,959 preschool-age children (3 to 5 years old) from poverty-level families; 54 of these young…

  2. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  3. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  4. Sustained Attention during Learning Activities: An Observational Study with Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Florente; Menez, Marina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse possible developmental trends in sustained attention through the pre-school period, as well as the influence of social and physical distractions. Three samples of children, one per each pre-school grade, were observed during learning activities required by the teacher. Children's behaviour was coded…

  5. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  6. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  7. A Plan for Itinerant Educational Consultant Services for Preschool Visually Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA.

    A demonstration project was conducted involving itinerant educational consultant services for preschool visually handicapped children with the objective of preventing social and sensory deprivation and of developing personal independence. Channels were established for referral of applicable visually handicapped preschool children to the program.…

  8. Preschool for California's Children: Promising Benefits, Unequal Access. Policy Brief 04-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Fuller, Bruce; Rumberger, Russell; Tran, Loan

    2004-01-01

    Parents and policymakers are turning to preschools to better advance the school readiness and broader development of young children. Much remains unknown, including how preschool programs of varying quality affect diverse groups of children. This is particularly important as several California counties embark on ambitious and costly efforts to…

  9. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  10. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  11. Atherogenic risk factors among preschool children in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos M Hatzis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the presence of atherogenic factors among preschool children of Crete, Greece. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The study population included 1189 children, aged four to seven years, examined from January to May 2005, in public kindergartens. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were performed. Results: Of the boys 27.4% were classified as overweight or obese (obese 10.8%. The respective percentage for girls was 28.5% (obese 9%; 7.4% percent of the boys and 7.9% of the girls had blood pressure above the ninety-fifth percentile. TC of > 200 mg / dl was found in 14.4% and LDL-C of > 130 mg / dl in 13.8% of the children. Children with serum TG of > 100 mg / dl had a significantly higher mean WC and BMI than those with triglyceride levels of ≤ 80 mg / dl (59.7 vs. 55.9 cm and 17.9 vs. 16.6 kg / m 2 ; P < 0.05. Similarly, children with HDL-C < 45 mg / dl had significantly higher WC and BMI than children with HDL-C ≥ 60 mg / dl (57.7 vs. 53.5 cm and 17.1 vs. 16.5 kg / m 2 ; P < 0.05. Obese children had an Odds Ratio of 2.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 − 7.85, P = 0.041 for hypertriglyceridemia, as compared to non-obese children. Conclusion: Levels of obesity and especially central obesity were strongly related to other atherogenic risk factors in Cretan preschool children indicating the presence of this major public health problem in early ages.

  12. Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Haun, D.; Tomasello, M.

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous public judgments right before them. A follow-up study with 18 groups of 4 children between 4;0 and 4;6 years of age revealed that children did not chang...

  13. Supporting Teachers in Vietnam to Monitor Preschool Children's Wellbeing and Involvement in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Filip; Braeye, Sarah; Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong; Dang, Tuyet Anh; Vromant, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is promoting active teaching and learning as a key strategy to enhance children's learning in preschools. This change depends largely on building the capacities of teachers to implement child-centered education in practice and handover the initiative for learning to children. Vietnamese teachers need to be better equipped with pedagogical…

  14. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their attitudes toward inclusion of children with visual impairments and the relation of those attitudes with gender and education. The results contribute to better understanding of the position of visually impaired children in the inclusive education system.

  15. Symbolic Representation across Domains in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examined understanding of notational representation among 3- to 5-year-olds. Children solved problems when shown cards with a picture or word indicating identity or a quantity indicator. In the easier condition, children had difficulty solving the problems as a function of their familiarity with the notation, suggesting weaknesses in…

  16. Earthcycles: Environmental Education with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Webber, Mavis

    Early childhood educators and parents face the task of educating young children in Canada about environmental issues. The sooner young children participate in activities with an environmental theme, the more likely they are to appreciate the environment. This booklet is designed to introduce early childhood educators to environmental education…

  17. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  18. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  19. Association between obesity and asthma in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Yoshie; Adachi, Yuichi; Itazawa, Toshiko; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Odajima, Hiroshi; Akasawa, Akira; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Obesity may increase the risk of subsequent asthma. We have previously reported that there is a clear association between obesity and asthma in Japanese school-aged children. To evaluate whether a similar association exists in younger children, a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed focusing on children aged 4-5 yr. A child who had experienced wheezing during the past 12 months and had ever been diagnosed with asthma by a physician was defined as having current asthma. Overweight and underweight were defined as BMI ≥90th percentile and ≤10th percentile, respectively, according to the reference values for Japanese children from 1978 to 1981. After excluding 2547 children because of incomplete data, 34,699 children were analyzed. Current asthma was significantly more prevalent in overweight children compared with underweight and normal weight children (13.2% for overweight vs. 10.5% for underweight and 11.1% for normal weight; both p preschool children, obesity is already associated with asthma, and there was no gender effect on this association. Physicians should consider the impact of obesity when managing asthma in younger children.

  20. Art Appreciation for Developing Communication Skills among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Duh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary process of teaching fine arts, children’s own creative expression and art appreciation are used to encourage learners towards both perception and reception; consequently, the evaluation and internalization of works of art play an equally important role. In a qualitative empirical research study that takes the form of a case study, we studied the response of children to works of art and their demonstrated communication skills in this. The results have shown that children respond to works of art on multiple levels. With non-standardized narrative group interviews, we observed children’s associations. Children perceived and internalized the given artworks and also put their emotions into words. The study has shown that systematic development of art appreciation among pre-school children can have a positive impact on their communication skills.