Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.
With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31)…
Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M
Permanent childhood hearing impairment often results in speech and language problems that are already apparent in early childhood. Past studies show a clear link between language skills and the child's social-emotional functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the level of language and communication skills after the introduction of early identification services and their relation with social functioning and behavioral problems in deaf and hard of hearing children. Nationwide cross-sectional observation of a cohort of 85 early identified deaf and hard of hearing preschool children (aged 30-66 months). Parents reported on their child's communicative abilities (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III), social functioning and appearance of behavioral problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Receptive and expressive language skills were measured using the Reynell Developmental Language Scale and the Schlichting Expressive Language Test, derived from the child's medical records. Language and communicative abilities of early identified deaf and hard of hearing children are not on a par with hearing peers. Compared to normative scores from hearing children, parents of deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower social functioning and more behavioral problems. Higher communicative abilities were related to better social functioning and less behavioral problems. No relation was found between the degree of hearing loss, age at amplification, uni- or bilateral amplification, mode of communication and social functioning and behavioral problems. These results suggest that improving the communicative abilities of deaf and hard of hearing children could improve their social-emotional functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baker, A.E.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.
Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that
Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Simonsen, Eva
This article aims to discuss young deaf children's access to literacy within a sociocultural perspective. We introduce the concept of communities of practice as an aspect in early literacy development for young deaf children. Preschools are learning communities and thus constitute communities of practice. Our discussion on the use of communities…
Lieberman, Amy M
Visual attention is a necessary prerequisite to successful communication in sign language. The current study investigated the development of attention-getting skills in deaf native-signing children during interactions with peers and teachers. Seven deaf children (aged 21-39 months) and five adults were videotaped during classroom activities for approximately 30 hr. Interactions were analyzed in depth to determine how children obtained and maintained attention. Contrary to previous reports, children were found to possess a high level of communicative competence from an early age. Analysis of peer interactions revealed that children used a range of behaviors to obtain attention with peers, including taps, waves, objects, and signs. Initiations were successful approximately 65% of the time. Children followed up failed initiation attempts by repeating the initiation, using a new initiation, or terminating the interaction. Older children engaged in longer and more complex interactions than younger children. Children's early exposure to and proficiency in American Sign Language is proposed as a likely mechanism that facilitated their communicative competence.
Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L
Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.
Sarant, Julia Z; Holt, Colleen M; Dowell, Richard C; Rickards, Field W; Blamey, Peter J
This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were evaluated using a combination of the Child Development Inventory, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Preschool Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals depending on their age at the time of assessment. Maternal education, cognitive ability, and family involvement were also measured. Over half of the children who participated in this study had poor language outcomes overall. No significant differences were found in language outcomes on any of the measures for children who were diagnosed early and those diagnosed later. Multiple regression analyses showed that family participation, degree of hearing loss, and cognitive ability significantly predicted language outcomes and together accounted for almost 60% of the variance in scores. This article highlights the importance of family participation in intervention programs to enable children to achieve optimal language outcomes. Further work may clarify the effects of early diagnosis on language outcomes for preschool children.
Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Cristina
We evaluated language development in deaf Italian preschoolers with hearing parents, taking into account the duration of formal language experience (i.e., the time elapsed since wearing a hearing aid and beginning language education) and different methods of language education. Twenty deaf children were matched with 20 hearing children for age and…
Allen, Thomas E.; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian
A brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of…
The article reviews the current studies regarding language and cognitive development in children who are deaf. Deaf communicate orally and with sign language. 90 % of deaf children are born into hearing families and hearing parents in most cases do not know the sign language. Besides, hearing parents usually want for their child to become "normally" speaking. Most of the deaf children born into hearing families have very poor early communication. It is now well established that deaf children ...
Jansson, Karin, Ed.
A project in Sweden focuses on the early linguistic development of preschool deaf children in families where the parents are also deaf. The School for the Deaf in Sweden is involved with describing the Swedish language as it appears to a deaf learner, a description to be used as a basis for teacher training and inservice in the teaching of the…
van den Bogaerde, B.; Baker, A.E.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.
The hearing children of Deaf parents grow up in two cultures with two languages. They are similar to other bilingual, bicultural children in many ways but are special also. They can be in conflict between two worlds and often carry an extra burden of responsibility in functioning as a bridge between
Lieberman, Lauren J.; Volding, Lori; Winnick, Joseph P.
Deaf children of Deaf parents perform better academically (Ritter-Brinton & Stewart, 1992), linguistically (Courtin, 2000; M. Harris, 2001; Vaccari & Marschark, 1997), and socially (Hadadian & Rose, 1991; M. Harris, 2001) than Deaf children of hearing parents. Twenty-nine Deaf children in residential schools were assessed to determine if a…
Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.
In this study, we investigated how deaf children express their anger towards peers and with what intentions. Eleven-year-old deaf children (n = 21) and a hearing control group (n = 36) were offered four vignettes describing anger-evoking conflict situations with peers. Children were asked how they
Allen, Thomas E; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian
Brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of literacy. Four analyses of data from the Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) Early Education Longitudinal Study are summarized. Each confirms findings from previously published laboratory findings and points to the positive effects of early sign language on, respectively, letter knowledge, social adaptability, sustained visual attention, and cognitive-behavioral milestones necessary for academic success. The article concludes with a consideration of the qualitative similarity hypothesis and a finding that the hypothesis is valid, but only if it can be presented as being modality independent.
Jones, Anna C; Gutierrez, Roberto; Ludlow, Amanda K
The current study addressed deaf children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development as measured by a battery of first- and second-order belief tasks. Both a chronological age-matched control group and a younger group of pre-school aged hearing children were compared to a group of deaf children born to hearing parents. A hearing native signer enacted each of the tasks, which were pre-recorded in video clips in English (SSE), British Sign Language (BSL) and spoken English, in order to consider all communication preferences of the deaf children. Results revealed no differences in performance between the deaf and the young hearing children. However, despite the inclusion of ToM tasks based on their preferred mode of communication, the deaf children performed significantly worse at the unexpected-content and second-order belief task compared with their age-matched controls. These findings imply a delay rather than a deficit in ToM in deaf children that could be attributed to limited opportunities to converse and overhear conversations about mental states. None. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
J Gordon Millichap
Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
In emphasizing the importance of play and toys in a child's development, this article describes the kinds of toys suitable for preschool children of all ages. Floor toys, building and hammering toys, transport, and imaginative and creative play are some of the topics covered. (JK)
Peterson, Candida C
In the context of the established finding that theory-of-mind (ToM) growth is seriously delayed in late-signing deaf children, and some evidence of equivalent delays in those learning speech with conventional hearing aids, this study's novel contribution was to explore ToM development in deaf children with cochlear implants. Implants can substantially boost auditory acuity and rates of language growth. Despite the implant, there are often problems socialising with hearing peers and some language difficulties, lending special theoretical interest to the present comparative design. A total of 52 children aged 4 to 12 years took a battery of false belief tests of ToM. There were 26 oral deaf children, half with implants and half with hearing aids, evenly divided between oral-only versus sign-plus-oral schools. Comparison groups of age-matched high-functioning children with autism and younger hearing children were also included. No significant ToM differences emerged between deaf children with implants and those with hearing aids, nor between those in oral-only versus sign-plus-oral schools. Nor did the deaf children perform any better on the ToM tasks than their age peers with autism. Hearing preschoolers scored significantly higher than all other groups. For the deaf and the autistic children, as well as the preschoolers, rate of language development and verbal maturity significantly predicted variability in ToM, over and above chronological age. The finding that deaf children with cochlear implants are as delayed in ToM development as children with autism and their deaf peers with hearing aids or late sign language highlights the likely significance of peer interaction and early fluent communication with peers and family, whether in sign or in speech, in order to optimally facilitate the growth of social cognition and language.
This retrospective study compared the cochlear implantation outcomes of first- and second-generation deaf children. The study group consisted of seven deaf, cochlear-implanted children with deaf parents. An equal number of deaf children with normal-hearing parents were selected by matched sampling as a reference group. Participants were matched based on onset and severity of deafness, duration of deafness, age at cochlear implantation, duration of cochlear implantation, gender, and cochlear implant model. We used the Persian Auditory Perception Test for the Hearing Impaired, the Speech Intelligibility Rating scale, and the Sentence Imitation Test, in order to measure participants' speech perception, speech production and language development, respectively. Both groups of children showed auditory and speech development. However, the second-generation deaf children (i.e. deaf children of deaf parents) exceeded the cochlear implantation performance of the deaf children with hearing parents. This study confirms that second-generation deaf children exceed deaf children of hearing parents in terms of cochlear implantation performance. Encouraging deaf children to communicate in sign language from a very early age, before cochlear implantation, appears to improve their ability to learn spoken language after cochlear implantation.
Woolfe, Tyron; Want, Stephen C.; Siegal, Michael
Two studies investigated the effect of language input on theory of mind by comparing the performance of deaf native-signing children (ages 4 to 8) raised by deaf signing parents and deaf late-signing children raised by hearing parents on "thought picture" measures of theory of mind. Findings indicated that deaf late signers showed…
Andrews, Jean F
A commentary on Williams's (2012) invited article on the use of adapted vocabulary learning interventions focuses on three areas: (a) Vocabulary interventions with storybook reading originally designed for hearing children can be adapted for deaf children. (b) Teachers are invited to reflect on how the read-aloud process in English differs from the read-aloud process in sign. (b) Teachers are asked to consider adding drawing and writing activities to reading lessons to show young deaf readers how reading and writing are reciprocal processes. The emergent literacy theory is used, as it informs and drives instructional vocabulary teaching practices for deaf children in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The emergent literacy theory broadly captures cognitive, social, perceptual, and linguistic understandings of how young signing deaf children acquire both English word recognition abilities and vocabulary knowledge, among other important prereading concepts.
Full Text Available Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail
A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child's treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child's deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother's level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation programs and standard services for the children themselves.
Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars
Deaf and hard of hearing school-aged children are at risk for delayed development of emotion understanding; however, little is known about this during the preschool years. We compared the level of emotion understanding in a group of 35 4-5-year-old children who use hearing aids to that of 130 children with typical hearing. Moreover, we…
Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier
This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…
Mirna Albuquerque Frota
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the impact of hearing loss in the family dynamics of the deaf child; identify the family’s knowledge about deafness, understand how parents experience the diagnosis and treatment of child with hearing impairment. Methods: The study has aqualitative approach developed at the Center for Integrated Medical Care - NAMI, attached to the University of Fortaleza - UNIFOR located in Fortaleza - CE, Brazil. The participants were six mothers of children with hearing impairment. Data collection was carried outthrough participant observation and semi-structured interview. The Thematic Analysis of Bardin was used for processing the data. Results: After coding, some categories emerged from the discourse: Misinformation of Hearing Loss; impact of the discovery of hearingloss, caregivers and facilitators of the development of the deaf children. Conclusion: The birth of a deaf child alters the previous family balance, causing specific problems, such as the communication barrier, whose solution is related to how to handle the situation. Itis necessary to promote changes, emphasizing the involvement of caregivers and loved as facilitators of deaf child’s development. In Phonoaudiology, this attitude represents discovering new ways to identify the need for the subject, which requires strategies thatvalue their opinion, allowing the expression of expectations, perceptions, representations and feelings.
This paper provides an overview of the research into deaf children's bilingualism and bilingual education through a synthesis of studies published over the last 15 years. This review brings together the linguistic and pedagogical work on bimodal bilingualism to inform educational practice. The first section of the review provides a synthesis of…
Wang, Ye; Spychala, Heather; Harris, Regina S; Oetting, Tara L
The study explored the effects of a phonics-based early intervention package on the early reading skills of three preschool students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing who differed in regard to degree of hearing loss, use of amplification, and communication mode. The 40-week intervention (50-week in one case) was delivered through individual and group phonics-based instruction supplemented by Visual Phonics in a language-enriched preschool classroom. Standardized assessments were conducted before, during, and after the intervention. Along with some additional assessments, the same assessments were conducted in early elementary school. The results showed that all participants demonstrated at least some use of phonemic awareness and phonics skills when they were explicitly trained, and that these skills were sustained in early elementary school. Furthermore, all participants exhibited overall reading levels at or above age level when measured in early elementary school.
The loss of hearing modifies in every respect the relations between a child and his environment and results in serious communication problems. An early diagnosis and a coherent management using all the techniques that facilitate communication can thoroughly alter the consequences of deafness. The therapeutic and educative planning must be done by a competent, multidisciplinary team working in close cooperation with the child's parents. The plan must be adjusted to each individual child and constantly readjusted, the target being the social integration of deaf children when they reach adulthood.
van Hoogmoed, Anne H; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo
Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to monomorphemic words. The results show that deaf children are delayed in reading both derivational words and compounds as compared to hearing children, while both deaf and hearing adults performed equally well on a lexical decision task. However, deaf adults generally showed slower reaction times than hearing adults. For both deaf and hearing children, derivational words were more difficult than compounds, as reflected in hearing children's slower reaction times and in deaf children's lower accuracy scores. This finding likely reflects deaf children's lack of familiarity with the meaning of the bound morphemes attached to the stems in derivational words. Therefore, it might be beneficial to teach deaf children the meaning of bound morphemes and to train them to use morphology in word reading. Moreover, these findings imply that it is important to focus on both monomorphemic and polymorphemic words when assessing word reading ability in deaf children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sidera, Francesc; Amadó, Anna; Martínez, Laura
This exploratory research is aimed at studying facial emotion recognition abilities in deaf children and how they relate to linguistic skills and the characteristics of deafness. A total of 166 participants (75 deaf) aged 3-8 years were administered the following tasks: facial emotion recognition, naming vocabulary and cognitive ability. The…
Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegel, Michael
We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist…
Communication has been identified as one of the greatest areas of difficulty for the deaf. Both the receptive and expressive communication pose barriers in almost all aspects of life of the deaf. This study endeavors to examine teachers' perceptions of communication needs of deaf children in Kenyan school system.
Bandurski, Marcin; Galkowski, Tadeusz
The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a study of the development of analogical reasoning in deaf children coming from two different linguistic environments (deaf children of deaf parents--sign language, deaf children of hearing parents--spoken language) and in hearing children, as well as to compare two groups of deaf children…
A study compared intelligence scores of three groups of Israeli deaf children--23 with deaf parents/deaf siblings and manual communication (DpDs), 76 with hearing parents/deaf siblings, and 144 with hearing parents and siblings. The DpDs children were superior to other deaf children and comparable to hearing children on most intelligence measures.…
Wiefferink, Carin H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H. M.
It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion…
Gheysen, Freja; Loots, Gerrit; Van Waelvelde, Hilde
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cochlear implant (CI) on the motor development of deaf children. The study involved 36 mainstreamed deaf children (15 boys, 21 girls; 4- to 12-years old) without any developmental problems. Of these children, 20 had been implanted. Forty-three hearing children constituted a comparison…
Jablan Branka; Stanimirov Ksenija
The aim of this paper is to explain the calendar systems and their role in teaching deaf-blind children. Deaf-blind persons belong to a group of multiple disabled persons. This disability should not be observed as a simple composite of visual and hearing impairments, but as a combination of sensory impairments that require special assistance in the development, communication and training for independent living. In our environment, deaf-blind children are being educated in schools for children...
Ana Teresa Brás
Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.
Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M
Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.
Karina Słonka; Manuela Dyas; Tadeusz Słonka; Tomasz Szurmik
Introduction: Pre‑school age is a period of intensive development when children shape their posture, habits and motor memory. Movement is child's physiological need. Motive activity supports not only physical development, but also psychical, intellectual and social. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess motor ability in preschool children from the city of Opole and District Dobrzeń Wielki. Materials and methods: The research involved 228 children, aged 5 and 6. The method used in...
Vermeulen, A.M.; Bon, W.H.J. van; Schreuder, R.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Snik, A.F.M.
The reading comprehension and visual word recognition in 50 deaf children and adolescents with at least 3 years of cochlear implant (0) use were evaluated. Their skills were contrasted with reference data of 500 deaf children without CIs. The reading comprehension level in children with CIs was
In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…
Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others
Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…
Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.
Deaf children frequently have trouble understanding other people's emotions. It has been suggested that an impaired theory of mind can account for this. This research focused on the spontaneous use of mental states in explaining other people's emotions by 6- and 10-year-old deaf children as compared
Hoogmoed, A.H. van; Knoors, H.E.T.; Schreuder, R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex
van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo
Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to…
Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J
Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.
Mauk, Gary W.; Mauk, Pamela P.
This paper presents a definition of deaf and hard of hearing children with learning disabilities; notes the incidence of children with both disabilities; outlines roadblocks to learning; describes screening, diagnosis, and assessment practices; and offers suggestions for educational programming. (JDD)
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain the calendar systems and their role in teaching deaf-blind children. Deaf-blind persons belong to a group of multiple disabled persons. This disability should not be observed as a simple composite of visual and hearing impairments, but as a combination of sensory impairments that require special assistance in the development, communication and training for independent living. In our environment, deaf-blind children are being educated in schools for children with visual impairments or in schools for children with hearing impairments (in accordance with the primary impairment. However, deaf-blind children cannot be trained by means of special programs for children with hearing impairment, visual impairment or other programs for students with developmental disabilities without specific attention required by such a combination of sensory impairments. Deaf-blindness must be observed as a multiple impairment that requires special work methods, especially in the field of communication, whose development is severely compromised. Communication skills in deaf-blind people can be developed by using the calendar systems. They are designed in such a manner that they can be easily attainable to children with various sensory impairments. Calendars can be used to encourage and develop communication between adult persons and a deaf-blind child.
Valente, Joseph Michael
The author, who was raised oral deaf himself, recounts a visit to a school for young deaf children and discovers that young d/Deaf children and their rights are subverted by the cochlear implantation empire. The hypercapitalist, techno-manic times of cochlear implantation has wreaked havoc to the lives of not only young children with deafness but…
Hosie, J A; Russell, P A; Gray, C D; Scott, C; Hunter, N; Banks, J S; Macaulay, M C
Deaf children of elementary and secondary school age participated in a study designed to examine their understanding of display rules, the principles governing the expression and concealment of emotion in social situations. The results showed that deaf children's knowledge of display rules, as measured by their reported concealment of emotion, was comparable to that of hearing children of the same age. However, deaf children were less likely to report that they would conceal happiness and anger. They were also less likely to produce reasons for concealing emotion and a smaller proportion of their reasons were prosocial, that is, relating to the feelings of others. The results suggest that the understanding of display rules (which function to protect the feelings of other people) may develop more gradually in deaf children raised in a spoken language environment than it does in hearing children.
Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen
This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....
Easterbrooks, Susan R; Lederberg, Amy R; Connor, Carol M
Specific characteristics of early literacy environments support hearing children's emergent literacy. The researchers investigated these characteristics' role in emergent literacy in young deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children, using the Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO; M. W. Smith, Dickinson, Sangeorge, & Anastasopoulos, 2002). Eighteen self-contained classrooms of preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade DHH children (N = 40) were studied. Hierarchical linear analysis was used to examine study participants' classroom environment and growth in emergent literacy skills. Correlations suggested that classroom environment was more closely related to vocabulary and phonological awareness in DHH children than in typically hearing children. Major differences among classrooms were also indicated. However, growth in children's skills did not correlate strongly with attributes captured by the ELLCO. This suggests that classrooms promoting emergent literacy skills acquisition in DHH children may differ from classrooms of typically developing hearing children.
Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.
One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…
Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...
Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie
Previous studies show that typically developing 4-year old children can understand other people's false beliefs but that deaf children of hearing families have difficulty in understanding false beliefs until the age of approximately 13. Because false beliefs are implicit mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues in standard false belief tasks, the present study examines the hypothesis that the deaf children's developmental delay in understanding false beliefs may reflect their difficulty in understanding a spectrum of mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues. Nine- to 13-year-old deaf children of hearing families and 4-6-year-old typically developing children completed false belief tasks and emotion recognition tasks under different cue conditions. The results indicated that after controlling for the effect of the children's language abilities, the deaf children inferred other people's false beliefs as accurately as the typically developing children when other people's false beliefs were clearly expressed through their eye-gaze direction. However, the deaf children performed worse than the typically developing children when asked to infer false beliefs with ambiguous or no eye-gaze cues. Moreover, the deaf children were capable of recognizing other people's emotions that were clearly conveyed by their facial or body expressions. The results suggest that although theory-based or simulation-based mental state understanding is typical of hearing children's theory of mind mechanism, for deaf children of hearing families, clear cue-based mental state understanding may be their specific theory of mind mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hearing impairment and deafness among HIV infected children and adolescents in Harare, Zimbabwe. C Chidziva, J Matsekete, T Bandason, S Shamu, T Dzongodza, N Matinhira, HA Mujuru, C Kunzekwenyika, M Wellington, R Luthy, C Prescott, RA Ferrand ...
Słonka Karina; Dyas Manuela; Słonka Tadeusz; Szurmik Tomasz
Słonka Karina, Dyas Manuela, Słonka Tadeusz, Szurmik Tomasz. Motor performance of preschool children. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):1308-1323. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1045272 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5028 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/works/836989 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017...
Peterson, Candida C
Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65 deaf children of hearing parents) aged 4-13 years were therefore designed to (a) compare levels of empathy in deaf and hearing children, and (b) explore correlations of ToM with empathy in deaf and hearing groups. Results showed that (a) deaf children scored lower in empathy than their hearing peers and (b) empathy and ToM were significantly correlated for deaf children but not for the hearing. Possible reasons for these divergent developmental patterns were considered, along with implications for future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo
The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…
Ajallouyan, Mohammad; Radfar, Shokofeh; Nouhi, Sima; Tavallaie, Seid Abbas; Amirsalari, Susan; Yousefi, Jaleh; Hasanali Fard, Mahdieh
It seems that there is a relationship between consanguinity and profound hearing loss but there is little data about the association of consanguinity and hearing loss in Iran. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the causes of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss among Iranian samples who are candidates for cochlear implantation. This study was retrospective, analytical, and designed to collect information about profound hearing impaired cases referred to the Baqiyatallah Cochlear implantation center using enumeration. A total of 310 children with profound hearing impairments participated in this study. They were aged from 6 months to 4 years old. The study was done between January 2007 and April 2009. Chi-square tests were used to show whether there was any statistical difference between the incidence of marital consanguinity of their parents and the normal population. Sixty-five percent of those 310 children had parents who had married with their relatives. Of the 203 (65%) parents that had consanguineous marriages, 132 were first cousins, which includes the children of two brothers (37 [11.8%] patrilateral parallel cousins), the children of two sisters (38 [12.2%] multi-lateral parallel cousins), or the children of a brother and a sister (57 [18.3%] cross cousins). Fifty-four (17.4%) of the parents were second cousins and 17 (5.2%) were beyond second cousins. Also, hearing loss etiology was obvious in 237 (76.3%) of the patients with profound hearing loss but was unknown in 73 (23.7%). Hereditary was identified as the most common cause in 33% of the cases. Our data demonstrated a 65% occurrence of consanguineous marriage among the parents of deaf children, which is statistically different from the percentage of consanguineous marriage among Iranian population (38%). This indicates an obvious relationship between severe hearing loss and consanguineous marriage.
Full Text Available In this work surveys of latent motility abilities and skills of school children are shown. The sample for this survey was consisted of two subsamples. First one has consisted of deaf children N=29, and the second one has consisted hearing children of same age N=69. Subsamples of deaf is chosen according to model of applied sample, and subsample is chosen randomly, so two stages group sample N=90 has been created. After quantitative differences have been discovered between subsamples, hearing pupils have shown statistically better results at motility skills and techniques than deaf children and cumulative results have been subjected to inter correlation of variables. The target of using this method was determination of saturation of common variability through saturation of variables and their correlation by Ortoblique rotation for determination of latent information that are going to serve as practical guides at education and deaf children treatment, because of improvement of their motility abilities and skills according to hearing children. Three factors have been singled out as main preview of measurement on manifest variables. According to first review of measuring it has been established that at deaf children is needed to work on improving of physical abilities and mobility and then developed motility abilities and skills. Their information has been gained most probably by non system fluctuations as information about ability of balance maintaining which is most probably non dependable of motility abilities and skills as at deaf and hearing children too. According to this survey by entering the structure of measuring instrument it is possible to create programs for improving motility abilities and skills at deaf children.
Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R
This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.
The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...
Naseraldin Akbari Asbagh
Full Text Available Background: Long QT syndromes (LQT are genetic abnormalities of ventricular repo-larization, with an estimated incidence of about one per 10000 births. It is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval in electrocardiogram (EKG and associated with a high risk for syncope and sudden death in patients. Type of this syndrome is association with congenital deafness. Our objective was to evaluate QT interval in children with congenital deafness.Methods: For 219 patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital audiometric clinic in 2011, questionnaire were completed. A total of 23 congenitally deaf children were incl-uded. All patients’ examinations were done by a pediatric cardiologist. Electrocardio-gram is conducted in all children (23 patients with sever and deep congenital deafness. Then the QT interval was measured based on Bazett’s formula. Echocardiography was also performed in these children to assess left ventricular function and the presence of mitral valve prolapse.Results: The overall patients were two hundred and nineteen children. A total of twenty three congenitally deaf children were included and electrocardiogram was obtained. Three children had obviously prolonged QTc (0.48±0.02 second. The median age of them was 6.1±5 year, the median weight was 18±11.3 kilogram and the median of QT interval was 0.48±0.02 second.Conclusion: The QT interval obtained 0.48±0.02 second. In the present study we found prolonged QT in congenital deafness, thus we recommend to evaluate the electrocardio-gram of children with congenital deafness.
Conway, Christopher M; Pisoni, David B; Anaya, Esperanza M; Karpicke, Jennifer; Henning, Shirley C
Deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) represent an intriguing opportunity to study neurocognitive plasticity and reorganization when sound is introduced following a period of auditory deprivation early in development. Although it is common to consider deafness as affecting hearing alone, it may be the case that auditory deprivation leads to more global changes in neurocognitive function. In this paper, we investigate implicit sequence learning abilities in deaf children with CIs using a novel task that measured learning through improvement to immediate serial recall for statistically consistent visual sequences. The results demonstrated two key findings. First, the deaf children with CIs showed disturbances in their visual sequence learning abilities relative to the typically developing normal-hearing children. Second, sequence learning was significantly correlated with a standardized measure of language outcome in the CI children. These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation has secondary effects related to general sequencing deficits, and that disturbances in sequence learning may at least partially explain why some deaf children still struggle with language following cochlear implantation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)
Plum, Jane Meacham Jr.
A game with food and nutrition related pictures was developed to provide an opportunity for a classroom teacher to interview preschool children for assessment of nutrition knowledge concepts. Specifically, knowledge of vegetable concepts which included identification of the food, the food group, the source, preparation methods and use by the body was measured. The assessment was administered to five groups of children (ages two and one-half to five years) in preschools and child care center...
Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P
Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.
We examined deaf and hearing children's progression of steps in theory of mind (ToM) development including their understanding of social pretending. Ninety-three children (33 deaf; 60 hearing) aged 3-13 years were tested on a set of six closely matched ToM tasks. Results showed that deaf children were delayed substantially behind hearing children…
Marshall, C. R.; Jones, A.; Fastelli, A.; Atkinson, J.; Botting, N.; Morgan, G.
Background: Deafness has an adverse impact on children's ability to acquire spoken languages. Signed languages offer a more accessible input for deaf children, but because the vast majority are born to hearing parents who do not sign, their early exposure to sign language is limited. Deaf children as a whole are therefore at high risk of language…
Coulson, R. I.
Studies of children's attitudes towards science indicate that a tendency for girls and boys to have different patterns of interest in science is established by upper primary school level. It is not know when these interest patterns develop. This paper presents the results of part of a project designed to investigate preschool children's interests in science. Individual 4 5 year-old children were asked to say what they would prefer to do from each of a series of paired drawings showing either a science and a non-science activity, or activities from two different areas of science. Girls and boys were very similar in their overall patterns of choice for science and non-science items. Within science, the average number of physical science items chosen by boys was significantly greater than the average number chosen by girls (p=.026). Girls tended to choose more biology items than did boys, but this difference was not quite significant at the .05 level (p=.054). The temporal stability of these choices was explored.
Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.
Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters,…
Shield, Aaron; Cooley, Frances; Meier, Richard P.
Purpose: We present the first study of echolalia in deaf, signing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigate the nature and prevalence of sign echolalia in native-signing children with ASD, the relationship between sign echolalia and receptive language, and potential modality differences between sign and speech. Method: Seventeen…
Peterson, Candida C.
Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65…
Esche, Jeanne; Griffin, Carol
The handbook for parents of deaf blind children describes practical techniques of child care for such activities as sitting, standing, walking, sleeping, washing, eating, dressing, toilet training, disciplining, and playing. For instance, it is explained that some visually handicapped children acquire mannerisms in their early years because they…
This thesis is a contribution towards the subtitling practice of audiovisual programmes for deaf children. It starts by offering an overview of relevant research on Subtitling for the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing (SDH), conducted both in the UK and abroad. A descriptive and comprehensive study on how children’s programmes broadcast in British television are subtitled for deaf children constitutes the starting point of the project. In an attempt to gain an understanding on how deaf children re...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.
Ziv, Margalit; Most, Tova; Cohen, Shirit
Emotion understanding and theory of mind (ToM) are two major aspects of social cognition in which deaf children demonstrate developmental delays. The current study investigated these social cognition aspects in two subgroups of deaf children--those with cochlear implants who communicate orally (speakers) and those who communicate primarily using…
Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R
The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness.
Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth
settings for preschools. The intent is to facilitate transfer of knowledge from preschools to planners and managers of green settings such as woodland, parks, green lots and playgrounds. The central concept applied is that of affordances, here defined as the meaningful action possibilities......This Danish study investigates the relationship between children in preschool (age range 3-6.5 years) and the outdoor environments they use. The main aim is to describe and analyse the outdoor features of significance for children’s activities and of importance for design and management of green...... between forest features and manufactured features, a detailed account of the affordances of ditches, and a description of the forest sites used by a Danish forest preschool. Children were attracted to features with changing and not fully explored action possibilities; forest features added variation...
Moroe, Nomfundo F; de Andrade, Victor
Culturally, hearing children born to Deaf parents may have to mediate two different positions within the hearing and Deaf cultures. However, there appears to be little written about the experiences of hearing children born to Deaf parents in the South African context. This study sought to investigate the roles of children of Deaf adults (CODAs) as interpreters in Deaf-parented families, more specifically, the influence of gender and birth order in language brokering. Two male and eight female participants between the ages of 21 and 40 years were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling strategies. A qualitative design was employed and data were collected using a semi-structured, open-ended interview format. Themes which emerged were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings indicated that there was no formal assignment of the interpreter role; however, female children tended to assume the role of interpreter more often than the male children. Also, it appeared as though the older children shifted the responsibility for interpreting to younger siblings. The participants in this study indicated that they interpreted in situations where they felt they were not developmentally or emotionally ready, or in situations which they felt were better suited for older siblings or for siblings of another gender. This study highlights a need for the formalisation of interpreting services for Deaf people in South Africa in the form of professional interpreters rather than the reliance on hearing children as interpreters in order to mediate between Deaf and hearing cultures.
de Andrade, Victor
Background Culturally, hearing children born to Deaf parents may have to mediate two different positions within the hearing and Deaf cultures. However, there appears to be little written about the experiences of hearing children born to Deaf parents in the South African context. Objective This study sought to investigate the roles of children of Deaf adults (CODAs) as interpreters in Deaf-parented families, more specifically, the influence of gender and birth order in language brokering. Method Two male and eight female participants between the ages of 21 and 40 years were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling strategies. A qualitative design was employed and data were collected using a semi-structured, open-ended interview format. Themes which emerged were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The findings indicated that there was no formal assignment of the interpreter role; however, female children tended to assume the role of interpreter more often than the male children. Also, it appeared as though the older children shifted the responsibility for interpreting to younger siblings. The participants in this study indicated that they interpreted in situations where they felt they were not developmentally or emotionally ready, or in situations which they felt were better suited for older siblings or for siblings of another gender. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the formalisation of interpreting services for Deaf people in South Africa in the form of professional interpreters rather than the reliance on hearing children as interpreters in order to mediate between Deaf and hearing cultures. PMID:29850437
Davenport, Carrie A; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R; Clancy, Shannon M; Kranak, Michael P
This study examined the effects of a picture racetrack game on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of picture labeling for 2 preschool students who are deaf. The game consisted of placing photographs representing individualized target vocabulary around a racetrack board and prompting the participant to sign each photo. A multiple baseline design across picture sets demonstrated that playing the picture racetrack game was functionally related to acquisition of vocabulary to 100% mastery on at least 3 consecutive sessions for each participant. Additionally, both participants maintained most of the vocabulary they acquired for at least 4 weeks after intervention, and they generalized picture labeling to a different presentation mode (i.e., a photo album). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
National Center on Deaf-Blindness, 2015
The National Child Count of Children and Youth who are Deaf-Blind is the first and longest running registry and knowledge base of children who are deaf-blind in the world. Begun in 1986 on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education, it represents a nearly thirty year collaborative effort between the National Center on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB), its…
Discussed are principles of nonverbal therapy for deaf children with disorders in the development of self, and the possible existence of a relationship between lack of auditory experiences in deaf children and disorders in mother-child bonding. A case study presents a three-year-old deaf boy successfully treated through a nonverbal…
Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead
Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the peer conflict strategies of preschool children are situated and therefore vary across different conflict situations. Hypothetical conflict interviews were administered through a series of puppet shows. Participants were 178 preschool children. Results indicate that preschool children's conflict…
Graham, Angie Geertsen
Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur. In this study,...
Ormel, E.A.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Hermans, D.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In
Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig
Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…
Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo
Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…
Linardakis Manolis K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.
Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Niaounaki, Dora; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G
Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.
Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise; Macniven, Rona; Howlett, Sarah
Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Children who do not master FMS are more likely to experience failure in the motor domain and less likely to participate in sport and games during childhood and adolescence. Studies among primary school aged children report low levels of FMS mastery indicating the need to implement FMS programs during the preschool years. Cross-sectional study of 425 children attending preschools in the Sydney, Australia in 2008. FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 including locomotor (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, kick overhand throw) skills. Data were analysed using linear regression and chi-squared analyses. Total locomotor score was higher among girls compared with boys (pskills and boys had higher mastery of object control skills. These findings highlight the need to provide structured opportunities which facilitate children's acquisition of FMS, which may include providing gender separated games, equipment and spaces. That mastery of FMS is low in primary school children indicates the importance of early intervention programs in preschools. Preschools and child care centers hold promise as a key setting for implementing FMS programs.
Edwards, Lindsey; Figueras, Berta; Mellanby, Jane; Langdon, Dawn
The extent to which cognitive development and abilities are dependent on language remains controversial. In this study, the analogical reasoning skills of deaf and hard of hearing children are explored. Two groups of children (deaf and hard of hearing children with either cochlear implants or hearing aids and hearing children) completed tests of…
Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne
The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in
Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C
Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis
Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the static and dynamic balance performance of deaf children with and without cochlear implants. This is a cross-sectional study of 145 school children, aged between 7 and 12 years comprising 85 children with congenital or early acquired bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss (the hearing loss group and 60 normal hearing aged-matched control counterparts were assessed using the balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. The hearing loss group, 50 without cochlear implants (the non-implant group and 35 of them with unilateral cochlear implants (the implant group were recruited from schools for the deaf and normal hearing children (the control group randomly selected from two randomly selected elementary schools of Tehran city. The scores were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The total score of deaf children especially the implant group were significantly lower than the control group P<0.001. The balance performance of the control group was better than the implant group in all of the items as well as the non-implant group except the fourth tested item (walking forward on a line (P<0.05. The balance score of the implant group was significantly lower than the non-implant group except for the third tested item (standing on the preferred leg on a balance beam with eyes closed. The findings suggested that deaf children, specifically those with cochlear implants are at risk for motor and balance deficits. Thus, vestibular and motor evaluations, as well as interventions to improve balance and motor skills, should be prioritized for this population.
Emma Tamsin Kelty
Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to identify the benefits of developing thinking skills with KS1 deaf children who used British Sign Language (BSL. It arose as a response to the findings of a variety of researches who had reported a number of ‘failings’ apparent in the educational and learning activity of deaf children. It used a case study approach involving five profoundly deaf Key stage 1 children and explored the extent to which, using materials grounded in the Somerset Thinking Skills Course, the teaching of thinking skills in a supportive environment could remediate some of these issues. The strongly visual nature of the material supported pupil exchanges mediated by the use of sign language. Analysis of video film was used to plot individual pupil development of scanning skills, their use of nouns versus adjectives, micro-skills and macro-abilities. Pupil reasoning skills, how they were supported, their ownership and role of the facilitator were also examined. The results showed that within eight weeks (equivalent to four hours in total the children were more able to express their perceptions. They watched other children in order to access their signed information and appeared to use this to develop, elaborate, extend and provide reasons when it was their turn to present. There was also evidence of enhanced creativity and originality in their contributions. This pilot study urges the need for further research and suggests that a priority should be given to developing this approach in the teaching of deaf children. Due to the complexity of thinking skills it further recommends that this area should be taught as a separate topic that can inform other subjects.
Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.
Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…
This work is focused on an issue of furnishing a public interior for preschool children. It's aimed mainly on the space of changing room and bathroom. The chosen topic was solved from the viewpoint of psychology, security, hygiene and materials. Resulting information was made into a study case, which was finally realized under the author's supervision. Single pieces together with decoration have made a very safe, comfortable and optimistic space for children and also for their staff. It was p...
Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia
The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.
Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.
Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…
The scientific article "Development of memory in preschool children with disabilities in the game" reveals the relevance of the application of the game as the leading activity during the preschool years to optimize the development of the mental process of memory in children with disabilities. Work on the development of children's memory in the form of a game as the most effective form, aimed at attracting the attention of professionals working with preschool children with disabilities, a...
Silva-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Amanda; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge
The aim of this study was to examine the association between motor fitness (MF) and obesity status in preschool children. The sample comprised 467 children aged 3-6 years. Preschool children body mass index was classiﬁed according to International Obesity Task Force and categorised into three levels, normal, overweight and obesity. Total physical activity was assessed by accelerometer and MF test was assessed through two MF tests 10 × 5m shuttle run test (SRT) and a 7 m jumping distance on 2 feet test (J2F). Low MF was considered for MF if SD above 1. A single variable with three categories was created: low MF medium MF and high MF. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity was 67.6%, 22.7% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of SD > 1 for SRT was 13.7% and 14.4% for J2F, for single variable was 19.2%. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that obese preschoolers were more likely six times classified as having low MF level than their non-overweight counterparts (OR: 6.4; IC: 1.3-36.6). This study showed a considerable prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers. Obesity has already been associated with lower MF. Further longitudinal studies are needed to conﬁrm this data.
Nomfundo F. Moroe
Full Text Available Background: Culturally, hearing children born to Deaf parents may have to mediate two different positions within the hearing and Deaf cultures. However, there appears to be little written about the experiences of hearing children born to Deaf parents in the South African context. Objective: This study sought to investigate the roles of children of Deaf adults (CODAs as interpreters in Deaf-parented families, more specifically, the influence of gender and birth order in language brokering. Method: Two male and eight female participants between the ages of 21 and 40 years were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling strategies. A qualitative design was employed and data were collected using a semi-structured, open-ended interview format. Themes which emerged were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The findings indicated that there was no formal assignment of the interpreter role; however, female children tended to assume the role of interpreter more often than the male children. Also, it appeared as though the older children shifted the responsibility for interpreting to younger siblings. The participants in this study indicated that they interpreted in situations where they felt they were not developmentally or emotionally ready, or in situations which they felt were better suited for older siblings or for siblings of another gender. Conclusion: This study highlights a need for the formalisation of interpreting services for Deaf people in South Africa in the form of professional interpreters rather than the reliance on hearing children as interpreters in order to mediate between Deaf and hearing cultures.
Full Text Available Bronchial asthma remains disease with wide prevalence in children different age. Inhalation corticosteroids are medications of first line of therapy in children. The article describes the ways of treatment with budesonide (Pulmicort in children preschool age. The data from different studies prove the effectiveness and safety of treatment with as turbuhaler, as nebulizer form of this drug. Key words: children, bronchial asthma, inhalational corticosteroids, budesonide.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:76-80
Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia
This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension…
Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris
This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…
Dye, Matthew W G; Hauser, Peter C
Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6-13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the course of several minutes, and a distractibility test provided a measure of the ability to ignore task irrelevant information - selective attention. Both tasks provided assessments of cognitive control through analysis of commission errors. The deaf and hearing children did not differ on measures of sustained attention. However, younger deaf children were more distracted by task-irrelevant information in their peripheral visual field, and deaf children produced a higher number of commission errors in the selective attention task. It is argued that this is not likely to be an effect of audition on cognitive processing, but may rather reflect difficulty in endogenous control of reallocated visual attention resources stemming from early profound deafness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter C.
Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6–13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the course of several minutes, and a distractibility test provided a measure of the ability to ignore task irrelevant information – selective attention. Both tasks provided assessments of cognitive control through analysis of commission errors. The deaf and hearing children did not differ on measures of sustained attention. However, younger deaf children were more distracted by task-irrelevant information in their peripheral visual field, and deaf children produced a higher number of commission errors in the selective attention task. It is argued that this is not likely to be an effect of audition on cognitive processing, but may rather reflect difficulty in endogenous control of reallocated visual attention resources stemming from early profound deafness. PMID:24355653
MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN
Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.
Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.
Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…
Research on shared reading has shown positive results on children's literacy development in general and for deaf children specifically; however, reading techniques might differ between these two populations. Families with deaf children, especially those with deaf parents, often capitalize on their children's visual attributes rather than primarily auditory cues. These techniques are believed to provide a foundation for their deaf children's literacy skills. This study examined 10 deaf mother/deaf child dyads with children between 3 and 5 years of age. Dyads were videotaped in their homes on at least two occasions reading books that were provided by the researcher. Descriptive analysis showed specifically how deaf mothers mediate between the two languages, American Sign Language (ASL) and English, while reading. These techniques can be replicated and taught to all parents of deaf children so that they can engage in more effective shared reading activities. Research has shown that shared reading, or the interaction of a parent and child with a book, is an effective way to promote language and literacy, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, and metalinguistic awareness (Snow, 1983), making it critical for educators to promote shared reading activities at home between parent and child. Not all parents read to their children in the same way. For example, parents of deaf children may present the information in the book differently due to the fact that signed languages are visual rather than spoken. In this vein, we can learn more about what specific connections deaf parents make to the English print. Exploring strategies deaf mothers may use to link the English print through the use of ASL will provide educators with additional tools when working with all parents of deaf children. This article will include a review of the literature on the benefits of shared reading activities for all children, the relationship between ASL and English skill development, and the techniques
Full Text Available The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women.The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women. Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the peer conflict strategies of preschool children are situated and therefore vary across different conflict situations. Hypothetical conflict interviews were administered through a series of puppet shows. Participants were 178 preschool children. Results indicate that preschool children's conflict management skills are situated in peer conflict, because their strategies are to a greater or lesser degree influenced by the opponent's strategies....
National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness, 2013
The National Child Count of Children and Youth who are Deaf-Blind is the first and longest running registry and knowledge base of children who are deaf-blind in the world. Begun in 1986 on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education, it represents a nearly thirty year collaborative effort between the National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB),…
Shahrooz Nemati; Gholam Ali Afrooz; Ali Asgari; Bagher Ghobari Bonab
Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal ch...
Rafaela Fava de Quevedo
Full Text Available This experience report describes a group phenomenon, based upon a case study of a group of hearing mothers of deaf children. The weekly group, in operation for over three years, provides support for families with deaf children. At first, observations were made in the group for a subsequent analysis of the data and act on interventions. Categories containing the main features that emerged in the group were created in order to discuss the content found. The categories addressed by mothers included: independence/autonomy of the child; adolescence and sexuality; discovery of deafness and reorganization of family dynamics; and matters beyond the group goal. As for the categories related to the group process there are: resistance; containing function of the coordinator; transfer; interventions in the group field. The results lead to understanding the group as a facilitator and as a necessary support for the participants. Before that, interventions were carried out to expand the space for reflection offered by the group, which provides adaptations to the different situations experienced by the participants.
Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin
This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.
Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.
To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…
Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi
Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…
Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.
Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…
Smetana, Judith G.
Examined preschool children's conceptions of moral and conventional rules. Children judged the seriousness, rule contingency, rule relativism, and amount of deserved punishment for 10 depicted moral and conventional preschool transgressions. Constant across ages and sexes, children evaluated moral transgressions as more serious offenses and more…
Skanfors, Lovisa; Lofdahl, Annica; Hagglund, Solveig
The article discusses how children make use of their preschool context in order to withdraw. Ethnographic observations were made of two-to five-year-old children's interactions during free play and teacher-led activities in the preschool, and documentation was carried out through field notes and video recordings. The empirical material was…
Cockcroft, Kate; Dhana-Dullabh, Hansini
This study compared the working memory functioning of deaf children, children with ADHD and typically developing children. Working memory is involved in the storage and mental manipulation of information during classroom learning activities that are crucial for the acquisition of complex skills and knowledge. Thus, it is important to determine how…
Weir, Carolyn; Aylif, Diana
This article presents the findings of an empirical comparative study in the Nelson Mandela Metropole investigating the difference between the written English of deaf children and the written English of hearing children and makes recommendations on how to improve the writing of deaf children. The psycholinguistic approach was used for the…
Pabayo, Roman; Spence, John C; Casey, Linda; Storey, Kate
Healthy eating during early childhood is important for growth and development. Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (CFG) provides dietary recommendations. We investigated patterns of food consumption among preschool children and attempted to determine whether these children's intakes met nutrition recommendations. Between 2005 and 2007, four- and five-year-old children (n=2015) attending 12 Edmonton-region public health units for immunization were recruited for a longitudinal study on determinants of childhood obesity. The children's dietary intake at baseline was assessed using parental reports. Overall, 29.6%, 23.5%, 90.9%, and 94.2% of the children met recommendations for vegetables and fruit, grain products, milk and alternatives, and meat and alternatives, respectively. In addition, 79.5% consumed at least one weekly serving of foods in the "choose least often" group. Significant differences existed in consumption of food groups across socioeconomic and demographic groups. For example, 82.9%, 84.7%, and 75.9% of preschool children from neighbourhoods of low, medium, and high socioeconomic status, respectively, consumed at least one food in the "choose least often" group (χ² =16.2, pConsumption of vegetables and fruit and grain products was low among participants, and intake of "choose least often" foods was high. Consumption of foods also differed among socioeconomic and demographic groups. To encourage healthy eating among children, public health professionals should target groups who do not meet the CFG recommendations.
Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand childrens subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Childrens well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.
Kampschmidt, Jordan C; Brooks, Edward G; Cherry, Debra C; Guajardo, Jesus R; Wood, Pamela R
The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of obtaining acceptable and reproducible spirometry data in preschool aged children (3-5 years) by technicians without prior experience with spirometry. Two technicians were trained to perform spirometry testing (ndd Easy on-PC) and to administer standardized questionnaires. Preschool aged children were enrolled from two Head Start centers and a local primary care clinic. Subjects were trained in proper spirometry technique and tested until at least two acceptable efforts were obtained or the subject no longer produced acceptable efforts. 200 subjects were enrolled: mean age 4.0 years (± 0.7 SD); age distribution: 51 (25.5%) 3 years old, 103 (51.5%) 4 years old, and 46 (23%) 5 years old. Fifty-six percent male and 75% Hispanic. One hundred thirty (65%) subjects produced at least one acceptable effort on their first visit: 23 (45%) for 3 years old, 67 (65%) for 4 years old, and 40 (87%) for 5 years old. The number of acceptable efforts correlated with age (r = 0.29, P spirometry results from the preschool aged children; the number of acceptable efforts correlated significantly with age. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
National Center on Deaf-Blindness, 2014
The National Child Count of Children and Youth who are Deaf-Blind is the first and longest running registry and knowledge base of children who are deaf-blind in the world. It has been collaboratively designed, implemented and revised to serve as the common vehicle to meet federal grant requirements for both the State/Multi-State and National…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal children were selected by cluster sampling from elementary, guidance and high schools of Ardabil city and 423 couples parenting disabled children were selected non-randomly among which 130 had deaf children. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of consanguineous marriage and chi-square test to compare prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of normal and deaf children.Results: Descriptive analyses showed that 80 out of 130 (61.54% parents who had deaf children have had consanguineous marriage. Furthermore data analysis demonstrated that prevalence of consanguineous marriage was significantly higher among parents of deaf children (p<0.001.Conclusion: Consanguineous marriage plays a major role in expression of recessive genes and could lead to development of various handicaps including deafness. Increasing couples' awareness about consequences of consanguineous marriage and conducting genetic counseling are indispensable.
National Center on Deaf-Blindness, 2016
This, the 30th annual "National Child Count of Children and Youth Who Are Deaf-Blind," is the first and longest running registry and knowledge base of children who are deaf-blind in the world. Begun in 1986 on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education, it represents a nearly thirty year collaborative effort between the National Center…
Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.
This packet contains seven brochures developed during a project on literacy education and parenting skills for deaf parents of young hearing children (DP/HC). The topics of the brochures are as follows: behavior management, self-esteem, speech development in children, language development, nutrition, safety, and deaf parents in a hearing child's…
The present volume reports on research on reading comprehension in deaf children and adolescents in the Netherlands. The average reading comprehension scores of deaf children and adolescents are found to be shockingly low. To find an explanation for these low scores, two central factors in reading
Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús
Deaf children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic (Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (dot constellations and hands) magnitude comparison tasks, whether deaf children show deficits in representations or in accessing numerical representations. The study participants were 10 prelocutive deaf children and 10 normally hearing children. Numerical distance and magnitude were manipulated. Response time (RT) analysis showed similar magnitude and distance effects in both groups on the 3 tasks. However, slower RTs were observed among the deaf participants on the symbolic task alone. These results suggest that although both groups' quantity representations were similar, the deaf group experienced a delay in accessing representations from symbolic codes.
Peterson, Candida C
Central to the interface of social-cognitive and communicative development is the growth of a theory of mind (ToM). ToM is mastered by most hearing children and deaf children of signing deaf parents by the age of 5 or 6 but is often seriously delayed in deaf children of hearing parents. This paper reviews recently published research on deaf children's ToM development and presents an original study consisting of eight longitudinal case histories that collectively map late-signing deaf children's ToM performance from 44 to 158 months of age. While five tentative conclusions can be posited from the collective research so far, further investigation of each of these possibilities is clearly needed.
A case study documents the consequences of parental deafness on the personality development of hearing children. Of central dynamic significance are unacknowledged feelings of resentment generated by (1) acute feelings of humiliation experienced about the parents' imperfections, (2) identity confusion resulting from the parents' suspicious attitude toward the hearing world, and (3) the inevitable role-reversal resulting from the parents' handicapped status. The possibility of taking triumphant pleasure in more fortunate life circumstances evokes intense guilt and forms the basis for a conflictual attitude toward success. A proclivity toward guilt appears to be an outstanding psychological characteristic of children of handicapped parents, irrespective of the nature of the handicap. Some relevant variables include: greater resentment due to unavoidable early frustrations, a reluctance to direct aggression outward, despair about making reparations to parents seen as damaged by the child's aggression, and absence of external controls on the expression hostility (victories are easy). Some parallels are noted between conflicts displayed in hearing children of deaf parents and children of immigrant parents.
Lampropoulou, V; Konstantareas, M M
Forty-two mothers of Greek deaf children reported their level of stress, availability of support, duration and frequency of involvement with their children, and affective tone of involvement, using an adaptation of Hill's ABCX model of stress and support (1949). Data on the interaction among six caregiving categories were collected over a 2-day period. Mothers of younger children and of boys, as well as mothers reporting greater stress, had longer and more frequent involvement. Mothers with greater stress were also more likely to rate the affective tone of their involvement as more neutral or as chorelike. Support availability was unrelated to involvement, with the exception of supporting neighbors. Compared to Canadian mothers of children both with and without disabilities, exposed to the same study protocol, the mothers in the present study were not more stressed. However, they were more likely to report a negative affective tone in their caregiving.
Romeo, Domenico M; Velli, Chiara; Lucibello, Simona; Ferrantini, Gloria; Leo, Giuseppina; Brogna, Claudia; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela; Gallini, Francesca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni; Mercuri, Eugenio
To evaluate the prevalence of joint laxity in children born preterm assessed in the first 2 years, the relationship between joint laxity and motor performance at preschool age, and possible changes over time in a subgroup of children followed longitudinally. The revised scale of Beighton Score was used to evaluate joint laxity in a population of 132 preschool children born preterm between 24 and 32 weeks of gestational age. All were assessed for joint laxity between 12 and 24 months of age. Children also performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition between the age of 3 years and 6 months and 4 years; the age at onset of independent walking also was recorded. The total Beighton Score ranged between 0 and 8. Twenty percent of the cohort showed joint laxity. No differences related to sex or gestational age were observed. Children born preterm with joint laxity achieved later independent walking and achieved lower scores on Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition than those without joint laxity. In 76 children born preterm, an assessment for joint laxity was repeated once between 25 and 36 months and again after >36 months. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 3 assessments. The Beighton Score can be used to assess generalized joint laxity in children born preterm. As the presence of joint laxity influenced motor competences, the possibility to early identify these infants in the first 2 years is of interest to benefit from early intervention and potentially improve gross motor skills and coordination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…
Background: Stunting among Malawian preschool children continues to be a concern. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 251 semi-urban households, who participated in a community-supported preschool programme, was conducted. Results: Of the 433 participating two- to five-year-old children, 34.4% had stunting.
Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.
Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…
Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna
This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…
Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong
The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…
In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…
Full Text Available The problem of correction and development of psychomotor sphere of deaf children of midchildhood is considered by facilities of physical education, in particular by mobile games. The analysis of publications of research workers is resulted in relation to the problem of development of psychomotor function of deaf children in a theory and practice of correction work. In theory is grounded value of mobile games as effective mean of development of psychomotor sphere of deaf lower boys. The necessity of application of the specially adapted mobile games is set in the process of correction-pedagogical work with the deaf children of midchildhood. The pedagogical looking is presented after the features of playing activity of deaf children of 1-4 classes.
Szymanski, Christen A.; Brice, Patrick J.; Lam, Kay H.; Hotto, Sue A.
Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of autism have increased in recent years, within the United States and abroad. However, statistics as to how many of those children may also have a comorbid hearing loss is lacking. The prevalence of school-administrator reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (clinical diagnosis…
Burkholder, Rose A.; Pisoni, David B.
Thirty-seven profoundly deaf children between 8- and 9-years-old with cochlear implants and a comparison group of normal-hearing children were studied to measure speaking rates, digit spans, and speech timing during digit span recall. The deaf children displayed longer sentence durations and pauses during recall and shorter digit spans compared to the normal-hearing children. Articulation rates, measured from sentence durations, were strongly correlated with immediate memory span in both norm...
... assessment, planning, placement, and services for individuals who are deaf-blind. The second goal is to... for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind; Final Extension of Project Period and Waiver AGENCY: Office of... Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. SUMMARY: The Secretary issues this...
... result in appropriate assessment, planning, placement, and services for individuals who are deaf-blind... for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind; Proposed Extension of Project Period and Waiver AGENCY: Office of... Assistance and Dissemination Center for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. SUMMARY: The Secretary proposes to waive...
Togonu-Bickersteth, F; Odebiyi, A I
The study examines patterns of communication modes of guidance and discipline and affectional bonds between 176 Yoruba hearing mothers and their deaf children. Results relating to communication support earlier findings about the frustrations inherent in such endeavour. Contrary to other published reports, the Yoruba mothers studied perceived expressive linguistic abilities of deaf children more negatively than receptive abilities. Communication difficulties affected mothers' guidance and discipline, particularly since the culturally preferred modes of discipline rely very heavily on children's age-related language competence. Mothers' verbal claims of affectional bonds were not supported by evidence from other sources close to and including the deaf children.
Bandurski, Marcin; Galkowski, Tadeusz
The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a study of the development of analogical reasoning in deaf children coming from two different linguistic environments (deaf children of deaf parents--sign language, deaf children of hearing parents--spoken language) and in hearing children, as well as to compare two groups of deaf children to a group of hearing children. In order to estimate the development of children's analogical reasoning, especially the development of their understanding of different logical relations, two age groups were singled out in each population of children: younger (9- and 10-year-olds) and older (12- and 13-year-olds). In this way it is possible to assess the influence of early and consistent sign-language communication on the development of the conceptual system in deaf children and to establish whether early and consistent sign-language communication with deaf children affects their mental development to the same extent as early and consistent spoken-language communication with hearing children. The children were given three series of analogy tasks based on different logical relations: (a) a series of verbal analogy tasks (the relations of opposite, part-whole, and causality); (b) a series of numerical analogy tasks (the relations of class membership, opposite, and part-whole); and (c) a series of figural-geometric analogy tasks (the relations of opposite and part-whole). It was found that early and consistent sign-language communication with deaf children plays an almost equivalent role in the development of verbal, numerical, and spatial reasoning by analogy as early and consistent spoken-language communication with hearing children.
Moffett, Lillie; Moll, Henrike; FitzGibbon, Lily
The capacity to plan ahead and provide the means for future ends is an important part of human practical reasoning. When this capacity develops in ontogeny is the matter of an ongoing debate. In this study, 4- and 5-year-olds performed a future planning task in which they had to create the means (a picture of a particular object, e.g., a banana) that was necessary to address a future end (of completing a game in which such a picture was missing). Children of both ages drew more targets than children in a control condition in which there was no future end to be pursued. Along with prior findings, the results suggest a major progression in children's future thinking between 3 and 5 years. Our findings expand on prior knowledge by showing that young children cannot only identify the probate means to future ends but determine such ends and create the means to achieve them, thus offering compelling evidence for future planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Peterson, Candida C.; Siegal, Michael
Examined reasoning in normal, autistic, and deaf individuals. Found that deaf individuals who grow up in hearing homes without fluent signers show selective impairments in theory of mind similar to those of autistic individuals. Results suggest that conversational differences in the language children hear accounts for distinctive patterns of…
Heuer, Christopher Jon
This qualitative case study investigated the process by which eight hearing parents went about making decisions to promote language acquisition and literacy learning in their deaf children, who or what influenced that process, and how they coped emotionally with the impact of deafness on literacy and language acquisition. Data from interview…
Khokhlova A. Yu.
Full Text Available The article provides an overview of foreign psychological publications concerning the sign language as a means of communication in deaf people. The article addresses the question of sing language's impact on cognitive development, efficiency and positive way of interacting with parents as well as academic achievement increase in deaf children.
Hermans, D.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
In this article, we will describe the development of an assessment instrument for Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) for deaf children in bilingual education programs. The assessment instrument consists of nine computerized tests in which the receptive and expressive language skills of deaf
Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances
The study examined the fears and anxieties of Chinese deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents, and the ability of parents and teachers to report the presence of these fears and anxieties. Chinese deaf youth are at risk due to a lack of trained teachers, an overemphasis on oral education in schools, negative stereotypes, and parental…
Lopez-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, Maria Teresa; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena
Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential…
Bergeson, Tonya R.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler
Speech feature discrimination is a fundamental perceptual skill that is often assumed to underlie word recognition and sentence comprehension performance. To investigate the development of speech feature discrimination in deaf children with cochlear implants, we conducted a retrospective analysis of results from the Minimal Pairs Test (Robbins et al., 1988) selected from patients enrolled in a longitudinal study of speech perception and language development. The MP test uses a 2AFC procedure in which children hear a word and select one of two pictures (bat-pat). All 43 children were prelingually deafened, received a cochlear implant before 6 years of age or between ages 6 and 9, and used either oral or total communication. Children were tested once every 6 months to 1 year for 7 years; not all children were tested at each interval. By 2 years postimplant, the majority of these children achieved near-ceiling levels of discrimination performance for vowel height, vowel place, and consonant manner. Most of the children also achieved plateaus but did not reach ceiling performance for consonant place and voicing. The relationship between speech feature discrimination, spoken word recognition, and sentence comprehension will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD Research Grant No. R01DC00064 and NIH/NIDCD Training Grant No. T32DC00012.
Peterson, Candida C; O'Reilly, Karin; Wellman, Henry M
This study had two primary aims. First, we compared deaf and hearing children during middle and late childhood on (a) cognitive understanding of basic and advanced theory of mind (ToM) and (b) social dimensions of peer group relations, including popularity, isolation, leadership, and the disposition to interact positively with peers. Second, using correlational analyses, we examined ToM's connections with these social variables to see whether and how ToM impacts children's social lives. A total of 57 children (36 deaf children of hearing parents and 21 hearing children) 6 to 14years of age completed a 6-step developmental ToM Scale, and their teachers reported on the social variables. Hearing children outperformed deaf children on ToM and all teacher-rated variables. For deaf children, popularity correlated positively, and social isolation correlated negatively, with ToM even after controlling for age, gender, and language ability. For hearing children, the only ToM link was a weak correlation with leadership. Possible reasons for the differences between deaf and hearing groups are discussed, together with the likelihood of bidirectional causal links and implications for deaf children's social development in school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zoritch, B; Roberts, I; Oakley, A
The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education
Jones, -A C; Toscano, E; Botting, N; Marshall, C-R; Atkinson, J R; Denmark, T; Herman, -R; Morgan, G
Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Panova, Gordana; Taseva, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Dzidrova, Violeta
For healthy generation it is healthy and orderly development from early childhood. It needs proper nutrition, proper care and personal hygiene. Early childhood is the most vulnerable period in the development stage of man. Improper diet and disease in children from pre-school age are a problem for both children and parents. It is therefore important to undertake measures for proper nutrition and prevention of diseases. Described as improper diet affects children from pre-school...
Sala, Maria Nives; Pons, Francisco; Molina, Paola
This study investigated the development of emotion regulation strategies as reflected in the narratives of children between the ages of 3 and 6 years. An experimental procedure based on story completion tasks was devised to elicit the emotion-related narratives of 69 preschool children. Coding of the narratives led to the observation of different emotion regulation strategies: Behavioural strategies, social support, and cognitive reappraisal. Several significant gender and age differences were identified in the use of these strategies. In addition, verbal skills, non-verbal intelligence, and emotion comprehension were found to be associated with use of the observed emotion regulation strategies, although only at specific ages. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia
Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)
Broberg, Gayle Christensen; Moran, James D., III
Individual stylistic variations of creative potential and conceptual tempo were investigated in 61 preschool children. No differences between reflective and impulsive preschoolers were found on the ideational fluency measure. Conceptual tempo scores revealed greater originality scores for the fast/accurate and slow/inaccurate groups compared to…
Breit-Smith, Allison; Busch, Jamie; Guo, Ying
Although a general limited availability of expository texts currently exists in preschool special education classrooms, expository tests offer speech-language pathologists (SLPs) a rich context for addressing the language goals of preschool children with language impairment on their caseloads. Thus, this article highlights the differences between…
Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M
Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95 th percentile. Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity.
Zevenbergen, Robyn; Logan, Helen
This paper reports on the outcomes of a survey implemented in a large regional community of Australia. The survey was completed by parents of children aged four-five years and attending local early childhood centres. The survey identified the types of access and use of computers by preschool children. It was found that the children of the…
Nine primary-age children at a residential school for the deaf were read bedtime stories using a Total Communication approach. Every child subsequently demonstrated growth on each of several language assessments, including language comprehension and expressive language. (JDD)
Bullis, Michael; Otos, Maurine
A national survey of state coordinators of specialized service programs for children with deaf-blindness examined program characteristics including administrative structure, teacher certification requirements, technical assistance, eligibility determination, educational placement, curricula/instructional settings, transition, and unmet educational…
Goberis, Dianne; Beams, Dinah; Dalpes, Molly; Abrisch, Amanda; Baca, Rosalinda; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine
This article will provide information about the Pragmatics Checklist, which consists of 45 items and is scored as: (1) not present, (2) present but preverbal, (3) present with one to three words, and (4) present with complex language. Information for both children who are deaf or hard of hearing and those with normal hearing are presented. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are significantly older when demonstrating skill with complex language than their normal hearing peers. In general, even at the age of 7 years, there are several items that are not mastered by 75% of the deaf or hard of hearing children. Additionally, the article will provide some suggestions of strategies that can be considered as a means to facilitate the development of these pragmatic language skills for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Free, Rolien H.; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J.; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Vermeulen, Anneke M.
Background: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (Cl) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.
Jacobs, E.; Langereis, M.C.; Frijns, J.H.; Free, R.H.; Goedegebure, A.; Smits, C.; Stokroos, R.J.; Ariens-Meijer, S.A.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Vermeulen, A.M.J.
BACKGROUND: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.
Denmark, John C.
Reviews 9 examples of "non-communicating children" whose probelms stem from: 1) intellectual impairment; 2) mental illness; 3) congenital verbal agnosia; 4) physical disease; or, 5) early profound deafness. (MB)
Williams, C L; Squillace, M M; Bollella, M C; Brotanek, J; Campanaro, L; D'Agostino, C; Pfau, J; Sprance, L; Strobino, B A; Spark, A; Boccio, L
Healthy Start is a 3-year demonstration and education research project designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a multidimensional cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction intervention in preschool centers over a 3-year period of time. Two primary interventions are employed. The first is the preschool food service intervention program designed to reduce the total fat in preschool meals and snacks to less than 30% of calories and reduce the saturated fat to less than 10% of calories. The second major intervention is a comprehensive preschool health education curriculum, focused heavily on nutrition. Effectiveness of the intervention will be determined through evaluation of changes in dietary intake of preschool children at school meals and snacks, especially with respect to intake of total and saturated fat. Evaluation of the education component will include assessment of program implementation by teachers, assessment of changes in nutrition knowledge by preschool children, and assessment of changes in home meals that children consume (total and saturated fat content). Blood cholesterol will be evaluated semiannually to evaluate changes that may be due to modification of dietary intake. Growth and body fatness will also be assessed. While substantial efforts have targeted CV risk reduction and health education for elementary school children, similar efforts aimed at preschool children have been lacking. The rationale for beginning CV risk reduction programs for preschool children is based upon the premise that risk factors for heart disease are prevalent by 3 years of age and tend to track over time, most commonly hypercholesterolemia and obesity, both related to nutrition. Since the behavioral antecedents for nutritional risk factors begin to be established very early in life, it is important to develop and evaluate new educational initiatives such as Healthy Start, aimed at the primary prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in preschool children. The purpose of this
Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Berg, Gabriele
, the parents of the children were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 945 out of the 1201 eligible preschool children participated in the study (response rate = 79%). The children were aged 5-8 years. The majority were of German nationality (72.6%). Overall, 127 children (13...
Lecciso, Flavia; Petrocchi, Serena; Marchetti, Antonella
The study assessed Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in a group of oral deaf children and in their hearing mothers using a battery of ToM tasks. It also investigated the connection between mother and child in ToM performance. Participants were: 17 oral deaf children (aged 5 to 14 years) were paired by gender, age, and mental age with 17 hearing…
Verte, Sylvie; Hebbrecht, Lies; Roeyers, Herbert
This study investigated both the quality of sibling relationships and the psychological adjustment siblings experienced across two groups: siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing compared to siblings of children with no disability. Twenty-four siblings of children with hearing loss and 24 siblings of children without a disability…
Mohammad Kazem Atefvahid
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parents of children with disabilities are poorer physical and mental health and greater stress experience. This study was conducted to evaluate Parenting stress in mothers of mentally retarded, blind, deaf and physically disabled children.Materials and Methods: This study was causal-comparative. The study population included 310 mothers of exceptional children (mothers of children with mental retardation, blind, deaf and physical-motor disabilities 7 to 12 years of age enrolled in primary schools in the academic year 90-1389 exceptional Tehran. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used. The data obtained from questionnaires parenting stress using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were analyzed.Results: The results showed that parenting stress in mothers of blind with mentally retarded, deaf with mentally retarded, physically with blind and deaf children are significantly different. As well as, there was significant difference between the mean score of blind, physical disorders, mentally retarded and deaf groups in terms of distraction- hyperactivity subscale.Conclusion: Mothers of children with mental retardation, physical disorders, blind and deaf have most parenting stress respectively.
Reesman, Jennifer H; Day, Lori A; Szymanski, Christen A; Hughes-Wheatland, Roxanne; Witkin, Gregory A; Kalback, Shawn R; Brice, Patrick J
Intellectual assessment of children who are deaf or hard of hearing presents unique challenges to the clinician charged with attempting to obtain an accurate representation of the child's skills. Selection of appropriate intellectual assessment instruments requires a working knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the measure and what changes in standardized administration might be necessary to accommodate for the needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. In the case of some available instruments, there is limited guidance and objective research available examining the performance of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. This review summarizes available information on widely used and most recent editions of intellectual assessment measures with special attention to guidance on accommodations, score interpretation, subtest selection and other test-specific considerations when assessing children who are deaf or hard of hearing. There is much opportunity for further inquiry in the field of intellectual assessment as it applies to children who are deaf or hard of hearing, as many measures have not been closely scrutinized for their appropriate use with this population. Clinicians must recognize inherent difficulties with intellectual assessment measures with children who are deaf or hard of hearing and issues in providing for an accessible and accurate administration of test items. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena
Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…
López-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, María Teresa; Méndez-López, Magdalena
Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential outcomes. Severely or profoundly deaf children who employed spoken Spanish, Spanish Sign Language (SSL), and both spoken Spanish and SSL modes of communication were tested in a delayed matching-to-sample task for visual working memory assessment. Hearing controls were used to compare performance. Participants were tested in two conditions, differential outcome and non-differential outcome conditions. Deaf groups with either oral or SSL modes of communication completed the task with less accuracy than bilingual and control hearing children. In addition, the performances of all groups improved through the use of differential outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frøkjær, Thorleif; Brostrøm, Stig; Sandberg, Anette
? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children's learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children's learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...... activities and teacher support are important for children's learning. While similarities were noted, results indicate some disparity between countries and a further in-depth interview-style study is recommended to provide a deeper understanding of teachers’ perspectives and practices around children...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054 mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084 mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010 and 0.018 (SD 0.008 mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake
Taylor, Blaine J.
Many advocates of the deaf fear that a whole generation of deaf children will be lost emotionally. socially. and educationally. This fear stems from the fact that many children who are deaf are not having their linguistic. sociocultural. and communicative needs met at home or at school (King, 1993). Their needs are not met primarily for three reasons. First. the hearing culture is often inaccessible to them because they do not understand most of the spoken language around them. When children ...
Full Text Available Conducted psycho-pedagogical and medico-biological basis of usage specially adapted mobile games in the psychophysical development of deaf children of primary school age. Determine the importance of mobile gaming as a means of physical education for this children's category. As a result of research found wellness, educational, educate and correctional importance of mobile games adapted deaf schoolchildren. Adaptive mobile games are effective media for psychophysical development of deaf children that brings to improvement of cognitions.
Johnson, R A; Khatena, J
Verbal originality scores were obtained from Onomatopoeia and Images, Form 1B, given to 181 deaf and 236 hearing Ss aged 10 to 19 yr. The hearing Ss scored significantly higher than the deaf Ss. Significant main effects for age were found but not for sex. The only significant interaction was found for hearing status and age. Deaf Ss became more productive as age increased, while performance of hearing Ss relative to age fluctuated.
In an ongoing project (2013-2014) about children´s and preschool teacher´s interactions with and experiences of new architecture/physical environment, young children between 2-5 years and their preschool teachers has photographed the physical and social environment. A numbers of photo...... architecture. The architecture in new childcare-institutions breaks on several points with the former idea of "kindergarten" (small environments with an emphasis on domesticity, development and play). The new preschools in Denmark are bulky, contains many children (some more than 200 children), and are highly...... transparent (widespread use of glass in both interior and exterior walls). The new architecture is based on (neoliberal) ideas of flexibility and puts the emphasis on early childhood learning. But one thing is the ideas of politicians, architects and builders, another is how the buildings are "lived...
Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L
This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls.
Zuhal Gizir Ergen
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.
Comincini, Valeria; Del Piccolo, Lidia
In this study, two groups are interviewed: the first study includes a sample of 60 physicians and health providers in the field of deafness, whose opinion on music therapy is collected by a specific questionnaire; the second involves 8 parents of deaf children attending music therapy lessons, who are asked to give an evaluation on the effect of music therapy, based on the experience of their children. Results show that health professionals know very little about the rehabilitative effectiveness of music therapy, whereas the parents of deaf children give a positive evaluation on the psychological, behavioral and linguistic benefits that music therapy gives to their deaf children.
Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.
Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202
Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.
Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…
This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…
Field, Tiffany; And Others
Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…
Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.
Purpose: Potential biases in service provision for preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) were explored. Method: In Study 1, children with SLI receiving treatment (SLI-T) and those with SLI not receiving treatment (SLI-NT) were compared on demographic characteristics and developmental abilities. Study 2 recruited children with…
Hughes, Cerian; Cline, Tony
This study evaluated the efficacy of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), an early years curriculum designed to improve children's social and emotional competence, and reduce problem behaviour. Fifty-seven children aged three to four years took part in the study over one academic year. The control group (Group 1) received…
The Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) was designed as a diagnostic tool for 3- to 6-year-old children to assess children's abilities to use language to solve thinking problems typically posed by teachers. The PLAI was developed after observing middle-class teachers in preschool classrooms encourage children to use language in…
Corina, David P; Blau, Shane; LaMarr, Todd; Lawyer, Laurel A; Coffey-Corina, Sharon
Deaf children who receive a cochlear implant early in life and engage in intensive oral/aural therapy often make great strides in spoken language acquisition. However, despite clinicians' best efforts, there is a great deal of variability in language outcomes. One concern is that cortical regions which normally support auditory processing may become reorganized for visual function, leaving fewer available resources for auditory language acquisition. The conditions under which these changes occur are not well understood, but we may begin investigating this phenomenon by looking for interactions between auditory and visual evoked cortical potentials in deaf children. If children with abnormal auditory responses show increased sensitivity to visual stimuli, this may indicate the presence of maladaptive cortical plasticity. We recorded evoked potentials, using both auditory and visual paradigms, from 25 typical hearing children and 26 deaf children (ages 2-8 years) with cochlear implants. An auditory oddball paradigm was used (85% /ba/ syllables vs. 15% frequency modulated tone sweeps) to elicit an auditory P1 component. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded during presentation of an intermittent peripheral radial checkerboard while children watched a silent cartoon, eliciting a P1-N1 response. We observed reduced auditory P1 amplitudes and a lack of latency shift associated with normative aging in our deaf sample. We also observed shorter latencies in N1 VEPs to visual stimulus offset in deaf participants. While these data demonstrate cortical changes associated with auditory deprivation, we did not find evidence for a relationship between cortical auditory evoked potentials and the VEPs. This is consistent with descriptions of intra-modal plasticity within visual systems of deaf children, but do not provide evidence for cross-modal plasticity. In addition, we note that sign language experience had no effect on deaf children's early auditory and visual ERP
Colombo, Lucia; Arfe, Barbara; Bronte, Tiziana
In the present study, the effect of phonological and working memory mechanisms involved in spelling Italian single words was explored in two groups of children matched for grade level: a group of normally hearing children and a group of pre-verbally deaf children, with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Three-syllable and four-syllable familiar…
Describes a British outdoor program in which 11- and 12-year-old students were placed in mixed groups containing several ethnic groups and hearing and deaf children. Includes children's comments on outdoor activities, their relationships with other children, and communication problems and their resolution. An adjacent page illustrates 12 British…
Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M
Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in both ToM understanding (with late-signing deaf children especially delayed even relative to autistic children) and peer social skills (with autistic children especially delayed even relative to deaf late signers). Crucially, for the typically developing hearing children and deaf children alike, ToM understanding independently predicted peer social skills over and above age, gender, language ability, and, for deaf children, status as native- or late-signer. These novel findings offer some of the best evidence to date of the relevance of ToM cognitions to real-world social behavior for both these groups. However, for those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) the pattern was different. The apparent link of ToM to peer competence was not a direct one but instead was significantly mediated by language ability. Several possible explanations for this intriguing autism-specific result were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel
Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5-4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.
Full Text Available Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5 to 4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically-trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.
Moreira, Teresa; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Sara; Lopes, Carla
The present study aims to describe dietary intake and dietary adequacy according to eating location in preschool children. A sub-sample of 2414 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal), evaluated during the follow-up between 2009 and 2011, was included. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 d food diaries and four groups of children were defined according to the eating location: 'Home' ( ≥ 80% of meals at home), 'Other homes', 'Preschool' and 'Restaurants'. A dietary adequacy index was developed based on general recommendations for children; a higher score represents a better dietary adequacy. The comparison of nutrients and foods daily intake according to the eating location groups was performed by ANOVA and ANCOVA to adjust for potential confounders. Children classified in 'Preschool' group ate significantly more vegetables, fruit, bread and fish, and less meat, compared to children classified into the 'Home' group. Children classified in the 'Restaurants' group ate more cakes, salty snacks and fruit juices than children in 'Home' group; and less vegetables, dairy products and pasta/rice/potatoes. In 'Restaurants' children obtained the lowest mean score of the dietary adequacy index (15.5, 95% CI 14.8, 16.3) and in 'Preschool' children had the highest mean score (18.3, 95% CI 18.1, 18.4), corresponding to a better dietary adequacy. Preschools seem to have a relevant role in promoting the intake of healthy foods in preschool children. The consumption in restaurants/coffee shops seems to contribute to energy-dense food intake and reduced consumption of nutrient-dense foods.
Bebko, James M.
Tests 64 deaf students from oral and total communication settings to examine whether a deficiency in spontaneous strategy use accounts for their verbal short-term memory performance. Spontaneous rehearsal of both deaf samples seemed to emerge later than the hearing sample's and was inefficiently implemented and less effective in mediating recall…
Rodrigues, Fidjy; Paneque, Milena; Reis, Cláudia; Venâncio, Margarida; Sequeiros, Jorge; Saraiva, Jorge
Recent advances in molecular genetics have allowed the determination of the genetic cause of some childhood non-syndromic deafness. In Portugal only a small proportion of families are referred to a clinical genetics service in order to clarify the etiology of the deafness and to provide genetic counseling. Consequently, there are no published studies of the prior beliefs of parents about the causes of hereditary deafness of their children and their genetic knowledge after receipt of genetic counseling. In order to evaluate the impact of genetic counseling, 44 parents of 24 children with the diagnosis of non-syndromic sensorineural prelingual deafness due to mutations in the GJB2 (connexin 26), completed surveys before and after genetic counseling. Before counseling 13.6 % of the parents knew the cause of deafness; at a post-counseling setting this percentage was significantly higher, with 84.1 % of the parents accurately identifying the etiology. No significant differences were found between the answers of mothers and fathers either before or after genetic counseling. Parents' level of education was a significant factor in pre-test knowledge. After genetic counseling 95.5 % of the parents stated that the consultation had met their expectations, 70.5 % remembered correctly the inheritance pattern, and 93.2 % correctly recalled the chance of risk of deafness. These results underline the importance of genetic counseling in demystifying parents' beliefs about the etiology of their children's deafness.
Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.
Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent–child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a
Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a
Purić Daliborka S.
Full Text Available Active listening is a communication skill which is crucial for the development of cooperative relationships in the group, culture of friendship and fellowship, it is also important for the development of literacy skills and talent for speaking. Furthermore, it contributes to the improvement of the level of knowledge, skills and school achievement, as well as to the development of self-confidence of children. Developing of active listening is an important task in the activities with children of preschool age. In this paper, the author, wanting to determine the importance of the factors of active listening of preschool children, examines how preschool teachers (N = 198: (a evaluate the importance of certain elements of active listening that relate to the speaker and the listener, and (b estimate their role in the process of developing active listening skills of preschool children as an essential element of successful interpersonal communication. Results of the survey show that preschool teachers attach greater importance to the factors of active listening related to the listener (attention, listening skill, interest in the subject, than to the factors related to the speaker (motivation for listening, quality of the narrative. More than two-thirds of surveyed preschool teachers (172 or 86.9% define its impact on the stimulation of active listening of children as significant. Work experience and professional qualifications as independent variables significantly influence the attitudes of preschool teachers about the importance of their impact in stimulating active listening. Preschool teacher is a key element of the training of preschool children in the area of the basic communication skills of active listening. In this sense, the results of our survey show that in the context of academic study programs for education of preschool teachers special attention is given to the communication skills and to their role in the development of active listening
Arbianingsih; Utario, Yossy; Rustina, Yeni; Krianto, Tri; Ayubi, Dian
This research aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Android mobile game application called Arbi Care as a means to prevent diarrhea and build self-efficacy in hand washing among preschool children. This research used a pre- and post-test control group and time series design approach. Respondents were chosen randomly from a group of four to six years children. The intervention group (n = 60) received Arbi Care intervention for 25 minutes, twice a week, for five weeks while the control group (n = 60) received standard education. Self-efficacy was measured by using questionnaire and observation. Measurement was carried out three times in the sixth, eight, and tenth week post-intervention. The data was analyzed using the GLMRM test. There was a significant increase in the average score of self-efficacy in hand washing for the intervention group versus the control group. Moreover, there were significant differences in the results of average scores in which the intervention group showed much better self-efficacy improvement over the control group during the first, second, and final post-test after the intervention was given (p Android-based educational game can be an effective medium to improve hand washing self-efficacy among preschool children, thus helping to prevent diarrhea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Giovana Fracari Hautrive
Full Text Available Taking the theme literacy of deaf children is currently directing the eye to the practice teaching course that demands beyond the school. Questions moving to daily practice, became a challenge, requiring an investigative attitude. The article aims to problematize the process of literacy of deaf children. Reflection proposal emerges from daily practice. This structure is from yarns that include theoretical studies of Vigotskii (1989, 1994, 1996, 1998; Stumpf (2005, Quadros (1997; Bolzan (1998, 2002; Skliar (1997a, 1997b, 1998 . From which, problematizes the processes involved in the construction of written language. It is as a result, the importance of the instrumentalization of sign language as first language in education of deaf and learning of sign language writing. Important aspects for the deaf student is observed in the condition to be literate in their mother tongue. It points out the need for a redirect in the literacy of deaf children, so that important aspects of language and its role in the structuring of thought and its communicative aspect, are respected and considered in this process. Thus, it emphasizes the learning of the writing of sign language as fundamental, it should occupy a central role in the proposed teaching the class, encouraging the contradictions that put the student in a situation of cognitive conflict, while respecting the diversity inherent to each humans. It is considered that the production of sign language writing is an appropriate tool for the deaf students record their visual language.
Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P
The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.
Christensen, Line Brinch
Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...
Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.
The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers' perceptions of children's behavior and teachers' behavior toward those…
Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi
Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…
Phillips, Penny L.; Greenson, Jessica N.; Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.
This study examined the psychometric and normative properties of the ADHD-Symptoms Rating Scale with preschool children. Results shed light on normative levels of ADHD behaviors and preschool children and suggested that preschoolers may present with a somewhat different symptom pattern than school-age children. Parents were more likely to endorse…
Full Text Available Purpose: to identify indicators of development of psychomotor function deaf children aged 7-10 years and find out the characteristic features of their manifestation. Material : the study involved 242 children aged 7-10 years, 128 of them deaf. Results : psychomotor development indicators defined functions deaf children aged 7-10 years. A comparative analysis with indicators of their peers with hearing preservation. Lagging indicators revealed psychomotor function deaf children ( ability to regulate spatio-temporal parameters and dynamic movements, orientation in space, coordination movements, the ability to preserve static and dynamic balance, motor memory, a sense of rhythm, the ability to arbitrarily relax muscles, hands and coordination micromovements fingers capable of simultaneously performing movements coordination ballistic movements averaging 14.6 % to 60.6 %. Conclusions : It was found that deaf children of primary school age the development of psychomotor function occurs more slowly compared with hearing children their age.
Hall, Matthew L; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bortfeld, Heather; Lillo-Martin, Diane
Developmental psychology plays a central role in shaping evidence-based best practices for prelingually deaf children. The Auditory Scaffolding Hypothesis (Conway et al., 2009) asserts that a lack of auditory stimulation in deaf children leads to impoverished implicit sequence learning abilities, measured via an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. However, prior research is confounded by a lack of both auditory and language input. The current study examines implicit learning in deaf children who were (Deaf native signers) or were not (oral cochlear implant users) exposed to language from birth, and in hearing children, using both AGL and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Neither deaf nor hearing children across the three groups show evidence of implicit learning on the AGL task, but all three groups show robust implicit learning on the SRT task. These findings argue against the Auditory Scaffolding Hypothesis, and suggest that implicit sequence learning may be resilient to both auditory and language deprivation, within the tested limits. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/EeqfQqlVHLI [Correction added on 07 August 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Savelsbergh, G J; Netelenbos, J B; Whiting, H T
From birth onwards, auditory stimulation directs and intensifies visual orientation behaviour. In deaf children, by definition, auditory perception cannot take place and cannot, therefore, make a contribution to visual orientation to objects approaching from outside the initial field of view. In experiment 1, a difference in catching ability is demonstrated between deaf and hearing children (10-13 years of age) when the ball approached from the periphery or from outside the field of view. No differences in catching ability between the two groups occurred when the ball approached from within the field of view. A second experiment was conducted in order to determine if differences in catching ability between deaf and hearing children could be attributed to execution of slow orientating movements and/or slow reaction time as a result of the auditory loss. The deaf children showed slower reaction times. No differences were found in movement times between deaf and hearing children. Overall, the findings suggest that a lack of auditory stimulation during development can lead to deficiencies in the coordination of actions such as catching which are both spatially and temporally constrained.
Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J
Background Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that comorbidity plays in determining children’s outcomes. Method The preschool attention, executive function and motor skills of 112 children at family risk for dyslexia, 29 of whom also met criteria for language impairment, were assessed at ages 3 ½ and 4 ½. The performance of these children was compared to the performance of children with language impairment and typically developing controls. Results Weaknesses in attention, executive function and motor skills were associated with language impairment rather than family risk status. Individual differences in language and executive function are strongly related in the preschool period and preschool motor skills predicted unique variance (4%) in early reading skills over and above children’s language ability. Conclusion Comorbidity between developmental disorders can be observed in the preschool years: children with language impairment have significant and persistent weaknesses in motor skills and executive function compared to those without language impairment. Children’s early language and motor skills are predictors of children’s later reading skills. PMID:24117483
Kushnir, Jonathan; Gothelf, Doron; Sadeh, Avi
Although excessive fears are common in preschool children, validated assessment tools for this age are lacking. Our aim was to modify and provide preliminary evidence of the utility of a preschoolers' fear screening tool, a parent-reported Fear Survey Schedule for Preschool Children (FSS-PC). 109 Israeli preschool children (aged 4-6 years) with chronic night time fears (NF) and 30 healthy children (controls) participated. The FSS-PC analysis included: 1) internal reliability, 2) correlations between FSS-PC scores and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) measures, 3) differences between NF and a comparison sample of FSS-PC scores, and 4) FSS-PC sensitivity in detecting change in NF following an intervention for NF. There were low-to-medium positive correlations between the FSS-PC scores and several internalizing scales of the CBCL measures. FSS-PC scores in the NF group were significantly higher than the control children's score. FSS-PC scores had adequate internal reliability and were also sensitive for detecting significant changes in fear levels following behavioral interventions. Unique cultural and environmental circumstances and specific study group. This new version of the FSS-PC may provide clinicians with a novel and useful screening tool for early assessment of fear- and anxiety-related phenomena of preschool children.
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharyanne; McKinnon, David H.; Ching, Teresa
Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) grow up in environments influenced by their parents' attitudes, which may facilitate or impede these children's development and participation (World Health Organization, 2007). The attitudes of 152 Australian parents of DHH children ages 3 years 7 months to 9 years 5 months (M = 6 years 5 months)…
Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…
Brand, P L P; Baraldi, E; Bisgaard, H
There is poor agreement on definitions of different phenotypes of preschool wheezing disorders. The present Task Force proposes to use the terms episodic (viral) wheeze to describe children who wheeze intermittently and are well between episodes, and multiple-trigger wheeze for children who wheeze...
Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma
The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…
Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee
Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…
Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.
This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…
Background: Anemia is a major nutritional health problem throughout the world. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and the factors associated with anemia among Kuwaiti children aged 4–5 years. Design: A sample of 578 Kuwaiti preschool children (4–5 years of age) and their mothers were selected from ongoing ...
Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…
Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael
Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…
Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona
Storytelling reflects children's pragmatic language ability, which develops rapidly in early childhood and is related to various characteristics of the child's environment. This study examines the effect of preschool, maternal education and quality of the home environment on children's storytelling skills. The sample included 229 Slovenian…
Marjanovic Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents' education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended…
Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald
This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…
TO DETERMINE HOW TRAINING WOULD AFFECT CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT, FIVE DISADVANTAGED AND FIVE ADVANTAGED PRESCHOOLERS WERE GIVEN SPECIFIC PROBLEM SOLVING TRAINING TO PREPARE TO SOLVE A CRITERION PROBLEM. THIS STUDY WAS AN ATTEMPT TO DISPROVE PIAGET'S THEORY THAT CHILDREN MUST HAVE REACHED A CERTAIN STAGE OF CONCRETE-OPERATIONAL…
Berndt, Thomas J.
Two studies investigated preschool children's acceptance of the reciprocity norms that allow retaliation and that require returning favors. Children viewed cartoons that portrayed animal puppets involved in reciprocal or nonreciprocal aggressive and prosocial behavior. They were then asked to evaluate the actor in each cartoon as "good"…
Conclusion The results are indicative of the effect of the Navayesh parent-based comprehensive rehabilitation program on the development of early language and communication skills of deaf children. Therefore, it is recommended that this program should be used at rehabilitation centers for deaf children, aiming at training parents as the primary therapists of deaf children.
Kritzer, Karen L.
This study examined young deaf children's early informal/formal mathematical knowledge as measured by the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). Findings from this study suggest that prior to the onset of formal schooling, young deaf children might already demonstrate evidence of academic delays. Of these 28 participants (4-6 years of age),…
The language-based analogical reasoning abilities of Deaf children are a controversial topic. Researchers lack agreement about whether Deaf children possess the ability to reason using language-based analogies, or whether this ability is limited by a lack of access to vocabulary, both written and signed. This dissertation examines factors that…
Beazley, S.; Chilton, H.
In recent years, there has been increasing research interest in the development of theory of mind (ToM) in deaf children and young people and the conditions which might enable or suppress development of the set of skills involved. However, the views of practitioners working with deaf children have not been widely explored. This paper presents the…
Over the years deaf and hard-of-hearing children have been reported as having difficulty with time conception and, in particular, the proper arrangement of events in a logical, temporal order. The research examined whether deaf and hard-of-hearing children perceive a temporal sequence differently under different representational modes. We compared…
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Rotteveel, L.J.C.; Snik, A.F.M.; Vermeulen, A.M.J.; Mylanus, E.A.M.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term outcome of children with postmeningitic deafness and partial insertion of the Nucleus electrode array, and to compare their speech perception performance with that of children with full insertion of the electrode array. DESIGN: A battery of seven speech
Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary
Strengthening the connections between sign language and written language may improve reading skills in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized sign language-based literacy training improves reading skills in DHH signing children who are learning to read. Further,…
Harris, Margaret; Moreno, Constanza
Two groups of deaf children, aged 8 and 14 years, were presented with a number of tasks designed to assess their reliance on phonological coding. Their performance was compared with that of hearing children of the same chronological age (CA) and reading age (RA). Performance on the first task, short-term recall of pictures, showed that the deaf…
Hermans, D.; Wauters, L.N.; Willemsen, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.; Spencer, P.E.
Vocabulary knowledge is fundamental to communication, language learning, and acquiring knowledge of the world. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face considerable challenges in acquiring age-appropriate vocabulary knowledge. The enhancement of children's vocabulary knowledge is therefore one
Debruge, E; Salanave, J J
This work is based on the experience of a specialised kindergarten for deaf children suffering from autism or infantile psychosis. It describes the educative, therapeutic and rehabilitation approach necessitated by the children difficulties. The specific modes of communication proposed and the counselling to the parents are also treated.
Светлана Юрьевна Федорова
Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31
Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna
Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.
Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.
Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…
Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Pecjak, Sonja; Kranjc, Simona
This study evaluated several groups of preschoolers engaged in symbolic play to define elements of play and differences in regard to age. Analyses of videotapes indicated that the nature of symbolic play changes with regard to play situations in which children have been included. (LBT)
Walker, Sue; Irving, Kym; Berthelsen, Donna
The authors investigated gender influences on the nature and competency of preschool children's social problem-solving strategies. Preschool-age children (N = 179; 91 boys, 88 girls) responded to hypothetical social situations designed to assess their social problem-solving skills in the areas of provocation, peer group entry, and sharing or taking turns. Results indicated that, overall, girls' responses were more competent (i.e., reflective of successful functioning with peers) than those of boys, and girls' strategies were less likely to involve retaliation or verbal or physical aggression. The competency of the children's responses also varied with the gender of the target child. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of gender-related social experiences on the types of strategies and behaviors that may be viewed as competent for boys and girls of preschool age.
Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias
BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type......-referenced classification of MS, the Danish sample distribution was significantly well for aiming and catching but poorer for the motor coordination test.The total sample and the least active children were most active on weekdays, during preschool time and in the late afternoon at the weekend. However, a relatively larger...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...
Chu, C H; Fung, D S; Lo, E C
To describe the dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors which affect their caries status. 658 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years from six randomly selected kindergartens in Hong Kong were surveyed in December 1997. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory variables for caries status was completed by their parents. Dental caries was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (1997). Caries experience as measured by the mean number of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) of the 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were found to be 0.9, 1.8, and 3.3 respectively. Overall, 61% of the children had a zero dmft score. Children born in Mainland China had a higher mean dmft score (4.6) than those born in Hong Kong (1.4). Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's dental caries status and their oral health practices as well as their socio-economic background. Parents' education level, dental knowledge and attitudes were also associated with the children's dental caries experience. In general, the caries status of Hong Kong Chinese preschool children was similar to that of children in industrialised countries and was better than that of children in the nearby areas. However, special dental programmes should be made available to children from lower socio-economic classes and new immigrants from Mainland China because they are the high risk groups for caries in Hong Kong.
In recent years, empowerment and resource orientation have become vital guidelines for many of the sciences. For the field of deaf education, it is also highly important to look carefully at these guidelines if we are to acquire a better understanding as regards both the situation of the parents involved and the development of the deaf and hard of hearing children themselves. A resource-oriented approach to deaf education has therefore proved especially helpful. If both the theoretical and practical aspects of educating deaf and hard of hearing children are to benefit, research on parental experience with deafness and research on the socioemotional development of the children must always be combined and studied in the context of resource availability. In a study of 213 mothers and 213 fathers of deaf and hard of hearing children, we used an array of different questionnaires (PSI, SDQ, SOC, F-SozU, etc.) to examine the correlation between parental resources, sociodemographic variables, parental stress experience, and child socioemotional problems by way of a path analysis model. The results show that high parental stress is associated with frequent socioemotional problems in the children, thus emphasizing the importance of a resource-oriented consulting and support strategy in early intervention, because parental access to personal and social resources is associated with significantly lower stress experience. Child development seems to profit enormously from a resource-oriented support concept. In addition, the results confirm two earlier findings: parents with additionally handicapped children are especially stressed and the child's communicative competence makes for a more sound prediction than its linguistic medium (spoken language or sign). The path models for mothers and fathers agree in all essential factors. The results are discussed with a view to their meaning for pedagogical practice, and recommendations for further research are given (longitudinal data
Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge
? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children’s learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...... activities and teacher support are important for children’s learning. While similarities were noted, results indicate some disparity between countries and a further in-depth interview-style study is recommended to provide a deeper understanding of teachers’ perspectives and practices around children...
Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Bisgaard, Hans
prognosis in preschool children. Cold air challenge and plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) are feasible candidate methods for diagnosis, clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of lung growth and development. Methodology and practical aspects of cold air...... challenge and assessment of sRaw in preschool children are reviewed. Reference values are provided for sRaw and have allowed discrimination between health and respiratory disease, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be determined with acceptable repeatability...
Cremone, Amanda; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Executive attention is impaired following sleep loss in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults. Whether naps improve attention relative to nap deprivation in preschool-aged children is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare executive attention in preschool children following a nap and an interval of wake. Sixty-nine children, 35-70 months of age, completed a Flanker task to assess executive attention following a nap and an equivalent interval of wake. Overall, accuracy was greater after the nap compared with the wake interval. Reaction time(s) did not differ between the nap and wake intervals. Results did not differ between children who napped consistently and those who napped inconsistently, suggesting that naps benefit executive attention of preschoolers regardless of nap habituality. These results indicate that naps enhance attention in preschool children. As executive attention supports executive functioning and learning, nap promotion may improve early education outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
N. R. Jiménez Barreto
Full Text Available Development of symbolic function is an important psychological formation of pre-school age and reflects the possibility of the child to use signs and symbols in a conscious way. Assessment of symbolic function can be used as one of preparation for school indicators. The objective of the present study is to characterize the level of symbolic function development in Mexican pre-school children. 59 children were included in the study. The ages of the children were between 5 and 6 years and all of them belonged to sub-urban pre-school institution. All 59 children participated in this study for the first time. Our assessment consisted of specific tasks with symbolic means on materialized, perceptive and verbal levels. Each child was tested individually. Results showed an insufficient development of the symbolic function in all evaluated children. More than 78% of the children showed difficulties during performance in the tasks of assessment; their drawings were undifferentiated and had few essential characteristics. The obtained results show the necessity to implement developmental strategies in order to guarantee the formation of the ability of constant conscious sage of symbolic means at the end of pre-school age.
Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.
Chilosi, A M; Scusa, M F; Comparini, A; Genovese, E; Forli, F; Berrettini, S; Cipriani, P
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is complicated by additional disabilities in about 30% of cases, but the epidemiology of associated disorders, in terms of type, frequency and aetiology is still not clearly defined. Additional disabilities in a deaf child have important consequences in assessing and choosing a therapeutic treatment, in particular when considering cochlear implantation (CI) or hearing aids (HA). The aim of this paper was to evaluate frequency, type and severity of additional neurodevelopmental disabilities in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and to investigate the relationship between disability and the etiology of deafness. Eighty children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 5.4 years) were investigated by means of a diagnostic protocol including clinical, neurodevelopmental, and audiological procedures together with genetic and neurometabolic tests and neuroradiological investigation by brain MRI. Fifty-five percent of the sample exhibited one or more disabilities in addition to deafness, with cognitive, behavioural-emotional and motor disorders being the most frequent. The risk of additional disabilities varied according to aetiology, with a higher incidence in hereditary syndromic deafness, in cases due to pre-perinatal pathology (in comparison to unknown and hereditary non syndromic forms) and in the presence of major brain abnormalities at MRI. Our results suggest that the aetiology of deafness may be a significant risk indicator for the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders. A multidimensional evaluation, including aetiological, neurodevelopmental and MRI investigation is needed for formulating prognosis and for planning therapeutic intervention, especially in those children candidated to cochlear implant.
Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick
To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The reading habits of parents of preschool children are very important for development of reading literacy. The role of parents in reading is very high. It is important that parents often read for themselves and for their children regardless of age, sex and education. With reading they are giving the children an example and attach great importance to reading. An important factor is the frequency of library visits and dealing with books. On the reading habits of parents have important influenc...
Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, M Teresa; López-Higes, Ramón; Pisón, Guzmán
Deaf students have traditionally exhibited reading comprehension difficulties. In recent years, these comprehension problems have been partially offset through cochlear implantation (CI), and the subsequent improvement in spoken language skills. However, the use of cochlear implants has not managed to fully bridge the gap in language and reading between normally hearing (NH) and deaf children, as its efficacy depends on variables such as the age at implant. This study compared the reading comprehension of sentences in 19 children who received a cochlear implant before 24 months of age (early-CI) and 19 who received it after 24 months (late-CI) with a control group of 19 NH children. The task involved completing sentences in which the last word had been omitted. To complete each sentence children had to choose a word from among several alternatives that included one syntactic and two semantic foils in addition to the target word. The results showed that deaf children with late-CI performed this task significantly worse than NH children, while those with early-CI exhibited no significant differences with NH children, except under more demanding processing conditions (long sentences with infrequent target words). Further, the error analysis revealed a preference of deaf students with early-CI for selecting the syntactic foil over a semantic one, which suggests that they draw upon syntactic cues during sentence processing in the same way as NH children do. In contrast, deaf children with late-CI do not appear to use a syntactic strategy, but neither a semantic strategy based on the use of key words, as the literature suggests. Rather, the numerous errors of both kinds that the late-CI group made seem to indicate an inconsistent and erratic response when faced with a lack of comprehension. These findings are discussed in relation to differences in receptive vocabulary and short-term memory and their implications for sentence reading comprehension. Copyright © 2015
Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G
Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.
Liang, Maojin; Chen, Yuebo; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Junpeng; Liu, Jiahao; Zhang, Xueyuan; Cai, Yuexin; Chen, Suijun; Li, Xianghui; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Yiqing
Although visual processing recruitment of the auditory cortices has been reported previously in prelingually deaf children who have a rapidly developing brain and no auditory processing, the visual processing recruitment of auditory cortices might be different in processing different visual stimuli and may affect cochlear implant (CI) outcomes. Ten prelingually deaf children, 4 to 6 years old, were recruited for the study. Twenty prelingually deaf subjects, 4 to 6 years old with CIs for 1 year, were also recruited; 10 with well-performing CIs, 10 with poorly performing CIs. Ten age and sex-matched normal-hearing children were recruited as controls. Visual ("sound" photo [photograph with imaginative sound] and "nonsound" photo [photograph without imaginative sound]) evoked potentials were measured in all subjects. P1 at Oz and N1 at the bilateral temporal-frontal areas (FC3 and FC4) were compared. N1 amplitudes were strongest in the deaf children, followed by those with poorly performing CIs, controls and those with well-performing CIs. There was no significant difference between controls and those with well-performing CIs. "Sound" photo stimuli evoked a stronger N1 than "nonsound" photo stimuli. Further analysis showed that only at FC4 in deaf subjects and those with poorly performing CIs were the N1 responses to "sound" photo stimuli stronger than those to "nonsound" photo stimuli. No significant difference was found for the FC3 and FC4 areas. No significant difference was found in N1 latencies and P1 amplitudes or latencies. The results indicate enhanced visual recruitment of the auditory cortices in prelingually deaf children. Additionally, the decrement in visual recruitment of auditory cortices was related to good CI outcomes.
Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Almost 200 cochlear implantations were done in the four centers (two in Belgrade, per one in Novi Sad and Niš in Serbia from 2002 to 2009. Less than 10% of implantees were postlingually deaf adults. The vast majority, i.e. 90% were pre- and perilingually profoundly deaf children. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of improved auditory perception due to cochlear implantation on comprehension of abstract words in children as compared with hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids and normal hearing children. Methods. Thirty children were enrolled in this study: 20 hearing impaired and 10 normal hearing. The vocabulary test was used. Results. The overall results for the whole test (100 words showed a significant difference in favor of the normal hearing as compared with hearing impaired children. The normal hearing children successfully described or defined 77.93% of a total of 100 words. Success rate for the cochlear implanted children was 26.87% and for the hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids 20.32%. Conclusion. Testing for abstract words showed a statistically significant difference between the cochlear implanted and the hearing impaired children with hearing aids (Mann- Whitney U-test, p = 0.019 implying considerable advantage of cochlear implants over hearing aids regarding successful speech development in prelingually deaf children.
Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.
Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…
Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan
Background: Little is known about how parents and other caregivers conceptualize preschool quality, or what factors they prioritize when selecting a preschool. Caregivers of children with disabilities have the additional challenge of finding a preschool that can address their children's special needs. Objective: We explored the factors caregivers…
Objective: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. Results: About 96% ...
Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva
In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…
Koran, Nihan; Avci, Neslihan
This study investigates the behaviours of pre-school teachers working with children aged between 4 and 6 years with regard to their right to participate in classroom activities. In this context, pre-school teacher's negative or positive applications regarding children's participation rights were revealed. Furthermore, preschool teachers'…
Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de
The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in
Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.
The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…
Peng, Anna; Kirkham, Natasha Z; Mareschal, Denis
Past research investigating cognitive flexibility has shown that preschool children make many perseverative errors in tasks that require switching between different sets of rules. However, this inflexibility might not necessarily hold with easier tasks. The current study investigated the developmental differences in cognitive flexibility using a task-switching procedure that compared reaction times and accuracy in 4- and 6-year-olds with those in adults. The experiment involved simple target detection tasks and was intentionally designed in a way that the stimulus and response conflicts were minimal together with a long preparation window. Global mixing costs (performance costs when multiple tasks are relevant in a context), and local switch costs (performance costs due to switching to an alternative task) are typically thought to engage endogenous control processes. If this is the case, we should observe developmental differences with both of these costs. Our results show, however, that when the accuracy was good, there were no age differences in cognitive flexibility (i.e., the ability to manage multiple tasks and to switch between tasks) between children and adults. Even though preschool children had slower reaction times and were less accurate, the mixing and switch costs associated with task switching were not reliably larger for preschool children. Preschool children did, however, show more commission errors and greater response repetition effects than adults, which may reflect differences in inhibitory control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gilboa, Yafit; Fuchs, Reut
We aim to examine the pattern of participation of children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) or global developmental delay (GDD) in comparison with typically developing preschoolers. In addition, to identify environmental and personal factors associated with their participation, 20 children with mild to moderate GDD or IDD, and 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 3 to 6 years, were assessed using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation and the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire. Significant differences were found between the groups, both for general scales of participation and for each activity area. For the IDD/GDD group, participation was significantly negatively correlated with environmental restrictions at home. For the control group, participation was correlated with demographic variables. Typically developing children participate at a higher frequency and in a more diverse range of activities compared with children with IDD/GDD. Associations between participation and contextual factors varied depending on the child's health condition.
Full Text Available Congenital deafness is one of the most common childhood disorders and every year many children are born with permanent hearing loss. The present study was carried out to understand the experience of mothers with deaf children. This study was conducted with a qualitative approach. The participants were 35 mothers of children with congenital deafness who were selected by purposive sampling. The data was collected through semi structured indepth interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis introduced by Braun and Clarke. Data analysis revealed 3 themes and 9 sub-themes including social stigma (prying eyes, pity aversion, feeling of discrimination, taunt from people, internalized stigma (feeling of inferiority, feeling of shame and embarrassment, and reaction to stigma(turning to concealment, cautious disclosure, and marginalization. Shame and stigma were the major experiences of Iranian mothers of deaf children that shadowed their lives. These experiences lead mainly to ineffective coping mechanisms such as avoidance of using hearing aids and concealment of the child’s hearing loss. In addition, to cope with perceived stigma, mothers isolate and marginalize themselves and pursue secrecy strategies. Therefore, our findings are important for health professionals who are working with families having children with hearing loss. They need to aware of the problems faced by the families and should advocate necessary support.
N. V. Mazurova
Full Text Available Children personality is actively formed at the preschool period, as they enter wider circle of social relationships and everyday tasks become more complicated. The most common emotional problem among preschool children is anxiety as a possible precursor of neurosis. Aim: to study the character of anxiety and the main causes of its development in preschool children in order to determine the structure of psychological care. Patients and methods: 68 children, 68 mothers and 22 fathers were included into the study. We used the following methods: observation, interview, projective and test methods. Results: each third child was diagnosed increased level of anxiety. Anxiety-inducing situations were mainly associated with disturbances of safety feeling in family. Correlation between ineffective types of parental relationship and high level of children anxiety was established. Conclusions: decrease in children anxiety is impossible without harmonization of parental aims in accordance to age and special features of children development. Structure and duration of rehabilitation should be based on analysis of somatic and neuro-psychic state of children, as well as social situation of development.
Yurt, Yasin; Sener, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz
Unsuitable footwear worn in childhood may cause some foot problems by interfering normal development of foot. To compare footwear suitability rate of indoor and outdoor footwear at all points in preschool children and investigate factors which could affect footwear suitability. A cross-sectional survey study. A total of 1000 healthy preschool children (4-6 years old) participated in this study. Indoor and outdoor footwear of children were evaluated through Turkish version of Footwear Assessment Score. Effect of factors like age, sex, number of siblings, educational and occupational situation of parents, and behavior of school management about selecting footwear was investigated. Children got better footwear score for outdoor than indoor ones (p footwear score for both indoor and outdoor ones than girls (p footwear score was found in favor of children who were going to schools that gave guidance about selecting footwear for both indoor and outdoor in comparison to children going to other schools (p footwear for their children. Performing education programs and investigation of their effect with comprehensive follow-up studies in future is essential. This study reflects footwear habits of Turkish preschool children and factors affecting this issue. Results may give way to education programs about suitable footwear worn in childhood for healthy foot development. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.
De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.
This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…
Background: Though strabismus is a common presenting ocular problem at outpatient clinics of ophthalmology its magnitude in Ethiopia is not known. Objective: To determine the magnitude and type of manifest strabismus and strabismic amblyopia among pre-school children. Methods: A cros-sectional study was ...
Tanja H. Kakebeeke
Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.
Conclusion: Nail-biting habit was highly prevalent among preschool children in Riyadh, followed by mouth breathing, thumb sucking, and teeth clenching. Malocclusion was the main factor related to the habits of thumb sucking and pacifier sucking. Respiratory and tonsils problems were related to mouth breathing. Teeth clenching was highly related to the presence of carious teeth.
Nippold, Marilyn A.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the controversial topic of stuttering in preschool children and how to evaluate the options for treatment, emphasizing the role of external research evidence. Method: A hypothetical but realistic case study of a 3-year-old boy who stutters is described. Two contrasting approaches to treatment are…
Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi
This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.
Carolina Santos Mello
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.
Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne
Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…
Ionescu, Thea; Ilie, Adriana
In Romanian preschool settings, there is a tendency to use abstract strategies in language-learning activities. The present study explored if strategies based on an embodied cognition approach facilitate learning more than traditional strategies that progress from concrete to abstract. Twenty-five children between 4 and 5 years of age listened to…
Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.
Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household.…
DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly
This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…
Clinical rickets has not been reported previously in Embu district, Kenya. Baseline clinical assessments performed for a nutrition intervention study in preschool children (n=324) identified 28 cases of rickets (8.6% of study sample). Clinical characteristics included: delays of sitting, walking, and teething; bone and chest ...
Zorec, Marcela Batistic
This article presents part of the research performed in a project from 2008 to 2013, regarding the introduction of the Reggio Emilia approach to Slovene preschool educators. The study's aim was to recognize the possible influence of the training--from 2009 to 2011--in this project on educators' viewpoints and the promotion of children's…
Bell, Nancy J.; And Others
Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)
May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon
We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…
Bates, Stacey L.
Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…
Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir
The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…
Zuckerman, Miron; Przewuzman, Sylvia J.
Preschool-age children drew, decoded, and encoded facial expressions depicting five different emotions. Accuracy of drawing, decoding and encoding each of the five emotions was consistent across the three tasks; decoding ability was correlated with drawing ability among female subjects, but neither of these abilities was correlated with encoding…
Dyson, Lily L.; Kubo, H. Richard
Forty-six supervisors and teachers were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward integration of handicapped children in a regular preschool program, the helpfulness of supportive services, and the necessary conditions for the integration of their programs. Findings showed that the majority of teachers were in favor of integration and supportive…
Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.
The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…
Szilagyi, Janka; Szecsi, Tunde
This article describes an exceptional Eastern European preschool where all stakeholders--children, teachers, and parents--place a high value on the unique synergy of inclusive and bilingual education. In this environment, each child is able to experience love and happiness, while developing at his or her own pace. The families feel involved in…
Moyeda, Iris Xóchitl Galicia; Gómez, Ixtlixóchitl Contreras; Flores, María Teresa Peña
In light of the correlation between musical and linguistic skills, a program of musical activities was designed to promote discrimination of rhythmic and melodic elements and the association of auditory stimuli with visual stimuli and motor activities. The effects of the program on the vocabulary of preschool children were evaluated and compared…
Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu
This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…
Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.
Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…
Bisgaard, H; Nielsen, K G
We hypothesized that a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) could provide bronchoprotection against the cold, dry air-induced response in asthmatic preschool children. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of the specific LTRA montelukast at 5...
Bhat, Anjana N; Srinivasan, Sudha M; Woxholdt, Colleen; Shield, Aaron
Children with autism spectrum disorder present with a variety of social communication deficits such as atypicalities in social gaze and verbal and non-verbal communication delays as well as perceptuo-motor deficits like motor incoordination and dyspraxia. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to study praxis performance in deaf children with and without autism spectrum disorder in a fingerspelling context using American Sign Language. A total of 11 deaf children with autism spectrum disorder and 11 typically developing deaf children aged between 5 and 14 years completed a fingerspelling task. Children were asked to fingerspell 15 different words shown on an iPad. We coded various praxis errors and fingerspelling time. The deaf children with autism spectrum disorder had greater errors in pace, sequence precision, accuracy, and body part use and also took longer to fingerspell each word. Additionally, the deaf children with autism spectrum disorder had poor receptive language skills and this strongly correlated with their praxis performance and autism severity. These findings extend the evidence for dyspraxia in hearing children with autism spectrum disorder to deaf children with autism spectrum disorder. Poor sign language production in children with autism spectrum disorder may contribute to their poor gestural learning/comprehension and vice versa. Our findings have therapeutic implications for children with autism spectrum disorder when teaching sign language.
Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva
This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…
van der Stelt, J.; Pols, L.C.W.; Wempe, T.G.
An interesting but so far neglected topic in the development of infant sound production is the hypothesized progression toward adult vowel quality. Likely, this process is quite different for normally hearing babies and for deaf babies. A band filtering analysis method is used to measure the
The most developed and most important of the special senses of the body is the sense of sight and hearing, both of which are predisposed to gradual impairment in the absence of the other. It has been shown that the occurrence of either visual impairment and deafness or hearing loss existing independently or ...
Sørensen, Hanne Værum
uncomfortable in the situation? How does the researcher know if a child wants to withdraw from the research? The permission has to be negotiated in relation to the specific child and in the specific situation. Examples from a study of children's physical activities in sprots preschool are applied to illustrate......This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done......, but there is a lack of understanding methodological reflections and knowledge of guidelines in research of the topic. Researchers can get permission from parents and pedagogues to film children, but how can a researcher get an informed permission from the children? And how can a researcher detect if a child feel...
Full Text Available The present study examined differences in modality use during episodes of joint attention between hearing parent-hearing child dyads and hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Hearing children were age-matched to deaf children. Dyads were video recorded in a free play session with analyses focused on uni- and multimodality use during joint attention episodes. Results revealed that adults in hearing parent-deaf child dyads spent a significantly greater proportion of time interacting with their children using multiple communicative modalities than adults in hearing parent-hearing child dyads, who tended to use the auditory modality (e.g., oral language most often. While these findings demonstrate that hearing parents accommodate their children's hearing status, we observed greater overall time spent in joint attention in hearing parent-hearing child dyads than hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Our results point to important avenues for future research on how parents can better accommodate their child’s hearing status through the use of multimodal communication strategies.
Hansen, Sarah; Scott, Jessica
The current study is a systematic review on the available evidence on language development, assessment, challenging behavior, and instruction for children dually diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and deafness. Results indicate a strong need for additional research in these areas, especially in the areas of evidence-based practices.
Sullivan, Patricia M.; And Others
This study assessed the effectiveness of a broad-based psychotherapeutic intervention with about half of a group of 72 children sexually abused at a residential school for the deaf. Findings indicated a powerful treatment effect, with boys and girls differing in the specific areas of improvement following therapy. (Author/DB)
Mann, Wolfgang; Peña, Elizabeth D; Morgan, Gary
This research explored the use of dynamic assessment (DA) for language-learning abilities in signing deaf children from deaf and hearing families. Thirty-seven deaf children, aged 6 to 11 years, were identified as either stronger (n = 26) or weaker (n = 11) language learners according to teacher or speech-language pathologist report. All children received 2 scripted, mediated learning experience sessions targeting vocabulary knowledge—specifically, the use of semantic categories that were carried out in American Sign Language. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of child modifiability. This index was determined separately at the end of the 2 individual sessions. It combined ratings reflecting each child's learning abilities and responses to mediation, including social-emotional behavior, cognitive arousal, and cognitive elaboration. Group results showed that modifiability ratings were significantly better for stronger language learners than for weaker language learners. The strongest predictors of language ability were cognitive arousal and cognitive elaboration. Mediator ratings of child modifiability (i.e., combined score of social-emotional factors and cognitive factors) are highly sensitive to language-learning abilities in deaf children who use sign language as their primary mode of communication. This method can be used to design targeted interventions.
Marks, S. B.
Links the literature on learned helplessness with best practices in teaching children who are deaf-blind. Defines "learned helplessness" and "mastery motivation;" considers identification of learned helplessness; and offers suggestions such as rewarding independent rather than dependent behaviors and integrating orientation, mobility, and…
Lederberg, Amy R.; Schick, Brenda; Spencer, Patricia E.
Childhood hearing loss presents challenges to language development, especially spoken language. In this article, we review existing literature on deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children's patterns and trajectories of language as well as development of theory of mind and literacy. Individual trajectories vary significantly, reflecting access to…
Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim
Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…
Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha
The aim of this study was to explore the relative contributions of phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness to Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Measures of word recognition, general intelligence, phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness were administered to 32 DHH and 35…
Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.
Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…
Keddington, Holly B.
The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…
Bullis, Michael, Ed.
This booklet collects seven papers drawing on research performed through the Communication Skills Center for Young Children with Deaf Blindness of the Oregon State System of Higher Education and its affiliated sites. Papers include: "Research on Vision Assessment" (Pamela Cress); "Use of Microswitch Technology To Facilitate Social…
Bullis, Michael, Ed.; Fielding, Glen, Ed.
This review summarizes and discusses literature relevant to the communication development of young children (0-5 years) with deaf-blindness. The review is divided into topical areas. The topical areas and the contributors for each area are as follows: "Perspectives on Communication Assessment" (Charity Rowland); "Research in Tactile…
This digest discusses hearing loss in children. Topics covered include: (1) the causes of hearing loss and the three major types of hearing losses, conductive loss, sensorineural loss, and central auditory processing disorder; (2) the federal definitions of "deaf" (hearing loss which adversely affects educational performance and which is…
Wauters, L.N.; Dirks, E.
Interactive storybook reading is effective in enhancing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children's emergent literacy skills. The current digital era gives parents more opportunities to read books with their child. From an early age on, interaction between parent and child during literacy activities
Knoors, Harry; Marschark, Marc
For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological advances such as digital hearing aids and…
Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.
For over 25 years in some countries and more recently in others, bilingual education involving sign language and the written/spoken vernacular has been considered an essential educational intervention for deaf children. With the recent growth in universal newborn hearing screening and technological
Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell
This study investigated 17 Deaf families in North America with cochlear-implanted children about their attitudes, beliefs, and practices on bimodal bilingualism (defined as using both a visual/manual language and an aural/oral language) in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. A survey and follow-up interviews with 8 families were conducted.…
Eschenbeck, Heike; Gillé, Vera; Heim-Dreger, Uwe; Schock, Alexandra; Schott, Andrea
This study evaluated stressors and coping strategies in 70 children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) or with auditory processing disorder (APD) attending Grades 5 and 6 of a school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Everyday general stressors and more hearing-specific stressors were examined in a hearing-specific modified stress and…
Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia
Children aged 3 to 12 years (n=184) with typical development, deafness, autism or Asperger Syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of Wellman and Liu’s (2004) 5-step ToM scale, added a statistically reliable sixth step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic groups, controlling age and language ability, showed that typical developers mastered the six ToM steps ahead of each of the three disabled groups, with implications for ToM theories. The final (sarcasm) task challenged even nondisabled 9-year-olds, demonstrating the new scale’s sensitivity to post-preschool ToM growth. PMID:22304467
Full Text Available The prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children is increasing in many countries, including our country. It is believed that one of the two most important reasons for this increase is insufficient physical activity of children.The aim of this study was to examine the state of the level of nourishment of preschool children in relation to their level of physical activity. The survey was conducted in preschools in Pancevo. The sample consisted of 193 children (88 boys and 105 girls, aged 4 and 5 years. The assessment of the level of nourishment of the children and their parents was done after the standard anthropometric measurements of height, body weight, determining the body mass index and waist circumference and comparing the obtained values with the growth plates given by World Health Organization. Physical activity of the children was evaluated by a questionnaire which parents filled up. Inappropriate level of nourishment had 60 (31.1% children, of which 26 (13.5% with excessive body mass, obese 29 (15.0%, while 5 (2.5% were malnourished. Children are most attracted to sports such as ballet or folk dances, ball games and swimming, but only 22 (15.83% children are members of some sports club. The lack of finances and the lack of sports facilities and terrains are given as reasons by most parents. During the implementation of physical activities, 65.2% of children are never or sometimes exposed to excessive physical effort. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity among preschool children in Pancevo was high, particularly among children with excessive body weight and obese children. Socio-demographic and behavioral factors as well as behavior of parents significantly contributed to physical inactivity.
Brocas, Isabelle; Carrillo, Juan D
Strategic thinking is an essential component of rational decision-making. However, little is known about its developmental aspects. Here we show that preschoolers can reason strategically in simple individual decisions that require anticipating a limited number of future decisions. This ability is transferred only partially to solve more complex individual decision problems and to efficiently interact with others. This ability is also more developed among older children in the classroom. Results indicate that while preschoolers potentially have the capacity to think strategically, it does not always translate into the ability to behave strategically.
The bachelor thesis deals with preschool children's play in the context of gender. The theoretical part is divided into three main chapters. The first one is devoted to the essence of play and its function for the child, the second one describes the main areas of child development at preschool age and the last chapter is devoted mainly to gender socialization and role of play in it. The practical part has the form of semi- structured interviews, which aimed to find out the extent of gender de...
Vardavas, Constantine I; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis M; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G
Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence in the European Union, affecting not only those who smoke but also threatening the health of those who are involuntarily exposed to passive smoke, especially young Greek children. The aim of this study was to quantify passive smoking biomarkers (serum nicotine and cotinine levels) among preschool children in Crete in relation to parental smoking habits. All children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete (1,757 preschool children and 2,809 parents) were interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan health promotion programme out of which a sample of 81 children was randomly selected according to parental smoking status and blood samples for cotinine and nicotine assay were taken. The geometric means of serum nicotine values in children with both parents current smokers and in those with both parents non-smokers were 0.71 ng/ml (95%CI 0.62, 0.80) and 0.59 ng/ml (95%CI 0.49, 0.69), respectively, (p=0.073). Cotinine geometric mean values were found at 1.69 ng/ml (95%CI 0.93, 3.06) and 0.15 ng/ml (95%CI 0.09, 0.28), respectively, (pparents had also greater cotinine geometric mean values than boys (3.35 versus 0.85 ng/ml, respectively, p=0.018). Our findings prove that Greek preschool children, especially young girls, are exposed to substantial levels of passive smoke which therefore stresses the need for immediate action so as to prevent the predisposition and early addiction of Greek preschool children to tobacco.
Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya
This paper provides research and clinical information relevant to music therapy for preschool children who use cochlear implants (CI). It consolidates information from various disciplinary sources regarding (a) cochlear implantation of young prelingually-deaf children (~age 2-5), (b) patterns of auditory and speech-language development, and (c) research regarding music perception of children with CIs. This information serves as a foundation for the final portion of the article, which describes typical music therapy goals and examples of interventions suitable for preschool children. PMID:23904691
Daub, Olivia; Bagatto, Marlene P; Johnson, Andrew M; Cardy, Janis Oram
Early auditory experiences are fundamental in infant language acquisition. Research consistently demonstrates the benefits of early intervention (i.e., hearing aids) to language outcomes in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. The nature of these benefits and their relation with prefitting development are, however, not well understood. This study examined Ontario Infant Hearing Program birth cohorts to explore predictors of performance on the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition at the time of (N = 47) and after (N = 19) initial hearing aid intervention. Regression analyses revealed that, before the hearing aid fitting, severity of hearing loss negatively predicted 19% and 10% of the variance in auditory comprehension and expressive communication, respectively. After hearing aid fitting, children's standard scores on language measures remained stable, but they made significant improvement in their progress values, which represent individual skills acquired on the test, rather than standing relative to same-age peers. Magnitude of change in progress values was predicted by a negative interaction of prefitting language ability and severity of hearing loss for the Auditory Comprehension scale. These findings highlight the importance of considering a child's prefitting language ability in interpreting eventual language outcomes. Possible mechanisms of hearing aid benefit are discussed. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5538868.
Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M
The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.
Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L
Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.
Full Text Available Background: Difficulty in mobility and motor coordination could affect the health at teeth and mouth. Dental health education of the blind and deaf children differs according their limitation. Blind and deaf children need a particular guidance in dental health education to promote oral hygiene as normal children do. Purpose: The objective of this study was to observe the difference of plaque index between blind and deaf children before and after dental health education. Methods: This research used purposive sampling technique. Twenty-three blind children were taken as samples from SLB-A Negeri Bandung and 31 deaf children from SLB-B Cicendo Bandung. The data were then collected through plaque index examination using modified patient hygiene performance (PHP test. Results: The result descriptively showed that plaque index average value of 23 blind children before dental health education was 3.0725 and after, was 1.7970. On the other hand, the plaque index average of deaf children before dental health education was 2.7474 and after was 1.5. Conclusion: It is concluded that plaque index of deaf children is better than blind children before and after dental health education.Latar belakang: Kesulitan dalam pergerakan dan koordinasi motorik akan memengaruhi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Pendidikan kesehatan gigi dan mulut anak buta dan tuli akan berbeda tergantung tingkat kekurangan mereka. Anak tunanetra dan anak tunarungu membutuhkan pendidikan khusus berupa pendidikan kesehatan gigi untuk meningkatkan kebersihan gigi dan mulut serupa dengan anak normal. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui perbedaan indeks plak antara anak-anak buta dan tuli sebelum dan sesudah pendidikan kesehatan gigi. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Dua puluh tiga anak tunanetra diambil sebagai sampel dari SLB-A Negeri Bandung dan 31 anak tunarungu dari SLB-B Cicendo Bandung. Data tersebut kemudian dikumpulkan melalui pemeriksaan indeks plak menggunakan indeks
Cueto, Sofía; Prieto, José Antonio; Nistal, Paloma; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; López, Sergio
This study analyzed the psychomotor profiles of preschool stage students and to determine how these data agreed with the students' teachers' subjective assessment. We also correlated these data with other variables such as age, gender, and family influence. A total of 211 children aged 3 to 6 years, in the second cycle of preschool from 30 classes of 10 schools in Spain participated. Additionally, 30 preschool teachers from these classes participated. Study results revealed serious teacher misperceptions regarding their students' psychomotor development, with low agreement rates between students and teachers in the motor dimension and slight agreement rates in communicative, cognitive, and social areas. The reasons for and implications of these misperceptions are discussed.
Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.
The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…
Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de
To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. 370 preschoolers, aged 4 to 6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6%-90.9%), followed by light (4.6%-7.6%), moderate (1.3%-3.0%) and vigorous (0.5%-2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.83) and the playground (OR=0.08; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77), the playground (OR=2.82; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.96) and the recess (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran
hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five......) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires...
Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna
The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the "authoritative discipline type," the "generous home meal focused type," and the "home meal based on household financial situation type." The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.
Fridberg, Marie; Thulin, Susanne; Redfors, Andreas
This paper reports on a project aiming to extend the current understanding of how emerging technologies, i.e. tablets, can be used in preschools to support collaborative learning of real-life science phenomena. The potential of tablets to support collaborative inquiry-based science learning and reflective thinking in preschool is investigated through the analysis of teacher-led activities on science, including children making timelapse photography and Slowmation movies. A qualitative analysis of verbal communication during different learning contexts gives rise to a number of categories that distinguish and identify different themes of the discussion. In this study, groups of children work with phase changes of water. We report enhanced and focused reasoning about this science phenomenon in situations where timelapse movies are used to stimulate recall. Furthermore, we show that children communicate in a more advanced manner about the phenomenon, and they focus more readily on problem solving when active in experimentation or Slowmation producing contexts.
Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Hui-Tzu; Cho, Yen-Hua
Our pediatric medical ward administers an average of 80 intravenous injections to preschool children. We found that 91.1% exhibit behavior indicative of fear and anxiety. Over three-quarters (77.8%) of this number suffer severe fear and actively resist receiving injections. Such behavior places a greater than normal burden on human and material resources and often gives family members negative impressions that lower their trust in the healthcare service while raising nurse-patient tensions. Using observation and interviews, we found primary factors in injection fear to be: Past negative experiences, lack of adequate prior communication, measures taken to preemptively control child resistance, and default cognitive behavioral strategies from nursing staff. This project worked to develop a strategy to reduce cases of severe injection fear in preschool children from 77.8% to 38.9% and achieve a capacity improvement target for members of 50%. Our team identified several potential strategy solutions from research papers and books between August 1st, 2009 and April 30th, 2010. Our proposed method included therapeutic games, self-selection of injection position, and cognitive behavioral strategies to divert attention. Other measures were also specified as standard operating procedures for administering pediatric intravenous injections. We applied the strategy on 45 preschool children and identified a post-injection "severe fear" level of 37.8%. This project was designed to reduce fear in children to make them more accepting of vaccinations and to enhance children's positive treatment experience in order to raise nursing care quality.
Thais Costa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim
Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…
Full Text Available Objective: Sensory systems including proprioceptive, vestibular and visual network play an important role in motor control. Loss of information from each sensory channel can cause body sway on static positions. Materials & Methods: Seventeen blind children (9 girls, 8 boys and 30 deaf children (14 girls, 16 boys participated as the sample groups in Ardabil city. Sixteen normal children (30 girls and 30 boys also selected as the control group. One leg standing and tandem stance tests (reliability=0.87-0.99 in two condition (eyes open and closed was used for static balance evaluation. One-Way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test was used to compare groups, and independent t-test was used for comparing sexes in each group by using SPSS (16 version software. Results: results showed there is no significant difference between blind, deaf and normal girls in any of the balance tasks (p>0.05. While the balance function of deaf and normal boys was better than blind boys in all balance tasks except for tandem stance with eyes closed (p=0.507. Blind girls were better than blind boys in all balance tasks (p=0.05, p=0.02, p=0.02. Deaf boys were better than girls with deafness in one leg stance and tandem stance (eyes open tasks (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.04 but there was no significant different between deaf boys and girls in any other tasks (p=0.63, p=0.29, p=0.89. Normal boys have better performance than girls and only in tandem stance (eyes closed (p=0.21 and one leg stance (left foot eyes open (p=0.99 there was no significant difference between normal boys and girls. Conclusion: findings showed that static balance in deaf and normal children were better than the blinds. Since persons with blindness are not able to compensate the visual loss for postural stability, they show decreased postural stability in static conditions. Inclusive identifying effective factors on balance and its weakness and problems in appropriate time, attention to this factors in training
The goal of the conducted research was to explore how much preschool teachers value certain types of musical activities, which positively influence the development of preschool children's musical abilities. The assumption in the research was that preschool teachers would choose musical games as the most prominent activity type in their educational…
Houston, Derek M; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T
Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; McKinnon, David H; Ching, Teresa Y C
Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) grow up in environments influenced by their parents' attitudes, which may facilitate or impede these children's development and participation (World Health Organization, 2007). The attitudes of 152 Australian parents of DHH children ages 3 years 7 months to 9 years 5 months (M = 6 years 5 months) were investigated with the Opinions About Deaf People Scale (Berkay, Gardner, & Smith, 1995a). The parents' responses showed very positive attitudes toward the capabilities of DHH adults, particularly on items describing their intellectual and vocational capabilities. Parents' responses to most of the items on the scale were positively skewed, raising questions about its validity as a research tool when used with parents of DHH children. The study findings suggest that for these children, parents' attitudes may facilitate rather than present an environmental barrier to their development.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001, having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05, and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05. Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05. Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001, while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01 whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01. Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.
This bachelor thesis engages in the topic "Stimulation of sense perception for sight-impaired children at preschool age". The theoretical section of the bachelor thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter focuses on the sight-impaired individual, the second chapter deals with the development of a preschool-aged child, the next chapter is concerned with the preschool education of sight-impaired children and the last chapter focuses on sense perception for those children. The main ...
Arabgol, Fariba; Panaghi, Leily; Nikzad, Vahid
Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis among preschool children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the Risperidone treatment compared to Methylphenidate (MPH) in preschool children with ADHD. Patients and Methods: Thirty three outpatient preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD (The diagnosis of ADHD was established by two child and adolescent psychiatrists according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria), participated i...
Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y T
The aim of our study was to characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of preschool children ages 3-6years in multiple predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. Parents of 2590 preschool-aged children (P-A countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand; P-C countries: Australia-New Zealand, Canada, United Kingdom, United States) completed an Internet-based expanded version of the Brief Child Sleep Questionnaire (BCSQ). Overall, children from P-A countries had significantly later bedtimes, shorter nighttime sleep, and increased parental perception of sleep problems compared with those from P-C countries. Bedtimes varied from as early as 7:43pm in Australia and New Zealand to as late as 10:26pm in India, a span of almost 3h. There also were significant differences in daytime sleep with the majority of children in P-A countries continuing to nap, resulting in no differences in 24-h total sleep times (TST) across culture and minimal differences across specific countries. Bed sharing and room sharing are common in P-A countries, with no change across the preschool years. There also were a significant percentage of parents who perceived that their child had a sleep problem (15% in Korea to 44% in China). Overall, our results indicate significant cross-cultural differences in sleep patterns, sleeping arrangements, and parent-reported sleep problems in preschool-aged children. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying bases for these differences and especially for contributors to parents' perceptions of sleep problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile, overweight (ࣙ85th and <95th percentile, and obesity (ࣙ95th percentile. Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66–1.58, obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68–1.30, and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.
Ghafournia, Maryam; Hajenourozali Tehrani, Maryam
Background and aims Bruxism is defined as a habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. In younger children bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism and investigate the relationship between occlusal factors and bruxism among preschool children. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional survey, 400 3-6-year-old children were selected randomly from different preschools in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into two groups of bruxers and non-bruxers as determined by the clinical examination and their parents’ reports. The examiner recorded the primary canines (Class I, Class II, and Class III) and molars (mesial step, distal step, flash terminal plane) relationship, existence of anterior and posterior crossbite, open and deep bite. Also, rotated teeth, food impaction, sharp tooth edges, high restorations, extensive tooth caries, and painful teeth (categorized as irritating tooth conditions) were evaluated. The relationship between bruxism and occlusal factors and irritating tooth conditions was evaluated with chi-square test. Results Bruxism was seen in 12.75% of the subjects. Statistically significant relationships existed between bruxism and some occlusal factors, such as flash terminal plane (P = 0.023) and mesial step (P = 0.001) and also, between food impaction, extensive tooth caries, tooth pain, sharp tooth edge and bruxism. Conclusion The results showed significant relationship of bruxism with primary molar relationships and irritating tooth conditions among preschool children. PMID:23277860
Reichenbach, Katrin; Bastian, Laura; Rohrbach, Saskia; Gross, Manfred; Sarrar, Lea
A growing body of research has focused on executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, results show limited convergence, particularly in preschool age. The current neuropsychological study compared performance of cognitive functions focused on executive components and working memory in preschool children with SLI to typically developing controls. Performance on the measures cognitive flexibility, inhibition, processing speed and phonological short-term memory was assessed. The monolingual, Caucasian study sample consisted of 30 children with SLI (Mage = 63.3 months, SD = 4.3 months) and 30 healthy controls (Mage = 62.2 months, SD = 3.7 months). Groups were matched for age and nonverbal IQ. Socioeconomic status of the participating families was included. Children with SLI had significantly poorer abilities of phonological short-term memory than matched controls. A tendency of poorer abilities in the SLI group was found for inhibition and processing speed. We confirmed phonological short-term memory to be a reliable marker of SLI in preschoolers. Our results do not give definite support for impaired executive function in SLI, possibly owing to limited sensitivity of test instruments in this age group. We argue for a standardization of executive function tests for research use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magid, Rachel W; Pyers, Jennie E
Iconicity is prevalent in gesture and in sign languages, yet the degree to which children recognize and leverage iconicity for early language learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 of the current study, we presented sign-naïve 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds (n=87) with iconic shape gestures and no additional scaffolding to ask whether children can spontaneously map iconic gestures to their referents. Four- and five-year-olds, but not three-year-olds, recognized the referents of iconic shape gestures above chance. Experiment 2 asked whether preschoolers (n=93) show an advantage in fast-mapping iconic gestures compared to arbitrary ones. We found that iconicity played a significant role in supporting 4- and 5-year-olds' ability to learn new gestures presented in an explicit pedagogical context, and a lesser role in 3-year-olds' learning. Using similar tasks in Experiment 3, we found that Deaf preschoolers (n=41) exposed to American Sign Language showed a similar pattern of recognition and learning but starting at an earlier age, suggesting that learning a language with rich iconicity may lead to earlier use of iconicity. These results suggest that sensitivity to iconicity is shaped by experience, and while not fundamental to the earliest stages of language development, is a useful tool once children unlock these form-meaning relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Delgado, Christine E. F.
Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…
Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.
Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…
Dannhauser, A; Bester, C; Joubert, G; Badenhorst, P; Slabber, M; Badenhorst, A; Du Toit, E; Barnard, H; Botha, P; Nogabe, L
To determine the nutritional status and household resources of preschool children. A cross-sectional survey. : Two informal settlement areas, Joe Slovo (JS) and JB Mafora (JBM) in Mangaung, near Bloemfontein, South Africa. Preschool children (poor household situation of the participants. The generally poor nutritional status and environmental conditions emphasize the urgency of intervention for these children.
Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie
This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…
Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of music education on mental, artistic and aestheticdevelopment of preschool children; strengthening of their mental and physical health; socialand moral growth of the child. The role of music director at the comprehensive development ofpreschool children by means of music is disclosed. Key words: musical education, music director, preschool children.
Brannon, Diana; Dauksas, Linda
The effectiveness of dialogic reading in increasing the literacy interactions between English language learning parents (ELL) and their preschool aged children and children's expressive language development were studied. Twenty-one ELL parents of preschool aged children received dialogic reading training every other week for a ten-week period.…
Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.
Background: Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method: The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls.…
Klibanoff, Raquel S; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Hedges, Larry V
This study examined the relation between the amount of mathematical input in the speech of preschool or day-care teachers and the growth of children's conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year. Three main findings emerged. First, there were marked individual differences in children's conventional mathematical knowledge by 4 years of age that were associated with socioeconomic status. Second, there were dramatic differences in the amount of math-related talk teachers provided. Third, and most important, the amount of teachers' math-related talk was significantly related to the growth of preschoolers' conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year but was unrelated to their math knowledge at the start of the school year. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Pikramenou, V; Dimitraki, D; Zoumpoulakis, M; Verykouki, E; Kotsanos, N
This was to explore the association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) by conducting a cross-sectional study of a sample of preschool children from a major Greek city. The sample consisted of 2180 children aged 2.5-5.9 years from 33 private day care centres of Thessaloniki. The examinations were performed on site in ample day light by one examiner using disposable dental mirrors and a penlight. Oral examinations included recording of dental caries by dmfs index. Subject's height and weight were measured using a portable measuring unit and a digital scale, respectively. The overall prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children in each BMI-based weight category was 11.8, 72.2, 12.8, and 3.2 %, respectively. The mean age of the total sample was 50.09 (±10.28) months, mean dmfs was 0.36 (±1.9) and the caries-free children were 90.0 %. Overweight children were 1.36 times and obese children 1.99 times more likely to have higher dmfs than normal weight children. The mean dmfs values of underweight children did not significantly differ than that of children with normal weight. The relatively higher dmfs of the obese and overweight children was mostly evident in the older (60-71 months) age group. Caries prevalence in this sample of Greek children attending private day care centres was low. Overweight and obese preschool children were at higher risk of dental caries than normal- and underweight children.
Giganti, Fiorenza; Viggiano, Maria Pia
The dynamic interplay between perception and memory has been explored in preschool children by presenting filtered stimuli regarding animals and artifacts. The identification of filtered images was markedly influenced by both prior exposure and the semantic nature of the stimuli. The identification of animals required less physical information than artifacts did. Our results corroborate the notion that the human attention system evolves to reliably develop definite category-specific selection criteria by which living entities are monitored in different ways.
Hutchinson, Joy M; Watterworth, Jessica C; Haines, Jess; Duncan, Alison M; Mirotta, Julia A; Ma, David W L; Buchholz, Andrea C
Dietary patterns established in childhood track into adulthood. Despite this, little research has explored preschoolers' snacking. This study examined snacking patterns (frequency, quality, quantity) of preschool-aged boys and girls. Cross-sectional data were collected on 52 children (23 males; 3.4 ± 1.1 years of age; BMI 16.1 ± 1.4 kg/m 2 ) enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study pilot. Parent-reported 3-day food records were analyzed for children's snacking patterns including frequency (number of snacking occasions per day), quantity (percent energy from snacks) and quality (inclusion of food groups from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, macronutrient distribution, sugary and salty snacks). Mann-Whitney U tests examined sex differences in snacking patterns. Ninety-six percent of children snacked daily, consuming a mean of 2.3 ± 0.7 snacks per day. Snacks accounted for one-third of daily energy. 78% of boys' versus 63% of girls' snacks contained a food group (P = 0.016). Boys consumed significantly fewer sugary snacks (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.6 snacks per day, P = 0.016), although the percent of snack calories from sugar for both boys and girls was high (group mean 37.2 ± 6.7%). Nearly all preschoolers in this study snacked daily, and consumed a variety of snack foods. Boys' and girls' snacking preferences begin to diverge early in life. Preschool children should be encouraged to consume healthful snacks.
Panova, Gordana; Dzidrova, Violeta; Nikolovska, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Jovevska, Svetlana; Panova, Blagica; Panov, Nenad
Early childhood is the most important for the overall development of the personality. During this period, each child realizes that it is an independent entity, and it expresses certain requirements, desires, actions, proceedings and behaviour. Our research aims to display nutritional status and degree of obesity among preschool children in the Republic of Macedonia and nutritional quality of their diet. Because of the increasing incidence of obesity in childhood and it...
Sasha A. Martínez-Espiet
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development among a group of pre-school children born premature and with low weight. We evaluated a group of four years old children; 20 children born prematurely and 20 children born after a full gestation and desired weight, using the Beery-Buktenica visual-motor integration test. We also administered the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3 development test to all 40 mothers. Statistical analysis was performed using student t test for independent groups. The group of children born prematurely scored significantly lower on tests measuring visual perception skills (µ1 83.65 ; µ2 93.7 (p = 0.0001, visual-motor integration (µ1 93.6 ; µ2 104.8 (p = 0.001 and fine motor (µ1 36.00 ; µ2 44.25 (p=0.033 (p = 0.033, when compared to the group of children born after a full term. This study suggests that premature low weight born children have lower performance in the sensory-motor development during the preschool years. These disadvantages go unnoticed and may represent future delays on school tasks that require these skills. It is important to promote an early assessment and environmental stimulation among this population even in the absence of risk indicators.
Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F
Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.
Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.
Horn, David L; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T
The objective of this study was to assess relations between fine and gross motor development and spoken language processing skills in pediatric cochlear implant users. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant before age 5 and had no known developmental delay or cognitive impairment were included in the study. Fine and gross motor development were assessed before implantation using the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, a standardized parental report of adaptive behavior. Fine and gross motor scores reflected a given child's motor functioning with respect to a normative sample of typically developing, normal-hearing children. Relations between these preimplant scores and postimplant spoken language outcomes were assessed. In general, gross motor scores were found to be positively related to chronologic age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for fine motor scores. Fine motor scores were more strongly correlated with postimplant expressive and receptive language scores than gross motor scores. Our findings suggest a disassociation between fine and gross motor development in prelingually deaf children: fine motor skills, in contrast to gross motor skills, tend to be delayed as the prelingually deaf children get older. These findings provide new knowledge about the links between motor and spoken language development and suggest that auditory deprivation may lead to atypical development of certain motor and language skills that share common cortical processing resources.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sideropenic anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. The children are at higher risk of iron deficiency than adults due to their rapid growth during infancy and relatively higher requirements of iron. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence of sideropenic anemia in pre-school children and relevant risk factors. METHOD: Study on sideropenic anemia of preschool children was performed in Zaječar Municipality in 2003. Subjects: all children, age 6-7 years, who lived in the Zaječar Municipality (554 children. The investigation included: interview of children's parents and laboratory analysis of blood. RESULTS: The frequency of sideropenic anemia was 5.23% in tested children (hemoglobin level less than 11g/dl. Sex and place of residence had no significant impact on hemoglobin concentration in blood of children. Likewise, social status and education of parents had no significant impact on iron deficiency anemia. Higher incidence of infections was found in children with lower hemoglobin concentration in blood (p<0.05. It made no difference if children attended the kindergarten or not. Nutrition of children in kindergarten does not correct domestic nutrition, which should be one of its basic roles. CONCLUSION: Since sideropenic anemia gives rise to serious health problems, such as poor cognitive and motor development and behavioral problems, it is important to take corrective measures regarding domestic and social nutrition of children. Therefore, it is necessary to take action in preventing the sideropenic anemia and provide normal growth and development.
Abramson, Maria Kulick; Lloyd, Peter J
There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content. The PDT used brief speech frequency tones to gather normative data from preschool children aged 3 to 5 yrs. A cross-sectional study was used to gather data regarding the pitch discrimination abilities of a sample of typically developing preschool children, between 3 and 5 yrs of age. The PDT consists of ten trials using two pure tones of 100-msec duration each, and was administered in an AA or AB forced-choice response format. Data from 90 typically developing preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 yrs were used to provide normative data. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-testing was used to examine the effects of age as a continuous variable on pitch discrimination. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the significance of age on performance on the PDT. Spearman rank was used to determine the correlation of age and performance on the PDT. Pitch discrimination of brief tones improved significantly from age 3 yrs to age 4 yrs, as well as from age 3 yrs to the age 4- and 5-yrs group. Results indicated that between ages 3 and 4 yrs, children's auditory discrimination of pitch improved on the PDT. The data showed that children can be screened for auditory discrimination of pitch beginning with age 4 yrs. The PDT proved to be a time efficient, feasible tool for
Niaz, A.; Rizvi, S.F.U.; Khurram, D.
Background: Long QT syndrome is considered a fatal disease because of its association with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Objectives of study were to determine the prevalence of long QT syndrome and other heart diseases, in deaf-mute children. Methods: A Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Cholistan special education centre and Cardiology department, Sheikh Zayed hospital Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan in September 2006. A total of 104 congenitally deaf-mute children were assessed. Height, weight and blood pressure measured, 12-lead electrocardiogram done and QTc calculated using Bazette's formula. Children with prolonged QTc underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG recording. All were auscultated following complete protocol. A child with murmur was further evaluated with colour Doppler echocardiography. Audiometry was performed on all the children and the result interpreted according to WHO recommendations. Diagnosis of LQTS was based on Revised Schwartz criteria. Results: Out of 104 children, 62 were male with mean age 11.89 yrs. The average systolic and diastolic BP was 97/67 mmHg. Average height was 126 Cm. All children had moderate to severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (40-80 dB). One child had associated Patent Ductus Arteriosis. Fifteen had an innocent murmur. Prevalence of congenital heart disease was found to be 0.1/1000. Four children had QT interval more than 440 mSec, (range 0.46-0.47 mSec.). Both genders were equally affected. Three children had high probability of LQTS and one had intermediate probability. Screening of family of these 4 patients showed prolonged QT interval in the sibling of one patient. Conclusion: Our study highlights the significant prevalence of Jervell Lange-Nielsen Syndrome in Pakistani deaf-mute children, which may be associated to the high level of consanguinity in this region. Awareness of this syndrome among health care providers is needed as timely diagnosis and subsequent treatment may prevent
Niemczyk, Justine; Equit, Monika; El Khatib, Diana; von Gontard, Alexander
Toilet refusal syndrome (TRS) is a common, benign disorder in toddlers defined by the use of diapers and refusal of toilet for defaecation, but has not been described systematically in preschool children yet. The aim of the study was to analyse and identify possible subgroups of TRS. Retrospective analysis of all of the consecutive children with TRS presented as outpatients in a clinic for elimination disorders. Patients had received a detailed paediatric and child psychiatric assessment, including the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire. Three typical case vignettes are presented of TRS with constipation, oppositional defiant disorder, and sibling rivalry. Twenty-five children (10 boys) with a mean age of 5.2 (3.4-7.3) years were included-representing 2.5% of all of the children (n = 1001) presented. They had high rates of constipation (60%) and elimination disorders (24%-44%). Child psychiatric International Classification of Diseases-10th Edition disorders were common (40%) and heterogeneous, with significantly more boys affected, but no differences between children with and without constipation. This study shows that TRS occurs also in older preschool (and even school) children. At this later age, it is associated with constipation and behavioural disorders. The case vignettes show differences in therapy and may represent different subgroups of TRS. TRS is associated with constipation, elimination disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Owing to this variety of comorbid disorders, different therapeutic approaches are needed. A general screening for behavioural symptoms is recommended.
Birch, Eileen E; Li, Simone L; Jost, Reed M; Morale, Sarah E; De La Cruz, Angie; Stager, David; Dao, Lori; Stager, David R
Recent experimental evidence supports a role for binocular visual experience in the treatment of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated binocular visual experience with dichoptic iPad games could effectively treat amblyopia in preschool children. A total of 50 consecutive amblyopic preschool children 3-6.9 years of age were assigned to play sham iPad games (first 5 children) or binocular iPad games (n = 45) for at least 4 hours per week for 4 weeks. Thirty (67%) children in the binocular iPad group and 4 (80%) in the sham iPad group were also treated with patching at a different time of day. Visual acuity and stereoacuity were assessed at baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 3 months after the cessation of game play. The sham iPad group had no significant improvement in visual acuity (t4 = 0.34, P = 0.75). In the binocular iPad group, mean visual acuity (plus or minus standard error) improved from 0.43 ± 0.03 at baseline to 0.34 ± 0.03 logMAR at 4 weeks (n = 45; paired t44 = 4.93; P iPad games for ≥8 hours (≥50% compliance) had significantly more visual acuity improvement than children who played 0-4 hours (t43 = 4.21, P = 0.0001). Repeated binocular experience, provided by dichoptic iPad game play, was more effective than sham iPad game play as a treatment for amblyopia in preschool children. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.
Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.
Preschool period is very important for children's growth. Preschool period is also important for children with special needs, because we need to discover their problems, disabilities or obstacles as soon as possible. In Slovenia preschool children with special needs are divided in one of the three different educational programs definite by law. In ordinary preschool program they carry out special program for children with special needs. This special program has extra professional assistance, ...
Full Text Available Background and Aim : Theory of mind refers to the ability to understand the others have mental states that can be different from one's own mental states or facts. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of theory of mind and executive functions in normal hearing, deaf, and cochlear-implanted children.Methods: The study population consisted of normal, deaf and cochlear-implanted girl students in Mashhad city, Iran. Using random sampling, 30 children (10 normal, 10 deaf and 10 cochlear-implanted in age groups of 8-12 years old were selected. To measure the theoty of mind, theory of mind 38-item scale and to assess executive function, Coolidge neuropsychological and personality test was used. Research data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests.Results: There was a significant difference between the groups in the theory of mind and executive function subscales, organization, planning-decision-making, and inhibition. Between normal and deaf groups (p=0.01, as well as cochlear-implanted and deaf groups (p=0.01, there was significant difference in planning decision-making subscale. There was not any significant relationship between the theory of mind and executive functions generally or the theory of mind and executive function subscales in these three groups independently.Conclusion: Based on our findings, cochlear-implanted and deaf children have lower performance in theory of mind and executive function compared with normal hearing children.
Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the refractive status of the preschool children in Xiantao, Hubei Province in order to find out the abnormal refraction error beyond the physiological range. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated preschool children in kindergartens and the scattered ones were 12 716(25 432 eyesranging from 6mo～6 years old. 1 581 children(3 162 eyeswere diagnosed ametropia by Suresight refractive screening instrument, which were confirmed again after mydriasis optometry. RESULTS: The incidence rate of ametropia in preschool children in Xiantao was 12.4%, and statistics showed no significant difference between boys and girls(P>0.05, but had differences of morbility rate among each age group(PCONCLUSION: The incidence rate of ametropia decreases with age increasing in the preschool children from 6mo～6 years old, which imply preschool children should have mydriasis optometry in order to find out amblyopia and other congenital eye disease.
Zhang, Luoli; He, Xiangui; Qu, Xiaomei; You, Xiaofang; Wang, Bingjie; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng
To investigate the refraction and ocular biometry characteristics and to examine the prevalence of refractive errors in preschool children aged 3 to 6 years in Shanghai, China. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jiading and Xuhui District, Shanghai, in 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens in Jiading District and 10 kindergartens in Xuhui District, with a probability proportionate to size. The children underwent comprehensive eye examinations, including cycloplegic refraction and biometric measurements. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism were defined as spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -0.50 D, SE ≥ +2.00 D, and cylindrical diopters ≤ -1.00 D. The mean SE for 3- to 6-year-old children was +1.20 D (standard deviation [SD] 1.05), and the mean axial length (AL) was 22.29 mm (SD 0.73). The overall prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was 3.7% and 18.3%, respectively. No difference in prevalence of astigmatism was found across age groups. There was a statistically significant association between lower cylindrical diopters and higher spherical diopters (Spearman's correlation: -0.21, P < 0.001). Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years in the Shanghai area were mostly mildly hyperopic, with a low prevalence of myopia. Refractive astigmatism for children may be relatively stable throughout the preschool stage. Astigmatism was significantly associated with refractive error.
Lousada, Marisa; Ramalho, Margarida; Marques, Carolina
This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Language Intervention Programme for the treatment of 14 preschool-aged children with primary language impairment. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample (7 children) received immediate intervention with the Language Intervention Programme, whereas the remaining children received treatment after a 4-week delay. The intervention consisted of 8 individual biweekly sessions. Outcome measures of language ability (receptive semantic and morphosyntactic, expressive semantic and morphosyntactic, and metalinguistic) were taken before and after intervention. After 4 weeks of intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvements in language (receptive, expressive and metalinguistic skills), but no differences were found for those in the waiting control group. After 4 weeks of intervention for the control group, significant progress in language was also observed. The Language Intervention Programme was found to be effective in treating language skills of children with language impairment, providing clinical evidence for speech and language therapists to employ this programme for the treatment of preschool children with language disorders. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan
To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.
Munoz-Baell, Irma M; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ruiz, M Teresa; Ferreiro-Lago, Emilio; Aroca-Fernandez, Eva
Implementing health-promoting programmes for the most excluded and at-risk social groups forms a key part of any efforts to address underserved populations and reduce health inequalities in society. However, many at-risk children, particularly children in deaf communities, are not reached, or are poorly served, by health-promoting programmes within the school setting. This is so because schools are effective as health-promoting environments for d/Deaf children only to the extent that they properly address their unique communication needs and ensure they are both able and enabled to learn in a communication-rich and supportive psycho-social environment. This article examines how the usually separate strands of school health promotion and d/Deaf education might be woven together and illustrates research with deaf community members that involves them and gives their perspective. The primary objective of this study was to map deaf pilot bilingual education programmes in Spain-one of the first countries to ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations. (2006) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Resolution A/RES/61/106.)-with particular attention to their compliance to the Convention's article 24. Following pre-testing, 516 key informants were surveyed by mail (response rate: 42.08%) by using a snow-ball key-informant approach, within a Participatory Action Research framework, at a national, regional and local level. The results show that although some schools have achieved recommended standards, bilingual programmes are in various stages of formulation and implementation and are far from being equally distributed across the country, with only four regions concentrating more than 70% of these practices. This uneven geographical distribution of programmes probably reflects more basic differences in the priority given by regions, provinces, and municipalities to the deaf community's needs and rights as an important
Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary
Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…
This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…
DeFauw, Danielle L.
This article details a qualitative case study of 24 preschool children engaged with step-by-step drawing instruction provided by five educators as they developed their fine motor skills and drew detailed objects using the Drawing Children Into Reading curriculum (Halperin, W. A. (2011a). "Project 50 preschool manual." South Haven, MI:…
Antopolskaya, Tatyana A.; Zhuravleva, Svetlana S.; Baybakova, Olga Y.
The article reveals the problem of developing the ability of preschool children to socialize. It covers the theoretical aspects of the issue and draws attention to the association between the social communication of preschool children and their ability to interact and intercommunicate as well as the development of their social and emotional…
Subbotskii, E. V.
Examines perceptions of adults compared with preschool children in assuming object permanence or discontinuity of existence when an object is removed from their immediate perceptual field. Results showed that a belief in the possibility of the discontinuity of material objects is not unique to the minds of preschool children but can also be…
Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian
The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…
van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Nauta, Maaike H; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) for preschool children with disruptive behaviours and to explore parental predictors of response. METHODS: Parents of 68 preschool children, aged between 2.7 and 5.9 years, participated in BPT. We evaluated the changes
Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.
Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…
Wolf, Gail Marie
This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…
The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…
Rajapaksha, P. L. N. Randima
Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention…
Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.
No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…
Gatumu, Jane Ciumwari; Kathuri, Wilfred Njeru
The Life Skills Programme, which is one of the newest programmes in the Kenya Preschool educational system was explored to establish the impact it had on the lives of preschool children in Embu West, Kenya. A primary school that is perceived as having well-disciplined children was purposively selected. The sample consisted of 39 students, 43…
Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.
The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…
Discusses a survey of family literacy in which 30 Asian families with preschool children, whose first language is Urdu, Punjabi, or Gujerati, shared their home literacy experiences. Reports that parents encourage extensive preschool activities in the home, have high aspirations for the their children's education, and show an interest in…
Qian, Miao K.; Quinn, Paul C.; Heyman, Gail D.; Pascalis, Olivier; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
Two studies with preschool-age children examined the effectiveness of perceptual individuation training at reducing racial bias (Study 1, N = 32; Study 2, N = 56). We found that training preschool-age children to individuate other-race faces resulted in a reduction in implicit racial bias while mere exposure to other-race faces produced no such…
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of acute malnutrition in pre-school children in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Four kindergartens in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Subjects: Pre-school children attending kindergartens in Karma Albald village (n ...
Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…
The author composes a questionnaire about conditions of preschool children's family music education. The survey includes 280 preschool children in a city of Shandong province. It finds that most parents have recognized the importance of early childhood music education, but there is the tendency of utilitarian. The content of family music education…
Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Jackson, Hannah
Investments in preschool programs for children from disadvantaged backgrounds have historically been supported by research showing that these programs help children build school readiness skills and narrow the income-achievement gap. However, results from recent studies of the links between preschool participation and increases in school readiness…
Collaboration is often described as a situation whereby two or more children work together towards a common goal. When viewed from a socio-cultural learning perspective, a broader understanding of collaboration is suggested. This article investigates the forms and pathways of children...
Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael
Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…
Chow, Bik C; Louie, Lobo H T
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of preschool type (public vs private) on motor skill performance in 239 (121 boys, 118 girls) preschool children ages 3 to 6.5 yr. Preschoolers were tested on 12 fundamental motor skills from the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition and 11 anthropometrics (body height, weight, Body Mass Index, waist and hip girths, and body segment lengths). Analysis of variance controlled for anthropometrics and age indicated that children from private preschools performed better on locomotor skills than those from public preschools. However, no difference was found in object control skills. The results suggest that performance of locomotor skills by preschool children is affected by their schools' physical environment.
Eiser, C; Eiser, J R; Town, C; Tripp, J H
Parents of 37 children with asthma (aged between three and five years) and of 37 healthy controls were interviewed about their involvement in everyday care, discipline practices, perceptions of their child and situations which were particularly stressful. There was little correlation between mothers' and fathers' preferences for different discipline practices. There was, however, greater agreement in their perceptions. Parents of children with asthma did not differ from those of healthy controls in discipline practices. However, children with asthma were perceived to be generally less healthy. Parents of those with asthma also reported a greater number of everyday situations to be stressful. These data do not support traditional assumptions that parents of children with asthma are more permissive or overindulgent. At least in this preschool sample, there was only limited indication of adverse effects of chronic disease on parenting practices.
Full Text Available In the contemporary process of teaching fine arts, children’s own creative expression and art appreciation are used to encourage learners towards both perception and reception; consequently, the evaluation and internalization of works of art play an equally important role. In a qualitative empirical research study that takes the form of a case study, we studied the response of children to works of art and their demonstrated communication skills in this. The results have shown that children respond to works of art on multiple levels. With non-standardized narrative group interviews, we observed children’s associations. Children perceived and internalized the given artworks and also put their emotions into words. The study has shown that systematic development of art appreciation among pre-school children can have a positive impact on their communication skills.
This study described the first language (L1) and second language (L2) skills of a group of Spanish deaf/hard of hearing (DHH) children who were bilingual. Participants included parents of 51 DHH children from Spain. Parents completed an electronic survey that included questions on background, details on child's hearing loss, and bilingual status and L2 exposure. Parents also completed the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix, a rating scale that describes language skills. DHH bilingual children demonstrated L1 skills that were stronger than their monolingual DHH peers. Bilingual children demonstrated a wide range of L2 proficiency, and most were exposed to an L2 through parents and/or schooling. The majority of parents reported that their children demonstrated L2 skills that were either better than or at the level they had expected. These results correspond with earlier studies that indicate the DHH children are capable of becoming bilingual. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
Mann, Wolfgang; Peña, Elizabeth D; Morgan, Gary
We describe a model for assessment of lexical-semantic organization skills in American Sign Language (ASL) within the framework of dynamic vocabulary assessment and discuss the applicability and validity of the use of mediated learning experiences (MLE) with deaf signing children. Two elementary students (ages 7;6 and 8;4) completed a set of four vocabulary tasks and received two 30-minute mediations in ASL. Each session consisted of several scripted activities focusing on the use of categorization. Both had experienced difficulties in providing categorically related responses in one of the vocabulary tasks used previously. Results showed that the two students exhibited notable differences with regards to their learning pace, information uptake, and effort required by the mediator. Furthermore, we observed signs of a shift in strategic behavior by the lower performing student during the second mediation. Results suggest that the use of dynamic assessment procedures in a vocabulary context was helpful in understanding children's strategies as related to learning potential. These results are discussed in terms of deaf children's cognitive modifiability with implications for planning instruction and how MLE can be used with a population that uses ASL. The reader will (1) recognize the challenges in appropriate language assessment of deaf signing children; (2) recall the three areas explored to investigate whether a dynamic assessment approach is sensitive to differences in deaf signing children's language learning profiles (3) discuss how dynamic assessment procedures can make deaf signing children's individual language learning differences visible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lemelin, Lucie; Gallagher, Frances; Haggerty, Jeannie
Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2-5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents' representation of children's overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers' parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4-5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child's weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses will be done on the quantitative
Lopes, Amanda Forster; Rocha, Elida Mara Braga; da Silva, Janaina Paula Costa; Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Bertoli, Ciro; Leone, Claudio
Growing phenomenon, which involves high morbidity and consequently high costs for health systems, obesity has been found also among the pediatric population and is currently considered a public health problem. The aim of this study was to verify if in children in the early preschool age we can see the prevalence of overweight and if introducing complementary feeding as well as the type of food introduced, are associated with this condition in this age group. It is an observational analytic study with children born in 2011-2012 that attended public schools in Taubat6 -SP during 2014. In addition to the weight and height of children, information about the history of feeding and birth were collectedusing a standardized questionnaire.The nutritional status was defined as having overweight children with z-scores for body mass index (zIMC) > 1.We conducted bivariate analysis and then linear regression analysis of multiple variables.The prevalence of overweight was elevated (27.5%). Only birth weight showed significant correlation with respect to zIMC (r = 0.22, p introduction of new foods is not a risk factor for the development of overweight at the beginning of pre-school age.
Parsonson, Barry S.; Baer, Donald M.
The development of new, “creative” behaviors was examined in a problem-solving context. One form of problem solving, improvisation, was defined as finding a substitute to replace the specifically designated, but currently unavailable, tool ordinarily used to solve the problem. The study examined whether preschool children spontaneously displayed generalized improvisation skills, and if not, whether they could be trained to do so within different classes of tools. Generalization across different tool classes was monitored but not specifically trained. Five preschool children participated in individual sessions that first probed their skill at improvising tools, and later trained and probed generalized improvisation in one or more of three tool classes (Hammers, Containers, and Shoelaces), using a multiple-baseline design. All five children were trained with Hammers, two were trained in two classes, and two were trained in all three tool classes. Four of the five children improvised little in Baseline. During Training, all five showed increased generalized improvisation within the trained class, but none across classes. Tools fabricated by item combinations were rare in Baseline, but common in Training. Followup probes showed that the training effects were durable. PMID:16795596
Full Text Available Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.
Seo, Min Kyoung; Yoon, Jong Seo; So, Chul Hwan; Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon
Delayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys) diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. The patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76-126). None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis. IQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.
Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko
Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.
Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Dyer, Alan
Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was a diet/physical activity intervention designed to reduce gains in BMI (kilograms per meter squared) in preschool minority children. Twelve predominantly Latino Head Start centers participated in a group-randomized trial conducted between Fall 2001 and Winter 2003. Six centers were randomized to a culturally proficient 14-week (three times weekly) diet/physical activity intervention. Parents participated by completing weekly homework assignments. The children in the other six centers received a general health intervention that did not address either diet or physical activity. The primary outcome was change in BMI, and secondary outcomes were changes in dietary intake and physical activity. Measures were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at Years 1 and 2 follow-up. There were no significant differences between intervention and control schools in either primary or secondary outcomes at post-intervention, Year 1, or Year 2 follow-ups. When Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was conducted in predominantly black Head Start centers, it was effective in reducing subsequent increases in BMI in preschool children. In contrast, when the program was conducted in Latino centers, it was not effective. Although the intervention did not prevent excessive weight gain in Latino children, it was very well received. Future interventions with this population may require further cultural tailoring and a more robust parent intervention.
Sweeney, Kristie L; Ryan, Matthew; Schneider, Heather; Ferenc, Lisa; Denckla, Martha Bridge; Mark Mahone, E
Motor deficits persisting into childhood (>7 years) are associated with increased executive and cognitive dysfunction, likely due to parallel neural circuitry. This study assessed the longitudinal trajectory of motor deficits in preschool children with ADHD, compared to typically developing (TD) children, in order to identify individuals at risk for anomalous neurological development. Participants included 47 children (21 ADHD, 26 TD) ages 4-7 years who participated in three visits (V1, V2, V3), each one year apart (V1=48-71 months, V2=60-83 months, V3=72-95 months). Motor variables assessed included speed (finger tapping and sequencing), total overflow, and axial movements from the Revised Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS). Effects for group, visit, and group-by-visit interaction were examined. There were significant effects for group (favoring TD) for finger tapping speed and total axial movements, visit (performance improving with age for all 4 variables), and a significant group-by-visit interaction for finger tapping speed. Motor speed (repetitive finger tapping) and quality of axial movements are sensitive markers of anomalous motor development associated with ADHD in children as young as 4 years. Conversely, motor overflow and finger sequencing speed may be less sensitive in preschool, due to ongoing wide variations in attainment of these milestones.
Tanriverdi, Müberra; Mutluay, Fatma Karantay; Tarakçi, Devrim; Güler, Serhat; Iscan, Akin
This study investigated the possible presence of sensory-motor developmental impairments in preschool children with epilepsy and explored epilepsy impact on their activities and quality of life and on the stress load of their family. Study participants were children aged 2-6years diagnosed with epilepsy without any other comorbidities (epi-only children). The instruments used for assessment included the Neurological, Sensory, Motor, Developmental Assessment (NSMDA) scale for sensory-motor development, the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale (ICNDS), and the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Scale (IPES) for disease impact on disability and Quality of Life (QoL), as well as the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) for functional health status, and the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for the family stress load. Required data were obtained from direct testing or observation of children's activities and mother-supplied answers to questions. Eighty-two children were investigated. The NSMDA scores were in the normal development range 6-8. Significant moderate impact of the disease on disability and QoL was estimated with the ICNDS and IPES instruments. The PODCI scores were similar to healthy population levels except for the happiness dimension which was better for children with epilepsy. PSS were significantly above normal. The functional health and QoL of the children as well as their family stress were found to be positively correlated with increasing age. It is found that epilepsy does not degrade neuromotor development and functional health status of preschool epi-only children, though it has a significant impact on their neurological disability and QoL and the stress level of their families; this impact seems to decrease with age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaghaghian, Soheila; Abolvardi, Masoud; Akhlaghian, Marzieh
Statement of the Problem: Dental caries, the most common infectious disease, can lead to several consequences, including inflammation and bleeding of the gum, abscess formation, tooth loss, and subsequently loss of available space in the arch. Purpose: This study was designed to determine dental caries status of Shiraz preschool children and its related factors. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the children registered in Shiraz kindergartens in 2014. The study recruited 453 children by randomized cluster sampling. We evaluated the children’s demographic and oral hygiene factors, and their dental caries status using decayed, missed, and filled tooth (dmft) index and prevalence of the children with untreated dental caries. Relationship between the children’s characteristics and their dental caries status was evaluated. Results: Only 119 children (30.1%) were caries-free. The children’s mean dmft index was 3.88(±3.9). After controlling the effect of confounding factors, the children’s dental caries status was significantly associated with variables indicating their socioeconomic status such as fathers’ job, mothers’ education, and number of children in the family. Furthermore, there was a significant association between the children’s dental caries status and their oral hygiene habits such as frequency of tooth brushing. Conclusion: The dental caries status of the studied preschool children was not desirable which could be indicative of the inadequacy of the current preventive programs. To improve this issue, interventional preventive programs such as tooth brushing are recommended. The programs are more necessary for the children of low socioeconomic families and those with poor oral hygiene habits. PMID:29854883
Full Text Available Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one’s own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Children between the ages of 7 and 9 were tested on pitch perception and production, phonemic awareness, and IQ. Results showed a significant positive correlation between pitch perception-production and phonemic awareness, suggesting that the relationship between musical and linguistic sound processing is intimately linked to awareness at the level of pitch and phonemes. Since tone-deafness is a pitch-related impairment and dyslexia is a deficit of phonemic awareness, we suggest that dyslexia and tone-deafness may have a shared and/or common neural basis.
Tamayo, Ana; Chaume, Frederic
In order to understand and fully comprehend a subtitle, two parameters within the linguistic code of audiovisual texts are key in the processing of the subtitle itself, namely, vocabulary and syntax. Through a descriptive and experimental study, the present article explores the transfer of the linguistic code of audiovisual texts in subtitling for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in three Spanish TV stations. In the first part of the study, we examine current practices in Spanish TV captioning to analyse whether syntax and vocabulary are adapted to satisfy deaf children's needs and expectations regarding subtitle processing. In the second part, we propose some alternative captioning criteria for these two variables based on the needs of d/Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children, suggesting a more appropriate way of displaying the written linguistic code for deaf children. Although no specific distinction will be made throughout this paper, it is important to refer to these terms as they have been widely used in the literature. Neves (2008) distinguishes between the "Deaf", who belong to a linguistic minority, use sign language as their mother tongue, and usually identify with a Deaf community and culture; the "deaf", who normally have an oral language as their mother tongue and feel part of the hearing community; and the "hard of hearing", who have residual hearing and, therefore, share the world and the sound experience of hearers. In the experimental study, 75 Spanish DHH children aged between 8 and 13 were exposed to two options: the actual broadcast captions on TV, and the alternative captions created by the authors. The data gathered from this exposure were used to analyse the children's comprehension of these two variables in order to draw conclusions about the suitability of the changes proposed in the alternative subtitles.
Full Text Available Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003. Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger variation of mental state talk words than Canadian children do, and second, the distribution of mental state talk across the three domains differed for the two language groups. Semantic variation between Danish and English was identified in the study, which may partly explain the findings. Furthermore we present a usage-based approach to the investigation of children’s development of psychological categories in language as well as cross-linguistically.
Smith, Andrew C
Full Text Available The authors propose a system designed for pre-school children that offers an alternative introduction to the world of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), specifically computer programming. Illiterate children can construct simple...
Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue
This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.
Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul
In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…
Psillas, George; Psifidis, Anestis; Antoniadou-Hitoglou, Magda; Kouloulas, Athanasios
The purpose of this study was to detect any underlying hearing loss among the healthy pre-school children with speech delay. 76 children, aged from 1 to 5 years, underwent a thorough audiological examination consisting of tympanometry, free field testing, otoacoustic emission recordings and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). If hearing was normal, then they were evaluated by a child neurologist-psychiatrist. According to our findings, the children were classified into 3 groups; those with normal hearing levels (group I, 52 children, 68.4%), sensorineural hearing loss (group II, 22 children, 28.9%) and conductive hearing loss (group III, 2 children, 2.6%). In group I, speech delay was attributed to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which represents high-functioning autistic children (37 cases). Other causes were specific language impairment (SLI)-expressive (3 cases), bilingualism (2 cases), and unknown etiology (10 cases). More than half (59%) of the children diagnosed with PDD evidenced significant language impairment limited to more than two words. Children with SLI-expressive and bilingualism used a maximum of two words. In group II, 13 children suffered from profound hearing loss in both ears, 3 from severe, 3 had profound hearing loss in one ear and severe in the other, 2 from moderate, and 1 had moderate in one ear and severe in the other. No child had mild sensorineural hearing loss. The children with profound hearing loss in at least one ear had total language impairment using no word at all (10 cases), or a maximum of two words (6 cases). When hearing loss was moderate to severe, then the speech vocabulary was confined to several words (more than two words-6 cases). Only two children suffering from conductive hearing loss both presented with complete lack of speech. A great number of healthy pre-school children with speech delay were found to have normal hearing. In this case, the otolaryngologist should be aware of the possible underlying clinical
McLeod, S.; Crowe, K.; Masso, S.; Baker, E.; McCormack, J.; Wren, Y.; Roulstone, S.; Howland, C.
Background: Speech sound disorders are a common communication difficulty in preschool children. Teachers indicate difficulty identifying and supporting these children.\\ud \\ud Aim: To describe speech and language characteristics of children identified by their parents and/or teachers as having possible communication concerns.\\ud \\ud Method: 275 Australian 4- to 5-year-old children from 45 preschools whose parents and teachers were concerned about their talking participated in speech-language p...
OBJECTIVE: To identify and explore parents' concerns when young children become acutely ill. DESIGN: Qualitative study making use of semi-structured one to one and group interviews with parents of preschool children. SETTING: Disadvantaged inner city community. SUBJECTS: 95 parents of preschool children. RESULTS: Fever, cough, and the possibility of meningitis were parents' primary concerns when their children became acutely ill. Parents' concerns reflected lay beliefs, their interpretation o...
British Sign Language (BSL) signers use a variety of structures, such as constructed action (CA), depicting constructions (DCs), or lexical verbs, to represent action and other verbal meanings. This study examines the use of these verbal predicate structures and their gestural counterparts, both separately and simultaneously, in narratives by deaf children with various levels of exposure to BSL (ages 5;1 to 7;5) and deaf adult native BSL signers. Results reveal that all groups used the same types of predicative structures, including children with minimal BSL exposure. However, adults used CA, DCs, and/or lexical signs simultaneously more frequently than children. These results suggest that simultaneous use of CA with lexical and depicting predicates is more complex than the use of these predicate structures alone and thus may take deaf children more time to master. PMID:23670881
van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Labarque, Valery; Trost, Stewart G; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet
The present study aimed to develop accelerometer cut points to classify physical activities (PA) by intensity in preschoolers and to investigate discrepancies in PA levels when applying various accelerometer cut points. To calibrate the accelerometer, 18 preschoolers (5.8 ± 0.4 years) performed eleven structured activities and one free play session while wearing a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer using 15 s epochs. The structured activities were chosen based on the direct observation system Children's Activity Rating Scale (CARS) while the criterion measure of PA intensity during free play was provided using a second-by-second observation protocol (modified CARS). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to determine the accelerometer cut points. To examine the classification differences, accelerometer data of four consecutive days from 114 preschoolers (5.5 ± 0.3 years) were classified by intensity according to previously published and the newly developed accelerometer cut points. Differences in predicted PA levels were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA and Chi Square test. Cut points were identified at 373 counts/15 s for light (sensitivity: 86%; specificity: 91%; Area under ROC curve: 0.95), 585 counts/15 s for moderate (87%; 82%; 0.91) and 881 counts/15 s for vigorous PA (88%; 91%; 0.94). Further, applying various accelerometer cut points to the same data resulted in statistically and biologically significant differences in PA. Accelerometer cut points were developed with good discriminatory power for differentiating between PA levels in preschoolers and the choice of accelerometer cut points can result in large discrepancies.
Oladunjoye, Olayemi Kemi
The title of this thesis is "iPad and Computer devices in Preschool: A tool for literacy development among teachers and children in preschool." The study was an exploration of how teachers and their pupils put iPad and other computer devices into use in early childhood education. This study was a qualitative research study, based on the observation of the pupils and the interviews of the teachers. In this study, observation of the children and interviewing of the teachers over a period of fiv...
Bwibo, N O; Nyawade, S; Neumann, C G
Clinical rickets has not been reported previously in Embu district, Kenya. Baseline clinical assessments performed for a nutrition intervention study in preschool children (n=324) identified 28 cases of rickets (8.6% of study sample). Clinical characteristics included: delays of sitting, walking, and teething; bone and chest deformities; widened wrists and ankles; and bowed lower extremities. Risk factors identified were short duration of breastfeeding with feeding of cereal-based supplements with little or no milk, low calcium intake, limited sunlight exposure. Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies likely contributed to these cases. Treatment with Vitamin D3 and milk resulted in clinical improvement.
Granville-Garcia, Ana F; de Menezes, Valdenice A.; de Lira, Pedro I; Ferreira, Jainara M; Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro
Aim This study was aimed at verifying the relationship between childhood obesity and dental caries. Method A total of 2 651 preschool children were examined for this cross-sectional study in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; 1 338 of them attended public schools and 1 313 private schools. The clinical data and anthropometric measurements were obtained in line with WHO criteria. Pearson chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used, with a 5 % margin of error. Results The prevalence of child obesity w...
Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett
The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…
Plowman, Lydia; Stevenson, Olivia; Stephen, Christine; McPake, Joanna
We produced case studies of fourteen families based on nine rounds of data collection during the period from June 2008 to October 2009. We focused on fourteen children who were three years old when our visits started and used an ecocultural approach to examine their experiences of learning and playing with technologies at home. The study describes…
da Silva, José Ronaldo Soares; Pizzoli, Lourdes Margareth Leite; Amorim, Amanda Regina do Prado; Pinheiros, Fernanda Tais; Romanini, Giovanna Chippari; da Silva, Jack Gomes; Joanete, Shirley; Alves, Silvana S M
Intravenous access procedures in children are considered to be one of the most stressful because it is invasive, and the use of needles generates anxiety, insecurity, and fear. Playful strategies using dolls and even the materials used for venipuncture can assist children in understanding, accepting, and coping with the procedure. Field research was developed on the applicability of the therapeutic toy in the preparation of preschool children for venipuncture procedure based on the protocol developed by Martins, Ribeiro, Borba, and Silva (2001) and Kiche and Almeida (2009). The study was done in a private hospital in Greater São Paulo, Brazil, with 10 children ages 3 to 6 years. Data were gathered through observation and questionnaires completed by the children's adult guardians. Before the activity, the children showed fearful facial expressions, used monosyllabic responses, and avoided looking at the health care professional. After the strategy of using therapeutic toy dolls and puppets, 40% of the children calmly accepted the venipuncture procedure, and 100% showed a change to their initial negative reaction, became more communicative and cooperative, and participated and interacted with researchers, even after the end of the activity and procedure. The strategy of therapeutic toys helps make an unfamiliar environment, strangers, and a procedure characterized as painful and difficult less stressful. Pediatric nurses are in a good position to use this resource to offer more humanized care to children.
Johnstone, Christopher; Corce, Heidi
Kenya has 41 Deaf schools that serve children from Class 1 through secondary school. These schools are all characterised by the fact that they have very few teachers who are fluent in Kenyan sign language. In order to meet the needs of schools and to provide employment opportunities for Deaf Kenyan adults, a small non-governmental organisation identified Deaf secondary school students for training. They received two years of teacher training free of charge. Most have since been awarded teaching contracts by the Kenyan Teacher Service Commission or local school boards. This article reports on results from a preliminary study of the social and academic impacts of this innovation. Results indicate that Deaf teachers are inspirational in the classroom, represent a significant resource for their school communities and are preferred by Deaf students. A follow-up study on the relative learning gains of Deaf students when taught by Deaf teachers is planned once relevant data are available.
Alonso, Lou, Comp.
Listed in the directory are over 200 educational programs and services for deaf blind children in the United States and U. S. territories. It is noted that the 10 coordinators of regional centers for services to deaf blind children have aided in compilation of the directory. Listings are arranged by state within the New England, Mid-Atlantic…
Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Chan, Pofun; Kiing, Jennifer; Chong, Shang Chee; Laino, Armi G; Tay, Stacey Kh
Sleep problems are common in all ages, but may be particularly acute in urban Singapore. This study aims to describe the sleep behaviour of, and to identify any sleep problems in, preschool children. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 372 children attending local childcare centers. The questionnaire was based on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), a validated parent-report sleep screening questionnaire that contains 54 items identifying sleep behaviours in children. A total of 372 (40.0%) children participated. The mean age was 4.1 (SD 1.3) years (range, 2 to 6 years). Average total sleep duration was 10.8 hours (SD 1.1) with average night-time sleep duration of 8.5 hours (SD 0.6) and average nap duration of 1.6 hours (SD 1.0). Co-sleeping was common; 80.9% of children shared a room with someone else. The most common sleep problems were in the domains of sleep resistance and morning behaviour; namely: requiring company to fall asleep (n = 272, 73.1%), being afraid to sleep alone (n = 228, 61.6%) and diffi culty in waking up (n = 165, 44.4%). Among parents, 84.1 % (n = 313) perceived that their child's sleep duration was adequate. The duration of sleep in the Singaporean preschool population sampled is signifi cantly lower than recommended values and that of previously described Caucasian populations. Parental perception of sleep adequacy deviates from current recommendations. Given the clear relation of sleep duration with cognitive functioning, learning, and physical growth, this sleep deprivation should be addressed with parental education and opportunistic screening of sleep in well-child follow-ups.
Ward, C; Massie, J; Glazner, J; Sheehan, J; Canterford, L; Armstrong, D; Jaffe, A; Hiscock, H
Problems with sleep, eating and adherence to therapy may adversely affect health outcomes in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Data on the prevalence of such problems, associated parenting styles and caregiver mental health are limited. To determine: (a) the prevalence of sleep, mealtime, therapy adherence and externalising and internalising behavioural problems in preschool children with CF; (b) the prevalence of caregiver mental health problems and poor sleep quality; and (c) associations between child behavioural problems and parenting styles. This was a cross sectional survey of caregivers of children aged 6 months to 5 years attending CF outpatient clinics at Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne), Monash Medical Centre (Melbourne) and Sydney Children's Hospital. Main outcome measures were child externalising and internalising behaviours, sleep, eating and adherence with therapy; the predictor was parenting styles (harsh, inconsistent, overprotective). 117 of 139 families participated. Problems were common with child sleep (small 31.6%; moderate/large problem: 21.9%), eating (32.4%) and adherence with physiotherapy (50.4%). Compared to normative data, sleep and mealtime problems were more prevalent. Caregivers reported high rates of symptoms indicating depression (33.3%), anxiety (16.4%) and stress (34.2%). Harsh parenting was associated with internalising behaviours (adjusted OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.16 to 13.17, p = 0.03). Problems with sleeping, eating and physiotherapy adherence were common in preschool children with CF. Caregivers reported high rates of symptoms indicative of mental health problems. Harsh parenting was associated with internalising problems. An intervention targeting child problem behaviours and parental mental health would be appropriate for CF families.
Kouwenberg, Maartje; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; de Rooij, Mark
Victimization is a relatively common, yet serious problem, with potentially severe consequences for children's psychosocial and academic functioning. Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH) may be at a higher risk for victimization than hearing children. The aims of the present study were to compare DHH and hearing children on i) self-reported experiences of victimization and ii) associations between victimization, parental- and child variables. In total 188 children (mean age 11;11 years) from the Netherlands and Dutch-speaking part of Belgium participated in the study. No difference between DHH and hearing children were found on general experiences of victimization. However, differences between the groups were found on specific forms of experienced victimization and on the associations between victimization and parental variables. For DHH children, parental sensitivity and parents who challenge their DHH children to become competent in the practical, emotional, cognitive and social domain is associated with them being less victimized. For hearing children at this age these relations were reversed, absent or more complex. Finally, DHH children in special schools were more victimized than DHH children in regular schools. It can be concluded that parents can play an important role in reducing social problems experienced by DHH children and young adolescents. PMID:23284923
This study examined the discourse skills of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children by comparing their oral and written narratives produced for the wordless picture book, "Frog, Where Are You?" (Mayer, 1969), with those of school-age-matched hearing peers. The written stories produced by 42 Italian 7- to 15-year-old children with…
Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark
Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing…
Woolfe, Tyron; Want, Stephen C.; Siegal, Michael
A study examined the basis of "theory of mind" (ToM) reasoning in 20 native signers (ages 4-8) of British Sign Language. Children and their siblings were given a measure of the quality of sibling relations. Sibling quality as perceived by siblings predicted children's ToM score over age and referential communication. (Contains…
The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...
Blissett, Jackie; Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire
Children's emotional eating is related to greater body mass index and a less-healthy diet, but little is known about the early development of this behavior. This study aimed to examine the relations between preschool children's emotional eating and parental feeding practices by using experimental manipulation of child mood and food intake in a laboratory setting. Twenty-five 3-5-y-old children and their mothers sat together and ate a standard meal to satiety. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their feeding practices. Children were assigned to a control or negative mood condition, and their consumption of snack foods in the absence of hunger was measured. Children whose mothers often used food to regulate emotions ate more cookies in the absence of hunger than did children whose mothers used this feeding practice infrequently, regardless of condition. Children whose mothers often used food for emotion regulation purposes ate more chocolate in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The pattern was reversed for children of mothers who did not tend to use food for emotion regulation. There were no significant effects of maternal use of restriction, pressure to eat, and use of foods as a reward on children's snack food consumption. Children of mothers who use food for emotion regulation consume more sweet palatable foods in the absence of hunger than do children of mothers who use this feeding practice infrequently. Emotional overeating behavior may occur in the context of negative mood in children whose mothers use food for emotion regulation purposes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290.
Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M
We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ≤12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children.
Full Text Available The indexes of development of orientation in space of deaf children of midchildhood are considered. 258 children took part in experiment (from them 100 are children without pathology of auditory to the analyzer. The constituents of dancings motions of children are considered. The necessity of perfection of specific co-ordinating capabilities is marked for children. Possibilities are rotined in relation to the arbitrary weakening of muscles, vestibular firmness. It is well-proven that indexes of development of orientation in space of deaf children considerably less indexes of children without violation of auditory to the analyzer. It is set that the basic constituents of dancings motions are instrumental in the improvement of parameters of orientation of children in space.
Zoritch, Bozhena; Roberts, Ian; Oakley, Ann
The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education
Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María
Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.
Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake
We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This study was carried out to determine whether there is a relationship between the preschool teachers' attitudes towards mathematics and mathematical development in 6-year-old preschool children. The sampling of the study was consisted of 30 teachers working with 6 years old children and their 120 students in public kindergartens and independent…
Levine, Dani; Strother-Garcia, Kristina; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy
Language development is a multifaceted, dynamic process involving the discovery of complex patterns, and the refinement of native language competencies in the context of communicative interactions. This process is already advanced by the end of the first year of life for hearing children, but prelingually deaf children who initially lack a language model may miss critical experiences during this early window. The purpose of this review is twofold. First, we examine the published literature on language development during the first 12 months in typically developing children. Second, we use this literature to inform our understanding of the language outcomes of prelingually deaf children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), and therefore language input, either before or after the first year. During the first 12 months, typically developing infants exhibit advances in speech segmentation, word learning, syntax acquisition, and communication, both verbal and nonverbal. Infants and their caregivers coconstruct a communication foundation during this time, supporting continued language growth. The language outcomes of hearing children are robustly predicted by their experiences and acquired competencies during the first year; yet these predictive links are absent among prelingually deaf infants lacking a language model (i.e., those without exposure to sign). For deaf infants who receive a CI, implantation timing is crucial. Children receiving CIs before 12 months frequently catch up with their typically developing peers, whereas those receiving CIs later do not. Explanations for the language difficulties of late-implanted children are discussed.
Baker, B L; Heller, T L
Childhood behavior disorders are related to family stress and maladjustment. Little is known, however, about the adjustment of families with preschool-aged children at risk for subsequent behavior disorders. Moreover, fathers' perceptions of child problem behavior and their reactions to it generally have been neglected. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 52 preschool-aged children assigned to one of three groups: control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing. Higher child externalizing behavior was associated with greater negative family impact, lowered parenting sense of efficacy, and child-rearing practices that were more authoritarian and less authoritative. Mothers and fathers did not differ in actual perceived level of child behavior problems, although both believed that mothers saw more problems. Child Group x Parent interactions indicated that mothers experienced increased stress and a need for help with moderate as well as high child externalizing behaviors, whereas fathers were not elevated on these measures unless the child's externalizing behaviors were high. Implications of these findings for early family intervention are considered.
Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.
Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.
Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability.
Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi
This study examined the perceived parenting styles in a sample of Jordanian mothers and their perceptions of the social skills exhibited by their preschool children. The sample consisted of 802 ("N"=802) mothers who responded to a three-part questionnaire: demographic information, parenting styles, and social skills. The results of this…
MEMISEVIC Haris; HADZIC Selmir
Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...
Nian Guan; Hao-Ming Chen; Zhi-Guang Hu
AIM: To investigate the refractive status of the preschool children in Xiantao, Hubei Province in order to find out the abnormal refraction error beyond the physiological range. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated preschool children in kindergartens and the scattered ones were 12 716(25 432 eyes)ranging from 6mo～6 years old. 1 581 children(3 162 eyes)were diagnosed ametropia by Suresight refractive screening instrument, which were confirmed again after mydriasis optometry....
da Silva, Adriana C?ndida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimar?es
AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed...
SOBKIN VLADIMIR S.; SKOBELTSINA KSENIA N.
This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father), family status (two-parent/separated family), style of parent-child relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children...
Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.
Brosig, Cheryl L; Bear, Laurel; Allen, Sydney; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Pan, Amy; Frommelt, Michele; Mussatto, Kathleen A
To describe preschool neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD), who were evaluated as part of a longitudinal cardiac neurodevelopmental follow-up program, as recommended by the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics, and identify predictors of neurodevelopmental outcomes in these children. Children with CHD meeting the American Heart Association/American Academy of Pediatrics high-risk criteria for neurodevelopmental delay were evaluated at 4-5 years of age. Testing included standardized neuropsychological measures. Parents completed measures of child functioning. Scores were compared by group (single ventricle [1V]; 2 ventricles [2V]; CHD plus known genetic condition) to test norms and classified as: normal (within 1 SD of mean); at risk (1-2 SD from mean); and impaired (>2 SD from mean). Data on 102 patients were analyzed. Neurodevelopmental scores did not differ based on cardiac anatomy (1V vs 2V); both groups scored lower than norms on fine motor and adaptive behavior skills, but were within 1 SD of norms. Patients with genetic conditions scored significantly worse than 1V and 2V groups and test norms on most measures. Children with CHD and genetic conditions are at greatest neurodevelopmental risk. Deficits in children with CHD without genetic conditions were mild and may not be detected without formal longitudinal testing. Parents and providers need additional education regarding the importance of developmental follow-up for children with CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sullivan, Jessica; Moss-Racusin, Corinne; Lopez, Michael; Williams, Katherine
While there is substantial evidence that adults who violate gender stereotypes often face backlash (i.e. social and economic penalties), less is known about the nature of gender stereotypes for young children, and the penalties that children may face for violating them. We conducted three experiments, with over 2000 adults from the US, to better understand the content and consequences of adults' gender stereotypes for young children. In Experiment 1, we tested which characteristics adults (N = 635) believed to be descriptive (i.e. typical), prescriptive (i.e. required), and proscriptive (i.e. forbidden) for preschool-aged boys and girls. Using the characteristics that were rated in Experiment 1, we then constructed vignettes that were either 'masculine' or 'feminine', and manipulated whether the vignettes were said to describe a boy or a girl. Experiment 2 (N = 697) revealed that adults rated stereotype-violating children as less likeable than their stereotype-conforming peers, and that this difference was more robust for boys than girls. Experiment 3 (N = 731) was a direct replication of Experiment 2, and revealed converging evidence of backlash against stereotype-violating children. In sum, our results suggest that even young children encounter backlash from adults for stereotype violations, and that these effects may be strongest for boys.
Heidemann, C. H.; Lous, J.; Berg, J.
Introduction: Otitis media is one of the most common diseases in small children. This underlines the importance of optimizing diagnostics and treatment of the condition. Recent literature points toward a stricter approach to diagnosing acute otitis media (AOM). Moreover, ventilating tube treatment...... for recurrent AOM (RAOM) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) has become the most frequently performed surgical procedure in pre-school children. Therefore, the Danish Health and Medicines Authority and the Danish Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery deemed it necessary to update...... the Danish guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media and surgical treatment of RAOM and COME. Methods: The GRADE system (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was used in order to comply with current standards of evidence assessment in formulation...
Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto
Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…
Velickovic, Sonja; Stošic, Lazar
This study explores the issue of the preparedness of educators to realize the contents of the PPP (Preschool Preparatory Program) from the point of view of digitalization and informatization of the society. The authors are in favour of the implementation of modern educational technology in the process of educating preschool children with the aim…
The aim of this study is to assess the effects that teaching visually impaired (VI) preschool children play skills has on their abilities to initialize and respond to social interactions with their typically developing (TD) peers in a reverse mainstreaming preschool class. The subjects of the study were three female VI students regularly attending…
Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.
The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…
Denning, Jennifer; Mayberry, Wanda
Thirty-five preschoolers, assigned to otitis media (OM) or no OM groups, were administered the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP). Children with a history of OM had significantly decreased scores on the Stepping and Vertical Writing MAP tests, indicating vestibulospinal dysfunction. (SK)
Alekseeva, Larisa; Shkolyar, Luidmila; Savenkova, Luibov
The authors reveal an innovative approach to training and education of preschool children. This approach is called "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD". It is based on the idea that the development of the preschool child's personality should be joyous and free "cultural self-creation" in terms of the collective co-creation, where adults and…
Sukbunpant, Sasipin; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian
It is generally assumed that preschool teachers play a crucial daily role in the inclusion of young children with a disability in education settings. In many countries, however, there are little available data to inform such a view. Part of a larger project with 528 preschool teachers from northern Thailand, the aim of the study reported here was…
Gopin, Chaya; Healey, Dione; Castelli, Katia; Marks, David; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Objective: To ascertain the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children (BRIC), a novel clinician inventory for preschoolers. Method: Completion of the BRIC for 214 preschoolers follows 2 evaluation sessions, generally separated by less than 2 weeks. Items are submitted to a Principal Components…
Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; St. John, Tanya; Dager, Stephen R.; Rodda, Amy; Botteron, Kelly; Hazlett, Heather; Schultz, Robert T.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph; Guralnick, Michael J.; Chappell, J. C.; Dager, S.; Shaw, D; McKinstry, R.; Constantino, J.; Pruett, J.; Schultz, R.; Paterson, S.; Evans, A. C.; Collins, D. L.; Pike, G. B.; Kostopolous, P.; Das, S.; Gerig, G.; Styner, M.; Gu, H.; Sullivan, P.; Wright, G.
Preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD are at high-risk (HR) for ASD and related challenges, but little is known about their emerging peer competence and friendships. Parents are the main providers of peer-relationship opportunities during preschool. Understanding parental challenges supporting early peer relationships is needed for optimal…
Min Kyoung Seo
Full Text Available PurposeDelayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence.ResultsThe patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76–126. None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ <70. Twenty-one subjects were treated with a low dose (6.0–9.9 µg/kg/day and 22 with a high dose of levothyroxine (10.0–16.0 µg/kg/day. There was no significant difference in the mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ, and performance IQ (PIQ scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis.ConclusionIQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.
T. Yu. Abaseeva; T. E. Pankratenko; A. A. Burov; Kh. M. Emirova; A. L. Muzurov
Background: Data on etiology and clinical course of CKD stage 3 to 5 in children of preschool age could help obstetricians, pediatricians, and nephrologists with proper diagnostics and management of this condition and prediction of outcomes. Aim: To study causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool children. Materials and methods: The causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 were investigated in 55 preschool children aged from 7 months to 8 years. Twenty four had...
Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob
The project Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian states. The questions focused on five broad themes: children's mathematics learning, support for mathematics teaching, technology and computers, attitudes and feelings, and assessment and record keeping. We review results from the interview data for each of these themes, discuss their importance, and outline recommendations related to teacher education as well as resource development and research.
Full Text Available Background: Cochlear implants (CI for the rehabilitation of patients with profound or total bilateral sensorineural hypoacusis represent the initial use of electrical fields to provide audibility in cases where the use of sound amplifiers does not provide satisfactory results. Aims: To compare speech perception performance after cochlear implantation in children with connexin 26-associated deafness with that of a control group of children with deafness of unknown etiology. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: During the period from 2006 to , cochlear implantation was performed on 26 children. Eighteen of these children had undergone genetic tests for mutation of the Gap Junction Protein Beta 2 (GJB2 gene. Bi-allelic GJB2 mutations were confirmed in 7 out of 18 examined children. In order to confirm whether genetic factors have influence on speech perception after cochlear implantation, we compared the post-implantation speech performance of seven children with mutations of the GBJ2 (connexin 26 gene with seven other children who had the wild type version of this particular gene. The latter were carefully matched according to the age at cochlear implantation. Speech perception performance was measured before cochlear implantation, and one and two years after implantation. All the patients were arranged in line with the appropriate speech perception category (SPC. Non-parametric tests, Friedman ANOVA and Mann-Whitney’s U test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Both groups showed similar improvements in speech perception scores after cochlear implantation. Statistical analysis did not confirm significant differences between the groups 12 and 24 months after cochlear implantation. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study showed an absence of apparent distinctions in the scores of speech perception between the two examined groups and therefore might have significant implications in selecting prognostic indicators
Carolina Santos Mello
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source: This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary: The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions: The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers. Resumo: Objetivo: Verificar o perfil alimentar do lactente e do pré-escolar brasileiro, na faixa etária de 6 meses aos 6 anos, a partir da análise qualitativa e quantitativa do consumo de alimentos e nutrientes. Fontes de dados: Nesta revisão foram analisados estudos realizados no Brasil que apresentavam dados de inquéritos alimentares de lactentes e pré-escolares. A busca foi limitada às publica
P.L.N. Randima Rajapaksha
Full Text Available Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention collaboratively with the class teacher for a group of 10 children selected utilizing purposive sampling method in a preschool classroom. The intervention was conducted in a preschool located in Colombo, Sri Lanka for 3 weeks. The observation, interview and reflective journal were the instrument used to collect data. The observation carried under two criteria namely, ability to initiate a conversation and ability to respond in a conversation revealed that the sociodramatic play intervention created many opportunities to develop oral language skills in the children than the regular classroom activities. The sociodramatic play activities enhanced children's oral language skills while creating a language rich playful learning experiences. Keywords: Language development, Early childhood education, Sociodramatic play
All Deaf children deserve to have opportunities to openly explore, examine, and affirm their own Deaf identities at school, yet there is a shortage of curricula and resources dedicated to this basic need. The aim of this thesis is to provide Deaf children with such opportunities. The curriculum within- Fostering Deaf Identity Development in a K-2 Deaf Classroom- consists of two units that address positive Deaf identity formation. The first unit focuses on the characterization and affirmation ...
Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Farhadi A2 1. Instructor, Department of Society Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Instructor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Childhood period it one of the most important stages of life in which individuals personality is formed. The majority of behavioral problems are due to attention deficit to the sensitive periods of childhood. This attention deficit leads to lack of agreement with environment and causes behavioural problems in children. Behavioural problem is attributed to a persons behaviour that his IQ isn lowered, but his or her mental and behavioural equilibrium is deviated from social norm and has severity, repetition and continuance in numerous times and places, so that his educational performance and behaviour will be frustrated and his efficiency is reduced. Such children are always rejected by others and in school there are a lot of grievances against them. Therefore, to pay attention children common behavioural problems is one of the most important topics and it prompt detection makes its treatment possible. So this study designed to determine prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children. Materials and methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 600 rural and urban pre-school children selected using random one stage sampling method. Data gathering tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic and behavioural disorders signs obtained from DSM IV. Reability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the university teaching members and retest method with a correlation coefficient 98%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver 11 and Ch-square test. Results: Results of the study showed that 79% of the rural, and 68% of the urban children were at least involved in one of the behavioural
Greier, Klaus; Riechelmann, Herbert; Burtscher, Martin
The childrens' world of movement has changed dramatically during the last decades. As a consequence motor performance decreases particularly in children affected by overweight and obesity. This study analyses the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on motor performance of pre-school children. In a cross-sectional study including 41 kindergartens in Tyrol (Austria), 4- to 5-year-old children (n = 1,063) were recruited. Four BMI groups were used according to a German BMI reference system: Group I (anorexic/underweight), group II (normal weight), group III (overweight) and group IV (obese). Motor performance was assessed by the use of the Karlsruhe Motorik-Screening (KMS 3-6). Out of the 1,063 preschool children (550 ♂, 513 ♀) 7.6 % (n = 81) were overweight and 5.5 % (n = 58) were obese. The results demonstrate that motor performance of under- and overweight preschool-children is not different from children with normal BMI, but obese children had significantly lower motor performance (p obese Tyrolean preschool children is similar to those of non-mountainous areas of Austria and Germany. The fact that motor performance is reduced only in obese children suggests that targeted promotion of physical activity is urgently needed for preschool children particularly considering children with a risk to develop obesity. Besides the efforts of parents, nursery schools are the ideal setting for intervention measures.
Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Pirutinsky, Steven
Multifactorial explanations of developmental stuttering suggest that difficulties in self-regulation and weak attentional flexibility contribute to persisting stuttering. We tested this prediction by examining whether preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) shift their attention less flexibly than children who do not stutter (CWNS) during a modified version of the Dimension Card Change Sort (DCCS), a reliable measure of attention switching for young children. Sixteen CWS (12 males) and 30 children CWNS (11 males) participated in the study. Groups were matched on age (CWS: M=49.63, SD=10.34, range=38-80months; CWNS: M=50.63, SD=9.82, range=37-74months), cognitive ability, and language skills. All children completed a computer-based variation of the DCCS, in which they matched on-screen bivalent stimuli to response buttons based on rules that switched mid-task. Results showed increased slowing for CWS compared to controls during the postswitch phase, as well as contrasting patterns of speed-accuracy tradeoff for CWS and CWNS as they moved from the preswitch to postswitch phase of the task. Group differences in performance suggest that early stuttering may be associated with difficulty shifting attention efficiently and greater concern about errors. Findings are consistent with a growing literature indicating links between weak attentional control and persisting developmental stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children.