WorldWideScience

Sample records for preschool child development

  1. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  2. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  3. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background...... as well as an instrumental variable approach based on wider geographic area aggregates to test whether those correlations reveal unbiased causal effects. The identification of truly effective quality characteristics of day-care centres enhances policymakers' resource allocation to make all children...

  4. [Preschool education impact on child development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke is the term used for cases in which an old stroke is diagnosed by the consequences of it and not by the acute symptoms. Many presumed perinatal ischemic strokes have congenital hemiparesis as the first manifestation, which is usually noticed between the fourth and eighth month of life as early hand preference. That is why the clear and persistent handedness developed before one year of age must be assumed as a warning sign of probable motor sequelae. In this paper we review the medical records of 15 cases of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke to assess the age at which the consultation led to the diagnosis, reason for consultation and age at development of handedness. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. Preschool education impact on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Gokce; Cakar, Nilgun; Kiremitci, Saba; Taktak, Aysel; Basaran, Ozge; Uncu, Nermin

    2016-10-01

    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children. Vasculitic processes can involve the lung. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be seen as one of the manifestation of HSP, it is not a frequent presentation. Here we reported the case of a 10-year-old girl with HSP nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylprednisolone. A review of the literature revealed that young age may be a good prognostic sign and that immunosuppressive drugs and supportive management are essential in the treatment.

  6. Designing Better Preschools: Improving Communication between Designers and Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Cindy V.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examined communications between designers and child development professionals during the preschool design process. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted to investigate the need for communication support between child development professionals, parents, and design professionals (n = 20) during the process of…

  7. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2015-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ), especially for socially disadvantaged children. The intervention preschools received extra training of the preschool teachers, whereas control preschools did not receive any training. The results show impro...

  9. Relationship between overall child development and caries severity in Chilean three-year-old preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Mufdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between caries and overall child development in three-year-old children in the cities of Linares and Talca, Chile, 2014-2015. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 170 preschool children attending daycare centers in Linares and Talca. Four dimensions of child development (language, cognition, motor skills and socio-emotional development were qualitatively assessed using the child learning and development test (TADI, for its acronym in Spanish. Nutritional development was calculated with the weight/height index. Caries history was assessed by the dmft index and compromised tissue quantification. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's rho, ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: A negative linear correlation was observed between dmft and total TADI score (r=-0.20, p=0.00, and the dimensions of language (r=-0.19, p=0.01, cognition (r=-0.18, p=0.02 and socio-emotional development (r=-0.21, p=0.01. Preschoolers with a dmft of >6.5 had a lower average TADI score than those with a dmft of <2.6 (p=0.009. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of compromised tissue quantification between preschool children with normal and altered development. No statistically significant association between dmft and nutritional development was found. Conclusion: A relationship between caries severity and overall child development in three-year-old preschool children was observed. Longitudinal studies are required to assess causality.

  10. Estimation of the level of cognitive development of a preschool child using the system of situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gorev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a model of reliable estimation of cognitive development of a preschool child by means of the system of situations. Thus the leading technology is modeling the systems of open-type tasks of mathematical contents and the system analysis of big selections of experimental data based on the two-point scale of four parameters: optimality of the ideas offered by children; efficiency of the reasoning given by them; originality of their answer and level of decision development. As a result of the pilot study conducted in 2015 on selection of 3,800 preschool children, it was succeeded to approve the offered technology of estimation and to generalize results in the form of the integrated assessment of relative character – coefficient of cognitive development level. Mathematical-statistical processing of the results of the research allows to prove uniformity of experimental selection and to specify the level of cognitive development with a reliable accuracy of normal distribution for each age group of the preschool child basing on calculation of samples quartiles that in turn can define the further program of individual development of a child providing his transition to higher level of the general education and consequently, higher quality of education.

  11. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ...

  12. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ), especi......From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ...

  13. Language Development in the Pre-School Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This brief overview of child language acquisition begins with a discussion of the affective and cognitive dimensions of the transition period from babbling to speech. Three theories of language acquisition--reinforcement theory, social learning theory, and "innate mechanism" theory--are reviewed. Several theories of the function of language,…

  14. Does Professional Development of Preschool Teachers Improve Child Socio-Emotional Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    From 2011 to 2013 a randomized controlled trial has been run in Danish preschools to obtain evidence on improvements of early childhood education by providing training to the preschool teachers. The purpose of the intervention is to improve child socio-emotional outcomes (measured by SDQ...

  15. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  16. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  17. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  18. The Influence of Theatre on a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    KRÁTKÁ, Pavlína

    2009-01-01

    The aim of work is to highlight the impact of theater on the personality development of children preschool age and education elements of theater. The theoretical part is aimed at the preschool age child's personality and the importance of pre-term for shaping the child's own identity. It is aimed at the game and its importance in the lives of children preschool age and the specificities of the performing arts working in the preschool age child. The practical part is devoted to research and to...

  19. Experimental impacts of a teacher professional development program in Chile on preschool classroom quality and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-03-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children.

  20. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  1. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah

    2008-01-01

    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  2. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah

    2008-01-01

    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  3. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  4. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  5. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  6. Estimation of the Level of Cognitive Development of a Preschool Child Using the System of Situations with Mathematical Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorev, Pavel M.; Bichurina, Svetlana Y.; Yakupova, Rufiya M.; Khairova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development of personality can be considered as one of the key directions of preschool education presented in the world practice, where preschool programs are educational ones, and preschool education is the first level of the general education. Thereby the purpose of the research is to create a model of reliable estimation of cognitive…

  7. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  8. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  10. Teacher-Child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…

  11. Preschooler development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 12. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  12. Age, Sex, Intelligence and Parents' Occupation and the Moral Development of the Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy M.

    1984-01-01

    Results indicate that preschool children are capable of making moral judgments in both apology-restitution and guilt-innocence test contexts. Age and sex are significantly related to both moral judgment measures, while intelligence and parent occupation are unrelated to both measures. (Author/RH)

  13. Feasibility and Benefit of Parent Participation in a Program Emphasizing Preschool Child Language Development while Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the feasibility of homeless parents' participation in an intervention to increase use of facilitating language strategies during interactions with their preschool children while residing in family homeless shelters. This study also examined the intervention's impact on the parents' use of facilitating…

  14. Teacher-Child Relationships, Behavior Regulation, and Language Gain among At-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mary Beth; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Many preschoolers from low socioeconomic-status (SES) backgrounds demonstrate lags in their language development, and preschool participation is viewed as an important means for mitigating these lags. In this study, we investigated how teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior regulation within preschool classrooms were associated…

  15. Parental perception of preschool child body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn

    2011-10-01

    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care.

  16. Teacher-child Relationships in Preschool Period: The Roles of Child Temperament and Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YOLERİ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how children’s temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher–child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational survey method was used in this study. The sample consisted of 195 preschool children. According to the results, a negative significant relationship was found between the teacher-child relationships scores and the reactivity sub-dimension of temperament. Also, there are positive significant relationships between teacher-child relationship scores and language skills. In addition, both the reactivity sub dimension of temperament and language skills demonstrate a predictor effect on the teacher-child relationships. Reactivity was the most important temperament trait factor affecting relationships.

  17. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  18. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 1 Month KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  19. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  20. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  1. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  2. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  3. Circle of Security in Child Care: Putting Attachment Theory into Practice in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…

  4. Mother and preschool teacher as assessors of the child's language competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja Peklaj

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers include child's parents as assessors of his/her language development as the results of many studies suggest their assessments to be valid and reliable measures of child's language competence. In the longitudinal study, presented in this paper, we examined whether child's mother and his/her preschool teacher can provide a valid estimation of child's language development. The sample included 80 Slovenian children from different preschool institutions, aged 3;1 years at first and 4;1 years at second assessment. Children's language competence was assessed individually, directly by the testators using Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test and indirectly by mothers and preschool teachers using the Child's Language Competence Questionnaire for Parents and Preschool Teachers. The achieved results showed that the estimates given by mothers and preschool teachers represent valid measures of child's language competence but not stable in time. The estimations given by mothers and preschool teachers explain a small share in variability of children's achievements on the Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test.

  5. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect.

  6. Social Skills Development for Preschool Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrenkopf, Carol; And Others

    Social skills development of preschool children with visual impairments is discussed. A review of the literature considers the field of child development and social cognition, the effect of blindness on child development, and the effects of blindness on social cognition. Three areas concerning the development of social skills for children with…

  7. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction.

  8. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  9. Southeast Kansas Demonstration Child Development Center. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Joan I.

    The development of 10 preschool children who attended the Southeast Kansas Demonstration Child Development Center was compared with the development of 10 preschool children who did not attend a child care center to ascertain the value of the center's program. Both groups were tested with the Denver Developmental Screening Test at the beginning and…

  10. Child-Mother and Child-Father Play Interaction Patterns with Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…

  11. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  12. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  13. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  14. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  15. Parent-Child Interaction and the Development of Racial Group Identity and Self Concepts of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Harriette; McAdoo, John L.

    This study focuses on three areas: (1) mother-child and father-child verbal and nonverbal interactions; (2) racial differences in parent-child interactions, children's self esteem and children's racial attitudes; and (3) relationships between parenting style and children's feelings of self-worth and racial preferences. Subjects were 40 black and…

  16. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 2 Years (24 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your ...

  17. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  18. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  19. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  20. Renovascular hypertension and intrarenal artery aneurysms in a preschool child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, David J.; Barletta, Gina-Marie; Bunchman, Timothy E. [Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Helen DeVos Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Mowry, Jeanne A. [Oregon Health Sciences University, Pediatric Nephrology, Northwest Permanente, P.C. and Doernbecher Children' s Hospital, Portland, OR (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Renovascular hypertension from renal artery aneurysmal formation is a rare complication of fibromuscular dysplasia. Few data exist to direct the management of intrarenal artery aneurysms in pediatric patients. We report the presentation, diagnosis and management of renovascular hypertension and intrarenal aneurysmal disease in a preschool child. (orig.)

  1. Preschool and Early Childhood: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The bibliography cites 67 items relating to preschool and early childhood selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts." Bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and abstracts are provided for each entry. One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings in the area of handicapped and gifted…

  2. Child, home and institutional predictors of preschool vocabulary growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druten-Frietman, L.J.G.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth and stability over time in 385 young children (two to four years of age) who attended a preschool. The relation between child, family, and institutional factors (i.c gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES), family background (native/non-native), teacher

  3. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  4. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  5. Fantasy Orientation Constructs and Related Executive Function Development in Preschool: Developmental Benefits to Executive Functions by Being a Fantasy-Oriented Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Jillian M.; O'Brien, Christopher T.; McInnis, Melissa A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Barber, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored unique constructs of fantasy orientation and whether there are developmental benefits for fantasy-oriented children. By age 3, children begin developing executive functions, with some children exhibiting high fantasy orientation in their cognitions and behaviors. Preschoolers ("n" = 106) completed fantasy orientation…

  6. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: Results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case–control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n = 198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n = 253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference −21.4, 95% CI: −24.0, −18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference −5.1, 95% CI: −9.5, −0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born

  7. Effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT) in a preschool setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Gershenson, Rachel A; Farahmand, Farahnaz K; Thaxter, Peter J; Behling, Steven; Budd, Karen S

    2009-11-01

    This research addressed the need for trained child care staff to support optimal early social-emotional development in urban, low-income, ethnic minority children. We evaluated effectiveness of Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), an approach adapted from Eyberg's Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). TCIT focuses on increasing preschool teachers' positive attention skills and consistent discipline in order to enhance children's psychosocial functioning and prevent mental health problems. A total of 12 teachers participated in small-group workshop sessions with in vivo coaching on their use of skills in the classroom. A multiple-baseline design across four classrooms (3 teachers each) evaluated effects of training on teacher behaviors during weekly classroom observations. Findings indicated systematic increases in trained skills during intervention, and consumer evaluations showed that the training was rated positively. Our results suggest that TCIT is a promising approach for enhancing positive teacher-child interactions in a preschool setting and should receive further investigation.

  8. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  9. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  10. Sexual abuse prevention training for preschoolers: Implications for moral development

    OpenAIRE

    Berrick, JD

    1991-01-01

    Child sexual abuse prevention education is taught to children of all ages. The youngest students are preschool age children. Many programs focus on the moral ramifications of a sexual assault. The limitations of children's moral development, however, may hinder their ability to understand the concepts presented. In some instances, education may unwittingly foster sentiments of guilt in these very young children. © 1991.

  11. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  12. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... 25 September 21, 2017 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  13. The development of communicative competence of preschool children in the multicultural space of kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the problem of communicative competence development of preschool children in conditions of multicultural educational organization is presented in article. The characteristic of competence-based approach in preschool education is given. The relevance of formation of key competencies at preschool age is shown. The role of multicultural space of kindergarten for formation the modern child identity, disclosure of his individual world, accumulation of experience of communication an...

  14. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  15. The role of preschool teacher in child structured and unstructured play

    OpenAIRE

    Bajde, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    The thesis entitled The Role of Preschool Teacher in Child Structured and Unstructured Play focuses on play, play materials and the role of preschool teacher in the preschool period. The theoretical part focuses on the meaning of child’s play and play materials as well as the role of the preschool professionals. Various types, factors and characteristics of child’s play were presented and play materials were defined. Toy quality criteria are also briefly described. The chapter dealing with th...

  16. Assessing the Development of Preschoolers' Mathematical Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; Papic, Marina M.; Mulligan, Joanne T.

    2011-01-01

    The development of patterning strategies during the year prior to formal schooling was studied in 53 children from 2 similar preschools. One preschool implemented a 6-month intervention focusing on repeating and spatial patterns. Children from the intervention group demonstrated greater understanding of unit of repeat and spatial structuring, and…

  17. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715726; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  18. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed in…

  19. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  20. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  1. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  2. Making children laugh: parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Jean-FrançOis; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Martin, Jodi; Moss, Ellen; Pallanca, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether dyadic synchrony of father-child and mother-child interactions in a playful context were associated with attachment organization in preschool children. One hundred seven children (48 boys, Mage = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their mothers and fathers (counterbalanced order of lab visits) participated in a playful interaction without toys (Laughing Task procedure). Playful interactions were coded based on the degree to which the dyads demonstrated a variety of behavior representing dyadic synchrony and task management. Children's attachment behavior toward fathers and mothers was observed in a modified separation-reunion procedure adapted for the preschool period. Results demonstrate that mothers and fathers are similar in their effort to arouse and engage their child in a playful context, but mothers achieved a greater synchrony with their child. Disorganized attachment to either mother or father is linked with a lack of synchrony in dyadic interaction. Findings are in contrast with prevailing theory, suggesting that despite gender-related differences in parental playful behaviors, dyadic synchrony is equally important in both mother- and father-child relationships for the development of organized social and affectional bonds.

  3. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  4. Development and preliminary validation of Chinese preschoolers' eating behavior questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. METHODS: To assess children's eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children's eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers' Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. RESULTS: The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05. Differences in caregiver's education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers' eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care

  5. Your Child's Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ...

  6. Associations of Preschool Type and Teacher-Child Relational Quality with Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…

  7. Comparative Study of Child Assessment Practices in English and Korean Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Kwi-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…

  8. Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

  9. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural differences as…

  10. Child-Centred Education: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Self-Reported Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Ramazan; Erden, Feyza Tantekin; Morrison, George S.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the beliefs and self-reported practices of preschool teachers with regard to the concept of child-centred education, as well as the consistency between these beliefs and practices. Data were collected via interviews with 20 female teachers employed in public preschools in Ankara, Turkey. The results indicated that the…

  11. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  12. Relationships between weight status and child, parent and community characteristics in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Gregory, Parriel; Cliff, Dylan P

    2009-01-01

    To examine, using an Ecological Systems Theoretical framework, relationships between weight status and child, parent and community characteristics and risk factors among preschool children. Cross-sectional data was collected from 140 children and their parents from 11 randomly selected preschools. Outcome variables included: motor development; perceived competence; objectively measured physical activity; time spent in active and quiet play; location and number of televisions; parental rules around physical activity and time spent watching television; availability of sport and physical activity programs; and parks and open spaces and access to footpaths. Overweight children spent more time in quiet play and watching television and less time in active play and physical activity. Perceived competence and motor development were similar for both overweight and non-overweight children. Associations between weight status and several parent and community characteristics were not evident, except for access to footpaths. Overweight children had greater access to footpaths compared with non-overweight children (p=0.046). The results reported here showed little difference between overweight and non-overweight children in relation to a variety of child, parent and community variables. However, for some characteristics, differences in older children have been reported. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm when these characteristics begin to differ, what effects these differences have on behaviour and weight-status, and therefore when targeted treatment should be provided during a child's development.

  13. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Vidmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.

  14. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  15. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  16. Child Effortful Control as a Mediator of Parenting Practices on Externalizing Behavior: Evidence for a Sex-Differentiated Pathway across the Transition from Preschool to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Haris MEMISEVIC; Selmir HADZIC

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  18. Preschool-Age Problem Behavior and Teacher-Child Conflict in School: Direct and Moderation Effects by Preschool Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the new open-group Norwegian day-care centers would more than traditionally organized centers negatively affect (a) current and (b) future teacher-child relationships, and (c) the developmental legacy of preschool problem behavior. The focus was on eight hundred and fifty 4-year-olds from 153 centers who were…

  19. Through the eyes of a child: preschoolers' identification of emotional expressions from the child affective facial expression (CAFE) set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Baker, Lewis; Thrasher, Cat

    2017-08-10

    Researchers have been interested in the perception of human emotional expressions for decades. Importantly, most empirical work in this domain has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing for various emotional expressions. Recently, the Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set was introduced to the scientific community, featuring a large validated set of photographs of preschool aged children posing for seven different emotional expressions. Although the CAFE set was extensively validated using adult participants, the set was designed for use with children. It is therefore necessary to verify that adult validation applies to child performance. In the current study, we examined 3- to 4-year-olds' identification of a subset of children's faces in the CAFE set, and compared it to adult ratings cited in previous research. Our results demonstrate an exceptionally strong relationship between adult ratings of the CAFE photos and children's ratings, suggesting that the adult validation of the set can be applied to preschool-aged participants. The results are discussed in terms of methodological implications for the use of the CAFE set with children, and theoretical implications for using the set to study the development of emotion perception in early childhood.

  20. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Jordan, Rachel; Pareezer, Laura; Moodie, Anne; Finn, Christine; Luther, Belinda; Arnfield, Evyn; Pym, Aaron; Craven, Alex; Beall, Paula; Weir, Kelly; Kentish, Megan; Wynter, Meredith; Ware, Robert; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; McKinlay, Lynne; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2013-06-11

    describes a large population-based study of early motor development and brain structure in a representative sample of preschool aged children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. The results of this study will be published in peer reviewed journals and presented at relevant international conferences. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN1261200169820).

  1. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  2. CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY FOR CHILDREN PRE-SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  3. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  4. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  5. Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…

  6. Parent Physical Punishment and Child Aggression in a Singapore Chinese Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngee Sim, Tick; Ping Ong, Lue

    2005-01-01

    We examine how parental physical punishment (caning and slapping) and child aggression are related, and possible moderation by authoritative control and rejection. A sample of 286 Singapore Chinese preschoolers ages 4-6 reported on rejection; their parents reported on control, caning, and slapping; and their teachers rated child aggression.…

  7. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  8. How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to inform and guide ... two to five year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...

  9. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  10. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  11. Pedagogy and Quality in Indian Slum School Settings: A Bernsteinian Analysis of Visual Representations in the Integrated Child Development Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla-Duggan, Rita

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the micro level of the pre-school classroom, taking the example of the Indian Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), and the discourse of "child-centred" pedagogy that is often associated with quality pre-schooling. Through an analysis of visual data, semi-structured and film elicitation interviews drawn…

  12. Pedagogy and Quality in Indian Slum School Settings: A Bernsteinian Analysis of Visual Representations in the Integrated Child Development Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla-Duggan, Rita

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the micro level of the pre-school classroom, taking the example of the Indian Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), and the discourse of "child-centred" pedagogy that is often associated with quality pre-schooling. Through an analysis of visual data, semi-structured and film elicitation interviews drawn…

  13. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P

    2006-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the chocolate. The procedure and data collection were implemented by preschool teachers and resulted in increased milk drinking at school, which was maintained a...

  14. Predictors of Children's Kindergarten Classroom Engagement: Preschool Adult-Child Relationships, Self-Concept, and Hyperactivity/Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Amelia Kate; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Baghurst, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to identify preschool factors that are associated with children's classroom engagement during their 1st school year. The study was guided by a social-motivational process model that highlights the importance of parent-child and teacher-child relationships in promoting engagement. In preschool, parents and…

  15. Psychosocial problems in pre-school children : Recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care objective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care Objective. To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among pre-school children in the general populatio

  16. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  17. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  18. The Development of Writing in the Young Child: Some Vintage Russian Wine in Contemporary Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marvin L.

    Writing development in preschool children has only recently begun to receive attention; however, Russian researchers dealt with the subject in the 1920s and 30s. Arguing that writing was a fundamental assist to cognitive growth as well as a tool for communication, Lev Vygotsky believed that the preschool child was ready to be taught writing.…

  19. Developing creativity in Montessori preschool class

    OpenAIRE

    KYSELOVÁ, Soňa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to point out the possibilities of developing creativity in a preschool classroom, which works by the philosophy of Montessori pedagogy that is sometimes critisised as too strict and not offering enough space for creativity and fantasy. The theoretical part will content characterisation of creativity and pedagogy of Maria Montessori, concept of creativity as perceived by Maria Montessori, art exploitation for developing creativity and it´s assertion in Montesori classro...

  20. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  1. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background......Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  2. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  3. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other…

  4. Social Interactions in Preschool Classrooms and the Development of Young Children's Conceptions of the Personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith G.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined preschool teacher and child interactions regarding personal, moral, and socioconventional issues in the classroom and the development of personal concepts. Findings suggested that in both judgments and social interactions, teachers and children identified a personal domain in which children can and should make choices about…

  5. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  6. Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child. Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

  7. Efficacy of steroid treatments in the asthmatic preschool child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2002-01-01

    Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life.......Asthma represents the most common chronic disease in preschool children. Hospital admission for wheezy disorders is the most common paediatric chronic disease causing hospital admission and more common in young children than later in life....

  8. Divorce, Single Parenting, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Sharyn M.; Adams, Gerald R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated whether a preschool intervention program for children from single-parent households could be effective in establishing the conditions appropriate for allowing the child to recover from the harmful consequences of divorce and limited adult-child interaction. (Author/DB)

  9. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  10. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  11. Parent Perspectives on How a Child-Centered Preschool Experience Shapes Children's Navigation of Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan; Bentley, Dana Frantz

    2013-01-01

    The authors used qualitative case study methodology to explore parents' perceptions of their children's readiness for kindergarten. The authors interviewed parents, focusing on their children's experiences during their transition from a child-centered, play-based preschool setting guided by an emergent curriculum into a range of diverse…

  12. Using Reinforcer Pairing and Fading to Increase the Milk Consumption of a Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the treatment of food selectivity by implementing pairing and fading procedures to increase a child's milk consumption during regularly scheduled preschool meals. The treatment involved mixing a small amount of chocolate syrup into a glass of milk and gradually eliminating the…

  13. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  14. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  15. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  16. Variation in Children's Classroom Engagement Throughout a Day in Preschool: Relations to Classroom and Child Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Williford, Amanda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in preschool children's positive and negative engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks, and how that variability was related to both classroom activity settings (e.g., teacher-structured time, outdoor time, transitions) and child factors (age, gender). Participants were 283 socioeconomically and…

  17. Planning for health promotion in low-income preschool child care settings: focus groups of parents and child care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; LaPelle, Nancy; Gupta, Ruchi S; Finkelstein, Jonathan A

    2006-01-01

    To identify potentially successful strategies, barriers, and facilitators for health promotion in preschool child care settings. We conducted 6 focus groups including each of the following: parents of children attending child care centers and home-based family child care (2 in English, 1 in Spanish) and directors of child care centers and family child care providers (2 in English, 1 in Spanish). Systematic thematic analysis was conducted to generate themes to address study questions. A total of 24 parents and 45 child care providers, serving predominantly urban, low-income children in Boston, participated. Parents and child care providers agreed that in-person group discussions would be the most effective strategy for providing health education information to parents. Several barriers that could affect implementation emerged. First, some providers expressed frustration toward parents' attitudes about child safety and health. Second, there was diversity of opinion among providers on whether conducting health promotion activities was consistent with their training and role. In addition, literacy, language, and cultural barriers were identified as potential barriers to health promotion in child care. In order to be successful, health promotion strategies in child care settings will need to overcome tensions between providers and parents, allow professional growth of child care providers to serve in a health promotion role, and better integrate external health resources and personnel. Group sessions and peer learning opportunities that are culturally and linguistically sensitive are potentially successful strategies for implementation of health promotion interventions for many parents.

  18. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  19. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  20. More than Teacher Directed or Child Initiated: Preschool Curriculum Type, Parent Involvement, and Children's Outcomes in the Child-Parent Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Clements, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Niles, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American) in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20…

  1. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  2. [Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.

  3. A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susi Erika

    This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

  4. A Paediatrician Looks at Traditional Approaches to Emotional Development in Preschool and Primary Years. Foundation for Child and Youth Studies Selected Papers Number 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susi Erika

    This discussion of the emotional development of young children is structured upon Erik Erikson's schemata of psycho-social development. Stage 1, which involves trust versus mistrust, includes references to Erikson's theory and the work of Melanie Klein, Berry Brazelton, Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, John Bowlby, Anthony Stevens, and D. W.…

  5. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  6. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  7. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  8. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  9. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  10. Acute lymphangitis in a preschool child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Huai Seng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year old preschool boy presented with apruritic red streak at the dorsum of his right foot travelingupward from the affected site which was red and swollen.Insect sting was the more likely trigger which had causedthe cellulitis and subsequently the acute lymphangitis.

  11. Evaluation of psychometric properties and factorial structure of the pre-school child behaviour checklist at the Kenyan Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar, Amina; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R J C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioural/emotional problems may be common in preschool children living in resource-poor settings, but assessment of these problems in preschool children from poor areas is challenging owing to lack of appropriate behavioural screening tools. The child behaviour checklist (CBCL) is wid

  12. Effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschools when used to address childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Kathleen Bradshaw; Abbot Eng, CaSandra Rene'

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschoolers when used to address childhood obesity. A single group, pretest/posttest design was used with 57 preschool children. Analysis of variance compared pre-existing differences between the four classes with respect to pre-test scores. A repeated measures t-test analyzed changes in scores as a result of the intervention. Following the fable intervention, students showed a significant difference (0.5) between their pre- and post-test scores, indicating this method to an effective learning strategy in this setting and age population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Associating Parental to Child Psychological Symptoms: Investigating a Transactional Model of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…

  14. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-08-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were highest among children who experienced high-quality care in both the infant-toddler and preschool periods, somewhat lower among children who experienced high-quality child care during only 1 of these periods, and lowest among children who experienced low-quality care during both periods. Irrespective of the care received during infancy-toddlerhood, high-quality preschool care was related to better language and preacademic outcomes at the end of the preschool period; high-quality infant-toddler care, irrespective of preschool care, was related to better memory skills at the end of the preschool period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E

    2016-12-19

    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  16. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2008-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  17. MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD AT PRESCHOOL AGE AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOSKOVSKA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ in their exposure likes to point the most complicated problems, which appeared when the mentally retarded child was born in a family that is followed by dramatic changes of their wishes and aspirations. In this contexts the authors elaborated many questions as well as:· relation between the parents;· mentally retarded child in the setting and living ambient;· social problems of mentally retarded children and their families;· the rule of the treats in the work with parents of mentally retarded child.

  18. Relations of mother's sense of coherence and childrearing style with child's social skills in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki; Shizawa, Miho

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationships between mothers' sense of coherence (SOC) and their child's social skills development among preschool children, and how this relationship is mediated by mother's childrearing style. Mothers of 1341 Japanese children, aged 4-5 years, completed a self-report questionnaire on their SOC and childrearing style. The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the social skills scale (SSS), which comprises three factors: cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Path analyses revealed that the mother's childrearing mediated the positive relationship between mother's SOC and the cooperation, self-control, and assertiveness aspects of children's social skills. Additionally, there was a significant direct path from mother's SOC to the self-control component of social skills. These findings suggest that mother's SOC may directly as well as indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediating effect of childrearing. The results offer preliminary evidence that focusing on support to improve mothers' SOC may be an efficient and effective strategy for improving children's social skills development.

  19. The Development of a Scientific Motive: How Preschool Science and Home Play Reciprocally Contribute to Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Judith; Fleer, Marilyn

    2017-07-01

    There are a growing number of studies that have examined science learning for preschool children. Some research has looked into children's home experiences and some has focused on transition, practices, routines, and traditions in preschool contexts. However, little attention has been directed to the relationship between children's learning experiences at preschool and at home, and how this relationship can assist in the development of science concepts relevant to everyday life. In drawing upon Hedegaard's (Learning and child development, 2002) cultural-historical conception of motives and Vygotsky's (The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky: problems of general psychology, 1987) theory of everyday and scientific concept formation, the study reported in this paper examines one child, Jimmy (4.2 years), and his learning experiences at home and at preschool. Data gathering featured the video recording of 4 weeks of Jimmy's learning in play at home and at preschool (38.5 h), parent questionnaire and interviews, and researcher and family gathered video observations of home play with his parents (3.5 h). Findings show how a scientific motive develops through playful everyday learning moments at home and at preschool when scientific play narratives and resources are aligned. The study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the science learning of young children and a conception of pedagogy that takes into account the reciprocity of home and school contexts for learning science.

  20. Communication and community development: early child development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, F; Reinhold, A J

    1993-01-01

    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school.

  1. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your Preschooler Games for Preschoolers Motivating Preschoolers to Be Active Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Your Child's Weight Kids and Exercise Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  2. Child personality measures as contemporaneous and longitudinal predictors of social behaviour in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across

  3. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  4. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  5. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  6. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  7. Individuating "Sparks" and "Flickers" of "A Life" in Dance Practices with Preschoolers: The "Monstrous Child" of Colebrook's Queer Vitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz; Palmer, Anna; Gustafsson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    What are the dominant images of the Child in contemporary Western societies? In order to challenge some dominant images of the Child, this essay explores the possibilities of analyzing an experimental dance practice with preschoolers aged 1-2 years with Claire Colebrook's theorizing on "the war on norms". Colebrook suggests a "Queer…

  8. Individuating "Sparks" and "Flickers" of "A Life" in Dance Practices with Preschoolers: The "Monstrous Child" of Colebrook's Queer Vitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz; Palmer, Anna; Gustafsson, Lovisa

    2016-01-01

    What are the dominant images of the Child in contemporary Western societies? In order to challenge some dominant images of the Child, this essay explores the possibilities of analyzing an experimental dance practice with preschoolers aged 1-2 years with Claire Colebrook's theorizing on "the war on norms". Colebrook suggests a "Queer…

  9. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  10. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  11. Problems of the Development of Alternative Forms of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballaeva, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    An insufficient number of affordable places in Russia's preschool system is affecting the educational development of many young children and reducing the number of mothers who could be working in the economy.

  12. Problems of the Development of Alternative Forms of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballaeva, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    An insufficient number of affordable places in Russia's preschool system is affecting the educational development of many young children and reducing the number of mothers who could be working in the economy.

  13. PSYCHOSENSORIMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOLERS WITH MILD CASE OF PSEUDOBULBAR DYSARTHRIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article covers the research of connection between mental, sensor and motor development, sensorimotor, ideomotor and emotional-motor reactions and also their variations by preschoolers with mild case of pseudobulbar dysarthria. The aim of the research is in theoretical study of specification of psychosensorimotor development of preschoolers with mild case of pseudobulbar dysarthria. Novelty of the research is in substantiation of the theoretical importance of studying psychosensorimotor de...

  14. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.

  15. Piaget, Super 8mm, and Preschool Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, H. Lois

    According to the theory of Piaget, until the age of two the chief developmental factor of a child is the permanence of an object or the ability to retain mental images. Between two and six he begins to use mental images, and as he develops the ability to retain a mental image he begins to imitate things from the past which he has seen or…

  16. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamse Mariëlle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  18. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  19. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  20. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  1. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  2. The Legal Regulations of the Preschool Teachers Child Abuse Behavior%我国幼儿教师虐待儿童行为的法律干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美锟

    2012-01-01

    幼儿教师以暴力、体罚、冷漠和忽视等方式对幼儿进行虐待的现象已经引起了社会的广泛重视。幼儿阶段的身心发展非常重要,幼儿教师残忍的虐待行为不仅会伤害到幼儿的身体健康,更加会影响幼儿的心理发展,给童年记忆造成了无法磨灭的阴影,影响深远。针对幼儿教师的虐待行为,《教师法》、《刑法》、《行政处罚法》都存在可以干预的方式,建立幼儿教师准入机制,增设"虐待儿童罪",设立监管幼儿教师教学行为的专门机构等,都是约束幼儿教师虐待行为的可行手段。%Preschool teachers use the violence,corporal punishment,indifference and neglect for child abuse has such as the phenomenon has aroused widely attention of society.Preschool teachers cruel abusive behavior will not only harm children's health,but also will affect children's psychological development.According to preschool teacher's abusive behavior,the "Pedagogic law","Criminal law","The law on administrative punishments",establish the way can intervention preschool teachers access system,set up the "child abuse sin" and set up supervision of preschool teachers' teaching behaviors,are the abusive behavior of preschool teachers constraints viable method.

  3. Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: Recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care objective. Abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care Objective. To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among pre-school children in the general

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  5. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  6. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices : Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ek; Kimmo Sorjonen; Karin Eli; Louise Lindberg; Jonna Nyman; Claude Marcus; Paulina Nowicka

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Ques...

  8. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

  9. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  10. Formative research and strategic development of a physical activity component to a social marketing campaign for obesity prevention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Gould, Susan Martin; Auld, Garry

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight in childhood, including preschoolers, continues to rise. While efforts focusing on school-aged children are encouraging, obesity prevention programs to address nutrition and physical activity in the child care center are lacking. Food Friends is a successfully evaluated nutrition program aimed at enhancing preschoolers' food choices, the addition of a physical activity program would improve the programs overall efforts to establish healthful habits early in life. This study describes the formative research conducted with secondary influencers of preschoolers-teachers and parents-for the development of a physical activity program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with preschool teachers and parents, respectively, to examine current physical activity practices, as well as attitudes, opinions, and desired wants and needs for physical activity materials. Findings illustrate that teachers provided physical activity; however, most did not use a structured program. Teachers identified time, space and equipment as barriers to providing activity in their classroom. Focus group findings identified activities of preschoolers', parents' perceptions of the adequacy of activity levels, and items to help parents engage their children in more physical activity. Barriers were also identified by parents and included time, safety, inclement weather, and lack of knowledge and self-efficacy. Findings from this formative research were used to develop a marketing strategy to guide the development of a physical activity component, Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves , as part of a larger social marketing campaign aimed to decrease the risk for obesity in low-income preschoolers.

  11. Divorce, single parenting, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, S M; Adams, G R

    1980-11-01

    Application of "crisis" and "social facilitation" theory to program intervention with preschool-age children was undertaken to asses the effects of a preschool education experience on recovery of psychological functions following divorce. A pretest-posttest control group design was completed using single-parent (n = 7) and two-parent (n = 8) children in an educational setting as the treatment groups and two-parent (n = 8) children at home as the control. Maternal reports on self-assesed childrearing and child's behavior were obtained during an interview, while intellectual assessments and observational data on social behavior were collected by trained observers and teachers. Little evidence could be noted that suggested weakened mother-child interaction as a function of divorce. Crisis intervention was observed to be an effective technique in assisting single-parent children toward cognitive recovery. However, it remains unclear whether social behavioral problems of single-parent children were positively affected by the crisis intervention program.

  12. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  13. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Lee Jones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs, and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥ 7 hours/night and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score. The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥ 10 hours/night, family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤ 2 hours/day of TV, video, DVD, and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  14. Development of Spanish Consonants in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Mary Ann

    1993-01-01

    This study tested the production of 18 Spanish consonants by 120 Mexican-American preschool children (ages 3-5), to determine the age of acquisition of Spanish consonants. Data are provided on percent of correct production of each sound at six different age levels and are graphically illustrated to compare age of acquisition with another study's…

  15. Child Development and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Charles A.; Bloom, Floyd E.

    1997-01-01

    Two major advances in developmental brain sciences have implications for understanding development: (1) neuroimaging; and (2) molecular and cellular events that give rise to the developing brain and ways in which the brain is modified by experiences. Critical, new knowledge of behavioral development can be achieved by considering the…

  16. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account.

  17. Preschoolers' Social Interest toward a Child with ASD and Their Theory of Mind Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai-Mashiach, Mati; Ziv, Margalit; Dromi, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities of typically developing preschoolers in three age groups: three- to four-, four- to five- and five- to six-years-old (n = 110), who differed in their spontaneous social interest toward included children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social interest was assessed by administering a…

  18. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  19. Latino Parents' Insight on Optimal Sleep for Their Preschool-Age Child: Does Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Thompson-Lastad, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is a risk factor for pediatric obesity. Latino children are among those groups in which both short sleep duration and obesity are prevalent. Therefore, this study sought to explore Latino parents' views about ideal sleep duration and sleep-related practices for their preschool-age children in an urban setting. Between October 2013 and January 2014, Latino parents of 2- to 5-year-old children were interviewed at 3 pediatric clinics (San Francisco, Calif). Using a semistructured interview guide, parents were asked to describe bedtime routines and sleep practices of their preschool-age children, including behavioral, parental, social, and contextual factors that may affect children's sleep. Interviews were conducted in Spanish and English. Parents also completed a brief survey on demographic information. Interviews were analyzed on the basis of a priori and emergent themes. Latino parents (n = 18) were mostly female, with a mean age of 31 years; most were foreign born; and more than half had a monthly household income of $2000 or less. The following themes emerged: parents' ideas about optimal sleep duration for their preschool-age child, consistent bedtime routines, room sharing and bed sharing, parent work and child school schedules that affect children's sleep, and crowded housing and neighborhood noise that disrupt children's sleep. These findings increase our understanding of the factors related to achieving optimal sleep duration among Latino children living in urban and often crowded housing. Findings could be used to inform future research on how to increase parental knowledge of healthy sleep practices and adequate sleep among Latino parents of young children. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations between intensity of child welfare involvement and child development among young children in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K

    2009-09-01

    To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for possible abuse or neglect. Analyses used descriptive statistics to characterize developmental and behavioral status across four domains (developmental/cognitive, language, adaptive functioning, and behavior) by intensity of CW involvement (in-home with CW services, in-home with no CW services or out-of-home care) over time. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between independent variables (age, gender, home environment, race/ethnicity, maltreatment history, intensity of CW involvement) and follow-up domain scores. On average, children improved in developmental/cognitive, communication/language status over time, but these improvements did not differ by intensity of CW involvement. Analyses revealed a positive relationship between the home environment and change in language and adaptive behavior standard scores over time, and few predictors of change in behavioral status. An interaction between intensity of CW involvement and initial developmental/cognitive status was present. Across domains, intensity of CW involvement does not appear to have a significant effect on change in developmental and behavioral status, although out-of-home care does have differential relationships with children's developmental/cognitive status for those with very low initial cognitive/developmental status. Facilitating development in children in CW may require supportive, enriched care environments both for children remaining at home and those in foster care. Toddler and preschool age children known to child welfare are likely to have difficulties with development whether they are removed from their homes or not. It would be helpful if child welfare

  1. Language development and assessment in the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Most young children make significant progress in learning language during the first 4 years of life. Delays or differences in patterns of language acquisition are sensitive indicators of developmental problems. The dynamic, complex nature of language and the variability in the timing of its acquisition poses a number of challenges for the assessment of young children. This paper summarises the key developmental milestones of language development in the preschool years, providing a backdrop for understanding difficulties with language learning. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are characterised illustrating the types of language difficulties they exhibit. Genetic evidence for language impairment suggests complex interactions among multiple genes of small effect. There are few consistent neurobiological abnormalities and currently there is no identified neurobiological signature for language difficulties. The assessment of young children's language skills thus focuses on the evaluation of their performances in comparison to typically developing peers. Assessment of language abilities in preschool children should involve an evaluation of both expressive and receptive skills and should include an evaluation of more than one dimension of language. The use of a single measure of a language component, such as vocabulary, is considered inadequate for determining whether preschool children have typical language or language impairment. Available evidence supports the inclusion of measures of phonological short-term memory in the assessment of the language abilities of preschool children. Further study of genetic, neurobiological and early behavioural correlates of language impairments in preschool children is needed.

  2. Stress and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  3. On the importance of families and public policies for child development outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosero Moncayo, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates how public interventions in developing countries can promote human capital accumulation of children at different stages of life (pre-school, compulsory and post-compulsory school) and how a specific characteristic of a child, the order of birth, might affect the intrahouseho

  4. The Contributions of Infant Temperament and Child Care to Infant Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathans, Laura L.; Meece, Darrell; Kossek, Ellen; Barratt, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has documented associations between young children's social development and both temperament and child care quality. The preponderance of research in this area has focused on preschool-age and older children, resulting in few studies focusing on these variables during infancy. In the current investigation, temperament and child…

  5. A Piagetian Method of Evaluating Preschool Children's Development in Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance; Peper, Robert

    A preschool curriculum for lower class children was developed based on Piaget's theory. Evaluation procedures were developed to parallel a Piagetian curriculum. According to Piagetian theory, the mechanism of classification is the coordination of the intensive and extensive properties of a group of objects. The ability to dichotomously classify…

  6. Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town. ... Journal Home > Vol 79, No 6 (1991) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... by the screening process. Developmental milestones were similar to those studies reported in the literature. At 12 months the development correlated best with family stability.

  7. Preschool self regulation predicts later mental health and educational achievement in very preterm and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Lianne J; Lu, Zhigang; Morris, Alyssa R; Healey, Dione M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the extent to which preschool emotional and behavioral regulatory difficulties were associated with an increased risk of later mental health and educational problems. Of particular interest was whether early regulatory abilities contributed to later risk once baseline child behavioral adjustment and cognitive function were taken into account. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of 223 children born very preterm (VPT; Emotion Regulation Checklist, and (3) tester ratings of child behavior during neuropsychological testing. At age 9 years, mental health and educational achievement were assessed using the Development and Well-being Assessment interview and the Woodcock Johnson-III Tests of Achievement. VPT-born children had poorer emotional and behavioral regulation across all measures and time points. They also had higher rates of DSM-IV mental health disorder and educational delay at age 9. Across both study groups, poorer self regulation was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, conduct disorder, anxiety disorders and any disorder net of preschool child behavior problems and social risk. In contrast, only associations between early regulation and later language and any educational delay remained significant after adjustment for preschool cognitive functioning and family social risk. Early assessment of regulation in addition to behavioral screening may improve the early identification of preschool children at mental health risk.

  8. The Age of Entry into High-Quality Preschool, Child and Family Factors, and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…

  9. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  10. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  11. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  12. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes Across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.

  13. The Development of Preschoolers' Living Kinds Concept: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C

    2016-12-19

    Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.

  14. The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile in Preschool Children: A Broad Dysregulation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, Sanne Barbara; Deutz, Marike Hester Francisca; Deković, Maja; Bunte, Tessa; Schoemaker, Kim; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Prinzie, Peter; van Baar, Anneloes; Matthys, Walter

    2015-07-01

    Children with concurrent impairments in regulating affect, behavior, and cognition can be identified with the Anxious/Depressed, Aggressive Behavior, and Attention Problems scales (or AAA scales) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Jointly, these scales form the Dysregulation Profile (DP). Despite persuasive evidence that DP is a marker for severe developmental problems, no consensus exists on the preferred conceptualization and operationalization of DP in preschool years. We addressed this concern by testing and validating the factor structure of DP in a group of predominantly clinically referred preschool children. Participants were 247 children (195 boys and 52 girls), aged 3.5 to 5.5 years. Children were assessed at baseline and 18 months later, using parent and teacher reports, a clinical interview with parents, behavioral observations, and neuropsychological tasks. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a bifactor model, with a general DP factor and 3 specific factors representing the AAA scales, fitted the data better than a second-order model and a one-factor model for both parent-reported and teacher-reported child problem behavior. Criterion validity analyses showed that the DP factor was concurrently and longitudinally associated with markers of dysregulation and clinically relevant criteria, whereas the specific factors representing the AAA scales were more differentially related to those criteria. DP is best conceptualized as a broad syndrome of dysregulation that exists in addition to the specific syndromes as represented by the AAA scales. Implications for researchers and clinicians are discussed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  16. Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Burmenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE BY MEANS OF THEATRICAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Isaakyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the development of comm unicative  skills of  hearing impaired  children  of  preschool age. The changes that are taking place in the education system  now, relate to pre-school  education. There is a change in the direction of education from the orientation on the formation of knowledge, knacks and skills to the all-round development. This highlights the challenge to identify the ways of such development at all  age levels.  The development of speech is a unique, sophisticated process flowing differently in  different  children,  especially hearing impaired children. It is important for the successful development of hearing-impaired children that they have   acquired   from   childhood   vital   information about the surrounding objects and phenomena. Modern pedagogical science, which considers education as the playback of human spiritual potential , suggests the using a variety spheres of education influence on the child. The sphere of art is proposed by  the  authors  as  a  space  conducive  to  the  fo rmation   of   social   and   aesthetic   activity  hearing impaired  children of preschool age.  Given  that the game at the preschool age is the leading type of a ctivity, and it was one of the most simple and effective way to develop communication skills in hearing impaired children of preschool age. The main motive for using a theatrical play’s activities to development of hearing impaired children of preschool age is identified; it is the role communication during the concerted activities with each other.   The results of experimental activities on the development of co mmunicative skills of hearing impaired children of preschool age by means of theatrical activities are depicted in article.

  18. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children. Attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of parents and children gender. The sample included 150 children, 150 mothers and 75 fathers, all the families live in St. Petersburg. Results of the study reveal a significantly greater influence of the child's parent-child relationship and family atmosphere on the intellectual develop- ment in comparison with its structure. Negative impact of attitudes on the severity, harsh- ness, acceleration the development of the child on the intellectual development is revealed. Influence of parents’ gender on intellectual development of children manifests in the lead- ing role of the father’s relationship in girls IQ results, and mother’s parental attitudes in boys IQ results. The authors of the article reveal the importance of the adequacy of the system of regulation and control, severity of requirements for the development of girls; lack of parental custody and adequacy to meet the needs — for the development of boys. The authors outline the significant role of preschool children perception, especially girls, of the emotional atmosphere in the family in their intellectual development. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-008480 «Family as a resource for mental development of children in stable and critical periods of ontogeny»

  19. Interactive Reading in Preschool: Improving Practice through Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Shared reading is a common practice in preschool classrooms and is purported to develop oral language, print concepts, and listening comprehension. The actual practice of reading aloud differed greatly among observed classrooms resulting in variations in potential positive effects. This study examines the potential effects of professional…

  20. The Need for Motor Development Programs for Visually Impaired Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazesi, Margot A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper advocates the development of movement programs for preschool visually impaired children to compensate for their orientation deficits. The author asserts that skills necessary for acquisition of spatial concepts should be taught through movement programs at an early age in the normal developmental sequence instead of attempting to remedy…

  1. Interactive Reading in Preschool: Improving Practice through Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Shared reading is a common practice in preschool classrooms and is purported to develop oral language, print concepts, and listening comprehension. The actual practice of reading aloud differed greatly among observed classrooms resulting in variations in potential positive effects. This study examines the potential effects of professional…

  2. Children's Engagement within the Preschool Classroom and Their Development of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; Vick Whittaker, Jessica E; Vitiello, Virginia E; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study used an observational measure to examine how individual children's engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks was associated with gains in self-regulation. A sample of 341 preschoolers was observed and direct assessments and teacher reports of self- regulation were obtained in the fall and spring of the preschool year. RESEARCH FINDINGS: Children's positive engagement with teachers was related to gains in compliance/executive function and children's active engagement with tasks was associated with gains in emotion regulation across the year. Engaging positively with teachers or peers was especially supportive of children's gains in task orientation and reductions in dysregulation. PRACTICE & POLICY: Results are discussed in relation to Vygotsky's developmental theory, emphasizing that psychological processes are developed in the context of socially embedded interactions. Systematically observing how a child interacts with peers, teachers, and learning tasks in the preschool classroom holds potential to inform the creation of professional development aimed at supporting teachers in fostering individual children's development within the early education environment.

  3. Creativity and the Child's Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents three teacher-preschooler scenarios illustrating teacher actions that hinder creativity and social development. Discusses the connection between psychosocial and creative development in light of Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Suggests that teachers need to be flexible, consider children's feelings, foster…

  4. Estado nutricional e níveis hematológicos e séricos de ferro em pré-escolares de municípios com diferentes índices de desenvolvimento infantil Nutritional status, hematological and serum levels of iron in preschool children from cities with different child development indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luis de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e os níveis hematológicos e séricos de ferro em pré-escolares de municípios com diferentes índices de desenvolvimento infantil (IDI. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 34 pré-escolares com idade de três a seis anos do município de Laranjal, Paraná, com IDI baixo e com o mesmo número de crianças pareadas por idade e gênero, provenientes de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, município com IDI médio. Avaliou-se o estado nutricional por meio do escore Z das relações peso/estatura e estatura/idade. A avaliação bioquímica constou de dosagens de hemoglobina, hematócrito, ferro sérico e ferritina. Para a análise estatística foram usados os testes t de Student, Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e o exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Peso, estatura e escore Z das relações antropométricas foram significantemente menores no grupo de crianças de Laranjal comparados aos de Presidente Prudente. A prevalência de anemia em ambos os grupos foi 8,8%, não havendo diferença significante para a prevalência de ferropenia e para os valores de ferritina sérica. CONCLUSÕES: Pré-escolares do município com IDI baixo apresentam mais desnutrição, enquanto sobrepeso e obesidade são predominantes nos pré-escolares do município com IDI médio. Quanto às alterações dos níveis hematológicos e séricos de ferro, não há diferença entre os pré-escolares dos municípios estudados.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status and iron hematological and serum levels of preschool children from cities with different child development indexes (CDI. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 34 preschool children aged between three to six years from two municipalities of Brazil: Laranjal, Paraná, with a low CDI, and Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, with a medium CDI. Children of both cities were matched by age and gender. The nutritional status was evaluated by Z score for weight/height and height/age. The biochemical

  5. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for…

  6. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  7. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  8. Mainstream Preschool Program: Working Model in Rural Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James Mackin

    1987-01-01

    The Richmond preschool is an innovative partnership between regular and special education. High school students taking a child care course act as aides to the preschool special education teacher and learn to apply and observe classroom-based theory and knowledge of child growth and development in a meaningful and concrete manner. (JHZ)

  9. "We Got Our Heads Together and Came up with a Plan": Young Children's Perceptions of Curriculum Development in One Canadian Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated young children's perceptions of their role in curriculum development in one Canadian preschool. There is no consensus that children have a role to play in developing curriculum. However, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) confirms children's right to be listened to about all aspects of their…

  10. The Development of Preschool Children's Musical Abilities through Specific Types of Musical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolic, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the conducted research was to explore how much preschool teachers value certain types of musical activities, which positively influence the development of preschool children's musical abilities. The assumption in the research was that preschool teachers would choose musical games as the most prominent activity type in their educational…

  11. Supervisors' perceptions of productivity of employees with preschool children in workplace on-site child care

    OpenAIRE

    Marickovich, Patricia Pesut

    1989-01-01

    Corporate leaders at Dominion Bankshares Corporation established an on-site child care facility at its operations center for its Roanoke, Virginia employees. The immediate supervisors of parents of children enrolled in the Dominion Child Development Center were surveyed to determine the factors they believed affected worker productivity and their perceptions of how employees' work habits had changed as a result of the opening of the child care center. A description of ...

  12. Uncertainty: A little bit not sure. Parental concern about child growth or development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Helen; Savage, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Delays in child growth or development are significant problems for children, their families and population health. Eliciting parental concerns as early as possible to promote child growth and development requires close collaborative working with parents. There is evidence that parents delay expressing concern and that health-care professionals are not always effective at eliciting and attending to parental concerns. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of parents of preschool children who had expressed a child growth or development concern. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) study design was used with a purposive sample of parents of 15 preschool children in Ireland. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed using IPA. One key superordinate theme - Uncertainty - 'a little bit not sure' captured how parents made sense of their concerns about their child's growth and development. In addition to watching, comparing and wondering, parents assessed whether their child could 'do other things' or if something in particular could have caused the growth or development problem. Parents, particularly mothers, grapple with uncertainty associated with unfamiliar cues in the complex and multifaceted nature of child growth and development in their efforts to make sense of what is happening with their child. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Factors influencing psychosocial development of preschool children in a rural area of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Aggarwal, A K; Kaur, M; Iyengar, S D

    1997-12-01

    In a cross-sectional survey, 3746 children aged less than 6 years residing in 47 randomly selected villages of district Ambala (India), were studied to find out the environmental risk factors influencing psychosocial development. A culture appropriate test battery comprising 67 test items was administered, and psychosocial development score of each child was computed by scoring each test item passed as 1 and failed as 0. At each age level children having score in lower quartile were categorised as having slow psychosocial development and those in upper quartile were labelled as having accelerated development. Logistic regression revealed that per capita income, education of mother, nutritional status of the child, number of rooms and environmental hygiene in the house, presence of a high school within easy travel distance, availability of a caretaker when mother is busy, child attending a nursery (anganwadi), households having access to newspaper, child having toys or toy substitutes, TV, books, story telling by the mother were found to have a significant association with psychosocial development of preschool children. The risk factors identified in this survey can be used for screening families at risk in rural communities and for selection of interventions for promotion of psychosocial development of children.

  14. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes...

  15. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction. The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from single parent families had higher indicators of anxiety, insecurity, depressiveness, self-distrust, hostility, feeling of inferiority, conflicts and difficulties in communication. In families with pronounced overprotection and characteristics of an authoritarian style children had lower self- esteem and higher indicators of anxiety and hostility. Children's aggressiveness was more pronounced in the case of permissive style and instability of parenting style. It was shown that emotional well-being in the parent-child relationships can be regarded as a resource for personal development of the child: understanding the causes of child s state, empathy. However we revealed that one third part of mothers had difficulties in emotional interaction with children. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-00480 «The family as a resource of child´s mental development in stable and critical ontogenetic periods».

  16. The Only Child Factor in Homosexual Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the life experiences and attitudes of homosexual women with only-child status reveals that their emotional and social development is less favorable than that of homosexual women who had siblings. Only-child status is an important variable in understanding child development. (Author/CS)

  17. The impact of reading on language development in the preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the role played by children's literature in the child's mental, social and linguistic development and in the development of his or her basic academic skills, such as reading andwriting, has been confirmed by numerous studies. A central issue in developmental psychology is what activities related to children's books exert an influence on the child's development and in what ways. Thisinterest in children's books and in child language development places our research into two scientific disciplines, viz. psychology and linguistics. The study explores the impact of systematic and regular readingof selected children's books in preschool institutions on the development of language competences in children aged four to six years, boys and girls. Other contributing factors whose relevance for languagedevelopment has been either postulated by theories or highlighted by empirical studies, are also observed - e.g. parents' education, number of books in the family, quality of education in the family (frequencyof conversations, visits to cultural events, reading books together, etc.. The children included in the study all attend a preschool institution with an educational program which is based on the national curriculumand which targets also the language area. The children in the experimental group are submitted to additional reading of selected children's literature. The development of children's linguistic competences isfollowed using two methods: analysis of answers on The Vane evaluation of language scale (The Vane-L and analysis of transcripts of story retelling after the child has been read H. Ch. Andersen's fairy taleThe Princess and the Pea. The results show, that the children who were systematically read selected children's books in their preschool groups, achieved significantly higher scores on the standardized Vanelanguage development scale and on the unstandardized test of retelling a story. Correlations between some of the

  18. More than teacher directed or child initiated: Preschool curriculum type, parent involvement, and children's outcomes in the child-parent centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20 Child-Parent Centers in 1983-1985 and kindergarten in 1985-1986. We found that implementation of an instructional approach rated high by Head Teachers in teacher-directed and child-initiated activities was most consistently associated with children’s outcomes, including school readiness at kindergarten entry, reading achievement in third and eighth grades, and avoidance of grade retention. Parent involvement in school activities, as rated by teachers and by parents, was independently associated with child outcomes from school readiness at kindergarten entry to eighth grade reading achievement and grade retention above and beyond the influence of curriculum approach. Findings indicate that instructional approaches that blend a teacher-directed focus with child-initiated activities and parental school involvement are origins of the long-term effects of participation in the Child-Parent Centers.

  19. Vocabulary of preschool children with typical language development and socioeducational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Thaís Cristina da Freiria; Kuroishi, Rita Cristina Sadako; Mandrá, Patrícia Pupin

    2017-03-09

    To investigate the correlation between age, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in children with typical language development. The study sample was composed of 60 preschool children of both genders, aged 3 years to 5 years 11 months, with typical language development divided into three groups: G I (mean age=3 years 6 months), G II (mean age=4 years 4 months) and G III (mean age=5 years 9 months). The ABFW Child Language Test - Vocabulary and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) for emissive and receptive language were applied to the preschoolers. The socioeconomic classification questionnaire of the Brazilian Association of Survey Companies (ABEP) was applied to the preschoolers' parents/legal guardians. Data were analyzed according to the criteria of the aforementioned instruments and were arranged in Excel spreadsheet for Windows XP®. A multiple linear regression model was used, adopting a statistical significance level of 5%, to analyze the correlation between age, SES, and performance on the receptive and emissive vocabulary tests. In the ABEP questionnaire, participants were classified mostly into social level C (63.3%), followed by levels B (26.6%) and D (10%). The preschoolers investigated presented emissive and receptive vocabulary adequate for the age groups. No statistically significant difference was found for the variables age and SES regarding emissive and receptive vocabulary. Higher test scores were observed with increased age and SES, for social levels "B" compared with "D" and for "C" with "D". The variables age and socioeconomic status influenced the performance on emissive and receptive vocabulary tests in the study group.

  20. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Warner, Carrie Masia; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent-child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent-child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate…

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire among low-income African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Nelson, Timothy D; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Valenzuela, Jessica M; Sherman, Susan N; Johnson, Susan L; Powers, Scott W

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the factor structure for three of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) subscales, a widely used measure of parental feeding practices, among 296 low-income parents of African American preschool children. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an overall poor fit among CFQ subscales; Restriction, Pressure to Eat, and Concern about Child Weight, (chi(2), (df=87=300.249, CFI=1.00, NNFI=1.07, RMSEA=.091). Additionally, Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for 2 of the three subscales were below acceptable recommendations (Restriction=0.69; Pressure to Eat=0.58). These results suggest further psychometric clarification is needed to understand commonly reported feeding practice constructs among low-income African American mothers of preschool aged children.

  2. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  3. Preschool Science Environment: What Is Available in a Preschool Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsunghui

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated preschool science environments in 20 preschool classrooms (N=20) in 13 midwestern child care centers. By operationalizing Neuman's concept of "sciencing," this study used The Preschool Classroom Science Materials/Equipment Checklist, the Preschool Classroom Science Activities Checklist, and the Preschool Teacher…

  4. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  5. Work of the Psychologist on Correction of Senior Preschool Children Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Marina V.; Bykova, Svetlana S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is due to the need of self-correction of senior preschoolers. Adequate self-esteem of preschoolers will give us an opportunity to prepare them for school more effectively, as well as to create some positive character traits. The preschool age is the initial period of development of a child's self-esteem. This is the most…

  6. Research Project "Subject Developing Environment of Preschool Education" for Russian Preschool Bilinguals (By the Example of Textile Educational Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latipova, Liliya A.; Krapotkina, Irene E.; Koudrjavtseva, Ekaterina L.

    2016-01-01

    The problem's relevance stated in the article is determined by the following: forming preschool bilinguals' subject developing environment is connected with their active education and development, as well as with flexible preparation for studying at school. The purpose of this article is to develop methodology of textile developing materials' use…

  7. Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reading Is Your Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Growth & Development What should you expect as your child grows? ...

  8. South Carolina Guide for Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pough, Carmen; Evans, Hattie

    South Carolina's Guide to Child Development addresses three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The first unit of the guide, Child Development I, concerns the processes of understanding prenatal development, caring for an infant, providing care for children between 1 and 6 years of age, and delivering care for the…

  9. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  10. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  11. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  12. Empathic parenting and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Simonič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experience of the world and life is associated with our sense of ‘self’, which begins to grow in the preverbal period through the child’s primary relationships with his/her parents. Such relationships should be optimal and full of true, genuine and deep contact, marked with a parent’s empathic responsiveness. Empathic parents encourage positive development, while lack of empathy is many times associated with dysfunctional patterns of behaviour in later life. Empathy is a critical factor for the healthy development of a child, especially for the growth of a creative and genuine sense of ‘self’, which in adulthood is essential for a healthy and vibrant personality, one who is capable of coping with life and living empathic relationships. Empathy in the narrowest sense of the word is the ability to share and comprehend the feelings and thoughts of another, e.g. the ability to have insight into experiencing. In a broader sense, it is the basic dynamics of relationships that fully enable us to feel safe and accepted with others and thereby give us space for growth and development.

  13. Maternal stress and family quality of life in response to raising a child with autism: from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    While the impact of raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is well documented, with mothers reporting higher levels of stress than mothers of children with other disabilities, positive maternal outcomes have also been identified. What remains unclear, however, is the role of child age on maternal outcomes. We sought to clarify the role of child age in maternal stress and family quality of life (FQoL) in mothers raising a child with ASD. Participants included 140 mothers of children aged 3-16 years grouped to represent four key stages of childhood (preschool, early school years, middle school, early high school). Using a cross-sectional design, mothers completed questionnaires assessing potential risk (e.g., child problem behaviour, symptom severity) and protective (e.g., family characteristics) factors attributed to maternal outcomes. The results revealed significant age related group differences in child internalising behaviour and ASD symptomatology between the early and middle school years. Lower levels of adaptive social behaviour in older age groups were also found. Although mothers of older children reported significantly less support from professionals than mothers of younger children, no significant age effects were found to contribute to maternal reports of stress or FQoL. The current findings support the view that mothers appear to demonstrate stable levels of stress and FQoL despite fluctuations in key child variables and a reduction in supports, across age, highlighting the ongoing nature of maternal needs and heightened levels of child symptomatology during adolescence.

  14. The Relationship Between Parent Perception of Child Weight, Parent Feeding Style, and Child BMI Among Low-Income, African American Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Jhazmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In February 2011, First Lady Michelle Obama revealed her plan to end the childhood obesity epidemic in America. With childhood obesity considered a health crisis, it is crucial to begin serious prevention efforts. Shaping healthy eating habits and the physical activity of children at the preschool age is a great step toward life-long prevention. The U.S. populations most affected by and at-risk for childhood obesity are African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Overweight and obesity rates are also particularly on the rise among preschool children. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight status, parent feeding style and child body mass index (BMI. A total of 82 primary caregivers of preschool-age children participated in the study. Participants were low-income and primarily African American. Primary caregivers completed surveys that included a demographic questionnaire, caregiver feeding style questionnaire and a parent perception measure. The children’s BMI information was gathered from Head Start’s nutrition coordinator. Results showed that 35% of children in the current sample had a BMI at or above the 85th percentile, which is considered overweight. Results suggest that parents perceive their child’s weight status to be at a healthier level than objective BMI estimates suggest. Parent feeding style was not significantly related to child BMI in the current study.

  15. Child Social Development in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin S. Ashiabi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In his later writings, Bronfenbrenner revised his ecological theory, resulting in the bioecological model that gave prominence to proximal processes and the relationship between the context and individual characteristics. Drawing on the bioecological model, we hypothesized that (a contextual influences will be mediated by proximal processes, (b proximal processes will have a more powerful impact on children’s development than contextual factors, and (c the effect of contextual and proximal processes will vary as a function of child characteristic and developmental outcome. Data used were from a sample of 28,064 six- to eleven-year-olds in the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. A multigroup structural equation model that employed a process-person-context research design was used to analyze the data. In general, support was found for the meditational hypothesis and the hypothesis that the impact of contextual factors and proximal processes varies as a function of person and the developmental outcome. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that proximal processes exert a more powerful effect on development than contextual factors.

  16. Preschool and School Phases of Postmaxillectomy Prosthetic Rehabilitation in a Child: A Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashti, Mahmoud E; Sumita, Yuka I; Aswehlee, Amel M; Haraguchi, Mihoko; Otomaru, Takafumi; Hattori, Mariko; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2016-10-03

    This report describes the postmaxillectomy prosthetic rehabilitation of a child with maxillary chondrosarcoma over an 8-year period. Specifically, it (1) describes the planning and rehabilitation procedures carried out during the period from before the operation to the time when the patient started elementary school and (2) reports the results of evaluations of the patient's oral and psychosocial function conducted during the school phase. The prosthetic treatment plan was separated into two phases (the preschool and school phases) and was started prior to surgery, when an immediate surgical obturator was designed by the surgeons. After the operation, it was considered important to provide the patient and her mother with training regarding how the defect should be cleaned, trismus prevention, and how the prosthesis should be fitted. In addition, esthetic improvements and the ability to speak clearly were also targeted during treatment planning. After surgery, obturators were fabricated in a conventional manner and fitted at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years. The patient's oral function during the use of the obturators was evaluated objectively. Marked improvements in oral function were seen during both treatment phases. The patient's ability to perform psychosocial functions at school also improved during the use of the obturators. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. [The use of therapeutic play in the intensive care of a preschool child with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2015-04-01

    Hospitalization is a stressful experience for children that increases their anxiety and fears, generates resistance and noncompliance, and, as a result, delays necessary treatments. Developing an age-appropriate intervention to reduce the hospitalization-related stress perceived by children is an important component of pediatric nursing. This case study used therapeutic play and drawing to care for a virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome preschooler who stayed in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between 11/13/2012 and 11/19/2012. Stressors faced by the patient included separation from primary caregiver, unfamiliarity with the medical environment and equipment, non-comprehension of the treatment and medication regimens, and loss of control. The patient displayed incorporative behaviors such as crying, screaming, refusing to be touched, and requesting parental accompaniment. Painting and picture books were used as developmentally appropriate interventions to understand the patient's feelings and to provide a means for him to project and release emotions. This strategy successfully assisted the child to overcome the perceived stress of hospitalization and to cooperate with healthcare providers on his treatment.

  18. JING Qicheng wins award for child development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Together with two US psychologists, Prof. JING Qicheng from the CAS Institute of Psychology (IP) has been honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Child Development in 2007 by the US-based Society for Research in Child Development(SRCD).

  19. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be Smart About Social Media Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Parents > Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...

  20. Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: Language development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernhart, C.B.; Greene, T. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level lead exposure and child development. This inconsistency is seen for both prenatal exposure and exposure in the preschool years. The primary outcome measures in most reports are indices of cognitive development, including IQ. Verbal skills may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. The fact that 2 y of age is both a time of peak exposure and also a time of rapid language development suggests that this may be a critical period for such an effect. The later prenatal and early infancy period, at which time the nervous system is developing rapidly, may also be critical exposure period. We examined the relationship of maternal and cord blood lead (PbB) at birth and venous PbB at 6 mo, 2 y, and 3 y with language measures at 1, 2, and 3 y of age. The sample consisted of disadvantaged urban children. Multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship of either prenatal PbB or early preschool PbB with language measures after control of cofactors. Supplementary partial correlations revealed a marginal relationship of cord PbB and mean length of utterance (MLU), which describes a child's ability to form meaningful word combinations. Because this analysis was one of a large number of analyses with both positive and negative regression coefficients, the possibility that this was a chance effect was considered. If there is an effect of low-level lead exposure on language development, that effect is not robust.

  1. Improving Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills through Web-Mediated Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Downer, Jason T

    2011-10-01

    MyTeachingPartner (MTP) is a web-mediated approach that provides ongoing support for teachers to improve the quality of their interactions with children. This study examined the effects of MTP on the preschool language and literacy development of children who are at risk for later academic difficulties. Results of this randomized controlled trial indicated that for English-only classrooms, teachers receiving a high level of support had students who made greater gains in language and literacy skills than teachers who only received access to a curricular supplement. Three implications are drawn from these findings: (1) on-going, video-based consultation holds promise not only for altering teacher-child interactions, but also improving children's learning, (2) technology allows teachers to receive intensive, effective support from a distance, and (3) there is still much to be learned about how professional development can support effective teaching of language and literacy skills to children whose home language is not English.

  2. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...... was available, results suggest that the kind of involvement matters. These results suggest that what matters is the quality and not the quantity of father-child interactions....

  3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-02

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  4. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  5. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung,Patrick W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is lar...

  6. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  7. Parental child abuse potential and subsequent coping competence in disadvantaged preschool children: moderating effects of sex and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Cristina M; Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E; de Arellano, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of abuse potential in parents on subsequent coping competence domains in their children, using a model empirically supported in a high-risk community sample by Moreland and Dumas (2007). Data from an ethnically diverse sample of 579 parents enrolled in the PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence) program was used to evaluate whether parental child abuse potential assessed at pre-intervention negatively contributed to child affective, achievement, and social coping competence in preschoolers one year later, and whether these associations were moderated by sex or ethnicity. Cross-sectional results indicated that parental child abuse potential was negatively related to child affective and achievement coping competence, after accounting for variance associated with child behavior problems. However, child abuse potential was not predictive of subsequent coping competence in any domain after controlling for previous levels of child coping competence. No moderating effects were found for sex and ethnicity, but results showed main effects of sex and ethnicity in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  9. [Neuropsychic development in preschool children in conditions of the informatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, E A; Tarmaeva, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The new millennium was marked by the transition of humanity to a new stage of the development--the Information Society, which is an objective reality and affects on all aspects of living environment, including the health of children. The last decade was characterized by the increase of the use of means of informatization, the level of aggression and aggressiveness of children, the decrease of intellectual indices, deterioration of mental health, an increase of children with behavioral problems, hyperactivity, inattention, decrease of mental capacity. In a study on the example of preschool educational institution in the city of Irkutsk in the conditions of the changing of the informatization level of the society in the time period from 1998 to 2012, there were revealed the changes in indices of intellectual development, mental capacity and anxiety of children. Under observation there were 211 children aged from 5.5 to 6.5 years in the preschool institution of the central district of the city of Irkutsk. There were formed two groups of children: I group--children who attended kindergarten in 1998 and group II--children attending kindergarten in 2012. Age groups of preschool children were consistent with their calendar age: from 5 years 5 months 30 days to 6 years 5 months 30 days. In the study of intellectual development there has been shown the decrease of the number of children with average intelligence level and an increase in children with the below-average intelligence level, the increase of the speed (p < 0.05.) and the decrease of the quality (p < 0.05.) of the information processing in the Anfilov test for the mental performance and the increase the general level of anxiety, aggressive background and unmotivated fears "out" at the present time stage (2012).

  10. The Attitude of Parents to Pre-School Inclusive Education for Normal Children and a Child with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Gubina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the researchis pre-school inclusive education, this kind of organization of the learning process, in which all children are included in a single system of education and training in educational institutions of General type, regardless of mental, physical and other characteristics, where they receive the necessary support and takes into account their special educational needs (children with Down syndrome. The main source of empirical data quantitative and qualitative methods of the survey of parents and teachers in inclusive groups of kindergartens of Moscow, conducted by the authors in April 2016. The subject of research is the attitude of parents of normal children to preschool inclusive education a child with Down syndrome based on their socio-demographic characteristics, level of education and awareness in the field of inclusion.

  11. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  12. Socio- economic development and child survival

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... ... the growth that would improve child survival. ... growth and development to enhance child survival. ... billion people aged 30 years or less.1 The Gross Na- .... try with the investors making huge profits with no bene- fit to the ...

  13. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  14. METHODOLOGICAL WAY TO ENSURE SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AND CAREGIVERS IN THE PROCESS OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Grushina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For example, the CRD MUNICIPAL budget preschool educational institution – kinder-center “Baby” the results of realization of noospheric educational technologies adapted to the specifics of children’s age. The methodological possibilities of creative tasks, technology use computer environment, heuristic learning, music education, narrative learning. The analysis of the importance of ensuring the professional competence of teachers. The efficiency bioadequate methods of teaching in practical operation the OED. Through psycho-pedagogical monitoring of creative development of a preschool child a study of the effectiveness of the noosphere theory; generalized educational experience from the standpoint of using environmentally friendly means and methods in the system of training and education. 

  15. Children's Exposure to Sustainability Practices during the Transition from Preschool into School and Their Learning and Socioemotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and…

  16. Features of physical development of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavgorodnyaya R.V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphofunctional features of organism of children of primary school age are considered in intercommunication with their somatotype. The inspected contingent was made by 90 practically healthy children in age from 6 to 9 years. The anthropometric signs of children were characterized an increase gravimetric type-high indexes with predominance of asthenic somatotype and increase of normosthenic and hypersthenic to the end of the studied period. Complex anthropometric research of indexes of children allowed to estimate their physical development.

  17. Development of executive functions in preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Pushina N.P.

    2015-01-01

    Development of processes of self-control behavior is one of the fundamental problems of developmental psychology. Both in Russian and foreign psychology the idea of self-control (executive control) of behavior in closely connected with functioning of prefrontal cortex of the brain. This approach has been formed under the influence of clinical research studies of damage results in these brain divisions and experiments with primates

  18. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ek

    Full Text Available Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ.Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM, adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC. CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators.478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese. A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06 after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30 indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37. Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71.The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children

  19. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  20. Interacting with the Child in Preschool: A Crossroad in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    How can preschool teachers approach multiplicity and complexity in the preschool? The aim of this article is to discuss two approaches to education, one based on design and the other on open reflection, and to propose "situational sensitivity" as a concept connected within the latter approach. Special attention is paid to the ethical…

  1. Links between Preschoolers' Behavioral Regulation and School Readiness Skills: The Role of Child Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hee; Lee, Kangyi; Sung, Miyoung

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined relations among preschoolers' behavioral regulation, gender, and school readiness outcomes in preacademic and classroom skills using a sample of South Korean preschoolers aged 3-5 ("N" = 229). Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which requires…

  2. The neuromotor examination of the preschool child and its prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, refle

  3. The neuromotor examination of the preschool child and its prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, refle

  4. Child-Robot Interactions for Second Language Tutoring to Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Paul; de Haas, Mirjam; de Jong, Chiara; Baxter, Peta; Krahmer, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner. We also believe that the first impressions children have about robots are crucial for them to build trust and common ground, which would support child-robot interactions in the long term. We therefore propose a strategy to introduce the robot in a safe way to toddlers. Other features relate to the ability to adapt to individual children's language proficiency, respond contingently, both temporally and semantically, establish joint attention, use meaningful gestures, provide effective feedback and monitor children's learning progress. Technical challenges we observe include automatic speech recognition (ASR) for children, reliable object recognition to facilitate semantic contingency and establishing joint attention, and developing human-like gestures with a robot that does not have the same morphology humans have. We briefly discuss an experiment in which we investigate how children respond to different forms of feedback the robot can give.

  5. Child-Robot Interactions for Second Language Tutoring to Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner. We also believe that the first impressions children have about robots are crucial for them to build trust and common ground, which would support child-robot interactions in the long term. We therefore propose a strategy to introduce the robot in a safe way to toddlers. Other features relate to the ability to adapt to individual children’s language proficiency, respond contingently, both temporally and semantically, establish joint attention, use meaningful gestures, provide effective feedback and monitor children’s learning progress. Technical challenges we observe include automatic speech recognition (ASR for children, reliable object recognition to facilitate semantic contingency and establishing joint attention, and developing human-like gestures with a robot that does not have the same morphology humans have. We briefly discuss an experiment in which we investigate how children respond to different forms of feedback the robot can give.

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Parent-Child Relationships Predict Metacognitive Questions to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Foster, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of metacognitive language exposure to early educational achievement is widely recognized in the development literature. However, few studies have explored parents' metacognitive language, while accounting for family SES and stress within the parent-child relationship. This is a preliminary descriptive study to explore…

  7. Development and cognitive functions in Saudi pre-school children with feeding problems without underlying medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Moustafa A; Sehlo, Mohammad G; Al-Jasir, Albandari; El-Deek, Basem S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess development and cognitive functions in relation to growth in Saudi pre-school children with feeding problems (FPs) without underlying medical disorders. Three hundred fifteen pre-school children with FPs (221 with normal growth (FP-N), 62 with failure to thrive (FTT) (FP-FTT), 32 with overweight (FP-OW)) and 100 healthy children (Ref group) underwent in-depth assessment by anthropometric measurements, dietetic history, Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale, Denver Developmental Screening test (DDST) and Stanford Binet fifth edition intelligence scales (SB-5). The main FPs detected in Saudi children were picky eating in 85.5% of FP-N group, infantile anorexia and poor eating in more than 90% of FP-FTT group and overeating in 53% of FP-OW group. FPs were not due to evident psychosocial factors but were mostly related to unhealthy feeding behaviours. FP-N children were still having normal growth parameters, but they had significantly lower growth parameters than healthy children. Failed screening with DDST was only more significantly recorded in FP-FTT children than in Ref children (P = 0.04). The overall IQ value by SB-5 was significantly lower in FP-FTT group compared with FP-N group (P = 0.01), in FP-FTT group compared with Ref group (P cognitive functions of pre-school children. Healthy feeding habits are mandatory to prevent serious consequences of FPs on growth and development of Saudi pre-school children. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  9. Behavior and development of preschool children born to adolescent mothers: risk and 3-generation households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Papas, Mia A; Hussey, Jon M; Hunter, Wanda; Dubowitz, Howard; Kotch, Jonathan B; English, Diana; Schneider, Mary

    2002-04-01

    To investigate whether living in a 3-generation household (grandmother-mother-child) is associated with fewer behavior problems and better cognitive development among preschool children of mothers who gave birth during adolescence and whether it protects children from the behavior and developmental problems associated with maltreatment and maternal depression. Cohort study. Participants included low-income families recruited from 4 sites: East, Northwest, Midwest, and South, who are part of LONGSCAN, a longitudinal study of children's health, development, and maltreatment. One hundred ninety-four mothers who were adolescents (less than age 19) at delivery. Data were gathered when children were 4 to 5 years of age. Twenty-six percent of the children lived in 3-generation households, 39% had a history of maltreatment, and 32% of the mothers had depression scores in the clinical range. Child behavioral problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist, completed by the mother, and child developmental status was assessed with the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, administered by research assistants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that children who had been reported for maltreatment and had mothers with depressive symptoms had more externalizing behavior problems, compared with children who experienced neither risk or only 1 risk. However, when residential status was considered, children with the greatest number of externalizing behavior problems were those who experienced both maltreatment and maternal depressive symptoms and lived in 3-generation households. Children who had been reported for maltreatment or had mothers with depressive symptoms were more likely to have internalizing problems, compared with children with neither risk. Residential status was not related to children's internalizing behavior problems or cognitive development. Living in a 3-generation household did not protect preschool children from the behavior problems

  10. The stories of adoptive gay parents about acceptance and discrimination in the pre-school of their child or children

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. Gay adoption in South Africa is a most recent equal right bestowed on the Gay Lesbian Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) community. To date little research has been done in South Africa and globally on this phenomenon, and even less in relation to the schools children from gay headed families attend. The purpose of the inquiry was to explore the stories of adoptive gay parents about acceptance and discrimination in the pre-school of their child or children. The inquiry draws on Queer Th...

  11. Mass media negative impact on the development and education of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Zarema Shhahytova; Anastasia Sitkova

    2014-01-01

    Globalization and modernization have both positive and negative sides. With the development of information technologies, new problems appear such as mass media influence on person, perception and education of preschool age children. The authors discuss the problem of mass media influence on preschool children education.

  12. Development and Validation of a Musical Behavior Measure for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gina Jisun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their…

  13. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  14. Conflict Competence of Preschool Children and its Relationship with the Sociometric Status of the Child in the Peer Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisenkova N.S.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls aged 5-7 years, attending preparatory groups in kindergartens in Moscow (in 2011-2013. The study was conducted using an experimental technique "Desk of cooperation" (M. Madsen, aimed at the study of conflict competence, the sociometric technique "Two Houses" (modification by R.I. Govorova, and a survey of educators aimed at identifying the status position in the preschool group peers. According to the survey, we can say that there are qualitative differences in the strategies of behavior in the conflict that children with different sociometric status choose.

  15. The nature and impact of changes in home learning environment on development of language and academic skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,018) revealed an overall improvement in the home learning environment from 36 to 54 months of children's age, with 30.6% of parents of preschoolers displaying significant improvement in the home environment (i.e., changes greater than 1 SD) and with only 0.6% showing a decrease. More important, the degree of change uniquely contributed to the children's language but not to their academic skills. Home changes were more likely to be observed from mothers with more education and work hours and with fewer symptoms of depression.

  16. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  17. An Analysis of Navy Managed Child Development Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AN ANALYSIS OF NAVY MANAGED CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS......return on investment for the Navy and its members. 14. SUBJECT TERMS: Child Care, CDC, Child Development Center, subsidy, cost analysis

  18. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  19. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Print A A A en ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  20. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies

  1. One Year of Preschool or Two - Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A

    2014-05-01

    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool.

  2. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A

    2010-04-01

    To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.

  3. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  4. Parental tobacco consumption and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.

  5. Examination of the Relationship between the Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Mathematics and the Mathematical Development in 6-Year-Old Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether there is a relationship between the preschool teachers' attitudes towards mathematics and mathematical development in 6-year-old preschool children. The sampling of the study was consisted of 30 teachers working with 6 years old children and their 120 students in public kindergartens and independent…

  6. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.9 Child development centers. (a) The Commandant may make child development services available at child development centers located at Coast Guard installations. (b) Regular and...

  7. Curriculum Development Program in a Privately-Managed Public Preschool in Taiwan: Overcoming Difficulties and Establishing a Process Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Preschool curriculum reform is currently underway in Taiwan. Privately-managed public preschools (PMPPs) currently play the role of bellwethers because they stand halfway between public and private preschools, and serve as testing grounds for curriculum reforms promoted by the government. This study originated from Curriculum Development Program…

  8. Curriculum Development Program in a Privately-Managed Public Preschool in Taiwan: Overcoming Difficulties and Establishing a Process Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Preschool curriculum reform is currently underway in Taiwan. Privately-managed public preschools (PMPPs) currently play the role of bellwethers because they stand halfway between public and private preschools, and serve as testing grounds for curriculum reforms promoted by the government. This study originated from Curriculum Development Program…

  9. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (PVegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; Pvegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level.

  10. Art Appreciation for Developing Communication Skills among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Duh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary process of teaching fine arts, children’s own creative expression and art appreciation are used to encourage learners towards both perception and reception; consequently, the evaluation and internalization of works of art play an equally important role. In a qualitative empirical research study that takes the form of a case study, we studied the response of children to works of art and their demonstrated communication skills in this. The results have shown that children respond to works of art on multiple levels. With non-standardized narrative group interviews, we observed children’s associations. Children perceived and internalized the given artworks and also put their emotions into words. The study has shown that systematic development of art appreciation among pre-school children can have a positive impact on their communication skills.

  11. The Development of Preschoolers' Appreciation of Communicative Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, preschoolers' appreciation of a listener's knowledge of the location of a hidden sticker after the listener was provided with an ambiguous or unambiguous description was assessed. Preschoolers (N = 34) were tested at 3 time points, each 6 months apart (4, 4 1/2, and 5 years). Eye gaze measures demonstrated that…

  12. Preschool Gifted Education: Perceived Challenges Associated with Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Oveross, Mattie E.; Salman, Rania C.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the challenges related to implementing gifted education services in preschool centers. Participants were 254 licensed preschool center directors in a southern state. Participants completed a researcher-created survey including both selected response items and constructed response items to examine the perceived…

  13. Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala-an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Retnakumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The most common chronic disease of childhood is early childhood caries which is five times more prevalent than asthma and seven times higher than that of allergic rhinitis. Most children do not receive dental care until they are three years old, yet by the time more than thirty percent of children from lower socioeconomic groups already have caries. To determine the prevalence and severity of early childhood caries among pre-school children, to describe the child characteristics associated with the development of early childhood caries and to find the association of early childhood caries and maternal risk factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among children attending the immunization clinic of Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, Medical College, Trivandrum and children attending the randomly selected Anganwadies and Day care centres in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, wherein there are migrants from all over the State. A total of 350 children aged 12-36 months and their mothers were studied. The mother was first interviewed by a structured questionnaire; then the child′s and mothers clinical examination was carried out covering caries experience and oral hygiene status. Results: Among 350 children studied the prevalence of dental caries in this study population was found to be 50.6 %( 177. Statistically significant associations were found between the severity of decay and the child′s age(P<0.001, female gender(P<0.05,low socioeconomic status (P<0.05, feeding frequency (P<0.05, type of feeding(P<0.01, fell asleep with nipple in mouth (P<0.05, duration of breast feeding(P<0.001, consumption of cariogenic type of snacks(P<0.01, age of commencement of tooth brushing(P<0.05, brushing frequency(P<0.05, oral hygiene status of child(P<0.001, DMFS scores of mothers (P<0.001, and oral hygiene status of mother (P<0.001.

  14. Development in the Preschool Years: A Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijou, Sidney W.

    Human development from about ages 2 to 5 is presented in terms of the history of a child conceptualized in terms of stimulus and response functions and his interactions in current situations which consist of organismic, physical, and social conditions. The concepts describing the changes that occur during this developmental period, such as…

  15. Child Development Project: Description of Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental Studies Center, San Ramon, CA.

    The Child Development Project (CDP) was designed to enhance the development of prosocial characteristics in school children in kindergarten through sixth grade. It was developed and evaluated in a school district (San Ramon) in the San Francisco, California area. The features of the program include: (1) an instructional approach that enhances…

  16. Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This final rule makes regulatory changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) based on the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014. These changes strengthen requirements to protect the health and safety of children in child care; help parents make informed consumer choices and access information to support child development; provide equal access to stable, high-quality child care for low-income children; and enhance the quality of child care and the early childhood workforce.

  17. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  18. La preparacion del maestro y la interaccion entre maestro y nino en programas preescolares (Teacher Preparation and Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda

    It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…

  19. Children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech in the preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Åsa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged 4-6 years followed longitudinally over 2 years during which time they had received intervention at a specialized autism center. In this study, data collected at the 2-year follow-up were used. Three categories of expressive language were defined: nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech. Data from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II were used to classify expressive language. A secondary objective of the study was to analyze factors that might be linked to verbal ability, namely, child age, cognitive level, autism subtype and severity of core autism symptoms, developmental regression, epilepsy or other medical conditions, and intensity of intervention. The proportion of children who met the criteria for nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech were 15%, 10%, and 75%, respectively. The single most important factor linked to expressive language was the child's cognitive level, and all children classified as being nonverbal or minimally verbal had intellectual disability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Modern Scientific Research on the Development of Proactiveness of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Agiliar Tukler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the results of analysis of modern scientific research in preschool education, which represents the problem of development of basic qualities of the identity. The research displays that the results of the study on the problem of development of basic qualities of preschool-age children influence the improvement of the content of program provision in the educational process in preschool educational institutions in Ukraine and are meant to be a reference point in choosing the strategy of its reorganization.

  1. Preschool Teachers' Professional Training, Observational Feedback, Child-Centered Beliefs and Motivation: Direct and Indirect Associations with Social and Emotional Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…

  2. Preschool Teachers' Professional Training, Observational Feedback, Child-Centered Beliefs and Motivation: Direct and Indirect Associations with Social and Emotional Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…

  3. The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Develop-ment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner; Hope Corman

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we extensively analyze the impact of child health and other family characteristics on the cognitive achievement of children between the ages of five and nine. We estimate both cross sectional and fixed effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several of our results challenge the conclusions found in the existing literature. First, we find only a weak relationship between several measures of child health and child cognitive development. Second, we...

  4. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  5. Evolving Stories of Child Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…

  6. A Child Survival and Development Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the problems of child survival and development in developing countries by discussing the biomedical causes and the concomitant social determinants of high infant mortality rates. Describes four intervention strategies recommended by UNICEF: growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, and immunization. (HOD)

  7. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  8. Evolving Stories of Child Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…

  9. Parental perception of child weight in the first two years-of-life: a potential link between infant feeding and preschoolers' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 23% of preschoolers are overweight or obese. Establishing a healthy dietary lifestyle at an early age can improve later child diet and body weight. This study examined the determinants of past infant feeding practices that do not follow standard feeding recommendations (breastfeeding for less than 6 months duration, cow's milk prior to the first year of age and solid foods at or before 4 months of age). It also examined the role of parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life on past infant feeding practices as well as current child diet and body weight. Families of 497 preschoolers aged 22-63 months (39.0 ± 8.2) were recruited from 30 child care centers in East-Central Illinois. Main findings indicate that past infant feeding practices were common and varied by socio-demographic factors including race/ethnicity, parental education and child gender. Children perceived as overweight in the first 2 years-of-life tended to breastfeed for lesser duration. Additionally, the majority (79.8%) of preschoolers who were classified as overweight using BMI percentile were perceived as non-overweight by the parent in the first 2 years-of-life. Mean daily total fatty/sugary food intake was higher among those perceived to be non-overweight in the first 2 years-of-life. These findings have identified parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life as a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy child diet and obesity among preschoolers.

  10. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  11. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  12. The Development of Theory of Mind and Positive and Negative Reciprocity in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Joanna; Takagishi, Haruto; Benech, Catalina; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the acquisition of false-beliefs theory of mind (ToM) and reciprocity in preschoolers. Preschool-aged children completed a task assessing the understanding of false beliefs, and played an Ultimatum Game (UG) with another child in a face-to-face setting. Negative reciprocity was assessed by examining the rejection of unfair offers made by another child in the UG, while positive reciprocity was assessed by examining allocations made by participants in a Dictator Game (DG) following the UG. The results indicated that children who had passed a task assessing first-order false beliefs were more likely to make generous offers in a DG following a fair offer made by their partner in a proceeding UG, but that false beliefs ToM was unrelated to the rejection of unfair offers in the UG.

  13. TABLET DEVICES, SMARTPHONES, GAME CONSOLES INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN’S SOCIALIZATION, PLAY ACTIVITY AND CHILD-PARENT RELATIONSHIPS OF CHILDREN IN TENDER AGE AND PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousova, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of 130 families having children of early and preschool age are given. The contingent of investigated has been divided into 2 groups: group №1 - children without speech and cognitive violations (n=80, group № 2 - are diagnosed manifestations of the general underdevelopment of the speech combined with like-autistic disturbances (n=50. All the children were divided into 2 groups: group №1 (n = 80, children are without speech disorders, group №2 (n = 50: signs of general underdevelopment of children’s speech are diagnosed, combined with like-autistic disturbances. Features of formation of skills of social interaction, development of a subject role-playing game and the child parent relations at against the active use of tablet devices and smartphones by them are studied. In both groups intensive and unfairly early game interaction with gadgets is marked. There is a clear hierarchy transformation of the family system towards the loss of parents dominant influence on children without an ability to use gadget as an obedience and encourage. Patterns of parental behavior in the study families demonstrate the priority of spending time with the gadget to joint leisure time and active integration of the gadget into child's life with delegating him an authority of development and game interaction with him.

  14. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, C A

    1991-08-01

    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.

  15. Maternal perception regarding child care and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.

  16. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  17. Independence and Interplay between Maternal and Child Risk Factors for Preschool Problem Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the independence and interplay between cognitive risk factors (poor executive function/emotion understanding) and maternal risk factors (low education/high depression) for preschool problem behaviors, indexed by multi-measure, multi-informant (mother/teacher/ researcher) ratings. A socio-economically diverse sample of 235…

  18. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  19. MOVEMENT SKILL ASSESSMENT OF TYPICALLY DEVELOPING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: A REVIEW OF SEVEN MOVEMENT SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Cools

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of movement is often overlooked because it is such a natural part of human life. It is, however, crucial for a child's physical, cognitive and social development. In addition, experiences support learning and development of fundamental movement skills. The foundations of those skills are laid in early childhood and essential to encourage a physically active lifestyle. Fundamental movement skill performance can be examined with several assessment tools. The choice of a test will depend on the context in which the assessment is planned. This article compares seven assessment tools which are often referred to in European or international context. It discusses the tools' usefulness for the assessment of movement skill development in general population samples. After a brief description of each assessment tool the article focuses on contents, reliability, validity and normative data. A conclusion outline of strengths and weaknesses of all reviewed assessment tools focusing on their use in educational research settings is provided and stresses the importance of regular data collection of fundamental movement skill development among preschool children.

  20. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung, Patrick W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically…

  1. Objective measurement of posture and posture transitions in the pre-school child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gwyneth; Reilly, John J; Paton, James Y

    2012-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that between-individual variation in posture and posture transitions may have important health consequences in adults. The early life development of between-individual variation in posture and posture transitions has not been studied, and the physiological consequences of such variations in childhood are unknown, largely because of the absence of objective methods for measuring posture and posture transitions in young children. This study aimed to examine the objective measurement of posture transitions in pre-school children with the activPAL™ monitor (PAL Technologies, Glasgow). Single-unit activity monitors such as the activPAL™ have a limited output, with data categorized as 'sit/lie', 'stand' or 'walk' and the consequences of this for measurement of posture transitions in young children are unknown. Thirty children (mean age 4.1 years) were videoed for 1 h in nursery while wearing an activPAL™. Video was analysed on a second-by-second basis, with all postures categorized. From direct observation, time spent was sit/lie 46%; stand 35%; walk/run 16%; 3% was spent in heterogeneous non-sit/lie/upright postures (crawl, crouch, and kneel up). Despite these 'non-standard' postures being responsible for a low proportion of time, posture transitions involving them contributed to 34% of total transitions. There was a significant rank-order correlation (r = 0.79, p posture transitions measured by activPAL™ and by direct observation. 'Non-standard' postures in young children are probably not a problem if the aim is to measure total time sedentary or active, and the activPAL™ may measure between-individual variation in transitions adequately in young children. However, non-standard postures may present problems for the detailed characterization of posture transitions in early childhood.

  2. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Vasilenko V.E.; Savenysheva S.S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling) and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction). The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from sing...

  3. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  4. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  5. Insights on the Child Development Movement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Milton J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This monograph presents an oral history of selected aspects of the child development movement, based on interviews with prominent researchers since the 1920's. Topics include reactions to major figures and influences, the relationship of child development to pediatrics and child psychiatry, and the relevance of research to child care practices.…

  6. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  7. Psycho-Social Development of Child Labourers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraudanjoki, Esa

    This paper examines the psychosocial development of Nepalese child laborers. The findings are discussed in relation to the questions of where and how learning occurs, whether transfer or generalizations occur from specific skills to other activities, and what role the socialization process plays in the psychological well-being of the Nepalese…

  8. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  9. Theory-guided Therapeutic Function of Music to facilitate emotion regulation development in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena Moore, Kimberly; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is an umbrella term to describe interactive, goal-dependent explicit, and implicit processes that are intended to help an individual manage and shift an emotional experience. The primary window for appropriate ER development occurs during the infant, toddler, and preschool years. Atypical ER development is considered a risk factor for mental health problems and has been implicated as a primary mechanism underlying childhood pathologies. Current treatments are predominantly verbal- and behavioral-based and lack the opportunity to practice in-the-moment management of emotionally charged situations. There is also an absence of caregiver–child interaction in these treatment strategies. Based on behavioral and neural support for music as a therapeutic mechanism, the incorporation of intentional music experiences, facilitated by a music therapist, may be one way to address these limitations. Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation (MCRF) is an interactive therapist-child music-based intervention for ER development practice in preschoolers. The MCRF intervention uses the deliberate contour and temporal structure of a music therapy session to mirror the changing flow of the caregiver–child interaction through the alternation of high arousal and low arousal music experiences. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Therapeutic Function of Music (TFM), a theory-based description of the structural characteristics for a music-based stimulus to musically facilitate developmentally appropriate high arousal and low arousal in-the-moment ER experiences. The TFM analysis is based on a review of the music theory, music neuroscience, and music development literature and provides a preliminary model of the structural characteristics of the music as a core component of the MCRF intervention. PMID:26528171

  10. Theory-guided Therapeutic Function of Music to facilitate emotion regulation development in preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eSena Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is an umbrella term to describe interactive, goal-dependent explicit and implicit processes that are intended to help an individual manage and shift an emotional experience. The primary window for appropriate emotion regulation development occurs during the infant, toddler, and preschool years. Atypical emotion regulation development is considered a risk factor for mental health problems and has been implicated as a primary mechanism underlying childhood pathologies. Current treatments are predominantly verbal- and behavioral-based and lack the opportunity to practice in-the-moment management of emotionally charged situations. There is also an absence of caregiver-child interaction in these treatment strategies. Based on behavioral and neural support for music as a therapeutic mechanism, the incorporation of intentional music experiences, facilitated by a music therapist, may be one way to address these limitations. Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation is an interactive therapist-child music-based intervention for emotion regulation development practice in preschoolers. The Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation intervention uses the deliberate contour and temporal structure of a music therapy session to mirror the changing flow of the caregiver-child interaction through the alternation of high arousal and low arousal music experiences. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Therapeutic Function of Music, a theory-based description of the structural characteristics for a music-based stimulus to musically facilitate developmentally appropriate high arousal and low arousal in-the-moment emotion regulation experiences. The Therapeutic Function of Music analysis is based on a review of the music theory, music neuroscience, and music development literature and provides a preliminary model of the structural characteristics of the music as a core component of the Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation intervention.

  11. Measuring Explicit Word Learning of Preschool Children: A Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth Spencer

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this article is to present preliminary results related to the development of a new measure of explicit word learning. The measure incorporated elements of explicit vocabulary instruction and dynamic assessment and was designed to be sensitive to differences in word learning skill and to be feasible for use in clinical settings. The explicit word learning measure included brief teaching trials and repeated fine-grained measurement of semantic knowledge and production of 3 novel words (2 verbs and 1 adjective). Preschool children (N = 23) completed the measure of explicit word learning; standardized, norm-referenced measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary; and an incidental word learning task. The measure of explicit word learning provided meaningful information about word learning. Performance on the explicit measure was related to existing vocabulary knowledge and incidental word learning. Findings from this development study indicate that further examination of the measure of explicit word learning is warranted. The measure may have the potential to identify children who are poor word learners. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5170738.

  12. Association Between Maternal Stress, Work Status, Concern About Child Weight, and Restrictive Feeding Practices in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.

  13. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  14. Los Angeles Community College District Campus Child Development Centers' Measures of Effectiveness Project. Second Evaluation Report, Fiscal Year 1983-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfagna-Hunt, Karen; And Others

    The Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) provides a Campus Child Development Center (CCDC) educational program for the preschool children of its college students at all nine of its campuses. In 1983-84, on-site, peer review team visits were conducted to evaluate the centers in terms of their achievement of six program objectives. The…

  15. Los Angeles Community College District Campus Child Development Centers' Measures of Effectiveness Project. Second Evaluation Report, Fiscal Year 1983-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfagna-Hunt, Karen; And Others

    The Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) provides a Campus Child Development Center (CCDC) educational program for the preschool children of its college students at all nine of its campuses. In 1983-84, on-site, peer review team visits were conducted to evaluate the centers in terms of their achievement of six program objectives. The…

  16. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is largely unknown and has not been studied. The present study aimed at testing the cross-cultural factorial validity of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF, as well as the applicability of the taxonomy of preschool psychopathology they embody, to Mainland Chinese preschoolers. Country effects between our Chinese sample and the original U.S. sample, gender differences, and cross-informant agreement between teachers and parents were also to be examined. A Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF was completed by parents and teachers respectively on 876 preschoolers in Mainland China. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the original, U.S.-derived second order, multi-factor model best fit the Chinese preschool data of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. Rates of total behavior problems in Chinese preschoolers were largely similar to those in American preschoolers. Specifically, Chinese preschoolers scored higher on internalizing problems while American preschoolers scored higher on externalizing problems. Chinese preschool boys had significantly higher rates of externalizing problems than Chinese preschool girls. Cross-informant agreement between Chinese teachers and parents was relatively low compared to agreement in the original U.S. sample. Results support the generalizability of the taxonomic structure of preschool psychopathology derived in the U.S. to the Chinese, as well as the applicability of the Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. PMID:20821258

  17. The role of early life factors in the development of ethnic differences in growth and overweight in preschool children: a prospective birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2014-07-15

    Ethnic differences in childhood and adulthood are known, but ethnic differences in preschool overweight and associated factors are less studied. We assessed ethnic differences in pre-school age overweight, and studied the mediating role of early life factors in this association. Furthermore, we assessed body mass index (BMI) z-score development from birth to age 4 years to study ethnic-specific differences in BMI z-score trajectory. We used data on 4581 children participating in a birth cohort who were born between 2002 and 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Child's ethnicity was defined according to country of birth of the parents. Weight and length/height was repeatedly measured between 1 and 45 months of age. Overweight at age 4 years was defined according to cut-off points for BMI from the international obesity task force. We performed logistic regression to obtain independent estimates of the association between ethnicity and preschool-age overweight, and to assess the mediating role of early life risk factors. Mixed models were used to describe BMI-z development for each ethnic group from birth to preschool age. Relative to native Dutch children, non-Dutch children were more likely to be overweight at age 4 years, except for Surinamese-Hindustani children. Socio-demographic factors, parental BMI, and infant weight change in the first 6 months after birth reduced associations. After full adjustment, Turkish (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.34-3.04) and Antillean/Surinamese Creole (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.06-3.02) children were still more likely to be overweight at age 4 years. Ethnic differences on the prevalence of overweight in preschool children can be partially explained by maternal educational level, parental overweight and early infant weight change. These may be possible targets to reduce ethnic inequalities in preschool age overweight.

  18. The Long Arm of Childhood: Preschool Associations with Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, Terri J.; Hoyt, Lindsay Till

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines the extent to which participation in preschool at age 4 is associated with blood pressure, body mass index, and awakening cortisol at age 15. We capitalize on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine differences in adolescent health…

  19. Развитие детского творчества в онтогенезе и дизонтогенезе development of child creativity in ontogenesis and dysontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ЖУРАВЛЕВА ЖАННА ИГОРЕВНА

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of child creativity in typically developing preschoolers and their peers with different variants of dysontogenesis. The article shows that researchers consider the development of creativity and imagination of preschool children through game-based activity and productive creativity. However, they disagree on the issue of relationship between the child’s training and creativity.One variant puts forward the necessity to give the child full freedom of creative a...

  20. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  1. Fricative acquisition in English- and Icelandic-speaking preschoolers with protracted phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, B May; Másdóttir, Thora; Stemberger, Joseph P; Leonhardt, Lisa; Hansson, Gunnar Ó

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared fricative development across languages. The current study examined voiceless fricative production in Icelandic- versus English-speaking preschoolers with protracted phonological development (PPD). Expected were: a low fricative match (with age effect), highest match levels for /f/ and non-word-initial fricatives, developmentally early mismatch (error) patterns including deletion, multiple feature category mismatches or stops, and developmentally later patterns affecting only one feature category. Crosslinguistic differences in phonetic inventories were predicted to provide different options for mismatch patterns, e.g. affricates in English, [+spread glottis] segments in Icelandic. For each language, native speakers audio-recorded and transcribed single-word speech samples for thirteen 3-year-olds and ten 4-year-olds. Predictions regarding mismatches were generally confirmed. Accuracy data were partially confirmed, /f/ having a lower match than /s/ overall for the Icelandic children. Other results reflected language or group differences. The data provide confirmation that phonological acquisition reflects crosslinguistic, language-specific and child-specific influences.

  2. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  3. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  4. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  5. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish.

  6. The Relationship between Teacher Language Use in Enhanced Milieu Teaching Sessions and Child Language Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jennifer Ragan Henderson

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that linguistic input from teachers may affect child vocabulary development in preschool and beyond (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001). Currently, there is little research on the relationship between specific teacher language use in individual interactions on child language outcomes for preschool children at risk for academic delays.…

  7. Child care quality and cognitive development: trajectories leading to better preacademic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Mongeau, Chantal; Japel, Christa; Xu, Qian; Séguin, Jean R; Tremblay, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The associations between trajectories of child care quality from ages 2 to 4 years and children's cognitive performance at 4 years (n = 250) were tested. Distinct quality trajectories were identified: low and high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory; low and high Provision for Learning trajectory. Membership in the high ascending Teaching and Interactions trajectory was associated with better numeracy (effect size [ES] = .39, confidence interval [CI] = .21-.66), receptive vocabulary (ES = .41, CI = .14-.68), and school readiness (ES = .32, CI = .06-.58). The results suggest that a pattern of increasing quality of teacher-child interactions during the preschool years, particularly with regard to supporting the development of language, has a moderate impact on children's cognitive development.

  8. Simple Justice: A Case for Mainstreaming the Severely Emotionally Handicapped Bilingual Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephania; Levy, Linda

    The paper deals with a mental health program designed to treat the 2 1/2 to 5 year old Mexican American child with severe emotional or behavioral problems. Components of the program included a mutual agreement with Parent Child Centers (Headstart) in the community; staff who had expertise to evaluate, diagnose, design, and implement an individual…

  9. Preschoolers' Aggression and Parent-Child Conflict: A Multiinformant and Multimethod Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Bishop, Christa M.

    2008-01-01

    This multiinformant and multimethod study (N = 47) investigated the link between the parent-child relationship system and the display of physical and relational aggression with peers at school during early childhood. Children (mean age = 43.54 months, SD = 8.02) were observed (80 min/child) during free play, and parents and teachers were asked to…

  10. Child Routines and Self-Regulation Serially Mediate Parenting Practices and Externalizing Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Lovina Rose; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies clearly indicate that parenting practices relate to child externalizing behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying this relation are less well understood. There has been limited evaluation of child routines and self-regulation in relation to these variables, and no known studies have evaluated all of these variables…

  11. Classroom Age Composition and Vocabulary Development Among At-Risk Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Tompkins, Virginia; Justice, Laura; Petscher, Yaacov

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between classroom age composition and preschoolers' vocabulary gains over an academic year and also to examine whether these relations were moderated by classroom quality. In this study (N = 130 children in 16 classrooms representing a subset of all children enrolled in these classrooms), results showed a significant cross-level interaction between classroom age composition and children's age, suggesting positive effects of greater variance in classroom age composition for younger but not older children. The interaction between behavior management (1 dimension of classroom quality) and classroom age composition was also significant, indicating that a wider distribution of classroom age composition was positively related to children's vocabulary gains within classrooms characterized by better behavior management. Findings underscore the importance of children's social interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners in promoting their vocabulary development and signify the need to help teachers learn how to manage children's behaviors so as to provide a classroom that is optimal for child learning.

  12. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  13. Early prediction of psychosocial risks and their prevention in preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mirimanova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We review approaches to creation of safe learning environment in preschools: protecting, training, personally developing, creative. We explore the possibilities of this environment examination. We reveal child development risks and threats to educational environment security of preschool institutions. A special emphasis is on personal developmental and constructive approaches. Tolerance development in children is seen as a means of prevention and creation conditions for psychological security of educational environment, and indirect control of children social development process. At the same time, the aim is development of interactional culture in preschool educational institution, built on important tolerance principles: non-violence, voluntary choice, personal responsibility, accepting the Other.

  14. The development of executive functioning and theory of mind. A comparison of Chinese and U.S. preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Mark A; Xu, Fen; Carlson, Stephanie M; Moses, Louis J; Lee, Kang

    2006-01-01

    Preschoolers' theory-of-mind development follows a similar age trajectory across many cultures. To determine whether these similarities are related to similar underlying ontogenetic processes, we examined whether the relation between theory of mind and executive function commonly found among U.S. preschoolers is also present among Chinese preschoolers. Preschoolers from Beijing, China (N= 109), were administered theory-of-mind and executive-functioning tasks, and their performance was compared with that of a previously studied sample of U.S. preschoolers (N= 107). The Chinese preschoolers outperformed their U.S. counterparts on all measures of executive functioning, but were not similarly advanced in theory-of-mind reasoning. Nonetheless, individual differences in executive functioning predicted theory of mind for children in both cultures. Thus, the relation between executive functioning and theory of mind is robust across two disparate cultures. These findings shed light on why executive functioning is important for theory-of-mind development.

  15. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  16. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  17. Randomized Social Policy Experiments and Research on Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romich, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied economics…

  18. 78 FR 29441 - Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... 20, 2013 Part II Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 98 Child Care and Development... Development Fund (CCDF) Program AGENCY: Office of Child Care (OCC), Administration for Children and Families...: The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) proposes to amend the Child Care and Development...

  19. Crossover Effects Among Parental Hostility and Parent-Child Relationships During the Preschool Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    Parental hostility may have widespread effects across members of the family, whereby one parent's hostility might disrupt the other parent's ability to maintain a positive relationship with his or her children. The present study prospectively examined crossover effects of parental hostility on parent-child relationship quality in a sample of 210 families. At child ages 3, 4, and 5, mothers and fathers completed questionnaires assessing feelings of hostility. In addition, mother-child and father-child dyadic relationship quality were coded at each age during naturalistic home observations. Results from structural equation analyses indicated that mother and father hostility were relatively stable over the two year period. Further, results were consistent with notions of fathering vulnerability, such that the father-child relationship might be especially susceptible to parental hostility. Possible compensatory processes, wherein mothers may compensate for father hostility, were also explored. Child and parent gender add further complexity to the results, as the father-son relationship appears most susceptible to crossover effects of parental hostility, whereas the father-daughter relationship might be somewhat protected in the early childhood period. Findings from the current investigation highlight the need for broader perspectives on family functioning, considering influences across family subsystems and the effects of both parent and child gender.

  20. The zone of proximal development during assessment of intellectual development in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovieva Yu.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The zone of proximal development is a well-known and frequently referenced term within cultural historical psychology. Nevertheless, it is rarely used in the concrete practice of assessing intellectual development. The majority of proposals for such assessment are based on a behavioral and psychometric conception of development. This study presents a Scheme for Evaluation of Intellectual Development based on the concept of the zone of proximal development and on gradual intellectual development. The Scheme was applied to 160 Mexican pre-school children from rural, suburban, official, and private kindergartens. The Scheme permitted us to determine the zone of proximal development by evaluating the children’s level of external orientation during the solution of new intellectual tasks. Three levels of orientation through external help were established. The results showed that the majority of children from all groups managed to fulfil new tasks after receiving external help, which indicated the existence of their zone of proximal development. Differences were detected in the use of the level of help in all groups. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the level of helping received, the degree of fulfilment of the task, and the children’s socio-cultural group. The results permitted us to establish more precisely the zone of proximal development at pre-school age. We discuss how the concept of the zone of proximal development might be used in concrete psychological practice and research, instead of being only a well-known term at a declarative level.

  1. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lapo Mughini-Gras; Roan Pijnacker; Moniek Heusinkveld; Remko Enserink; Rody Zuidema; Erwin Duizer; Titia Kortbeek; Wilfrid van Pelt

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children...

  2. INFLUENCE OF PROGRAMMED EXERCISE ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stanojević

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted on a sample of 36 examinees consisting of male children of preschool institutions in Niš, aged five and six ± 6 months. The main objective of the research was to determine the adaptive processes influenced by programmed exercise on the development of motor skills of preschool children. The aim was to provide the conditions for the establishment of rational procedures for optimal planning, programming and control of the motor exercise of preschool child...

  3. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  4. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  5. Parents and Schools as Partners in Preschool Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Describes a successful, cost-effective program for at-risk preschoolers designed to improve youngsters' test scores and social habits and develop parents' skills. The Mascoutah, Illinois, program involves guided child observation by parents, individually designed home activities for kindergarten readiness, parent-child cooperation, and a high…

  6. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  7. Structural Equation Modeling of the Effects of Family, Preschool, and Stunting on the Cognitive Development of School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi Rachel; Matthews, Glenda Beverley; Taylor, Myra; Kvalsvig, Jane Dene; Davidson, Leslie; Kauchali, Shuaib; Mellins, Claude

    2017-01-01

    A recent study based on a sample of 1,580 children from five adjacent geographical locations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was carried out to examine the association of nutrition, family influence, preschool education, and disadvantages in geographical location with the cognitive development of school children. Data were collected on the children from 2009 to 2011 for this developmental study and included cognitive scores and information on the health and nutrition of the children. The current study analyzed the association of demographic variables (geographical location (site)), child variables (sex, preschool education and socioeconomic status), parental level of education (maternal and paternal), child’s health (HIV status and hemoglobin level) and anthropometric measures of nutritional status (height-for-age) with children’s cognitive outcomes. The hypothesis is that the nutritional status of children is a pathway through which the indirect effects of the variables of interest exert influence on their cognitive outcomes. Factor analysis based on principal components was used to create a variable based on the cognitive measures, correlations were used to examine the bivariate association between the variables of interest in the preliminary analysis and a path analysis was constructed, which was used for the disaggregation of the direct and indirect effects of the predictors for each cognitive test in a structural equation model. The results revealed that nutritional status directly predicts cognitive test scores and is a path through which other variables indirectly influence children’s cognitive outcome and development. PMID:28555186

  8. Structural Equation Modeling of the Effects of Family, Preschool, and Stunting on the Cognitive Development of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Rachel Ajayi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A recent study based on a sample of 1,580 children from five adjacent geographical locations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was carried out to examine the association of nutrition, family influence, preschool education, and disadvantages in geographical location with the cognitive development of school children. Data were collected on the children from 2009 to 2011 for this developmental study and included cognitive scores and information on the health and nutrition of the children. The current study analyzed the association of demographic variables (geographical location (site, child variables (sex, preschool education and socioeconomic status, parental level of education (maternal and paternal, child’s health (HIV status and hemoglobin level and anthropometric measures of nutritional status (height-for-age with children’s cognitive outcomes. The hypothesis is that the nutritional status of children is a pathway through which the indirect effects of the variables of interest exert influence on their cognitive outcomes. Factor analysis based on principal components was used to create a variable based on the cognitive measures, correlations were used to examine the bivariate association between the variables of interest in the preliminary analysis and a path analysis was constructed, which was used for the disaggregation of the direct and indirect effects of the predictors for each cognitive test in a structural equation model. The results revealed that nutritional status directly predicts cognitive test scores and is a path through which other variables indirectly influence children’s cognitive outcome and development.

  9. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  10. Preschoolers' influence on and help with beverage selection at the grocery store is linked to maternal responsiveness and child beverage intake: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Guzman, Melissa; Wakefield, Dorothy; Sisson, Susan B; Mayeux, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Children's involvement in beverage selection or purchase has seldom been investigated. The responsiveness dimension of parental feeding styles has been related to healthy maternal feeding practices. Assessing mothers' reports of responsiveness and demandingness in grocery stores may shed light on influences on purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit juice (FJ). Study objectives were to explore whether (1) maternal responsiveness and demandingness were associated with preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases during grocery shopping and whether (2) preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases were associated with child intake of these beverages. Mothers of 3-to-5-year-old children (n=185) who co-shopped with the child completed the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire, reported frequency of child help with selection and influence on beverage purchase via questionnaire, and provided a one-day weekend food recall for the child. In adjusted logistic regressions, responsiveness was associated with child help selecting FJ (OR=6.50, 95% CI[1.04, 40.75], pparenting behaviors associated with grocery shopping should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  12. Preschool Integration: Recommendations for School Administrators. Policy and Practice in Early Childhood Special Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rose, Deborah F.

    This paper offers recommendations for establishing meaningful integration opportunities for preschool children with disabilities, derived from the work of the Research Institute on Preschool Mainstreaming, a 5-year federally funded project of St. Peter's Child Development Centers, Inc., in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The knowledge base on preschool…

  13. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  14. Why Screening Canadian Preschoolers for Language Delays Is More Difficult than It Should Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Virginia; Montgomery, Lorna; Boychyn, Ellen; Young, Roxanne; vanRyn, Elizabeth; McLachlan, Dorothy; Neufeld, Judi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the ability of four American screening tests to identify preschool-age Canadian children with language delays. At 54 months, 110 children from five Ontario infant and child development programs completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, Brigance Preschool Screen, and Early Screening…

  15. Basic Factors that Affect General Academic Motivation Levels of Candidate Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoz, Nadir

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the…

  16. "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD" as an Innovative Approach to Training and Education of Children at Preschool Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Larisa; Shkolyar, Luidmila; Savenkova, Luibov

    2016-01-01

    The authors reveal an innovative approach to training and education of preschool children. This approach is called "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD". It is based on the idea that the development of the preschool child's personality should be joyous and free "cultural self-creation" in terms of the collective co-creation, where adults and…

  17. The Relationship between the Duration of Preschool Education and Primary School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Özgül; Yavuz, Ezgi Aksin

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood experiences have a great effect on the course of a child's life. Preschool education can offer benefits for children, particularly those who do not have advantages at home, including benefits related to academic skills, social-emotional development, and communication. Thus, preschool experiences are a potential key to improving…

  18. Storytelling as an approach to evaluate the child's level of speech development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Both in developmental psychology and in linguistics, the child's storytelling is an interesting topic of research from the point of view of evaluating the child's level of speech development, especially of its pragmatic component, and from the point of view of teaching and learning in the preschool period. In the present study, children's storytelling in different situational contexts was analyzed and evaluated: with a picture book without any text, after listening to a text from a picture book, and after a suggested story beginning (ie., with the introductory sentence given to them. The sample included children of three age groups, approximately 4, 6 and 8 years; each age group had approximately the same numbers of boys and girls. A total of over 300 stories were collected, which were subsequently analyzed and evaluated using a set of story developmental level criteria. Two key criteria were used: story coherence and cohesion. Comparisons by age and gender, as well as by context of storytelling, show significant developmental differences in story content and structure for different age groups, and the important role of storytelling context. Differences in storytelling between boys and girls did not prove statistically significant. The findings also suggest new options and approaches for further stimulations of speech development within preschool and primary school curricula might be considered.

  19. Operation of the Pinellas Plant Child Development Center/Partnership School: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    The US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL), through the DOE Pinellas Area Office (PAO) and GE Neutron Devices (GEND), is proposing a joint venture to operate a Partnership School and Child Development Center at the Pinellas Plant. The Child Development Center/Partnership School proposal has been developed. The building has been constructed, teachers and staff selected, and the building made ready for immediate occupancy. The proposed action addressed by this environmental assessment is the operation and utilization of the school as a Partnership School, a preschool Child Development Center, and a before- and after-hours child care facility. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the potential impacts from the operation of the proposed action are assessed. Additionally, since the proposed school is located next to an industrial facility, impacts on the school population from routine plant operations, as well as abnormal events, are analyzed, and changes in plant operation that may be prudent are considered. 25 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Operation of the Pinellas Plant Child Development Center/Partnership School: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    The US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL), through the DOE Pinellas Area Office (PAO) and GE Neutron Devices (GEND), is proposing a joint venture to operate a Partnership School and Child Development Center at the Pinellas Plant. The Child Development Center/Partnership School proposal has been developed. The building has been constructed, teachers and staff selected, and the building made ready for immediate occupancy. The proposed action addressed by this environmental assessment is the operation and utilization of the school as a Partnership School, a preschool Child Development Center, and a before- and after-hours child care facility. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the potential impacts from the operation of the proposed action are assessed. Additionally, since the proposed school is located next to an industrial facility, impacts on the school population from routine plant operations, as well as abnormal events, are analyzed, and changes in plant operation that may be prudent are considered. 25 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  2. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  3. Child Growth and Development: A Basis for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Francis

    1980-01-01

    Reviews social, economic, educational, and commercial interests that compete for the control of resources allocated to young children. Proposes that public policy for the child be based on child growth and development, rather than on other factors. (Author/GC)

  4. Storytelling with robots: Learning companions for preschool children's language development

    OpenAIRE

    Kory, Jacqueline Marie; Breazeal, Cynthia Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Children's oral language skills in preschool can predict their academic success later in life. As such, increasing children's skills early on could improve their success in middle and high school. To this end, we propose that a robotic learning companion could supplement children's early language education. The robot targets both the social nature of language learning and the adaptation necessary to help individual children. The robot is designed as a social character that interacts with chil...

  5. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite

    2011-01-01

    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development, but…

  7. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  8. Starting Small: Building Preschool Teacher Knowledge that Supports Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anne E.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Callahan, Mia D.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research is emerging that investigates the teacher knowledge base essential for supporting reading and writing development at the elementary school level. However, even though increasing recognition is given to the pivotal role that preschool teachers play in cultivating children's early literacy development, considerably fewer…

  9. Narrative Development among Language-Minority Children: The Role of Bilingual versus Monolingual Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit

    2013-01-01

    The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…

  10. Effective Behavior Management in Preschool Classrooms and Children's Task Orientation: Enhancing Emergent Literacy and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preschool teachers' behavior management, children's task orientation, and children's emergent literacy and language development, as well as the extent to which task orientation moderated the relation between teachers' behavior management and children's emergent literacy and language development.…

  11. The Effect of Institutionalization on Psychomotor Development of Preschool Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kouliousi, Chrysoula; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Fahantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Development can be altered by several factors which can either facilitate or obstruct development. The aim of the current study was the examination and the detection of differences in the developmental profiles of preschool aged children living in conventional institution facilities (N = 28), in SOS villages (N = 20) and in natural family…

  12. Short Research Report: Exploring Resilience Development in a Taiwanese Preschooler's Narrative--An Emerging Theoretical Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Ling Olivia

    2016-01-01

    It is important to foster resilience in early childhood as this quality is, according to this author, "an individual's progressing development to adjust to life difficulties." This narrative study provides a cultural perspective by investigating a Taiwanese context and shifts the attention to preschoolers' resilience development in both…

  13. Ups and Downs in Auditory Development: Preschoolers' Sensitivity to Pitch Contour and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Much research has explored developing sound representations in language, but less work addresses developing representations of other sound patterns. This study examined preschool children's musical representations using two different tasks: discrimination and sound--picture association. Melodic contour--a musically relevant property--and…

  14. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes toward Internet Applications for Professional Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Si

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on preschool teachers' attitudes toward integrated Internet applications for professional development by a survey in Taiwan. The researcher developed a survey questionnaire consisting of five factors: usefulness, effectiveness, behavioral intention, Internet connection, and professional competence. This study analyzed the survey…

  15. Development and Validation of the Preschool Temperament Classification System for Use with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munis, Pelin; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Henderson, Heather A.; George, J'Lene

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the development and validation of a new measure of temperament, the Preschool Temperament Classification System (PTCS). The PTCS was developed as a typological measure that identifies children's temperament styles as undercontrolled, resilient, or overcontrolled. The PTCS is a time efficient…

  16. Developing Relationships between Language and Behaviour in Preschool Children from the Early Language in Victoria Study: Implications for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Lesley; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Cini, Eileen; Eadie, Patricia; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Following a biopsychosocial model, the study investigated the role of child factors (gender, IQ), maternal factors (psychological distress, maternal education and vocabulary, maternal distress) and environmental factors (SES) in the relationship between language impairment and behaviour problems in preschool children. Participants were drawn from…

  17. [Child development in poor areas of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Adrián Alberto; Gallestey, Jorge Bacallao; Vargas-Machuca, Rocío; Velarde, Roxana Aguilar

    2017-06-08

    The objective of the study was to demonstrate the influence of several socioeconomic factors on the motor and language development of children under 5 from the baseline study conducted within the framework of the Joint Program for Children, Food Security, and Nutrition, implemented by five United Nations agencies across 65 districts in the departments of Loreto, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, and Apurímac, Peru. Dichotomous logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of achievement of motor and language milestones, while polynomial regression models were used to estimate the last milestone achieved and the number of milestones achieved. The study analyzes the influence that maternal education, urban vs. rural housing, and unmet basic needs have on the difference between actual results and expected results for age was analyzed. Children living in rural areas, those whose mothers had low educational attainment, and those from households with unmet basic needs exhibited poorer outcomes in the two areas of development assessed. As the number of risk factors increased, so did the developmental delay. Evaluation of child development and follow-up of families during the child-rearing process should be prioritized by health systems and social programs. The instruments used were sensitive to three criteria for validation.

  18. Millennium development goals and child undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwari, A K

    2013-05-01

    Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track.

  19. Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Knowledge of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Practices for Preschoolers: Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derscheid, Linda E.; Kim, So-Yeun; Zittel, Lauriece L.; Umoren, Josephine; Henry, Beverly W.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity remains a problem in the United States. Preschool teachers can help to attenuate it but need to have the confidence or self-efficacy to provide healthy practices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (a) develop and validate a preschool teacher self-efficacy tool to examine teachers' confidence in addressing the nutrition…

  20. "Play Skills" for Shy Children: Development of a "Social Skills Facilitated Play" Early Intervention Program for Extremely Inhibited Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Schneider, Barry H.; Matheson, Adrienne; Graham, Allison

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide a preliminary evaluation of a social-skills-based early intervention program specifically designed to assist extremely inhibited preschoolers. Participants were a sample of n = 522 extremely inhibited preschool-aged children, who were randomly assigned to either the "Social Skills…

  1. Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW): a family-centered, community-based obesity prevention randomized controlled trial for preschool child-parent pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Heerman, William J; Mistry, Rishi S; Barkin, Shari L

    2013-11-01

    Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) is a randomized controlled trial that tests the efficacy of a family-centered, community-based, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity among preschool-aged children. Focusing on parent-child pairs, GROW utilizes a multi-level framework, which accounts for macro (i.e., built-environment) and micro (i.e., genetics) level systems that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. Six hundred parent-child pairs will be randomized to a 3-year healthy lifestyle intervention or a 3-year school readiness program. Eligible children are enrolled between ages 3 and 5, are from minority communities, and are not obese. The principal site for the GROW intervention is local community recreation centers and libraries. The primary outcome is childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory at the end of the three-year study period. In addition to other anthropometric measurements, mediators and moderators of growth are considered, including genetics, accelerometry, and diet recall. GROW is a staged intensity intervention, consisting of intensive, maintenance, and sustainability phases. Throughout the study, parents build skills in nutrition, physical activity, and parenting, concurrently forming new social networks. Participants are taught goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem solving techniques to facilitate sustainable behavior change. The GROW curriculum uses low health literacy communication and social media to communicate key health messages. The control arm is administered to both control and intervention participants. By conducting this trial in public community centers, and by implementing a family-centered approach to sustainable healthy childhood growth, we aim to develop an exportable community-based intervention to address the expanding public health crisis of pediatric obesity.

  2. Development of the responsiveness to child feeding cues scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent–child feeding interactions during the first 2 years of life are thought to shape child appetite and obesity risk, but remain poorly studied. This research was designed to develop and assess the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale, an observational measure of caregiver responsiveness to...

  3. Child and Family Development Research. OPRE Report 2014-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…

  4. Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.5-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Rescorla, Leslie A; Harder, Valerie S; Ang, Rebecca P; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Gudmundsson, Halldor S; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G; Woo, Bernardine S C; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R; Verhulst, Frank C

    2010-12-01

    To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture-general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5-5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  6. Preschool and Primary School Influences on the Development of Children's Early Numeracy Skills between the Ages of 3 and 7 Years in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Grosse, Christiane; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Ebert, Susanne; Weinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how preschool and primary school interact to influence children's cognitive development. The present investigation explores German children's numeracy skills between age 3 (1st year of preschool) and age 7 (1st year of primary school). We first identified the influence of preschool experience on development while…

  7. A longitudinal investigation of the role of quantity and quality of child-directed speech in vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2012-01-01

    Quantity and quality of caregiver input was examined longitudinally in a sample of 50 parent-child dyads to determine which aspects of input contribute most to children's vocabulary skill across early development. Measures of input gleaned from parent-child interactions at child ages 18, 30, and 42months were examined in relation to children's vocabulary skill on a standardized measure 1year later (e.g., 30, 42, and 54months). Results show that controlling for socioeconomic status, input quantity, and children's previous vocabulary skill; using a diverse and sophisticated vocabulary with toddlers; and using decontextualized language (e.g., narrative) with preschoolers explains additional variation in later vocabulary ability. The differential effects of various aspects of the communicative environment at several points in early vocabulary development are discussed.

  8. Multiple adverse experiences and child cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W

    2016-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, children's social environments shape their cognitive development. Children exposed to multiple adversities in their social environment are more likely to have poorer cognitive outcomes. These findings have prompted interest among pediatric and public health communities to screen and connect youth to appropriate interventions that ameliorate the detrimental effects of adverse exposures. Such intervention efforts can be improved with a stronger conceptual understanding of the relationship between multiple adverse exposures and child cognitive development. This includes disentangling adverse exposures from other risk factors or underlying mechanisms, specifying mechanisms of action, and determining when adverse exposures are most detrimental. This review summarizes findings from the literature on each of these areas and proposes a conceptual model to guide further research and intervention.

  9. Parents' Discourses about Language Strategies for Their Children's Preschool Bilingual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The study focused on immigrant parents' discourses about strategies for their children's preschool bilingual development and education. The article investigated how immigrant parents described and explained these strategies. The study was based on semi-structured interviews with 4 families. The 8 parents were Russian-speaking immigrants to Israel…

  10. Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

  11. Developing Preschool Deaf Children's Language and Literacy Learning from an Educational Media Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31)…

  12. Development and Validation of a Behavioral Screener for Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine A.; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the development of a short behavioral scale that could be used to assess preschoolers' behavior while still retaining adequate scale coverage, reliability, and validity. Factor analysis and item analysis techniques were applied to data from a nationally representative, normative database to create a…

  13. Developing Sound Skills for Reading: Teaching Phonological Awareness to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliver, Megan; Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Leigh, Greg; Gunnourie, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of intervention for developing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers' phonological awareness (PA) skills. Thirty children (mean age 57 months) with aided, bilateral hearing loss (and who primarily communicated using spoken English) were recruited in the year prior to commencing formal schooling. The…

  14. Developing Turkish Preservice Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Understanding about Teaching Science through Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulunuz, Mizrap

    2012-01-01

    This research studied the development of preservice teachers' understandings and attitudes about teaching science through playful experiences. Subjects were 94 senior preservice teachers in two sections of a science methods class on teaching preschool children. Data sources were semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaire at the…

  15. Developing Preschool Deaf Children's Language and Literacy Learning from an Educational Media Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31)…

  16. Can Professional Development for Teachers Enhance Language and Literacy Environments for Preschoolers? Evaluation Science Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study, "Building Support for Language and Literacy in Preschool Classrooms through In-Service Professional Development: Effects of the Literacy Environment Enrichment…

  17. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  18. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  19. The Development of Recipient-Dependent Sharing Behavior and Sharing Expectations in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Moore, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the development of sharing expectations and sharing behavior in 3 groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. We examined (a) whether preschool children expect a person to share more with a friend than with a disliked peer and (b) whether their expectation about others' sharing behavior depends on whether there is a cost or…

  20. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  1. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es…

  2. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es…

  3. Professional Development of Preschool Teachers and Changing the Culture of the Institution of Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Lidija; Camber Tambolaš, Akvilina

    2017-01-01

    The culture of institutions of early education is a strong network of customs, rules, norms and behaviours that affect the daily life and work of all its individuals. Consequently, the professional development of preschool teachers is not only an individual process of professional advancement, but also a process that changes the culture of the…

  4. "How Would You Feel? What Would You Do?" Development and Underpinnings of Preschoolers' Social Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Way, Erin; Kalb, Sara; Warren-Khot, Heather; Zinsser, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Young children's social information processing (SIP) encompasses a series of steps by which they make sense of encounters with other persons; cognitive and emotional aspects of SIP often predict adjustment in school settings. More attention is needed, however, to the development of preschoolers' SIP and its potential foundations. To this end, a…

  5. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  6. Use of computer access technology as an alternative to writing for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Brightlin Nithis; Samuel, Preethy Sarah; Manigandan, C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of an outcome-driven model of decision-making in the implementation of computer access technology (CAT) for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy. The child did not have the fine motor skills required to hold a pencil but had the cognitive abilities to learn to write; therefore, we explored the use of a CAT device to enable written communication. Case study methodology was used to describe the selection process, child-level outcomes, and clinical challenges faced by the therapist in the use of a consortium model that was designed for an outcome-driven model of decision-making. The critical role of an occupational therapist in this process using a family-centered approach is discussed.

  7. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play.

  8. Mothers' parenting and child sex differences in behavior problems among African American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2013-10-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. In this study, we examined whether associations between observations of mothers' positive and negative parenting and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consisted of 137 African American low-income families with one sibling approximately 2 years old and the closest-aged older sibling who was approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, whereas lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors.

  9. [Homosexual parenthood and child development: present data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, G; Franc, N; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of existing studies on gay and lesbian parenthood and child development. Although 200,000 to 300,000 children could be concerned in 2010 in France, there is a lack of research on this issue in our country. Research among children raised by homosexual parents involves methodological issues, such as defining homosexual families, sampling cases and controls, and choosing structured or semi-structured evaluations. The fact that homosexual marriage, adoption and insemination are not presently legal in France could explain that only one study has been conducted in France in 2000 among 58 children raided by homosexual parents. This study concluded that these children did not show an increased rate of behavior or anxiety disorders. Concerns about lesbian parenting have focused on the absence of a father, the homosexual orientation of the mother, and their negative consequences on the development of the children. Research on parenting and child rearing has repeatedly compared lesbian and heterosexual families, and in the last 30 years a growing body of studies on lesbian parents and the development of their children has been published. Studies about child development, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role behavior, emotional/behavioral development, social relationships and cognitive functioning showed no difference between children of lesbian mothers and those of heterosexual parents. Likewise, parental functioning, the mothers' psychological health and maternal skills were not significantly different among lesbian mothers than among heterosexual mothers. In studies concerning gay fathers, findings generally indicate no differences in sexual orientation, socialization, or psychological outcomes in children of gay fathers compared to children of heterosexual fathers. However, the first study on the adult attachment style dimensions of adult women who had gay or bisexual fathers suggested that they were

  10. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  11. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  12. From "Hesitant" to "Environmental Leader": The Influence of a Professional Development Program on the Environmental Citizenship of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Abramovich, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence that the "Environmental Leadership Professional Development" program had on preschool teachers. The program's aim is to enhance environmental awareness, thus developing environmental citizenship and leadership. The program offered experiential and reflective learning, meetings with environmental…

  13. From "Hesitant" to "Environmental Leader": The Influence of a Professional Development Program on the Environmental Citizenship of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Abramovich, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence that the "Environmental Leadership Professional Development" program had on preschool teachers. The program's aim is to enhance environmental awareness, thus developing environmental citizenship and leadership. The program offered experiential and reflective learning, meetings with environmental…

  14. Integration of main directions of development of preschool children in innovative successive educational system “World of Music”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baklanova Tatiana I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an innovative education system of pre-school music education “Music world” byT. I. Baklanova, and G. P. Novikova included in a new system of Russian preschool education “Paths”.The education system “Music world” consists of an author’s concept, an integrated programme of musical education, training, development and improvement of health of children of preschool age (3-7 years, two grants for children, methodical recommendations for tutors and musical directors of preschool educational organizations. This education system is developed on a successive basis with a set of textbooks “Music” of T.I. Baklanova (“Planet of Knowledge” series.The integrated approach to five main directions of development and education of children included in the new Federal state educational standards of preschool education is applied in the education system “Music world” for the first time. It is social and communicative, informative, speech, art and esthetic and physical development. These directions are realized in “Music world” in several interconnected interdisciplinary contexts: axiological, cultural and historical, ethnocultural, etc. Polycontextual approach to development of maintenance of preschool music education in combination with integration in him all directions of development and education of preschool children causes scientific novelty, practical importance and efficiency of the education system “Music world”.

  15. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  16. A brief review of risk-factors for growth and developmental delay among preschool children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highly prevalent risk factors influencing growth and development among pre-school children in rural population of developing countries. A child′s brain during the first 3 years of life is rapidly developing through generation of neurons, synaptogenesis, axonal, and dendric growth and synaptic pruning each of which build upon each other. Any interruption in this process, such as trauma, stress, under-nutrition or lack of nutrients can have long-term effects on the brain′s structure and on the child′s socio-emotional development. Children′s development is essentially cumulative in nature and hence, the early years of life are the foundation for later development. A Med-line search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on evaluation of risk factors influencing child development. Data were constructed and issues were reviewed from there. Influences upon children′s development tend to be specific in nature and developmental influences rarely operate in isolation from each other. Developmental risk factors tend to cluster together thereby, interventions designed to facilitate development must be multifocal in nature, integrating influences from different domains.

  17. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, Oktarina; Hernawati, Neti; Anwar, Faisal

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyze nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and factors affecting the cognitive development of preschool-age children. This study was conducted in the Village of Babakan, Sub-District of Dramaga, Bogor Regency, West Java. This cross-sectionally designed study was conducted with mothers who had preschool children aged 3-5 years as respondents. Fifty-eight children were included. The distribution of mother's educational level was quite diverse, and the largest percentage (44.8%) had senior high school education. Approximately 78% of the family income per capita was classified into the non-poor category and 22.4% into the poor category. The average mother's nutritional knowledge score was 76.7 ± 2.5 (moderate category). Most of the preschool children (84.4%) had psychosocial stimulation scores in the moderate category (30-45). The nutritional status of children showed that 15.5% were underweight, 5.2% were wasted, 3.4% were severely wasted, and 19% of the children were in the short and very short categories (stunted). The stepwise regression results showed that psychosocial stimulation (P cognitive development of the preschool children (adjusted R2, 0.434; P = 0.028). PMID:23198025

  18. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, Oktarina; Khomsan, Ali; Hernawati, Neti; Anwar, Faisal

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyze nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and factors affecting the cognitive development of preschool-age children. This study was conducted in the Village of Babakan, Sub-District of Dramaga, Bogor Regency, West Java. This cross-sectionally designed study was conducted with mothers who had preschool children aged 3-5 years as respondents. Fifty-eight children were included. The distribution of mother's educational level was quite diverse, and the largest percentage (44.8%) had senior high school education. Approximately 78% of the family income per capita was classified into the non-poor category and 22.4% into the poor category. The average mother's nutritional knowledge score was 76.7 ± 2.5 (moderate category). Most of the preschool children (84.4%) had psychosocial stimulation scores in the moderate category (30-45). The nutritional status of children showed that 15.5% were underweight, 5.2% were wasted, 3.4% were severely wasted, and 19% of the children were in the short and very short categories (stunted). The stepwise regression results showed that psychosocial stimulation (P cognitive development of the preschool children (adjusted R(2), 0.434; P = 0.028).

  19. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  20. Parasite and maternal risk factors for malnutrition in preschool-age children in Belen, Peru using the new WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Núñez, Carmen; Rahme, Elham; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2007-12-01

    Child malnutrition, including wasting, underweight and stunting, is associated with infections, poor nutrient intake, and environmental and socio-demographic factors. Preschool-age children are especially vulnerable due to their high growth requirements. To target interventions for preschool-age children in a community of extreme poverty in Peru, we conducted a household survey between October 2005 and January 2006 to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its risk factors. Of 252 children Child Growth Standards. Risk factors for wasting were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.06, 5.93); (2) hookworm infection (OR 6.67; 95 % CI 1.08, 41.05); (3) age (OR6-month 1.27; 95 % CI 1.11, 1.46); (4) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 5.77; 95 % CI 2.38, 13.99); and (5) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.12; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.23). Risk factors for underweight were: (1) moderate-high intensity Trichuris infection (OR 4.74; 95 % CI 1.99, 11.32); (2) age (OR6-month 1.22; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.38); (3) maternal education (secondary incomplete) (OR 2.92; 95 % CI 1.40, 6.12); and (4) decreasing maternal BMI (OR1 kg/m2 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21). Risk factors for stunting were: (1) age (OR6-month 1.14; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.27) and (2) decreasing maternal height (OR1 cm 1.12; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.20). Overall, risk factors for malnutrition included both child and maternal determinants. Based on these data, locally appropriate and cost-effective dietary, de-worming and educational programmes should be targeted to mothers and preschool-age children.

  1. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Marija; Vučinić Vesna; Jablan Branka; Eškirović Branka

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their ...

  2. The Development of Fundamental Motor Skills of Four- to Five-Year-Old Preschool Children and the Effects of a Preschool Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivonen, S.; Saakslahti, A.; Nissinen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Altogether 38 girls and 46 boys aged four to five years were studied to analyse the linear and non-linear development of fundamental motor skills. The children were grouped into one experimental and one control group to study the effects of an eight-month preschool physical education curriculum. In the course of one year, the balance skills of the…

  3. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  4. MORE MINUTES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES SUPPORT MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of physical education classes in 12 fundamental motor skills (FMS. Preschool students (M = 6.09±0.5 years old were randomly assigned to a control group (6 boys and 7 girls who performed the regular preschool class (which includes one 30- minutes session per week; experimental group 1 (6 boys and 6 girls who received the regular preschool class plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or experimental group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool class plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks (n=38. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 before and after the study. A one-way MANOVA reflected a similar behavior in al FMS in the pre-test. A two-way MANOVA (group x time reflected no interaction in the 12 FMS; also in the 6 object control FMS; but there was an interaction in the 6 locomotor FMS. In conclusion, 90-minutes of physical education classes per week only benefit the FMS of galloping and hopping.

  5. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the time, society and culture in which it exists, but also a model for future society and education. Thus an important research question arises as to what extent we recognize traditional ideas about learning and the development of a preschool child in contemporary preschool programs. Are traditional ideas about educating young children unjustly neglected or do we recognize them in contemporary pedagogical theory even today, at the same time forgetting about the past and declaring them innovations? This paper deals with the starting points for the development of a curriculum. The goal of the research was to determine to what extent can the starting points for the development of preschool children, which have existed in the first preschool programs in Serbia in the late 19th century, be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. A descriptive method was applied as well as a procedure for content analysis of program documents. Research results confirm that the elements of the first preschool programs, which remain relevant until today, can be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. They are related to target orientations, principles and functions of preschool education. However, these ideas are defined as contemporary tendencies, and the fact that they existed in preschool programs that were developed a long time ago is unjustly ignored.

  7. The negative effects of poverty & food insecurity on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Chyatte, Michelle; Breaux, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the first three years of life to the developing child, examines the importance of early childhood nutrition and the detrimental effects on child health and development due to poverty and food insecurity. As development experts learn more about the importance of the first three years of life, there is growing recognition that investments in early education, maternal-child attachment and nurturance, and more creative nutrition initiatives are critical to help break the cycle of poverty. Even the slightest forms of food insecurity can affect a young child's development and learning potential. The result is the perpetuation of another generation in poverty. Conceptualizing the poorly developed child as an embodiment of injustice helps ground the two essential frameworks needed to address food insecurity and child development: the capability approach and the human rights framework. The capability approach illuminates the dynamics that exist between poverty and child development through depicting poverty as capability deprivation and hunger as failure in the system of entitlements. The human rights framework frames undernutrition and poor development of young children as intolerable for moral and legal reasons, and provides a structure through which governments and other agencies of the State and others can be held accountable for redressing such injustices. Merging the development approach with human rights can improve and shape the planning, approach, monitoring and evaluation of child development while establishing international accountability in order to enhance the potential of the world's youngest children.

  8. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  9. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  10. Children’s exposure to sustainability practices during the transition from preschool into school and their learning and socioemotional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children’s exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices. PK-3 sustainability practices were associated with reading (but not math) gains and better interpersonal skills (but not fewer externalizing behaviors) following the transition into kindergarten. These links were not conditioned by the selection mechanisms. The findings highlight who is more likely to seek out (at the family level) or offer (at the school level) sustainability practices and how relevant they are to fighting preschool fadeout. PMID:28794610

  11. Children's exposure to sustainability practices during the transition from preschool into school and their learning and socioemotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D; Thornton, Anna; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that the learning gains of preschool fade as children transition into elementary school has led to increased efforts to sustain preschool advantages during this key transitional period. This study explores whether the observed benefits of sustainability practices for a range of child outcomes are explained and/or moderated by family and school mechanisms selecting children into experiencing these practices. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that both family and school factors predicted children's exposure to several PK-3 sustainability practices. PK-3 sustainability practices were associated with reading (but not math) gains and better interpersonal skills (but not fewer externalizing behaviors) following the transition into kindergarten. These links were not conditioned by the selection mechanisms. The findings highlight who is more likely to seek out (at the family level) or offer (at the school level) sustainability practices and how relevant they are to fighting preschool fadeout.

  12. Quality Partnership as a Contextual Prerequisite of Successful Learning of Young and Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubetic, Maja; Ercegovac, Ina Reic; Koludrovic, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses quality partnership as a prerequisite for the functioning of the institutions of early and pre-school education and for the child's overall development and learning. Considering that child's development and learning take place in different contexts (family, educational institutions, clubs, local and wider communities), the…

  13. Intellectual Development Features and Status in the Nursery Group in Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyn V.A.,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of intellectual development of high-status, middle-status and low-status members of the educational preschool groups. It is shown that the intellectual development of high status and middle status 4-5 years old children is higher than their low-status peers, especially in such aspects as perception, attention, and memory. This integral indicator of high status subjects corresponds to the average or high level of intelligence, and for most of the subjects of this category is characterized by a high level. An integral component of intellectual development of middle-status children is comparable to the one in high-status. In fact, there is only one, but not least, difference between the two categories: among high-status children there is no kids whose integral indicator of intellectual development is below average. Integral indicator of intellectual development of most low-status subjects corresponds to the low intelligence level. We analyzed a dialectical relationship of intellectual, social, and psychological development of preschool children according to the concept of «interpersonal situation of development». The article presents methodical maintenance of structure definition of interpersonal relations in the preschool educational groups. The study proposed a number of scientific and practical recommendations.

  14. Surveillance of child development: practices of nurses after training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of nurses regarding their practice in child care after training in child development surveillance, in the context of the Integrated Care for Childhood Prevalent Diseases. An exploratory study, using a qualitative approach, was developed between June and August 2009, by means of interviews with 11 nurses who participated in training workshops developed in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The thematic analysis helped identify three categories: weaknesses in child development surveillance before training; post-training qualified perspective: professional motivation and empowerment; and a new behavior in child development surveillance. The training was considered to be a powerful strategy for professional qualification and for changing the attitude of primary care nurses, motivating nurses to adopt a new behavior in child development surveillance.

  15. Developing the Many-Sided Background of the Preschool Children Learning Activities by means of Algorismic Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Voronina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the current problem of modern education – developing the many-sided background for preschool children’s learning activities. At the given stage it is necessary to develop the algorithmic skills – the capability of and readiness for solving different kinds of problems in the strict sequence of operations according to the given patterns. Such algorithmic skills have a meta-disciplinary character and can be developed in class and at home. The paper highlights the algorithmic skills components (personal, regulatory, cognitive and communicative and the key indicators of their formation. The method for developing the algorithmic skills of preschool children is given including the three age related stages: ability to perform the linear algorithms (middle group, working with the branched cyclic algorithms (senior group, mastering the acquired skills and ability to perform some self- dependent tasks (preparatory group. The paper is addressed to the specialists working in the preschool educational sphere: preschool teachers, methodists, psychologists, directors of kindergartens. 

  16. Influence of a physical education plan on psychomotor development profiles of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Costa, Hélder José; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Arufe-Giráldez, Vìctor; Pazos-Couto, José María; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of structured physical education on the psychomotor development of 3 to 5 year-old preschool children. The sample consisted of 324 students of both sexes (3 to 5 year-old) from 9 public kindergarten classes in Porto, Portugal. A battery of psychomotor tests (pre-test) was used to assess the students’ psychomotor development profiles. The sample was divided in 2 groups: an experimental group (162 students) and a control group (162 students). Physic...

  17. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  18. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  19. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2001 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  20. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Ehart, Bridget, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2003 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  1. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Tucker, Thelma, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2002 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  2. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  3. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  4. [Correction of psychophysical development of preschool children 3-4 year old with movement disorders by means of Bobath therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhovets, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the definition of efficiency application means Bobath therapy as main correction psychophysical development method of preschool age 3 -4 years children, who have movement disorders.

  5. Ups and Downs in Auditory Development: Preschoolers' Sensitivity to Pitch Contour and Timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Much research has explored developing sound representations in language, but less work addresses developing representations of other sound patterns. This study examined preschool children's musical representations using two different tasks: discrimination and sound-picture association. Melodic contour--a musically relevant property--and instrumental timbre, which is (arguably) less musically relevant, were tested. In Experiment 1, children failed to associate cartoon characters to melodies with maximally different pitch contours, with no advantage for melody preexposure. Experiment 2 also used different-contour melodies and found good discrimination, whereas association was at chance. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2, but with a large timbre change instead of a contour change. Here, discrimination and association were both excellent. Preschool-aged children may have stronger or more durable representations of timbre than contour, particularly in more difficult tasks. Reasons for weaker association of contour than timbre information are discussed, along with implications for auditory development. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  7. Enjoyment of Learning and Learning Effort in Primary School: The Significance of Child Individual Characteristics and Stimulation at Home and at Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, David; Lehrl, Simone; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The present paper was written under the auspices of the interdisciplinary research group "Educational Processes, Competence Development, and Selection Decisions at Preschool and Primary School Age (BiKS)" (FOR 543), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The surveys were conceptualised and supervised as part of the developmental…

  8. Child fear reactivity and sex as moderators of links between parenting and preschool behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2015-11-01

    Reduced supportive parenting and elevated negative parenting behaviors increase risks for maladaptive social adjustment during early childhood (e.g., Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000). However, the magnitude of these risks may vary according to children's individual characteristics, such as sex and temperament. The current study examines whether children's sex and fear reactivity moderate the associations between mothers' observed parenting and children's behavior problems 1 year later. The sample consists of 151 predominantly African American, low-income families with one sibling who is approximately 2 years old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate that fear distress (i.e., fearfulness) moderated associations between mothers' observed negative parenting and children's increased behavior problems, such that only those children with mean or higher observed fear distress scores showed increased behavior problems when exposed to mother's negative parenting. Child sex moderated associations between fear approach reactivity (i.e., fearlessness) and mothers' observed supportive parenting. Specifically, low fear approach combined with supportive parenting was associated with fewer behavior problems for boys only. Implications of these findings for preventive intervention are discussed.

  9. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 12 Months Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Growth ...

  10. The development of communicative competence of the preschool-aged children in context of curricular reform of Czech education

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis introduces the problems of the communicative competence development in the Frame work educational programme for pre-school education (below RVP PV) and describes how to include this issue in the school educational programme of the kindergarten, where I work. The main objective is to create an experimental programme to support pre-school children communication skills development followed by subsequent verification of its effectivity. The theoretical part of the thesis deal...

  11. Expert testimony in a child sex abuse case: Translating memory development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Maggie; Ceci, Stephen J

    2013-02-26

    In this paper we describe a custody case that centred on allegations of child sexual abuse. A pair of preschool-aged sisters accused their biological father of various sexual acts, though their allegations were made under problematic conditions and were contradicted by other statements they made. In an affidavit written by one of us (MB), we describe the relevant memory development research in the course of presenting the court with a scientific analysis. We find compelling evidence of multiple risk factors in the way the daughters' recollections were elicited. Although the "ultimate question" of guilt is beyond our purview, our identification of risks was instrumental in the legal system's decision that the children's allegations were not valid. We put this analysis forward as an example of evidence-based testimony in which scientific findings from the memory literature can be used to frame an expert's analysis.

  12. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  13. How is this child feeling? Preschool-aged children’s ability to recognize emotion in faces and body poses

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined children’s recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children (N = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills, which included five tasks (three with faces and two with bodies). Parents and teachers reported on children’s aggressive behaviors and social skills. Children’s emotion accuracy o...

  14. Parenting Behavior in Mothers of Preschool Children with ASD: Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greet Lambrechts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old. Factor analyses resulted in a factor solution with seven subscales of parenting behavior. Two additional subscales especially relevant for parenting preschoolers with ASD were also considered. Analyses of covariance, controlling for gender and age, showed significantly higher scores for Discipline and Stimulating the Development in the control group in comparison with the ASD group. These findings suggest that mothers of preschoolers with ASD are still trying to find strategies to guide and stimulate their child’s behavior and development effectively.

  15. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  16. The development of Self-control of Cognitive Activity in Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernokova T.E.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of self-control formation in the context of metacognitive development of children. The hypothesis of the study was that in the preschool age, the structure of self-cognition begins to form, which includes anticipating, process and final self-control. The aim of the study was to identify the dynamics of self-control of cognitive activity in the preschool years. We used an experimental technique in which children were asked to identify the problem and plan of the learning activities, implement it and evaluate the results. The study involved 60 children aged 4 to 7 years. In all age groups higher rates of current and total self-control were found, but the most intensive dynamics were identified in terms of predictive self-control. In the preschool age children occasionally show a formal self-control. At the age of 5-6 years old, the children start to develop the self-control structure, and significant correlations were found between the indicators of current and final self. The most advanced children demonstrate meaningful self-control. This is due not only to the development of self-awareness, arbitrariness and traditionally described cognitive processes, but also to the development of dialectical thinking and metacognitions.

  17. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.

  18. The role of animation in spiritual and moral development of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Baranova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Animated film has a high potential of artistic and aesthetic, moral and emotional impact on children of preschool age, as well as extensive educational and training opportunities. The author describes the experience of using animation on lessons in the system of supplementary education. In the process of artistic activity cartoons do not create only background information, but allow children to develop such values as goodness, love, family, friendship, humane attitude toward nature.

  19. Stimulation of development of notion about syntax in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of the research the goal of which was to study the notion about syntax as one of the meta-linguistic abilities that contributes to adoption of reading. Research comprised two hundred children of pre-school age, divided into two groups, balanced according to gender, intelligence and socioeconomic status. The research was conducted by an experimental method test-retest. In the initial measuring, experimental and control group were given the list comprising three kinds of experimental tasks for determining the level of development of notion about syntax, constructed by the author of the research. Experimental program consisted of tasks for stimulation of development of notion about syntax, which children practiced in the course of ten days (up to 30 minutes a day, with the help of previously trained pre-school teachers. After the ten-day training, final measuring in both groups was performed in both groups of respondents, by parallel form of tasks. The goal of the research was to determine whether it is possible to encourage the development of notion about syntax in children of pre-school age by systematic practice. The results of final measuring indicate that both in experimental and control group there have been significant improvements with respect to development of notion about syntax, and that the number of answers in which judgement was based on the semantic criterion (experience and meaning was significantly reduced. In making judgements based on consequences (content of the sentence points to something which is a good or not a good thing to do, moral or immoral there were no significant differences in the final compared to the initial measuring in both groups. Significant differences in retest were found in making judgements based on meaning. The mere experience with test material at pre-school age brings about the improvement of the notion about language, and practice contributes considerably to shifting the

  20. [Fine motor and self-development assessment of preschool children with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendraĭtene, E B; Petrushiavichene, D P; Andronavichiute, Iu P; Vapzhaĭtite, L A; Krishchiunas, A I

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess fine motor and self-care skills in preschool children with epilepsy. Material and methods. The study included 22 children, 12 girls (54.5%) and 10 boys (45.5%), mean age 41.5±19.9 months. Children were tested with DISC and Munchen tests. Results and conclusion. Among preschool children with epilepsy, 50% have impaired and 22.7% - delayed development of fine motor skills. The mean coefficient of fine motor skills was 59.0±28.1. Among preschool children with epilepsy, 36.4% have impaired and 45.5% - delayed development of self-development skills. The coefficient of self-care skills was 57.8±26.1. DISC and Munchen tests for evaluation of small motor and self-care skills are equivalent for assessment in children with epilepsy (pchildren older than 3 years and among boys. Children with psychiatric and movement disorders (72.7%) more frequently have both impaired self-care and fine motor skills (p<0.05).