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Sample records for presbytis cristata raffles

  1. Perilaku Harian Simpai (Presbytis melalophos dalam Kandang Penangkaran

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    Wirdateti -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitred Leaf Monkey (Presbytis melalophos is one of species from genus Presbytis, existing on theisland of Sumatra, which lives in primary forests in the interior ranging from lowland altitude till 2500 mabove of the sea level. The main food of the animal is fruits, and young leaves. Besides, they also eatflowers, seeds, shoots, and some species of insects. This species has social groups that can consist of oneor several males and several females. Mitred Leaf Monkeys spend more than half day resting and feedingfruits and young leaves. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavior and activities of theMitred leaf Monkey in captivity in order to stimulate the animal breeding out of their natural habitat. Theresearch was using One-Zero Sampling methods that noted every activity (behaviours during a specificperiod of the time. The behaviour observation was eating, grooming, locomotion, defecation, urination anddrinking. The results showed that, the main activities were locomotion with average 27.93%, 25.57% forgrooming, and 24.425% for feeding. The positional behavior of the animals was characterized byquadrupedalism as the major locomotion mode, while sitting was the most common posture when theywere resting and feeding.

  2. Ranging Patterns of Critically Endangered Colobine, Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas

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    Ahmad Ampeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas endemic only in Sarawak and Kalimantan was categorized by IUCN as a critically endangered primate that require special attention from research and conservation perspectives. A qualitative study on ranging patterns of P. c. chrysomelas was conducted in the Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak. The study was conducted over a period of 13 months from December 2004 to December 2005 with 213 days of observation. Behavioural observation covered 17 groups with special emphasis on two main groups and 1 subadult group. Scanning and focal sampling were employed as the observation methods. Results indicated that P. c. chrysomelas had vertical, straight horizontal, and cross-horizontal types of movement patterns. P. c. chrysomelas was recorded to have a short movement distance (31.8–54.3 m. Distribution, abundance types, and food resources might be the factors that shaped the patterns of movement and distance in P. c. chrysomelas.

  3. Vigilance in wild Thomas's langurs (Presbytis thomasi): the importance of infanticide risk

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    Steenbeek, Romy; Piek, R.C. (Ruben); Buul, M. (Marleen) van; Hooft, J.A.R.A.M. (Jan) van

    2002-01-01

    This study examines vigilance as a behavioural indicator of the importance of infanticide risk by com- paring the infanticide avoidance hypothesis with the predation avoidance and mate defence hypotheses for wild Thomas's langurs (Presbytis thomasi) in Sumatra. We found that all individuals were mor

  4. Study on bacterial flora in the Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus of the Gujarat state, India

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    Rajesh G. Jani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of bacterial flora in the Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus of the Gujarat state Material and Methods: Thirty hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus (20 male and 10 female, were screened for bacterial flora during the period of June, 2010 to March, 2011. Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus were screened by culture of nasal, oral and rectal swabs during routine health monitoring and samples incubated using appropriate media and specific selective culture methods. Bacterial organisms from the normal as well of affected with various diseases and disorders conditions viz. infected wound, electric shock, road accident, jaw injury, stomatitis, respiratory infection and diarrhea were subcultured and identified for genus and species. Results: Significant normal pathogens of the nasal and oral swabs were found mainly Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Proteus spp. whereas from the rectal swabs of hanuman langur the significant pathogen noted were Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus vulgaris spp., Klebsiella spp. and Shigella spp. The serotypes of E.coli isolated from rectal swabs of hanuman langur were identified as rough type, O138 and O20. The major antigenic structure of E. coli revealed O138 (10, O20 (6 with rough types (2. Out of the total 10 cases of diarrhea O138 was observed from five isolates while O20 recorded from 3 cases. Out of remained two isolates one isolate of diarrhea revealed rough type and one revealed non typing antigenic structure. Conclusion: The bacteriological prevalence in healthy and infected hanuman langurs in Gujarat reported for the first time inthe current study may serve as a guideline for future studies in the same species. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 131-133

  5. Yes we can! The Raffles Dialogue on Human Wellbeing and Security

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    Dr. Tikki Pang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The future of human wellbeing and security depends on our ability to deal with the multiple effects of globalisation and on adoption of a new paradigm and philosophy for living and for health that emphasises people's wellbeing and social justice. Such was the topic of the inaugural Raffles Dialogue on Human Wellbeing and Security held in Singapore on Feb 2–3, 2015. Participants agreed that, to achieve these goals, four conditions must be met. First, equity must be integral to the implementation of technology. Second, there is an urgent need for innovations within our global institutions to make them “fit for purpose” in a rapidly changing world. Third, we must find the right balance between the roles of government and markets so that all those in need can access affordable medicine and health care. Finally, we must realise that we live in a small and interdependent “global village”, where Asian countries need to assume greater leadership of our global village councils. This is the great imperative of our times.

  6. An immunosuppressive tryptophan-derived alkaloid from Lepidagathis cristata.

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    Ravikanth, V; Niranjan Reddy, V L; Ramesh, P; Prabhakar Rao, T; Diwan, P V; Khar, A; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2001-12-01

    An immunosuppressive, tryptophan-derived alkaloid cristatin A (1), and two known compounds, cycloartenol and stigmasta-5,11(12)-diene-3 beta-ol, were isolated from the whole plant Lepidagathis cristata Willd. The structures of the isolates were established by interpretation of their spectral data.

  7. BARLERIA CRISTATA LINN.: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPTLC ANALYSIS

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    Rajasekaran Narmadha; Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical examination (qualitative and quantitative) and HPTLC analysis of phytochemicals of the crude extract Barleria cristata Linn. leaves were investigated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of the leaves revealed the presence of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. HPTLC finger printing analysis support the presence of alkaloids and phenolic compounds (Quercetin) in this...

  8. Ancient DNA analyses of museum specimens from selected Presbytis (primate: Colobinae) based on partial Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifat, N. R.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2016-11-01

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has categorized Malaysian primates from being data deficient to critically endanger. Thus, ancient DNA analyses hold great potential to understand phylogeny, phylogeography and population history of extinct and extant species. Museum samples are one of the alternatives to provide important sources of biological materials for a large proportion of ancient DNA studies. In this study, a total of six museum skin samples from species Presbytis hosei (4 samples) and Presbytis frontata (2 samples), aged between 43 and 124 years old were extracted to obtain the DNA. Extraction was done by using QIAGEN QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit and the ability of this kit to extract museum skin samples was tested by amplification of partial Cyt b sequence using species-specific designed primer. Two primer pairs were designed specifically for P. hosei and P. frontata, respectively. These primer pairs proved to be efficient in amplifying 200bp of the targeted species in the optimized PCR conditions. The performance of the sequences were tested to determine genetic distance of genus Presbytis in Malaysia. From the analyses, P. hosei is closely related to P. chrysomelas and P. frontata with the value of 0.095 and 0.106, respectively. Cyt b gave a clear data in determining relationships among Bornean species. Thus, with the optimized condition, museum specimens can be used for molecular systematic studies of the Malaysian primates.

  9. A New Phenolic Compound I solated from SemenCelo si a cristata L.

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    Qiyan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic compound, named 3-geranyl-2,5-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde (1, together with seven known chalone derivatives (2–8 has been isolated from the seeds of Celosia cristata L. Their chemical structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. All these compounds (1–8 were isolated from C. cristata for the first time.

  10. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD FLOWER EXTRACTS

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    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, flower extracts for analgesic activity. In the present study the analgesic activity of flower extracts was performed. The methanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and were used for analgesic activity in two dose level of 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in two screening methods, Hot Plate (n=5 and Tail Immersion method (n=5. The flower extracts showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000mg/kg. The methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of flower was evaluated for analgesic activity. The flower ethyl acetate extract of Lepidagathis cristata showed 47% and 57.1% activity at 200 and 400mg/kg.b.wt, after 30 min by Eddy’s Hot plate Method respectively. The flower chloroform extract showed 43.7% and 44.7% protection at 200, 400mg/kg respectively. The flower methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed dose dependent analgesic activity in thermal models. The flower ethylacetate extract has maximum analgesic activity with 57.1% (p < 0.001c.

  11. Isolation and culture of Celosia cristata L cell suspension protoplasts

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    Retno Mastuti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental competence of Celosia cristata L. cell suspension-derived protoplasts was investigated. The protoplasts were isolatedfrom 3- to 9-d old cultures in enzyme solution containing 2% (w/v Cellulase YC and 0.5% (w/v Macerozyme R-10 which was dissolvedin washing solution (0.4 M mannitol and 10 mM CaCl2 at pH 5.6 for 3 hours. The highest number of viable protoplasts was releasedfrom 5-d old culture of a homogenous cell suspension. Subsequently, three kinds of protoplast culture media were simultaneously examinedwith four kinds of concentration of gelling agent. Culturing the protoplasts on KM8p medium solidified with 1.2% agarose significantlyenhanced plating efficiency as well as microcolony formation. Afterwards, the microcalli actively proliferated into friable watery calluswhen they were subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l kinetin. Although the plant regenerationfrom the protoplasts-derived calli has not yet been obtained, the reproducible developmental step from protoplasts to callus in thisstudy may facilitate the establishment of somatic hybridization using C. cristata as one parent.

  12. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA FLOWER EXTRACTS

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    Aravinda Reddy Purma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lepidigathis cristata Wlld belong to the family of Acanthecae. In the present study the Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extracts were performed. The methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared by soxhlet extraction method and were used for Anti-inflammatory activity in two dose level that is 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in two screening methods, one is carrageenans induced paw edema method (n = 5, another is Formalin induced paw edema method (n = 5. The flower chloroform extracts showed maximum activity in both models with 50 and 43.4 % of protection at 120 and 180 minutes intervals at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight respectively.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD LEAF EXTRACTS

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    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, leaf extracts for analgesic activity, because the plant was screened only for immunosuppressive, antipyretic activities only, now in the present study the analgesic activity of leaf extracts were performed. The ethanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and are used for analgesic activity in two dose level that is 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per oral in two screening methods, one is Hot Plate (n=5, another is Tail Immersion method (n=5, and the leaf extracts are showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000 mg/kg. The methanol, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate extracts of leaf was evaluated for analgesic activity. . The 400mg/kg dose of leaf chloroform extract has highest activity in both the experimental models with 62.5% protection after 30min and 47.3% after 60 min with the significance of p< 0.001 when compared with 0 time interval and after 90 min it was shown 50% of protection and all the extracts has graded dose response.

  14. Hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant effects of the edible plant Anoda cristata.

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    Juárez-Reyes, Krutzkaya; Brindis, Fernando; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Bye, Robert; Linares, Edelmira; Mata, Rachel

    2015-02-23

    Some studies refer that the entire plant of Anoda cristata is consumed as food and medicine; in particular for treating diabetes, inflammation, fever, cough, and wounds. The aim of this study was to establish the preclinical efficacy of Anoda cristata as hypoglycemic and/or antihyperglycemic agent using well-known animal models. The acute toxicity was analyzed by the Lorke method. Acute hypoglycemic as well as oral glucose and sucrose tolerance tests were used to determine the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic action of Anoda cristata. Several preparations of the plant, including a mucilage (M), an aqueous (T-AE), a free mucilage aqueous (FM-AE), and an organic (OE) extracts, were tested in healthy and NA-STZ-hyperglycemic mice. Glibenclamide (15mg/kg), acarbose (5mg/kg ) and metformin (200mg/kg) were used as positive controls. The major compounds acacetin (1) and diosmetin (2), isolated from an infusion of the plant applying chromatographic methods, were evaluated as hypoglycemic agents using the same assays. The FM-AE was tested also in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by a high-fructose fed. Finally some assays were performed to determine the antioxidant capacity of the FM-AE in vitro. The results demonstrated that the extracts and compounds from Anoda cristata were effective for reducing blood glucose levels in healthy and NA-STZ-hyperglycemic mice when compared with vehicle groups (pAnoda cristata is effective to diminish glucose levels in vivo and to ameliorate different disorders related with the metabolic syndrome in rats. According to the results, the efficacy of Anoda cristata preparations could be due to the presence of active principles with different mode of actions at the molecular level, including α-glycosidases inhibitors, insulin secretagogues, glucose entrapment and radical trapping agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ensemble forecasting shifts in climatically suitable areas for Tropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diniz, J.A.F.; Nabout, J.C.; Bini, L.M.;

    2010-01-01

    1. The effects of climate change on species' ranges have been usually inferred using niche-based models creating bioclimatic envelopes that are projected into geographical space. Here, we apply an ensemble forecasting approach for niche models in the Neotropical grasshopper Tropidacris cristata...

  16. Acoustic structure of male loud-calls support molecular phylogeny of Sumatran and Javanese leaf monkeys (genus Presbytis

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    Meyer Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree to which loud-calls in nonhuman primates can be used as a reliable taxonomic tool is the subject of ongoing debate. A recent study on crested gibbons showed that these species can be well distinguished by their songs; even at the population level the authors found reliable differences. Although there are some further studies on geographic and phylogenetic differences in loud-calls of nonhuman primate species, it is unclear to what extent loud-calls of other species have a similar close relation between acoustic structure, phylogenetic relatedness and geographic distance. We therefore conducted a field survey in 19 locations on Sumatra, Java and the Mentawai islands to record male loud-calls of wild surilis (Presbytis, a genus of Asian leaf monkeys (Colobinae with disputed taxanomy, and compared the structure of their loud-calls with a molecular genetic analysis. Results The acoustic analysis of 100 surili male loud-calls from 68 wild animals confirms the differentiation of P.potenziani, P.comata, P.thomasi and P.melalophos. In a more detailed acoustic analysis of subspecies of P.melalophos, a further separation of the southern P.m.mitrata confirms the proposed paraphyly of this group. In concordance with their geographic distribution we found the highest correlation between call structure and genetic similarity, and lesser significant correlations between call structure and geographic distance, and genetic similarity and geographic distance. Conclusions In this study we show, that as in crested gibbons, the acoustic structure of surili loud-calls is a reliable tool to distinguish between species and to verify phylogenetic relatedness and migration backgrounds of respective taxa. Since vocal production in other nonhuman primates show similar constraints, it is likely that an acoustic analysis of call structure can help to clarify taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships.

  17. In vitro antifungal potentials of bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester isolated from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (Acanthaceae) inflorescence

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    Maghdu Nainamohamed Abubacker; Palaniyappan Kamala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (L. cristata) and to assess antifungal potentials of the isolated compound. Methods: Aqueous extracts of L. cristata inflorescence were used for this study. The major bioactive compound isolated was tested for antifungal activities. Results: The major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester was isolated from the inflorescence of L. cristata. The bioactive compound was tested for antifungal potentials and found to be highly effective to plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820. Conclusions: The results justify the antifungal potentials of both plant and human pathogenic fungi. The plant bioactive compound will be helpful in herbal antifungal formulations.

  18. Dietary diversity, feeding selectivity, and responses to fruit scarcity of two sympatric Bornean primates (Hylobates albibarbis and Presbytis rubicunda rubida)

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    Clink, Dena J.; Dillis, Christopher; Feilen, Katie L.; Beaudrot, Lydia; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Effectively characterizing primate diets is fundamental to understanding primate behavior, ecology and morphology. Examining temporal variation in a species’ diet, as well as comparing the responses of different species to variation in resource availability, can enhance understanding of the evolution of morphology and socioecology. In this study, we use feeding data collected over five years to describe the diets of two sympatric Southeast Asian primate species of similar body size: white-bearded gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis) and red leaf monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda rubida), in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Long-term data sets are especially important for characterizing primate diets in Southeast Asia, where the forests exhibit supra-annual mast fruiting events. We found that gibbons were mainly frugivorous, with fruit and figs comprising 70% of their 145 independent feeding observations, whereas leaf monkeys ate a substantial amount of seeds (26%), fruits and figs (26.5%) and leaves (30%, n = 219 independent feeding observations). Leaf monkeys consumed a higher number of plant genera, and this was due mostly to the non-frugivorous portion of their diet. To investigate resource selection by these primates we utilized two different approaches: the Manly Selectivity Ratio, which did not take into account temporal variation of resource availability, and a model selection framework which did incorporate temporal variation. Both species selected figs (Ficus) more than predicted based on their availability under the Manly Selectivity Ratio. Model selection allowed us to determine how these primates alter the proportion of leaves, flowers, seeds, figs and fruit in their diets in response to variation in fruit availability. When fruits were scarce, both gibbons and leaf monkeys incorporated more leaves and figs into their diets, indicating that these two food classes are fallback foods for these primates. We discuss how different measures of

  19. Cloning, Expression and Activity Analysis of a Novel Fibrinolytic Serine Protease fromArenicola cristata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunling; JU Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplifi-cation of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encod-ing a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (<40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form ofA. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed inE. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result sug-gested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clotin vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene inA. cristata.

  20. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  1. In vitro inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Celosia argentea var. cristata on tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes

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    Fatima Saqib

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, methanol extract of Celosia argentea var. cristata was tested for its inhibitory potential against tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes at the concentration of 0.5 mM by ELISA microtiter plate assays. A significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity (63.6%, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (80.3% and butyrylcholinesterse inhibitory activity (68.24% was shown by crude methanolic extract of C. argentea var. cristata with respective IC50 values of 268.5 ± 0.2 µg/mL, 73.6 ± 0.1 µg/mL and 132.8 ± 0.9 µg/mL. The result of this study reveals the use of C. argentea var. cristata in skin hyperpigmentation, Parkinson’s disease and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

  2. Growth Dynamics of Celosia cristata Grown in Cocopeat, Burnt Rice Hull and Kenaf Core Fiber Mixtures

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    Yahya Awang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Understanding the growth dynamics of short-lived plant could be critical as it would complete its life cycle in a short time period. It does not normally has much time to adjust to hostile environmental condition. This study provides a detail account on growth dynamics of Celosia cristata grown in five growing media for the production of high quality flowers. Approach: Celosia cristata plants were grown on five growing media (v/v: 100% Cocopeat (CP; 70% CP: 30% Burnt Rice Hull (BRH; 70% CP: 30% perlite; 70% CP: 30% Kenaf Core Fiber (KCF and 40% CP: 60% KCF. To explore the dynamics of plant growth and development, data on plant height and canopy diameter were regressed against Days After Transplanting (DAT by using the equation y = A/(1+be-cx while its derivative [dy/dx = (Abce-cx/(1+be-cx2] was used to estimate the growth rate of the parameter. The variation in leaf number, flower length and flower diameter were modeled using an exponential function of y = Aebx and their rate of change was derived using dx/dy = Abebx. Results: The growth rates of plant height, canopy diameter and leaf number of plants grown in media containing 100% CP, 70% CP: 30% BRH, 70% CP: 30% perlite, 70% CP: 30% KCF were higher than those grown on media containing 40% CP: 60% KCF. The growth rates of stem and canopy of the plants grown in the later media tended to be higher at the end of the growth cycle. This, however would not be sufficient to compensate their early losses, since the rate of growth in leaf number did not increase concurrently. Negative effects of media containing KCF were also detected in flower size. Conclusion: Overall results showed that CP is an excellent growing media for the production of Celosia cristata. Replacing 30% of CP with BRH, perlite and KCF did not affect the growth and flowering of the plants.

  3. Purification, characterization and immunomodulatory activity of a polysaccharide from Celosia cristata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenliang; Peng, You; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xiao, Lin-Lin; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2015-11-20

    A polysaccharide CP1-1 was isolated and purified from Celosia cristata. Its average molecular weight was 2.3kDa and it was composed of glucose and galactose in a ratio of 1.00:2.03, and traces of mannose. Chemical characterization of CP1-1 was elucidated by methylation analysis. CP1-1 was a branched glucogalactan which was mainly composed of 1,6-linked Galp and 1,6-linked Glcp with a ratio of 5.6:3.8. The branches were at the O-3 of the main chain and might be composed of single terminal (1→)-linked glucopyranose and galactopyranose. CP1-1 also significantly promoted the proliferation and neutral red phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. In addition, CP1-1 promoted cell proliferation by enhancing the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β. These results suggested that the polysaccharide from C. cristata could be used as a potential immunostimulator.

  4. Remarks on Chalcites malayanus (Raffles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1938-01-01

    Till now it was assumed that the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes are inhabited by the typical race of Chalcites malayanus. At Prof. Stresemann's request I compared the beautiful series collected by Heinrich in Celebes with the material in the Leiden Museum and it proved that the

  5. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa em cardeais-amarelo Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.O cardeal-amarelo (Gubernatrix cristata é um pássaro que ocorre no sul do Brasil, principalmente na fronteira com Uruguai e Argentina. É uma ave ameaçada de extinção e sua população está decrescendo. Dentre, os parasitas que afetam a ordem Passeriformes, o gênero Isospora está entre o mais encontrado, tanto em aves de cativeiro quanto em aves de vida-livre. Comumente causam injúrias no tecido intestinal, podendo ocasionalmente afetar outros órgãos. Neste trabalho examinamos a ocorrência de coccidiose em cardeais mantidos em cativeiro e verificamos sua associação com fatores como sexo, uso de produtos parasiticidas, tipo de recinto, contato com fezes, tipo de alimentação e frequência de limpeza. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, ao entardecer, de 45 cardeais-amarelos, h

  6. Arenicolsterol A, a Novel Cytotoxic Enolic Sulfated Sterol from a Marine Annelid Arenicola cristata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; SHEN Xian-Rong; KONG Ji-Lie

    2005-01-01

    Marine organisms are the important source of the bioactive metabolites. A novel enolic sulfated sterol, arenicolsterol A, has been isolated from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata collected in the coast of Mainland of China.The structure was elucidated using all sorts of spectroscopic data including ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR etc. The cytotoxic bioactivity of this sterol was evaluated by MTT assay. It could inhibit the growth of human cervix cancer cell line (Hela) and human non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-h6) with IC50 of (3.1 ±0.6) μg/mL and (7.6±0.8) μg/mL.

  7. Separation and Identification of Fatty Acid in the Seed Oils of Two New Species of Celosia Cristata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Debao; WANG Haifeng

    2002-01-01

    The seed oils of two new species of Celosia cristata L., C. Argentea L. Var. Crispa Kuntze (Yellow flower) and C. Cristata L. Cv. Spicata ( Red flower), were extracted with organic solvent and the fatty acides (Fas) in seed oils were separated and identificated by gas chromatography (GC). They all contained 10 kinds of FA including 4 trace Fas, respectively. Two new Fas of odd number of carbons in the seed oils, pentadecanoic acid( C15:0) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1 ), were found. The compositions of main Fas in the seed oils were palmitic 20.61%, 23.50%; stearic 1.87 %; 2.39 %; oleic 20.77 %, 19.93% ;linoleic 51.39%, 45.99%; linolenic 1.54%, 1.86% and arachidonic 3.20%, 3.42%, respectively.

  8. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

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    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  9. The eyes of the deep diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata enhance sensitivity to ultraviolet light

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    Chris Hogg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian visual range is approximately 400–700 nm, although recent evidence suggests varying ultraviolet (UV extensions in diverse terrestrial species. UV sensitivity may have advantages in the dim, blue light shifted environment experienced by submerged marine mammals. It may also be advantageous when seals are on land as UV is reflected by snow and ice but absorbed by fur, enhancing visual contrast. Here we show that the pelagic hooded seal (Cystophora cristata has a highly UV permissive cornea and lens. Seals like other carnivores have a tapetum lucidum (TL reflecting light back through the retina increasing sensitivity. The TL in this seal is unusual being white and covering almost the entire retina unlike that in other carnivores. Spectral reflectance from its surface selectively increases the relative UV/blue components >10 times than other wavelengths. Retinal architecture is consistent with a high degree of convergence. Enhanced UV from a large TL surface with a high degree of retinal convergence will increase sensitivity at a cost to acuity. UV electrophysiological retina responses were only obtained to dim, rod mediated stimuli, with no evidence of cone input. As physiological measurements of threshold sensitivity are much higher than those for psychophysical detection, these seals are likely to be more UV sensitive than our results imply. Hence, UV reflections from the TL will afford increased sensitivity in dim oceanic environments.

  10. Ocorrência do gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae atacando plantas de eucalipto em Minas Gerais Coconut tree grashopper, Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae feeding on eucalyptus trees in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os danos causados pelo gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae em plantas de eucalipto, no município de Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em junho de 2001. As amostragens foram realizadas, contando-se o número total de plantas por linha e o de plantas atacadas por classe de desfolha de 10%, a cada dez linhas de plantio, em cinco talhões de eucalipto com sinais de ataque desse gafanhoto. Calculou-se a porcentagem de desfolha por talhão e por planta de eucalipto. A porcentagem de desfolha por planta na área atacada foi de 3,70%, variando de 0,84 a 7,93%, enquanto a de plantas atacadas por talhão foi de 4,80%, variando de 1,88 a 11,54%. Os danos causados por E. cristata não justificaram medidas de controle, mas foram feitas avaliações para acompanhar a evolução do ataque desse inseto, cujas populações reduziram-se a níveis inexpressivos após 30 dias de sua constatação nesse plantio de eucalipto.Damage caused by the coconut tree grasshopper, Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae was evaluated in an eucalyptus plantation in Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in June 2001. Samplings were obtained by counting the number of plants per line and the number of defoliated plants in classes of 10% in 10 planting lines of five blocks of an eucalyptus plantation. Mean percentage of defoliation per plant in the area attacked by this pest was 3.70%, varying from 0.84 to 7.93%, while the number of plants attacked by eucalyptus block was 4.80%, varying from 1.88 to 11.54%. Damage by E. cristata did not justify control measures. Evaluation of this insect showed that its population was reduced to inexpressive numbers 30 days after it was found in this eucalyptus plantation.

  11. Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of important pathogens and parasites, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nanomosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. In this research, we biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the Barleria cristata leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of Ag NP was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of Ag NP. The presence of silver was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may also act as Ag NP capping agents. The acute toxicity of B. cristata leaf extract and biosynthesized Ag NP was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with lethal concentration (LC)50 values of 12.46, 13.49, and 15.01 μg/mL, respectively. Notably, biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus, Anisops bouvieri, and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 633.26 to 866.92 μg/mL. Overall, our results highlight that B. cristata-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against young instar populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

  12. In Vivo Assessment of Antioxidants and Antihyperglycemic Effect of Barleria cristata leaves in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Narmadha Rajasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many new bioactive drugs isolated from plants having hypoglycaemic effects showed anti diabetic activity equal and sometimes even more potent than known oral hypoglycaemic agents. In this present study, designed to evaluate antihyperglycermic and antioxidants effect on ethanolic leaf extracts Barleria cristata (EtBc in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at dose level 400mg/kg body weight for the treatment of 45 days. Method and materials: The experimental rats were randomly divided into five groups as a control, streptozotocin induced with diabetes (45mg/kg bw without any treatment, treated with standard drug glibenclamide (1.25 mg/kg bw, EtBc (400 mg/kg bw in diabetic induced rats and treated with EtBc alone without diabetic rats. At the end of 45th day animals were sacrificed, collect the serum, liver, kidney and pancreas for estimate the glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin in serum, protein, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in tissues. Results: After the administration of EtBc, blood glucose levels were showed significantly reduction (P<0.05 in diabetic rats and it has been observed alternation occured in body and organ weight and it was also normalized the serum level of glycemic profile like insulin, C-peptide, total hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin levels similar to that of control rats. Antioxidants enzymes were return to back their levels as control in different tissues when compared to diabetic rats and also observed no significance difference between control and EtBc alone group rats at the end of 45th day. Therefore it was suggested that Barleria cristata may act by potentiation of pancreatic secretion of insulin or increasing glucose uptake by muscle cells. Conclusion: In this study, suggested the efficacy of Barleria cristata proved the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and may be used as a therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

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    Julie M Andersen

    Full Text Available With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs to 51 Northwest (NW Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008. Using General Additive Models (GAMs we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding. Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods.

  14. Fixação esquelética externa em fratura tarsometatársica de seriema (Cariama cristata: relato de caso External skeletal fixation in tarsumetatarsus fracture of red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata: a case report

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    B.B.J. Torres

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma seriema (Cariama cristata adulta foi atendida com histórico de traumatismo por tentativa de captura. A ave apresentava dificuldade de apoio do membro pélvico direito, dor à manipulação e fratura exposta do osso tarsometatarso. Optou-se pelo tratamento cirúrgico com redução fechada, utilizando-se fixador esquelético externo tipo II, com barra de conexão acrílica. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada foi satisfatória para o tratamento da fratura, possibilitando reparação óssea e retorno funcional do membro 60 dias após a cirurgia.An adult red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata was referred for examination with history of trauma by capture. The physical examination revealed lameness in the right pelvic limb, sensibility to touch and open fracture of tarsumetatarsus. The treatment was done with surgical closed reduction using a external skeletal fixator type II with acrylic connecting bar. The surgical technique applied was satisfactory for the treatment of the fracture of tarsumetatarsus, since there was bone healing and functional return of the limb at 60 days after surgery.

  15. Some notes on the associated occurrence of the crab Cycloes Cristata (Brullé, 1837) (Brachyura: Calappidae) and two types of Benthic fish in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A concise survey is presented of the species of the crab genus Cycloes De Haan, 1837 (Brachyura: Calappidae). Notes are presented on the associated ocurrence, on shallow sandy bottoms in the Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Gran Canaria), of the eastern Atlantic Cycloes cristata (Brullé, 1837) and the fis

  16. Procedures for DNA extraction and amplification from quills of crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata

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    Domenico Fulgione

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analysis in mammalian populations are useful for any conservation management. This kind of analysis utilised tissue of specimens studied involving a damages to the populations, only recently many study are indicated alternative procedure based on scales, hairs or feathers. The porcupine (Histrix cristata is an elusive species with localised populations. In this work I propose one procedure of genetic analysis starting by DNA quill in order to help studies about this species, without damage the population examined. The quills are easy to find because the porcupine loss them constantly. Nucleic acids extraction was done utilising synthetic resin (chelex and then ipervariable region of mitochondrial DNA was amplified through PCR with specific primers. The advantages of this selective amplification is the selective increase of interest DNA in spite of possible organic contamination. At this point two different procedure could be utilised to characterise of population: restriction fragment analysis or sequence analysis.

  17. Morphology, morphogenesis and gene sequence of a freshwater ciliate, Pseudourostyla cristata (Ciliophora, Urostyloidea) from the ancient Lake Biwa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xumiao; Li, Zicong; Hu, Xiaozhong; Kusuoka, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    The urostyloid freshwater ciliate Pseudourostyla cristata was recorded for the first time from Lake Biwa, a 4-million-year-old lake located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Its morphology and morphogenesis were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation, and the SSU ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced. Based on the current observations and previous descriptions, this species is readily recognized mainly by the following characters: body slender or broadly oval to elliptical, and dark grey in color; size in vivo about 170-400 x 40-150 microm; pellicle flexible and contractile, with extrusomes forming a hyaline seam underneath; ciliature comprising about 60-130 adoral membranelles, usually 1 buccal cirrus, 20-24 frontal, 2 frontoterminal, 17-26 pairs of midventral, and 5-16 transverse cirri, 4-6 left and 4-5 right marginal rows, and 8-10 dorsal kineties; 15-83 macronuclear nodules and 2-9 micronuclei; freshwater habitat. The main morphogenetic developments are: (1) the oral primordium for the proter originates de novo on the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity, and the dedifferentiated undulating membranes and some parental proximal membranelles join in the primordial development; the old adoral zone will be partly replaced by new structures; (2) the oral primordium for the opisthe occurs epiapokinetally left of the midventral complex between the adoral zone and the transverse cirri; (3) the fronto-midventral transverse cirral (FVT) anlagen develop separately in both dividers by dedifferentiation of most of the midventral cirri; (4) the single buccal cirrus is generated from the posterior end of FVT anlage II; (5) the leftmost frontal cirrus is derived from the anterior end of the undulating membranes anlage (FVT anlage I); (6) the marginal rows of each side are formed from a single anlage which arises within the rightmost row; (7) the dorsal kineties develop by intrakinetal basal body proliferation; and (8) the most posterior FVT anlage contributes the two

  18. Fatal mass ingestion of gastric foreign bodies in juvenile hooded seals (Cystophora cristata stranded in north-western iberian peninsula

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    Josep M. Alonso-Farré

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hooded seal (Cystophora cristata is a subarctic and arctic pinniped species with its limit of distribution in southern Europe established west of the British Isles. Nevertheless, since 1970, strandings of juvenile individuals have been reported much further south than this limit. The special clinical and management considerations to take into account with these arctic seals have become a new challenge to veterinary clinicians of southern North-Atlantic stranding networks. We present here three clinical cases involving mass ingestion of foreign bodies, which seems to be a generalized finding in this species. Although the presence of gastroliths are considered to be normal in pinnipeds, the fast and ultimately lethal cases presented here highlights how an excessive presence of gastric foreign bodies could result in a gastrointestinal stasis syndrome, which has to be quickly resolved, medically or surgically. Portable ultrasound and X-ray equipments have demonstrated their value as gastric foreign bodies diagnostic procedures with nervous wildlife patients, such as the juvenile hooded seals. Finally, we conclude that it is extremely important to avoid the use of loose stones or sand over resting areas and to take extreme precautions with small items near the rehabilitation pools when dealing with this seal species.

  19. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic.

  20. Medical Management of Hypovitaminosis D With Cholecalciferol and Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Caitlin A; Kinney, Matthew E; Hanley, Christopher S; Padilla, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Three hand-reared, 50-53 day-old, red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) chicks were evaluated for acute lameness and reluctance to ambulate. Two of the 3 chicks presented with angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsi and external rotation of the legs. Radiographs demonstrated decreased opacity of the long bone of the legs, with poorly delineated cortices and deviation of the proximal tarsometarsi. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol revealed all 3 chicks were deficient in vitamin D(3) at presentation. The chicks were administered injectable vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol), oral vitamin D(3), and an ultraviolet B (UV-B) light was placed in their enclosure. Elastic, therapeutic taping was used to correct angular limb deformities present in 2 of the 3 chicks. Taping was continued until the angular limb deformities were corrected and lameness resolved. Hypovitaminosis D is a common cause of metabolic bone disease in captive avian species. Cholecalciferol administration, UV-B light supplementation, and elastic, therapeutic taping were effective treatments for osteodystrophy and secondary angular limb deformities due to hypovitaminosis D. This multifaceted treatment may be useful in other long-legged juvenile birds with similar clinical signs.

  1. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  2. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Cocopeat-Based Media Mixtures and Their Effects on the Growth and Development of Celosia cristata

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    Yahya Awang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cocopeat is considered as a good growing media component with acceptable pH, electrical conductivity and other chemical attributes but it has been recognized to have high water holding capacity which causes poor air-water relationship, leading to low aeration within the medium, thus affecting the oxygen diffusion to the roots. Incorporation of coarser materials into cocopeat could improve the aeration status of the media. Approach: Selected chemical and physical characteristics of five types of growing media comprising of (v/v 100% cocopeat, 70% cocopeat: 30% burnt rice hull, 70% cocopeat: 30% perlite, 70% cocopeat: 30% kenaf core fiber and 40% cocopeat: 60% kenaf core fiber were determined and their suitability as growing media was tested using Celosia cristata. Data on pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC and various aspects of air-water relationships of the media, as well on growth and flowering of test plant and leaf nutrient contents were collected. Results: Initial pH for 100% cocopeat and 70% cocopeat: 30% kenaf core fiber was higher than the other media but the values were eventually similar by the end of the study. The bulk density and EC of media containing burnt rice hull was markedly higher than the other media (0.12 g cm3 and 0.48 mS cm-1, respectively. Media comprising of 70% cocopeat: 30% burnt rice hull and 70% cocopeat: 30% perlite contained higher air content. The former held the highest volume of available water. Incorporation of burnt rice hull and perlite into cocopeat increased water absorption ability of the media which reached saturation earlier than the other media. Addition of burnt rice hull (30%, perlite (30% and kenaf core fiber (30% to cocopeat elevated the Air-Filled Porosity (AFP of the media. The growth and flowering of Celosia cristata were the greatest when grown in a mixture of 70% cocopeat: 30% burnt rice hull and perhaps linked with a good balance

  3. An atypical distribution of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain may reflect a biochemical adaptation to diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller; Fabrizius, Andrej; Folkow, Lars P; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The brains of some diving mammals can withstand periods of severe hypoxia without signs of deleterious effects. This may in part be due to an enhanced cerebral capacity for anaerobic energy production. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing various parameters of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the brain of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) with those in the brains of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and mouse (Mus musculus). We found that mRNA and protein expression of lactate dehydrogenase a (LDHA) and lactate dehydrogenase b (LDHB), and also the LDH activity were significantly higher in the ferret brain than in brains of the hooded seal and the mouse (p diving mammals. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies showed more pronounced co-localization of LDHB and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the cortex of the hooded seal. Since LDHB isoenzymes primarily catalyze the conversion of lactate to pyruvate, this finding suggests that the contribution of astrocytes to the brain aerobic metabolism is higher in the hooded seal than in non-diving species. The cerebral tolerance of the hooded seal to hypoxia may therefore partly rely on different LDH isoenzymes distribution.

  4. Modeling population dynamics of Anoda cristata in a glyphosate-resistant soybean crop under different management systems Modelo de la dinámica poblacional de Anoda cristata en un cultivo de soja resistente a glifosato bajo diferentes sistemas de manejo

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    E. Puricelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation model was developed to describe Anoda cristata (L. Schlecht seedbank dynamics in soybeans. The model considers different weed management strategies: absence of control, control with the recommended rate and with glyphosate at half the recommended rate, and two soybean row spacings (35 and 70 cm. The model was evaluated using data from previous experiments obtained for four consecutive years. The model accurately reproduced the seedbank dynamics. The seedbank decreased more in weed management strategies without seed production. In absence of control, the seedbank reached an equilibrium density. When seeds were produced every year, the model output was more sensitive to changes in the rate of predation; but without seed production, seed mortality was the most important process. Simulation demonstrated that long-term eradication may occur with continuous use of glyphosate at the recommended rate or with the combination of soybean at 35 cm between rows and glyphosate at half the recommended rate.Se desarrolló un modelo de simulación de la dinámica del banco de semillas de Anoda cristata (L. Schlecht en un cultivo de soja. El modelo considera distintas estrategias de manejo: ausencia de control, control con la dosis recomendada y con la mitad de dicha dosis y dos espaciamientos entre filas del cultivo de soja (35 y 70 cm. El modelo fue evaluado usando datos de experiencias previas realizadas durante 4 años consecutivos. El modelo reprodujo ajustadamente la dinámica del banco de semillas. El banco de semillas decreció más cuando no se produjeron semillas; en ausencia de control, alcanzó una densidad de equilibrio. Cuando se produjeron semillas todos los años, el modelo fue más sensible a cambios en la tasa de predación pero cuando no se produjeron semillas, la mortalidad de éstas fue el proceso más importante. La simulación muestra que puede ocurrir erradicación a largo plazo con el uso continuo de glifosato a la

  5. Comparison of Trap-catch Amount of Dioryctria rubella and Retinia cristata Mothes in Mixed and Pure Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis Stands%思茅松纯林及针阔混交林中松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟诱捕量比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志伟; 闫争亮; 刘云彩; 胡光辉; 李思广

    2012-01-01

    Lure catch teat of Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella was conducted in pure and mixed plots of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis with other broad-leavedtree species. Catch amounts of Retinia cristata by (E, E) -2, 4 -Decadienal in mixed plot and pure pine plot were respectively 6. 30 and 3. 10, and catch amounts of Dioryctria rubella by (Z) -11 - hexadecenylacetate in mixed stand and pure pine stand were respectively 3. 60 and 2. 40. Catch a-mounts of Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella in mixed plot were significently less than those in pure pine plot.%在思茅松纯林和针阔混交林中,以(E,E) -2,4-癸二烯醛、(Z)-11-十六碳烯乙酸酯为引诱剂,对松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟进行了诱捕试验.结果表明,以(E,E) -2,4-癸二烯醛为引诱剂,在思茅松纯林和混交林内平均每个诱捕器分别诱捕到松实小卷蛾6.30头和3.10头;以(Z)-11-十六碳烯乙酸酯为引诱剂,在思茅松纯林和混交林内平均每个诱捕器分别诱捕到微红梢斑螟3.60头和2.40头;混交林内的松实小卷蛾和微红梢斑螟的诱捕量显著少于纯林.

  6. Nuclear Control of Cortical Development during Conjugation in Pseudourostyla cristata%冠突伪尾柱虫有性生殖期间皮膜发育的核控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金立培; 刘小意; 金华中

    2001-01-01

    通过显微手术去小核建立多个冠突伪尾柱虫(Pseudourostyla cristata)无小核细胞系,并诱导它们与有小核细胞进行接合生殖,以评估小核及其衍生的大核原基在有性生殖期间对皮膜形态发生的影响。当无小核接合体从有小核配偶获得1枚配子核后,接合双方不仅能平行地继续核器演化,而且使第1次皮膜改组能够同步进行和正常发育,说明小核在有性周期中除了生殖功能外仍保留着某些控制皮膜发育的体功能。虽然大部分接合后体的大核原基在DNA贫乏期停止发育,但少数接合后体能够超越这一时期,并启动第2次皮膜改组和顺利完成其后续的有性发育全程,表明指令发动第2次皮膜发育的信号来自DNA贫乏期后以排出一核物质团块为标志的大核原基。%Amicronucleate cell lines of the ciliated protozoan Pseudourostyla cristata from different mating types are generated by microsurgery. With a rescue conjugating amicronucleates with micronucleates,the sexual development of conjugants and exconjugants becomes more normal than that in conjugation among amicronucleates. The first cortical reorganization proceeds as usual to generate a set of incomplete ciliature,but the membranelle number of adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) and the number of frontal-ventral-transverse cirri (FVT) approach those in conjugation among micronucleates,and differentiation and positioning of the ciliature appear normally. It is evident that the micronucleus is important for maintaining regular development of the first cortical reorganization. During conjugation,a male gametic nucleus from the micronucleate mate migrates into its amicronucleate partner and a female gametic nucleus stays in situ,the haploid gametic nucleus in both conjugants transforms into a hemizygote without fertilization. After twice post-hemizygote division,a new micronucleus and a macronuclear anlage are generated as usual

  7. Effects of Some Types of Unsaturaed Aldehyde on Behavior of Female Adult of Retinia cristata in Room Conditions%松实小卷蛾对几种碳烯醛的室内行为反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫争亮; 刘云彩; 马惠芬; 胡光辉; 泽桑梓

    2011-01-01

    通过松实小卷蛾雄蛾对(E) -2 -癸烯醛、(E) -2-十二碳烯醛、(E,E) -2,4-癸二烯醛和(E,E)-2,4-十二碳二烯醛4个化合物的室内行为反应实验.结果表明,4个化合物都可在一定程度上引起松实小卷蛾雄蛾的兴奋、起飞、定向飞行等反应;松实小卷蛾雄蛾对(E,E) -2,4-癸二烯醛的反应最为强烈,是松实小卷蛾信息素的关键组分,其余3个化合物也是其信息素中不可或缺的组分.能够引起松实小卷蛾雄蛾明显行为反应的最低刺激量为0.01 μg.%The effects of some unsaturated aldehyde, I. E. (E) -2-decenal, (E) - 2 - dodecenal, (E, E) -2, 4 - decadienal and (E, E) - 2, 4 -dodecadienal on the behavior of female adult of Retinia cristata were studied in room conditions. The results showed that the four chemicals might be able to cause excitement, takeoff and directional flying of the insect; among 4 chemicals (E, E) -2, 4 -decadienal caused strongest reaction, demonstrating it was key component of pheromone of the insect, nevertheless other 3 chemicals were indispensable in it. The threshold of causing the reactions was 0. 01 μg of the chemicals.

  8. A study on the Abstraction of the Red Digment of Celo sia Cristata L.With Precipitation Method%离子沉淀法制取鸡冠花红色素最佳条件的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宇; 彭子模; 祁忠民

    2004-01-01

    本文以鸡冠花[Celosia cristata L.]红色素水提取浓缩液为实验材料,从沉淀剂的预选、沉淀剂及碱种类、沉淀剂最佳pH值、沉淀剂最佳酸种类和沉淀剂最佳用量的确定等方面,进行了离子沉淀法制取鸡冠花红色素最佳条件的筛选研究.结果发现:用2%的ZnCl2作为沉淀剂、氨水作为调节pH值的碱液,柠檬酸作为酸液,采用6倍量的无水乙醇沉淀色素,可获得最佳提取效果,红色素产率可达12.3%.

  9. Competition and group size in Thomas's langurs ( Presbytis thomasi): the folivore paradox revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, Romy; Schaik, C.P. van

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Among primates, group size is highly variable. The standard ecological model assumes that better predation avoidance as group size increases favours living in larger groups, whereas increased travel costs and reduced net food intake due to within-group competition for resources set the uppe

  10. 4月周末 流连Raffles City——HOLA完美生活提案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓; 裴超(摄影)

    2010-01-01

    我将4月的周末交给来福士。在来福士,徜徉于琳琅满目的时尚服装之余,亦可品尝风格各异的精美小吃,享受不同风情的地域美食,干净整洁的环境,不嘈杂、不拥挤,一个充满时尚气息购物场所,却让你舒适万分。本期小编推荐4个好地方,谈谈心得体会,为你提供玩乐参考。

  11. Habitat Suitability Index (HIS) of Surili (Presbytis comata Desmarest, 1822) in mixed forest of Kuningan District, West Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Supartono, Toto; Priyono Kartono, Agus; Hikmat, Agus; Ramdhoni, Syahru

    2017-01-01

    Java has been experiencing deforestation due to high population pressure. A lot of natural forests which play an important role as wildlife habitat are loss. The remaining natural forest distribute in mountainous areas in the form natural conservation area, meanwhile the others have been converted into settlement andinfrastructure, food crops, cash crops plantation, estate and private forest plantation. Javan langur (Presbytiscomata) is an endemic species of Java and used to utilize natural forest as their habitat. However, in a recent observation the species isfound inside plantation forest in Kuningan district, West Java. This is a unique finding, due to the fact that a plantation forest is not suitable habitat for Javan langur. The research is aimed to develop Habitat Suitability for this species based on physical, biological and human disturbance factors. Data on Javan langur presence and its habitat component were derived from field observation and secondary data/map. Result showed HSI could be developed based on 4 PC and showed that the study area mostly is occupied by low HIS Index or not suitable area for surili.

  12. Visual Search and Attention in Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata): Associative Cuing and Sequential Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kazuhiro; Bond, Alan B.; Burks, Marianna; Kamil, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual search for complex natural targets requires focal attention, either cued by predictive stimulus associations or primed by a representation of the most recently detected target. Since both processes can focus visual attention, cuing and priming were compared in an operant search task to evaluate their relative impacts on performance and to determine the nature of their interaction in combined treatments. Blue jays were trained to search for pairs of alternative targets among distractors. Informative or ambiguous color cues were provided prior to each trial, and targets were presented either in homogeneous blocked sequences or in constrained random order. Initial task acquisition was facilitated by priming in general, but was significantly retarded when targets were both cued and primed, indicating that the two processes interfered with each other during training. At asymptote, attentional effects were manifested mainly in inhibition, increasing latency in miscued trials and decreasing accuracy on primed trials following an unexpected target switch. A combination of cuing and priming was found to interfere with performance in such unexpected trials, apparently a result of the limited capacity of working memory. Because the ecological factors that promote priming and cuing are rather disparate, it is not clear whether they ever jointly and simultaneously contribute to natural predatory search. PMID:24893217

  13. Comparison of physiological and antioxidant responses of Anoda cristata and cotton to progressive drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous investigation of variables related to gas exchange, photochemistry and antioxidant defenses during water stress is crucial for understanding stress tolerance mechanisms and consequent success of both economically important plant species and their interfering counterparts. This study ev...

  14. Nut Caching by Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata L.): Implications for Tree Demography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W. Carter Johnson; Curtis S. Adkisson; Thomas R. Crow; Mark D. Dixon

    1997-01-01

    .... Three aspects were examined: jay habitat preferences for caching, jay caching patterns before and after fire, and the influence of predation on nuts by small mammals on tree recruitment in jay territories...

  15. Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmal K.Lohiya; Boomi Manivannan; Shipra Goyal; Abdul S.Ansari

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys. Methods: The test substance was given p.o. to five monkeys at 50 mg/kg body weight/day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 3) received olive oil as vehicle. Sperm parameters as per World Health Organization standards, sperm functional tests, morphology of testis and epididymis, haematology, clinical biochemistry, serum testosterone and libido were evaluated. Following completion of 360 days treatment the animals were withdrawn from the treatment and the recovery pattern was assessed by semen analysis and sperm functional tests. Results: Total inhibition of sperm motility was observed following 60 days of treatment that continued until 360 days study period. Sperm count, percent viability and percent normal spermatozoa showed a drastic decline following 30 days of treatment. Sperm morphology showed predominant mid piece abnormalities. Sperm functional tests scored in sterile range. Histology and ultrastructure of testis revealed vacuolization in the Sertoli cells and germ cells. Loss of cytoplasmic organelles was evident in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Histology and ultrastruc-ture of epididymis of treated animals were comparable to those of control animals. Hematological and serum clinicalparameters and testosterone levels fluctuated within the control range throughout the study period. Recovery was evident following 60-120 days of treatment withdrawal. Conclusion: The results suggest that the benzene chro-matographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya shows contraceptive efficacy without adverse toxicity, mediated through inhibition of sperm motility.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: crested porcupine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available crested porcupine Hystrix cristata Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Hystrix_cristata..._L.png Hystrix_cristata_NL.png Hystrix_cristata_S.png Hystrix_cristata_NS.png http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hystrix+cristata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hystrix+cristata...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hystrix+cristata...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hystrix+cristata&t=NS ...

  17. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  18. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population. PMID:21819589

  19. Environ: E00486 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00486 Celosia flower cluster Celosiae flos Crude drug Celosia cristata [TAX:124768], Celosia argente...a [TAX:46112] Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Celosia cristata flower cluster (dried) Commercial: Celosia argente

  20. Quaternary Gibbons from the Malay Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... i Order Primates.................. 3 Family Pongidae................. 3 Genus Symphalangus............... 3 Symphalangus syndactylus syndactylus (Raffles)........ 3 Symphalangus syndactylus continentis Thomas........ 5 Cave material of Symphalangus and Hyloba

  1. 13 CFR 106.503 - Are there types of Gifts which SBA may not solicit and/or accept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Tobacco products; (c) Pornographic or sexually explicit objects or services; (d) Gambling (including raffles and lotteries); (e) Parties primarily for the benefit of Government employees; and (f) Any...

  2. Double Your Pleasure, Double Your Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Miles; Sitton, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a variety of fun activities that college and universities can develop as alumni fund-raising events: a golf tournament; scholarship auctions (silent, on-the-spot, live televised, and live); charitable raffles; duck dashes; themed banquets; and a tuition raffle. (MSE)

  3. Hotel Infomation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Raffles Beijing Hotel Fan Bingbing, a rising Chinese movie star, is welcomed by Peter Lloyd Wynne, General Manager of Raffles Beijing Hotel, at the Celine 2006-07 fashion show at the hotel in July. Holiday Inn Downtown Shanghai This August, our experienced executive chef Lisa prepares the most creative and delicious

  4. 假杜鹃提取物对小鼠镇静催眠作用的实验研究%Experimental study on effects of extracts from Barleria cristata on the sedation and hypnosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨假杜鹃提取物对小鼠的镇静催眠作用.方法 小鼠腹腔注射给药,观察小鼠延长戊巴比妥钠的睡眠时间及自主活动次数.结果 假杜鹃提取物能显著延长小鼠戊巴比妥钠睡眠时间(P < 0.01),减少小鼠自主活动次数(P < 0.05).结论 假杜鹃提取物对小鼠有明显的镇静催眠作用.

  5. Influence of Salt Stress on Germination Characteristics of Celosia Cristata and Calendula officinalis Seeds%NaCl胁迫对鸡冠花和金盏菊种子发芽特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾双双; 高青海; 张雪平; 胡景浪

    2013-01-01

    以鸡冠花、金盏菊两种花卉种子为试验材料,研究不同浓度NaCl溶液(0、50、100、150、200、250mmol/L)胁迫下种子发芽率、相对发芽率、发芽势、主根长、下胚轴长、侧根长、幼芽叶绿素含量及根系活力等相关指标的变化规律.试验结果表明:鸡冠花种子在NaCl浓度≤100 mmol/L时,各指标与对照差异不显著,说明鸡冠花对低浓度盐胁迫有一定适应性,而高浓度的盐胁迫对其有很强抑制作用;随着NaCl浓度升高,金盏菊各项测量指标均受到一定程度抑制.说明不同露地花卉种子在发芽期的耐盐力表现出明显的差异,且鸡冠花耐盐能力显著强于金盏菊.

  6. About the Necessity of a Comprehensive Evaluation of the Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of the current ideas about /raffle restrictionsand cost of traffic distribution systems including thecontroversy of individual and public transport under both privateand public regime.

  7. 50 CFR 17.11 - Endangered and threatened wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Andean Felis jacobita Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina Entire E 15 NA NA Cat, Asian golden (=Temminck's... (Kwangsi), Indochina ......do E 16 NA NA Langur, golden Trachypithecus (=Presbytis) geei India (Assam... Indonesia (Borneo) ......do E 3 NA NA Rice rat Oryzomys palustris natator U.S.A. (FL) Lower FL Keys (west of...

  8. New records for Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodidae on non-passerine birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper was to provide new records of Amblyomma sculptum on two species of terricolous birds in two areas of the Cerrado (savannah- like bioma: two specimens of Cariama cristata were captured in the state of Goiás and one specimen ofCrax fasciolata was captured in the state of Minas Gerais. One of the C. cristata was parasitized by 15 larvae, six nymphs, one male and two females whereas the C. fasciolata was parasitized by seven larvae and eight nymphs. This paper presents a new locality for occurrence of parasitism A. sculptum in C. cristata and a new host for C fasciolata.

  9. New records for Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodidae) on non-passerine birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide new records of Amblyomma sculptum on two species of terricolous birds in two areas of the Cerrado (savannah- like) bioma: two specimens of Cariama cristata were captured in the state of Goiás and one specimen ofCrax fasciolata was captured in the state of Minas Gerais. One of the C. cristata was parasitized by 15 larvae, six nymphs, one male and two females whereas the C. fasciolata was parasitized by seven larvae and eight nymphs. This paper presents a new locality for occurrence of parasitism A. sculptum in C. cristata and a new host for C fasciolata.

  10. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Physical Security Improvements at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Cyanocitta cristata), eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), and indigo bunting ( Passerina cyanea). Wetland-associated species include southern...Occurrence in Sumter County Occurrence at Shaw AFB Notes BIRDS (CONT.) Painted bunting Passerina ciris ciris SOC Possible Possible Open

  11. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ALEJANDRO CASAS; ADRIANA OTERO-ARNAIZ; EDGAR PÉREZ-NEGRÓN; ALFONSO VALIENTE-BANUET

    2007-01-01

    ... in plant populations under in situ management in the region. • Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria puntila, the tree Leucaena esculenta...

  12. Physiological and antioxidant responses of cotton and spurred anoda under interference and mild drought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. Harish Ratnayaka; William T. Molin; Tracy M. Sterling

    2003-01-01

    ... (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Delta Pine 5415, and Gossypium barbadense L. cv. Pima S-7) and spurred anoda (Anoda cristata L. Schlecht.) of the Malvaceae. Without interference, cotton and spurred anoda had similar net photosynthesis...

  13. Global and local in Indonesian Islam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1999-01-01

    To foreign observers as well as to many Indonesians themselves, Indonesian Islam has always appeared to be very different from Islam at most other places, especially from the way it is practised in the Arabian peninsula. From Raffles to Van Leur, it has been claimed by colonial civil servants

  14. 11 CFR 114.5 - Separate segregated funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the corporation or labor organization will not favor or disadvantage anyone by reason of the amount of... devices. When using raffles or entertainment to raise funds, a reasonable practice to follow is for the..., provided that such corporation or labor organization or separate segregated fund has used its best efforts...

  15. On the Go

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Take a civilized afternoon tea at the Raffles Hotel,Beijing and enjoy unusual cakes and pastries such as Valrhona Chocolate Eclairs and Orange Mousse,all served on a display stand inspired by I93OS architect Lin Huiyin who was the pioneer of afternoon tea in Beijing.Tea costs RMB 195 per stand,plus I5% service.

  16. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.12 Voting incentives. If a converting credit union offers an incentive to encourage members to participate in the vote, including a prize raffle, every...

  17. Improving Survey Response Rates of School Counselors: Comparing the Use of Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of incentives in improving survey response rates of school counselors and compares the findings with those of previously researched populations. A $1 cash incentive increased response rates for a one-wave mailing of a questionnaire, while a raffle opportunity did not. The number and length of optional…

  18. ENSO-induced inter-annual sea level variability in the Singapore strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Tkalich, P.

    Sea level data from four tide gauge stations in the SS (Tanjong Pagar, Sultan Shoal, Sembawang and Raffles Lighthouse) for the period 1970-2012 were extracted to study the ENSO-induced interannual sea level variability Sea level during this period...

  19. What's under Your Bed? A Fundraising Fiasco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Cynthia L.; Klein, C. Suzanne; Gistinger, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Student clubs and sports often struggle to raise funds. With limited revenue streams, coaches or advisors and parents routinely find themselves managing candy sales, car washes, raffles, and ticketed fundraisers to support programming. In this case of a swim team fundraiser, school leaders see the range of problems that can occur when a routine…

  20. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  1. On Rhizomys sumatrensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1897-01-01

    It perhaps will for ever remain an insolvable puzzle why Sir Raffles described under the name Mus sumatrensis a Mouse (after a drawing and a specimen) not from Sumatra, as the name should give reason to believe, but from Malacca, an animal after Major Farquhar not uncommon there and perhaps to be fo

  2. A new species of the genus Acarothrix (Acari: Halacaridae) from Brunei Darussalam and India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Marshall, D.J.; Guru, B.C.; Ingole B.S.; Pesic V.

    ) in mangroves of Singapore. I. Description of three species. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 54: 83-92. Proches S. 2002. New species of Copidognathinae (Acari: Halacaridae) from southern Africa. Journal of Natural History, 36: 999-1007. 6    Figure 1...

  3. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic ultra-violet (photo diode array quantification of oleanolic acid and its isomer ursolic acid for phytochemical comparison and pharmacological evaluation of four Leucas species used in ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Shukla

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Physicochemical parameters are within the limit as per the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of IndiaMaximum concentration of oleanolic acid was found in Leucas cristata; however, ursolic acid was highest in Leucas mollissimaIn vitro antidiabetic activity of Leucas aspera and L. mollissima was found tobe heighest as compared to other species. However, antioxidant capacity is almost similar in targeted species.Promising activities were observed in all the species, thus L. mollissima, Leucas biflora, and L. cristata can be used alternatively as a substitute to L. aspera.

  4. 汇丰年度球童:走在时尚前沿的弄潮儿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    汇丰宣布将与莱佛士设计学院(Raffles Design Institute,简称RDI)二度合作,再次组织一场球童马甲设计大赛(Caddie Bib DesignCompetition)。大赛评出的获胜作品将在201 1年的汇丰女子冠军赛中授予汇丰年度球童(HSBC Caddieof the Year)。

  5. Le Kou Prey ou Bœuf sauvage Cambodgien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbain, A.

    1939-01-01

    Il existe, dans certaines régions du Nord Cambodge un bœuf sauvage différent du Gaur (Bos (Bibos) gaurus. H. Smith) et du Banteng (Bos (Bibos) banteng, Raffles) dont la présence a été signalée par quelques rares auteurs, en particulier par le Docteur DUFOSSÉ ¹) et plus récemment par R. VITTOZ ²).

  6. Asean Trends and Problems in the 1980s,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Western rule commenced when the British East India Company acquired Penang in 1786 and seized Malacca from the Dutch a few years later. Then Raffles... business ties, media links, transportation networks, and recent memories had created closer relations with their former colonial rulers than with each other...advantage of economic opportunities . The total number of Southeast Asians who are ethnic Chinese is difficult to establish, especially as the lines are

  7. Framing influences willingness to pay but not willingness to accept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Vosgerau, J.; Loewenstein, G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors show, with real and hypothetical payoffs, that consumers are willing to pay substantially less for a risky prospect when it is called a “lottery ticket,” “raffle,” “coin flip,” or “gamble” than when it is labeled a “gift certificate” or “voucher.” Willingness to accept, in contrast, is

  8. Framing influences willingness to pay but not willingness to accept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Vosgerau, J.; Loewenstein, G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors show, with real and hypothetical payoffs, that consumers are willing to pay substantially less for a risky prospect when it is called a “lottery ticket,” “raffle,” “coin flip,” or “gamble” than when it is labeled a “gift certificate” or “voucher.” Willingness to accept, in contrast, is n

  9. Two new species of Leandra s.str. (Melastomataceae) from the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reginato, M.; Goldenberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    Two species of Leandra that occur in the Atlantic Forest, in the state of Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil, are described and illustrated here. Leandra cristata has been found in the understory of montane rain forest, and can be recognized by the distinct nodal ridges on the young branches, by the

  10. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 7 - Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Anemope IS califozriica (Nutt.) Yerba mansa OBL Hook & Arn . Angelica pinnata Wats. Small-leaf angelica FACW.4 Anoda cristata (L.) Schlecht. Spurred... anoda FAC Apocunwu? ,annainum Indianhemp dogbane FAC+ .. siiriczm Jacq. Prairie dogbare PAC 4quiliegia chrisartha A. Gray Golden columbine FACW A

  11. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Kingsley Field, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Festuca ovina x Salt grass 1tchlT i p x June grass Koeleria cristata x Downy chess Bromus tectorum x Wheatgrass AgoXo spp x Sagebrush Artemisia...6.1.1 Type I is intended for use as a corn - accompanied by an official gager’s certifi- paratively safe dry-cleaning solvent. cate showing the net

  12. On some previously unrecorded Blennidae and Gobiidae from Maltese waters (Pisces : Osteichthyes : Perciformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Cilia, Joseph L.

    1990-01-01

    Two species of Blennidae, Scartella cristata Linne and Parablennius incognitus Bath, and a species of Gobiidae, Gobius geniporus Val. are recorded for the first time from Maltese coastal waters. Previously recorded species of Blennidae and Gobiidae are also listed with some comments.

  13. Pteridologische aantekeningen, 4, De bastaarden van het Dryopteris spinulosa-complex in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segal, S.

    1971-01-01

    Hybrids of the Dryopteris spinulosa complex in the Netherlands Kuntze ex Druce (= D. carthusiana X D. cristata) and D. x deweveri Dryopteris x uliginosa (Joh. Jansen) J. & W. ( = D. carthusiana X D. dilatata) have been recorded from several places in the Netherlands. Fern hybrids, generally speaking

  14. A experimental study on the anti -trichomonas vaginalis effect of traditional Chinese medicine%中药抗阴道毛滴虫作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建芳; 闫艳; 高静; 杨宏东; 宋强

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨鸡冠花、金莲花和荆芥体外抗阴道毛滴虫的作用.方法:将不同浓度的鸡冠花、金莲花和荆芥作用于体外培养的阴道毛滴虫,于药物作用后不同时间记录阴道毛滴虫的死亡率.结果:鸡冠花、金莲花和荆芥对阴道毛滴虫均有抑制和杀灭作用,其中鸡冠花抗阴道毛滴虫的作用最强,与金莲花、荆芥比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),荆芥抗阴道毛滴虫作用强于金莲花(P<0.05).结论:鸡冠花、金莲花和荆芥均具有抗阴道毛滴虫作用.%Objective: To explore the anti - trichomonas vaginalis effects of Celosia cristata, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae in vitro. Methods:The trichomonas vaginalis cultured in vitro were treated with different concentrations of Celosia cristata, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae, the mortality rates of trichomonas vaginalis at different time points after the treatment were recorded. Results; Celosia cristata, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae had inhibiting and killing effects on trichomonas vagi-nalis, and the anti - trichomonas vaginalis effect of Celosia cristata was the strongest, compared with Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae, there was significant difference (P < 0.05 ) ; the anti - trichomonas vaginalis effect of Herba schizonepetae was stronger than that of Trollius chinensis Bunge (P <0. 05) . Conclusion; Celosia cristata, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae have anti -trichomonas vaginalis effects.

  15. Balancing theory and practice in respondent-driven sampling: a case study of innovations developed to overcome recruitment challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS offers a recruitment strategy for hard-to-reach populations. However, RDS faces logistical and theoretical challenges that threaten efficiency and validity in settings worldwide. We present innovative adaptations to conventional RDS to overcome barriers encountered in recruiting a large, representative sample of men who have sex with men (MSM who travel internationally. METHODS: Novel methodological adaptations for the "International Travel Research to Inform Prevention" or "I-TRIP" study were offering participants a choice between electronic and paper coupons referrals for recruitment and modifying the secondary incentives structure from small cash amounts to raffle entries for periodic large cash prize raffle drawings. Staged referral limit increases from 3 to 10 referrals and progressive addition of 70 seeds were also implemented. RESULTS: There were 501 participants enrolled in up to 13 waves of growth. Among participants with a choice of referral methods, 81% selected electronic referrals. Of participants who were recruited electronically, 90% chose to remain with electronic referrals when it was their turn to recruit. The mean number of enrolled referrals was 0.91 for electronic referrals compared to 0.56 for paper coupons. Median referral lag time, i.e., the time interval between when recruiters were given their referrals and when a referred individual enrolled in the study, was 20 days (IQR 10-40 for electronic referrals, 20 days (IQR 8-58 for paper coupons, 20 days (IQR 10-41 for raffle entries and 33 days (IQR 16-148 for small cash incentives. CONCLUSIONS: The recruitment of MSM who travel internationally required maximizing known flexible tools of RDS while at the same time necessitating innovations to increase recruitment efficiency. Electronic referrals emerged as a major advantage in recruiting this hard-to-reach population who are of high socio-economic status, geographically diffuse

  16. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  17. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...

  18. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.

  19. AcEST: DK944313 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 3e-33 tr|Q9SR89|Q9SR89_ARATH T16O11.17 protein (Putative uncharacteriz... 139 5e-32 tr|Q70VA9|Q70VA9_9CARY Cp protein OS=Celos...70 >tr|Q70VA9|Q70VA9_9CARY Cp protein OS=Celosia cristata GN=cp PE=2 SV=1 Length = 170 Score = 137 bits (344

  20. Environmental Assessment: Construction Projects at the 189th Airlift Wing, Arkansas Air National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-12

    bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pudescens), Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Carolina Chickadee (Parus...were the Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Carolina Wren, and Blue Jay. Twenty-four species were recorded in grassland habitats on Little...WILCOX GROUP MIDWAY GROUP ANNONA CHALK OZAN FORli.ATION BROWNSTOWN KARL TOKIO FORMATION WOODBINE FORMA’rlON KIAMICHI F’ORMATJON AND GOODLAND

  1. Abyssal intimacies and temporalities of care: How (not) to care about deformed leaf bugs in the aftermath of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Astrid

    2015-10-01

    Prompted by a classroom discussion on knowledge politics in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster, this article offers a reading of Hugh Raffles' Insectopedia entry on Chernobyl. In that entry, Raffles describes how Swiss science-artist and environmental activist Cornelia Hesse-Honegger collects, studies, and paints morphologically deformed leaf bugs that she finds in the proximity of nuclear power plants. In exploring how to begin to care about beings, such as leaf bugs, this article proposes a notion of care that combines an intimate knowledge practice with an ethical relationship to more-than-human others. Jacques Derrida's notion of 'abyssal intimacy' is central to such a combination. Hesse-Honegger's research practices enact and her paintings depict an 'abyssal intimacy' that deconstructs the oppositions between concerns about human suffering and compassion for seemingly irrelevant insects and between knowledge politics and ethics. At the heart of such a careful knowledge production is a fundamental passivity, based on a shared vulnerability. An abyssal intimacy is not something we ought to recognize; rather, it issues from particular practices of care that do not identify their subjects of care in advance. Caring or becoming affected thus entails the dissociation of affection not only from the humanist subject, but also from movements in time: from direct helping action and from the assumption that advocacy necessarily means speaking for an other, usually assumed to be inferior.

  2. Gambling, gambling activities, and problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    This research examined similarities and differences between gambling activities, with a particular focus on differences in gambling frequency and rates of problem gambling. The data were from population-based surveys conducted in Canada between 2001 and 2005. Adult respondents completed various versions of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), including the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). A factor analysis of the frequency with which different gambling activities were played documented the existence of two clear underlying factors. One factor was comprised of Internet gambling and betting on sports and horse races, and the other factor was comprised of lotteries, raffles, slots/Video Lottery Terminals (VLTs), and bingo. Factor one respondents were largely men; factor two respondents were more likely to be women and scored significantly lower on a measure of problem gambling. Additional analyses indicated that (1) frequency of play was significantly and positively related to problem gambling scores for all activities except raffles, (2) the relationship between problem gambling scores and frequency of play was particularly pronounced for slots/VLTs, (3) problem gambling scores were associated with playing a larger number of games, and (4) Internet and sports gambling had the highest conversion rates (proportion who have tried an activity who frequently play that activity).

  3. An analysis and reduction of disruptive behavior on school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, B F; Bailey, J S; Barber, F

    1981-01-01

    Thousands of children are injured or killed each year in school bus accidents. A significant number of these tragic incidents is precipitated by disruptive child behavior that distracts the drivers from their difficult task. Two experiments were conducted which addressed this problem. For both experiments an automated sound recording device (referred to as a Noise Guard) selectively responsive to frequencies above 500 Hz (i.e., unresponsive to bus drone) recorded both the duration and frequency of noise outbursts above a tolerable threshold. Additionally, an observer made in situ measurements of other disruptions including roughhousing and getting-out-of-seat. In the first experiment, following baseline measurements of these behaviors, middle-school students received feedback for noise outbursts. That is, when "Noise Guard" was activated, it in turn operated one of several lights on a panel visible to all passengers. Each day students were allowed to listen to high-appeal taped music while riding the bus and to participate in a raffle for prizes, provided the number of outbursts on the preceding day remained below a specified criterion indicated on the light panel. This intervention resulted in drastic reductions of noise outbursts with a concomitant reduction in other disruptive behaviors. Comparable results were obtained in the second experiment which eliminated the raffle from the intervention.

  4. Daratumumab improves the anti-myeloma effect of newly emerging multidrug therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sathish Gopalakrishnan,1 Daryl Tan1,2 1Department of Hematology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore; 2Raffles Cancer Center, Raffles Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore Abstract: Although the clinical outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma has improved tremendously with the advent of bortezomib and immunomodulatory drugs like thalidomide and lenalidomide, the disease remains incurable and patients will eventually be resistant to these drugs. Novel non-cross-resistant modalities of treatment are needed. Immunotherapy is potentially a very promising therapeutic modality for further development. Daratumumab is a novel, high-affinity, therapeutic human monoclonal antibody against a unique CD38 epitope. It induces tumor-cell killing through several immunological mechanisms. It has shown a favorable safety profile as monotherapy and significant single-agent activity in relapsed/refractory myeloma. It has also demonstrated strong synergism with lenalidomide and bortezomib. The potential of this agent, together with its pharmacokinetics, mode of action, early efficacy, and safety data will be detailed in this review. Keywords: daratumumab, myeloma, monoclonal

  5. Comparative analysis of free and scuba diving for benthopelagic and cryptic fish species associated with rocky reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gutterres Giordano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess, through experimental comparisons between free and scuba diving performed in Arraial do Cabo city, RJ, Brazil, the abundances of Scartella cristata e Chaetodon striatus -two reef fish species of contrasting behaviors- in different depth layers of sheltered and exposed rocky reefs. C. striatus was homogeneously distributed through all the depth strata (0-10 m and scuba diving should be preferred over free diving to assess the abundance of this species at exposed rocky shores, undergoing continuous effects of waves and winds. Both free and scuba diving can be used indistinctly and with no data biases to appraise the abundances of C. striatus in non-turbulent reefs or in shallow zones (i.e., ≤ 5 m of exposed reefs, and, for S. cristata, in all depth layers (i.e., up to 10 m of both sheltered and exposed reefs. Although the abundances of S. cristata did not significantly differ between free and scuba diving, contrasting with most previous studies that stressed the risk of the first method to underestimate the abundance of small and cryptic species, it should be considered that the previous experience of the diver and the nature of our study (i.e., focused specifically on a cryptic species may have contributed to our findings. Further studies are, however, necessary to test our findings in different conditions (i.e., depths, hydrodynamic characteristics, and habitat complexity and for other tropical reef fish species, in order to increase the truthfulness of underwater visual census and reduce the risk of failure of fish conservation and management programs potentially based on biased data.

  6. Permanent Genetic Resources added to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010-31 March 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelle, D; Baker, A J; Bottin, L; Brouat, C; Caccone, A; Chaix, A; Dhakal, P; Ding, Y; Duplantier, J M; Fiedler, W; Fietz, J; Fong, Y; Forcioli, D; Freitas, T R O; Gunnarsson, G H; Haddrath, O; Hadziabdic, D; Hauksdottir, S; Havill, N P; Heinrich, M; Heinz, T; Hjorleifsdottir, S; Hong, Y; Hreggvidsson, G O; Huchette, S; Hurst, J; Kane, M; Kane, N C; Kawakami, T; Ke, W; Keith, R A; Klauke, N; Klein, J L; Kun, J F J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Li, J-J; Loiseau, A; Lu, L-Z; Lucas, M; Martins-Ferreira, C; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Olafsson, K; Pampoulie, C; Pan, L; Pooler, M R; Ren, J-D; Rinehart, T A; Roussel, V; Santos, M O; Schaefer, H M; Scheffler, B E; Schmidt, A; Segelbacher, G; Shen, J-D; Skirnisdottir, S; Sommer, S; Tao, Z-R; Taubert, R; Tian, Y; Tomiuk, J; Trigiano, R N; Ungerer, M C; Van Wormhoudt, A; Wadl, P A; Wang, D-Q; Weis-Dootz, T; Xia, Q; Yuan, Q-Y

    2010-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants.

  8. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco (V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIZPURU. I., APERRIBAY, J.A., BALDA, A., GARIN, F., LORDA, M., OLARIAGA, I., TERES, J., VIVANT, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comentan los hallazgos correspondientes a 110 táxones de flora, de los que 17 resultan novedosos para el catálogo florístico del País Vasco, entre ellos tres -Anoda cristata, Erodium manescavi, Sedum sexangulare - lo son tambien para el conjunto de la Península Ibérica, mientras que otros dos, Ranunculus lingua y Epipogium aphyllum, sólo se conocían de una y tres respectivamente en dicha Península

  9. In vitro biofumigation with Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba. Inhibition of germination and growth seedlings of weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Perniola, Omar Salvador; Chorzempa, Silvia Elena; Staltari, Sebastián; Molina, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    La biofumigación consiste en la incorporación en el suelo de residuos orgánicos, que generan durante su descomposición sustancias con actividad biocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar in vitro el efecto herbicida de la biofumigación con Brassica juncea L. Czerniak (mostaza parda) y Sinapis alba L. (mostaza blanca), en el estadio de fin de fructificación, sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de plántulas de tres especies arvenses: Anoda cristata (L.) Schltdl. (malva cimarrona), Pi...

  10. Hyphomycetes com conidioma dos tipos esporodóquio e sinema associados a folhas de Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae, em Maringá, PR, Brasil Hyphomycetes with sporodochial and synnematous conidiomata associated with leaves of Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae in Maringá, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Pascholati Gusmão

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas vivas e em decomposição de Cedrela fissilis Veil, foram coletadas, de janeiro a novembro de 1993, no Horto Florestal "Dr. Luiz Teixeira Mendes", Município de Maringá, PR, Brasil (23º25'S, 51º25'W, com a finalidade de isolar Hyphomycetes. As amostras foliares passaram pela técnica de lavagem vigorosa com água destilada esterilizada e plaqueamento em câmaras-úmidas. Foram isoladas três espécies com conidioma do tipo esporodóquio, Epicoccum nigrum Link, Volutella minima Hõhn. e Wiesneriomyces laurinus (Tassi Kirk, e três com conidioma do tipo sinema, Menisporopsis theobromae S. Hughes, Thozetella cristata Piroz. & Hodges e T. cubensis Castaneda & Arnold. Todas as espécies ocorreram no folhedo sendo predominantes M. theobromae, T. cristata e W. laurinus. Em folhas vivas foram isoladas apenas E. nigrum e V. minima. São apresentadas, para cada espécie, descrição, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações. Todas as espécies estão sendo citadas pela primeira vez para o Estado do Paraná; T. cubensis é referida pela primeira vez para o Brasil.With the aim to study Hyphomycetes, leaves of Cedrela fissilis Veil, were collected from January to November of 1993, in the "Horto Florestal Dr. Luiz Teixeira Mendes", Municipality of Maringá, PR, Brazil (23º25' S, 51º25' W. The leaves were prepared by washing with serial changes of sterile distilled water and incubated in moist chambers. Three species with sporodochial conidiomata, Epicoccum nigrum Link, Volutella minima Hõhn. and Wiesneriomyces laurinus (Tassi Kirk and three with synnematous type, Menisporopsis theobromae S. Hughes, Thozetella cristata Piroz. & Hodges and T. cubensis Castaneda & Arnold were isolated. All these species colonize C. fissilis leaf litter with M. theobromae, T. cristata, and W. laurinus being the most commonly found. From living leaves of C. fissilis only is. nigrum and V minima were isolated. Descriptions, geographical distributions

  11. Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rogério Cosme Silva Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. METHODS A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750 was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression. RESULTS The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ≥ 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. CONCLUSIONS The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems.

  12. Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. METHODS A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750) was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ≥ 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. CONCLUSIONS The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems. PMID:25372165

  13. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Paper  presented at the Addiction Health  Services  Research  Conference 2015, Marina del Rey, CA.  Walker, D., Walton, T., Kaysen, D., Neighbors, C...sporting and outdoors retailer . Those who entered the raffle were invited to answer a brief anonymous pen and paper survey. The primary purpose of...PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Denise Walker, PhD  REPORT DATE:  December 2016  TYPE OF REPORT:  FINAL  PREPARED FOR:  U.S. Army Medical  Research  and

  14. Healthy casetas: A potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products.

  15. 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Saik; Krob, Daniel; Lui, Pao; Tan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the second edition of the Asia-Pacific conference on « Complex Systems Design & Management Asia» (CSD&M Asia 2016) that took place in Singapore from February 24 to February 26, 2016 (Website: http://www.2016.csdm-asia.net/). These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of Complex Systems, both from an academic and a professional perspective. A special focus is put on Smart Nations: Designing and Sustaining. The CSD&M Asia 2016 conference is organized under the guidance of the Singapore division of the Center of Excellence on Systems Architecture, Management, Economy and Strategy (CESAMES) – Legal address: C.E.S.A.M.E.S. Singapore – 16 Raffles Quay – #38-03 Hong Leong Building – Singapore 048581 (website : http://www.cesames.net/en – email: contact@cesames.net).

  16. The antioxidant activity of selected wild orchids of Nepal

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    Mukesh Babu Chand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the antioxidant activity as well as the total polyphenolics and flavonoids content of thirteen extracts from nine wild orchids of Nepal. Methods: First, a preliminary phytochemical screening of thirteen extracts of nine orchids was carried out using established protocols. Then, the total polyphenolic and flavonoid contents of each extract were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Finally, antioxidant activity was determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and expressed in terms of half inhibition concentrations (IC50 values. Results: All the tested parameters showed significant variation at P = 0.05. The total flavonoids varied with the greatest amounts found in the leaves of Rhynchostylis retusa and the smallest amounts found in the roots of Gastrochilus acutifolius (G. acutifolius. The amount of total polyphenolics was highest in the stems of Vanda cristata and lowest in the leaves of G. acutifolius. Antioxidant activity was highest in the stems of Vanda cristata and lowest in the leaves of G. acutifolius. Conclusions: Some of the orchid extracts studied exhibited levels of antioxidant activity which were comparable to or even higher than those found for extracts of medicinal plants and orchids studied previously. It is suggested that drugs and natural food additives can be extracted from those wild orchids with high levels of antioxidant activity.

  17. Part 1: Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Thai plants in the family Acanthaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenchai, Panarat; Vajrodaya, Srunya; Somprasong, Winai; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-11-01

    Crude extracts (CH(2)Cl(2) and MeOH) of 20 plants in the family Acanthaceae were screened for their antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, and radical scavenging activities. These plants included Asystasia nemorum, Barleria cristata, B. strigosa, Dicliptera burmanni, Eranthemum tetragonum, Hygrophila ringens, Justicia balansae, J. procumbens, Lepidagathis incurva, Peristrophe lanceolaria, Phaulopsis dorsiflora, Ruellia kerrii, Strobilanthes auriculata, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. dimorphotricha, S. karensium, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of A. nemorum, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii, as well as MeOH extracts of J. balansae and J. procumbens, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 10-100 µg/mL. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of nine plants including D. burmanni, H. ringens, J. balansae, J. procumbens, L. incurva, P. lanceolaria, P. dorsiflora, S. corrugata, and S. maxwellii showed cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 3.5-46.0 µg/mL. MeOH extracts (at 100 µg/mL) of R. kerrii and S. auriculata could effectively scavenge DPPH free radicals (82-83% inhibition) and superoxide anion radicals (79% and 88% inhibition). In the ORAC antioxidant assay, MeOH extracts of B. cristata, J. procumbens, R. kerrii, and S. auriculata exhibited activity with ORAC units of 3.1-3.9.

  18. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum and related species.

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    Hermann Voglmayr

    Full Text Available Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

  19. Analysing a large dataset on long-term monitoring of water quality and plankton with the SOM clustering

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    Voutilainen A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Self-Organizing Map (SOM proved to be the method of choice for analysing a large heterogeneous ecological dataset. In addition to distributing the data into clusters, the SOM enabled hunting for correlations between the data components. This revealed logical and plausible relationships between and within the environment and groups of organisms. The main conclusions derived from the results were: (i the structure of early summer plankton community significantly differed from that of late summer community in Lake Pyhäselkä and (ii plankton community in late summer was characterized by two functional groups. The first group was formed mainly by phytoplankton, rotifers, and small cladocerans, such as Bosmina spp., and driven by water temperature. The second group was formed by small copepods and the abundant generalist herbivorous cladocerans Daphnia cristata and Limnosida frontosa, which, in turn, associated with chlorophyll a concentration. Biomasses of Bosmina spp. and D. cristata showed decreasing monotonic trends during a 20-year study period supposedly due to oligotrophication. Versatile possibilities to cluster data and hunt for correlations between data components offered by the SOM decisively helped to reveal associations across the original variables and draw conclusions. The results would have been undetectable solely on the basis of unorganised values.

  20. The wildlife research & rescue programme for mammals at Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Project (HTHEP), Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur-Syuhada, N.; Magintan, D.; Siti-Hajar, A. R.; Aisah, M. S.; Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    During the inundation of the Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Project in October 2014, a wildlife rescue programme was conducted to rescue animals found trapped within the expanding 61.6 km2 reservoir. A total of 244 mammals from 30 species, representing 12 families were rescued by various methods included baited live trapping, catchpoles, hoop nets and by hand. The order Rodentia recorded the highest amount of rescued individuals at 20.9%, followed by Primate (18.9), Dermoptera (11.1), Carnivora (0.8) and Pholidota (0.4). The genus Rattus recorded the highest individuals rescued (51 individuals) probably due to the rapid clear-cut logging of the forest prior to inundation. Notable mammals of high conservational value rescued included Manis javanicus (Pangolin), Presbytis melalophos siamensis (Mitred Leaf Monkey), Trachypithecus obscurus (Dusky Leaf Monkey), Hylobates lar (White Handed Gibbon), Nycticebus coucang (Slow Loris), Galeopterus variegatus (Sunda Colugo), Callosciurus nigrovittatus (Sunda Black-banded Squirrel), Ratufa spp. (Giant Squirrels), and Sundasciurus hippurus (Horse-tailed Squirrel). Various data and biological samples were collected from the mammals rescued prior to their release at the nearest forest reserves. Rescue operation enabled the inventory and comprehensive data collection of various arboreal and rare mammal species that are hard to capture using the traditional survey method.

  1. Cohabitation Study of the Leaf Monkey and Bornean White-Bearded Gibbons in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan

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    YANTO SANTOSA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet and habitat overlaps were studied for the leaf monkey (Presbytis rubicunda and bornean white-bearded gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis in tropical forest of Cabang Panti Research Station (CPRS, Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan. Systematic data on feeding and ranging behaviour were collected from August 2009 up to February 2010 for the three groups of two sympatric primate species that shared two neighbouring patches. Our results showed that seven types of habitat in CPRS were affected to both primates, particularly in plant utilization for feed and the use of vertical space patterns. If the leaf monkeys were present in the same forest patch, the Bornean white-bearded gibbons showed a reduced within-group dispersal and significantly less foraging time in a given forest patch. This might be due to the bornean white-bearded gibbons were more selective in their diet selection. When fruits were scarce, bornean white-bearded gibbons spent most of their foraging time in many types of forest ecosystem, while leaf monkey foraged within one or two types of forest ecosystem. At this period, diet and habitat overlaps between the two species were low. When the availability of fruits increased, leaf monkeys shifted their foraging range and both species became confined to the forest habitat. Consequently, the overlaps of diets and habitats were increased while the peak was at the end of the fruit season.

  2. Kyasanur forest disease virus: viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/UiWGcy

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    Keerti V Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV, discovered in 1957, is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV complex. Diseases caused by members of the TBEV complex occur in many parts of the world. KFDV produces a hemorrhagic fever in humans in South India and fatal illnesses in both species of monkeys in the area, the black faced langur (Presbytis entellus and the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata. Experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage KFDV strain P9605 resulted in a viremia of up to 11 days duration, peak viremia titers as high as 109, and death in 82 = 100% of the animals. Prolonged passage of the KFDV strain P9605 in monkey kidney tissue culture resulted in a markedly reduced virulence of the virus for both species; peak viremia titers in monkeys decreased by 2.5 to 4.0 log LD 50 (p= 0.001, and the mortality decreased to 10% (p= 0.001. In challenge experiments, monkeys previously infected with tissue-culture-adapted KFDV, or with the related Langat virus from Malaysia, were fully protected against virulent KFDV. These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex.

  3. 瑞香狼毒化感作用研究%Study on Allelopathy of Stellera chamaejasme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国君; 夏继桥

    2012-01-01

    The extracting solution from Stellera chamaejasme L. Was used to study its effects on seed germination and seedling growth of five plants, Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L., Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet., Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. And Celosia cristata L.. The results revealed the existance of allelopathy of 5. Chamaejasme L., which had different levels of affection on seed germination when using distinctive extracting solvents such as distilled water, ethanol and acetone. All the three kinds of extracting solution from S. Chamaejasme L. Had significant inhibition effect on the seedling growth of L. Heterophyllus Sweet. There was obvious inhibitive influence on the fresh weight of shoot roots, plumules and seedlings of Chenopodium album L., L. Heterophyllus Sweet and Celosia cristata L., except the slight increase on the radicle growth of Portulaca oleracea L. And seedling growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. By the extracting solvent of distilled water.%研究了瑞香狼毒(Stellera chamaejasme L.)提取液对藜(Chenopodium album L.)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea L.)、益母草(Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet.)、籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.)、鸡冠花(Celosia cristata L.)等5种植物种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,瑞香狼毒化感作用是存在的,并且瑞香狼毒的水、乙醇、丙酮提取液对种子萌发的影响不同.3种瑞香狼毒提取液对益母草幼苗生长的影响强度一直最大,除瑞香狼毒水提取液对马齿苋幼根生长和籽粒苋幼苗生长略有促进外,其他溶剂提取液对其他几种植物苗根、幼芽和幼苗鲜重均有明显抑制作用.

  4. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que

  5. [Spatial and temporal distribution of benthic Polychaeta from the continental shelf of Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Blas, V H

    2001-03-01

    In three oceanographic cruises off southern Tamaulipas (May, July and November, 1992), a total of 102 sediment samples were collected by autonomous diving at depths of 2.5 to 20.5 m, with a cylindrical 4 liter acrylic tube. The samples were sieved (aperture size 0.5 and 1.0 mm). In total, 88 species of polychaete annelids were determined (33 families); 15 species are first records for Mexico and three for the Gulf of Mexico. The dominant species were Paraprionospio pinnata, Scoletoma verrilli, Ceratocephale oculata, Aricidea finitima, Apoprionospio pygmaea, Onuphis eremita oculata and Prionospio cristata; P. pinnata was the most abundant (14.4% of the total). Highest abundance and diversity of species was in May (63 species and 622 organisms), followed by July (48 species and 401 organism); November was lowest (47 species and 217 organisms). Most diversity and abundance were found in the sandy bottoms.

  6. Typification of binomials in Xyris section Nematopus (Xyridaceae published by L.A. Nilsson

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    Maria das Graças Lapa Wanderley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A nomenclatural revision of fifteen taxa of Xyris (Xyridaceae described by L.A. Nilsson (1892 is presented as part of a taxonomic revision of the genus in Brazil. All the protologues and type collections of these taxa were studied. The type collections were examined in the respective herbarium collections where they are preserved and complemented by images available on herbarium websites and from JSTOR Global Plants. Lectotypes were selected for Xyris cristata L.A.Nilsson, X. glaziowii L.A.Nilsson and X. insignis L.A.Nilsson. The holotypes, of X. glandacea L.A.Nilsson and X. stenophylla L.A.Nilsson, were discovered at the herbaria of Uppsala (UPS and Berlin (B respectively, and provided with their correct determinations.

  7. Typification of binomials in Xyrissection Nematopus (Xyridaceae) published by L.A. Nilsson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, Maria das Graças Lapa

    2017-01-01

    A nomenclatural revision of fifteen taxa of Xyris (Xyridaceae) described by L.A. Nilsson (1892) is presented as part of a taxonomic revision of the genus in Brazil. All the protologues and type collections of these taxa were studied. The type collections were examined in the respective herbarium collections where they are preserved and complemented by images available on herbarium websites and from JSTOR Global Plants. Lectotypes were selected for Xyris cristata L.A.Nilsson, X. glaziowii L.A.Nilsson and X. insignis L.A.Nilsson. The holotypes, of X. glandacea L.A.Nilsson and X. stenophylla L.A.Nilsson, were discovered at the herbaria of Uppsala (UPS) and Berlin (B) respectively, and provided with their correct determinations.

  8. Co-sensitized natural dyes potentially used to enhance light harvesting capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, R.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural pigments containing anthocyanins, betalains, and caroteins. The dyes were adsorbed by a photoanode that was fabricated from nanocrystalline TiO2 on transparent conductive glass. TiO2 comprises of 100% anatase and 90:10 anatase:rutile fraction. The dyes extracted from mangosteen pericarp, Musa aromatica pericarp, Celosia cristata flower and red beet root were characterized through UV-vis and IPCE. The effectiveness of the dyes was explained through photocurrent as a function of incident light power. It was found that the cocktail and multilayered dyes comprised of anthocyanins and caroteins is beneficial to obtain high photocurrent, whereas betalains is not recommended to be applied on untreated TiO2. Due to the bandgap properties of rutile and anatase, the presence of 10% rutile in TiO2 is favourable to further enhance the electron transport.

  9. Avian hosts for West Nile virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Langevin, Stanley A; Brault, Aaron C; Amador, Manuel; Edwards, Eric; Owen, Jennifer C

    2005-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infections in free-ranging birds were studied in Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, after a human encephalitis outbreak peaked there in July 2002. Seroprevalence in resident, free-ranging wild birds in one suburban site was 25% and 24% in August and October, respectively, indicating that most transmission had ceased by early August. Mortality rates, seroprevalence rates, host competence, and crude population estimates were used in mathematical models to predict actual infection rates, population impacts, and importance as amplifying hosts for several common passerine birds. Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus) were the principal amplifying hosts, but blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) and northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) also contributed. The blue jay population was reduced by an estimated 47%. A variety of passerine bird species combined to play an important role as amplifying hosts in the WNV transmission cycle.

  10. MODEL PUNGUTAN PAJAK PADA MASA KUMPENI DI JAWA TIMUR

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    Putri Agus Wijayati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tax collection system in the concept of the modern colonial states was made by Raffles in 1811. But decades earlier, the implementation of natural resource charges on the population has been carried out when Kumpeni started to run "indirect rule system" to get the commodity trade. Model or the way run by Kumpeni essentially another form of what is called the withdrawal of tax, which applies to areas under the East Indies Kumpeni government, one of which is the East End area in East Java. Almost in most of the various regions in Java, the Company completed the cash withdrawals from the tax imposed on many fields and carried out in many ways. VOC financial politics is always tangent to the things that is closely related to tax collection, which is the use of the taxation system that is considered highly efficient and profitable for VOC. How were the conditions which were recorded from the form of taxation practiced by VOC? Those are topics which will be explained in the following topic.   Keywords: tax, kumpeni   Sistem pungutan pajak dalam konsep negara kolonial modern memang baru dibidani oleh Raffles tahun 1811. Namun beberapa puluh tahun sebelumnya, pelaksanaan pungutan hasil bumi terhadap penduduk sudah terlaksana ketika Kumpeni mulai beraksi menjalankan ”sistem pemerintahan tidak langsung” untuk memperoleh komoditas dagangan. Model atau cara yang ditempuh Kumpeni inipun pada esensinya bentuk lain dari apa yang disebut dengan penarikan pajak, yang berlaku bagi daerah-daerah yang berada di bawah ”pemerintahan”  Kumpeni Hindia Timur, salah satu di antaranya  daerah di Ujung Timur Jawa Timur.  Hampir sebagian besar berbagai wilayah di Jawa, kas VOC diisi dari hasil penarikan pajak yang dikenakan pada banyak bidang dan dilaksanakan dengan banyak cara. Politik finansial VOC selalu bersinggungan dengan hal-hal yang berkaiterat dengan penarikan pajak, yaitu penggunaan sistem pemajakan yang dipandangnya sangat

  11. Subcellular nutrient element localization and enrichment in ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizas of field-grown beech and ash trees indicate functional differences.

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    Jasmin Seven

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizas are the chief organ for plant mineral nutrient acquisition. In temperate, mixed forests, ash roots (Fraxinus excelsior are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM and beech roots (Fagus sylvatica by ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM. Knowledge on the functions of different mycorrhizal species that coexist in the same environment is scarce. The concentrations of nutrient elements in plant and fungal cells can inform on nutrient accessibility and interspecific differences of mycorrhizal life forms. Here, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal species exhibit interspecific differences in mineral nutrient concentrations and that the differences correlate with the mineral nutrient concentrations of their associated root cells. Abundant mycorrhizal fungal species of mature beech and ash trees in a long-term undisturbed forest ecosystem were the EcM Lactarius subdulcis, Clavulina cristata and Cenococcum geophilum and the AM Glomus sp. Mineral nutrient subcellular localization and quantities of the mycorrhizas were analysed after non-aqueous sample preparation by electron dispersive X-ray transmission electron microscopy. Cenococcum geophilum contained the highest sulphur, Clavulina cristata the highest calcium levels, and Glomus, in which cations and P were generally high, exhibited the highest potassium levels. Lactarius subdulcis-associated root cells contained the highest phosphorus levels. The root cell concentrations of K, Mg and P were unrelated to those of the associated fungal structures, whereas S and Ca showed significant correlations between fungal and plant concentrations of those elements. Our results support profound interspecific differences for mineral nutrient acquisition among mycorrhizas formed by different fungal taxa. The lack of correlation between some plant and fungal nutrient element concentrations may reflect different retention of mineral nutrients in the fungal part of the symbiosis. High mineral concentrations

  12. Subcellular nutrient element localization and enrichment in ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizas of field-grown beech and ash trees indicate functional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Jasmin; Polle, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizas are the chief organ for plant mineral nutrient acquisition. In temperate, mixed forests, ash roots (Fraxinus excelsior) are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) and beech roots (Fagus sylvatica) by ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM). Knowledge on the functions of different mycorrhizal species that coexist in the same environment is scarce. The concentrations of nutrient elements in plant and fungal cells can inform on nutrient accessibility and interspecific differences of mycorrhizal life forms. Here, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal species exhibit interspecific differences in mineral nutrient concentrations and that the differences correlate with the mineral nutrient concentrations of their associated root cells. Abundant mycorrhizal fungal species of mature beech and ash trees in a long-term undisturbed forest ecosystem were the EcM Lactarius subdulcis, Clavulina cristata and Cenococcum geophilum and the AM Glomus sp. Mineral nutrient subcellular localization and quantities of the mycorrhizas were analysed after non-aqueous sample preparation by electron dispersive X-ray transmission electron microscopy. Cenococcum geophilum contained the highest sulphur, Clavulina cristata the highest calcium levels, and Glomus, in which cations and P were generally high, exhibited the highest potassium levels. Lactarius subdulcis-associated root cells contained the highest phosphorus levels. The root cell concentrations of K, Mg and P were unrelated to those of the associated fungal structures, whereas S and Ca showed significant correlations between fungal and plant concentrations of those elements. Our results support profound interspecific differences for mineral nutrient acquisition among mycorrhizas formed by different fungal taxa. The lack of correlation between some plant and fungal nutrient element concentrations may reflect different retention of mineral nutrients in the fungal part of the symbiosis. High mineral concentrations, especially of

  13. Helechos y licofitos de la Reserva Natural Educativa Colonia Benítez (Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dematteis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Educativa Colonia Benítez cuenta con una superficie aproximada de ocho ha, está ubicada en el departamento Primero de Mayo, en la provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Desde el punto de vista fitogeográfico, esta área protegida se localiza dentro del Distrito Chaqueño Oriental de la Provincia Chaqueña. Como objetivos de este trabajo se planteó realizar un inventario de helechos y licofitos y una clave para el reconocimiento de los taxa que crecen en esta reserva. A tal fin, se examinaron las colecciones depositadas en CTES, y se realizaron nuevas recolecciones de especímenes. Se registraron 12 géneros con un total de 17 especies, siendo Doryopteris el género mejor representado con tres especies: D. concolor, D. lorentzii y D. pentagona. El género Adiantopsis presentó dos especies (A. chlorophylla y A. tweediana, al igual que Anemia con (A. simplicior y A. tomentosa var. anthriscifolia y Pteris (Pteris denticulata var. tristicula y Pteris vittata. Los demás géneros presentaron sólo una especie: Adiantum lorentzii, Anogramma chaerophylla, Azolla cristata, Hemionitis tomentosa, Microgramma vaccinifolia, Pityrogramma calomelanos var. calomelanos, Pleopeltis minima y Selaginella sellowii. El hábito terrícola fue el mejor representado con 12 especies, de las cuales una de ellas es rupícola y otras tres se pueden comportar como epífitos facultativos, en tanto que los estrictamente epífitos fueron representados por sólo dos especies. Azolla cristata fue la única especie acuática presente. Se presentan observaciones ecológicas y un análisis biogeográfico de las especies registradas

  14. Anthelmintic Effect of Mebendazole and Fenbendazole on Trichuris Infection in Primates%甲苯咪唑和芬苯达唑对灵长类动物毛首线虫的驱虫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 李梅; 王强; 牛李丽; 邓家波; 严慧娟; 杨光友

    2016-01-01

    使用复方甲苯咪唑片剂按10mg·kg-1 ×5 d、20 mg·kg-1×3d、40 mg·kg-1×5d和芬苯达唑粉剂按10mg· kg-1 ×3 d对感染毛首线虫Trichuris spp.的灵长类动物拌料喂服,测定用药前后每克粪样中虫卵数,计算虫卵减少率和虫卵转阴率以评估药物驱虫效果.结果表明,川金丝猴Rhinopithecus roxellana按10 mg·kg-1×5d、黑叶猴Presbytis francoisi等7种动物按20mg·kg-1×3d、短尾猴Macacaarctoides和猕猴M.mulatta按40 mg·kg-1×5 d用复方甲苯咪唑片剂投药后,虫卵减少率和虫卵转阴率均能达到100%,芬苯达唑的驱虫效果较差.甲苯咪唑对灵长类动物毛首线虫的驱虫效果较好,投药方便、安全.筛选出安全、高效和使用方便的抗毛首线虫药物及驱虫程序,为灵长类动物毛首线虫病的防控提供技术支持.

  15. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Theo C M; Zbinden, Marc; Frommen, Joachim G; Weiss, Alexander; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2006-05-19

    The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm) may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  16. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommen Joachim G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. Results In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. Conclusion This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  17. Astronomy Festival on the National Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2015-11-01

    The annual Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM) takes place on 11 acres north of the Washington Monument in June (previous AFNM were April and July). AFNM, sponsored by Hofstra University, features optical and radio telescope viewing of the Sun, Moon, planets, stars, clusters, and nebulae; a live large-screen image, a cell phone imaging mount; exhibits; hands-on activities; videos; large outdoor banners and posters; citizen science activities; hand-outs; bookmarks, and teacher information materials. With no tall buildings almost the entire sky is visible and 10th mag. moons of Saturn and the Ring Nebula (9.75 mag.) were easily visible on clear nights. Representatives from some of the nation's foremost scientific and educational institutions presented exciting demonstrations and activities; and answered questions about careers in science, celestial objects, and the latest astronomical discoveries. Local amateur astronomers set up twenty telescopes on the Mall and long lines of 20-30 people waited to look through the telescopes. Visitors met astronaut Dr. John Grunsfeld (Associate Administrator, NASA) and astronomers Dr. Lisse, Dr. Livengood, Dr. Warren, and Dr. Paul Hertz (Director, Astrophysics Division, NASA). Important historical astronomers spoke to the attendees: Caroline Herschel (Lynn King); Tycho Brahe (Dean Howarth); and Johannes Kepler (Jeff Jones). Free telescopes, donated by Celestron, were raffled off.

  18. Two new Horaiclavus (Horaiclavidae, Conoidea) species from the Indo-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfitto, Antonio; Morassi, Mauro

    2014-06-19

    The genus Horaiclavus includes eight Holocene Indo-Pacific species (Appeltans et al. 2012). Herein, we describe two new species that resemble members of this genus in some aspects of shell morphology, but otherwise show features that suggest that they differ from "typical" Horaiclavus species. Descriptions and measurements were based on shells oriented spire up with the aperture facing the viewer and made using a Leica MS 5 Stereomicroscope for incident light and a 10× ocular micrometer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs were taken using a Hitachi S-2400. The classification adopted here follows Bouchet et al. (2011). The following abbreviations are used in the text: MZB = Museo di Zoologia dell'Università di Bologna; MNHN = Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France; NHMUK = The Natural History Museum of United Kingdom [formerly British Museum (Natural History)], London, United Kingdom; ZMA = Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; ZRC = Zoological Reference Collection, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, Singapore; a = aperture length; b = shell width; l = length; a/l = ratio of aperture length to total shell length; b/l = ratio of shell breadth to total length; dd= dead collected specimen(s); stn. = station.

  19. Comparative insect fauna succession on indoor and outdoor monkey carrions in a semi-forested area in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazni Wasi Ahmad; Sofian Mohd Azirun; Lee Han Lim; Chen Chee Dhang; Heo Chong Chin; Abdullah AG; Wan-Norjuliana Wan Mustaffa; Chew Wai Kian; John Jeffery; Rosli Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the occurrence of insects fauna obtained in a semi forested area in Malaysia using the carcass of the monkey Macaca fascicularis, Raffles, and to compared the wave of insect succession collected from the carcass placed outdoor and indoor. Methods:The outdoor and indoor studies were conducted at a location of 3º17’57.86”N, 101º47’00.78”E. The euthanized monkeys were placed indoor and outdor. The insect seccession visited the carcass, the envirenmental temperature and relative humidity were recorded. Results:The main insects attracted to specific stages of decomposition were mainly members of Diptera and Coleoptera. There was a delay of fly arrival by two days in indoor carcass. Nocturnal oviposition behaviour was not observed in this study. The flies left the carcass during the twilight zone as noted during a 3 days observation period in outdoor study. The dipteran species found outdoor and indoor were similar but more diverse coleopteran species was found indoor. Conclusions:Information and evidence from this study can be used to improve the estimation of the post mortem interval in forensic cases.

  20. The Pays de Gex on the Menu

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Did you know that you can swing from tree to tree like Tarzan (or Jane!) in the brand new forest adventure centre at the Col de la Faucille? And that, in addition to Crozet-Lélex, Mijoux-La Faucille and La Vattay, the Pays de Gex boasts a fourth ski resort at Menthières above Bellegarde-sur-Valserine? All these attractions, and hundreds of others that the Pays de Gex has to offer, were presented at a special exhibition stand in CERN's Restaurant No. 1 last week. For the tenth year running, the Pays de Gex-La Faucille Tourist Office and Geneva's fourteen Coop restaurants had organised a special week devoted to promoting the Pays de Gex-Monts Jura region. Thousands of information leaflets were handed out and visitors had the opportunity to take part in a big raffle with no fewer than 145 prizes to be won: ski passes, Juraventure entrance tickets, meal vouchers courtesy of local hotels and restaurants, and subscriptions to the Val Vital fitness centre in Divonne-les-Bains. The Coop restaur...

  1. The Staff Association has a new look and is modernizing itself

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Staff Association through its In-Form-Action Commission has worked to modernize its image, giving it at the same time a more professional look. In addition this year, the Staff Council has defined a new structure with 45 delegates that will take effect from 2014. This reduction in the number of delegates will allow each of your representatives to dedicate more of their time to training and to work in-depth on the subjects to be dealt with. It will improve efficiency, stimulate the work in the standing committees, and it should allow for a better recognition of the function of delegate. The Staff Association has introduced a new policy of internal and external communication based upon the best available tools. Many of you took part in our end-of-year raffle and our logo competition at the beginning of 2013. Now, you can discover the new look of the Staff Association website and our recently opened Facebook page, featuring videos of your delegates. Why not come and meet them on the occasion of two excepti...

  2. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2012-05-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

  3. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  4. Fundraising Strategies Developed by MBA students in Project-Based Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Alberto Arantes do Amaral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to raise funds is a skill that most modern project managers need. While a good deal of literature exists on the strategies NGOs employ to raise funds for their operations, less attention has been paid to the strategies used by students involved in Project-Based Learning courses that often partner with NGOs. Fundraising is an important skill that not only provides students with opportunities for creativity, but also helps them develop the communication skills they will need in the work they do after they graduate.In this paper, we discuss the fundraising strategies developed by MBA students in 204 social projects completed between 2002 and 2014. The projects were done in partnership with 39 community partners in Sao Paulo, Brazil (NGOs and Public Institutions. In our study, we followed quantitative and qualitative research methods, analyzing data and documents from the projects’ databases. We identified six different fundraising strategies: organizing raffles, soliciting donations from private corporations, organizing paying events, utilizing online social networks developing crowdfunding, and soliciting individual donations.

  5. Healthy Casetas: A Potential Strategy to Improve the Food Environment in Low-Income Schools to Reduce Obesity in Children in Guatemala City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, Elisa L.; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone rapid transitions driven by globalization and development, which have accelerated increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for early intervention and favorable arenas in which to target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (casetas) which provide food and drink for sale to children. From July through October 2013, observation during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n=4) and caseta vendors (n=4), and focus groups with children (n=48) were conducted. This paper explores products currently available to children at casetas. We found that current factors that impact what casetas offer and subsequent nutrition habits of children at school include: regulations and enforcement; vendor investment and earnings; vendor challenges related to resources (i.e. refrigeration); the current economy and product demand; product pricing; and children's product preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies that emerged include healthy food preparation to improve product health and quality, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthy product consumption, as well as government and corporate involvement to push policy toward development of healthier products. PMID:27065019

  6. Coevolutionary Feedbacks between Female Mating Interval and Male Allocation to Competing Sperm Traits Can Drive Evolution of Costly Polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2016-03-01

    Complex coevolutionary feedbacks between female mating interval and male sperm traits have been hypothesized to explain the evolution and persistence of costly polyandry. Such feedbacks could potentially arise because polyandry creates sperm competition and consequent selection on male allocation to sperm traits, while the emerging sperm traits could create female sperm limitation and, hence, impose selection for increased polyandry. However, the hypothesis that costly polyandry could coevolve with male sperm dynamics has not been tested. We built a genetically explicit individual-based model to simulate simultaneous evolution of female mating interval and male allocation to sperm number versus longevity, where these two sperm traits trade off. We show that evolution of competing sperm traits under polyandry can indeed cause female sperm limitation and, hence, promote further evolution and persistence of costly polyandry, particularly when sperm are costly relative to the degree of female sperm limitation. These feedbacks were stronger, and greater polyandry evolved, when postcopulatory competition for paternity followed a loaded rather than fair raffle and when sperm traits had realistically low heritability. We therefore demonstrate that the evolution of allocation to sperm traits driven by sperm competition can prevent males from overcoming female sperm limitation, thereby driving ongoing evolution of costly polyandry.

  7. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: role of radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy R Emril

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril1 Kok-Yuen Ho21Neurology Department, Syiah Kuala University/Dr Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; 2Pain Management Centre, Raffles Hospital, SingaporeAbstract: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN is a neuropathic pain condition affecting the face. It has a significant impact on the quality of life and physical function of patients. Evidence suggests that the likely etiology is vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve leading to focal demyelination and aberrant neural discharge. Secondary causes such as multiple sclerosis or brain tumors can also produce symptomatic TN. Treatment must be individualized to each patient. Carbamazepine remains the drug of choice in the first-line treatment of TN. Minimally invasive interventional pain therapies and surgery are possible options when drug therapy fails. Younger patients may benefit from microvascular decompression. Elderly patients with poor surgical risk may be more suitable for percutaneous trigeminal nerve rhizolysis. The technique of radiofrequency rhizolysis of the trigeminal nerve is described in detail in this review.Keywords: interventional treatment, minimally invasive, pain management, radiofrequency rhizolysis, trigeminal neuralgia 

  8. The "other" side of labor reform: accounts of incarceration and resistance in the Straits Settlements penal system, 1825-1873.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieris, Anoma

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the transportation of prisoners to the Straits Settlements and the reformative capacity of the penal labor regime assumed a uniform subject, an impoverished criminal, who could be disciplined and accordingly civilized through labor. Stamford Raffles, as lieutenant governor of Benkulen, believed that upon realizing the advantages of the new colony, criminals would willingly become settlers. These two colonial prerogatives of labor and population categorized transportees into laboring classes where their exploitation supposedly brought mutual benefit. The colonized was collectively homogenized as a class of laborers and evidence to the contrary, of politically challenging and resistant individuals was suppressed. This paper focuses on two prisoners who were incriminated during the anti-colonial rebellions of the mid-nineteenth century and were transported to the Straits Settlements. Nihal Singh, a political prisoner from Lahore, was incarcerated in isolation to prevent his martyrdom and denied the supposed benefits of labor reform. Conversely, Tikiri Banda Dunuwille, a lawyer from Ceylon was sent to labor in Melaka as a form of humiliation. Tikiri’s many schemes to evade labor damned him in the eyes of the authorities. The personal histories of these two individuals expose how colonial penal policy recognized and manipulated individual differences during a time of rising anti-colonial sentiment. The experiences of these prisoners, the response of their communities and the voices of their descendents offer us a very different entry point into colonial penal history.

  9. Research on allelopathy of aqueous extract from Tagetes patula to four garden plants%孔雀草水浸提液对4种园林植物化感作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 张杨雪; 刘庆林; 黄胜岚; 刘盼

    2015-01-01

    以4种园林植物石竹、千叶蓍、二月兰、鸡冠花作为受体,采用室内培养皿法,研究了不同浓度孔雀草水浸提液(0,12.5,25.0,50.0,100.0 mg/mL)对4种园林植物种子萌发及幼苗生长的化感作用,旨在为孔雀草在园林植物配置中的应用提供科学依据。结果表明,孔雀草水浸提液对4种园林植物种子萌发及生长有明显影响,且4种园林植物间存在一定差异。孔雀草水浸提液对石竹、二月兰、鸡冠花种子萌发均表现为抑制作用,对千叶蓍种子则表现为一定的促进作用;孔雀草水浸提液对石竹幼苗表现为抑制作用,而对二月兰和鸡冠花幼苗表现为“低促高抑”,浓度为100.0 mg/mL 时,抑制作用最强;千叶蓍幼苗生长在浸提液浓度为50.0 mg/mL 时仍表现为显著的促进作用,仅在100.0 mg/mL 时受到一定程度抑制;孔雀草水浸提液对石竹、鸡冠花和二月兰幼苗叶绿素含量基本都表现为抑制作用,千叶蓍仅在100.0 mg/mL 时表现为抑制;二月兰、鸡冠花幼苗 POD 活性在中低浓度时有不同程度升高,100.0 mg/mL 时呈下降趋势,石竹幼苗 POD 活性随浸提液浓度升高持续下降,千叶蓍则先下降后升高;石竹和鸡冠花幼苗 MDA 含量随浸提液浓度升高而升高,千叶蓍和二月兰则先下降后升高。%In order to provide scientific theoretical basis for the application of Tagetes patula in the garden plants configuration,the aqueous extracts from Tagetes patula was used to search the allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling growth of Dianthus chinensis ,Achillea millefolium ,Orychophragmus viola-ceus ,Celosia cristata using petridishs with filter papers.Results showed that the aqueous extracts from Tagetes patula had significant allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling growth of four garden plants.The aqueous extracts from Tagetes

  10. 红花酢浆草提取液对3种草花种子萌发的影响%Allelopathy Effects of Oxalis corymbosa on Seed Germination of Three Herbaceous Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章玉平; 彭燕燕

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the allelopathy effect on seed germination and seedling growth of the aqueous extracts from leaves and leafstalks of Oxalis corymbosa, probing the invasive mechanism of alien species, the aqueous extracts of O. Corymbosa were used as the test material in this paper. Its purpose was to study the influence of the aqueous extracts of 0. Corymbosa to Tagetes patula, Calendula officinalis and Celosia cristata three herbaceous flowers seed germination and seedling growth. The concentration of the aqueous extracts from leaves and leafstalks of 0. Corymbosa was 0 (CK), 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%. The results showed that sensitivity to the aqueous leaf extract of O. Corymbosa differed among the three species. Concentration at 0.625% of the O. Corymbosa aqueous extracts from leaves and leafstalks promoted the germination and seedling growth of Tagetes patula, however, concentration at 1.25%, 2.5% inhibited the germination and seedling growth of Tagetes patula. Concentration at 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% of the O. Corymbosa aqueous extracts from leaves and leafstalks inhibited the germination and seedling growth of Calendula officinalis and Celosia cristata, but the inhibition of concentration gradient was not remarkable. The test showed the allelopathy of O. Corymbosa to Tagetes patula was stronger, the allelopathy to Calendula officinalis and Celosia cristata was weaker.%为研究红花酢浆草叶片和叶柄水提取液对3种草花种子萌发的影响,探明外来物种入侵的机制,以红花酢浆草叶片和叶柄的不同浓度水提取液为材料,研究不同浓度(0.625%、1.25%、2.5%)的水提取液浸种对金盏菊、羽状鸡冠花、孔雀草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:不同草花种子对红花酢浆草水提取液的敏感程度不同.0.625%的红花酢浆草水提取液对金盏菊种子萌发具有促进作用,1.25%、2.5%的水提取液对其具有抑制作用.0.625%、1.25%和2.5%的红花酢浆草水提取液对孔雀

  11. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  12. Comparison of Seed Germination Characteristics of Eight Flower Species under Salt Stress%盐胁迫下8种草花种子萌发特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂玲

    2011-01-01

    Seed germination characteristics of eight flower species of Tagetes erecta ,Callistephus chinesis ,Bellis pe-rennis,Zinnia elegans,Pharbitis nilchoisy,Antirrhinum majus, Celosia cristata,Salvia splendens under salt stress with different concentration of NaCl of 0,0.1 % ,0.3% ,0.5% ,0.7% and 0. 9% were studied. Germination rate,germination potential and germination index were determined. The results showed that seed germination of the eight flower species was inhibited under salt stress. The inhibition of salt-stress on seed germination was more serious with the increase of NaCl concentration. The order of salt tolerance of the eight flower species during seed germination from strong to weak was Tagetes erecta,Zinnia elegans,Salvia splendens,Pharbitis nilchoisy,Callistephus Chinesis,Celosia cristata ,Bellis perennis, Antirrhinum majus.%以万寿菊、翠菊、雏菊、百日草、牵牛花、金鱼草、鸡冠花和一串红为材料,比较盐胁迫下8种草花种子萌发特性,设置0(CK)、0.1%、0.3%、0.5%、0.7%、0.9% NaC1溶液6个处理,测定8种草花在不同盐浓度下的发芽率、发芽势和发芽指数.试验结果表明,盐胁迫下这些草花种子的萌发均受到不同程度的抑制,随着盐浓度的提高,种子萌发受到的抑制作用增大.8种草花种子萌发期耐盐能力由强至弱依次为:万寿菊、百日草、一串红、牵牛花、翠菊、鸡冠花,雏菊和金鱼草.

  13. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soemarsaid Moertono

    1969-07-01

    University Ithaca New York 1968. - M.A.P. Meilink-Roelofsz, John Bastin, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. With an account of the Raffles-Minto manuscript collection presented to the India Office Library on 17 July 1969 by the Malaysia-Singapore Commercial Association. The Ocean Steamship Company Limited, Liverpool 1969. 33 pp. - C. Fasseur, W.F. Wertheim, Ketters en kwezels. Regenten en rebellen. Laverman N.V., Drachten, 1968. 212 blz., A.H. Wertheim-Gijse Weenink (eds. - S. Kooijman, Tropical Man. Continuation of International Archives of Ethnography. Yearbook of the Anthropology Department of the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Vol. 2; Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1968. Vol. I: 247 pp.

  14. 多向杆件相交的清水型钢混凝土组合结构节点施工技术研究%Research on Construction Technology of Multi-members-intersection Fair-faced Profiled-steel Concrete Composite Structures Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志平; 赵云鹏; 杜福祥; 张兴志; 马卫华

    2011-01-01

    结合成都来福士广场工程实例,详细介绍了型钢混凝土组合结构节点深化设计的方法,提出了包括钢筋绕过型钢、钢筋伸至型钢边弯锚、钢筋穿过型钢腹板、钢筋与型钢通过连接板焊接连接、钢筋与型钢通过焊接套筒连接五种解决方法,并以工程典型节点为例详细说明了五种方法的选取过程.同时,结合工程施工实施情况,对型钢混凝土组合结构施工进行了总结.%Combing with the practice of Raffles City Chengdu, the authors show in detail the deep design methods of profiled-steel concrete composite structure joints. Five methods are put forward including steel bar bypassing profiled-steel method, method of steel bar extending to the side of profiled steel and then be anchored by bending, steel bar crossing profiled-steel web method, method of steel bar be welded on the profiled-steel by connection plate, method of steel bar be linked profiled-steel by welding tube. The authors introduce in detail the selection process of the five methods for the practical engineering as an example, and summarize construction technique of profiled-steel concrete composite structure.

  15. Cooled radiofrequency denervation for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain: two-year results from 20 cases

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    Ho KY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kok-Yuen Ho,1 Mohamed Abdul Hadi,2 Koravee Pasutharnchat,2 Kian-Hian Tan21Pain Management Centre, Raffles Hospital, 2Pain Management Centre, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeBackground: Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause of chronic low back pain. Different techniques for radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint have been used to treat this condition. However, results have been inconsistent because the variable sensory supply to the sacroiliac joint is difficult to disrupt completely using conventional radiofrequency. Cooled radiofrequency is a novel technique that uses internally cooled radiofrequency probes to enlarge lesion size, thereby increasing the chance of completely denervating the sacroiliac joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cooled radiofrequency denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system for sacroiliac joint pain.Methods: The charts of 20 patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain who had undergone denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system were reviewed at two years following the procedure. Outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale for pain intensity, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Global Perceived Effect for patient satisfaction.Results: Fifteen of 20 patients showed a significant reduction in pain (a decrease of at least three points on the Numeric Rating Scale. Mean Numeric Rating Scale for pain decreased from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 3.1 ± 2.5, mean Patient Global Impression of Change was "improved" (1.4 ± 1.5, and Global Perceived Effect was reported to be positive in 16 patients at two years following the procedure.Conclusion: Cooled radiofrequency denervation showed long-term efficacy for up to two years in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain.Keywords: ablation, chronic low back pain, intervention, neurotomy, sacroiliitis

  16. Spatial heterogeneity, predator cognition, and the evolution of color polymorphism in virtual prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alan B.; Kamil, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    Cryptically colored prey species are often polymorphic, occurring in multiple distinctive pattern variants. Visual predators promote such phenotypic variation through apostatic selection, in which they attack more abundant prey types disproportionately often. In heterogeneous environments, disruptive selection to match the coloration of disparate habitat patches could also produce polymorphism, but how apostatic and disruptive selection interact in these circumstances is unknown. Here we report the first controlled selection experiment on the evolution of prey coloration on heterogeneous backgrounds, in which blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) searched for digital moths on mixtures of dark and light patches at three different scales of heterogeneity. As predicted by ecological theory, coarse-grained backgrounds produced a functional dimorphism of specialists on the two patch types; fine-grained backgrounds produced generalists. The searching strategies of the jays also varied with the habitat configuration, however. Complex backgrounds with many moth-like features elicited a slow, serial search that depended heavily on selective attention. The result was increased apostatic selection, producing a broad range of moth phenotypes. Backgrounds with larger, more uniform patches allowed the birds to focus on the currently most rewarding patch type and to search entire patches rapidly in parallel. The result was less apostatic selection and lower phenotypic variability. The evolution of polymorphism in camouflaged prey depends on a complex interaction between habitat structure and predator cognition. PMID:16481615

  17. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on prolactin secretion in three species of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleck, C M; Patrick, D J

    1999-01-01

    Previous work on domesticated species has indicated that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important prolactin-releasing factor in these birds, but no comparative work in passerine birds has been reported. This study showed that iv injections of VIP (50-100 microg/kg body mass) result in a dramatic, but transitory, rise in plasma prolactin in Mexican jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina). Significant increases in prolactin were also observed following VIP injection in blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and zebra finches (Poephilla guttata). At the dosage we used, maximum levels of prolactin attained were slightly lower (Mexican jays) or very similar (blue jay and zebra finch) to the maximum prolactin levels observed in other, breeding birds of the same species. In zebra finches that initially had low prolactin, VIP injection resulted in a greater than 10-fold increase in prolactin within 10 min, but those individuals that already had elevated prolactin showed no further increase in response to VIP. Slow-release pellets of VIP implanted subcutaneously in Mexican jays and releasing 10 or 15 microg VIP/day (two or three pellets) produced a significant increase in plasma prolactin (78 and 92% rise, respectively) compared to birds with placebo pellets or with with one pellet releasing only 5 microg/day.

  18. The genus Biuterina Fuhrmann, 1902 (Cestoda, Paruterinidae) in the Old World: redescriptions of three species from Palaearctic Passeriformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P; Bray, Rodney A; Gibson, David I

    2004-01-01

    The syntypes of Biuterina passerina Fuhrmann, 1908 from Alauda arvensis and Galerida cristata (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) from an unknown locality are redescribed. B. fuhrmanni Schmelz, 1941 is redescribed on the basis of its syntypes from Emberiza aureola from China; its type-material contains, in addition to a scolex and pre-gravid and gravid fragments of Biuterina, fragments of mature proglottides from a dilepidid cestode, which were erroneously used in the original description. Specimens, which correspond morphologically to B. clerci Spasskii, 1946, from Miliaria calandra, E. citrinella and E. cirlus from Bulgaria and from E. citrinella from the Czech Republic, are studied. The synonymy of B. clerci with B. passerina is rejected; however, it is recognised as a synonym of B. fuhrmanni. Available data suggest that B. passerina is a specific parasite of birds of the family Alaudidae, while B. fuhrmanni is specific to the Emberizidae. B. collurionis Matevosyan, 1950 is considered a species inquirenda, pending confirmation of apparent differences from B. passerina and B. fuhrmanni based on further material. Biuterina cordifera Murai & Sulgostowska, 1983 is redescribed on the basis of specimens, previously identified by Rysavý (1965) as B. triangula (Krabbe, 1869), from Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Muscicapidae, Sylviinae) in the Czech Republic (new geographical record) and from Erithacus megarhynchos (Muscicapidae, Turdinae) in Bulgaria (new host and geographical records).

  19. [Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipochliev, T

    1981-01-01

    Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3.

  20. Diet of the Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis (De Blainville, 1816 in the Churia Hills of Nepal

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    Amar Kunwar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The food composition of the Four-horned Antelope Tetracerus quadricornis was studied in the Churia Hills of Nepal during summer, monsoon and the winter seasons of 2012–2013.  Microhistological technique was used to determine the diet.  The Four-horned Antelope was found to be a mixed feeder feeding on trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses and climbers.  Trees and shrubs contribute the major percentage of diet in all the three seasons.  The Gramineae family is consumed in highest proportion.  Mitragyna parvifolia, Bridelia retusa, Bambusa vulgaris, Hymenodictyon sp. and Ziziphus mauritiana are major tree species while Barleria cristata, Pogostemon benghalensis, Achyranthes sp., Clerodendrum viscosum are among shrubs.  Ageratum conyzoides and Blumea virens are the main forbs Eulaliopsis binata and Imperata cylindrica are the principal grass species.  Climber Trachelospermum lucidum is consumed in a small proportion.  Grasses in monsoon were consumed distinctly at a higher percentage than during the other two seasons.  The Four-horned Antelopes are concentrated feeders and browsers with a generalized feeding strategy. Similar studies need to be conducted in other landscapes and with sympatric and potential competitor species to understand its niche overlaps and degree of competition. 

  1. Physiological and antioxidant responses of cotton and spurred anoda under interference and mild drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayaka, H Harish; Molin, William T; Sterling, Tracy M

    2003-10-01

    The influence of plant interference and a mild drought on gas exchange and oxidative stress was investigated using potted plants of two cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Delta Pine 5415, and Gossypium barbadense L. cv. Pima S-7) and spurred anoda (Anoda cristata L. Schlecht.) of the Malvaceae. Without interference, cotton and spurred anoda had similar net photosynthesis (Pnet) but different pigment profiles. Stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) were greater in spurred anoda than cotton. Net photosynthesis and biomass in cotton were reduced more by spurred anoda interference than by intraspecific interference. With interference, the xanthophyll cycle conversion state and alpha-tocopherol levels increased in cotton, but remained unchanged in spurred anoda. Catalase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were not influenced by plant interference. Without interference, spurred anoda had lower APX, and similar catalase and GR activities compared with cotton. Mild drought increased APX activity more than 40% in cotton, and 26% in spurred anoda. Upon drought recovery, drought-induced APX activity was still higher in cotton, and GR activity was higher in previously drought-stressed cotton and spurred anoda plants compared with well-watered plants. The greater impact of spurred anoda interference than intraspecific interference on cotton biomass is due mainly to reduced carbon gain in cotton.

  2. Phenology of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus say (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Juan Di Trani

    2006-01-01

    We studied the seasonal activity of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus Say in subtropical conditions of the Mexican Central Plateau. Monthly during 1998, we recorded caste of active individuals (inferred form corporal size measured as wing length), presence and activity of reproductive individuals, and mating activity. Also, we recorded the flower plants used as resources. Subtropical conditions of the Mexican Central Plateau do not seem to modify phenological features of B. pennsylvanicus sonorus since the species presents annual colonies and a clearly defined period of inactivity. The size of individuals progressively increased between the first recorded activity period in middle April and the end of the colonies in November. Reproductive bees were observed since the second half of the year. The presence of males was recorded between July and November and queens and mating pairs were observed during November and December. Then mating queens were noted seeking hibernation places. Activity resumed in February of the following year. Seasonal activity seems to be more related to availability of floral resources (which, in turn, is related to rain regime), than to changes in temperature and day length. Some of the main food resources used by B. pennsylvanicus sonorus were Tithonia tubiformis, Cosmos bipinnatus, Anoda cristata, Solanum rostratum and Jacaranda mimosaefolia.

  3. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    ., T. corcula sp. nov., T. hamulata sp. nov., T. histria sp. nov., T. inornata sp. nov., T. laticornis sp. nov., T. melantha sp. nov., T. pogonia sp. nov., T. rideri sp. nov., and T. taura sp. nov. A key to the species groups and unplaced species is provided for Tolania males. The following species, previously placed in Tolania, are considered species incertae sedis: Cicada armata Stoll; Centrotus felinus Germar; Centrotus obscurus Germar; Centrotus fasciatus Walker. One new synonymy is proposed: Tolania humilis (Walker, 1858 = Tolania scutata Stål, 1862 syn. nov. Tolania cristata Lethierry sp. rev., is reinstated from synonymy with T. femoralis. Lectotypes are designated for T. cristata, T. femoralis, T. fraterna, and T. scutata.O gênero de soldadinhos Tolania Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Nicomiinae, Nicomiini e 69 espécies válidas (59 novas espécies são descritos e ilustrados baseado na morfologia de adultos. Dez grupos informais de espécies são reconhecidos baseados em uma análise filogenética previamente publicada: (1 o grupo de espécies dira inclui T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov. e T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 grupo fasciata inclui T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov. e T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 grupo femoralis inclui T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål e T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 grupo furcata inclui T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov. e T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 grupo hispida inclui T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov. e T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 grupo malefica inclui T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker e T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 grupo obtusa inclui T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov. e T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 grupo opponens inclui T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens

  4. Revision of the Indo-Pacific genus Nembrotha (Nudibranchia: Dorididae: Polyceridae, with a description of two new species

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    Marta Pola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical examination of new material collected from the Indo-Pacific and the review of several collections from around the world allows for the revision of the genus Nembrotha Bergh, 1877. Two new species, Nembrotha rosannulata n. sp. and Nembrotha aurea n. sp., are described. The oldest available name for the genus is Nembrotha nigerrima Bergh, 1877, which was subsequently designated as the type species by O’Donoghue, 1924. The study of the original type material of N. nigerrima confirmed that it is a senior synonym of another name introduced subsequently, Nembrotha kubaryana Bergh, 1877, the name most commonly used for this species. However, according to the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Article 23.9.1, there is no reason to invalidate the senior name Nembrotha nigerrima, since it has been used as valid after 1899. Nembrotha cristata Bergh, 1877, N. lineolata Bergh, 1905, N. purpureolineata O’Donoghue, 1924, N. livingstonei Allan, 1933, N. megalocera Yonow, 1990 and N. guttata Yonow, 1993, which are poorly known, are redescribed. Nembrotha rutilans (Pruvot-Fol, 1931 is synonymised with N. purpureolineata. Nembrotha yonowae Goethel and Debelius, 1992 is synonymised with N. guttata. The radulae of Nembrotha milleri Gosliner and Behrens, 1997 and N. mullineri Gosliner and Behrens, 1997 are redescribed.

  5. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

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    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  6. Notes on some sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa from the tropical western Pacific, with descriptions of nine new species

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    Horia R. Galea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three species of sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae, collected from the tropical western Pacific (Taiwan, Philippines, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands during various expeditions of the French Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos program, are discussed. Of these, nine are new to science: Gonaxia nova sp. nov., G. plumularioides sp. nov., Sertularella folliformis sp. nov., Se. plicata sp. nov., Se. pseudocatena sp. nov., Se. splendida sp. nov., Se. tronconica sp. nov., Se. tubulosa sp. nov., and Symplectoscyphus paucicatillus sp. nov. The subspecies Symplectoscyphus johnstoni (Gray, 1843 tropicus Vervoort, 1993 is raised to species but, in order to avoid the secondary homonymy with Sy. tropicus (Hartlaub, 1901, the replacement name, Sy. fasciculatus nom. nov., is introduced. The male and female gonothecae of Diphasia cristata Billard, 1920, the male gonothecae of Gonaxia elegans Vervoort, 1993, as well as the female gonothecae of Salacia macer Vervoort & Watson, 2003, are described for the first time. Additional notes on the morphology of several other species are provided. All taxa are illustrated, in most cases using figures drawn at the same scale, so as to highlight the differences between related species.

  7. Community Structure and Productivity in Western Mongolian Steppe

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    Kiyokazu Kawada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Mongolian steppe have maintained a sustainable, nomadic lifestyle. However, several ecological processes are threatening their way of life. Ecological changan be detected through the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. It is therefore, imperative to develop a sustainable rangeland management system aimed at combating desertifi cation. In this study we quantitatively and qualitatively describe several western Mongolian steppe plant communities by examining species composition, plant volume and community structure. Study sites were located in the Uvs and Khovd provinces and had all been affected by livestock grazing. A total of 48 species were found. Stipa krylovii , S . gobica , Cleistogenes songorica , Koeleria cristata and Ajania achilleoides were dominant. There was a signifi cant relationship between biomass and plant volume at all sites. Study sites were classifi ed into four groups using cluster analysis, based on the presence or absence of several species. More than 90% of plant volumes at all groups were perennial grasses and perennial forbs. The ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants at site 3 was reversed in comparison to the other sites. Species highly palatable to livestock were dominant at all sites. To ensure the sustainable use of biological resources in these arid areas, these fi ndings should be taken into account in designing land-use plans.

  8. Morphological phylogenetics of Bignoniaceae Juss.

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    Usama K. Abdel-Hameed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent classification of Bignoniaceae recognized seven tribes, Phylogenetic and monographic studies focusing on clades within Bignoniaceae had revised tribal and generic boundaries and species numbers for several groups, the portions of the family that remain most poorly known are the African and Asian groups. The goal of the present study is to identify the primary lineages of Bignoniaceae in Egypt based on macromorphological traits. A total of 25 species of Bignoniaceae in Egypt was included in this study (Table 1, along with Barleria cristata as outgroup. Parsimony analyses were conducted using the program NONA 1.6, preparation of data set matrices and phylogenetic tree editing were achieved in WinClada Software. The obtained cladogram showed that within the studied taxa of Bignoniaceae there was support for eight lineages. The present study revealed that the two studied species of Tabebuia showed a strong support for monophyly as well as Tecoma and Kigelia. It was revealed that Bignonia, Markhamia and Parmentiera are not monophyletic genera.

  9. Diversity of Pharmacological Properties in Chinese and European Medicinal Plants: Cytotoxicity, Antiviral and Antitrypanosomal Screening of 82 Herbal Drugs

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    Thomas Efferth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive screening, the antiviral, antitrypanosomal and anticancer properties of extracts from 82 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and European phytomedicine were determined. Several promising plants that were highly effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV—a flavivirus used here as a surrogate in vitro model of hepatitis C virus, trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and several cancer cell lines were identified. Six aqueous extracts from Celosia cristata, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Houttuynia cordata, Selaginella tamariscina, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia oxyphylla showed significant antiviral effects against BVDV without toxic effects on host embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr cells, while Evodia lepta, Hedyotis diffusa and Glycyrrhiza spp. demonstrated promising activities against the HBV without toxic effects on host human hepatoblastoma cells transfected with HBV-DNA (HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Seven organic extracts from Alpinia oxyphylla, Coptis chinensis, Kadsura longipedunculata, Arctium lappa, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Saposhnikovia divaricata inhibited T. b. brucei. Moreover, among fifteen water extracts that combined high antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.5–20 µg/mL and low acute in vitro toxicity (0–10% reduction in cell viability at IC50, Coptis chinensis presented the best beneficial characteristics. In conclusion, traditional herbal medicine from Europe and China still has a potential for new therapeutic targets and therapeutic applications.

  10. Chromosomal complements of some Atlantic Blennioidei and Gobioidei species (Perciformes

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    Tatiana Galvão

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable degree of chromosomal conservatism (2n=48, FN=48 has been identified in several families of Perciformes. However, some families exhibit greater karyotypic diversity, although there is still scant information on the Atlantic species. In addition to a review of karyotypic data available for representatives of the suborders Blennioidei and Gobioidei, we have performed chromosomal analyses on Atlantic species of the families Blenniidae, Ophioblennius trinitatis Miranda-Ribeiro, 1919 (2n=46; FN=64 and Scartella cristata (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=48; FN=50, Labrisomidae, Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (2n=48; FN=50 and Gobiidae, Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837 (2n=48; FN=56. Besides variations in chromosome number and karyotype formulas, Ag-NOR sites, albeit unique, were located in different positions and/or chromosome pairs for the species analyzed. On the other hand, the heterochromatic pattern was more conservative, distributed predominantly in the centromeric/pericentromeric regions of the four species. Data already available for Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Labrisomidae show greater intra- and interspecific karyotypic diversification when compared to other groups of Perciformes, where higher uniformity is found for various chromosome characteristics. Evolutionary dynamism displayed by these two families is likely associated with population fractionation resulting from unique biological characteristics, such as lower mobility and/or specific environmental requirements.

  11. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  12. House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) Conjunctivitis, and Mycoplasma spp. Isolated from North American Wild Birds, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, David H; Hawley, Dana M; Geary, Steven J; Dhondt, André A

    2016-07-01

    Sampling wild birds for mycoplasma culture has been key to the study of House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, yielding isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum spanning the temporal and geographic ranges of disease from emergence to endemicity. Faced with the challenges and costs of sample collection over time and from remote locations for submission to our laboratory for mycoplasma culture, protocols evolved to achieve a practical optimum. Herein we report making M. gallisepticum isolates from House Finches almost every year since the disease emerged in 1994, and we now have 227 isolates from 17 states. Our wild bird host range for M. gallisepticum isolates includes Blue Jay ( Cyanocitta cristata ), American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis), Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria), Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus), Evening Grosbeak ( Coccothraustes vespertinus ), and herein first reports for Western Scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica ), and American Crow ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ). By collecting and identifying isolates from birds with clinical signs similar to those of House Finch conjunctivitis, we also expanded the known host range of Mycoplasma sturni and obtained isolates from additional wild bird species. Accumulating evidence shows that a diverse range of wild bird species may carry or have been exposed to M. gallisepticum in the US, as in Europe and Asia. Therefore, the emergence of a pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain in House Finches may actually be the exception that has allowed us to identify the broader epidemiologic picture.

  13. Fast and furious: a look at the death of animals on the highway MS-080, Southwestern Brazil

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    Naira C. de Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several factors, such as hunting and the pet trade, are responsible for the worldwide decline of wildlife populations. In addition, fatal collisions with vehicles on highways have also taken one of the largest tolls. This study aimed to quantify the richness and abundance of vertebrate roadkill along highway MS-080 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-West Brazil. We compare the amount of roadkill to the distance between cities, moon phases and the flow of vehicles on the highway. Samples were collected weekly between March and September 2011, totaling 257 individuals, belonging to 32 families and 52 species, resulting in an index of 0.13 individuals hit/km. Birds were the most frequently hit taxa, followed by mammals. The most affected species was Cariama cristata (Cariamidae, followed by Cerdocyon thous (Canidae. The sections of highway closest to cities had the highest number of individual animals killed. Our observations indicate that the density of the vegetation next to the highway positively influences the amount of roadkill.

  14. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

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    Randall R Reeves

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  15. Influence of estuarine dynamics on macrobenthos spatial variability along the southeast continental shelf of Brazil

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    Ilana R. Zalmon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Along the southeast continental shelf of Brazil, the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR plays a fundamental role in sediment and nutrient transport. This study focuses on the contribution of the PSR and its effect on the benthic macrofauna. Physical and chemical analyses of the sediment were conducted, and the macrofauna were identified and counted. Multivariate analyses were used to compare the distribution patterns of the benthic assemblages related to the depth gradient over two sampling periods. The principal component analysis showed that shallow waters assemblages are mostly influenced by the environmental descriptors temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a, whereas pheophytin, degree of sediment sorting, total carbonate and organic carbon were correlated with benthic assemblages at greater depths. The high organic enrichment reflected an increase in surface and sub-surface deposit feeders such as the polychaetes Spiophanes sp. and Prionospio cristata and the crustacean Phtisica marinain the deeper stations, with a corresponding decrease in other trophic groups. This study provides evidence of differences in organic matter sources, from primary production in shallow waters to detritus in deep waters. These sources provide different niches for the corresponding macrofaunal assemblages along the continental shelf adjacent to the PSR, with species richness and abundance of benthic populations related to the river output.

  16. Biodiversity and importance of floating weeds of Dara Ismail, Khan District of KPK, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Khan, Mir Ajab; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is based on the results of taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan District of KPK, Pakistan, during 2005 - 2007. The area was extensively surveyed in order to collect floating aquatic weeds. From the study area 11 floating aquatic weed species belonging to 9 genera and 9 families were collected and identified in the light of available literature. These plants include Bryophytes: 1 species, Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Pteridophytes: 2 species, Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Marselia quadrifolia L., and Spermatophytes: 8 species, Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., L. gibba L., Marselia quadrifoliata L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaerth., Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ketze. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze:, Pistia stratiotes L. Potamogeton nodosus Poiret and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Floating weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, major group, habit and habitat, flowering period, availability, distribution in D.I.Khan, Pakistan and world, beneficial and harmful effects. Key to the floating aquatic species of the area was developed for easy and correct identification and differentiation.

  17. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes.

  18. Araneofauna de pomares de laranja Valência nos Vales do Caí e Taquari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Araneofauna of Valência orange orchards at the Caí and Taquari Valleys, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ana P. Ott

    Full Text Available Assembléias de aranhas da vegetação herbácea foram amostradas com rede-de-varredura em dois pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis no sul do Brasil. Cada pomar amostrado é caracterizado por receber um diferente tipo de manejo: "tradicional" ou "ecológico". Adicionalmente, foi amostrada a assembléia de aranhas das laranjeiras do pomar com manejo "ecológico" através do uso de guarda-chuva japonês. No total foram coletadas 3.876 aranhas, 2.379 nas laranjeiras do pomar de manejo "ecológico" e 1.497 junto à vegetação herbácea de ambos pomares; foram registradas 99 espécies de 17 famílias de aranhas; Oxyopes salticus Hentz, 1845 (Oxyopidae foi a aranha mais abundante na vegetação herbácea e Sphecozone cristata Millidge, 1991 (Linyphiidae a mais abundante nas laranjeiras. Aranhas errantes foram mais abundantes em ambos tipos de vegetação. A araneofauna da vegetação herbácea nos pomares com diferentes manejos não apresentou diferenças significativas na diversidade (H'= 2,13 - "ecológico"; 2,24 - "tradicional"; a diversidade foi menor nas laranjeiras (H'=1,95. Em razão de terem sido utilizados diferentes métodos de coleta nas amostragens entre os microhabitats, o índice de Jaccard (17,5% indicou baixa similaridade entre as assembléias.Assemblages of spiders of the herbaceous vegetation were sampled by sweeping method in two sweet orange orchards (Citrus sinensis in the south of Brazil. Each sampled orchard is characterized by receiving a different handling type: "traditional" or "ecological". In addition it was sampled the assemblage of spiders of the orange trees of the orchard with the "ecological" handling with the beating method. A total of 3,876 spiders were collected, 2,379 in the orange trees and 1,497 in the herbaceous vegetation; 17 families and 99 species were registered; Oxyopes salticus Hentz, 1845 (Oxyopidae was the most abundant spider in herbaceous vegetation and Sphecozone cristata Millidge, 1991

  19. Fungos conidiais associados ao folhedo de Clusia melchiorii Gleason e C. nemorosa G. Mey. (Clusiaceae em fragmento de Mata Atlântica, BA, Brasil Conidial fungi associated to leaf litter of Clusia melchiorii Gleason and C. nemorosa G. Mey (Clusiaceae in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rodrigues Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando ampliar o conhecimento sobre diversidade de fungos conidiais, 10 folhas mortas de três indivíduos de C. melchiorii e de C. nemorosa foram coletadas bimestralmente na Serra da Jibóia, Bahia, no período de outubro/2005 a junho/2006. As folhas foram lavadas em água corrente e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante 30 dias. As estruturas fúngicas foram retiradas para estudo morfológico. Foram identificados 79 táxons de Ascomycota na forma anamórfica. Destes, 78 são hifomicetos e um celomiceto. Do total, 87% ocorreram sobre C. melchiorii e 55% sobre C. nemorosa. A maioria dos fungos apresentou freqüência esporádica e constância acidental. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: Beltrania rhombica Penz., Chaetopsina fulva Rambelli, Dactylaria ficusicola Paulus, Gadek & Hyde, Verticillium theobromae (Turconi Mason & Hughes e Volutella sp. 1 (sobre C. melchiorii e Atroseptaphiale flagelliformis Matsush., Pseudobeltrania sp., Zygosporium gibbum (Sacc., Rousseau & Bommer Hughes, Verticillium theobromae (Turconi Mason & Hughes e Volutella sp. 1 (sobre C. nemorosa. A similaridade de fungos entre as duas espécies de Clusia atingiu 60% e 11 táxons foram constantes nos dois hospedeiros: Atrosetaphiale flagelliformis, Beltraniella portoricensis (Stevens Piroz. & Patil, Chalara alabamensis Jones & Ingram., Cryptophiale kakombensis Piroz., Parasympodiella laxa (Subram. & Vittal, Speiropsis scopiformis Kuthub. & Nawawi, Thozetella cristata Piroz. & Hodges, Umbellidion radulans Sutton & Hodges, Verticillium theobromae, Volutella sp. 2 e Zygosporium gibbum. Os dados mostram que o folhedo produzido por C. melchiorii e C. nemorosa, na Serra da Jibóia, é rico em fungos conidiais. Esses fungos, como decompositores, são importantes para a dinâmica do ecossistema estudado.In order to increase the diversity knowledge of conidial fungi, 10 dead leaves from three individuals of C. nemorosa and C. melchiorii were bimonthly collected at the "Serra da Jib

  20. National Earth Science Teachers Association Achievements in Earth Science Education Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.; Johnson, R. M.; Pennington, P.; Herrold, A.; Holzer, M.; Ervin, T.; Hall, B.

    2008-12-01

    The National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) continues its 25-year-long effort to advance geoscience education at all levels. NESTA especially employs multiple approaches to provide leadership, support, and resources to teachers so that all K - 12 students may receive a quality Earth and Space Science education. NESTA presents Share-a-thons, Earth and Space Science Resources Days, lectures, Rock and Mineral Raffles, field experiences, and social events that foster networking at national and regional science education conferences. Our quarterly journal,The Earth Scientist,provides quality classroom activities as well as background science information and news of opportunities of value to classroom teachers and their students. Recent issues have focused on the International Polar Year, professional development in the Earth Sciences, and recent advances in astronomy. These have included contributions from classroom and university educators and researchers. NESTA's web site, www.nestanet.org, provides timely information about upcoming events and opportunities, links to useful resources for geoscience teachers, access to the current and archived journals, and organizational information. A revised website, supported by an NSF grant, will be unveiled before the next NSTA National Conference on Science Education. These are supplemented by a monthly E-News and special "e-blasts". NESTA's leadership engages in frequent teleconferences to keep current with organizational planning. Among other accomplishments during the past year, NESTA revitalized our State contact network, identifying a member in almost every state plus some Canadian Provinces. This network will help disseminate information from NESTA, as well as provide feedback on issues of importance to members around the country. NESTA leaders and members interact with other national geoscience education organizations, including NAGT, GSA, AGI, AMS, and the Triangle Coalition. NESTA representatives also serve

  1. Does multiple seed loading in Blue Jays result in selective dispersal of smaller acorns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Kachmar, Michael; Lichti, Nathanael; Swihart, Robert K; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Steele, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Studies from both tropical and temperate systems show that scatter-hoarding rodents selectively disperse larger seeds farther from their source than smaller seeds, potentially increasing seedling establishment in larger-seeded plants. Size-biased dispersal is evident in many oaks (Quercus) and is true both across and within species. Here, we predict that intraspecifc variation in seed size also influences acorn dispersal by the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata Linnaeus), but in an opposite manner. Blue Jays are gape-limited and selectively disperse smaller acorn species (e.g. pin oaks [Quercus palustris Münchh]), but often carry several acorns in their crop during a single dispersal event. We predict that jays foraging on smaller acorns will load more seeds per trip and disperse seeds to greater distances than when single acorns are carried in the bill. To test this, we presented free-ranging Blue Jays with pin oak acorns of different sizes over a 2-year period. In each of 16 experimental trials, we monitored the birds at a feeding station with remote cameras and determined the number of acorns removed and the distance acorns were dispersed when cached. Jays were significantly more likely to engage in multiple seed loading with smaller seeds in both years of the study. During the second year, these smaller acorns were dispersed farther than larger acorns, and during the first year, larger acorns were dispersed farther, revealing an inconsistent response to seed size during our study. We suggest that in some circumstances, multiple seed loading by Blue Jays may favor dispersal in some plant species.

  2. The better to eat you with: the comparative feeding morphology of phocid seals (Pinnipedia, Phocidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sarah S; Berta, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    One adaptation crucial to the survival of mammalian lineages that secondarily transitioned from land to water environments was the ability to capture and consume prey underwater. Phocid seals have evolved diverse feeding strategies to feed in the marine environment, and the objectives of this study were to document the specialized feeding morphologies and identify feeding strategies used by extant phocids. This study used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the major axes of diversification in the skull for all extant phocid taxa and the recently extinct Caribbean monk seal (n = 19). Prey data gathered from the literature and musculoskeletal data from dissections were included to provide a comprehensive description of each feeding strategy. Random Forest analysis was used to determine the morphological, ecological and phylogenetic variables that best described each feeding strategy. There is morphological evidence for four feeding strategies in phocids: filter; grip and tear; suction; and pierce feeding. These feeding strategies are supported by quantitative cranial and mandibular characters, dietary information, musculoskeletal data and, for some species, behavioral observations. Most phocid species are pierce feeders, using a combination of biting and suction to opportunistically catch prey. Grip and tear and filter feeding are specialized strategies with specific morphological adaptations. These unique adaptations have allowed leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) to exploit novel ecological niches and prey types. This study provides the first cranial and mandibular morphological evidence for the use of specialized suction feeding in hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). The most important variables in determining the feeding strategy of a given phocid species were cranial and mandibular shape, diet, and phylogeny

  3. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  4. Spring migratory birds (Aves) extend the northern occurrence of blacklegged tick (Acari:Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, M; Lankester, M W; Wu, K W

    1996-07-01

    Birds that had migrated northward across Lake Superior were captured upon reaching landfall at Thunder Cape (48 degrees 18' N, 88 degrees 56' W) at the southwestern tip of the Sibley Peninsula, northwestern Ontario, from 9 May to 9 June 1995. Twenty-one of 530 birds examined (6 of 55 species) had a total of 34 ticks; 1 blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata, had a northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Four blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, larvae were found on an American robin, Turdus migratorius, and 2 on a chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina. This tick was not found on small mammals at Thunder Cape. Twenty-six larvae and a nymph of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) were found on 1 American robin, 2 Swainson's thrushes, Catharus ustulatus, 1 white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, 1 common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas, 1 blue jay, and 12 chipping sparrows. A nymph of H. chordeilis (Packard) occurred on 1 chipping sparrow. Results demonstrate that northward migrating birds transport larvae of I. scapularis to areas of Ontario where the tick does not appear to have become established in small mammal populations. Spring migrants may be more involved in the dispersal of I. scapularis larvae than previously thought. Cooler temperatures and shorter seasons experienced in the more northerly, continental parts of the established distribution of this tick may extend the life cycle, resulting in a predominance of larvae rather than nymphs being acquired by northward-bound birds in early spring. Consequently, the role of spring migrating birds in the northward spread of I. scapularis and of borreliosis should be reevaluated.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Polder, Anuschka; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Bloch, Dorete; Dam, Maria

    2012-04-01

    A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments.

  6. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms.

  7. Unusual sleeping site selection by southern bamboo lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Timothy M; Donati, Giuseppe; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2016-04-01

    Selection of sleeping sites has consequences for individual fitness. Non-human primates often bias their selection towards arboreal sites, and the lemurs of Madagascar typically rest/sleep in trees, tree holes, and/or constructed nests. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain sleeping site selection include protection from predators, avoidance of parasitic vectors, and improved thermoregulation. Here, we examine these hypotheses for the unusual sleeping site selections by the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). Within the Mandena littoral forest of southeast Madagascar, the southern bamboo lemur is known for its ecological flexibility compared to other bamboo lemur species, including a dietary niche expansion to feeding on the ground. Between October 2012 and December 2013, we observed bamboo lemurs from three social groups for 1778.67 h, conducting full-day focal follows on 11 adult individuals (five males, six females). During this period, all three groups were observed to sleep on the ground, with one of these groups also using an abandoned nest of a Madagascar crested ibis (Lophotibis cristata). We collected habitat and temperature data to examine whether selection was influenced by environmental variables. Terrestrial sleeping (N = 17) was observed in all individuals but one adult female, with individuals burrowing under thick vegetation more often during the hot austral summer. While difficult to rigorously test, it is possible that terrestrial sleep sites and/or sleeping in a bird nest may impair visual detection by some aerial and terrestrial predators. Neither of these sites (i.e., terrestrial sleeping or use of a bird nest), however, is likely to minimize exposure to parasites/vectors. Terrestrial sleeping appears to support a thermoregulatory strategy, whereas the use of a bird nest could not be empirically tested. Our observations of unique sleeping site locations used by southern bamboo lemurs further the complexity of their

  8. EFFECT OF SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATING HORMONE ON THE FLOWER HEAD DEVELOPMENT OF COCKSCOMB UNDER THE TROPICAL ARID ENVIRONMENT OF SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Irshad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out at Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan. The objective of this study was to produce high quality Celosia flower head as cut flower under the harsh environmental conditions of southern Punjab by using different plant spacing and different concentrations of Gibberellin (GA3. The seedlings were grown by seed and then transplanted in the field in the first week of August. Seedlings were irrigated daily and fertilized with 100 ppm NPK solution with alternate irrigation before transplanting. Field was well prepared by irrigation and spading twice and adding about 1.5 kg Diammonium phosphate (DAP at the rate of 150 kg/hectare as phosphorus source, about 2 kg Muriate of Potash (MOP at the rate of 200 kg/hectare as potash source and about 1kg urea at the rate of 100 kg/hectare as nitrogen source prior to transplanting. Then, seedlings were transplanted in randomized complete block design. There were three levels/concentrations of GA3 (0, 25 and 50 mg/l and three levels of plant spacing (22.50, 30.00 and 37.50 cm making overall 9 treatments and these treatments were tested in 3 replications. The analysis of variance indicated that best results were achieved when plant spacing of 37.5cm was used in combination with GA3 application (at the rate of 50 mg/l where significant increase in chlorophyll contents, leaf area and number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of stem, flower diameter and fresh and dry weight of flower of Celosia cristata were found compared to all other treatments tested.

  9. Neuroglobin of seals and whales: evidence for a divergent role in the diving brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneuer, M; Flachsbarth, S; Czech-Damal, N U; Folkow, L P; Siebert, U; Burmester, T

    2012-10-25

    Although many physiological adaptations of diving mammals have been reported, little is known about how their brains sustain the high demands for metabolic energy and thus O(2) when submerged. A recent study revealed in the deep-diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) a unique shift of the oxidative energy metabolism and neuroglobin, a respiratory protein that is involved in neuronal hypoxia tolerance, from neurons to astrocytes. Here we have investigated neuroglobin in another pinniped species, the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), and in two cetaceans, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Neuroglobin sequences, expression levels and patterns were compared with those of terrestrial relatives, the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and the cattle (Bos taurus), respectively. Neuroglobin sequences of whales and seals only differ in two or three amino acids from those of cattle and ferret, and are unlikely to confer functional differences, e.g. in O(2) affinity. Neuroglobin is expressed in the astrocytes also of P. groenlandicus, suggesting that the shift of neuroglobin and oxidative metabolism is a common adaptation in the brains of deep-diving phocid seals. In the cetacean brain neuroglobin resides in neurons, like in terrestrial mammals. However, neuroglobin mRNA expression levels were 4-15 times higher in the brains of harbor porpoises and minke whales than in terrestrial mammals or in seals. Thus neuroglobin appears to play a specific role in diving mammals, but seals and whales have evolved divergent strategies to cope with cerebral hypoxia. The specific function of neuroglobin that conveys hypoxia tolerance may either relate to oxygen supply or protection from reactive oxygen species. The different strategies in seals and whales resulted from a divergent evolution and an independent adaptation to diving. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances in hooded seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønnestad, Randi; Villanger, Gro D; Polder, Anuschka; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Borgå, Katrine

    2017-03-01

    The role of milk in the transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to offspring is not well known in wildlife. Eight PFASs were quantified in plasma and milk in mother-pup pairs of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) during the nursing period, and the role of milk in the transfer process was analyzed. Hooded seal was chosen because of its short lactation period (3-4 d), during which the pup feeds only on milk. Placental or lactation transfer would thus be the only source of PFAS in the pup. Of the 8 PFASs analyzed (Σ8 PFAS), 7 were found in all samples; therefore, milk is a source to PFASs in pups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate was the dominant PFAS in all samples. Mean Σ8 PFAS concentrations were 6.0 ng/g protein (36 ng/g wet wt) in maternal plasma, 0.77 ng/g protein (3.2 ng/g wet wt) in milk, and 12 ng/g protein (66 ng/g wet wt) in pup plasma. Measured concentrations in plasma were within ranges previously reported from other seal species, below known toxicity thresholds for experimental rodents. Individual PFASs differed in transfer efficiency from mother to pup, depending on carbon chain lengths, with the lowest relative transfer for the intermediate-chained PFASs (C9 -C10 ). The results show maternal transfer of PFASs via both milk and the placenta, of which placental transfer is the dominant pathway. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:763-770. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Cryptosporidium spp. in pet birds: genetic diversity and potential public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Longxian; Jian, Fuchun; Sun, Yanru; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-08-01

    To characterize the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pet birds in Henan, China, 434 fecal samples were acquired from 14 families of birds in pet shops. The overall prevalence of Cryptopsoridium was 8.1% (35/434) by the Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The Cryptosporidium-positive samples were analyzed by DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Three Cryptosporidium species and two genotypes were identified, including C. baileyi (18/35 or 51.4%) in five red-billed leiothrixes (Leiothrix lutea), four white Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora), four common mynas (Acridotheres tristis), two zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a crested Lark (Galerida cristata), a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae), and a black-billed magpie (Pica pica); Cryptosporidium meleagridis (3/35 or 8.6%) in a Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), a Rufous turtle dove (Streptopelia orientalis), and a fan-tailed pigeon (Columba livia); Cryptosporidium galli (5/35 or 14.3%) in four Bohemian waxwings (Bombycilla garrulus) and a silver-eared Mesia (Leiothrix argentauris); Cryptosporidium avian genotype III (3/35 or 8.6%) in two cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and a red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha); and Cryptosporidium avian genotype V (6/35 or 17.1%) in six cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Among the pet birds, 12 species represented new hosts for Cryptosporidum infections. The presence of C. meleagridis raises questions on potential zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis from pet birds to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol in marine mammals from the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, M; Bernt, K E; Trottier, S; Noël, M; Hammill, M O; Measures, L

    2001-01-01

    Levels of tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPM) and its presumed precursor tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) are reported in marine mammals from the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. These compounds were measured in blubber samples of seals and whales using ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection. Detectable concentrations of both TCPM and TCPMe were observed in all of the samples analysed. Concentrations of these compounds varied with species ranging from 1.7 to 153 and from 1.3 to 50.6 ng/g lipid wt. for TCPM and TCPMe, respectively. TCPM was from 1.3 to 10 times more concentrated than TCPMe. The highest levels of both TCPM and TCPMe were observed in adult male beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, while adult female beluga whales from the same area showed levels similar to those in the seals examined. Among the four seal species investigated, TCPM and TCPMe levels were the highest in grey (Halichoerus grypus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals, and lowest in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Intermediate levels were found in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina); however, their concentrations might be underestimated considering the younger mean age of these animals. Ratios of both 4,4'-DDE/sigma DDT and TCPM/sigma TCP were very similar between animals from the same species. Strong correlations between sigma TCP and sigma DDT were also observed for each species of mammals, most likely indicating that both sigma TCP and sigma DDT are bioaccumulated in marine mammals. The relationships between sigma DDT and sigma TCP also demonstrate that sigma TCP are less bioaccumulated than sigma DDT by the marine mammal species examined.

  13. The use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Cristina Fossi And Letizia Marsili

    1997-01-01

    Marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. Most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. The development of a series of non destructive techniques to evaluate biomarker responses and residue levels is recommended for the hazard assessment and conservation of endangered species of marine mammals. Here we review the current status of the non destructive biomarker approach in marine mammals, describing the biological materials available for non destructive tests in stranded brain, liver, blood, skin, subcutaneous blubber, muscle and fur and free ranging animals blood, skin biopsy, fur and faeces and the respective biomarker techniques mixed function oxidase activity and DNA damage in skin biopsy samples; porphyrins in faeces and fur; esterases, porphyrins, clinical biochemical parameter, vitamin A and micronuclei in blood samples. Residue analysis can be carried out in the various biological materials. We also report the results of applying this methodological approach to cetaceans minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, fin whale-- Balaenoptera physalus, beluga whale-- Delphinapterus leucas, short finned pilot whale-- Globicephala macrorhynchus, harbour porpoise -- Phocoena phocoena, Rissos dolphin-- Risso s Grampus griseus, Dall s porpoise-- Phocoenoides dalli dalli, melon headed whale-- Peponocephala electra, bottlenose dolphin -- Tursiops truncatus, striped dolphin-- Stenella coeruleoalba, spinner dolphin-- Stenella longirostris, killer whale-- Orcinus orca and pinnipeds northern fur seal- Callorhinus ursinus, hooded seal-- Cystophora cristata, grey seal-- Halichoerus grypus, harbour seal-- Phoca vitulina

  14. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  15. Study on Application of Chemical Control Techniques for Worst Weeds in Landscape Plant Nurseries in Jianghuai Region%江淮地区园林苗圃地恶性杂草化学防除技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新洋; 周根土; 张均

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the integrated control techniques regarding the main weed species, herbicides and the times,concentrations, methods of their applications for chemical weeding and artificial weeding in landscape plant nurseries were introduced. Chemical and artificial weeding techniques for 6 worst weeds in pre-emergence and seedling stages were elaborated in detail including Alternanthera philoxeroides, Commelina communis, Cyperus rotundus, Artemisia Selengensis, Cirsium setosum and Imperata cylindrica,so were the chemical weeding methods for difficult-to-control weed species Digitaria sanguinalis, Acalypha australis, Amaranthus tricolor, Eclipta prostrata, Chenopodium quinoa,Convolvu arvensis,Celosia cristata, Portulaca oleracea and Abutilon theophrasti. The study could provide practical chemical weeding operation techniques for landscape plant nurseries.%本文叙述了园林苗圃地主要杂草、除草剂,化学除草施用时间、浓度、方法,以及人工除草等综合防除技术,详细叙述了芽前、苗期化学和人工除草技术及苗圃地空心莲子草、鸭跖草、香附子、芦蒿、刺儿菜、白茅6种恶性杂草,以及防除难度较大的杂草马唐、铁苋菜、苋菜、醴肠、藜、田旋花、野鸡冠花、马齿苋、茼麻等化学除草方法,为园林苗木培育提供实用的苗圃化学除草操作技术。

  16. Establishing the relative importance of sympatric definitive hosts in the transmission of the sealworm, Pseudoterranova decipiens: a host-community approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Javier Aznar

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of a given host to a particular parasite can be determined according to three different criteria: host preference, host physiological suitability and host contribution to transmission. Most studies on the sealworm Pseudoterranova decipiens have focussed on the latter factor, but few attempts have been made to develop a quantitative transmission model evaluating the relative importance of each host. The purpose of this study was to propose a flow-chart model to study sealworm transmission within a seal community. The model was applied to hypothetical data of four seal species acting as definitive hosts of P. decipiens sensu stricto in eastern Canada: harp seal Phoca groenlandica, harbour seal P. vitulina, grey seal Halichoerus grypus and hooded seal Cystophora cristata. The dynamics of the model was studied using population estimates from 1990 to 1996. To illustrate the interrelationship of the seal populations in the flow dynamics, the model’s behaviour was explored by manipulation of the harp seal population size. The results showed that grey seals accounted by far for most transmission from and to the seals. The harbour seal population also sustained a biologically significant proportion of the flow, whereas the role of hooded and harp seals seemed negligible despite their large population sizes. The hypothetical removal of the harp seal population resulted in small increases in the relative flows to the other seals. These results conform to previous qualitative assessments on the relative importance of these seal species in sealworm transmission. The model provided some heuristic rules useful to understand transmission patterns. The data suggested that the harbour seal population should be about twice that of the grey seals to account for a larger share of transmission than grey seals. Although this is unlikely to occur at a large geographic scale, harbour seals outnumber grey seals in some areas and, therefore, the role of

  17. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

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    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  18. Legume presence increases photosynthesis and N concentrations of co-occurring non-fixers but does not modulate their responsiveness to carbon dioxide enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tali D; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2003-09-01

    Legumes, with the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N), may help alleviate the N limitations thought to constrain plant community response to elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)). To address this issue we assessed: (1) the effects of the presence of the perennial grassland N(2 )fixer, Lupinus perennis, on biomass accumulation and plant N concentrations of nine-species plots of differing plant composition; (2) leaf-level physiology of co-occurring non-fixing species (Achillea millefolium, Agropyron repens, Koeleria cristata) in these assemblages with and without Lupinus; (3) the effects of elevated CO(2) on Lupinus growth and symbiotic N(2) fixation in both monoculture and the nine-species assemblages; and (4) whether assemblages containing Lupinus exhibit larger physiological and growth responses to elevated CO(2 )than those without. This study was part of a long-term grassland field experiment (BioCON) that controls atmospheric CO(2) at current ambient and elevated (560 micromol mol(-1)) concentrations using free-air CO(2) enrichment. Nine-species plots with Lupinus had 32% higher whole plot plant N concentrations and 26% higher total plant N pools than those without Lupinus, based on both above and below ground measurements. Co-occurring non-fixer leaf N concentrations increased 22% and mass-based net photosynthetic rates increased 41% in plots containing Lupinus compared to those without. With CO(2) enrichment, Lupinus monocultures accumulated 32% more biomass and increased the proportion of N derived from fixation from 44% to 57%. In nine-species assemblages, Lupinus N derived from fixation increased similarly from 43% to 54%. Although Lupinus presence enhanced photosynthetic rates and leaf N concentrations of co-occurring non-fixers, and increased overall plant N pools, Lupinus presence did not facilitate stronger photosynthetic responses of non-fixing species or larger growth responses of overall plant communities to elevated CO(2

  19. [Anatomy of the vegetative organs of two species of Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) from Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, Damelis; Castro, Mercedes; Ruiz-Zapata, Thirza; Lapp, Marlene

    2014-12-01

    In Venezuela, Atriplex is represented by A. cristata and A. oestophora, the latter being endemic; they inhabit coastal areas with high temperatures, high solar radiation and sandy soils with high salt content. This work aimed to provide information to facilitate and clarify these species taxonomic delimitation, throughout the study of the anatomy of their vegetative organs; this may also clarify our understanding of their adaptability to soil and climatic conditions prevailing in areas they inhabit. The plant material was collected from at least three individuals of each species in Punta Taima Taima and Capatárida, Falcon. Segments of roots, located near the neck and towards the apex, apical, middle and basal internodes of stems, were taken; and of leaves, located in the middle portion of plants. This material was fixed in FAA (formaldehyde, acetic acid, 70% ethanol) until processing. Semipermanent and permanent microscope slides were prepared with transverse or longitudinal sections, made using a razor (free-hand) or a rotation microtome, in this latter case, after paraffin embedding; besides, additional plates were mounted with portions of leaf epidermis, obtained by the maceration technique. The sections were stained with aqueous toluidine blue (1%) or safranin-fast-green, and mounted in water-glycerin or in Canada balsam. In order to calculate the vulnerability index, the vessel diameter in the vascular rings of roots, as well as their density, were quantified. Our results revealed structural features in the different organs, that resulted of taxonomic value and allowed the distinction of the species: in the leaf, the presence of aquifer tissue, the number of vascular bundles and their organization in the midrib, and the collenchyma differentiation in this part of the leaf; in the roots, the xylem and phloem arrangement in the growth rings, the nature of conjunctive tissue, and the presence of included phloem in one species. In addition, the species showed

  20. Lo stato delle conoscenze su Insettivori e Roditori della Basilicata

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    Gaetano Aloise

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I pochi dati disponibili per ristrette aree o desumibili da lavori di sintesi e/o su singole specie, fanno della Basilicata una delle regioni con maggiori carenze di informazioni sulla teriofauna. È stata intrapresa una indagine, ancora in corso, volta ad ampliare le conoscenze sulla distribuzione di Insettivori e Roditori nella regione. I metodi utilizzati comprendono l'analisi del contenuto delle borre di rapaci, trappolamenti, avvistamenti e tracce. I dati sono inseriti nella ?Banca dati per la mammalofauna della Calabria e della Lucania? che consente la restituzione cartografica su una maglia U.T.M. di 10 x10 Km. In base ai dati attualmente disponibili (N= 2154, da 0 e 1300 m s.l.m., il grado di esplorazione della regione appare molto basso, infatti, solo il 24% circa dei quadranti che compongono la regione presentano almeno un dato. Le specie di Insettivori e Roditori sino ad ora rinvenute sono: Erinaceus europaeus, Sorex minutus, S. antinorii, S. samniticus, Neomys anomalus, Suncus etruscus, Crocidura leucodon, C. suaveolens, Talpa romana, T. caeca, Sciurus vulgaris, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula, Glis glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus savii, Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Mus domesticus, Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Hystrix cristata. Tra quelle note per il sud Italia mancano dati concreti solo di Arvicola terrestris (da attribuire, però, certamente solo a carenza di dati, essendo accertata la sua presenza nelle aree limitrofe e data l?ecologia della specie e non si conoscono popolazioni stabili di Myocastor coypus (per la tipologia dei corsi d?acqua della regione che, come in tutto il meridione d?Italia, non ne favorisce l?insediamento se non in maniera puntiforme e in

  1. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Truchon

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193 and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO. Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance. For most species (75%, n = 6 species, a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively. This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a

  2. In situ management and domestication of plants in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-11-01

    Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the

  3. Oral health of building construction workers: an epidemiological approach Saúde bucal de trabalhadores da construção civil: abordagem epidemiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Emy Tomita

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the oral health conditions of building construction workers from a city in the mid-west region of São Paulo, Brazil. This study involved 219 male subjects, aged 17 to 72. The definition of a random sample utilized the functional number of each worker as a criterion to the raffle, which took into account all 450 subjects registered in the Working Accidents Prevention Program. The examination of oral health conditions by DMFT index and need of treatment were carried out according to WHO criteria (1997. This paper reports the prevalence of caries according to age, occupation, and educational level. Among the 219 workers examined, the mean DMFT was 16.9. Amongst the younger workers (Este estudo transversal foi delineado para avaliar as condições de saúde bucal de trabalhadores da construção civil em município da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinados 219 indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idades entre 17 e 72 anos. O levantamento das condições bucais foi realizado em processo de amostragem aleatória simples, a partir do total de 450 inscritos na MEGA-SIPAT 2000 (Semana Interna de Prevenção de Acidentes do Trabalho. Foi utilizado o índice CPOD (cárie dentária e necessidade de tratamento odontológico, segundo metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997. Neste estudo, são descritas a prevalência de cárie segundo a idade, ocupação e escolaridade. Entre os 219 trabalhadores examinados, o valor CPOD apurado foi 16,9. Os trabalhadores mais jovens (<25 anos de idade apresentaram média de 21,3 dentes sem necessidade de tratamento, enquanto os mais velhos mostraram necessidades progressivas de tratamento restaurador e reabilitador (p<0,001. Verificou-se índice CPOD de 15,6 para os trabalhadores de áreas administrativas e 21,7 para os mestres-de-obras, sem significância estatística. Houve aumento do índice CPOD segundo a idade, para todos os

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Römer

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available - A.J.C. Lach de Bére, Fernand van Langenhove, Consciences Tribales et Nationales en Afrique Noire. Institut Royal des Relations Internationales, Bruxelles. Martinus Nijhoff, ‘s-Gravenhage, 1960; 444 blz. - J.H. Scherer, A.H.J. Prins, The Swahili-speaking peoples of Zanzibar and the E. African Coast (Arabs, Shirazi and Swahili. Ethnographic Survey of Africa: East Central Africa, part XII. Uitgave van het International African Institute, London, 1961. 143 pp., m. kaart. - P. Driessens, Carol Brubaker, Geesten van het woud. Servire Luxe Pockets nr. 66. Servire, Den Haag 1963. 175 pp., 24 foto’s. - Joh. J. Hanrath, Indonesian Economics. The concept of dualism in theory and policy. Den Haag (W. van Hoeve 1961. 443 pp. - W. Ph. Coolhaas, H.R.C. Wright, East-Indian economic problems of the age of Cornwallis and Raffles. Luzac, London, 1961; 271 pp. - H.J. de Graaf, M.A.P. Meilink-Roelofsz, Asian trade and European influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 and about 1630. Academisch Proefschrift Amsterdam (S.U.. M. Nijhoff, ‘s-Gravenhage 1962. 471 pp. - Logemann, Herbert Feith, The decline of constitutional democracy in Indonesia. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1962. XX en 608 blz. - F.D.K. Bosch, G. Coedés, Les peuples de la péninsule indochinoise. 228 pp., 16 pl., 1 carte; Ed. Dunod, Paris, 1962. - L. Sluimers, Sirdar Ikbal Ali Shah, Viet-nam. London, Octagon Press, 1960. XV, 232 blz., krt. - L. Sluimers, J.G. Keyes, A bibliography of North Vietnamese Publications in the Cornell University Library. Ithaca, Cornell University, 1962. Data paper: Number 47. Southeast Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Cornell University. X, 116 blz., X. - A.F.P. Hulsewé, G.P. Oery, The Man-Shu (Book of the Southern Barbarians, translated by Gordon H. Luce, edited by G.P. Oery; Data Paper Nr. 44, Southeast Asia Program, Dept. of Far Eastern Studies, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y.; 1961. (X + 116 pp., 1 map. - C.H.M. Palm, Felix M

  5. Anatomía de los órganos vegetativos de dos especies de Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damelis Jáuregui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, Atriplex está representado por A. cristata y A. oestophora, siendo esta última endémica, las mismas habitan zonas costeras con altas temperaturas, alta radiación solar y suelos arenosos con alto contenido de sales. Se caracterizaron anatómicamente sus órganos vegetativos con el fin de aportar rasgos para delimitarlas taxonómicamente y precisar caracteres que contribuyan a su adaptabilidad a las condiciones edafoclimáticas imperantes en su hábitat. El material vegetal fue recolectado en tres individuos de cada especie en Punta Taima Taima y Capatárida (Falcón. Se recolectaron segmentos de raíces próximos al cuello y al ápice; entrenudos basales, medios y apicales, y hojas ubicadas en la porción media de las plan- tas. Este material fue fijado en FAA (formaldehido, ácido acético y etanol 70% hasta su procesamiento. Se prepara- ron láminas semipermanentes y permanentes con secciones transversales y longitudinales hechas a mano alzada o con micrótomo, en este último caso posterior a la inclusión en parafina. Adicionalmente, se realizaron macerados con el fin de obtener las epidermis foliares. Las secciones fueron teñidas con azul de toluidina acuosa (1% o con safranina- fastgreen, montándolas en agua/glicerina o en bálsamo de Canadá. Se cuantificó el número de vasos y su densidad en los anillos vasculares de las raíces, para calcular el índice de vulnerabilidad. Se encontraron rasgos estructurales de valor taxonómico: la presencia de tejido acuífero en la lámina foliar, el número de haces vasculares y su organización en el nervio medio, así como la diferenciación de colénquima en el mismo; además, el arreglo del xilema/ floema en los anillos de crecimiento, la naturaleza del tejido conjuntivo, así como la presencia de floema incluso, en las raíces. Se detectaron caracteres anatómicos típicos de halófitas y xerófitas, como son: alta densidad de tricomas en hojas y tallos jóvenes, que act

  6. Nasal bots...a fascinating world!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E; Scholl, Philip J; Cepeda-Palacios, Ramón; Jacquiet, Philippe; Dorchies, Philippe

    2010-11-24

    Larvae causing obligatory myiasis are numerous and they may affect cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, wounds, nasopharyngeal cavities (nasal bots), internal organs and the digestive tract (bots) of domestic and wild animals and humans as well. Nasal bots belong to the Family Oestridae, Subfamily Oestrinae, which includes several important genera: Oestrus, Kirkioestrus, and Gedoelstia infecting Artiodactyla (except Cervidae) in Africa and Eurasia, Cephenemyia and Pharyngomyia infecting Cervidae, Rhinoestrus infecting horses, Cephalopina infecting camels, Pharyngobolus infecting African elephants, and Tracheomyia infecting Australian kangaroos. Nasal bots are widespread in Mediterranean and tropical areas and in affected animals they induce sneezing and nasal discharge which may become caked with dust making breathing very difficult. The aforementioned species of larvae are host-specific but sometimes the may be deposited in human eyes inducing a painful opthalmomyiasis of short duration. The first fascinating trait of these parasites is the very efficient morphological and biological adaptations to parasitism they show either as larvae or as adults, in order to facilitate their survival and search for a suitable host. Nasal bots have reached different degrees of complexity in their life cycles. Indeed, while for some species (e.g., Oestrus ovis, Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus) larvae are injected by flies directly into nostrils and develop in the sinuses before being ejected for external pupation, some other species migrate from eyes to blood before returning to nasal cavities either through the ethmoid bone (Gedoelstia hässleri) or via lungs and bronchi (Gedoelstia cristata). Moreover, larvae are very well-adapted to their environment being able to undergo through hypobiosis either inside or outside the host, according to the climatic environmental conditions and seasonality. The second fascinating trait of nasal bots is related to host behavioural and immune

  7. Status sulle conoscenze dei mammiferi molisani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Norante

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il Molise risulta poco studiato dal punto di vista teriologico e, per colmare almeno in parte tale lacuna, il GMSO si è proposto di raccogliere dati bibliografici e inediti e promuovere qualche progetto. Si riportano sinteticamente dati relativi ad alcune specie. Sciurus vulgaris risulta comune in Prov. di Isernia, più localizzato in quella di Campobasso, presente nelle riserve MAB, nel Parco Naz. d?Abruzzo, Matese e Venafrano, nei pressi della zona ospedaliera di Campobasso ed anche al centro del capoluogo. Hystrix cristata, segnalata fino agli anni anni ?60 a Campomarino è stata trovata di recente (aculei in Alto Molise, sporadiche le segnalazioni nell?agro di S. Croce di Magliano-Colletorto (CB. Canis lupus ha recentemente allargato il suo areale raggiungendo anche siti in collina (per l?immissione dei Daini. Presente oltre che nel PNA, in tutta la Prov. di Isernia, Matese, montagna di Frosolone fino a Castropignano-Casalciprano. Preoccupante invece il randagismo canino verso il quale è auspicabile prendere dei provvedimenti. Ursus arctos è in aumento con massimi in Val di Mezzo, Val Fiorita, Val Pagana, M .te Marrone ed in tutto il gruppo delle Mainarde; fuori dal PNA è sempre più frequente: Matese, Carpinone e recentemente (27.04.03 una coppia in Valle del Sangro a S. Angelo in Pesco (IS. Nel 1995 una femmina è stata investita dal treno nei pressi di Carpinone (IS. Lutra lutra invece è diminuita rispetto al passato. La si incontrava fino agli anni ?70/80 fino alla foce dei fiumi Trigno, Biferno e T. Saccione. Attualmente è segnalata in prov. di Isernia (es. Venafrano, Matese, Montagna di Frosolone. Felis silvestris è presente soprattutto in Prov. di Isernia dove è segnalato in 38 Comuni. In quella di Campobasso appare più localizzato a nord e nel Matese. Riguardo Lynx lynx pare che qualche soggetto sia stato osservato nell?area limitrofa al P.N.A. dove è stata

  8. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied, Rethinking Raffles; A study of Stamford Raffles’ discourse on religions amongst Malays. (Nathan Porath Walter Angst, Wayang Indonesia; Die phantastische Welt des indonesischen Figurentheaters/The fantastic world of Indonesian puppet theatre. (Dick van der Meij Adrienne Kappler and others, James Cook and the exploration of the Pacific. (H.J.M. Claesen Aurel Croissant, Beate Martin and Sascha Kneip (eds, The politics of death; Political violence in Southeast Asia. (Freek Colombijn Frank Dhont, Kevin W. Fogg and Mason C. Hoadley (eds, Towards an inclusive democratic Indonesian society; Bridging the gap between state uniformity and multicultural identity patterns. (Alexander Claver Bronwen Douglas and Chris Ballard (eds, Foreign bodies; Oceania and the science of race, 1750-1940. (H.J.M. Claesen Ricky Ganang, Jay Crain, and Vicki Pearson-Rounds, Kemaloh Lundayeh-English dictionary and bibliographic list of materials relating to the Lundayeh-Lun Bawang-Kelabit and related groups of Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei and East Kalimantan. (Michael Boutin Jeffrey Hadler, Muslims and matriarchs; Cultural resilience in Indonesia through Jihad and Colonialism. (Franz von Benda-Beckmann Uli Kozok, Kitab undang-undang Tanjung Tanah: Naskah Melayu yang tertua. (Arlo Griffiths Alfonds van der Kraan, Murder and mayhem in seventeenth-century Cambodia; Anthony van Diemen vs. King Ramadhipati I. (Jeroen Rikkerink Jean Michaud, ‘Incidental’ ethnographers; French Catholic missions on the Tonkin-Yunnan frontier, 1880-1930. (Nicholas Tapp M.C. Ricklefs, Polarising Javanese society; Islamic and other visions (c. 1830-1930. (Matthew Isaac Cohen Stuart Robson, Arjunawiwāha; The marriage of Arjuna of Mpu Ka?wa. (Andrea Acri László Székely and István Radnai, Dit altijd alleen zijn; Verhalen over het leven van planters en koelies in Deli (1914-1930. (Adrienne Zuiderweg Patricia Tjiook-Liem (Giok Kiauw

  9. The Bicentennial 1813-1815: Historical Importance and Historiographical Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kennedy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The editors of the BMGN-Low Countries Historical Review have asked three historians to reflect on the historical importance of 1813-1815 and in doing so to interact with existing historiographies in their fields. What emerges in these essays on Belgium, the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands are three decidedly different perspectives on the ruptures, restoration and continuities of the Orangist regime with what preceded and what followed it. In his essay on the Netherlands, Matthijs Lok compares attempts in the 1810s and 1820s to relate the return of Orange with history to more recent historiographical interpretations. Lok emphasizes the lack of consensus in determining a compelling link to the past in the early years of Orangist rule, including differences in how to judge the relationship between ‘1572’ and ‘1813’. Putting the new kingdom on a legitimizing historical footing was made more difficult by the amalgamation of South and North, and the new king William I (Willem I chose in effect to highlight only the most recent past (Waterloo and forget more distant histories, including the not-so distant Batavian and Napoleonic periods. This ‘forgetting’ of the French period was adopted by Dutch historians up to the 1980s, but Lok notes that this since has largely been corrected with a clear-headed eye for the continuities between the Batavians and the new Orangist regime. At the same time, the author points to a number of unanswered questions about breaks and continuities, such as the lack of research on what broadly can be termed the Napoleonic period (1801-1813 and its impact on subsequent developments. In her essay on the Dutch East Indies, Alicia Schrikker offers an appraisal of how to understand the ‘old’ and ‘new’ of the Dutch colonial regime on Java that followed the brief British administration of Sir Stamford Raffles. In one important aspect Schrikker tends to uphold the traditional emphasis on the

  10. The Bicentennial 1813-1815: Historical Importance and Historiographical Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kennedy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The editors of the BMGN-Low Countries Historical Review have asked three historians to reflect on the historical importance of 1813-1815 and in doing so to interact with existing historiographies in their fields. What emerges in these essays on Belgium, the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands are three decidedly different perspectives on the ruptures, restoration and continuities of the Orangist regime with what preceded and what followed it. In his essay on the Netherlands, Matthijs Lok compares attempts in the 1810s and 1820s to relate the return of Orange with history to more recent historiographical interpretations. Lok emphasizes the lack of consensus in determining a compelling link to the past in the early years of Orangist rule, including differences in how to judge the relationship between ‘1572’ and ‘1813’. Putting the new kingdom on a legitimizing historical footing was made more difficult by the amalgamation of South and North, and the new king William I (Willem I chose in effect to highlight only the most recent past (Waterloo and forget more distant histories, including the not-so distant Batavian and Napoleonic periods. This ‘forgetting’ of the French period was adopted by Dutch historians up to the 1980s, but Lok notes that this since has largely been corrected with a clear-headed eye for the continuities between the Batavians and the new Orangist regime. At the same time, the author points to a number of unanswered questions about breaks and continuities, such as the lack of research on what broadly can be termed the Napoleonic period (1801-1813 and its impact on subsequent developments. In her essay on the Dutch East Indies, Alicia Schrikker offers an appraisal of how to understand the ‘old’ and ‘new’ of the Dutch colonial regime on Java that followed the brief British administration of Sir Stamford Raffles. In one important aspect Schrikker tends to uphold the traditional emphasis on the

  11. Disponibilidade domiciliar de lipídeos para consumo e sua relação com os lipídeos séricos de adolescentes Disponibilidad domiciliar de lípidos para consumo y su relación con los lípidos séricos de adolescentes Household availability of lipids for consumption and its relationship with serum lipids in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Siqueira S. Gonçalves

    2012-06-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between household availability of lipids to be consumed and the serum lipid profile in adolescents. METHODS: This cross sectional study enrolled 95 adolescents aged 10-13 years, selected by random raffle in public schools of Viçosa, Southeast Brazil. A monthly shopping list was used to evaluate the availability of food per capita. A blood sample was collected from each adolescent and Brazilian Cardiology Society guideline was adopted as a reference for lipid profile adequacy. For categorical variables, the chi-square was applied and the Odds Ratio calculated. For comparison between groups, Mann-Whitney or Student's t test, Kruskall-Wallis test or ANOVA were applied. Association between biochemical parameters and lipid availability was evaluated by Spearman or Pearson correlation tests. RESULTS: 27.2% of the total available energy came from lipids. The availability of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated agreed with the recommendation for their consumption. Regarding serum lipids, 51.9% of boys and 55.8% of girls showed alteration in total cholesterol (p=0.66; 18.6 and 25.6% of boys and girls, respectively, showed increased triglycerides level (girls>boys; p=0.02. In relation to LDL, 21.2 and 32.6% of boys and girls, respectively, showed alteration (p=0.91. The prevalence of inadequacy for HDL was of 26.9 and 30.2% of boys and girls, respectively (p=0.93. There was no correlation between the available lipids for consumption and the serum lipids. The teenagers with more than 35% of lipids to be consumed had 9.1-fold higher levels of total cholesterol (95%CI 1.81-61.74. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that adolescents with higher lipid availability at home show higher total cholesterol.

  12. Primary insect pest occurrence and tree diversity in stands of Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松林的树木多样性与主要害虫发生的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫争亮; 刘云彩; 胡光辉; 刘永刚; 孟梦

    2012-01-01

    对思茅松Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis人工林的不同混交配置模式的树木多样性及其与思茅松主要害虫的发生程度之间的关系进行了连续2 a的研究(2009年和2010年).思茅松与红木荷Schima wallichii,西南桦Betula alnoides或高阿丁枫Altingia chinensis的混交林以及栽松留阔思茅松人工林的多样性指数(Shannon指数)显著高于思茅松纯林,但林地的均匀度指数(Pielou指数)并不和多样性指数的变化一致.思茅松主要害虫思茅松毛虫Dendrolimus kikuchii,微红梢斑螟Dioryctria rubella,松实小卷蛾Retinia crstata的危害情况随林地树木多样性指数的增加而降低.在思茅区清水河乔林层中,思茅松毛虫[y=-29.929x+ 70.61,R2=0.9667(2010年);y=-14.578x+ 34.213,R2=0.9749(2009年)],微红梢斑螟[y=-8.873x+ 20.627,R2=0.9946 (2009年);y=-8.653x+ 20.215,R2=0.9351(2010年)]的受害率与乔木层的Shannon指数呈现更好的线性关系,而松实小卷蛾的受害率则与灌木层的Shannon指数呈较好线性关系[y=-5.6727x+ 14.964,R2=0.8358(2009年);y=-4.476x+ 12.27,R2=0.8381 (2010年).在景谷文朗,思茅松毛虫[y=-55.454x+ 135.16,R2=0.9541(2009年)和微红梢斑螟[y=-23.895x+ 57.907,R2=0.9831(2009年)]的受害率与乔木层的Shannon指数同样呈现较好的线性关系.图5表3参8%In order to understand the impact of increasing woodland plant diversity on degrees of insect pest occurrence, plant diversities of different deposition models for Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations and the occurrence degrees of the three primary pests: Dendtolimus kikuchii, Retinia cristata and Dioryctria rubella were investigated from 2009 to 2010 in Simao County and Jinggu County, Yunnan Province. Plant diversities in different plantations were denoted by Shannon index, and the species evenness were denoted by Pielou index. Insect occurrence degree were denoted by percentage of insect-infesting trees. Results showed that the Shannon index for