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Sample records for prerequisites ge math

  1. Investigating Validity of Math 105 as Prerequisite to Math 201 among Undergraduate Students, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariya, Yusuf F.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the validity of MATH 105 as a prerequisite to MATH 201. The data for this study was extracted directly from the examination results logic of the university. Descriptive statistics in form of correlations and linear regressions were used to analyze the obtained data. Three research questions were formulated and…

  2. Math

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2006-01-01

    Flummoxed by formulas? Queasy about equations? Perturbed by pi? Now you can stop cursing over calculus and start cackling over Math, the newest volume in Bill Robertson's accurate but amusing Stop Faking It! best sellers. As Robertson sees it, too many people view mathematics as a set of rules to be followed, procedures to memorize, and theorems to apply. This book focuses on the reasoning behind the rules, from math basics all the way up to a brief introduction to calculus.

  3. Exclusive <math>η> electroproduction at <math>W>2math> GeV with CLAS and transversity generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedlinskiy, I.; Kubarovsky, V.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Torayev, B.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Yurov, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.

    2017-03-01

    The cross section of the exclusive eta electroproduction reaction ep -> e'p'eta was measured at Jefferson Laboratorywith a 5.75 GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections d(4) sigma/dtdQ(2) dx(B)d phi(eta) and structure functions sigma(U) = sigma(T) + epsilon sigma(L), sigma(TT), and sigma(LT), as functions of t, were obtained over a wide range of Q(2) and x(B). The eta structure functions are compared with those previously measured for pi(0) at the same kinematics. At low t, both pi(0) and eta are described reasonably well by generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in which chiral-odd transversity GPDs are dominant. The pi(0) and eta data, when taken together, can facilitate the flavor decomposition of the transversity GPDs.

  4. Commentary: Prerequisite Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2013-01-01

    Most biochemistry, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology classes have extensive prerequisite or co-requisite requirements, often including introductory chemistry, introductory biology, and organic chemistry coursework. But what is the function of these prerequisites? While it seems logical that a basic understanding of biological and…

  5. On Prerequisites of Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文

    2006-01-01

    Interpreters are invariably playing a crucial role in international affairs. Those who regularly read pictorials or watch TV news programs know best why interpreters are always placed between two leaders. That is because interpreters are indispensable if any two VIPs aim to achieve further understanding, to eliminate bilateral distrust or even establish alliance with each other, a fact may partly account for why so many students are swarming into translation schools. Are they able to become interpreters? What are the prerequisites for an interpreter? This article will, taking into operative factors as complete as possible, provide a basic framework under which prerequisites of interpreters are structured.

  6. Arithmetic: Prerequisite to Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Jack W.

    Drawing from research and observations at Lansing Community College (Michigan) (LCC), this paper argues that typical arithmetic courses do little to prepare students to master algebra, and proposes an alternative set of arithmetic skills as actual prerequisites to algebra. The first section offers a description of the algebra sequence at LCC,…

  7. Measurement of Ratios of <math display='inline'>νμmath> Charged-Current Cross Sections on C, Fe, and Pb to CH at Neutrino Energies 2–20 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, B. G.; Datta, M.; Mousseau, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Barrios Sazo, M. G.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W. K.; Budd, H.; Bustamante, M. J.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Castromonte, C. M.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Gago, A. M.; Gallagher, H.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Jerkins, M.; Kafka, T.; Kordosky, M.; Kulagin, S. A.; Le, T.; Maggi, G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martin Mari, C.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Osta, J.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Savage, D. G.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Simon, C.; Snider, F. D.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Velásquez, J. P.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Ziemer, B. P.

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of math display="inline">νμmath> charged-current cross section ratios on carbon, iron, and lead relative to a scintillator (CH) using the fine-grained MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. The measurements utilize events of energies math display="inline">2<Eν<20GeVmath>, with math display="inline">(Eν)=8GeV>, which have a reconstructed math display="inline">μ-math> scattering angle less than 17° to extract ratios of inclusive total cross sections as a function of neutrino energy math display="inline">Eνmath> and flux-integrated differential cross sections with respect to the Bjorken scaling variable math display="inline">xmath>. These results provide the first high-statistics direct measurements of nuclear effects in neutrino scattering using different targets in the same neutrino beam. Measured cross section ratios exhibit a relative

  8. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

  9. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

  10. Target and beam-target spin asymmetries in exclusive <math>π+> and <math>π-> electroproduction with 1.6- to 5.7-GeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosted, P. E.; Biselli, A. S.; Careccia, S.; Dodge, G.; Fersch, R.; Guler, N.; Kuhn, S. E.; Pierce, J.; Prok, Y.; Zheng, X.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Akbar, Z.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Fradi, A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, Ivana; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2016-11-01

    Beam-target double-spin asymmetries and target single-spin asymmetries in exclusive pi(+) and quasiexclusive pi(-) electroproduction were obtained from scattering of 1.6- to 5.7-GeV longitudinally polarized electrons from longitudinally polarized protons (for pi(+)) and deuterons (for pi(-)) using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. The kinematic range covered is 1.1 < W < 2.6 GeV and 0.05 < Q(2) < 5 GeV2, with good angular coverage in the forward hemisphere. The asymmetry results were divided into approximately 40 000 kinematic bins for pi(+) from free protons and 15 000 bins for pi(-) production from bound nucleons in the deuteron. The present results are found to be in reasonable agreement with fits to previous world data for W < 1.7 GeV and Q(2) < 0.5 GeV2, with discrepancies increasing at higher values of Q(2), especially for W > 1.5 GeV. Very large target-spin asymmetries are observed for W > 1.6 GeV. When combined with cross-section measurements, the present results can provide powerful constraints on nucleon resonance amplitudes at moderate and large values of Q(2), for resonances with masses as high as 2.3 GeV.

  11. Singapore Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Singapore Math" is a collection of math curricula originally developed by Singapore's Ministry of Education and private textbook publishers for use in Singapore schools. "Singapore Math" curricula were developed under a national framework centered on problem solving that emphasizes computational skills as well as conceptual and strategic thinking…

  12. Modern maths

    CERN Document Server

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  13. Parrot Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Parrot math (memorization) seeks to control children through external rewards and punishments, rather than harness their intelligence and curiosity. Recent standardized test results document parrot math's failure. Activities-based approaches, supported by a constructivist philosophy (involving classifying, inferring, generalizing, and…

  14. How Much Math Do Students Need to Succeed in Business and Economics Statistics? An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeffrey J.; Stone, Courtenay C.; Zegeye, Abera; Charles, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Because statistical analysis requires the ability to use mathematics, students typically are required to take one or more prerequisite math courses prior to enrolling in the business statistics course. Despite these math prerequisites, however, many students find it difficult to learn business statistics. In this study, we use an ordered probit…

  15. How Much Math Do Students Need to Succeed in Business and Economics Statistics? An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeffrey J.; Stone, Courtenay C.; Zegeye, Abera; Charles, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Because statistical analysis requires the ability to use mathematics, students typically are required to take one or more prerequisite math courses prior to enrolling in the business statistics course. Despite these math prerequisites, however, many students find it difficult to learn business statistics. In this study, we use an ordered probit…

  16. Math Stuff

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2002-01-01

    Whether it's stuff in your kitchen or garden, stuff that powers your car or your body, stuff that helps you work, communicate or play, or stuff that you've never heard of you can bet that mathematics is there. MATH STUFF brings it all in the open in the Pappas style. Not many people think of mathematics as fascinating, exciting and invaluable. Yet Pappas writes about math ideas in such a way that conveys its often overlooked fascination, excitement, and worth. MATH STUFF deals with 38 topics in an non-threatening way that piques our curiosities. Open the book at random, and learn about such to

  17. Math Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    Many experts give the nation's schools a poor grade for their approach to teaching mathematics and for their preparation of mathematics teachers. While many policymakers make much of data that suggest children in the United States lag behind many other advanced countries in math, many experts call for a change in mathematics education,…

  18. Penguin Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…

  19. Talking Maths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Discussion in maths lessons has always been something encouraged by ATM but can be difficult to initiate for non-specialist and inexperienced teachers who may feel they need material in books to get them going. In this article, the author describes resources aimed at encouraging discussion among primary mathematicians. These resources include: (1)…

  20. Doodling in Math Class

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkenberg, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

      Arkenberg reviews Doodling in Math Class, an Internet resource available at www.youtube.com. Both math and art teachers have recommended the series of YouTube videos "Doodling in Math Class with Vihart...

  1. Counseling the Math Anxious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Sheila; Donady, Bonnie

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)

  2. Das habt ihr schon im Mathe gelernt! Stimmt das wirklich?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Uhden, Olaf; Höttecke, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is widely considered to be a prerequisite for learning physics. However, it is quite naive to believe that learning basic math is sufficient to use mathematics as a reasoning tool to think about the physical world. The main reason is that using mathematics in physics is substantially...... different than in math. In this paper we show how the way physicists make use of some basic mathematical concepts (e.g. multiplication, division and functions) is specific to physics by identifying their historical genesis and contrasting with the way these concepts are usually taught in math lessons. We...

  3. Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide

    2006-01-01

    Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…

  4. Taking Math Anxiety out of Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Darla J.

    2007-01-01

    To take math anxiety out of math instruction, teachers need to first know how to easily diagnose it in their students and second, how to analyze causes. Results of a recent study revealed that while students believed that their math anxiety was largely related to a lack of mathematical understanding, they often blamed their teachers for causing…

  5. <math display='inline'>ΛΛmath> Correlation Function in <math display='inline'>Au+Aumath> Collisions at <math display='inline'>sNN=200GeV>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L. -X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-01-12

    We present Lambda Lambda correlation measurements in heavy-ion collisions for Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV using the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. The Lednicky-Lyuboshitz analytical model has been used to fit the data to obtain a source size, a scattering length and an effective range. Implications of the measurement of the Lambda Lambda correlation function and interaction parameters for dihyperon searches are discussed.

  6. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bettina J Casad; Patricia eHale; Faye Linda Wachs

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math de...

  7. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  8. Advanced prerequisite for E-infinity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    This is the third of a series of papers written with the primary aim of communicating necessary theoretical background knowledge required for an in-depth study of E-infinity theory. Compared to the previous two papers [El Naschie MS. Elementary prerequisites for E-infinity (Recommended background readings in nonlinear dynamics, geometry and topology). Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;30(3):579-605; El Naschie MS. Intermediate prerequisites for E-infinity theory. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;30(3):622-8], the present one may be described as advanced.

  9. Using Math Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Math education consultant Marilyn Burns finds that teachers ask her the same three questions so often she's named them "The Big Three": What can I do with students who finish their math work more quickly?, How can I free up time to work with kids who need extra help?, and How can I differentiate math learning experiences? Burns, who…

  10. Advanced Math Equals Career Readiness. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The equation is simple: No matter their background, students who take challenging math courses in high school get better jobs and earn more money throughout their entire lives. This paper stresses that: (1) Higher-level math opens doors for any and all postsecondary programs and keeps it open for advancement beyond entry-level jobs; and (2)…

  11. Maths in Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Patricia Byrne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.

  12. Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C

    2010-02-02

    People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.

  13. Female teachers’ math anxiety affects girls’ math achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L.; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    People’s fear and anxiety about doing math—over and above actual math ability—can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers’ anxieties relate to girls’ math achievement via girls’ beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers’ classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher’s math anxiety and her students’ math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year’s end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that “boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading” and the lower these girls’ math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers’ math anxiety carries consequences for girls’ math achievement by influencing girls’ beliefs about who is good at math. PMID:20133834

  14. Developmental Math with a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerling, L. Steven

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Math Learning Center at Palm Beach Junior College which offers 21 courses of study, including all math courses through trigonometry and 11 general education math courses. Examines the implementation process and various program features. (DR)

  15. Dr Math at your service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author explains how the Dr Math service works; how tutors are recruited to act as Dr Math; and how school pupils can reach Dr Math for help with their mathematics homework....

  16. Dyscalculia ≠ maths difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    Using Bourdieu’s notion of field, the Scandinavian field of maths pedagogy occurs at a time characterised by increasing inclusion efforts in primary school. Various stakeholders in maths pedagogy are arguing about what should be done about pupils who perform poorly in mathematics and what causes...... their difficulties. Four analytical positions are presented here: the diagnostic, the structural, the interventionist and the complementary. The literature examined includes academic articles on math pedagogy and scholarly journals for maths teachers from the period 1995–2014. A total of 103 articles were analysed...

  17. GRE math tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three GRE Math Tests! The GRE math section is not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to ""beat"" the section. But GRE math is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your math score will improve--significantly! The GRE cannot be ""beaten."" But it can be mastered--through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the problems in this book are designed to prompt you to think like a test writer. For example, you will find ""Duals."" These are pairs of similar problems in which only one prop

  18. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  19. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  20. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina J Casad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  1. Barron's SAT math workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Leff MS, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    This completely revised edition reflects all of the new questions and question types that will appear on the new SAT, scheduled to be administered in Spring 2016. Includes hundreds of revised math questions and answer explanations, math strategies, test-taking tips, and much more.

  2. The Influence of Experiencing Success in Math on Math Anxiety, Perceived Math Competence, and Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Louwerse, Jolien; Straatemeier, Marthe; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Klinkenberg, Sharon; Van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a computer-adaptive program. A total of 207 children (grades 3-6)…

  3. String Math 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.

  4. The influence of experiencing success in math on math anxiety, perceived math competence, and math performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. Jansen; J. Louwerse; M. Straatemeier; S.H.G. van der Ven; S. Klinkenberg; H.L.J. van der Maas

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a computer-adapti

  5. The influence of experiencing success in math on math anxiety, perceived math competence, and math performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; Louwerse, J.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klinkenberg, S.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a

  6. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  7. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  8. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  9. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  10. Math Anxiety: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Nancy E.

    While much progress has been made in treating math anxiety, little is yet known about its causes, correlates or effects. The present study examined factors related to the prevalence and intensity of math anxiety in college students and the extent to which math anxiety is predictive of math course grades. The 655 subjects were obtained from two…

  11. Principals in Partnership with Math Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…

  12. Principals in Partnership with Math Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…

  13. The Roots of Stereotype Threat: When Automatic Associations Disrupt Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by…

  14. The Roots of Stereotype Threat: When Automatic Associations Disrupt Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, Silvia; Cadinu, Mara; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although stereotype awareness is a prerequisite for stereotype threat effects (Steele & Aronson, 1995), research showed girls' deficit under stereotype threat before the emergence of math-gender stereotype awareness, and in the absence of stereotype endorsement. In a study including 240 six-year-old children, this paradox was addressed by…

  15. Understanding spermatogenesis is a prerequisite for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Wolfgang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout spermatogenesis multiplication, maturation and differentiation of germ cells results in the formation of the male gamete. The understanding of spermatogenesis needs detailed informations about the organization of the germinal epithelium, the structure and function of different types of germ cells, endocrine and paracrine cells and mechanisms, intratesticular and extratesticular regulation of spermatogenesis. Normal germ cells must be discriminated from malformed, apoptotic and degenerating germ cells and tumor cells. Identification of the border line between normal and disturbed spermatogenesis substantiate the diagnosis of impaired male fertility. The profound knowledge of the complicate process of spermatogenesis and all cells or cell systems involved with is the prerequisite to develop concepts for therapy of male infertility or to handle germ cells in the management of assisted reproduction.

  16. SAT math prep course

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!

  17. Roller Coaster Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Arvilla

    1992-01-01

    Presents number loop pattern activities and games designed to interest elementary students in mathematics and encourage computational skills. The activities work as games and cooperative activities and invite math exploration. (SM)

  18. Roller Coaster Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Arvilla

    1992-01-01

    Presents number loop pattern activities and games designed to interest elementary students in mathematics and encourage computational skills. The activities work as games and cooperative activities and invite math exploration. (SM)

  19. Syllable division: Prerequisite to dyslexics' literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A R; Hutcheson, L

    1988-01-01

    Skill in reading long words is prerequisite to dyslexics' literacy. Instant recognition of printed symbols is easy for those readers with photographic memories, but dyslexics often fail to recognize visually many long words which are actually familiar to them auditorially. Scientific, automatic, multisensory procedures for dividing longer words into easily read syllables can enable students to translate visual symbols rapidly and thereby to read, write, or spell accurately words of any length.Over one thousand dyslexics, aged seven to fifteen, guided the interdisciplinary team at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital in Dallas to develop, observe results, and test specific structured, sequential steps in working out longer words. The ten-year study (1965-1975) in the Language Laboratory of the Hospital established the Alphabetic Phonics curriculum which is now used successfully, not only in remedial groups but in regular classes of any size or age, in public and private schools in 45 states and six foreign countries.The newly-established Aylett Royall Cox Institute in Dallas prepares teachers and Master Instructors to train both students and other teachers. Comparable Alphabetic Phonics Teacher Training Centers are already established in Houston and Lubbock, Texas, in Oklahoma City, and at Columbia University Teachers College in New York.

  20. Essential Math Skills for Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2011-01-01

    Just the math skills you need to excel in the study or practice of engineering Good math skills are indispensable for all engineers regardless of their specialty, yet only a relatively small portion of the math that engineering students study in college mathematics courses is used on a frequent basis in the study or practice of engineering. That's why Essential Math Skills for Engineers focuses on only these few critically essential math skills that students need in order to advance in their engineering studies and excel in engineering practice. Essential Math Skills for Engineers features con

  1. Math review for the SAT

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Maximize your math score on the new SAT with REA's Math Review for the SAT! This new edition features a comprehensive analysis of the SAT's Multiple Choice and Student Response math questions: Number and Operation Questions; Algebra and Function Questions; Geometry and Measurement Questions; and Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability Questions. Build your test skills with over 200 math drills that sharpen and focus your understanding of SAT math.DETAILS - New edition reflects all the math changes on the new SAT including Algebra II - Concentrated subject question analyses that hone test sk

  2. Participant and spectator scaling of spectator fragments in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at <math>sNN=19.6math> and 22.4 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tang, J. -L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2016-08-01

    Spectator fragments resulting from relativistic heavy ion collisions, consisting of single protons and neutrons along with groups of stable nuclear fragments up to nitrogen (Z = 7), are measured in PHOBOS. These fragments are observed in Au+Au (root s(NN) = 19.6 GeV) and Cu+Cu (22.4 GeV) collisions at high pseudorapidity (eta). The dominant multiply-charged fragment is the tightly bound helium (alpha), with lithium, beryllium, and boron all clearly seen as a function of collision centrality and pseudorapidity. We observe that in Cu+Cu collisions, it becomes much more favorable for the alpha fragments to be released than lithium. The yields of fragments approximately scale with the number of spectator nucleons, independent of the colliding ion. The shapes of the pseudorapidity distributions of fragments indicate that the average deflection of the fragments away from the beam direction increases for more central collisions. A detailed comparison of the shapes for alpha and lithium fragments indicates that the centrality dependence of the deflections favors a scaling with the number of participants in the collision.

  3. Family Math Night: Middle School Math Standards in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer; Oberdorf, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Why should schools have a Family Math Night? It helps students learn essential math concepts. It gives parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence. It promotes math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry out of…

  4. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

  5. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Lyons

    Full Text Available Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs, math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula. Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

  6. Academic Performance in MBA Programs: Do Prerequisites Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Donald Gene; Nance, William R.; White, Darin W.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have examined criteria used in Master of Business Administration (MBA) admissions decisions. However, prior research has not examined predictive ability of undergraduate prerequisite courses in core business disciplines. The authors investigated whether undergraduate prerequisite courses predicted MBA success by analyzing the…

  7. Academic Performance in MBA Programs: Do Prerequisites Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Donald Gene; Nance, William R.; White, Darin W.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have examined criteria used in Master of Business Administration (MBA) admissions decisions. However, prior research has not examined predictive ability of undergraduate prerequisite courses in core business disciplines. The authors investigated whether undergraduate prerequisite courses predicted MBA success by analyzing the…

  8. Culture and math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample.

  9. Business math for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Now, it is easier than ever before to understand complex mathematical concepts and formulas and how they relate to real-world business situations. All you have to do it apply the handy information you will find in Business Math For Dummies. Featuring practical practice problems to help you expand your skills, this book covers topics like using percents to calculate increases and decreases, applying basic algebra to solve proportions, and working with basic statistics to analyze raw data. Find solutions for finance and payroll applications, including reading financial statements, calculating wages and commissions, and strategic salary planning. Navigate fractions, decimals, and percents in business and real estate transactions, and take fancy math skills to work. You'll be able to read graphs and tables and apply statistics and data analysis. You'll discover ways you can use math in finance and payroll investments, banking and payroll, goods and services, and business facilities and operations. You'll learn ho...

  10. What's in a Prerequisite? A Mixed-Methods Approach to Identifying the Impact of a Prerequisite Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K.; Lee, Amanda K.; Alam, Usman; Dang, Jennifer V.; Dacanay, Samantha J.; Morgado, Pedro; Pirino, Giorgia; Brunner, Jo Ellen; Castillo, Leanne A.; Chan, Valerie W.; Sandholtz, Judith H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of prerequisites in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula, there has been minimal effort to assess their value in a data-driven manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we examined the impact of prerequisites in the context of a microbiology lecture and lab course pairing.…

  11. Investigating the Relationships among Primary Teachers' Math Profile, Math Teaching Efficacy, and Math Content Pedagogical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettinger, Theresa Marie

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarten, first and second grade teachers play an important role in the development of a student's understanding of mathematics. Consequently, in order to improve student achievement in mathematics, it is important to investigate the relationships that may exist among primary teachers' math profile, math teaching efficacy, and math pedagogy…

  12. Is Math Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning? The Role of Math Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L; Hart, Sara A; Lyons, Ian M; Thompson, Lee A; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. In the current studies, we aimed to address the lack of attention given to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math-learning literature by exploring the relations among math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. In two samples-young adolescent twins and adult college students-results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with high intrinsic math motivation and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing participants' nonsymbolic and symbolic number-estimation ability. These findings may help advance the understanding of mathematics-learning processes and provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics-learning experiences and mathematical skills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Investigating the Relationships among Primary Teachers' Math Profile, Math Teaching Efficacy, and Math Content Pedagogical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettinger, Theresa Marie

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarten, first and second grade teachers play an important role in the development of a student's understanding of mathematics. Consequently, in order to improve student achievement in mathematics, it is important to investigate the relationships that may exist among primary teachers' math profile, math teaching efficacy, and math pedagogy…

  14. Understand electrical and electronics maths

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    1993-01-01

    Understand Electrical and Electronics Maths covers elementary maths and the aspects of electronics. The book discusses basic maths including quotients, algebraic fractions, logarithms, types of equations and balancing of equations. The text also describes the main features and functions of graphs and the solutions to simpler types of electronics problems. The book then tackles the applications of polar coordinates in electronics, limits, differentiation and integration, and the applications of maths of rates of change in electronics. The activities of an electronic circuit; techniques of math

  15. Measurements of <math>epe'π+π-p'math> cross sections with CLAS at <math>1.40GeV<W<2.0math> GeV and <math>2.0GeV2<Q2<5.0GeV2math>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isupov, E. L.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Gothe, R. W.; Hicks, K.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Mokeev, V. I.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adhikari, S.; Adikaram, D.; Akbar, Z.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Cao, T.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Gleason, C.; Golovatch, E.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Heddle, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kunkel, M.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Murdoch, G.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Riser, D.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Torayev, B.; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports new exclusive cross sections for $e p \\to e' \\pi^+ \\pi^- p'$ using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. These results are presented for the first time at photon virtualities 2.0 GeV2 < Q2 < 5.0 GeV2 in the center-of-mass energy range 1.4 GeV < W < 2.0 GeV, which covers a large part of the nucleon resonance region. Using a model developed for the phenomenological analysis of electroproduction data, we see strong indications that the relative contributions from the resonant cross sections at W < 1.74 GeV increase with $Q^2$. These data considerably extend the kinematic reach of previous measurements. Exclusive $e p \\to e' \\pi^+ \\pi^- p'$ cross section measurements are of particular importance for the extraction of resonance electrocouplings in the mass range above 1.6 GeV.

  16. Unexpected Ge-Ge Contacts in the Two-Dimensional Ge4 Se3 Te Phase and Analysis of Their Chemical Cause with the Density of Energy (DOE) Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpers, Michael; Konze, Philipp M; Maintz, Stefan; Steinberg, Simon; Mio, Antonio M; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Zhu, Min; Müller, Merlin; Luysberg, Martina; Mayer, Joachim; Wuttig, Matthias; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-08-14

    A hexagonal phase in the ternary Ge-Se-Te system with an approximate composition of GeSe0.75 Te0.25 has been known since the 1960s but its structure has remained unknown. We have succeeded in growing single crystals by chemical transport as a prerequisite to solve and refine the Ge4 Se3 Te structure. It consists of layers that are held together by van der Waals type weak chalcogenide-chalcogenide interactions but also display unexpected Ge-Ge contacts, as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. The nature of the electronic structure of Ge4 Se3 Te was characterized by chemical bonding analysis, in particular by the newly introduced density of energy (DOE) function. The Ge-Ge bonding interactions serve to hold electrons that would otherwise go into antibonding Ge-Te contacts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. All Students Need Advanced Mathematics. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet explains that to thrive in today's world, all students will need to graduate with very strong math skills. That can only mean one thing: advanced math courses are now essential math courses. Highlights of this paper include: (1) Advanced math equals college success; (2) Advanced math equals career opportunity; and (3) Advanced math…

  18. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  19. Prerequisites of the Passage to a Regime of Inflation Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Minica

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The article synthetically presents the main prerequisites of the institutional and technical order we should consider in the context of the National Bank’s adopting a complex policy of inflation targeting.

  20. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

  1. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A; Sokolowski, H Moriah; Lyons, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals' self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one's self - self-math overlap - may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated.

  2. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Necka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This nonverbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r=-.610. We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be

  3. String-math 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Morrison, David R

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference String-Math 2012, which was held July 16-21, 2012, at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Universitat Bonn. This was the second in a series of annual large meetings devoted to the interface of mathematics and string theory. These meetings have rapidly become the flagship conferences in the field. Topics include super Riemann surfaces and their super moduli, generalized moonshine and K3 surfaces, the latest developments in supersymmetric and topological field theory, localization techniques, applications to knot theory, and many more. The contributors include many leaders in the field, such as Sergio Cecotti, Matthias Gaberdiel, Rahul Pandharipande, Albert Schwarz, Anne Taormina, Johannes Walcher, Katrin Wendland, and Edward Witten. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in this area and for all mathematicians and string theorists who want to update themselves on developments in the math-string interface.

  4. Technical Math For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Schoenborn, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Technical Math For Dummies is your one-stop, hands-on guide to acing the math courses you’ll encounter as you work toward getting your degree, certifacation, or�license in the skilled trades. You’ll get easy-to-follow, plain-English guidance on mathematical formulas and methods that professionals use every day in the automotive, health, construction, licensed trades, maintenance, and other trades. You’ll learn how to apply concepts of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry and their formulas related to occupational areas of study. Plus, you’ll find out how to perform basic arithmetic

  5. Early Math Interest and the Development of Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paige H.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Arnold, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Prior models suggest that math attitudes and ability might strengthen each other over time in a reciprocal fashion (Ma, 1997). The current study investigated the relationship between math interest and skill both concurrently and over time in a preschool sample. Analyses of concurrent relationships indicated that high levels of interest were…

  6. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  7. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  8. Math Learning Begins at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Sarah H.; Levine, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Children demonstrate gaps in the math knowledge that they possess by the time they begin school, and these gaps have been found to predict long-term outcomes not only in math but also in reading. Consequently, it is important to identify what accounts for these early differences and how they can be addressed to ensure that all children enter…

  9. Math for Moms and Dads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Richmond (Vermont) Elementary School offers a workshop in elementary-school mathematics for parents. By refreshing their math skills, parents are better able to help their children at home. Many parents who learned math through rote memorization do not understand current approaches to problem solving, such as drawing pictures, making charts,…

  10. "Math Anxiety" Explored in Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…

  11. From Mxit to Dr Math

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Laurie Butgereit, a researcher at the CSIR Meraka Institute, started to use Mxit as a communication channel to tutor her son in mathematics. Her son and a number of his friends logged in, and Dr Math was born. At the inception of Dr Math...

  12. Math Education at a Crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    With an enrollment of 550 students once a year the first year course Math1 at the Technical University of Denmark is one of the largest courses at university level in Denmark. Since its re-formation 6 years ago a number of interesting valuable assets concerning undergraduate math education...

  13. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  14. Math primer for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Cryer, CW

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics and engineering are inevitably interrelated, and this interaction will steadily increase as the use of mathematical modelling grows. Although mathematicians and engineers often misunderstand one another, their basic approach is quite similar, as is the historical development of their respective disciplines. The purpose of this Math Primer is to provide a brief introduction to those parts of mathematics which are, or could be, useful in engineering, especially bioengineering. The aim is to summarize the ideas covered in each subject area without going into exhaustive detail. Formula

  15. The Role of Parental Math Anxiety and Math Attitude in Their Children's Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Akanksha; Kumari, Santha

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the antecedents and consequences of children's math anxiety and math attitude. A total of 595 students aged 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grades) and 1 parent of each (mother or father) participated in the study. The study was conducted in India, with the study sample drawn from schools in South-West Punjab. Math…

  16. The Role of Parental Math Anxiety and Math Attitude in Their Children's Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Akanksha; Kumari, Santha

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the antecedents and consequences of children's math anxiety and math attitude. A total of 595 students aged 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grades) and 1 parent of each (mother or father) participated in the study. The study was conducted in India, with the study sample drawn from schools in South-West Punjab. Math…

  17. Study of the <math display='inline'>Zc+math> channel using lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelovsek, Sasa; Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Recently experimentalists have discovered several charged charmoniumlike hadrons math display="inline">Zc+math> with unconventional quark content math display="inline">c¯cd¯umath>. We perform a search for math display="inline">Zc+math> with mass below 4.2 GeV in the channel math display="inline">IG(JPC)=1+(1+-)math> using lattice QCD. The major challenge is presented by the two-meson states math display="inline">J/ψπmath>, math display="inline">ψ2Sπmath>, math display="inline">ψ1D

  18. Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…

  19. Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…

  20. Tips for Teaching Math to Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpello, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Since most elementary school teachers do not hold a degree in mathematics, teaching math may be a daunting task for some. Following are a few techniques to help make teaching and learning math easier and less stressful. First, know that math is a difficult subject to teach--even for math teachers. The subject matter itself is challenging. Second,…

  1. Math Branding in a Community College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantz, Malcolm; Sadowski, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math Saturday"…

  2. Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…

  3. Helping Students Get Past Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpello, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Math anxiety can begin as early as the fourth grade and peaks in middle school and high school. It can be caused by past classroom experiences, parental influences, and remembering poor past math performance. Math anxiety can cause students to avoid challenging math courses and may limit their career choices. It is important for teachers, parents…

  4. Are There Linguistic Prerequisites for Contact-Induced Language Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Sarah Grey

    Observation of language change caused by language contact tend not to support theories put forth by Meillet, Jakobson, Weinreich, and others that there are linguistic prerequisites for such change. A theory of the social factors that determine what kinds of language change will take place as a result of contact begins with the recognition of two…

  5. Students' Perceptions on Intrapreneurship Education--Prerequisites for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansikas, Juha; Murphy, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to understand the prerequisites for learning organisations (LO) as perceived by university students. Intrapreneurship education offers possibilities to increase student's adaptation of learning organisation's climate and behaviour. By analysing students' perceptions, more information about learning organisation…

  6. Cognitive and Neural Prerequisites for Time in Language: Any Answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the position article to this volume, Klein outlines a set of questions that are relevant for furthering the linguist's understanding of what the cognitive and neural prerequisites for time in language might be. He also declares a certain skepticism regarding the likelihood that new methods from other disciplines will provide answers to those…

  7. Students' Perceptions on Intrapreneurship Education--Prerequisites for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansikas, Juha; Murphy, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to understand the prerequisites for learning organisations (LO) as perceived by university students. Intrapreneurship education offers possibilities to increase student's adaptation of learning organisation's climate and behaviour. By analysing students' perceptions, more information about learning organisation…

  8. Prerequisites in behavioral science and business: opportunities for dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, David G; Lange, Brian M; Madden, Robert D; Tacha, Koko K

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing pressure on recent dental school graduates to understand and successfully utilize patient management and business management strategies to run a productive dental office. Dental schools are faced with the dilemma to either add more credit hours in their already crowded curriculum or adjust predental school requirements. All fifty-nine U.S. dental schools were assessed online to determine admission requirements in the areas of behavioral science and business education. Results show that only 11.9 percent of the schools require prerequisite course work in behavioral science and no school requires prerequisite course work in business. However, 64.4 percent and 30.5 percent of schools encouraged or recommended prerequisite course work in behavioral science and business, respectively. We suggest that the dental education community involve key stakeholders to discuss the incorporation of prerequisite course work in behavioral science and business. Additional courses in these disciplines would provide dental students better backgrounds from which the dental curriculum could build a more advanced and applied perspective to better prepare students for practice.

  9. Should College Algebra be a Prerequisite for Taking Psychology Statistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibulkin, Amy E.; Butler, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to consider whether a course in college algebra should be a prerequisite for taking psychology statistics, we recorded students' grades in elementary psychology statistics and in college algebra at a 4-year university. Students who earned credit in algebra prior to enrolling in statistics for the first time had a significantly higher mean…

  10. Are There Linguistic Prerequisites for Contact-Induced Language Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Sarah Grey

    Observation of language change caused by language contact tend not to support theories put forth by Meillet, Jakobson, Weinreich, and others that there are linguistic prerequisites for such change. A theory of the social factors that determine what kinds of language change will take place as a result of contact begins with the recognition of two…

  11. 76 FR 14678 - Communications Unit Leader Prerequisite and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... the entire collection increasing from the initial reported cost of $48,840 to $49,084. Analysis Agency... Burden Cost (operating/maintaining): $18,315. COML Train the Trainer Prerequisites Verification Frequency..., or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g...

  12. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test, achievement motivation test, and the math experience questionnaire. A significant positive correlation was found between math self-concept and math achievement in all four math domains (measurement, rela...

  13. What's in a Prerequisite? A Mixed-Methods Approach to Identifying the Impact of a Prerequisite Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K; Lee, Amanda K; Alam, Usman; Dang, Jennifer V; Dacanay, Samantha J; Morgado, Pedro; Pirino, Giorgia; Brunner, Jo Ellen; Castillo, Leanne A; Chan, Valerie W; Sandholtz, Judith H

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of prerequisites in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula, there has been minimal effort to assess their value in a data-driven manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we examined the impact of prerequisites in the context of a microbiology lecture and lab course pairing. Through interviews and an online survey, students highlighted a number of positive attributes of prerequisites, including their role in knowledge acquisition, along with negative impacts, such as perhaps needlessly increasing time to degree and adding to the cost of education. We also identified a number of reasons why individuals do or do not enroll in prerequisite courses, many of which were not related to student learning. In our particular curriculum, students did not believe the microbiology lecture course impacted success in the lab, which agrees with our analysis of lab course performance using a previously established "familiarity" scale. These conclusions highlight the importance of soliciting and analyzing student feedback, and triangulating these data with quantitative performance metrics to assess the state of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula.

  14. What’s in a Prerequisite? A Mixed-Methods Approach to Identifying the Impact of a Prerequisite Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K.; Lee, Amanda K.; Alam, Usman; Dang, Jennifer V.; Dacanay, Samantha J.; Morgado, Pedro; Pirino, Giorgia; Brunner, Jo Ellen; Castillo, Leanne A.; Chan, Valerie W.; Sandholtz, Judith H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of prerequisites in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula, there has been minimal effort to assess their value in a data-driven manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we examined the impact of prerequisites in the context of a microbiology lecture and lab course pairing. Through interviews and an online survey, students highlighted a number of positive attributes of prerequisites, including their role in knowledge acquisition, along with negative impacts, such as perhaps needlessly increasing time to degree and adding to the cost of education. We also identified a number of reasons why individuals do or do not enroll in prerequisite courses, many of which were not related to student learning. In our particular curriculum, students did not believe the microbiology lecture course impacted success in the lab, which agrees with our analysis of lab course performance using a previously established “familiarity” scale. These conclusions highlight the importance of soliciting and analyzing student feedback, and triangulating these data with quantitative performance metrics to assess the state of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula. PMID:28232587

  15. String-Math 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...

  16. Mathe Kompakt fur Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Der schnelle Überblick für Schüler und jeden, den es sonst noch interessiert Müssen Sie sich in der Schule oder im Beruf mit Mathematik beschäftigen und es hapert schon an den Grundlagen? Frei nach dem Motto »Einst gelernt, doch längst vergessen« bereiten oft gerade die einfachen Fragestellungen Probleme. Wie viel Prozent sind das nochmal? Wie war das doch gleich mit der Bruchrechnung und wie berechnet man eigentlich den Flächeninhalt eines Dreiecks? Keine Sorge, Mark Zegarelli erklärt es Ihnen einfach, aber zugleich amüsant, und hilft Ihnen so, Ihre Wissenslücken zu schließen. Damit ist Mathe

  17. Universals and Specifics of Math Self-Concept, Math Self-Efficacy, and Math Anxiety across 41 PISA 2003 Participating Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the present study is to investigate the factorial structure of three closely related constructs: math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety. The factorial structure consisting of three factors, each representing math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety, is supported in all 41 countries employed…

  18. Is Mathematical Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning: The Role of Math Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L.; Hart, Sara Ann; Lyons, Ian M.; Thompson, Lee A.; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M.; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. Given the lack of attention to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math learning literature, the current study aimed to address this gap via exploring the relations between math anxiety, math motivation, and math c...

  19. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  20. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  1. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.

  2. Math Education at a Crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    With an enrollment of 550 students once a year the first year course Math1 at the Technical University of Denmark is one of the largest courses at university level in Denmark. Since its re-formation 6 years ago a number of interesting valuable assets concerning undergraduate math education...... semester of 2005. For a thorough account including supporting files, statements, and papers please visit the following address: http://www.learninglab.dtu.dk/projekter/frikoebsprojekter/MAT1.aspx...

  3. Prerequisites for Successful Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Building Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Thuesen, Christian

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the prerequisites for establishing successful strategic partnerships in relation to renovating buildings sustainably. Establishing strategic partnerships is in the paper seen as a potential way to make building renovation more sustainable in Denmark...... particularly in terms of reducing energy consumption and use of resources and increase productivity. However, until now we have only had a limited number of such partnerships implemented and the few examples that do exist, mostly concern the construction of new buildings. The paper is based on an investigation...... industry and analyses of two exemplary cases the paper suggests prerequisites for establishing successful strategic partnerships for sustainable building renovation. The results show that strategic partnerships are collaborations set up between two or more organizations that remain independent...

  4. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; H Moriah Sokolowski; Ian M. Lyons

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individual...

  5. Attentional bias in math anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  6. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  7. Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge (001) heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkikh, A. A., E-mail: tonkikh@mpi-halle.de [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics (Germany); Talalaev, V. G. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, ZIK SiLi-nano (Germany); Werner, P. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    The synthesis of pseudomorphic GeSn heterostructures on a Ge (001) substrate by molecular-beam epitaxy is described. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy show that the GeSn layers are defect free and possess cubic diamondlike structure. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals interband radiative recombination in the GeSn quantum wells, which is identified as indirect transitions between the subbands of heavy electrons and heavy holes. On the basis of experimental data and modeling of the band structure of pseudomorphic GeSn compounds, the lower boundary of the bowing parameter for the indirect band gap is estimated as b{sub L} {>=} 1.47 eV.

  8. Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Bob miller's math for the GMAT

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Maximize Your GMAT Math Score with Bob Miller! REA's updated second edition of Bob Miller's Math for the GMAT is a must for anyone taking the GMAT. Bob Miller has taught math to thousands of students at all educational levels for 30 years. His proven teaching methods will help you master the math section of the GMAT and boost your score! Written in a lively and unique format, Bob Miller's Math for the GMAT prepares GMAT-takers with everything they need to know. Unlike some dull test preps that merely present the material, Bob actually teaches and explains math concepts and ideas. His no-no

  10. Enhancing Mathematical Communication for Virtual Math Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry Stahl; Murat Perit; Stephen Weimar; Baba Kofi Weusijana; Jimmy Xiantong Ou

    2010-01-01

    The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT) service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams of people to discuss math and to work collaboratively on math problems or explore interesting mathematical micro-worlds together. The VMT Project studies the online math discourse that takes place during sessions of virtual math teams working on open-ended problem-solving tasks. In particular, it inve...

  11. Identifying Maths Anxiety in Student Nurses and Focusing Remedial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…

  12. A Latent Profile Analysis of Math Achievement, Numerosity, and Math Anxiety in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity, and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated 5 groupings of…

  13. Math Anxiety, Working Memory, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2013-01-01

    Although math anxiety is associated with poor mathematical knowledge and low course grades (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007), research establishing a connection between math anxiety and math achievement has generally been conducted with young adults, ignoring the emergence of math anxiety in young children. In the current study, we explored whether…

  14. Math Anxiety, Working Memory, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2013-01-01

    Although math anxiety is associated with poor mathematical knowledge and low course grades (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007), research establishing a connection between math anxiety and math achievement has generally been conducted with young adults, ignoring the emergence of math anxiety in young children. In the current study, we explored whether…

  15. Relationships between Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Math Attitudes, and Math Achievement: An International Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Sunny R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement have traditionally been studied within individual countries, despite the existence of large international data sets available for analysis. This dissertation investigated the relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement based on information from 50…

  16. The Effects of the Elevate Math Summer Program on Math Achievement and Algebra Readiness. REL 2015-096

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The Effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness: This randomized trial examined the effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness, as well as math interest and self-efficacy, among rising 8th grade students in California's Silicon Valley. The Elevate Math summer math…

  17. Math Anxiety And Metacognition in Mathematics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Shanna Lin

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores the connections among metacognition, math ability, and math anxiety, predominantly within an educational context. An ultimate goal is to improve student success in math by first addressing student misconceptions of self-ability that drive study habits.To inform later discussions of these connections, I first provide supporting groundwork research for each of these cognitive functions separately in Chapters 1-3. In Chapter 1, background information on math cognitio...

  18. PREREQUISITE PROGRAMMES IN OWN CHECKS IN STATUTORY AND VOLUNTARY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisite Programmes approach is a requirement for implementing a correct own check plan. This new approach, born according to the European Legislation, is completely recognized by third Nation Authorities and private Inspection and Accreditation Bodies. This method is the basis to verify if an own check system is under control and to verify if corrective actions are built up to warrant hygienic production standards. The present work demonstrate that a correct own check plan is built up only by a Pre Requisites Program approach. The new UNI EN ISO 22000:2005 standard describe this concept specifying the difference between PRP and CCP.

  19. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  20. Persistence of Fall 1988 Math 310, Math 12 & Math 13 Students through Transfer Level Math over Four Academic Years (Fall 1988-Spring 1992). Research Report #269.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony

    A study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC) to determine persistence rates over 4 academic years for students with no previous college experience who entered arithmetic (Math 310), beginning algebra (Math 12), and intermediate algebra (Math 13) courses in fall 1988. The study sought to determine…

  1. Math Branding in a Community College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantz, Malcolm; Sadowski, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math…

  2. Response to intervention in math

    CERN Document Server

    Riccomini, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Boost academic achievement for all students in your mathematics classroom! This timely resource leads the way in applying RTI to mathematics instruction. The authors describe how the three tiers can be implemented in specific math areas and illustrate RTI procedures through case studies. Aligned with the NMAP final report and IES practice guide, this book includes: Intervention strategies for number sense, fractions, problem solving, and more Procedures for teaching math using systematic and explicit instruction for assessment, instructional planning, and evaluation Essential components to con

  3. Is Mathematical Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning: The Role of Math Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L.; Hart, Sara Ann; Lyons, Ian M.; Thompson, Lee A.; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M.; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. Given the lack of attention to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math learning literature, the current study aimed to address this gap via exploring the relations between math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. The current study consisted of two samples. One sample included 262 pairs of young adolescent twins and the other included 237 adult college students. Participants self-reported their math anxiety and math motivation. Math cognition was assessed using a comprehensive battery of mathematics tasks. In both samples, results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in students with high intrinsic math motivation, and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in students with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing student’s nonsymbolic and symbolic number estimation. These findings may help advance our understanding of mathematics learning processes and may provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics learning experiences and mathematical skills. PMID:26518438

  4. Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory…

  5. Math Game(s) - an alternative (approach) to teaching math?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Eliens, A.P.W.; Breitlauch, L.

    2009-01-01

    Getting students to read, digest and practice material is difficult in any discipline, but even more so for math, since many students have to cope with motivational problems and feelings of inadequacy, often due to prior unsuccesful training and teaching methods. In this paper we look at the

  6. Helping Your Child Learn Math: Math Tips for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents tips, activities, resources, and games that parents can use to help their children become more proficient in math. Some helpful tips offered are: (1) Be positive; (2) Play family games; (3) Avoid stereotypes; (4) Choose gifts that develop problem solving skills; (5) Expand your children's horizons; (6) Buy or borrow library…

  7. Basic Maths Practice Problems For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Beveridge, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Fun, friendly coaching and all the practice you need to tackle maths problems with confidence and ease In his popular Basic Maths For Dummies, professional maths tutor Colin Beveridge proved that he could turn anyone - even the most maths-phobic person - into a natural-born number cruncher. In this book he supplies more of his unique brand of maths-made- easy coaching, plus 2,000 practice problems to help you master what you learn. Whether you're prepping for a numeracy test or an employability exam, thinking of returning to school, or you'd just like to be one of those know-it-alls who says

  8. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  9. Affective and motivational factors mediate the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda RJ Jansen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations. Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521 were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life.

  10. Affective and Motivational Factors Mediate the Relation between Math Skills and Use of Math in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R J; Schmitz, Eva A; van der Maas, Han L J

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life.

  11. All you need in Maths!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Craats, J.; Bosch, R.

    2014-01-01

    All You Need in Maths! covers the basic mathematics you need to successfully embark on a university or college career in technology, natural sciences, computer and information science, economics, business and management studies, and related disciplines. By basic mathematics we mean elementary

  12. All you need in Maths!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Craats, J.; Bosch, R.

    2014-01-01

    All You Need in Maths! covers the basic mathematics you need to successfully embark on a university or college career in technology, natural sciences, computer and information science, economics, business and management studies, and related disciplines. By basic mathematics we mean elementary algebr

  13. Math Anxiety in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherard, Wade H.

    1981-01-01

    The author draws from the literature eight specific guidelines for classroom teachers to help them prevent or ameliorate students' math anxiety. Suggestions include: avoid sex stereotyping; help students develop self-confidence; concentrate on problem solving, spatial skills, and the language of mathematics; and provide a relaxed, supportive…

  14. Developmental Math: What's the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarella, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…

  15. All you need in Maths!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Craats, J.; Bosch, R.

    2014-01-01

    All You Need in Maths! covers the basic mathematics you need to successfully embark on a university or college career in technology, natural sciences, computer and information science, economics, business and management studies, and related disciplines. By basic mathematics we mean elementary algebr

  16. Basic Math III for Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document offers instructional materials for a 32-hour course on math operations involving graphs/statistics, measurement (English and metric), geometry, exponential notation, and scientific notation as applied in the workplace. The course was part of a workplace literacy project developed by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and…

  17. A Model for Math Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…

  18. Changing health care culture: a prerequisite to improving patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Saeed Azizi, Faisal Siddiqui, Ithsham Iqbal Faculty of Medicine, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UKWe read the recent article by Chua et al1 with great interest. We found it thought-provoking to read how novel interventions, such as sharing errors, among the team can reduce the frequency of error recurrence in the future. We are hopeful that if such interventions were applied to other areas of health care, it would yield similar results. Having said this, we strongly believe that an important prerequisite of openness among health care workers is required for such interventions to work. View the original paper by Chua et al 

  19. Band alignments at strained Ge1‑x Sn x /relaxed Ge1‑y Sn y heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, H.-S.; Liu, C. W.

    2017-04-01

    Type-I, type-II, reverse type-I, and reverse type-II band alignments are found theoretically in strained Ge1‑x Sn x (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.3) grown on relaxed Ge1‑y Sn y substrates (0  ⩽  y  ⩽  0.3) using the model-solid theory. The prerequisite bandgaps, and energy difference between the top valence band edge and the average valence band position of GeSn are obtained by the nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method. For the indirect-gap (L valleys) Ge1‑x Sn x on relaxed Ge1‑y Sn y , the band alignments are type-I and reverse type-I under biaxial compressive strain (x  >  y) and biaxial tensile strain (x  <  y), respectively. For the direct-gap (Γ valley) Ge1‑x Sn x on relaxed Ge1‑y Sn y , the biaxial compressive strain yields type-I and type-II alignment, while the biaxial tensile strain yields reverse type-I and reverse type-II alignments.

  20. Does Math Self-Efficacy Mediate the Effect of the Perceived Classroom Environment on Standardized Math Test Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Lisa A.; Lewis, James L.; Bryant, Michael J.; Bocian, Kathleen A.; Cardullo, Richard A.; Rettig, Michael; Hammond, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effect of the perceived classroom environment on math self-efficacy and the effect of math self-efficacy on standardized math test performance. Upper elementary school students (N = 1,163) provided self-reports of their perceived math self-efficacy and the degree to which their math classroom environment was mastery oriented,…

  1. Productive failure in learning math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Manu

    2014-06-01

    When learning a new math concept, should learners be first taught the concept and its associated procedures and then solve problems, or solve problems first even if it leads to failure and then be taught the concept and the procedures? Two randomized-controlled studies found that both methods lead to high levels of procedural knowledge. However, students who engaged in problem solving before being taught demonstrated significantly greater conceptual understanding and ability to transfer to novel problems than those who were taught first. The second study further showed that when given an opportunity to learn from the failed problem-solving attempts of their peers, students outperformed those who were taught first, but not those who engaged in problem solving first. Process findings showed that the number of student-generated solutions significantly predicted learning outcomes. These results challenge the conventional practice of direct instruction to teach new math concepts and procedures, and propose the possibility of learning from one's own failed problem-solving attempts or those of others before receiving instruction as alternatives for better math learning. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Maths4Stats: Educating teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renette J. Blignaut

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate nature of the education infrastructure in South Africa has led to poor academic performance at public schools. Problems within schools such as under-qualified teachers and poor teacher performance arise due to the poorly constructed education system in our country. The implementation in 2012 of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS at public schools in South Africa saw the further crippling of some teachers, as they were unfamiliar with parts of the CAPS subject content. The Statistics and Population Studies department at the University of the Western Cape was asked to join the Maths4Stats project in 2012. This project was launched by Statistics South Africa in an effort to assist in training the teachers in statistical content within the CAPS Mathematics curricula. The University of the Western Cape’s team would like to share their experience of being part of the Maths4Stats training in the Western Cape. This article focuses on how the training sessions were planned and what the outcomes were. With the knowledge gained from our first Maths4Stats experience, it is recommended that future interventions are still needed to ensure that mathematics teachers become well-informed and confident to teach topics such as data handling, probability and regression analysis.

  3. Briefing paper for universities on Core Maths

    OpenAIRE

    Glaister, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This briefing paper outlines the rationale for and development of the new Core Maths qualifications, the characteristics of Core Maths, and why Core Maths is important for higher education. It is part of a communication to university vice-chancellors from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) comprising this paper and a joint Ministerial letter from Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities and Science in BIS, and Nick Gibb, Minister of State for Schools in the Departm...

  4. Epistemological considerations on neuroimaging--a crucial prerequisite for neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian G; Huber, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Whereas ethical considerations on imaging techniques and interpretations of neuroimaging results flourish, there is not much work on their preconditions. In this paper, therefore, we discuss epistemological considerations on neuroimaging and their implications for neuroethics. Neuroimaging uses indirect methods to generate data about surrogate parameters for mental processes, and there are many determinants influencing the results, including current hypotheses and the state of knowledge. This leads to an interdependence between hypotheses and data. Additionally, different levels of description are involved, especially when experiments are designed to answer questions pertaining to broad concepts like the self, empathy or moral intentions. Interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks are needed to integrate findings from the life sciences and the humanities and to translate between them. While these epistemological issues are not specific for neuroimaging, there are some reasons why they are of special importance in this context: Due to their inferential proximity, 'neuro-images' seem to be self-evident, suggesting directness of observation and objectivity. This has to be critically discussed to prevent overinterpretation. Additionally, there is a high level of attention to neuroimaging, leading to a high frequency of presentation of neuroimaging data and making the critical examination of their epistemological properties even more pressing. Epistemological considerations are an important prerequisite for neuroethics. The presentation and communication of the results of neuroimaging studies, the potential generation of new phenomena and new 'dysfunctions' through neuroimaging, and the influence on central concepts at the foundations of ethics will be important future topics for this discipline.

  5. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  6. Math Matters: MDRC's Projects in Math for Low-Income Students, from Preschool to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In an increasingly technological world, developing basic math skills is crucial. Headlines regularly be-moan the international ranking of American students on math proficiency, and students from low-income families do worse in math than their more affluent peers. The federal Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that employment in occupations…

  7. Using an Intelligent Tutor and Math Fluency Training to Improve Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ivon; Royer, James M.; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved performance and both…

  8. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  9. A Math Intervention for Third Grade Latino English Language Learners at Risk for Math Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Word problems for English language learners (ELLs) at risk for math disabilities are challenging in terms of the constant need to develop precise math language and comprehension knowledge. As a result of this, ELLs may not only need math support but also reading and linguistic support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a…

  10. Math Performance as a Function of Math Anxiety and Arousal Performance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Donald M., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    While research continues to link increased math anxiety with reduced working memory, the exact nature of the relationship remains elusive. In addition, research regarding the extent of the impact math anxiety has on working memory is contradictory. This research clarifies the directional nature of math anxiety as it pertains to working memory, and…

  11. Numbers and other math ideas come alive

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't think about numbers, or take them for granted. For the average person numbers are looked upon as cold, clinical, inanimate objects. Math ideas are viewed as something to get a job done or a problem solved. Get ready for a big surprise with Numbers and Other Math Ideas Come Alive. Pappas explores mathematical ideas by looking behind the scenes of what numbers, points, lines, and other concepts are saying and thinking. In each story, properties and characteristics of math ideas are entertainingly uncovered and explained through the dialogues and actions of its math

  12. Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution among students with or without t...

  13. Intermediate prerequisites for E-infinity theory (Further recommended reading in nonlinear dynamics and mathematical physics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt) and Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt) and Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)]. E-mail: LTho410189@aol.com

    2006-11-15

    The paper presents an intermediate level prerequisite for understanding E-infinity theory as applied to particle physics. It is the sequel to an earlier elementary level prerequisite paper (El Naschie MS. Elementary prerequisite for E-infinity. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;30(3):579-605). The work ends with a somewhat detailed discussion of the role which a Lagrangian type formulation could play in E-infinity theory.

  14. On the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in early elementary school: The role of problem solving strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Chang, Hyesang; Maloney, Erin A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2016-01-01

    Even at young ages, children self-report experiencing math anxiety, which negatively relates to their math achievement. Leveraging a large dataset of first and second grade students' math achievement scores, math problem solving strategies, and math attitudes, we explored the possibility that children's math anxiety (i.e., a fear or apprehension about math) negatively relates to their use of more advanced problem solving strategies, which in turn relates to their math achievement. Our results confirm our hypothesis and, moreover, demonstrate that the relation between math anxiety and math problem solving strategies is strongest in children with the highest working memory capacity. Ironically, children who have the highest cognitive capacity avoid using advanced problem solving strategies when they are high in math anxiety and, as a result, underperform in math compared with their lower working memory peers.

  15. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412462435; Toll, S.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32819820X; van Luit, J.E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072499672

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test,

  16. Mathematics anxiety: separating the math from the anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.

  17. Social Prerequisites and Outcomes of Accountable Curriculum in Higher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nili

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHigher education system(HES is a social institution that has long been set up to accomplish threemissions education, research and service, but during recent years entrepreneurship has been added to itsmissions. Curriculum is the most important component and subsystem of HES and has been thought of as theheart of higher education (HE, because it is the most fundamental means that provides students withknowledge, experience and skills to supply services to the society. The curriculum which can accomplishideals and missions of universities, organizational (of the university and social (of the employers and thesociety is called accountable curriculum (AC. The main goal of this research was explanation ofprerequisites and social outcomes of higher education accountable curriculum (HEAC. To do the researchdescriptive survey method was used and in order to collect the needed data interview and questionnaireinstruments were utilized.The sample of the study which the questionnaire was distributed in, included faculty members and graduatestudents of university of Isfahan, Technical University of Isfahan, and Medical University of Isfahan andalso employers and administrators of the companies of Isfahan city. The participants of the sample wereal1ocated using stratified random sampling. The questionnaire surveyed the sample's viewpoints aboutprerequisites and outcomes of the AC in the field of social services. The collected data were analyzed atdescriptive and inferential levels using SPSS. The findings of T-test revealed that the mean of the sample'sviewpoints about the explained prerequisites and outcomes had been more than the hypothetical (theoreticalmean of the population (p≤0/001. The multivariate variance analysis( MANOVA of the data showed thatthere hadn't been significant difference among viewpoints of faculties, and employers in respect ofprerequisites of HEAC, but there had been significant difference between their views about expected

  18. Is math anxiety in the secondary classroom limiting physics mastery? A study of math anxiety and physics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Gary J.

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between secondary students with math anxiety and physics performance in an inquiry-based constructivist classroom. The Revised Math Anxiety Rating Scale was used to evaluate math anxiety levels. The results were then compared to the performance on a physics standardized final examination. A simple correlation was performed, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to examine effects based on gender and prior math background. The correlation showed statistical significance between math anxiety and physics performance. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and prior math background, but did not show statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and gender.

  19. Math and Mind Mapping: Origami Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Students with or without disabilities often experience difficulties with abstract math concepts. This paper is intended to help solve the mystery of math concepts through origami construction, a hands-on activity. Students are involved in constructing and deconstructing concepts by folding and unfolding a piece of paper which eventually leads to a…

  20. Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…

  1. Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…

  2. Math Wars 2: It's the Teaching, Stupid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John

    2006-01-01

    In math classes, teachers often focus instruction on the formulas and processes needed to solve different types of problems, but neglect to teach the concepts on which these tools are based. In this article, the author argues that before they can do this, teachers themselves need to understand "understanding math." Teaching mathematics with…

  3. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  4. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  5. Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

  6. Adaptively Ubiquitous Learning in Campus Math Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liu, Yu-Lung

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop and evaluate the instructional model and learning system which integrate ubiquitous learning, computerized adaptive diagnostic testing system and campus math path learning. The researcher first creates a ubiquitous learning environment which is called "adaptive U-learning math path system". This…

  7. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  8. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  9. Soundoff: My Anxieties about Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Math anxiety affects both sexes, and is not the cause of imbalance in mathematical professions. Attempts to broaden perceptions of mathematics deal only with the symptoms of math anxiety. The principal cause is the methodology used to teach mathematics. Problem-solving processes must be employed. (MNS)

  10. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  11. Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andrew B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with…

  12. GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehme, M; Widmann, D; Kostecki, K; Zaumseil, P; Schwartz, B; Gollhofer, M; Koerner, R; Bechler, S; Kittler, M; Kasper, E; Schulze, J

    2014-08-15

    Vertical incidence GeSn/Ge multiquantum well (MQW) pin photodetectors on Si substrates were fabricated with a Sn concentration of 7%. The epitaxial structure was grown with a special low temperature molecular beam epitaxy process. The Ge barrier in the GeSn/Ge MQW was kept constant at 10 nm. The well width was varied between 6 and 12 nm. The GeSn/Ge MQW structures were grown pseudomorphically with the in-plane lattice constant of the Ge virtual substrate. The absorption edge shifts to longer wavelengths with thicker QWs in agreement with expectations from smaller quantization energies for the thicker QWs.

  13. A Study of the Comparative Effectiveness of Zoology Prerequisites at Slippery Rock State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William Sechler

    This study compared the effectiveness of three sequences of prerequisite courses required before taking zoology. Sequence 1 prerequisite courses consisted of general biology and human biology; Sequence 2 consisted of general biology; and Sequence 3 required cell biology. Zoology students in the spring of 1972 were pretest and a posttest. The mean…

  14. 14 CFR 61.35 - Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing....35 Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades. (a) An applicant for a knowledge test must have... part for the certificate or rating sought and is prepared for the knowledge test; and (2)...

  15. Academic Performance of Nursing Students: Do Prerequisite Grades and Tutoring Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potolsky, Alicia; Cohen, Jayne; Saylor, Coleen

    2003-01-01

    The academic performance of first-semester nursing students who attended 5 or more (n=18) or fewer than 5 (n=19) tutorials was compared. A significant relationship was found between grades in prerequisite science courses and first-semester performance. Those who attended fewer tutorials had higher prerequisite course grades. (Contains 17…

  16. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  17. Making Early Math Education Work for All Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuson, Karen C.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Preparing children to be successful in mathematics begins with what they learn before they reach 1st grade. Math knowledge in prekindergarten and kindergarten predicts school achievement in math and in other topics, such as reading. Indeed, early math knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of math grades in high school, high school…

  18. Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.…

  19. Math Exchanges: Guiding Young Mathematicians in Small-Group Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Kassia Omohundro

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, small-group math instruction has been used as a format for reaching children who struggle to understand. Math coach Kassia Omohundro Wedekind uses small-group instruction as the centerpiece of her math workshop approach, engaging all students in rigorous "math exchanges." The key characteristics of these mathematical conversations…

  20. Math at Work: Using Numbers on the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka

    2012-01-01

    Math is used in many occupations. And, experts say, workers with a strong background in mathematics are increasingly in demand. That equals prime opportunity for career-minded math enthusiasts. This article describes how math factors into careers. The first section talks about some of the ways workers use math in the workplace. The second section…

  1. Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.…

  2. La maison des mathématiques

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...

  3. The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina B; Wu, Sarah S; Menon, Vinod

    2012-05-01

    Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.

  4. Enhancing Mathematical Communication for Virtual Math Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Stahl

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams of people to discuss math and to work collaboratively on math problems or explore interesting mathematical micro-worlds together. The VMT Project studies the online math discourse that takes place during sessions of virtual math teams working on open-ended problem-solving tasks. In particular, it investigates methods of group cognition that are employed by teams in this setting. The VMT environment currently integrates social networking, synchronous text chat, a shared whiteboard for drawing, web browsers and an asynchronous wiki for exchanging findings within the larger community. A simple version of MathML is supported in the whiteboard, chat and wiki for displaying mathematical expressions. The VMT Project is currently integrating the dynamic mathematics application, GeoGebra, into its collaboration environment. This will create a multi-user version of GeoGebra, which can be used in concert with the chat, web browsers, curricular topics and wiki repository.

  5. Encouraging Competence in Basic Mathematics in Hydrology using The Math You Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    California University of Pennsylvania has experienced significant growth in interest of its Earth Science programs over the last few years. With the burgeoning shale gas exploration and drilling, along with continued environmental problems, students and parents recognize the potential for jobs in the region in the Geosciences. With this increase in student interest has come an increase in the number of majors including a greater number of first-year students entering the major right from high school. Hydrology, is an important course within the Earth Science department curriculum. It is required by all Geology, Meteorology, and Earth and Space Science Education majors. It also serves majors from the Biology program, but is not required. This mix of students based on major expectations, grade level, and background leads to a varied distribution of math competencies. Many students enter unprepared for the rigors of a physics-based Hydrology course. The pre-requisites for the course are Introduction to Geology, a mostly non-quantitative survey course, and College Algebra. However, some students are more confident in their math skills because they have completed some level of Calculus. Regardless of the students' perceived abilities, nearly all struggle early on in the course because they have never used math within the context of Hydrology (or Science for that matter) , including continuity, conservation, and fluid dynamics. In order to make sure students have the basic skills to understand the science, it has been necessary to dedicate significant class time to such topics as Unit Conversions, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures, and basic Graphing. The Math You Need (TMYN) is an online tool, which requires students to complete instructor-selected questions to assess student competence in fundamental math topics. Using Geology as the context for the questions in the database, TMYN is ideal for introductory-level courses, but can also be effective as a review

  6. An Investigation of Boys' and Girls' Emotional Experience of Math, Their Math Performance, and the Relation between These Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math…

  7. Math Practice and Its Influence on Math Skills and Executive Functions in Adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an…

  8. Math Practice and Its Influence on Math Skills and Executive Functions in Adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an…

  9. An Investigation of Boys' and Girls' Emotional Experience of Math, Their Math Performance, and the Relation between These Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math…

  10. An investigation of boys’ and girls’ emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S Erturan; B. Jansen

    2015-01-01

    GGender differences in children’s emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages

  11. Affective and motivational factors mediate the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; Schmitz, E.A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence

  12. An investigation of boys’ and girls’ emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erturan, S; Jansen, B.

    2015-01-01

    GGender differences in children’s emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages

  13. Math and Gender: Is Math a Route to a High-Powered Career?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    There is a large gender gap in advanced math coursework in high school that many believe exists because girls are discouraged from taking math courses. In this paper, we exploit an institutional change that reduced the costs of acquiring advanced high school math to determine if access is, in fact......, the mechanism - in particular for girls at the top of the math ability distribution. By estimating marginal treatment effects of acquiring advanced math qualifications, we document substantial beneficial wage effects from encouraging even more females to opt for these qualifications. Our analysis suggests...... that the beneficial effect comes from accelerating graduation and attracting females to high-paid or traditionally male-dominated career tracks and to CEO positions. Our results may be reconciled with experimental and empirical evidence suggesting there is a pool of unexploited math talent among high ability girls...

  14. Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Jangili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the entropy generation in magnetized-micropolar fluid flow in between two vertical concentric rotating cylinders of infinite length. The surface of the inner cylinder is heated while the surface of the outer cylinder is cooled. Internal heat generation is incorporated. The Eringen thermo-micropolar fluid model is used to simulate the micro-structural rheological flow characteristics in the annulus region. The flow is subjected to a constant, static, axial magnetic field. The surface of the inner cylinder is prescribed to be isothermal whereas the surface of the outer cylinder was exposed to convection cooling. The conservation equations are normalized and closed-form solutions are obtained for the velocity, microrotation, temperature, entropy generation number, Bejan number and total entropy generation rate. The effects of the relevant parameters are displayed graphically. It is observed that the external magnetic force enhances the entropy production rate and it is maximum in the proximity of the inner cylinder. This causes more wear and tear at the surface of the inner cylinder. Greater Hartmann number also elevates microrotation values in the entire annulus region. The study is relevant to optimization of chemical engineering processes, nuclear engineering cooling systems and propulsion systems utilizing non-Newtonian fluids and magnetohydrodynamics.

  15. Going for the Gold--In Math!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    A competitive mathematics program for deaf and hard of hearing junior high students is described. Rules for the competition were developed and a "Math Bowl" was implemented among six schools for the deaf. Sample problems are included. (DB)

  16. Math: The Gateway to Great Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation examines the role of mathematical proficiency and how it relates to advantages in careers. It emphasises the role of math in attaining entrance to college, graduate schools, and a career that is interesting and well paying.

  17. CaMath user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ben-chin; Daly, B.

    1994-07-13

    CaMath is an external Mathematica package which can be loaded into Mathematica by a user. CaMath consists of a special set of channel access functions which provides the Mathematica users with easy and flexible access of channel information across the IOC networks. It also provides a complete set of process variable event monitoring functions. The available functions for CaMath, their functionality, and their syntax are described herein. This document also gives examples how a Mathematica user can interface to channel access devices. It is assumed that the user is already familiar with using Mathematica. Few examples of Mathematica module of using CaMath functions are also given in this document.

  18. Taxonomy of literature to justify data governance as a pre-requisite for information governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olaitan, O

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available is devoted to data governance. This study chronicles extant literature to justify the position that data governance should be a prerequisite for information governance within organisations. The study argues that an information governance policy which is based...

  19. Prerequisites for Forming the Institutional Concept of the National Economy Competitiveness under Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaremenko Oleh L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to prove that under conditions of globalization there have developed objective and subjective prerequisites for forming the institutional concept of the national economy. The objective prerequisites are the newest information and communication technologies, post-industrial trends and market transformation of civilization intensified by globalization. Under such conditions instability and volatility of the institutional environment both within national economies and at the international level are observed. The aggravation of the global competition between national economies actualizes the role of such institutional factors as political system, property, public administration, economic organization, culture, etc. The subjective prerequisites are related to the fact that the institutional economic theory is currently one of the leading trends in the modern world and Ukrainian economic thought. Interest in it is explained not only by the fact that it overcomes the limitations of a number of prerequisites for the mainstream, but also because it allows considering the modern economic processes in complex

  20. 75 FR 5608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and Evaluation AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION:...

  1. A systematic review of prerequisites for implementing assessment for learning in classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, M.C.; Kleij, van der F.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.; Schildkamp, K.; Kippers, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Although many researchers acknowledge that Assessment for Learning can significantly enhance student learning, the factors facilitating or hindering its implementation in daily classroom practice are unclear. A systematic literature review was conducted to reveal prerequisites needed for Assessment

  2. Applied math for wastewater plant operators

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Joanne K

    1998-01-01

    With many worked examples, this book provides step-by-step instruction for all calculations required for wastewater treatment. Pertinent calculations are conveniently summarized in each chapter. The text covers all the fundamental math concepts and skills needed for daily wastewater treatment plant operations. The workbook for this book can be purchased separately or together in the Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators Set (ISBN: 9781566769891).

  3. Structural and chemical ordering of Heusler <math>CoxMnyGezmath> epitaxial films on Ge (111): Quantitative study using traditional and anomalous x-ray diffraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, B. A.; Chu, Y. S.; He, L.; Haskel, D.; Tsui, F.

    2015-12-14

    Epitaxial films of C o x M n y G e z grown on Ge (111) substrates by molecular-beam-epitaxy techniques have been investigated as a continuous function of composition using combinatorial synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy techniques. A high-resolution ternary epitaxial phase diagram is obtained, revealing a small number of structural phases stabilized over large compositional regions. Ordering of the constituent elements in the compositional region near the full Heusler alloy C o 2 MnGe has been examined in detail using both traditional XRD and a new multiple-edge anomalous diffraction (MEAD) technique. Multiple-edge anomalous diffraction involves analyzing the energy dependence of multiple reflections across each constituent absorption edge in order to detect and quantify the elemental distribution of occupation in specific lattice sites. Results of this paper show that structural and chemical ordering are very sensitive to the Co : Mn atomic ratio, such that the ordering is the highest at an atomic ratio of 2 but significantly reduced even a few percent off this ratio. The in-plane lattice is nearly coherent with that of the Ge substrate, while the approximately 2% lattice mismatch is accommodated by the out-of-plane tetragonal strain. The quantitative MEAD analysis further reveals no detectable amount (<0.5%) of Co-Mn site swapping, but instead high levels (26%) of Mn-Ge site swapping. Increasing Ge concentration above the Heusler stoichiometry ( C o 0.5 M n 0.25 G e 0.25 ) is shown to correlate with increased lattice vacancies, antisites, and stacking faults, but reduced lattice relaxation. The highest degree of chemical ordering is observed off the Heusler stoichiometry with a Ge enrichment of 5 at.%.

  4. La mathématique du physicien

    CERN Document Server

    Diu, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    " Le livre de la nature est écrit dans la langue mathématique, et ses caractères sont des triangles, des cercles et autres figures géométriques, sans lesquels il est humainement impossible d'en comprendre le moindre mot ". Ce célèbre aphorisme de Galilée a scellé l'alliance des mathématiques et de la physique. Et pourtant, trois siècles plus tard, Einstein se montrait plus sceptique. Dans ce livre, Bernard Diu montre que, en effet, si les mathématiques sont un instrument indispensable de la physique, elles n'en constituent pas le fondement. En multipliant les exemples, il marque la différence entre la mathématique du mathématicien et celle du physicien. Un livre de nature à remettre en question l'enseignement de la physique dans nos écoles et des sciences en général, soumis à l'hégémonie des mathématiques.

  5. Physics First: Impact on SAT Math Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Craig E.

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority and the call to modernize secondary science has been heard. A Physics First (PF) program with the curriculum sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) driven by inquiry- and project-based learning offers a viable alternative to the traditional curricular sequence (BCP) and methods of teaching, but requires more empirical evidence. This study determined impact of a PF program (PF-PCB) on math achievement (SAT math scores) after the first two cohorts of students completed the PF-PCB program at Matteo Ricci High School (MRHS) and provided more quantitative data to inform the PF debate and advance secondary science education. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) determined the influence of covariates and revealed that PF-PCB program had a significant (p < .05) impact on SAT math scores in the second cohort at MRHS. Statistically adjusted, the SAT math means for PF students were 21.4 points higher than their non-PF counterparts when controlling for prior math achievement (HSTP math), socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity/race.

  6. Situating math word problems: the story matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Beilock, Sian L

    2010-02-01

    In two experiments, we explored how the situation model of a math story problem impacts math problem performance. Participants completed multiplication story problems in which a set of objects was associated with or dissociated from a protagonist, making them more or less accessible in memory during answer retrieval. On the basis of previous findings that the sum of two numbers interferes with retrieval of their product, the number of objects in the math problem was either highly interfering ("9" for 4 x 5) or less interfering ("8" for 4 x 5) for multiplication retrieval in the problem. Participants made more errors in problem solving when highly interfering numerical content was associated with the protagonist and, thus, foregrounded. Moreover, the lower one's working memory, the bigger this effect. In sum, small changes in the situation model of a math story problem can harm performance. These changes shift the balance of factors that influence math performance away from math knowledge and toward individual differences in general cognitive capacity.

  7. Math-gender stereotypes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) me with male (gender identity), (b) male with math (math-gender stereotype), and (c) me with math (math self-concept). Two findings emerged. First, as early as second grade, the children demonstrated the American cultural stereotype that math is for boys on both implicit and explicit measures. Second, elementary school boys identified with math more strongly than did girls on both implicit and self-report measures. The findings suggest that the math-gender stereotype is acquired early and influences emerging math self-concepts prior to ages at which there are actual differences in math achievement. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Minimal impact of organic chemistry prerequisite on student performance in introductory biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution among students with or without the organic chemistry prerequisite. However, students who had not completed the organic chemistry prerequisite before biochemistry were more likely to withdraw from the course than those who had completed the prerequisite. In contrast to the lack of correlation between performance in biochemistry and completion of organic chemistry, we observed a strong, highly significant positive relationship between cumulative GPA and the biochemistry grade. Our data suggest that excluding students without organic chemistry would have less positive impact on student success in biochemistry than would providing additional support for all students who enroll in biochemistry with a cumulative GPA below 2.5.

  9. The political economy of health promotion: part 2, national provision of the prerequisites of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Governmental authorities of wealthy developed nations differ in their professed commitments and activity related to the provision of the prerequisites of health through public policy action. Part 1 of this article showed how nations identified as social democratic or liberal welfare states were those where such commitments are present. Nations identified as conservative or Latin welfare states were less likely to express such commitments. However, the political economy literature suggests that despite their expressed commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, liberal welfare states fare rather poorly in implementing these commitments. The opposite is seen for conservative welfare states. Social democratic welfare states show both commitments and public policy consistent with this objective. Part 2 of this article documents the extent to which public policy activity that provides the prerequisites of health through public policy action differs among varying welfare state regimes. Despite extensive rhetoric concerning the prerequisites of health, nations identified as liberal welfare states do a rather poor job of meeting these goals and show evidence of adverse health outcomes. In contrast, social democratic welfare states fare better in providing such prerequisites--consistent with their rhetorical statements--with better health outcomes. Interestingly, conservative--and to a lesser extent Latin--nations fare well in providing the prerequisites of health despite their lack of explicit commitment to such concepts. Findings suggest that health promoters have to concern themselves with the broad strokes of public policymaking whether or not these policy activities are identified as health promotion activities.

  10. A Correlation of Community College Math Readiness and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jayna Nicole

    Although traditional college students are more prepared for college-level math based on college admissions tests, little data have been collected on nontraditional adult learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between math placement tests and community college students' success in math courses and persistence to degree or certificate completion. Guided by Tinto's theory of departure and student retention, the research questions addressed relationships and predictability of math Computer-adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System (COMPASS) test scores and students' performance in math courses, persistence in college, and degree completion. After conducting correlation and regression analyses, no significant relationships were identified between COMPASS Math test scores and students' performance (n = 234) in math courses, persistence in college, or degree completion. However, independent t test and chi-squared analyses of the achievements of college students who tested into Basic Math (n = 138) vs. Introduction to Algebra (n = 96) yielded statistically significant differences in persistence (p = .039), degree completion (p indicating students who tested into Introduction to Algebra were more successful and persisted more often to degree completion. In order to improve instructional methods for Basic Math courses, a 3-day professional development workshop was developed for math faculty focusing on current, best practices in remedial math instruction. Implications for social change include providing math faculty with the knowledge and skills to develop new instructional methods for remedial math courses. A change in instructional methods may improve community college students' math competencies and degree achievement.

  11. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  12. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  13. Maternal Math Talk in the Home and Math Skills in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study analyzed the relation between the amount of mathematical input that preschool children hear (i.e., math talk) from their mothers in their homes and their early math ability a year later. Forty mother-child dyads recorded their naturalistic exchanges in their homes using an enhanced audio-recording device (the…

  14. Math and Movement: Practical Ways to Incorporate Math into Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Each year, physical educators are asked to incorporate even more math, language arts, science and social studies into their curriculum. The challenge is how to do this without sacrificing the essential health and life skills provided by a quality physical education program. One program, Math & Movement, is a great aid for physical educators to…

  15. Longitudinal Pathways from Math Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement to Math Course Accomplishments and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2013-01-01

    Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9-17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments…

  16. A Comparative Study of Integrating Multimedia into the Third Grade Math Curriculum to Improve Math Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuliang

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was to design, develop, and implement one multimedia math lesson in third grade to improve students' math learning. The non-equivalent control group design was used. The experimental group had 11 third grade students and the control group had 15 third grade students in an African American predominated elementary…

  17. Math Tracks: What Pace in Math Is Best for the Middle School Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics is a critical part of academic preparation of the middle school child, or, as Dr. Maria Montessori would refer to them, children in the third plane of development. Montessori educators are sincere in their endeavors not only to prepare young students for further studies of math and the application of math in their world and careers,…

  18. Maternal Math Talk in the Home and Math Skills in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study analyzed the relation between the amount of mathematical input that preschool children hear (i.e., math talk) from their mothers in their homes and their early math ability a year later. Forty mother-child dyads recorded their naturalistic exchanges in their homes using an enhanced audio-recording device (the…

  19. Math and Movement: Practical Ways to Incorporate Math into Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Each year, physical educators are asked to incorporate even more math, language arts, science and social studies into their curriculum. The challenge is how to do this without sacrificing the essential health and life skills provided by a quality physical education program. One program, Math & Movement, is a great aid for physical educators to…

  20. Math Is Like a Scary Movie? Helping Young People Overcome Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkin, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to…

  1. Math Strategies You Can Count On: Tools & Activities to Build Math Appreciation, Understanding & Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsten, Char

    2005-01-01

    This book offers classroom-tested activities designed to make even the most reluctant learners crazy about math. Appealing to everyone from sports fans to readers, future fashion designers to budding musicians, the activities presented in this book offer ways to develop a deep-rooted love and appreciation of math in every student. Teachers are…

  2. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.

  3. Gender Compatibility, Math-Gender Stereotypes, and Self-Concepts in Math and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…

  4. Evaluation of the MIND Research Institute's Spatial-Temporal Math (ST Math) Program in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Staci; Rice, John; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The MIND Research Institute contracted with the Evaluation Research Program at WestEd to conduct an independent assessment of mathematics outcomes in elementary school grades across California that were provided with the ST Math program. Spatial-Temporal (ST) Math is a game-based instructional software designed to boost K-5 and secondary-level…

  5. Math Tracks: What Pace in Math Is Best for the Middle School Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics is a critical part of academic preparation of the middle school child, or, as Dr. Maria Montessori would refer to them, children in the third plane of development. Montessori educators are sincere in their endeavors not only to prepare young students for further studies of math and the application of math in their world and careers,…

  6. Math Anxiety and the "Math Gap": How Attitudes toward Mathematics Disadvantages Students as Early as Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Head Start teachers toward mathematics and how it may influence how and what they teach in the classroom. In general, the findings of this study can be summarized as this: 1) Math anxiety affects how teachers assess their ability at mathematics. The more math anxiety they report, the lower they…

  7. The Effects of the Elevate Math Summer Program on Math Achievement and Algebra Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    To raise math success rates in middle school, many schools and districts have implemented summer math programs designed to improve student preparation for algebra content in grade 8. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. While students who participate typically experience learning gains, there is little rigorous…

  8. Literacy Specialists in Math Class! Closing the Achievement Gap on State Math Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGisi, Lori L.; Fleming, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    Sixth and eighth grade students who are English language learners must be able to read and interpret 39 math word problems in order to successfully calculate the answers on the Massachusetts state math assessment (MCAS). The first year that MCAS was administered, many ELL students read the questions, found them confusing, and left them blank,…

  9. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Liu, C. W.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al2O3/SiO2 passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al2O3/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al2O3 and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  10. Metastable Ge nanocrystalline in SiGe matrix for photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Yao-Tsung; Su, Chien-Hao [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jenq-Yang [Department of Optics and Photonics, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Shao-Liang; Lin, Po-Chen [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Wu, Albert T., E-mail: atwu@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films were prepared by co-sputtering by using rapid thermal annealing to form nanocrystal films. • Si–Ge alloy does not form total solid solution that is shown in phase diagram. • HRTEM images indicated that Ge atoms segregated and formed Ge clusters that are embedded in the amorphous Si–Ge matrix. • Ge segregation permitted high mobility; the grain size increased and the resistivity decreased with higher Ge content. • The rectifying property became stronger with the Ge fraction in the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes. Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes are used as photodetectors, which provide a greater output current under illumination. - Abstract: Amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films were prepared by co-sputtering on an oxidized Si wafer, followed by rapid thermal annealing to form nanocrystal films. The formation of Ge nanocrystals was not at thermodynamic equilibrium formed in the amorphous Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} matrix. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the increase in the size of the grains in the Ge nanocrystals as the Ge content increased. The Ge nanocrystals have a greater absorption in the near-infrared region and higher carrier mobility than SiGe crystals, and the variation in their grain sizes can be used to tune the bandgap. This characteristic was exploited herein to fabricate n-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/p-Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} p–n diodes on insulating substrates, which were then examined by analyzing their current–voltage characteristics. The rectifying property became stronger as the fraction of Ge in the Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} films increased. The Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} diodes are utilized as photodetectors that have a large output current under illumination. This paper elucidates the correlations between the structural, optical and electrical properties and the p–n junction performance of the film.

  11. Math-Fact Retrieval as the Cognitive Mechanism Underlying Gender Differences in Math Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer; Tronsky; Chan; Jackson; Marchant

    1999-07-01

    Males from select populations receive better scores on standardized math achievement tests than females. The research reported in this article evaluates the hypothesis that the reason for these differences is that males are faster at retrieving basic math facts. Studies 1-3 demonstrate that math-fact retrieval predicts performance on math achievement tests with students in grades 5-8 and in college. Studies 4-6 show that males and females in grades 2-8 and in college have different patterns of math-fact retrieval performance and that males at the high positive end of the retrieval distribution are faster than comparable females. Study 5 also demonstrates that math-fact retrieval varies in three populations (Anglo-American, Chinese-American, Hong Kong Chinese) and that speed of retrieval improves with practice. Studies 7-9 tested the hypothesis that males are faster than females on retrieval tasks in general. Study 7 showed that there were no gender differences on simple retrieval tasks, and Studies 8 and 9 showed that females were slightly faster than males on verbal-processing tasks. The General Discussion indicates that the math-fact retrieval hypothesis is consistent with previous research. It also relates the math-fact retrieval hypothesis to theories of cognitive performance and introduces the practice and engagement hypothesis. This hypothesis explains the origin of gender differences in math and reading and relates those differences to the existing literature on gender differences in academic performance. The article concludes with a description of needed future research and a discussion of the educational implications of the math-fact retrieval hypothesis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  13. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  14. The role of expressive writing in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeun; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2014-06-01

    Math anxiety is a negative affective reaction to situations involving math. Previous work demonstrates that math anxiety can negatively impact math problem solving by creating performance-related worries that disrupt the working memory needed for the task at hand. By leveraging knowledge about the mechanism underlying the math anxiety-performance relationship, we tested the effectiveness of a short expressive writing intervention that has been shown to reduce intrusive thoughts and improve working memory availability. Students (N = 80) varying in math anxiety were asked to sit quietly (control group) prior to completing difficulty-matched math and word problems or to write about their thoughts and feelings regarding the exam they were about to take (expressive writing group). For the control group, high math-anxious individuals (HMAs) performed significantly worse on the math problems than low math-anxious students (LMAs). In the expressive writing group, however, this difference in math performance across HMAs and LMAs was significantly reduced. Among HMAs, the use of words related to anxiety, cause, and insight in their writing was positively related to math performance. Expressive writing boosts the performance of anxious students in math-testing situations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Germanene termination of Ge2Pt crystals on Ge(110)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Zhang, Lijie; Safaei, A.; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the growth of Pt on Ge(1 1 0) using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The deposition of several monolayers of Pt on Ge(1 1 0) followed by annealing at 1100 K results in the formation of 3D metallic Pt-Ge nanocrystals. The outermost layer of these crystals exhibits

  16. Math practice and its influence on math skills and executive functions in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R J; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariët J

    2013-05-01

    Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an MBID-sample using computerized math training. Also, it was investigated whether EF and math performance were related and whether computerized math training had beneficial effects on EF. The sample consisted of a total of 58 adolescents (12-15 years) from special education. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or a treatment as usual (TAU) group. In the experimental condition, participants received 5 weeks of training. Math performance and EF were assessed before and after the training period. Math performance improved equally in both groups. However, frequently practicing participants improved more than participants in the control group. Visuo-spatial memory skills were positively related to addition and subtraction skills. Transfer effects from math training to EF were absent. It is concluded that math skills may increase if a reasonable effort in practicing math skills is made. The relation between visuo-spatial memory skills provides opportunities for improving math performance.

  17. Math at home adds up to achievement in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Maloney, Erin A; Peterson, Lori; Gregor, Courtney; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-10-09

    With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, we tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. We predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children's math achievement at school. We tested this prediction by having children engage in math story time with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children's math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. Brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Elementary School Math Instruction: Can Reading Specialists Assist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Audrey S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)

  19. The Sum of All Fears: The Effects of Math Anxiety on Math Achievement in Fifth Grade Students and the Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Sarah E.; Boes, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Low math achievement is a recurring weakness in many students. Math anxiety is a persistent and significant theme to math avoidance and low achievement. Causes for math anxiety include social, cognitive, and academic factors. Interventions to reduce math anxiety are limited as they exclude the expert skills of professional school counselors to…

  20. An Experimental Evaluation of Four Elementary School Math Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodini, Roberto; Harris, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of four elementary school math curricula: (a) "Investigations in Number, Data, and Space"; (b) "Math Expressions"; (c) "Saxon Math"; and (d) "Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Mathematics" ("SFAW"). These curricula are distinct from one another and represent many…

  1. After-School Math PLUS (ASM+) Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) evaluation of After-School Math PLUS (ASM+). This program was designed to help students find the math in everyday experiences and create awareness about the importance of math skills for future career options. The evaluation was conducted by AED's Center for…

  2. 10 Ways to Help Your Child Do Better in Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Parents can help improve their children's math skills by being positive, playing games, avoiding stereotypes, choosing gifts that promote learning, providing information on career choices, reading books that use math, connecting math to the real world, encouraging problem solving, talking with teachers, and visiting museums, libraries, and other…

  3. Studying the User Experience of a Tablet Based Math Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, Kristian; Ketamo, Harri; Koivisto, Antti; Finn, Enda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first findings from Math Elements user experience (UX) studies. Math Elements is a game that makes the whole Finnish maths K-2 curriculum (kindergarten and primary school grades 1 and 2) available for players all over the world. The game is based on teachable agent approach, which means that in the game players can teach…

  4. Mathematizing: An Emergent Math Curriculum Approach for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Allen C.

    2015-01-01

    Based on years of research with early childhood teachers, author Allen Rosales provides an approach to create an emergent math curriculum that integrates children's interests with math concepts. The mathematizing approach is different from traditional math curriculums, as it immerses children in a process that is designed to develop their…

  5. Firefighter Math - a web-based learning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Jimenez

    2010-01-01

    Firefighter Math is a web based interactive resource that was developed to help prepare wildland fire personnel for math based training courses. The website can also be used as a refresher for fire calculations including slope, flame length, relative humidity, flow rates, unit conversion, etc. The website is designed to start with basic math refresher skills and...

  6. Training for Fluency and Generalization of Math Facts Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lynch, Tom Liam; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    As American students struggle with basic mathematical skills, the importance of math fact fluency has gained the attention of educators and researchers. Generalization of math fact fluency is also important for the transfer of skills to other settings and formats, assisting students in the completion of more varied and complicated math tasks. This…

  7. Mathematizing: An Emergent Math Curriculum Approach for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Allen C.

    2015-01-01

    Based on years of research with early childhood teachers, author Allen Rosales provides an approach to create an emergent math curriculum that integrates children's interests with math concepts. The mathematizing approach is different from traditional math curriculums, as it immerses children in a process that is designed to develop their…

  8. Studying the User Experience of a Tablet Based Math Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, Kristian; Ketamo, Harri; Koivisto, Antti; Finn, Enda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first findings from Math Elements user experience (UX) studies. Math Elements is a game that makes the whole Finnish maths K-2 curriculum (kindergarten and primary school grades 1 and 2) available for players all over the world. The game is based on teachable agent approach, which means that in the game players can teach…

  9. Strategies for Reducing Math Anxiety. Information Capsule. Volume 1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 93 percent of Americans indicate that they experience some level of math anxiety. Math anxiety is defined as negative emotions that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems. Studies have found that some students who perform poorly on math assessments actually have a full understanding of the concepts being tested; however,…

  10. An Analysis of Math Congress in an Eighth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Donna; Lee, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    A "math congress" is a pedagogical approach in which students present their solutions from their mathematical work completed individually, in pairs, or in small groups, and share and defend their mathematical thinking. Mathematical artifacts presented during math congress remain on display as community records of practice. Math congress…

  11. Neurobiological Underpinnings of Math and Reading Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Black, Jessica M.; Abrams, Daniel A.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this review is to highlight current research and theories describing the neurobiological basis of math (MD), reading (RD), and comorbid math and reading disability (MD+RD). We first describe the unique brain and cognitive processes involved in acquisition of math and reading skills, emphasizing similarities and differences in…

  12. Early Math Coursework and College Readiness: Evidence from Targeted Middle School Math Acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun Dougherty; Joshua Goodman; Darryl Hill; Erica Litke; Page, Lindsay C.

    2015-01-01

    To better prepare students for college-level math and the demands of the labor market, school systems have tried to increase the rigor of students’ math coursework. The failure of universal “Algebra for All” models has led recently to more targeted approaches. We study one such approach in Wake County, North Carolina, which began using prior test scores to assign middle school students to an accelerated math track culminating in eighth grade algebra. The policy has reduced the role that incom...

  13. Synthesis of Epitaxial Films Based on Ge-Si-Sn Materials with Ge/GeSn, Ge/GeSiSn, and GeSn/GeSiSn Heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. A.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Mashanov, V. I.; Tuktamyshev, A. R.; Loshkarev, I. D.

    2015-11-01

    Results of investigations into the synthesis of heterostructures based on Ge-Si-Sn materials by the method of low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy are presented. The formation of epitaxial films during structure growth has been controlled by the reflection high-energy electron diffraction method. Films with Ge/GeSn, Ge/GeSiSn, and GeSn/GeSiSn heterojunctions are grown with Sn content changing from 2 to 10 % at temperatures in the interval 150-350°C. The stressed state, the composition, and the lattice parameter are studied by the x-ray diffraction method using Omega-scan curves and reciprocal space maps. A tensile strain in the Ge film during Ge/Ge0.9Sn0.1/Si structure growth has reached 0.86%.

  14. The "Parrot Math" Attack on Memorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Quirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist math educators regularly cite Parrot Math by Thomas C. O'Brien. Although this paper promotes constructivist "activity-based" learning over direct instruction, it's primary claim to fame is the open hostility to memorization. Professor O'Brien rejects "memorization and parrot-like drill " in favor of "children's invented strategies." He references a paper by Kamii and Dominick as evidence of "considerable research" showing that mastery of the standard algorithms of arithmetic is harmful for children. [See The Bogus Research in Kamii and Dominick's Harmful Algorithms Papers

  15. How to pass higher maths for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, Brian; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    Get your best grade with this guide to Higher Maths for CfE. This book contains all the advice and support you need to revise successfully for your Higher (for CfE) Maths exam. It combines an overview of the course syllabus with advice from a top expert on how to improve exam performance, so you have the best chance of success. - Refresh your knowledge with complete course notes - Prepare for the exam with top tips and hints on revision techniques - Get your best grade with advice on how to gain those vital extra marks

  16. Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct from Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence from a Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…

  17. Opportunities for Learning Math in Elementary School: Implications for SES Disparities in Procedural and Conceptual Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher…

  18. Order of Administration of Math and Verbal Tests: An Ecological Intervention to Reduce Stereotype Threat on Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, Annique; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Régner, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    In 2 field experiments, we relied on the very features of real testing situations--where both math and verbal tests are administered--to examine whether order of test administration can, by itself, create vs. alleviate stereotype threat (ST) effects on girls' math performance. We predicted that taking the math test before the verbal test would be…

  19. Math Achievement in Early Adolescence: The Role of Parental Involvement, Teachers' Behavior, and Students' Motivational Beliefs about Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levpuscek, Melita Puklek; Zupancic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Contributions of parental involvement in educational pursuits as well as math teachers' classroom behavior to students' motivation and performance in math were investigated. By the end of the first school term, 365 Slovene eighth graders reported on their parents' academic involvement (pressure, support, and help) and their math teachers' behavior…

  20. Opportunities for Learning Math in Elementary School: Implications for SES Disparities in Procedural and Conceptual Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher…

  1. Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct from Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence from a Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…

  2. Order of Administration of Math and Verbal Tests: An Ecological Intervention to Reduce Stereotype Threat on Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, Annique; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Régner, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    In 2 field experiments, we relied on the very features of real testing situations--where both math and verbal tests are administered--to examine whether order of test administration can, by itself, create vs. alleviate stereotype threat (ST) effects on girls' math performance. We predicted that taking the math test before the verbal test would be…

  3. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  4. Effect of a Computer-Delivered Math Fact Intervention as a Supplemental Intervention for Math in Third and Fourth Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Kanive, Rebecca; DeGrande, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The current study reviews a computer-based math fluency intervention with 216 third- and fourth-grade students who were at risk for math difficulties. The intervention used a computer software program to practice math facts an average of three times per week for 8 to 15 weeks. Data were compared to those of 226 students in a control group. Results…

  5. Creating Problems and Their Solutions: Service-Learning through Trinity Mathematics Triathlons, Math Nights, and Math Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanderman, David B.; Moore, Mary Webster; Maxwell, Mandi S.; Robbert, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe several service-learning initiatives implemented by the mathematics and education departments. College students with majors and minors in math and math education have helped to design and implement math events for elementary and middle school students. Formal and informal reflections on these service-related experiences have…

  6. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition…

  7. Math practice and its influence on math skills and executive functions in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; de Lange, E.; van der Molen, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this

  8. Basic math and pre-algebra practice problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2013-01-01

    1001 Basic Math & Pre- Algebra Practice Problems For  Dummies   Practice makes perfect-and helps deepen your understanding of basic math and pre-algebra 1001 Basic Math & Pre-Algebra Practice Problems For Dummies, with free access to online practice problems, takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Basic Math & Pre-Algebra For Dummies, giving you 1,001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in your math course. You begin with some basic arithmetic practice, move on to fractions, decimals, and per

  9. Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet. PMID:26388824

  10. Neural correlates of math anxiety – An overview and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eArtemenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

  11. Neural correlates of math anxiety - an overview and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

  12. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

  13. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

  14. Prerequisites for sustainable care improvement using the reflective team as a work model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nyström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several work models for care improvement have been developed in order to meet the requirement for evidence-based care. This study examines a work model for reflection, entitled the reflective team (RT). The main idea behind RTs is that caring skills exist among those who work closest to the patients. The team leader (RTL) encourages sustainable care improvement, rooted in research and proven experience, by using a lifeworld perspective to stimulate further reflection and a developmental process leading to research-based caring actions within the team. In order to maintain focus, it is important that the RTL has a clear idea of what sustainable care improvement means, and what the prerequisites are for such improvement. The aim of the present study is, therefore, to explore the prerequisites for improving sustainable care, seeking to answer how RTLs perceive these and use RTs for concrete planning. Nine RTLs were interviewed, and their statements were phenomenographically analysed. The analysis revealed three separate qualitative categories, which describe personal, interpersonal, and structural aspects of the prerequisites. In the discussion, these categories are compared with previous research on reflection, and the conclusion is reached that the optimal conditions for RTs to work, when focussed on sustainable care improvement, occur when the various aspects of the prerequisites are intertwined and become a natural part of the reflective work.

  15. 41 CFR 105-70.006 - Prerequisites for issuing a complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 70-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 105-70.006... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prerequisites...

  16. Do Screencasts Help to Revise Prerequisite Mathematics? An Investigation of Student Performance and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Birgit; Jordan, Camilla R.; Lowe, Tim W.; Mestel, Ben D.

    2014-01-01

    Basic calculus skills that are prerequisites for advanced mathematical studies continue to be a problem for a significant proportion of higher education students. While there are many types of revision material that could be offered to students, in this paper we investigate whether short, narrated video recordings of mathematical explanations…

  17. Do Screencasts Help to Revise Prerequisite Mathematics? An Investigation of Student Performance and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Birgit; Jordan, Camilla R.; Lowe, Tim W.; Mestel, Ben D.

    2014-01-01

    Basic calculus skills that are prerequisites for advanced mathematical studies continue to be a problem for a significant proportion of higher education students. While there are many types of revision material that could be offered to students, in this paper we investigate whether short, narrated video recordings of mathematical explanations…

  18. Quality Partnership as a Contextual Prerequisite of Successful Learning of Young and Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubetic, Maja; Ercegovac, Ina Reic; Koludrovic, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses quality partnership as a prerequisite for the functioning of the institutions of early and pre-school education and for the child's overall development and learning. Considering that child's development and learning take place in different contexts (family, educational institutions, clubs, local and wider communities), the…

  19. Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-11-01

    Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of Sn segregation in Ge/GeSn heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Chang, C.; Chen, T. P.; Cheng, H. H., E-mail: hhcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences and Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Shi, Z. W.; Chen, H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-10-13

    We report an investigation of Sn segregation in Ge/GeSn heterostructures occurred during the growth by molecular beam epitaxy. The measured Sn profile in the Ge layer shows that: (a) the Sn concentration decreases rapidly near the Ge/GeSn interface, and (b) when moving away from the interface, the Sn concentration reduced with a much slower rate. The 1/e decay lengths of the present system are much longer than those of the conventional group IV system of Ge segregation in the Si overlayer because of the smaller kinetic potential as modeled by a self-limited two-state exchange scheme. The demonstration of the Sn segregation shows the material characteristics of the heterostructure, which are needed for the investigation of its optical properties.

  1. Phonons in Ge/Si superlattices with Ge quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Milekhin, A G; Pchelyakov, O P; Schulze, S; Zahn, D R T

    2001-01-01

    Ge/Si superlattices with Ge quantum dots obtained by means of molecular-beam epitaxy were investigated by means of light Raman scattering under resonance conditions. These structures are shown to have oscillation properties of both two-dimensional and zero-dimensional objects. Within spectrum low-frequency range one observes twisted acoustic phonons (up to 15 order) typical for planar superlattices. Lines of acoustic phonons are overlapped with a wide band of continuous emission. Analysis of frequencies of Ge and Ge-Si optical phonons shows that Ge quantum dots are pseudoamorphous ones and mixing of Ge and Si atoms is a negligible one. One detected low-frequency shift of longitudinal optical phonons at laser excitation energy increase (2.54-2.71 eV)

  2. Math on the Job. Taxi Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of taxi drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to the…

  3. Senior Year Inviting More Math Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    When students at Prescott High School sign up to take math as seniors, not all of them will be wading into precalculus or calculus, with in-depth explorations of derivatives and trigonometric functions. Some will instead end up using mathematics to study the Electoral College, or the security of Internet passwords, or how delivery companies ship…

  4. MIT professor wins major international math prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Allen, S

    2004-01-01

    Mathematicians Isadore Singer of MIT and Sir Michael Francis Atiyah of the University of Edinburgh will share an $875,000 award as winners of the second Abel Prize, which some hope will come to be seen as a Nobel Prize for math.

  5. Think Math! Interactive Loops for Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Dale

    This book contains activities using a technique that allows students to practice routine arithmetical operations without getting bored. Math Loops is a game in which each student receives a card containing answers to a mathematics question or problem and must listen for another student to call out the question. As the game progresses around the…

  6. Ideas on Manipulative Math for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case study of one kindergarten class in which the mathematics center is the popular area in the room. Focuses on how math is best understood if activities follow the five-C formula: collaborative, concrete, comprehensive, connecting, and cavorting. Describes how children used manipulatives to construct mathematics concepts…

  7. Readability Study in Reading and Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Joan M.

    Two readability formulas were applied to two math and two reading series textbooks at the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade levels to see whether the publishers' suggested reading levels were accurate. Five samples were taken from each text and compared to the publishers' suggested usage according to grade level. Results showed that although formulas…

  8. Math Wonders to Inspire Teachers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posamentier, Alfred S.

    This book offers ideas to enrich instruction and help teachers explore the intrinsic beauty of math. Through dozens of examples from arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and probability, the symmetries, patterns, processes, paradoxes, and surprises that have facilitated generations of great thinkers are revealed. Activities include: (1) The Beauty in…

  9. Math is Where You Find It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullman, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes exhibits from a math applications fair held as part of a National Science Foundation Pre-College Teacher Development Project. Topics of the exhibits include measurement, astronomy, optics, calculators, mathematics in nature, art, music, electronics, scale models, sports, bicycles, travel and vacations, kites, automatic design, stamp…

  10. It Does Matter How We Teach Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes application of innovative practice and procedures in relationship to recognized principles and theory of adult education used in college math instruction. Adult learning principles provide the theoretical constructs and foundation of the practice supporting a learner-centered approach to learning. The purpose was to explore…

  11. "Math for America" Isn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfmeyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of the Math for America organization's actions, aims and affiliations are analyzed for their effects on urban schools and society at large. These aspects are argued as evidence to consider MfA as an agent working against democratic practice and in favor of furthering profit and its resultant inequitable resource distribution. The…

  12. Exploring Best Practices in Developmental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarella, Brian V.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many community colleges are struggling with poor student success rates in developmental math. Therefore, this qualitative study focused on employing best practices in developmental mathematics at an urban community college in Dayton, Ohio. Guiding the study were the following research questions: What are the best practices utilized by a…

  13. Fold in Origami and Unfold Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeson, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Students enjoy origami and like making everything from paper cranes to footballs out of small, colorful squares of paper. They can invent their own shapes and are intrigued by the polyhedrons that they can construct. Paper folding is fun, but where is the math? Unless teachers develop lessons that address mathematical objectives, origami could be…

  14. Exploring Best Practices in Developmental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarella, Brian V.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many community colleges are struggling with poor student success rates in developmental math. Therefore, this qualitative study focused on employing best practices in developmental mathematics at an urban community college in Dayton, Ohio. Guiding the study were the following research questions: What are the best practices utilized by a…

  15. Admission Math Level and Student Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the study performance data for three cohorts of students for the course in Economics at the Business Diploma (herafter HD) study program at Copenhagen Business School. Out main findings are 1) that students with the lowest level of math from high school are performing worse...

  16. Confessions of a Dr Math tutor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics look different on a small 3-inch screen of an inexpensive cell phone when compared to a 3-meter whiteboard in a mathematics classroom. Dr Math uses cell phone or mobile data "chat" technologies to assist primary and secondary school...

  17. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  18. Online Options for Math-Advanced Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Suki

    2012-01-01

    Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to find…

  19. MATH5 controls the acquisition of multiple retinal cell fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage cells in the absence of Math5 and whether MATH5 cell-autonomously regulates the differentiation of the above retinal neurons. Here, we performed a lineage analysis of Math5-expressing cells in developing mouse retinas using a conditional GFP reporter (Z/EG activated by a Math5-Cre knock-in allele. We show that during normal retinogenesis, Math5-lineage cells mostly develop into RGCs, horizontal cells, cone photoreceptors, rod photoreceptors, and amacrine cells. Interestingly, amacrine cells of Math5-lineage cells are predominately of GABAergic, cholinergic, and A2 subtypes, indicating that Math5 plays a role in amacrine subtype specification. In the absence of Math5, more Math5-lineage cells undergo cell fate conversion from RGCs to the above retinal cell subtypes, and occasionally to cone-bipolar cells and Müller cells. This change in cell fate choices is accompanied by an up-regulation of NEUROD1, RXRγ and BHLHB5, the transcription factors essential for the differentiation of retinal cells other than RGCs. Additionally, loss of Math5 causes the failure of early progenitors to exit cell cycle and leads to a significant increase of Math5-lineage cells remaining in cell cycle. Collectively, these data suggest that Math5 regulates the generation of multiple retinal cell types via different mechanisms during retinogenesis.

  20. A global Ge isotope budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, J. Jotautas; Hammond, Douglas E.; McManus, James; Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Siebert, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of Ge isotope composition and ancillary data for samples of river water, low- and high-temperature hydrothermal fluids, and seawater. The dissolved δ74Ge composition of analyzed rivers ranges from 2.0 to 5.6‰, which is significantly heavier than previously determined values for silicate rocks (δ74Ge = 0.4-0.7‰, Escoube et al., Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 36(2), 2012) from which dissolved Ge is primarily derived. An observed negative correlation between riverine Ge/Si and δ74Ge signatures suggests that the primary δ74Ge fractionation mechanism during rock weathering is the preferential incorporation of light isotopes into secondary weathering products. High temperature (>150 °C) hydrothermal fluids analyzed in this study have δ74Ge of 0.7-1.6‰, most likely fractionated during fluid equilibration with quartz in the reaction zone. Low temperature (25-63 °C) hydrothermal fluids are heavier (δ74Ge between 2.9‰ and 4.1‰) and most likely fractionated during Ge precipitation with hydrothermal clays. Seawater from the open ocean has a δ74Gesw value of 3.2 ± 0.4‰, and is indistinguishable among the different ocean basins at the current level of precision. This value should be regulated over time by the isotopic balance of Ge sources and sinks, and a new compilation of these fluxes is presented, along with their estimated isotopic compositions. Assuming steady-state, non-opal Ge sequestration during sediment authigenesis likely involves isotopic fractionation Δ74Gesolid-solution that is -0.6 ± 1.8‰.

  1. Ge/SiGe superlattices for nanostructured thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrastina, D., E-mail: daniel@chrastina.net [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Cecchi, S. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Hague, J.P. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Frigerio, J. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Samarelli, A.; Ferre–Llin, L.; Paul, D.J. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Müller, E. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zurich (EMEZ), ETH-Zürich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J. [Institut für Halbleiter und Festkörperphysik, Universität Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Isella, G. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Thermoelectrics are presently used in a number of applications for both turning heat into electricity and also for using electricity to produce cooling. Mature Si/SiGe and Ge/SiGe heteroepitaxial growth technology would allow highly efficient thermoelectric materials to be engineered, which would be compatible and integrable with complementary metal oxide silicon micropower circuits used in autonomous systems. A high thermoelectric figure of merit requires that electrical conductivity be maintained while thermal conductivity is reduced; thermoelectric figures of merit can be improved with respect to bulk thermoelectric materials by fabricating low-dimensional structures which enhance the density of states near the Fermi level and through phonon scattering at heterointerfaces. We have grown and characterized Ge-rich Ge/SiGe/Si superlattices for nanofabricated thermoelectric generators. Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has been used to obtain nanoscale-heterostructured material which is several microns thick. Crystal quality and strain control have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the material and interface quality. Electrical conductivity has been characterized by the mobility spectrum technique. - Highlights: ► High-quality Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells for thermoelectric applications ► Mobility spectra of systems featuring a large number of parallel conduction channels ► Competitive thermoelectric properties measured in single devices.

  2. The political economy of health promotion: part 1, national commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Canada is a leader in developing health promotion concepts of providing the prerequisites of health through health-promoting public policy. But Canada is clearly a laggard in implementing these concepts. In contrast, France is seen as a nation in which health promotion concepts have failed to gain much traction yet evidence exists that France does far better than Canada in providing these health prerequisites. Such findings suggest that it is the political economy--or form of the welfare state--of a nation rather than its explicit commitments to health promotion concepts--that shape provision of the prerequisites of health. Part 1 of this article examines how health promotion rhetoric specifically concerned with provision of the prerequisites of health differs among nations identified as being either liberal, social democratic, conservative or Latin welfare states. Governing authorities of nations that are liberal or social democratic welfare states are more likely to make explicit rhetorical commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, the conservative and Latin states less so. Part 2 of this article provides evidence however, that despite their rhetorical commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, liberal welfare state nations fall well behind not only the social democratic nations, but also the conservative welfare states in implementing public policies that provide the prerequisites of health. The Latin welfare states express little commitment to provision of the prerequisites of health and rather limited public policy activity towards meeting this aim.

  3. Classroom Learning Environment and Gender: Do They Explain Math Self-Efficacy, Math Outcome Expectations, and Math Interest during Early Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite initiatives to increase and broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, women remain underrepresented in STEM. While U.S. girls and women perform as well as, if not better, than boys and men in math, research results indicate that there are significant declines in girls' math self-efficacy,…

  4. Personal potential of manager as a prerequisite of realization of managerial potential of enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Voronkova, A. E.; Kalyuzhna, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Crucial role of management is proved in realizing the potential of enterprise management system. The essence of the concept of “managerial staff’ based on establishing key characteristics of managerial work is specified. The necessity of consideration of personal potential managers and their competencies as prerequisites of managerial capacity of the enterprise is justified. The necessity is pointed out of mastering managers’ socio-psychological instruments of influence on the staff with the ...

  5. Isospin structure in 68Ge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Hong-Bo; DONG Hong-Fei; ZHANG Jin-Fu; LU Li-Jun; CAO Wan-Cang; LI Xiao-Wei; WANg Yin

    2009-01-01

    The interacting boson model-3(IBM-3) has been used to study the low-energy level structure and electromagnetic transitions of 68Ge nucleus. The main components of the wave function for some states are also analyzed respectively. The theoretical calculations are in agreement with experimental data, and the 68Ge is in transition from U(5) to SU(3).

  6. 12 GeV Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-01

    To expand the opportunity for discovery, Jefferson Lab is upgrading its facility by doubling the maximum energy of CEBAF's electron beam from 6 billion electron volts (GeV) to 12 billion electron volts (GeV), constructing a new experimental hall and upgrading its three existing experimental halls.

  7. Metacognition and Confidence: Comparing Math to Other Academic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna eErickson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.

  8. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  9. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.

  10. The Bricklayer Ecosystem - Art, Math, and Code

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Bricklayer Ecosystem - a freely-available online educational ecosystem created for people of all ages and coding backgrounds. Bricklayer is designed in accordance with a "low-threshold infinite ceiling" philosophy and has been successfully used to teach coding to primary school students, middle school students, university freshmen, and in-service secondary math teachers. Bricklayer programs are written in the functional programming language SML and, when executed, cre...

  11. How Students Perceive the Math Teacher?

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş, Gönül; Gökçek, Tuba

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed to put forward how the students? express their perception of math teacher visually. The study is a qualitative research conducted with 30 randomly selected 8th grade students from three elementary schools. Data are gained from document analyses and open-ended questions. For the purpose of the study, sample students were asked to draw a picture about their perception of mathematics teachers and later their ideas about that matter were taken by five open ended questions. Pict...

  12. Do screencasts help to revise prerequisite mathematics? An investigation of student performance and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Birgit; Jordan, Camilla R.; Lowe, Tim W.; Mestel, Ben D.

    2014-02-01

    Basic calculus skills that are prerequisites for advanced mathematical studies continue to be a problem for a significant proportion of higher education students. While there are many types of revision material that could be offered to students, in this paper we investigate whether short, narrated video recordings of mathematical explanations (screencasts) are a useful tool to enhance student learning when revisiting prerequisite topics. We report on the outcomes of a study that was designed to both measure change in student performance before and after watching screencasts, and to capture students' perception of the usefulness of screencasts in their learning. Volunteers were recruited from students enrolled on an entry module for the Mathematics Master of Science programme at the Open University to watch two screencasts sandwiched between two online calculus quizzes. A statistical analysis of student responses to the quizzes shows that screencasts can have a positive effect on student performance. Further analysis of student feedback shows that student confidence was increased by watching the screencasts. Student views on the value of screencasts for their learning indicated that they appreciated being able to watch a problem being solved and explained by an experienced mathematician; hear the motivation for a particular problem-solving approach; engage more readily with the material being presented, thereby retaining it more easily. The positive student views and impact on student scores indicate that short screencasts could play a useful role in revising prerequisite mathematics.

  13. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  14. LEARNING MATH WITH MY FATHER: A MEMOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda De La CRUZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We all build our own houses of wisdom, each of us; we cannot build them for each other. Teachers cannot simply invite students into their “houses of wisdom,” but can often find ways to help learners to enter and explore their own minds. While Constructivism has had a positive impact on the teaching and learning of literacy mathematics instruction continues to rely heavily on rote memorization and drills. As a young child, I learned to love math. My love of math stems from learning math with my father. He did not focus on rote memorization and drills. The primary emphasis was for a real purpose. My self-confidence was enforced when he started me out with problems that were less difficult and had many different solutions. These solutions were valued and respected, which allowed me to trust in my own problem solving abilities. How can we hope to lead children to the thresholds of their own minds when we remain intent on forcing them into our ‘houses of wisdom’? What alternative ways can we devise of interacting with children that respect their confidence and leave intact their levels of understanding, that lead them to the thresholds of their own minds excited about entering?

  15. Educational Background and High School Maths Teachers ‘Specialism

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Wang(Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany); Chang-huan. Feng

    2009-01-01

    Teachers’ Specialism is a world development trend and fashion, but also the needs and the direction of teacher education reform. After the latest curriculum reform, the educational reform and development of math,teachers have become universally concentrated and thoughtful in the field of mathematical education. The study adopting questionnaires and telephone interviews carried out a sample survey to 59 common high school math teachers from 3 provinces, and analyzed the connection between math...

  16. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Children’s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hy...

  17. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Guy eBosmans; Bert eDe Smedt

    2015-01-01

    Children’s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect-regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hy...

  18. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  19. 78 FR 2379 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Impact Evaluation of Math Professional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Impact Evaluation of Math Professional... of Collection: Impact Evaluation of Math Professional Development. OMB Control Number: 1850-NEW. Type..., and teachers for a study of math professional development. The study will provide important...

  20. Trajectories of Self-Perceived Math Ability, Utility Value and Interest across Middle School as Predictors of High School Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer Lee; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have documented developmental change in mathematics motivation, little is known about how these trends predict math performance. A sample of 288 participants from the United States reported their perceived math ability, math utility value and math interest in 5th, 7th and 9th grades. Latent growth curve models estimated…

  1. Impact of University Lecturers' Intervention in School Math Teaching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-05-01

    Some schools in the neighbourhood of Sefako MakgathoHealth Sciences University (SMU) in South Africa persistentlyyielded poor mathematics results in the past years. Thiswas of concern since maths is the main subject for manyopportunities, including admissiontoSMUstudy programmes.Some SMU maths lecturers partnered with local schools toprepare the students in these schools. The aimwas to improvemaths teaching and matric maths results. The teachers wereassisted with maths concepts of most difficulty. This articledescribes the initiatives by some academics of SMU in achievingthis.

  2. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloning, expression and characterization of gE protein of Duck plague virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Renyong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gE protein of duck plague virus is the important membrane glycoprotein, its protein characterization has not been reported. In this study, we expressed and presented the characterization of the DPV gE product. Results According to the sequence of the gE gene, a pair of primers were designed, and the DNA product with 1490bp in size was amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The PCR product was cloned into pMD18-T vector, and subcloned into pET32a(+, generating the recombinant plasmid pET32a/DPV-gE. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the fusion pET32a/DPV-gE protein was highly expressed after induction by 0.2 mM IPTG at 30°C for 4.5 h in Rosseta host cells. Over expressed 6×His-gE fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography, and used to immunize the rabbits for the preparation of polyclonal antibody. The result of the intracellular localization revealed that the gE protein was appeared to be in the cytoplasm region. The real time PCR, RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting revealed that the gE gene was produced most abundantly during the late phase of replication in DPV-infected cells. Conclusions In this work, the DPV gE protein was successfully expressed in a prokaryotic expression system, and we presented the basic properties of the DPV gE product for the first time. These properties of the gE protein provided a prerequisite for further functional analysis of this gene.

  4. Monolithically integrated Ge CMOS laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Aguilera, Rodolfo

    2014-02-01

    Ge-on-Si devices are explored for photonic integration. Through the development of better growth techniques, monolithic integration, laser design and prototypes, it was possible to probe Ge light emitters with emphasis on lasers. Preliminary worked shows thermal photonic behavior capable of enhancing lamination at high temperatures. Increase luminescence is observed up to 120°C from L-band contribution. Higher temperatures show contribution from Δ -band. The increase carrier thermal contribution suggests high temperature applications for Ge light emitters. A Ge electrically pumped laser was probed under 0.2% biaxial strain and doping concentration ~4.5×1019cm-3 n-type. Ge pnn lasers exhibit a gain >1000cm-1 with 8mW power output, presenting a spectrum range of over 200nm, making Ge the ideal candidate for Si photonics. Large temperatures fluctuations and process limit the present device. Theoretically a gain of >4000cm- gain is possible with a threshold of as low as 1kA/cm2. Improvements in Ge work

  5. Ge-on-Si optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@Dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Camacho-Aguilera, Rodolfo; Bessette, Jonathan T.; Sun, Xiaochen [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang Xiaoxin [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Cai Yan; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Michel, Jurgen [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Electronic-photonic synergy has become an increasingly clear solution to enhance the bandwidth and improve the energy efficiency of information systems. Monolithic integration of optoelectronic devices is the ideal solution for large-scale electronic-photonic synergy. Due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior in optoelectronic properties and compatibility with Si electronics, epitaxial Ge-on-Si has become an attractive solution for monolithic optoelectronics. In this paper we will review recent progress in Ge-on-Si optoelectronics, including photodetectors, electroabsorption modulators, and lasers. The performance of these devices has been enhanced by band-engineering such as tensile strain and n-type doping, which transforms Ge towards a direct gap material. Selective growth reduces defect density and facilitates monolithic integration at the same time. Ge-on-Si photodetectors have approached or exceeded the performance of their III-V counterparts, with bandwidth-efficiency product > 30 GHz for p-i-n photodiodes and bandwidth-gain product > 340 GHz for avalanche photodiodes. Enhanced Franz-Keldysh effect in tensile-strained Ge offers ultralow energy photonic modulation with < 30 fJ/bit energy consumption and > 100 GHz intrinsic bandwidth. Room temperature optically-pumped lasing as well as electroluminescence has also been achieved from the direct gap transition of band-engineered Ge-on-Si waveguides. These results indicate that band-engineered Ge-on-Si is promising to achieve monolithic active optoelectronic devices on a Si platform.

  6. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  7. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS. PMID:26648893

  8. Math starters 5- to 10-minute activities aligned with the common core math standards, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Muschla, Judith A; Muschla, Erin

    2013-01-01

    A revised edition of the bestselling activities guide for math teachers Now updated with new math activities for computers and mobile devices-and now organized by the Common Core State Standards-this book includes more than 650 ready-to-use math starter activities that get kids quickly focused and working as soon as they enter the classroom. Ideally suited for any math curriculum, these high-interest problems spark involvement in the day's lesson, help students build skills, and allow teachers to handle daily management tasks without wasting valuable instructional time. A newly updated edit

  9. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  10. Math Teachers' Attitudes towards Photo Math Application in Solving Mathematical Problem Using Mobile Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Iyad M.; Al-Masaeed, Aslan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at finding out mathematics teachers' attitudes towards photo math application in solving mathematical problems using mobile camera; it also aim to identify significant differences in their attitudes according to their stage of teaching, educational qualifications, and teaching experience. The study used judgmental/purposive…

  11. Exposing the Myth: Advanced Math Does Not Increase Drop out Rates. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    A common argument against raising math course-taking requirements for all students is that it will cause more students to drop out of high school. But most students who drop out for academic reasons do so not because they are being "too challenged," but rather because they are not being challenged enough. It is important to raise the rigor and…

  12. Math Teachers' Attitudes towards Photo Math Application in Solving Mathematical Problem Using Mobile Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Iyad M.; Al-Masaeed, Aslan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at finding out mathematics teachers' attitudes towards photo math application in solving mathematical problems using mobile camera; it also aim to identify significant differences in their attitudes according to their stage of teaching, educational qualifications, and teaching experience. The study used judgmental/purposive…

  13. Measurement of target and double-spin asymmetries for the <math>epeπ+(n)math> reaction in the nucleon resonance region at low <math>Q2math>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, X.; Adhikari, K. P.; Bosted, P.; Deur, A.; Drozdov, V.; El Fassi, L.; Kang, Hyekoo; Kovacs, K.; Kuhn, S.; Long, E.; Phillips, S. K.; Ripani, M.; Slifer, K.; Smith, L. C.; Adikaram, D.; Akbar, Z.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Chen, J. -P.; Chetry, T.; Choi, Seonho; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Golovach, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Murdoch, G.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.

    2016-10-01

    We report measurements of target- and double-spin asymmetries for the exclusive channel <math>epeπ+(n)math> in the nucleon resonance region at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). These asymmetries were extracted from data obtained using a longitudinally polarized NH3 target and a longitudinally polarized electron beam with energies 1.1, 1.3, 2.0, 2.3, and 3.0 GeV. The new results are consistent with previous CLAS publications but are extended to a low Q2 range from 0.0065 to 0.35 (GeV/c)2. The Q2 access was made possible by a custom-built Cherenkov detector that allowed the detection of electrons for scattering angles as low as 6 degrees. These results are compared with the unitary isobar models JANR and MAID, the partial-wave analysis prediction from SAID, and the dynamic model DMT. In many kinematic regions our results, in particular results on the target asymmetry, help to constrain the polarization-dependent components of these models.

  14. Identified obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses' work environment - a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Annica; Engstrom, Maria; Olsson, Annakarin; Wahlberg, Anna Carin

    2017-05-18

    Telenursing is an expanding part of healthcare, staffed with registered nurses whose work environment is typical of a call centre. Work-related stress has been shown to be a major problem in nurses' work environments and of importance to the outcome of care, patient safety, nurse job satisfaction and burnout. Today, however, we have a limited understanding of and knowledge about the work environment for telenurses. The aim of the present study is to explore and reach consensus on perceived important obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses' work environment. A modified Delphi design, using qualitative as well as quantitative data sequentially through three phases, was taken. Data were initially collected via semi-structured interviews (Phase I) and later using a web survey (Phase II-III) between March 2015 and March 2016. The findings present a consensus view of telenurses' experiences of important obstacles and prerequisites in their work environment. Central to the findings are the aspects of telenurses having a demanding work, cognitive fatigue and having no opportunity for recovery during the work shift was ranked as important obstacles. Highly ranked prerequisites for managing were being able to focus on one caller at a time, working in a calm and pleasant environment and having technical support 24/7. Managers need to enable telenurses to experience control in their work, provided with possibilities to control their work and to recover during work; shortening work time could improve their work environment. Limited possibilities to perform work might contribute to feelings of stress and inability to perform work.

  15. Clinical Governance in Primary Care; Principles, Prerequisites and Barriers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Sadeq Tabrizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary care organizations are the entities through which clinical governance is developed at local level. To implement clinical governance in primary care, awareness about principles, prerequisites and barriers of this quality improvement paradigm is necessary. The aim of this study is to pool evidence about implementing clinical governance in primary care organizations. Data sources: The literature search was conducted in July 2012. PubMed, Web of Science, Emerald, Springerlink, and MD Consult were searched using the following MESH keywords; “clinical governance” and “primary care” Study selection: The search was limited to English language journals with no time limitation. Articles that were either quantitative or qualitative on concepts of implementing clinical governance in primary care were eligible for this study. Data extraction: From selected articles, data on principles, prerequisites and barriers of clinical governance in primary health care were extracted and classified in the extraction tables. Results: We classified our findings about principles of clinical governance in primary care in four groups; general principles, principles related to staff, patient and communication. Prerequisites were categorized in eight clusters; same as the seven dimensions of National Health System (NHS models of clinical governance. Barriers were sorted out in five categories as structure and organizing, cultural, resource, theoretical and logistical. Conclusion: Primary care organizations must provide budget holding, incentivized programs, data feedback, peer review, education, human relations, health information technology (HIT support, and resources. Key elements include; enrolled populations, an interdisciplinary team approach, HIT interoperability and access between all providers as well as patients, devolution of hospital based services into the community, inter-sectorial integration, blended payments, and a balance of

  16. Extension and Prerequisite: An Algorithm to Enable Relations Between Responses in Chatbot Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas S. Lokman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Artificial intelligence chatbot is a technology that makes interactions between man and machines using natural language possible. From literature, we found out that in general, chatbot are functions like a typical search engine. Although chatbot just produced only one output instead of multiple outputs/results, the basic process flow is the same where each time an input is entered, the new search will be done. Nothing related to previous output. This research is focused on enabling chatbot to become a search engine that can process the next search with the relation to the previous search output. In chatbot context, this functionality will enhance the capability of chatbot’s input processing. Approach: In attempt to augment the traditional mechanism of chatbot processes, we used the relational database model approach to redesign the architecture of chatbot in a whole as well as incorporated the algorithm of Extension and Prerequisite (our proposed algorithm. By using this design, we had developed and tested Virtual Diabetes physician (ViDi, a web-based chatbot that function in specific domain of Diabetes education. Results: Extension and prerequisite enabled relations between responses that significantly make it easier for user to chat with chatbot using the same approach as chatting with an actual human. Chatbot can give different responses from the same input given by user according to current conversation issue. Conclusion: Extension and prerequisite makes chatting with chatbot becomes more likely as chatting with an actual human prior to the relations between responses that produce a response related to the current conversation issue.

  17. Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.

  18. <300> GeV team

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The 300 GeV team had been assembled. In the photograph are Hans Horisberger, Clemens Zettler, Roy Billinge, Norman Blackburne, John Adams, Hans-Otto Wuster, Lars Persson, Bas de Raad, Hans Goebel, Simon Van der Meer.

  19. Mathematics as Thinking. A Response to "Democracy and School Math"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kasi C.

    2011-01-01

    Math education in the United States remains resistant to systemic change, and our country pays the price. Stemhagen's article "Democracy and School Math" further confirms this trend. Despite repeated calls for reform, decades of research on how people learn, millions of dollars invested in teacher professional development, and years of…

  20. The LCC Developmental Math Lab: An Evaluative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Jack W.

    The Lansing Community College (LCC) Math Lab offers two arithmetic and two developmental algebra courses and provides a placement and proficiency testing program for the mathematics department and for other selected departments in the college. Students who participate in Math Lab courses: (1) take a placement test and/or have a placement interview…

  1. Problem Solving and the Use of Math in Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Edward F.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematics is an essential element of physics problem solving, but experts often fail to appreciate exactly how they use it. Math may be the language of science, but math-in-physics is a distinct dialect of that language. Physicists tend to blend conceptual physics with mathematical symbolism in a way that profoundly affects the way equations are…

  2. How Math Anxiety Relates to Number–Space Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number–space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety. PMID:27683570

  3. Evaluating Number Sense in Community College Developmental Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Dorothea A.

    2017-01-01

    Community college developmental math students (N = 657) from three math levels were asked to place five whole numbers on a line that had only endpoints 0 and 20 marked. How the students placed the numbers revealed the same three stages of behavior that Steffe and Cobb (1988) documented in determining young children's number sense. 23% of the…

  4. Importance of Grades and Placement for Math Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Will; Roksa, Josipa

    2017-01-01

    Research on high school math course taking documents the advantages of starting high school at or beyond Algebra 1. Fewer studies examine differentiation into remedial, general, and honors Algebra 1 course types by course rigor. This study examines how course grades and course rigor are associated with math attainment among students with similar…

  5. Math and Economics: Implementing Authentic Instruction in Grades K-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althauser, Krista; Harter, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to outline a partnership program that involved a local elementary school district, an institution of higher education, the local business community, and a state economic education advocacy group to integrate economics into math in grades K-5. The "Economics: Math in Real Life" program was provided in…

  6. Problem Posing and Problem Solving in a Math Teacher's Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Eric; Farina, Solange; Holzer, Tyler; Kotelawala, Usha; Trushkowsky, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the New York City Community of Adult Math Instructors (CAMI), a math teachers' circle founded in November 2014. The authors share details about their own participation in CAMI to show the professional growth that research-based, peer-led professional development can offer for adult educators.

  7. Recruiting Effective Math Teachers: Evidence from New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Hammerness, Karen; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Wyckoff, James

    2012-01-01

    For well over a decade school districts across the United States have struggled to recruit and retain effective mathematics teachers. In response to the need for qualified math teachers and the difficulty of directly recruiting individuals who have already completed the math content required for qualification, some districts, including Baltimore,…

  8. How math anxiety relates to number-space associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Georges

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioural evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.

  9. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  10. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  11. Putting Math Into Family Life: What's Possible for Working Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Marlene; Mokros, Jan; Parkes, Alana

    A set of parent-child math activities designed to help busy, working parents do math with their children as part of everyday situations such as cleaning up and making dinner included basic steps, variations, and information on working with children were developed for families with elementary grades children aged approximately 5 to 11 and…

  12. Preservice Teachers' Observations of Children's Learning during Family Math Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Kokic, Ivana Batarelo

    2011-01-01

    Family math night can easily be implemented into mathematics methodology courses providing an opportunity for field-based learning. Preservice teachers were asked to develop and implement an inquiry-based activity at a family math night event held at a local school with personnel, elementary children and their parents in attendance. This action…

  13. The Math Promise: Celebrating at Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…

  14. Poems for Math Practice: With 80 Skill-Building Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Laureen

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at students who love math as well as those who dread it, this book adds another dimension to the abstract nature of numbers. Using words and pictures, teachers can help children make the connection between mathematics and their everyday routines and observations. This book includes: (1) 20 illustrated poems; (2) math practice with sorting,…

  15. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other…

  16. Recruiting Effective Math Teachers: Evidence from New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Hammerness, Karen; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Wyckoff, James

    2012-01-01

    For well over a decade school districts across the United States have struggled to recruit and retain effective mathematics teachers. In response to the need for qualified math teachers and the difficulty of directly recruiting individuals who have already completed the math content required for qualification, some districts, including Baltimore,…

  17. Opening the World of Mathematics: The Daily Math Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoahue, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    During the author's everyday math discussions with her class, young children talk about mathematical ideas, theories, and concepts within a predictable structure. These discussions include many concepts from--and beyond--the first-grade math curriculum, and their depth and complexity build throughout the school year. Concepts and skills include…

  18. An Integration of Math with Auto Technician Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Hector

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of the contextualized math, the course design, student teaching and daily interaction with the students, and the implementation aspects of the research project designed to develop contextualized mathematics and integrate it into the Auto Technician courses. The applied math curriculum was integrated into…

  19. The Effect of Cooperative Groups on Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batton, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that many students have difficulty with mathematics, which can be attributed to many factors including math anxiety. Students who experience math anxiety have poor attitudes towards mathematics and perform below grade level based on class and statewide assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to…

  20. Remediation of Math Anxiety in Preservice Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…

  1. How Math Anxiety Relates to Number-Space Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.

  2. Effects of Math Anxiety on Student Success in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Pena, M. I.; Suarez-Pellicioni, M.; Bono, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether math anxiety and negative attitudes toward mathematics have an effect on university students' academic achievement in a methodological course forming part of their degree. A total of 193 students were presented with a math anxiety test and some questions about their enjoyment, self-confidence and motivation regarding…

  3. Determinants of Grades in Maths for Students in Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellari, Lorenzo; Lucifora, Claudio; Pozzoli, Dario

    attended are signi cantly associated with maths grades. Ceteris paribus, females typically do better than males. Since students can postpone the exam or repeat it when they fail, we also analyze the determinants of the elapsed time to pass the exam using survival analysis. Modeling simultaneously maths...

  4. Science and Math in the Library Media Center Using GLOBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Teresa L.; Levine, Elissa R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program which helps school library media specialists and science and math teachers bring earth science, math, information literacy, information technology, and student inquiry into the classroom. Discusses use of the Internet to create a global network to study the…

  5. Restructuring Schools To Be Math Friendly to Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Karen; Shakeshaft, Charol

    1997-01-01

    The gender gap in math Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, attributable to course avoidance, lack of confidence, and unbalanced classroom instruction, can have serious consequences for young women, such as limited university selection, limited career choices, and lower lifetime salaries. Solutions include hiring math specialists, establishing role…

  6. Symmetry group prerequisite for E-infinity in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Department of Physics, Alexandria University (United Kingdom); KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: Chaossf@aol.com

    2008-01-15

    The work addresses the question of extending certain symplectic and exceptional Lie Symmetry groups to the realm of chaotic dynamics. Using a collection of simple examples, the technique of transfinite continuation is illustrated and various physically relevant results are obtained. The paper is intended as an elementary introduction to the use of symmetry groups in transfinite physics and as such is a sequel to a series of previous papers constituting the elementary and advanced mathematical prerequisite for a proper understanding of E-infinity theory.

  7. Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II-VI semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, H; Kronenberg, J; Wagner, F; ISOLDE Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The diffusion of the impurities Cu, Ag, Au, and Na in CdTe and CdZnTe exhibits the unusual phenomenon of uphill diffusion if the diffusion of the impurity is performed under external Cd pressure at temperatures typically in the range 700-900 K. A model is proposed that describes these concentration profiles quantitatively and yields pre-requisites for the observation of uphill diffusion. If a metal layer is evaporated onto the implanted surface, the diffusion of the impurity is strongly affected by the generation of intrinsic defects at the metal-semiconductor interface. (C) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH \\& Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  8. Pre-requisites for the formation of unusual diffusion profiles in II-VI semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H.; Kronenberg, J.; Wagner, F.; Wichert, T. [Technische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The diffusion of the impurities Cu, Ag, Au, and Na in CdTe and CdZnTe exhibits the unusual phenomenon of uphill diffusion if the diffusion of the impurity is performed under external Cd pressure at temperatures typically in the range 700-900 K. A model is proposed that describes these concentration profiles quantitatively and yields pre-requisites for the observation of uphill diffusion. If a metal layer is evaporated onto the implanted surface, the diffusion of the impurity is strongly affected by the generation of intrinsic defects at the metal-semiconductor interface. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. [Quality assurance in student training. Prerequisites for DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 in teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, W; Kaiser, C; Schirmer, U

    2007-07-01

    Standards of quality assurance according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 have been implemented in many university hospital departments, but often teaching activities are not included. This work presents a method that allows, after having defined the various teaching activities as sub-processes of one single core process, to include the manifold teaching activities of university hospital departments into the certification process. The stepwise description of the prerequisites for including teaching activities into ISO 9001 certification is illustrated by a concrete implementation example.

  10. The Bricklayer Ecosystem - Art, Math, and Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Winter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Bricklayer Ecosystem - a freely-available online educational ecosystem created for people of all ages and coding backgrounds. Bricklayer is designed in accordance with a "low-threshold infinite ceiling" philosophy and has been successfully used to teach coding to primary school students, middle school students, university freshmen, and in-service secondary math teachers. Bricklayer programs are written in the functional programming language SML and, when executed, create 2D and 3D artifacts. These artifacts can be viewed using a variety of third-party tools such as LEGO Digital Designer (LDD, LDraw, Minecraft clients, Brickr, as well as STereoLithography viewers.

  11. A Different Third R: Radical Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Frankenstein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical literacy is more than the ability to calculate. It is the ability to reason quantitatively, the ability to use numbers to clarify issues and to support or refute opinions. Yet the proliferation of arithmetic courses at the college level is evidence that people are not learning even basic computation skills in school. Too many adults cannot use numbers effectively in their daily lives. This article will briefly examine the causes of this situation and will outline a basic arithmetic course that not only teaches adults math effectively, but raises their political consciousness and empowers them to analyze and question the status quo, and to fight back.

  12. Essential maths for geoscientists an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Paul I

    2014-01-01

    Maths for Geoscientists is an accessible, student-friendly introduction to the essential mathematics required by those students taking degree courses within the Geosciences. Clearly structured throughout, this book carefully guides the student step by step through the mathematics they will encounter and will provide numerous applied examples throughout to enhance students understanding and to place each technique into context. Opening with a chapter explaining the need for studying mathematics within geosciences the book then moves on to cover algebra, equations, solutions, logarithms and ex

  13. How to pass National 5 Maths

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Get your best grade with the SQA endorsed guide to National 5 Maths. This book contains all the advice and support you need to revise successfully for your National 5 exam. It combines an overview of the course syllabus with advice from a top expert on how to improve exam performance, so you have the best chance of success.; Refresh your knowledge with complete course notes.; Prepare for the exam with top tips and hints on revision technique.; Get your best grade with advice on how to gain those vital extra marks.

  14. MathSciNet i kemija

    OpenAIRE

    Dravec-Braun, J.

    2006-01-01

    MathSciNet je svjetski poznata bibliografska i citatna baza matematièkih publikacija. Ona je elektronièka inaèica referativnog èasopisa Mathematical Reviews i Current mathematical publications koje izdaje American Mathematical Society. SadrÞi bibliografske podatke publikacija izdanih u razdoblju od 1940. do danas. Veæina èlanaka i drugih publikacija recenzirana je, pa se uz bibliografske referencije nalazi kritièki prikaz, saÞetak (Review Text).

  15. Membangun Karakter Anak Usia Dini melalui Pembelajaran Math Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Faridatun Nisa’

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penerapan pembelajaran math character untuk membangun karakter Anak Usia Dini (AUD dan kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami guru dalam penerapan pembelajaran math character. Target penelitian ini adalah terbentuknya karakter anak usia dini melalui pembelajaran math character. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan metode penelitian kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan informasi penelitian ini dengan metode observasi dan wawancara. Analisis data penelitian ini menggunakan analisis deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan pembelajaran math character dapat membangun delapan belas nilai-nilai karakter AUD. Kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami guru dalam pembentukan karakter AUD melalui pembelajaran math character meliputi tema yang digunakan termasuk tema baru, siswa belum terbiasa dengan pembelajaran berbasis sentra, usia siswa bervariasi, dan adanya ikut campur wali siswa dalam kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas sehingga siswa menjadi kurang mandiri.

  16. Stereotype threat and arousal: effects on women's math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Crandall, Christian S

    2003-06-01

    Theories of arousal suggest that arousal should decrease performance on difficult tasks and increase performance on easy tasks. An experiment tested the hypothesis that the effects of stereotype threat on performance are due to heightened arousal. The authors hypothesized that telling participants that a math test they are about to take is known to have gender differences would cause stereotype threat in women but not in men. In the experiment, each participant took two tests--a difficult math test and an easy math test. Compared to women in a "no differences" condition, women in the "gender differences" condition scored better on the easy math test and worse on the difficult math test. Men's performance was unaffected by the manipulation. These data are consistent with an arousal-based explanation of stereotype threat effects. Data were inconsistent with expectancy, evaluation apprehension, and persistence explanations of the stereotype threat phenomenon.

  17. Math Academy: Play Ball! Explorations in Data Analysis & Statistics. Book 3: Supplemental Math Materials for Grades 3-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbey, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the "Math Academy--Play Ball! Explorations in Data Analysis & Statistics," which teachers can use to…

  18. Math Academy: Let's Go to the Mall! Explorations in Combinatorics. Book 5: Supplemental Math Materials for Grades 3-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbey, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the "Math Academy--Let's Go to the Mall! Explorations in Combinatorics," which teachers can use to enhance…

  19. Math Academy: Dining Out! Explorations in Fractions, Decimals, & Percents. Book 4: Supplemental Math Materials for Grades 3-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbey, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the "Math Academy--Dining Out! Explorations in Fractions, Decimals, and Percents," which teachers can use…

  20. Recruiting Effective Math Teachers: How Do Math Immersion Teachers Compare?: Evidence from New York City. NBER Working Paper No. 16017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pam; Hammerness, Karen; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Ronfeldt, Mathew; Wyckoff, James

    2010-01-01

    School districts often struggle to recruit and retain effective math teachers. Alternative-route certification programs aim to expand the pool of teachers available; however, many alternate routes have not been able to attract large numbers of teacher candidates with undergraduate degrees in math. In response, some districts, including Baltimore,…

  1. Math anxiety and exposure to statistics in messages about genetically modified foods: effects of numeracy, math self-efficacy, and form of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Kami J; Parrott, Roxanne L

    2014-01-01

    Health risks are often communicated to the lay public in statistical formats even though low math skills, or innumeracy, have been found to be prevalent among lay individuals. Although numeracy has been a topic of much research investigation, the role of math self-efficacy and math anxiety on health and risk communication processing has received scant attention from health communication researchers. To advance theoretical and applied understanding regarding health message processing, the authors consider the role of math anxiety, including the effects of math self-efficacy, numeracy, and form of presenting statistics on math anxiety, and the potential effects for comprehension, yielding, and behavioral intentions. The authors also examine math anxiety in a health risk context through an evaluation of the effects of exposure to a message about genetically modified foods on levels of math anxiety. Participants (N = 323) were randomly assigned to read a message that varied the presentation of statistical evidence about potential risks associated with genetically modified foods. Findings reveal that exposure increased levels of math anxiety, with increases in math anxiety limiting yielding. Moreover, math anxiety impaired comprehension but was mediated by perceivers' math confidence and skills. Last, math anxiety facilitated behavioral intentions. Participants who received a text-based message with percentages were more likely to yield than participants who received either a bar graph with percentages or a combined form. Implications are discussed as they relate to math competence and its role in processing health and risk messages.

  2. [Evaluation of prerequisites programs for a HACCP plan for frozen sardine plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2008-06-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) and sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP) are prerequisites programs for the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a food safety approach during processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate GMP/SSOP prerequisites in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The GMP compliance was verified according to a standard procedure of the Ministry for the Health of Venezuela, and the SSOP were assessed according to a checklist proposed by the FDA. GMP and SSOP were evaluated following a demerit-based approach. A percentage value was calculated and referred to as sanitary effectiveness. Results indicated that the plant had a good level of compliance with GMP from assessment of buildings and facilities, equipment and tools, hygienic requisites of the production, assurance of the hygiene quality, storage and transportation, and the percentage of sanitary effectiveness was 84%. The level of compliance for SSOP was 53,12% with demerits found in all assessed aspects consisting of inexistent guidelines, lack of control in the sanitary plan and lack of leadership in applying corrective actions. Thus, an improvement in the plant sanitation program was designed targeting SSOP.

  3. A method for assessing required course-related skills and prerequisite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Wang, Jyhwen

    2015-05-01

    Engineering curricula should be dynamic with a goal of constant improvement and refinement. Unfortunately, this is often not the case; courses are developed, altered, and expanded in a piecemeal manner. Namely, as time progresses many programmes end up with courses that are developed and not a developed curriculum. To remedy this shortcoming product, development tools are proposed for the refinement and assessment of an existing curriculum; how these methods could be used for the development of a curriculum is also highlighted. The voice of the customer (VOC) process is used to identify and prioritise desired student skills. The design structure matrix (DSM) is used to assess course prerequisite structure. There is broad agreement between faculty and industry related to which professional skills are the most important. The DSM is shown to be a useful tool in ordering courses and assessing prerequisite structures. The DSM is also shown to be useful in identifying which courses in a curriculum are critical and should be the focus of educational and administrative resources.

  4. Principles, Economic and Institutional Prerequisites for Fiscal Decentralization under Conditions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnevsky Valentine P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study principles, economic and institutional prerequisites for fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories. It is determined that fiscal decentralization is one of the main ways to solve problems of post-conflict areas. There justified principles, economic and institutional prerequisites of fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories with regard to the specificity of individual spheres of fiscal relations. Moreover, different spheres of fiscal relations require different approaches: the sphere of public revenues — providing economic efficiency with the formation of the tax structure contributing to the expansion of the tax base; the sphere of public spending — ensuring social justice and transparency in allocation of social cost at the local level; the sphere of subsidies — narrowing the scope of application of intergovernmental transfers with organizing the redistribution of financial resources under the principle of «center - post-conflict regions - post-conflict recipients»; the sphere of external assistance — ensuring proper coordination for cultivation of new co-operative institutions.

  5. Reasons and Prerequisites of Goodwill Devaluation in the Ukrainian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundrya-Vysotska Oksana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors conduct studies of economic prerequisites and factors, which resulted in writing-off significant amounts of goodwill value in Ukrainian banking institutions, which are structural parts of international financial institutions. In the result of analysis of main prerequisites the article identifies external and internal reasons of acknowledgement of devaluation of goodwill in the domestic banking sector. In accordance with the results of the study, the article identifies that acknowledgement of devaluation of goodwill testifies to a negative mood of foreign investors with respect to prospects of business development in the domestic banking market. The article justifies expediency of, separate from goodwill, identification of intangible assets, subject to acknowledgement in the result of unification of banks, in particular the client base of a bank, as an intangible asset with a final date of useful use. It proves that acknowledgement of this asset in the result of unification would allow avoiding significant amounts of write-off of goodwill value under unfavourable economic conditions. The prospect of further studies in this direction is justification of an optimal method of identification of the amount of goodwill devaluation, which would allow avoiding manipulations with financial reporting and would improve quality of presented information about the real financial state of banking institutions.

  6. Math for scientists refreshing the essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Maurits, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Accessible and comprehensive, this guide is an indispensable tool for anyone in the sciences – new and established researchers, students and scientists – looking either to refresh their math skills or to prepare for the broad range of math, statistical and data-related challenges they are likely to encounter in their work or studies. In addition to helping scientists improve their knowledge of key mathematical concepts, this unique book will help readers: ·                     Read mathematical symbols ·                     Understand formulas, data or statistical information ·                     Determine medication equivalents ·                     Analyze neuroimaging  Mathematical concepts are presented alongside illustrative and useful real-world scien­tific examples and are further clarified through practical pen-and-paper exercises. Whether you are a student encountering high-level mathematics in your research or...

  7. Imagine math 3 between culture and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Imagine mathematics, imagine with the help of mathematics, imagine new worlds, new geometries, new forms. This volume in the series “Imagine Math” casts light on what is new and interesting in the relationships between mathematics, imagination, and culture. The book opens by examining the connections between modern and contemporary art and mathematics, including Linda D. Henderson’s contribution. Several further papers are devoted to mathematical models and their influence on modern and contemporary art, including the work of Henry Moore and Hiroshi Sugimoto. Among the many other interesting contributions are an homage to Benoît Mandelbrot with reference to the exhibition held in New York in 2013 and the thoughts of Jean-Pierre Bourguignon on the art and math exhibition at the Fondation Cartier in Paris. An interesting part is dedicated to the connections between math, computer science and theatre with the papers by C. Bardainne and A. Mondot.  The topics are treated in a way that is rigorous but capt...

  8. Maths and physics, a love story

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    Denis Guedj brings one of his plays to CERN. The writer and mathematician is working on a new novel in which LHC research figures prominently. In Denis Guedj’s plays, the number One is a self-absorbed character, Zero is not to be underestimated, and the Line Segment wants the Curve to straighten out. In his novels, mathematical entities come to life—and turn out to have exciting stories to tell. Denis Guedj is a mathematician and professor of the history of science and epistemology at the University of Paris VIII; over the years he has also indulged a personal passion for bringing maths to the stage. His novels and plays reach a broad public. Among his notable successes is a crime thriller called “The Parrot’s Theorem”, which has been translated into 20 languages. The popularity of his work owes much to the author’s refusal to be didactic. “If it works, it’s because I don’t try to teach maths,” he explains....

  9. Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eWu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA, a new measure for assessing math anxiety in 2nd and 3rd graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II. Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were significantly correlated with scores on the Math Reasoning subtest, which involves more complex verbal problem solving, but not with the Numerical Operations subtest which assesses basic computation skills. Our results suggest that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. Our results further suggest that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement in young children.

  10. Teach For America/Teaching Fellows and Effective Teaching in Secondary Math

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Clark

    2013-01-01

    Secondary math teachers from Teach For America are more effective than other math teachers in the same schools; secondary math teachers from Teaching Fellows programs are as effective as, and in some cases more effective than, other math teachers in the same schools.

  11. Grade-Aligned Math Instruction for Secondary Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Diane M.; Jimenez, Bree A.; Trela, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of grade-aligned math instruction on math skill acquisition of four middle schools with moderate intellectual disability. Teachers were trained to follow a task analysis to teach grade-aligned math to middle school students using adapted math problem stories and graphic organizers. The teacher…

  12. Contextual Factors Related to Math Anxiety in Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    As the United States falls farther behind other countries in standardized math assessments, the author seeks to understand why U.S. students perform so poorly. One of the possible explanations to U.S. students' poor math performance may be math anxiety. However, math anxiety in elementary school children is a neglected area in the research. The…

  13. Contextual Factors Related to Math Anxiety in Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    As the United States falls farther behind other countries in standardized math assessments, the author seeks to understand why U.S. students perform so poorly. One of the possible explanations to U.S. students' poor math performance may be math anxiety. However, math anxiety in elementary school children is a neglected area in the research. The…

  14. Grade-Aligned Math Instruction for Secondary Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Diane M.; Jimenez, Bree A.; Trela, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of grade-aligned math instruction on math skill acquisition of four middle schools with moderate intellectual disability. Teachers were trained to follow a task analysis to teach grade-aligned math to middle school students using adapted math problem stories and graphic organizers. The teacher…

  15. The Effects of a Math Racetrack with Two Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Breann R.; Weber, Kimberly P.; Derby, K. Mark; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2005-01-01

    A classroom intervention employing math racetracks was carried out to teach math facts to two elementary students with learning disabilities. A math racetrack is a drill and practice procedure where known and unknown facts are placed on a sheet of paper like an oval racetrack. The effectiveness of using math racetracks was evaluated with a…

  16. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanese, Kathy; Chung, Luz; Forbes, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This new addition to Math Solutions "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class series" offers a wealth of lessons and strategies for modifying grades 6-8 instruction. Section I presents an overview of teaching math to English learners: the research, the challenges, the linguistic demands of a math lesson, and specific strategies and…

  17. Contextual Factors Related to Math Anxiety in Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    As the United States falls farther behind other countries in standardized math assessments, the author seeks to understand why U.S. students perform so poorly. One of the possible explanations to U.S. students' poor math performance may be math anxiety. However, math anxiety in elementary school children is a neglected area in the research.…

  18. Epi-cleaning of Ge/GeSn heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gaspare, L.; Sabbagh, D.; De Seta, M.; Sodo, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome (Italy); Wirths, S.; Buca, D. [Peter Grünberg Institute 9 and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich 52425 (Germany); Zaumseil, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); BTU Cottbus, Konrad-Zuse Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Capellini, G., E-mail: capellini@ihp-microelectronics.com [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome (Italy); IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    We demonstrate a very-low temperature cleaning technique based on atomic hydrogen irradiation for highly (1%) tensile strained Ge epilayers grown on metastable, partially strain relaxed GeSn buffer layers. Atomic hydrogen is obtained by catalytic cracking of hydrogen gas on a hot tungsten filament in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, reflection high energy electron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and micro-Raman showed that an O- and C-free Ge surface was achieved, while maintaining the same roughness and strain condition of the as-deposited sample and without any Sn segregation, at a process temperature in the 100–300 °C range.

  19. Thoughts on the Practice-Orientation in the Bilingual Maths Teachers’Education in Xinjiang%关于新疆双语数学教师教育“实践取向”的若干思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍军

    2016-01-01

    The prerequisite for the improvement of effectiveness of maths teaching for ethnic students is to improve the comprehensive quality and synthetic ability of bilingual maths teachers. And as a basic requirement for education,“practice orientation”gives priority to practice in bilingual maths teachers’professional development. With an emphasis on the importance and urgency of“practice orientation”, this paper attempts to construct a practice-oriented course system aimed at the training of bilingual maths teachers in Xinjiang.%新疆少数民族双语数学课程教学质量提高的前提是双语数学教师的综合素质和能力的提高,而“实践取向”是教育的本质要求。因此,针对双语数学教师的培养,应把实践放在核心价值地位。文章阐述了“实践取向”的重要性和紧迫性,并尝试构建以实践为导向的针对新疆双语数学教师教育的课程体系。

  20. V-Ge-Cu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitskij, E.M.; Efimov, Yu.V.; Bodak, O.I.; Kharchenko, O.I.; Shomova, N.A.; Frolova, T.M.

    By the methods of microscopic, X-ray phase analyses, X-ray spectral microanalysis as well as by measurement of Tsub(C) and phase lattice parameters the structure of the vanadium-region of the V-Ge ternary system (up to 40 at.%) - Cu(up to 90 at.%) is studied and isothermal cross section at 800 deg C is plotted. In the studied region solid solutions on the base of vanadium, copper and V/sub 3/Ge and V/sub 5/Ge/sub 3/ compounds are in phase equilibria. The solid solution on the vanadium base in ternary alloys practically does not possess superconductivity at the temperature over 4.2 K. Tsub(C) of V/sub 3/Ge saturated with copper decreases up to 5.3-5.6 K depending on treatment conditions and alloys composition. The superspeed quenching from molten state and the consequent low-temperature tempering of ternary alloys can increase V/sub 3/Ge Tsub(C) up to 6-6.7 K.

  1. The role of early language abilities on math skills among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Xitao; Cheung, Sum Kwing; Meng, Yaxuan; Cai, Zhihui; Hu, Bi Ying

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects) and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction) skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence. Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills. The current findings indicate 1) Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2) Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.

  2. Cognitive and behavioral attention in children with math difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Alanna B; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Cirino, Paul; Fuchs, Lynn S; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive assessments and behavioral ratings of attention were used to examine the relation of inattention to math performance in children. Third grade students with math difficulties (MD; n = 17) and math and reading difficulties (MDRD; n = 35) were administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT), as well as achievement and intelligence measures. Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior-IV (SWAN-IV) Inattention ratings were collected from teachers. Two comparison groups were also recruited: a typically achieving group (n = 23) and a group that responded to a math-tutoring intervention (responders; n = 54). On the ANT, children with MD and MDRD did not perform significantly different than typically achieving children or responders on measures of alerting and orienting attention and executive control. All subgroups did demonstrate performance patterns that were expected on the ANT. However, performance across blocks of the task was inconsistent, suggesting poor reliability. There were no relations between ANT performance and SWAN-IV behavioral inattention scores, though behavioral ratings of inattention correlated significantly with math performance. Children with MD and MDRD may have more difficulty with distraction and attention to detail in contextual situations, as opposed to impulsive responding in these settings. The lack of relation between cognitive attention and math performance may suggest that either the ANT does not assess the relevant attention constructs associated with math difficulties or may parallel studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which cognitive and behavioral assessments are weakly related.

  3. Tutoring math platform accessible for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkowski, Michał Sebastian; Brzoza, Piotr Franciszek; Spinczyk, Dominik Roland

    2017-06-03

    There are many problems with teaching and assessing impaired students in higher education, especially in technical science, where the knowledge is represented mostly by structural information like: math formulae, charts, graphs, etc. Developing e-learning platform for distance education solves this problem only partially due to the lack of accessibility for the blind. The proposed method is based on the decomposition of the typical mathematical exercise into a sequence of elementary sub-exercises. This allows for interactive resolving of math exercises and assessment of the correctness of exercise solutions at every stage. The presented methods were prepared and evaluated by visually impaired people and students. The article presents the accessible interactive tutoring platform for math teaching and assessment, and experience in exploring it. The results of conducted research confirm good understanding of math formulae described according to elaborated rules. Regardless of the level of complexity of the math formulae the level of math formulae understanding is higher for alternative structural description. The proposed solution enables alternative descriptions of math formulae. Based on the research results, the tool for computer-aided interactive learning of mathematics adapted to the needs of the blind has been designed, implemented and deployed as a platform for on-site and online and distance learning. The designed solution can be very helpful in overcoming many barriers that occur while teaching impaired students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nursing students' confidence in medication calculations predicts math exam performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Sharon; Salamonson, Yenna; Halcomb, Elizabeth J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties, including predictive validity, of the newly-developed nursing self-efficacy for mathematics (NSE-Math). The NSE-Math is a 12 item scale that comprises items related to mathematic and arithmetic concepts underpinning medication calculations. The NSE-Math instrument was administered to second year Bachelor of Nursing students enrolled in a nursing practice subject. Students' academic results for a compulsory medication calculation examination for this subject were collected. One-hundred and twelve students (73%) completed both the NSE-Math instrument and the drug calculation assessment task. The NSE-Math demonstrated two factors 'Confidence in application of mathematic concepts to nursing practice' and 'Confidence in arithmetic concepts' with 63.5% of variance explained. Cronbach alpha for the scale was 0.90. The NSE-Math demonstrated predictive validity with the medication calculation examination results (p=0.009). Psychometric testing suggests the NSE-Math is a valid measure of mathematics self-efficacy of second year nursing students.

  5. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eBosmans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect-regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (Mage = 10.34 years; SDage = 0.63 filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.

  6. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Children's anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (M age = 10.34 years; SD age = 0.63) filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex, and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.

  7. Math Clock: Perangkat Penunjuk Waktu Kreatif untuk Olahraga Otak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuh Boy Hertantyo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain is one of the most vital parts for humans, with the number of brain function that is needed for the body, the brain becomes a very important part of the human body. If there is damage to the brain will certainly cause the performance of the human body will not run properly. Because of that, it’s very important to maintain brain health. There is a way to maintain brain health, for example is by doing brain exercise. Examples of brain exercise is to do simple math calculations or doing brain games like sudoku. Because of that, created a tool that can help the brain to maintain brain exercise. The tool is called math clock. Making math clock tool consists of hardware and software. The hardware consists of RTC as real time data input, ATmega328 as microcontroller and dot matrix 32x16 as a tool to display the output that has been processed by the microcontroller. The software is built using C with Arduino IDE. Math clock will process the data from RTC then processed it, in microcontroller so when output displayed on dot matrix, output will be simple mathematical operation with real time clock data on it. Test results show that, math clock is capable of displaying a simple mathematical calculation operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The mathematical operation that display on math clock, appears to be random, so it’s not triggered by same mathematical operation. In math clock the display will change every 20 second, so in 1 minute there are 3 different kinds of mathematical operations. The results of questionnaires of 10 different students, showed 9 out of 10 students said math clock is a tool that easy to use as a clock. Math clock will be alternative for doing brain exercise every day.

  8. News from the Library: Zentralblatt MATH: it's not all about maths

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Library provides access to numerous and diverse information services of interest to the CERN community. Among them, Zentralblatt MATH stands out from our offer of online databases.   Zentralblatt MATH covers more than 3 million articles published in about 3500 journals, from 1826 to the present. Most bibliographic records are linked to the online published article. It covers all areas of pure and applied mathematics and also theoretical computer science, mathematical quantum and statistical physics, classical, solid and fluid mechanics, and general relativity and astronomy. Therefore, this database is useful in many disciplines beyond mathematics. It is daily updated and allows advanced search functionalities. Among others things, it includes the content of the Electronic Research Archive for Mathematics, the European Mathematical Information Service, and the Mathematics Preprint Search System. Please note the "Online Ordering" button next to every bibliographic recor...

  9. Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure for assessing math anxiety in second and third graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II). Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were strongly correlated with Mathematical Reasoning scores, which involves more complex verbal problem solving. SEMA scores were weakly correlated with Numerical Operations which assesses basic computation skills, suggesting that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. We also found that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement

  10. Math Anxiety in Second and Third Graders and Its Relation to Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Sarah S.; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure f...

  11. Are Students with High Ability in Math More Motivated in Math and Science than Other Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Expectancy-value motivation profiles were identified in a sample of US ninth-grade students in 2009 (n = 19,259) using latent profile analysis. Of four distinct profiles, two were high, one typical, and one low in math and in science. In each area, the two high profiles were distinguished by (1) high self-efficacy with lower utility value and (2)…

  12. Mathématiques, Mind et Geist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Salanskis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available L’article est une exploration systématique de la dualité des figures du Mind et du Geist, le premier étant entendu comme l’esprit en tant que partie de la nature scientifiquement objectivable, le second comme l’esprit en tant qu’acteur immatériel insaisissable de la pensée. De plus, cette dualité est étudiée du point de vue de l’interférence de la mathématique avec elle, dans plusieurs contextes. Sont ainsi successivement analysés : le conflit entre les deux « modèles » du Mind, le computationnaliste et le dynamiciste; la définition philosophique et la définition épistémologique du Geist ; le jeu entre Mind et Geist dans les recherches cognitives contemporaines ; l’ambivalence de la logique et des mathématiques vis-à-vis de l’opposition Mind/Geist. Dans la partie finale, on propose une définition personnelle du Geist–en termes d’adresse et de sujet–dont dérive une détermination du Mind. Revenant sur ces nouvelles bases à l’interférence avec la mathématique, on conclut sur la question essentielle et délicate de la paramétrisation de la conscience.This paper systematically investigates the conflicting figures of Mind and Geist : Mind has to be understood as some part of nature likely to become the object of science, while Geist names the unmaterial unseizable protagonist of thought. Further, the opposition of the two figures is studied in the light of the way mathematics interfere with it, in several contexts. This leads to following analyses : how computational and dynamicist models of Mind compete within cognitive science; how Geist may be defined philosophically and epistemologically ; how Mind and Geist differently come to be considered or to be aimed at within contemporary cognitive research ; how mathematics and logic play an ambivalent part with respect to the Mind/Geist opposition. In the final section of the paper, a personal definition of the Geist–in terms of address and

  13. Basic math and pre-algebra for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Tips for simplifying tricky basic math and pre-algebra operations Whether you're a student preparing to take algebra or a parent who wants or needs to brush up on basic math, this fun, friendly guide has the tools you need to get in gear. From positive, negative, and whole numbers to fractions, decimals, and percents, you'll build necessary math skills to tackle more advanced topics, such as imaginary numbers, variables, and algebraic equations. Explanations and practical examples that mirror today's teaching methodsRelevant cultural vernacular and referencesStandard For Dummies materials that

  14. Essential maths skills for AS/A-level geography

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Don't let your students miss out on easy marks; help them improve their skills and feel confident about the maths they need for AS/A-level Geography with this essential guide. If your students struggle with student t-test or Spearman rank correlation, this is the book for them. This textbook companion will improve students' essential maths skills for geography, whichever awarding body specification you're following. You can use it throughout the course, whenever you feel your students need some extra help. - Develop understanding of both maths and geography using worked examples and

  15. MATH: A Scientific Tool for Numerical Methods Calculation and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Glaser-Opitz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MATH is an easy to use application for various numerical methods calculations with graphical user interface and integrated plotting tool written in Qt with extensive use of Qwt library for plotting options and use of Gsl and MuParser libraries as a numerical and parser helping libraries. It can be found at http://sourceforge.net/projects/nummath. MATH is a convenient tool for use in education process because of its capability of showing every important step in solution process to better understand how it is done. MATH also enables fast comparison of similar method speed and precision.

  16. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... mink only showed habituation in experiment 2. Regardless of the frequency used (2 and 18 kHz), cues predicting the danger situation initially elicited slower responses compared to those predicting the safe situation but quickly became faster. Using auditory cues as discrimination stimuli for female...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  17. Paradigm shifts and other prerequisites to facilitate the institutionalising of strategy in South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available South African organisations must undergo a mind shift and adhere to certain prerequisites to survive and be successful. It is evident that companies not changing their mindsets will not survive and be able to create a sustainable competitive advantage and to compete in world markets. Companies have to solve new problems with new paradigms, constantly create something better, something new, create new markets as opposed to increasing market share. The Third Wave development will lead to societal transformation. Moving to Third Wave will imply growth organisations to act like small entrepreneurial businesses that will have the benefit of speed and simplicity but also be able to implement strategy more effectively. Time is of the essence. South African companies have no other option but to move swiftly. The transformation from second to third wave is inevitable.

  18. Controlled assembly: a prerequisite for the use of recombinant spider silk in regenerative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Recent biotechnological progress has enabled the production of spider silk proteins, spidroins, in heterologous hosts. Matrices based on recombinant spidroins support stem cell growth and are well tolerated when implanted in living tissue, thus the material is highly attractive for use in regenerative medicine. However, the matrices made are far from natural silk in terms of mechanical properties and are either spontaneously assembled, which results in heterogeneous products, or spun from harsh solvents with the concomitant risk of harmful remnants in the final products. If we could mimic the spider's aqueous silk spinning process we would likely obtain a material that had reproducible and better characteristics and that more easily could be transferred to clinical practice. Herein, the knowledge of the spiders' silk production system and the prerequisites for artificial spinning and assembly of recombinant proteins are reviewed and discussed in a biomedical context. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ACCURATE KAP METER CALIBRATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR OPTIMISATION IN PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A; Sandborg, M; Carlsson, G Alm

    2016-06-01

    Modern X-ray units register the air kerma-area product, PKA, with a built-in KAP meter. Some KAP meters show an energy-dependent bias comparable with the maximum uncertainty articulated by the IEC (25 %), adversely affecting dose-optimisation processes. To correct for the bias, a reference KAP meter calibrated at a standards laboratory and two calibration methods described here can be used to achieve an uncertainty of energy-independent dosemeter via a reference beam quality in the clinic, Q1, to beam quality, Q Biases up to 35 % of built-in KAP meter readings were noted. Energy-dependent calibration factors are needed for unbiased PKA Accurate KAP meter calibration as a prerequisite for optimisation in projection radiography.

  20. Web-based diagnosis and therapy of auditory prerequisites for reading and spelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krammer, Sandra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in auditory or visual processing or in verbal short-term-memory are amongst others risk factors for the development of dyslexia (reading and spelling disability. By early identification and intervention (optimally before school entry, detrimental effects of these cognitive deficits on reading and spelling might be prevented. The goal of the CASPAR-project is to develop and evaluate web-based tools for diagnosis and therapy of cognitive prerequisites for reading and spelling, which are appropriate for kindergarten children. In the first approach CASPAR addresses auditory processing disorders. This article describes a computerized and web-based approach for screening and testing phoneme discrimination and for promoting phoneme discrimination abilities through interactive games in kindergarteners.

  1. Active Learning: A Prerequisite for Language Development in the Mixed Ability Class (MAC of Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Harraw Verma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering students tend to pay more attention to their core subject classes rather than on an English language class. They all come from different social and academic backgrounds and their knowledge of English language varies from one another. A mixed ability group throws many challenges to an English language teacher teaching to a grown up or rather adult group of learners who always pre-define their interests and needs. The primary and the most important challenge in front of the language teacher teaching engineering students is - how to promote active learning in MAC situation? A language teacher to overcome the problems of a mixed ability classroom and promote active learning needs to adopt a number of strategies. The paper studies the MAC situation in an English language classroom of engineering students and makes an attempt to re-define methods for active learning a prerequisite for language development in an engineering classroom.

  2. Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.

  3. Organisational and Infrastructure Prerequisites of Creation of an International Logistic Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnavska Nataliya P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of organisational and infrastructure prerequisites of creation and functioning of integration structures capable, on the basis of logistics, of assisting subjects of economy in structuring and optimisation of material flows and also accompanying financial and information flows. In the result of the study the article identifies irregularities of the transition of national economies to new models of development and prospects of development of logistic provision of the innovation economy connected with them, transformation possibilities and prospects of international integration of the logistic market of Ukraine; it analyses prerequisites and substantiates expediency and shows benefits of formation of an international logistic centre in the city of Ternopil. The mission of the planned international logistic centre is ensuring a qualitatively new level of logistic provision of market participants, which would correspond with the existing world standards. The logistic centre performs realisation of its tasks and conduct of functions in the process of interaction with partners – participants of the logistic chain. The logistic centre should become an operator of flows of transit and export-import cargoes and it would perform important logistic functions connected not only with organisation of shipping operations but also with sorting, storing, packing and some other functions at the level of the best world representatives of the logistic servicing. In order to ensure successful activity of such a centre, it is required to adapt tariff policy of the state to international standards, to expand a list of relevant services, to reduce terms of cargo handling and to introduce modern technologies of information processing intensively.

  4. Band calculation of lonsdaleite Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Shiang; Fan, Sheng-Ting; Lan, Huang-Siang; Liu, Chee Wee

    2017-01-01

    The band structure of Ge in the lonsdaleite phase is calculated using first principles. Lonsdaleite Ge has a direct band gap at the Γ point. For the conduction band, the Γ valley is anisotropic with the low transverse effective mass on the hexagonal plane and the large longitudinal effective mass along the c axis. For the valence band, both heavy-hole and light-hole effective masses are anisotropic at the Γ point. The in-plane electron effective mass also becomes anisotropic under uniaxial tensile strain. The strain response of the heavy-hole mass is opposite to the light hole.

  5. Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Robert; Gupta, Suyog; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Huo, Yijie; Rudy, Charles W; Sanchez, Errol; Kim, Yihwan; Kamins, Theodore I; Saraswat, Krishna C; Harris, James S

    2014-01-08

    We theoretically study and experimentally demonstrate a pseudomorphic Ge/Ge0.92Sn0.08/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on Ge/Si (001) as a route toward a compact GeSn-based laser on silicon. The structure theoretically exhibits many electronic and optical advantages in laser design, and microdisk resonators using these structures can be precisely fabricated away from highly defective regions in the Ge buffer using a novel etch-stop process. Photoluminescence measurements on 2.7 μm diameter microdisks reveal sharp whispering-gallery-mode resonances (Q > 340) with strong luminescence.

  6. Project TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Leo, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project is to increase the scientific knowledge and appreciation bases and skills of pre-service and in-service middle school teachers, so as to impact positively on teaching, learning, and student retention. This report lists the objectives and summarizes the progress thus far. Included is the working draft of the TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science) curriculum outline. Seven of the eight instructional subject-oriented modules are also included. The modules include informative materials and corresponding questions and educational activities in a textbook format. The subjects included here are the universe and stars; the sun and its place in the universe; our solar system; astronomical instruments and scientific measurements; the moon and eclipses; the earth's atmosphere: its nature and composition; and the earth: directions, time, and seasons. The module not included regards winds and circulation.

  7. Forum Math-for-Industry 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Broadbridge, Philip; Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Kamiyama, Naoyuki; Mizoguchi, Yoshihiro; Polthier, Konrad; Saeki, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at the “Forum Math-for-Industry 2015” for which the unifying theme was “The Role and Importance of Mathematics in Innovation”, held at the Institute of Mathematics for Industry, Kyushu University, October 26–30, 2015. The theme highlights two key roles that mathematics plays in supporting innovation in science, technology, and daily life, namely, needs-based and idea-based. For the former, mathematics assists with sorting through the possibilities and putting matters on a more rigorous foundation, and for the latter, mathematical models of the possible implementations play a key role. The book gives excellent examples of how mathematics assists with stimulating innovation and, thereby, highlights the importance and relevance of the concept Mathematics_FOR_Industry. The contents of this volume address productive and successful interaction between industry and mathematicians, as well as the cross-fertilization and collaboration that result when mathematics...

  8. Mathématiques, Mind et Geist.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    L’article est une exploration systématique de la dualité des figures du Mind et du Geist, le premier étant entendu comme l’esprit en tant que partie de la nature scientifiquement objectivable, le second comme l’esprit en tant qu’acteur immatériel insaisissable de la pensée. De plus, cette dualité est étudiée du point de vue de l’interférence de la mathématique avec elle, dans plusieurs contextes. Sont ainsi successivement analysés : le conflit entre les deux « modèles » du Mind, le computatio...

  9. Math/science education action conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    On October 8--10, 1989, the US Department of Energy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory sponsored a Math/Science Education Action Conference in Berkeley, California. The conference was co-chaired by Admiral James D. Watkins, Secretary of Energy, and Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg Chairman of the Lawrence Hall of Science. Nearly 250 scientists, educators, business executives, and government leaders came together to develop a concrete plan of action for restructuring and revitalizing mathematics and science education. Their target was to improve education for an entire cohort of children--the Class of 2007, the children born this school year--and their governing principle was one of collaboration, both between Federal agencies, and between public and private sectors. The report of the conference co-chairmen and participants is provided in this document. 41 figs.

  10. Choke or thrive? The relation between salivary cortisol and math performance depends on individual differences in working memory and math-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Les grands problèmes mathématiques ils orientent l'avenir des maths

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Les mathématiques ont leurs sept merveilles ! Il s’agit des sept problèmes du millénaire, mis à prix à un million de dollars chacun par l’Institut Clay de mathématiques en 2000. Mais l’intelligence des mathématiciens est aussi mise à l’épreuve par bien d’autres problèmes, tels ceux de Hilbert. Découvrez dans ce numéro comment ces énigmes orientent l’avenir de la discipline ouvrant la voie à de nouvelles connaissances fondamentales.

  12. Educational Background and High School Maths Teachers ‘Specialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin. Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ Specialism is a world development trend and fashion, but also the needs and the direction of teacher education reform. After the latest curriculum reform, the educational reform and development of math,teachers have become universally concentrated and thoughtful in the field of mathematical education. The study adopting questionnaires and telephone interviews carried out a sample survey to 59 common high school math teachers from 3 provinces, and analyzed the connection between math teachers’ specialism and educational background by the statistical analysis tool SPSS quantitatively and qualitatively. The study shows that both mathematical science knowledge and mathematical educational skills have an obvious connection with the educational background, while there’s little connection between mathematical educational knowledge and the educational background. The study points out a relevant strategy which high school math teachers should attach the same important to pre-job training and post-job training

  13. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  14. Is Discrete Mathematics the New Math of the Eighties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Eric W.

    1985-01-01

    Considered are what discrete mathematics includes, some parallels and differences between new math and discrete mathematics (listed in a table), and lessons to be learned. A list of references is included. (MNS)

  15. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father...

  16. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  17. The Math?Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors? Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the development of a survey grounded in expectancy-value theory, providing multiple forms of validity evidence to support its use as a measure of students? interest in using math to understand biology, the usefulness of math for one?s life science career, and the perceived cost of using math in biology courses.

  18. Motivation for math in rural schools: student and teacher perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2011-06-01

    Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning and motivation from the fields of educational psychology, human neuroscience and rural education, to present an integrated systemic view of motivation for learning math in rural schools.

  19. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  20. Multi-User GeoGebra for Virtual Math Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Stahl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams to discuss mathematics. The VMT collaboration environment now includes the dynamic mathematics application, GeoGebra. It offers a multi-user version of GeoGebra, which can be used in concert with VMT’s chat, web browsers, curricula and wiki repository.

  1. Metacognitive awareness and math anxiety in gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sarıcam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students and The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children were used. For analysing the data, Spearman correlation analysis, the Mann Whitney U test, and linear regression analysis were used. According to the findings: firstly, gifted students’ metacognitive awareness scores were higher than those of non-gifted students. On the other hand, non-gifted students’ maths anxiety levels were higher than those of gifted students. Secondly, there was negative correlation between metacognitive awareness and math anxiety. Finally, the findings of linear regression analysis indicated that metacognitive awareness is explained by 48% total variance of maths anxiety in gifted students.

  2. Math you can really use--every day

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, David Alan

    2007-01-01

    Math You Can Really Use--Every Day skips mind-numbing theory and tiresome drills and gets right down to basic math that helps you do real-world stuff like figuring how much to tip, getting the best deals shopping, computing your gas mileage, and more. This is not your typical, dry math textbook. With a comfortable, easygoing approach, it: Covers math you''ll need for balancing your checkbook, choosing or managing credit cards, comparing options for mortgages, insurance, and investments, and moreIncludes the basics on fractions, decimals, percentages, measurements, and geometric mathClues you in on simple shortcutsIncludes examples plus pop quizzes with answers to help you solidify your understanding Features tear-out guides you can take with you for tipping and converting measurements Want to know how much 20% off is in dollars and cents? Want to figure out how much gas is going to cost for your road trip? This is the math book you''ll really use!

  3. Training the approximate number system improves math proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2013-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman animals share an approximate number system (ANS) that permits estimation and rough calculation of quantities without symbols. Recent studies show a correlation between the acuity of the ANS and performance in symbolic math throughout development and into adulthood, which suggests that the ANS may serve as a cognitive foundation for the uniquely human capacity for symbolic math. Such a proposition leads to the untested prediction that training aimed at improving ANS performance will transfer to improvement in symbolic-math ability. In the two experiments reported here, we showed that ANS training on approximate addition and subtraction of arrays of dots selectively improved symbolic addition and subtraction. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis that complex math skills are fundamentally linked to rudimentary preverbal quantitative abilities and provides the first direct evidence that the ANS and symbolic math may be causally related. It also raises the possibility that interventions aimed at the ANS could benefit children and adults who struggle with math.

  4. Promotive and Corrosive Factors in African American Students' Math Beliefs and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A; Marchand, Aixa D; McKellar, Sarah E; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-06-01

    Framed by expectancy-value theory (which posits that beliefs about and the subjective valuation of a domain predict achievement and decision-making in that domain), this study examined the relationships among teacher differential treatment and relevant math instruction on African American students' self-concept of math ability, math task value, and math achievement. These questions were examined by applying structural equation modeling to 618 African American youth (45.6 % female) followed from 7th to 11th grade in the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. While controlling for gender and prior math achievement, relevant math instruction promoted and teacher differential treatment corroded students' math beliefs and achievement over time. Further, teacher discrimination undermined students' perceptions of their teachers, a mediating process under-examined in previous inquiry. These findings suggest policy and practice levers to narrow opportunity gaps, as well as foster math achievement and science, technology, engineering and math success.

  5. Number-specific and general cognitive markers of preschoolers' math ability profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition.

  6. Determination of prerequisites for implementation of IPOs in the Czech capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meluzín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In advanced markets, IPOs represent an opportunity to obtain the necessary capital for further company development. This form of financing is significant not only for the joint-stock company itself, for which an IPO is an alternative to debt financing, but also for further development of the capital market as a whole. That is to say, one of the fundamental functions of the capital market, the allocation function, is accomplished by means of IPOs. It follows from investigations of the situation in IPOs in the Czech Republic that financing company development through IPOs, which are linked with entrance into the capital market, has not become common practice in the Czech capital market. Comparing the present situation with the situation in international markets, it must be stated that the Czech capital market shows anomalies not only with regard to advanced capital markets such as those in the USA or Japan but also in reference to markets in Central and Eastern Europe. In the past, unfavourable conditions resulting from legislation and the institutional environment were considered the major cause of the long-term low numbers of initial public offerings in the Czech Republic. It follows from the results of the analysis of legislative barriers to carrying out IPOs that in recent years, a number of steps were taken to draw the Czech capital market nearer to the European standard, at least formally. Laws were passed that determine the scope and regulations for entrepreneurial activities of individual subjects, and an independent authority was set up that kept an eye on the tran­spa­ren­cy of the market and compliance with the given regulations; there are institutional and technical prerequisites available that facilitate trade in securities. Nowadays there are no more any legislative or general economic barriers, designated as significant obstacles for IPO realization in the Czech environment in the past. It depends mainly on approach of individual

  7. Superconductivity in novel Ge-based skutterudites: {Sr,Ba}pt4Ge12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E; Grytsiv, A; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, N; Hilscher, G; Kaldarar, H; Michor, H; Royanian, E; Giester, G; Rotter, M; Podloucky, R; Rogl, P

    2007-11-23

    Combining experiments and ab initio models we report on SrPt4Ge12 and BaPt4Ge12 as members of a novel class of superconducting skutterudites, where Sr or Ba atoms stabilize a framework entirely formed by Ge atoms. Below T(c)=5.35 and 5.10 K for BaPt4Ge12 and SrPt4Ge12, respectively, electron-phonon coupled superconductivity emerges, ascribed to intrinsic features of the Pt-Ge framework, where Ge-p states dominate the electronic structure at the Fermi energy.

  8. Evolution of Ge and SiGe Quantum Dots under Excimer Laser Annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Gen-Quan; ZENG Yu-Gang; YU Jin-Zhong; CHENG Bu-Wen; YANG Hai-Tao

    2008-01-01

    We present different relaxation mechanisms of Ge and SiGe quantum dots under excimer laser annealing.Inyestigation of the coarsening and relaxation of the dots showS that the strain in Ge dots on Ge films is relaxed by dislocation since there is no interface between the Ge dots and the Ge layer,while the SiGe dots on Si0.77 Ge0.23film relax by lattice distortion to coherent dots which results from the obvious interface between the SiGe dots and the Si0.77Ge0.23 film.The results are suggested and sustained by Vanderbilt and Wickham's theory,and also demonstrate that no bulk diffusion Occurs during the excimer laser annealing.

  9. Understanding and engineering of NiGe/Ge junction formed by phosphorus ion implantation after germanidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Hiroshi, E-mail: oka@asf.mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-11

    Modulation of the effective electron Schottky barrier height (eSBH) of NiGe/Ge contacts induced by phosphorus ion implantation after germanide formation was investigated by considering local inhomogeneity in the eSBH. Systematic studies of NiGe/Ge contact devices having various germanide thicknesses and ion implantation areas indicated the threshold dopant concentration at the NiGe/Ge interface required for eSBH modulation and negligible dopant diffusion even at NiGe/Ge interface during drive-in annealing, leading to variation in the eSBH between the bottom and sidewall portions of the NiGe regions. Consequently, this method makes it possible to design source/drain contacts with low-resistivity Ohmic and ideal rectifying characteristics for future Ge-based transistors.

  10. Is there a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    Outsourcing of jobs to low-wage countries has increased the focus onthe accumulation of skills - such as Math skills - in high-wage countries.In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causaleffect of advanced high school Math on labor market outcomes. The pilotscheme...... reduced the costs of choosing advanced Math because it allowedfor at more flexible combination of Math with other courses. We findclear evidence of a causal relationship between Math and earnings for thestudents who are induced to choose Math after being exposed to the pilotscheme. The effect partly stems...

  11. Is there a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    Outsourcing of jobs to low-wage countries has increased the focus onthe accumulation of skills - such as Math skills - in high-wage countries.In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causaleffect of advanced high school Math on labor market outcomes. The pilotscheme...... reduced the costs of choosing advanced Math because it allowedfor at more flexible combination of Math with other courses. We findclear evidence of a causal relationship between Math and earnings for thestudents who are induced to choose Math after being exposed to the pilotscheme. The effect partly stems...

  12. Cloning, chromosome localization and features of a novel human gene, MATH2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lingchen Guo; Min Jiang; Yushu Ma; Haipeng Cheng; Xiaohua Ni; Yangsheng Jin; Yi Xie; Yumin Mao

    2002-04-01

    We report cloning and some features of a novel human gene, MATH2, which encodes a protein of 337 amino acid residues with a basic helix–loop–helix domain and exhibits 98% similarity to mouse Math2. Results of Northern blot analysis revealed two transcripts of the MATH2 gene of 1.7 kb and 2.4 kb in human brain. We localized MATH2 to chromosome 7 at 7p14–15 by matching with the Human Genome Sequence Database. Human MATH2 and mouse Math2 may have the same functions in the nervous system.

  13. A prerequisite for the effective transfer of the shape-memory effect to cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, H.; Yeung, L. Y.; Hu, J. L.

    2007-06-01

    Subtle interaction between shape-memory polymer and cellulose fibers within fabrics remains a critical issue for understanding their thermal-mechanical properties and thus the shape-memory behavior in cotton fibers. We demonstrate here the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy to probe the induced stresses in warp and weft fibers, presenting physicochemical features for cellulose fibers finished with macromolecule polyurethane and small-molecule dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Accordingly, a possible mechanism for transfer of the shape-memory effect to fabrics is proposed. Forming as a coating on the fiber surface after the finishing process, the shape-memory polymer takes a critical role in reducing the residual stress in weft fibers, establishing the prerequisite for reserving the shape-memory effect to fabric. In addition, this work has demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is able to probe the residual stresses in cotton fabrics after being treated by chemicals in addition to that due to physical deformation. Our result provides clear evidence that in the finishing process strength reduction in fibers in general is not only caused solely by a chemical reaction, but also by a physical modification of the cotton structure.

  14. β-Catenin inactivation is a pre-requisite for chick retina regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available In the present study we explored the role of β-catenin in mediating chick retina regeneration. The chick can regenerate its retina by activating stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin (CM of the eye or via transdifferentiation of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE. Both modes require fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2. We observed, by immunohistochemistry, dynamic changes of nuclear β-catenin in the CM and RPE after injury (retinectomy. β-Catenin nuclear accumulation was transiently lost in cells of the CM in response to injury alone, while the loss of nuclear β-catenin was maintained as long as FGF2 was present. However, nuclear β-catenin positive cells remained in the RPE in response to injury and were BrdU-/p27+, suggesting that nuclear β-catenin prevents those cells from entering the cell cycle. If FGF2 is present, the RPE undergoes dedifferentiation and proliferation concomitant with loss of nuclear β-catenin. Moreover, retinectomy followed by disruption of active β-catenin by using a signaling inhibitor (XAV939 or over-expressing a dominant negative form of Lef-1 induces regeneration from both the CM and RPE in the absence of FGF2. Our results imply that β-catenin protects cells of the CM and RPE from entering the cell cycle in the developing eye, and specifically for the RPE during injury. Thus inactivation of β-catenin is a pre-requisite for chick retina regeneration.

  15. [Medical, educational and neurophysiological prerequisites to the formation of the motivation to exercises in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, P I; Sedova, A S; Berezina, N O; Viatleva, O A

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the life activity of modern children and adolescents is the couch potato, mostly "sedentary" lifestyle. Biomedical and psychosocial significance of motor activity (MA) stipulates the necessity of the substantiation of scientific and methodological approaches to the formation of the motivation to exercises and sports in children. The purpose of the study was in the scientific substantiation and the delivery of medical, pedagogical and neurophysiological prerequisites for the formation of the motivation to increase MA in students in current conditions of their life activity. There were examined 189 students from 2-5th and 9th classes, out of them 65 students were observed in the dynamics of the school year; 585 students from the 1st-11th classes participated in the survey. Results of the study allowed to reveal the relation of students to the lessons of physical training, to evaluate the impact of a new educational program on the functional possibilities of the body of children from the special medical group "A" and to reveal the neurophysiological features of adolescents with different needs in motion.

  16. Understanding entangled cerebral networks: A prerequisite for restoring brain function with brain-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eMandonnet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically, cerebral processing has been conceptualized as a framework based on statically localized functions. However, a growing amount of evidence supports a hodotopical (delocalized and flexible organization. A number of studies have reported absence of a permanent neurological deficit after massive surgical resections of eloquent brain tissue. These results highlight the tremendous plastic potential of the brain. Understanding anatomo-functional correlates underlying this cerebral reorganization is a prerequisite to restore brain functions through brain-computer interfaces (BCIs in patients with cerebral diseases, or even to potentiate brain functions in healthy individuals. Here, we review current knowledge of neural networks that could be utilized in the BCIs that enable movements and language. To this end, intraoperative electrical stimulation in awake patients provides valuable information on the cerebral functional maps, their connectomics and plasticity. Overall, these studies indicate that the complex cerebral circuitry that underpins interactions between action, cognition and behavior should be throughly investigated before progress in BCI approaches can be achieved.

  17. Neuroinflammation is not a prerequisite for diabetes-induced tau phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M Van Der Harg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is a key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder for which Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a risk factor. In animal models for DM, the phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is induced or exacerbated, however the underlying mechanism is unknown. In addition to the metabolic dysfunction, DM is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. This was reported to be associated with a neuroinflammatory response in the hypothalamus of DM animal models. Neuroinflammation is also implicated in the development and progression of AD. It is unknown whether DM also induces neuroinflammation in brain areas affected in AD, the cortex and hippocampus. Here we investigated whether neuroinflammation could be the mechanistic trigger to induce tau phosphorylation in the brain of DM animals. Two distinct diabetic animal models were used; rats on free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS diet that are insulin resistant and streptozotocin-treated rats that are insulin deficient. The streptozotocin-treated animals demonstrated increased tau phosphorylation in the brain as expected, whereas the fcHFHS diet fed animals did not. Remarkably, neither of the diabetic animal models showed reactive microglia or increased GFAP and COX-2 levels in the cortex or hippocampus. From this, we conclude: 1. DM does not induce neuroinflammation in brain regions affected in AD, and 2. Neuroinflammation is not a prerequisite for tau phosphorylation. Neuroinflammation is therefore not the mechanism that explains the close connection between DM and AD.

  18. Trisomy 21- affected placentas highlight prerequisite factors for human trophoblast fusion and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Trophoblastic cell fusion is one essential step of the human trophoblast differentiation pathway and is a multifactorial and dynamic process finely regulated and still poorly known. Disturbances of syncytiotrophoblast formation are observed in numerous pathological clinical conditions such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and trisomy 21. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the different membrane proteins directly involved in trophoblastic cell fusion, which we identified by using the physiological model of primary culture of villous trophoblastic cells. Connexin 43 and gap junctional intercellular communication point to the role of molecular exchanges through connexin channels preceding membrane fusion. Zona occludens-1, which can interact with connexin 43, is also directly involved in trophoblast fusion. The recently identified fusogenic membrane retroviral envelop glycoproteins syncytin 1 (encoded by the HERV-W gene) and syncytin 2 (encoded by the FRD gene) and their receptors are major factors involved in human placental development . We describe the increasing number of factors promoting or inhibiting trophoblast fusion and differentiation and emphasize the role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its receptor. Indeed, in trisomy 21 the dynamic process leading to membrane fusion is impaired due to an abnormal hCG signaling. This abnormal trophoblast fusion and differentiation in trisomy 21-affected placenta is reversible in vitro. Trisomy 21 trophoblastic cell culture may therefore be useful to identify the possible large number of prerequisite factors involved in trophoblast fusion, the limiting step of trophoblast differentiation.

  19. Are left fronto-temporal brain areas a prerequisite for normal music-syntactic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Koelsch, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies in music cognition research suggest that "language areas" are involved in the processing of musical syntax, but none of these studies clarified whether these areas are a prerequisite for normal syntax processing in music. The present electrophysiological experiment tested whether patients with lesions in Broca's area (N=6) or in the left anterior temporal lobe (N=7) exhibit deficits in the processing of structure in music compared to matched healthy controls (N=13). A chord sequence paradigm was applied, and the amplitude and scalp topography of the Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was examined, an electrophysiological marker of musical syntax processing that correlates with activity in Broca's area and its right hemisphere homotope. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (but not anterior superior temporal gyrus - aSTG) patients with lesions older than 4 years showed an ERAN with abnormal scalp distribution, and subtle behavioural deficits in detecting music-syntactic irregularities. In one IFG patient tested 7 months post-stroke, the ERAN was extinguished and the behavioural performance remained at chance level. These combined results suggest that the left IFG, known to be crucial for syntax processing in language, plays also a functional role in the processing of musical syntax. Hence, the present findings are consistent with the notion that Broca's area supports the processing of syntax in a rather domain-general way.

  20. Identifying photoreceptors in blind eyes caused by RPE65 mutations: Prerequisite for human gene therapy success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Samuel G; Aleman, Tomas S; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B; Windsor, Elizabeth A M; Traboulsi, Elias I; Heon, Elise; Pittler, Steven J; Milam, Ann H; Maguire, Albert M; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Stone, Edwin M; Bennett, Jean

    2005-04-26

    Mutations in RPE65, a gene essential to normal operation of the visual (retinoid) cycle, cause the childhood blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Retinal gene therapy restores vision to blind canine and murine models of LCA. Gene therapy in blind humans with LCA from RPE65 mutations may also have potential for success but only if the retinal photoreceptor layer is intact, as in the early-disease stage-treated animals. Here, we use high-resolution in vivo microscopy to quantify photoreceptor layer thickness in the human disease to define the relationship of retinal structure to vision and determine the potential for gene therapy success. The normally cone photoreceptor-rich central retina and rod-rich regions were studied. Despite severely reduced cone vision, many RPE65-mutant retinas had near-normal central microstructure. Absent rod vision was associated with a detectable but thinned photoreceptor layer. We asked whether abnormally thinned RPE65-mutant retina with photoreceptor loss would respond to treatment. Gene therapy in Rpe65(-/-) mice at advanced-disease stages, a more faithful mimic of the humans we studied, showed success but only in animals with better-preserved photoreceptor structure. The results indicate that identifying and then targeting retinal locations with retained photoreceptors will be a prerequisite for successful gene therapy in humans with RPE65 mutations and in other retinal degenerative disorders now moving from proof-of-concept studies toward clinical trials.

  1. Positive Prerequisites for the Use of Reliefs in the Payment of Dues on Social Insurance Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Ofiarski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is permissible to use reliefs in the payment of social security contributions, based either on a definitive waiver by the creditor of the whole or relevant part of the amount due (partial or complete remission or only a temporary waiver of such amounts (payment deferral or payment in installments. The use of such reliefs is possible upon the occurrence of conditions laid down in the Act, for example, in the case of total non-recovery of contributions, for economic or other reasons worth considering, if justified by important interests of the person concerned. The prerequisites mentioned above have a nature of general clauses, allowing for their flexible adjustment to specific situations. Entities authorized to grant reliefs in the payment of social security contributions act within the limits of administrative discretion. But it is not a fully free operation, because the economic impact resulting from the use of such reliefs has a direct impact on the financial balance of earmarked funds which finance social security benefits, in particular pensions, disability allowances and other benefits.

  2. Comparative Analysis on Romanian Taxation in the European Context, as a Prerequisite for Tax Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of tax harmonization at EU level is becoming more present in the global crisis context, as it is both accepted and disputed by the European officials that manifest their preference for either coordination or tax competition. The crisis has generated, among other things, large budget deficits and a dangerous crisis of debts in the euro area, a situation that has attracted many followers in terms of tax harmonization. There is a European regulated Area, a unique European market, European unique currency and common monetary policy which regard the criteria relating to public finances (budget deficits, public debt. We ask ourselves to what extent it is necessary to achieve coordination or even tax unification and how does that help. This paper examines, according to the statistical database, the level and type of taxation, on categories of taxes and as a share of GDP, in Romania compared to EU countries, in order to clarify the current situation, the existing differences, the prospect of good European practice. If we speak of tax harmonization in terms of being acquired by Romania, the conclusion is that we can not report only to the technical or quantifiable aspects, as compared with the best results in European area, because they do not represent a guarantee of similar results. The fiscal policy must be both a prerequisite and a consequence of sustainable economic and financial policies, and the tax harmonization can only help insofar as it relates to the relationships between states and not at the tax level.

  3. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COORDINATES OF DEVELOPING A SPORT ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDEX – CURRENT CHALLENGES AND PREREQUISITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU SEBASTIAN MADALIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the consideration of the multivariate relationship between sport and economics, the present study is based on the sport potential of supporting economic growth through the enhancement of the relatively new domain of “sport entrepreneurship”. The brief revision of the specialized literature regarding the development of sport entrepreneurship in general terms is followed by a series of fundamental factors for the innovative proposal of a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in the European Union member countries. The methodological issues concerning the structure of the index represent the main novelty aspect of this research, which aims to be a prerequisite of a future thorough analysis regarding the micro- and macro-economic implications of developing a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in EU countries. The main identified challenge is a scientific one and it resides in the summative assessment of the elements representing entrepreneurship, sport and culture in the SEI, whereas the necessity of determining such an index appears because of economic and social reasons.

  4. Prerequisites for modeling price and return data series for the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei TINCA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series data from the capital market exhibits certain qualities which invalidate the hypotheses necessary for obtaining meaningful results from statistical modeling. This paper presents some of these qualities by looking at the time series for prices and returns on the Romanian Stock Exchange. The examples are based on the price time series and return time series of the Antibiotice securities and the BET-C index. The choice of a certain security and of the stock exchange index has been made with the intention of analyzing, in the future, the correlation between these two variables, and drawing significant conclusions which can be used for forecasts.Firstly, we will identify the empirical proprieties of the capital market, as they are described in the field research. Secondly, we will investigate the prerequisites for modeling chronological data series; these are stationary mean and variance. In the paper, the three methods are used: graphical representation, autocorrelation and the ADF test (Augmented Dickey-Fuller. For the frequent cases where the mean is not stationary, we will present the time series differentiation method, which can be used to obtain stationary values.Lastly, we will investigate the normality of the time series through the skewness and kurtosis methods, and through the Jarque-Bera statistic. We find out a characteristic for the capital market, in that the majority of the time series for securities have non-normal distributions.

  5. Germanium-tin interdiffusion in strained Ge/GeSn multiple-quantum-well structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuan; Zhou, Qian; Tok, Eng Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-06-01

    The thermal stability and germanium-tin (Ge-Sn) interdiffusion properties were studied in epitaxial Ge/GeSn multiple-quantum-well (MQW) structure. No obvious interdiffusion was observed for annealing temperatures of 300 °C or below, while observable interdiffusion occurred for annealing temperatures of 380 °C and above. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient by analyzing the decrease rate of Ge/GeSn periodic satellite peaks. The interdiffusion coefficient is much higher, and the activation enthalpy of 1.21 eV is substantially lower in Ge/GeSn MQW structure than that previously reported in silicon-germanium (Si-Ge) systems. When the annealing temperature is increased to above 500 °C, Ge-Sn interdiffusion becomes severe. Some small pits appear on the surface, which should be related to Sn out-diffusion to the Ge cap layer, followed by Sn desorption from the top surface. This work provides insights into the Ge-Sn interdiffusion and Sn segregation behaviors in Ge/GeSn MQW structure, and the thermal budget that may be used for fabrication of devices comprising Ge/GeSn heterostructures.

  6. The Impact of Prerequisite General Education Courses on the ETS Major Field Test for Business (MFT-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Charles Michael; Rodriguez, Linda Carol; Harrison, David S.; Wates, Kathleen W.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explore the relationship between general education prerequisite courses, used for schools of business admission, and predicted grade point averages (PGPAs) with the Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B). The MFT-B is designed to assess the general business knowledge of students at the end of their programs. There is no known literature…

  7. Democratization of Education as Prerequisite for Social Economic and Cultural Progress in a Multi-Cultural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madumere, S. C.; Olisaemeka, B. U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on democratization of education as a prerequisite for social, economic and cultural progress in a multi-cultural society, such as Nigeria. Attempt was made to define and explain the major concepts in the paper. Education was explained as an instrument of democracy and as function of socialization, culture and economic…

  8. SPEIR: A Ge Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, L; Vetter, K M; Burks, M T; Hull, E L; Craig, W W

    2004-02-11

    The SPEctroscopic Imager for {gamma}-Rays (SPEIR) is a new concept of a compact {gamma}-ray imaging system of high efficiency and spectroscopic resolution with a 4-{pi} field-of-view. The system behind this concept employs double-sided segmented planar Ge detectors accompanied by the use of list-mode photon reconstruction methods to create a sensitive, compact Compton scatter camera.

  9. Student- and faculty-reported importance of science prerequisites for osteopathic medical school: a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binstock, Judith; Junsanto-Bahri, Tipsuda

    2014-04-01

    The relevance of current standard medical school science prerequisites is being reexamined. (1) To identify which science prerequisites are perceived to best prepare osteopathic medical students for their basic science and osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) coursework and (2) to determine whether science prerequisites for osteopathic medical school should be modified. Preclinical osteopathic medical students and their basic science and OMM faculty from 3 colleges of osteopathic medicine were surveyed about the importance of specific science concepts, laboratories, and research techniques to medical school coursework. Participants chose responses on a 5-point scale, with 1 indicating "strongly disagree" or "not important" and 5 indicating "strongly agree" or "extremely important." Participants were also surveryed on possible prerequisite modifications. Student responses (N=264) to the general statement regarding prerequisites were "neutral" for basic science coursework and "disagree" for OMM coursework, with mean (standard deviation [SD]) scores of 3.37 (1.1) and 2.68 (1.2), respectively. Faculty responses (N=49) were similar, with mean (SD) scores of 3.18 (1.1) for basic science coursework and 2.67 (1.2) for OMM coursework. Student mean (SD) scores were highest for general biology for basic science coursework (3.93 [1.1]) and physics for OMM coursework (2.5 [1.1]). Student mean (SD) scores were lowest for physics for basic science coursework (1.79 [1.2]) and organic chemistry for OMM coursework (1.2 [0.7]). Both basic science and OMM faculty rated general biology highest in importance (mean [SD] scores, 3.73 [0.9] and 4.22 [1.0], respectively). Students and faculty rated biochemistry high in importance for basic science coursework (mean [SD] scores of 3.66 [1.2] and 3.32 [1.2], respectively). For basic science coursework, students and faculty rated most laboratories as "important," with the highest mean (SD) ratings for general anatomy (students, 3.66 [1

  10. The effects of strain on indirect absorption in Ge/SiGe quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, L.; Ikonić, Z.; Kelsall, R. W.

    2012-06-01

    We calculate the conduction band electron scattering rates from the Γ-valley into the indirect valleys in germanium, and use this to determine the strength of the indirect absorption in Ge/SiGe quantum well heterostructures. This is done as a function of the in-plane compressive strain in the Ge quantum wells, which results from pseudomorphic growth on a SiGe virtual substrate. This compressive strain results in the Δ valleys becoming available as destination states for scattering, which leads to a reduction in the Γ-valley lifetime. We calculate the indirect absorption and lifetime broadening of excitonic peaks, and show that indirect absorption decreases as the Ge fraction in the virtual substrate increases. We conclude that the Ge fraction of the SiGe virtual substrate should be approximately 95% or larger for optimum electroabsorption performance of Ge/SiGe quantum wells.

  11. Establishment of technical prerequisites for cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, E; Enghardt, W; Kaluza, M; Karsch, L; Laschinsky, L; Lessmann, E; Nicolai, M; Pawelke, J; Richter, C; Sauerbrey, R; Schlenvoigt, H P; Baumann, M

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, laser-based acceleration of charged particles has rapidly progressed and medical applications, e.g., in radiotherapy, might become feasible in the coming decade. Requirements are monoenergetic particle beams with long-term stable and reproducible properties as well as sufficient particle intensities and a controlled delivery of prescribed doses at the treatment site. Although conventional and laser-based particle accelerators will administer the same dose to the patient, their different time structures could result in different radiobiological properties. Therefore, the biological response to the ultrashort pulse durations and the resulting high peak dose rates of these particle beams have to be investigated. The technical prerequisites, i.e., a suitable cell irradiation setup and the precise dosimetric characterization of a laser-based particle accelerator, have to be realized in order to prepare systematic cell irradiation experiments. The Jena titanium:sapphire laser system (JETI) was customized in preparation for cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated electrons. The delivered electron beam was optimized with regard to its spectrum, diameter, dose rate, and dose homogeneity. A custom-designed beam and dose monitoring system, consisting of a Roos ionization chamber, a Faraday cup, and EBT-1 dosimetry films, enables real-time monitoring of irradiation experiments and precise determination of the dose delivered to the cells. Finally, as proof-of-principle experiment cell samples were irradiated using this setup. Laser-accelerated electron beams, appropriate for in vitro radiobiological experiments, were generated with a laser shot frequency of 2.5 Hz and a pulse length of 80 fs. After laser acceleration in the helium gas jet, the electrons were filtered by a magnet, released from the vacuum target chamber, and propagated in air for a distance of 220 mm. Within this distance a lead collimator (aperture of 35 mm) was introduced, leading

  12. Holistic Mathematics Instruction: Interactive Problem Solving and Real Life Situations Help Learners Understand Math Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeault, Betty

    1993-01-01

    Holistic math focuses on problem solving with numbers and concepts. Whole math activities for adults include shopping for groceries, eating in restaurants, buying gas, taking medicine, measuring a room, estimating servings, and compiling a family cookbook. (SK)

  13. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: New Eye Treatment Saves Former Math Teacher's Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related Macular Degeneration New Eye Treatment Saves Former Math Teacher's Sight Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... Courtesy of: Rebecca Hatcher Rebecca Hatcher, a retired math teacher from Virginia, is an example of the ...

  14. The joy of x a guided tour of math, from one to infinity

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A delightful tour of the greatest ideas of math, showing how math intersects with philosophy, science, art, business, current events, and everyday life, by an acclaimed science communicator and regular contributor to the New York Times.

  15. Teaching Math Problem Solving Using a Web-based Tutoring System, Learning Games, and Students' Writing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert W Maloy; Sharon A Edwards; Gordon Anderson

    2010-01-01

    .... What evolved was a broader set of strategies for teaching math problem solving using a combination of computer-based activities, learning games, and students' creative writing of math problems...

  16. The joy of x a guided tour of math, from one to infinity

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A delightful tour of the greatest ideas of math, showing how math intersects with philosophy, science, art, business, current events, and everyday life, by an acclaimed science communicator and regular contributor to the New York Times.

  17. Intravirion cohesion of matrix protein M1 with ribonucleocapsid is a prerequisite of influenza virus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirnov, O P; Manykin, A A; Rossman, J S; Klenk, H D

    2016-05-01

    Influenza virus has two major structural modules, an external lipid envelope and an internal ribonucleocapsid containing the genomic RNA in the form of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, both of which are interlinked by the matrix protein M1. Here we studied M1-RNP cohesion within virus exposed to acidic pH in vitro. The effect of acidification was dependent on the cleavage of the surface glycoprotein HA. Acidic pH caused a loss of intravirion RNP-M1 cohesion and activated RNP polymerase activity in virus with cleaved HA (HA1/2) but not in the uncleaved (HA0) virus. The in vitro acidified HA1/2 virus rapidly lost infectivity whereas the HA0 one retained infectivity, following activation by trypsin, suggesting that premature activation and release of the RNP is detrimental to viral infectivity. Rimantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 ion channel, was found to protect the HA1/2 virus interior against acidic disintegration, confirming that M2-dependent proton translocation is essential for the intravirion RNP release and suggesting that the M2 ion channel is only active in virions with cleaved HA. Acidic treatment of both HA0 and HA1/2 influenza viruses induces formation of spikeless bleb-like protrusion of ~ 25 nm in diameter on the surface of the virion, though only the HA1/2 virus was permeable to protons and permitted RNP release. It is likely that this bleb corresponds to the M2-enriched and M1-depleted focus arising from pinching off of the virus during the completion of budding. Cooperatively, the data suggest that the influenza virus has an asymmetric structure where the M1-mediated organization of the RNP inside the virion is a prerequisite for infectious entry into target cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prerequisites to launch neuroprotective trials in Parkinson's disease: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streffer, Johannes R; Grachev, Igor D; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Boroojerdi, Babak; Bronzova, Juliana; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Victor, Stephen J; Fontoura, Paulo; Alexander, Robert

    2012-04-15

    Realizing that 60% to 80% of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons are nonfunctional at the time of clinical diagnosis, there is an emerging consensus that disease-modifying treatments should be initiated in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, clinical trial designs and metrics in PD have been focused on motor symptoms as the core feature of the clinical disease. To identify earlier or "pre-motor" populations in PD, new markers have been proposed. We address the prerequisites needed to use these pre-motor markers in clinical trials for the selection of subjects, definition of populations, and monitoring of disease progression. This may require the development of new diagnostic criteria potentially based on non-motor clinical signs, imaging techniques, or biological features, all requiring discussion in a regulatory framework. Questions addressed include: Which steps must be taken to gain a broad consensus in the field from academic opinion leaders, patient advocacy groups, regulatory bodies, and industry? How do we prevent the selection of subgroups, which may not be representative of the full disease spectrum? Is there a way forward in personalized medicine? How do we balance risk and benefit in an at-risk population? While many tools are available, a concerted effort is required to develop integrated data sets, as well as to achieve the necessary standardization for multicenter clinical trials. To this end, public-private consortia (including academic centers, patient advocacy groups, and industry) will be of crucial importance to prospectively investigate and define the best tools and treatment paradigms.

  19. Loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not a prerequisite for spine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Georgia F; Oh, Won Chan; Boudewyn, Lauren C; Mikula, Sarah K; Zito, Karen

    2011-08-24

    Changes in neuronal structure are thought to underlie long-term behavioral modifications associated with learning and memory. In particular, considerable evidence implicates the destabilization and retraction of dendritic spines along with the loss of spine synapses as an important cellular mechanism for refining brain circuits, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating spine elimination remain ill-defined. The postsynaptic density protein, PSD-95, is highly enriched in dendritic spines and has been associated with spine stability. Because spines with low levels of PSD-95 are more dynamic, and the recruitment of PSD-95 to nascent spines has been associated with spine stabilization, we hypothesized that loss of PSD-95 enrichment would be a prerequisite for spine retraction. To test this hypothesis, we used dual-color time-lapse two-photon microscopy to monitor rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons cotransfected with PSD-95-GFP and DsRed-Express, and we analyzed the relationship between PSD-95-GFP enrichment and spine morphological changes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that the majority of spines that retracted were relatively unenriched for PSD-95-GFP. However, in the subset of PSD-95-GFP-enriched spines that retracted, spine shrinkage and loss of PSD-95-GFP were tightly coupled, suggesting that loss of PSD-95-GFP enrichment did not precede spine retraction. Moreover, we found that, in some instances, spine retraction resulted in a significant enrichment of PSD-95-GFP on the dendritic shaft. Our data support a model of spine retraction in which loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not required prior to the destabilization of spines.

  20. Prerequisites for understanding climate-change impacts on northern prairie wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Post van der Burg, Max; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) contains ecosystems that are typified by an extensive matrix of grasslands and depressional wetlands, which provide numerous ecosystem services. Over the past 150 years the PPR has experienced numerous landscape modifications resulting in agricultural conversion of 75–99 % of native prairie uplands and drainage of 50–90 % of wetlands. There is concern over how and where conservation dollars should be spent within the PPR to protect and restore wetland basins to support waterbird populations that will be robust to a changing climate. However, while hydrological impacts of landscape modifications appear substantial, they are still poorly understood. Previous modeling efforts addressing impacts of climate change on PPR wetlands have yet to fully incorporate interacting or potentially overshadowing impacts of landscape modification. We outlined several information needs for building more informative models to predict climate change effects on PPR wetlands. We reviewed how landscape modification influences wetland hydrology and present a conceptual model to describe how modified wetlands might respond to climate variability. We note that current climate projections do not incorporate cyclical variability in climate between wet and dry periods even though such dynamics have shaped the hydrology and ecology of PPR wetlands. We conclude that there are at least three prerequisite steps to making meaningful predictions about effects of climate change on PPR wetlands. Those evident to us are: 1) an understanding of how physical and watershed characteristics of wetland basins of similar hydroperiods vary across temperature and moisture gradients; 2) a mechanistic understanding of how wetlands respond to climate across a gradient of anthropogenic modifications; and 3) improved climate projections for the PPR that can meaningfully represent potential changes in climate variability including intensity and duration of wet and dry periods. Once