WorldWideScience

Sample records for prepubertal ewe lambs

  1. Anti-Müllerian hormone plasma concentration in prepubertal ewe lambs as a predictor of their fertility at a young age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahoz Belén

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammals, the ovarian follicular reserve is highly variable between individuals and impacts strongly on ovarian function and fertility. Nowadays, the best endocrine marker of this reserve in human, mouse and cattle is the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH. The objectives of this work were to determine whether AMH could be detected in the plasma of prepubertal ewe lambs and to assess its relationship with their fertility at a young age. Results Plasma was taken from 76 Rasa Aragonesa ewe lambs at 3.6 months of age for AMH determination. Simultaneously, 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG was administered and the number of ovulations recorded 6 days later. AMH was detected in 93% of the lambs, and the concentrations were about 3–4-fold higher in ovulating than in non-ovulating lambs (P P P  Conclusions Plasma AMH concentration might be a reliable marker of the ovarian status of prepubertal ewe lambs, reflecting their ability to respond to eCG stimulation. A single AMH measurement performed on ewe lambs early in age could be useful to select for replacement ewes with a higher predicted fertility at first mating.

  2. Effect of ewe and lamb genotype on gestation length, lambing ease and neonatal behaviour of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C M; Lawrence, A B; Brown, H E; Simm, G

    1996-01-01

    To distinguish between ewe and lamb breed effects on prenatal growth, ease of parturition and early lamb behaviour, an embryo-transfer study was carried out using a hill breed (Scottish Blackface; liveweight: 54.25 +/- 1.03 kg, mean +/- s.e.m.) and a lowland breed (Suffolk; 80.33 +/- 1.52 kg) to obtain the four possible combinations of ewe and lamb. Data were collected from 38 Blackface ewes (18 with Blackface lambs and 20 with Suffolk lambs) and 41 Suffolk ewes (20 with Blackface lambs and 21 with Suffolk lambs); all ewes were given single embryos. Suffolk lambs had a significantly longer gestation than Blackface lambs (1.5 days, P < 0.01), regardless of ewe breed. Suffolk lambs also had a longer labour (20 min, P < 0.05) and were significantly more likely to require birth assistance (17/21, 81% of all assisted deliveries; P < 0.001), as were male lambs (19/21, 90%; P < 0.01). These variables were independent of ewe breed. Blackface lambs were significantly more active than Suffolk lambs in the first 2 h after birth; ewe breed had little effect on lamb behaviour. Blackface lambs stood twice as quickly as Suffolk lambs after birth (13 min v. 24 min; P < 0.001), and were significantly more likely to suckle within the first 2 h after birth (92% v. 66%; P < 0.05). The behavioural retardation of Suffolk lambs may be a consequence of their birth difficulty which increases their likelihood of suffering birth trauma and hypoxia at parturition. Together, these factors may increase the probability of neonatal death in these lambs.

  3. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (Plate pregnancy, this did not affect the behaviours that lead to the establishment of the mother-young bond, nor the ewes' behavioural responses at weaning. Lambs reared by ewes that grazed on low pasture allowance during pregnancy presented fewer behavioural changes and a lower decrease of albumin concentration after weaning. Lambs' BW was not affected by the feeding received by their mothers.

  4. Relationships among ewe milk production and ewe and lamb forage intake in Suffolk and Targhee ewes nursing single or twin lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, W S; Hatfield, P G; Wallace, J D

    1998-05-01

    Suffolk and Targhee ewes (30 each) with single or twin lambs were used in four periods beginning in late gestation and continuing through weaning to evaluate breed differences in milk production, lamb BW, and DMI by ewes and lambs. In Periods 1 (late gestation) and 2 (early lactation), ewes (Period 1) and ewes with lambs (Period 2) were individually penned, fed .45 kg of barley x ewe(-1) x d(-1) and allowed ad libitum access to chopped alfalfa. Ewes and lambs grazed native range in Periods 3 and 4. Grazed forage DMI was estimated using chromic oxide. Estimates of milk production were obtained by handmilking. Average lamb age was 4, 45, and 73 d at the beginning of Periods 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Milk production tended (P = .20) to be greater for Suffolk than for Targhee ewes. Targhee ewes produced 85% more (P = .001) wool than Suffolk ewes. From 33 d prepartum to 89 d postpartum, Suffolk ewes consistently weighed more (P = .001) than Targhee ewes. Suffolk ewe BW loss (-.15 kg/d) was greater (P = .01) than Targhee ewe BW loss (-.02 kg/d) from 33 d prepartum to 6 d postpartum. From 6 to 89 d postpartum BW gain did not differ (P = .69; .05 kg/d) between breeds. From birth to 89 d postpartum, Suffolk lambs consistently weighed more than Targhee lambs (P = .003). From birth to 89 d postpartum, ADG was greater for Suffolk than for Targhee lambs (P = .006). Targhee ewes consumed 25% more (P = .01) feed over the course of the study than did Suffolk ewes. Grazed forage DMI by Targhee lambs was 26% greater (P = .01) than DMI by Suffolk lambs. When meat production is the primary income from sheep, one potential advantage of Suffolks compared with Targhees is more rapid gain with less feed intake.

  5. Effect of weaning age on hair sheep lamb and ewe production traits in an accelerated lambing system in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Weis, A J

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of weaning age on lamb and ewe productivity in an accelerated lambing system. St. Croix White (STX) and Dorper × St. Croix White (DRPX) lambs were assigned at birth based on breed, gender, and litter size to be weaned at 63 (Early-1; 106 lambs and 68 ewes) or 90 d of age (Late-1; 99 lambs and 60 ewes) in Exp.1 or at 63 (Early-2; 77 lambs and 57 ewes) or 120 d of age (Late-2; 75 lambs and 56 ewes) in Exp. 2. After weaning, lambs were weighed weekly and fed a concentrate ration (2% BW·lamb·d) while grazing guinea grass pastures. In Exp. 1, weaning weight was greater ( 0.06) between Early-2 and Late-2 lambs (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 1 and 2, ewe BW at breeding and lambing and weaning and lambing rate were not different among weaning ages of lambs ( > 0.17). The Early-1 ewes exhibited estrus earlier than Late-1 ewes (10.9 ± 0.9 vs. 13.9 ± 1.0 d, respectively) but there was no difference ( > 0.63) between Early-2 and Late-2 ewes. Weaning hair lambs at 90 or 120 d of age can be done in an accelerated lambing system with no detrimental effect on lamb or ewe productivity. Late weaning resulted in a decreased number of days that lambs received high-cost, imported feed without a reduction in growth, resulting in savings of US$6 to $15 per lamb.

  6. Effect of ewe prolificacy potential and stocking rate on ewe and lamb performance in a grass-based lamb production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, E; McHugh, N; Boland, T M; Creighton, P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born per ewe per year) as dictated by sire breed type, stocking rate (SR; ewes per ha), and their interaction on ewe and lamb performance in a temperate grass-based lamb production system. The study was a 2 × 3 factorial design, consisting of 2 differing ewe PP and 3 SR which included 180 medium prolificacy potential (MP- Suffolk-sired crossbred ewes) and 180 high prolificacy potential ewes (HP- Belclare-sired crossbred ewes) allocated to 1 of 3 ( = 60 ewes) SR: low (LSR; 10 ewes per ha), medium (MSR; 12 ewes per ha) or high (HSR: 14 ewes per ha). Each treatment was managed in a 5-paddock rotational grazing system for the duration of the study. Medium prolificacy ewes were consistently heavier ( < 0.001) compared to HP ewes, with HP ewes having a higher BCS at lambing and 6 wk post-lambing (PL; < 0.05). Low SR ewes had a higher BW ( < 0.05) and BCS ( < 0.05) at mating, 6 wk PL, and weaning relative to MSR and HSR ewes which did not differ from each other. Lambs born to MP ewes were heavier at birth and weaning ( < 0.001) and achieved a higher ADG from birth to weaning ( < 0.05). Ewe PP had no effect on lifetime ADG or d to slaughter (DTS) with HP lambs yielding a higher carcass weight ( < 0.001). Low SR and MSR lambs achieved higher ADG from birth to weaning ( < 0.001) and weaning weight ( < 0.001) relative to HSR lambs and did not differ from each other, while post-weaning and lifetime lamb ADG was highest at the LSR, intermediate at the MSR, and lowest at the HSR ( < 0.001). A ewe PP by SR interaction existed for DTS, with MP lambs at the LSR reaching slaughter weight earlier ( < 0.01) relative to HP lambs, while at the MSR and HSR, MP and HP lambs did not differ from each other. High PP ewes produced a higher average born ( < 0.001) and weaned litter size per ewe ( < 0.01), with live weight weaned per ha ( < 0.001) increasing as ewe PP

  7. Comparison of energy rationing systems for late gestation ewes: Impacts on ewe and lamb performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, F P; McGovern, F M; Lott, S; Fahey, A G; Creighton, P; Boland, T M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the effects of a ME () or a NE () system for rationing ewes during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance and 2) to investigate incremental increases in NE allocation above 100% of recommendation during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance. Fifty-two twin-bearing ewes ( = 13 per treatment) were rationed to either 100% of recommended ME requirements (100% ME) or 100, 110, or 120% of recommended NE requirements (100% NE, 110% NE, and 120% NE) from d 112 of gestation to parturition. Mean energy intake, measured as ME and NE, from Day 112 of gestation to parturition was higher in all NE treatments compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.01). Ewes offered the 3 NE treatments had a higher live weight at parturition compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.02), with 100% NE and 120% NE ewes still being heavier than 100% ME ewes at 35 d postpartum ( = 0.02). Increasing NE allowance resulted in a linear decrease in the level of BCS loss prepartum ( = 0.01) and a linear increase in the level of BCS loss postpartum ( = 0.01). There was no difference observed between any of the treatments in total colostrum produced to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.29) or in total colostrum intake to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.27). Increasing maternal NE allowance led to a linear increase in lamb serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum ( = 0.03). The estimated milk production of 120% NE ewes tended to be higher than all other treatments at wk 6 of lactation ( = 0.08). Colostral SFA levels from 100% ME ewes was lower than that of all 3 NE treatments ( = 0.01), and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels in colostrum of the 100% ME ewes were lower than those of the 100% NE ewes ( = 0.01). Cumulative levels of milk SFA, UFA, and MUFA did not differ between treatments ( = 0.19). Lamb growth rates during the first 5 wk postpartum were unaffected by treatment ( = 0.18) as were days to slaughter ( = 0.34). It can be concluded that both ME and NE systems used in this

  8. Sodium chlorate reduces presence of Escherichia coli in feces of lambs and ewes managed in shed-lambing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to establish doses of orally-administered NaClO3 that reduced presence of generic Escherichia coli in intestines of ewes and neonatal lambs managed in a shed-lambing system. Neonatal lambs (n = 32; age = 7.1 ± 1.2 d; BW = 6.8 ± 1.0 kg) and yearling ewes (n = 44; BW = 74.8 ± 5.6 kg)...

  9. Genetic evaluation of the probability of lambing in yearling Targhee ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the additive genetic control of lambing percentage in yearling Targhee ewes. The records of 3,103 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2011 and mated at approximately 7.5 mo of age were analyzed. Records included sire, dam, weaning weight, breeding pen, age of dam...

  10. Progesterone administration reduces the behavioural and physiological responses of ewes to abrupt weaning of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Banchero, G; Hötzel, M J; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2013-08-01

    Abrupt weaning, a usual management in sheep productive systems, may provoke behavioural and physiological responses indicative of stress in ewes and lambs. Progesterone (P4) has anxiolytic and sedative effects through the union of its metabolites that contain 3α-hydroxyl group to the γ-aminobutyricacidA receptor. Our first aim was to determine whether P4 administration reduces the behavioural and physiological responses of ewes to abrupt weaning of lambs. A complementary aim was to determine whether P4 treatment affects the milk yield and composition of ewes, and the BW of their lambs. In experiment 1, seven ewes received P4 treatment for 32 days (group E1-P4), and eight ewes remained as an untreated control group (group E1-C). BW of the lambs was recorded during P4 treatment. Lambs were weaned at 59 days (Day 0 = weaning). The main behaviours of the ewes before and after weaning were recorded using 10 min scan sampling. The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning of the lambs. In experiment 2, milk yield and composition were determined in two different groups of six ewes treated with P4 (group E2-P4) for 16 days and in five untreated controls (group E2-C). The BW of lambs increased with time (P = 0.001) in both groups and did not differ. The percentage of observations in which the ewes were seen pacing on Day 0 was greater in the E1-C group than in the E1-P4 group (P = 0.0007). Similarly, the percentage of observations in which the ewes were recorded vocalizing on Day 0 was greater in the E1-C group than in the E1-P4 group (P = 0.04). The percentage of observations in which E1-C ewes were recorded lying did not change from Days 0 to 1; however, it increased in E1-P4 ewes. Total serum protein concentration did not change in E1-P4 ewes from Days 0 to 3, although a decrease was seen in E1-C ewes (P = 0.04). Serum globulin concentration was greater in E1-P4 ewes on Day 3 than in E1-C ewes (P = 0.0008). In

  11. Ewes Direct Most Maternal Attention towards Lambs that Show the Greatest Pain-Related Behavioural Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futro, Agnieszka; Masłowska, Katarzyna; Dwyer, Cathy M.

    2015-01-01

    Although neonatal farm animals are frequently subjected to painful management procedures, the role of maternal behaviour in pain coping, has not been much studied. We investigated whether ewes were able to distinguish between lambs in pain and those that were not, and whether their behaviour altered depending on the severity of lamb pain. Eighty male lambs were allocated to one of 4 pain treatments within 24 hours of birth. Lambs were either handled only (C), bilaterally castrated with tight rubber rings (RR), as for RR but with the application of a Burdizzo clamp immediately proximal to the ring (Combined) or subjected to short scrotum castration (SSC) where the testicles were retained within the abdomen and only the scrotum removed. The behaviour of the ewe, treated lamb and untreated sibling where present (n = 54) were recorded for 30 minutes after treatment. Castration treatment increased the expression of abnormal standing and lying postures, specific pain-related behaviours (head-turning, stamping/kicking, easing quarters, tail wagging) and composite pain scores (P<0.001 for all). The greatest expression of pain-related behaviours was shown by lambs in the RR group, which were the only group to show rolling responses indicative of severe pain, followed by the SSC group. Ewes expressed more licking/sniffing responses to the RR and SSC lambs than towards the Combined and C lambs (P<0.05), and oriented most to RR lambs and least to C lambs (P<0.001). Ewes with two lambs also directed more attention towards the treated than the untreated lamb (P<0.001). The quantity of maternal care directed towards the lamb was positively correlated with the expression of active pain behaviours. The data demonstrate that ewes are able to discriminate between lambs in pain and those that are not, and that their response is increased with a greater severity of pain. PMID:26217942

  12. Ewes Direct Most Maternal Attention towards Lambs that Show the Greatest Pain-Related Behavioural Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Futro

    Full Text Available Although neonatal farm animals are frequently subjected to painful management procedures, the role of maternal behaviour in pain coping, has not been much studied. We investigated whether ewes were able to distinguish between lambs in pain and those that were not, and whether their behaviour altered depending on the severity of lamb pain. Eighty male lambs were allocated to one of 4 pain treatments within 24 hours of birth. Lambs were either handled only (C, bilaterally castrated with tight rubber rings (RR, as for RR but with the application of a Burdizzo clamp immediately proximal to the ring (Combined or subjected to short scrotum castration (SSC where the testicles were retained within the abdomen and only the scrotum removed. The behaviour of the ewe, treated lamb and untreated sibling where present (n = 54 were recorded for 30 minutes after treatment. Castration treatment increased the expression of abnormal standing and lying postures, specific pain-related behaviours (head-turning, stamping/kicking, easing quarters, tail wagging and composite pain scores (P<0.001 for all. The greatest expression of pain-related behaviours was shown by lambs in the RR group, which were the only group to show rolling responses indicative of severe pain, followed by the SSC group. Ewes expressed more licking/sniffing responses to the RR and SSC lambs than towards the Combined and C lambs (P<0.05, and oriented most to RR lambs and least to C lambs (P<0.001. Ewes with two lambs also directed more attention towards the treated than the untreated lamb (P<0.001. The quantity of maternal care directed towards the lamb was positively correlated with the expression of active pain behaviours. The data demonstrate that ewes are able to discriminate between lambs in pain and those that are not, and that their response is increased with a greater severity of pain.

  13. Ewe maternal behavior score to estimate lamb survival and performance during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Barros de Moraes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of perinatal lambs and low weight at weaning cause huge liabilities to farmers. Current study describes maternal-filial behavior and evaluates the use of maternal behavior score (MBS to estimate the behavior of ewes and lambs soon after birth, and correlate it with lamb mortality and performance during lactation. Thirty-seven Corriedale ewes were used in a completely randomized design. MBS was assessed up to 24 hours after birth, taking into consideration the distance of the ewe from the lamb at the approach of a person. Maternal behavior, placental weight, weight gain of the lambs until weaning and their survival rate were also evaluated until two hours after lambing. More than 90% of the ewes had adequate maternal behavior, with parental care, even though ewes were very sensitive to the presence of people. There was no significant correlation between MBS and maternal behavior, lamb mortality rate and live weight gain. Under these conditions, MBS was not a useful tool to estimate maternal behavior and performance of lambs.

  14. Influence of growth hormone on growth and onset of puberty of Rahmani ewe lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. El-Shahat

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Somatotropin administration enhanced puberty in Rahmani ewe lambs. This is due to increased provision of trophic signals (represented by increased Serum IGF-1 secretions and/or blood-borne metabolites (glucose, cholesterol and lipid.

  15. A preliminary study of the effects of organic farming on oocyte quality in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casao, A; María, G A; Abecia, J A

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether feeding Rasa Aragonesa ewes certified organic feed, from 15 days before mating until lamb weaning, improved oocyte quality and in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) performances of the offspring. In a second experiment, ovaries from ewe lambs that were bred on an organic farm and were of the same breed were compared with those from conventionally bred animals. The number (± standard error of the mean) of healthy oocytes per ewe lamb did not differ significantly between organic (12.2 ± 3.3) and conventionally (13.6 ± 4.0) fed ewes. Ovaries from ewe lambs born on an organic farm had significantly (P farm (25.0 ± 4.2), and higher IVM (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P organic procedures on the sheep oocyte quality indicates that the total integration in the complete organic system improved the oocyte quality of ewe lambs, although organic feeding alone was insufficient to improve quality.

  16. EFFECT OF FEEDING SEASON ON REPRODUCTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF EWES AND SUCKLING LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate feeding season effect (winter and summer on reproductive and productive traits of the ewes and suckling lambs. Biological investigations were conducted on 60 Merinolandschaf breed ewes aged 4 years on the average and their lambs (123 in the suckling-ablactation period. In the winter feeding season ewes were fed grain mixture (300 g daily containing 60% oats, 30% maize and 10% soybean meal as well as hay (ad libitum. The lambs were suckling and they received forage mixture, quality hay and fresh water ad libitum. During the summer feeding season ewes grazed on the pastures. The lambs were suckling and received forage mixture, quality hay ad libitum and pasture green mass in smaller portions. While comparing winter to summer feeding season the ewes had longer gravidity period (150.76 and 150.40 days, more lambs at parturition (1.21 and 1.11 and ablactation (1.10 and 1.07, more twins (12 and 8, higher body weight during gravidity (65.52 kg and 61.86 kg and increased body weight losses after lambing (7.72 kg and 6.44 kg. As for the body weight losses after lactation (7.94 kg and 7.78 kg no statistically significant differences were determined between the feeding seasons. Birth weight of lambs was higher by 26.91% (4.15 kg and 3.27 kg and at 60 days of age it was higher by 11.40% in winter compared to summer feeding season. Faster daily gains of lambs (by 7.21% was determined during the winter feeding season. However, it was noticed that lambs aged from 40th to 60th and 20th to 60th day obtained higher daily gains (by 6.25% and 1.74% in summer feeding season.

  17. Reproductive characteristics of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Gül

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the reproductive responses of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing (CAMAL system. Ewes were randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The first group (control group consists of 20 ewes exposed to rams in September under conventional management system while the second group (CAMAL were divided into four sub-flocks contain 20 head of ewes each one were exposed to rams to obtain three lambing in two years with different breeding and lambing months. In CAMAL ewes, oestrus was synchronized using intra-vaginal sponges with progesterone and PMSG administration. Results revealed that within CAMAL group, the percentage of animals in heat, onset of oestrus, litter size, birth weight and weaning weight were affected by mating months. September and November were the most appropriate months for oestrus ratio (97.5 % and litter size (1.18 and 0.98, respectively. Lambs of control group were heavier at birth and weaning than those of CAMAL group. On the other hand lamb yield was not affected statistically by the CAMAL administration.

  18. Thermogenesis, blood metabolites and hormones, and growth of lambs born to ewes supplemented with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithly, J I; Kott, R W; Berardinelli, J G; Moreaux, S; Hatfield, P G

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal lamb mortality is a major factor affecting profitability in the sheep industry, and lamb thermogenesis is a key element in neonatal lamb survival. Increased lamb vigor has been reported when ewes were supplemented during late gestation with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the effects of DHA on lamb thermogenesis and immunocompetence have not been investigated. Eighty twin-bearing Targhee ewes (ages 2 to 5 yr; 68.5 ± 3 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 supplement treatments to determine the effects of feeding DHA to ewes during late gestation and early lactation on lamb thermogenesis, serum metabolites and hormones, and lamb growth. Supplement treatments were 12 g·ewe(-1)·d(-1) of algae-derived DHA (DHA Gold Advanced Bionutrition Corp., Columbia, MD; algae-derived DHA); and no algae-derived DHA (control). Supplements were individually fed daily during the last 30 d (±7 d) of gestation and pen fed (6 pens/treatment with 6 or 7 ewes/pen) during the first 38 d (±7 d) of lactation. One hour after lambing and before nursing, twin-born lambs were weighed, blood sampled via jugular puncture, and placed in a dry cold chamber for 30 min (0°C), and rectal temperatures were recorded every minute for 30 min. Lambs were removed from the cold chamber, blood sampled, warmed for 15 min, and returned to their dam. Ewes were blood sampled, and colostrum samples were collected 1 h postpartum. Ewe and lamb sera were assayed for glucose, NEFA, cortisol, and leptin. Lamb rectal temperature, glucose, NEFA, cortisol, leptin, and birth weights did not differ between treatments. The BW at 38 d was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs born to control ewes than for lambs born to algae-derived DHA-supplemented ewes; however, the colostrum of algae-derived DHA-supplemented ewes had a greater specific gravity (P = 0.05) than for control ewes. Overall, despite a potentially positive effect on ewe colostral IgG concentrations, supplementation of algae-derived DHA during

  19. The influence of season of lambing and lactation on reproductive activity and plasma LH concentrations in Merino ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, B J; Starr, B G

    1977-03-01

    Groups of Merino ewes which were lactating for 40 days (Group I) or had had their lambs removed at birth (Group II) after lambing in the winter (June) or spring (November) were fed on a high plane of nutrition. Ovarian inspections were carried out at 15 and 30 days after lambing and plasma LH levels were measured at 6-h intervals for 20-30 days. First ovulation was earlier in ewes lambing in the winter (16-6 days, range 11-26) than in the spring (24-7 days, range 15-30) but there was no difference in the number of ewes ovulating. LH levels were higher in winter-lambing ewes (2-79 +/- 3-4 ng/ml) than in those lambing in the spring (1-78 +/- 0-23 ng/ml). LH peaks were usually associated with an ovulation in spring lambing ewes but were not consistently so in the others. More ewes ovulated in Group II (72%) than in Group I (40%) but the mean time of first ovulation was similar. In the winter-lambing ewes the mean daily LH concentration was 2-40 +/- 0-32 ng/ml in Group I and 3-18 +/- 0-31 ng/ml in Group II but there were no differences between the spring-lambing ewes, (I, 1-75 +/- 0-20 ng/ml; II, 1-80 +/- 0-26 ng/ml). There were more elevations in LH levels in Group II ewes (64%) than in Group I ewes (43-8%). After lambing the LH levels increased slowly, indicating a gradual recovery of pituitary function.

  20. The Relationship between Selenium and T3 in Selenium Supplemented and Nonsupplemented Ewes and Their Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Elghany Hefnawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pregnant ewes were selected and classified into two groups. The first group received subcutaneous selenium supplementation (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg BW at the 8th and 5th weeks before birth and 1st week after birth while the other was control group without selenium injection. Maternal plasma and serum samples were collected weekly from the 8th week before birth until the 8th week after birth and milk samples were taken from ewes weekly, while plasma and serum samples were collected at 48 hours, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 8th weeks after birth from the newborn lambs. Results demonstrated significant positive relationship between maternal plasma selenium and serum T3 in supplemented and control ewes (r=0.69 to 0.72, P<0.05. There was significant (P<0.001 increase in T3 in supplemented ewes and their lambs until the 8th week after birth. There was positive relationship between milk, selenium concentration, and serum T3 in the newborn lambs of the supplemented group (r=0.84, P<0.01, while the relationship was negative in the control one (r=-0.89, P<0.01. Muscular and thyroid pathological changes were independent of selenium supplementation. Selenium supplementation was important for maintaining T3 in ewes and newborn lambs until the 8th week after birth.

  1. Selection for superior growth advances the onset of puberty and increases reproductive performance in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-06-01

    The reproductive efficiency of the entire sheep flock could be improved if ewe lambs go through puberty early and produce their first lamb at 1 year of age. The onset of puberty is linked to the attainment of critical body mass, and therefore we tested whether it would be influenced by genetic selection for growth rate or for rate of accumulation of muscle or fat. We studied 136 Merino ewe lambs with phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values at post-weaning age (200 days) for live weight (PWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT). First oestrus was detected with testosterone-treated wethers and then entire rams as the ewes progressed from 6 to 10 months of age. Blood concentrations of leptin and IGF-I were measured to test whether they were related to production traits and reproductive performance (puberty, fertility and reproductive rate). In total, 97% of the lambs reached first oestrus at average weight 39.4 ± 0.4 kg (mean ± s.e.m.) and age 219 days (range 163 to 301). Age at first oestrus decreased with increases in values for PWT (P growth can accelerate the onset of puberty and increase fertility and reproductive rate of Merino ewe lambs. The metabolic hormones, IGF-I and leptin, might act as a physiological link between the growing tissues and the reproductive axis.

  2. Lamb survival, glutathione redox state and immune function of neonates and lambs from periparturient Merino ewes supplemented with rumen-protected methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shimin; Lei, Jason; Hancock, Serina; Scanlan, Victoria; Broomfield, Steve; Currie, Andrew; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Wool growth in Merino sheep demands a high level of sulphur amino acids, competing with body growth and the immune system, which may play a role in increasing the risk of lamb mortality. The hypothesis that dietary supplementation of methionine (Met) to Merino ewes during the late stages of pregnancy will improve foetal growth and alter immune competency of ewes and lambs was tested in a total of 120 grazing, pregnant Merino ewes. Sixty ewes were group-supplemented with 6.3 g/d rumen-protected Met (Met-Plus) per sheep from day 111 of pregnancy until day 7 after lambing, and the other 60 animals were used as a non-supplemented Control. Lambs from Met-supplemented ewes tended to be 10% heavier than Control lambs (p = 0.10), which did not affected the survival rate at weaning significantly. The supplemented ewes had slightly higher concentrations of total glutathione (GSH) in plasma at lambing (p colostrum and in plasma of 1-week-old lambs, and white blood cell counts and leukocyte types. The trend towards higher lamb birth weights in the Met-supplemented group requires further investigation as this may influence survival at birth and weaning.

  3. Influence of growth hormone on growth and onset of puberty ofRahmani ewe lamb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K H El-Shahat; N F Khaled; F I El-Far

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of somatotropin administration on growth and puberty attainment of Rahmani ewes -lamb.Methods:TwelveRahmani ewes–lamb of6-7 months of age and average body weight(24.75±0.16) kg were randomly allotted into two equal groups.The first group served as control and the second group was somatotropin-treated.The ewe-lambs were weighed at the start and at the end of the experiment.In addition, the body condition score, withers height and heart girth were determined at the end of the study.Blood samples were collected weekly till the end of experiment(Twelve weeks).Sera samples were assayed for progesterone, insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and urea.Results:It indicated that the somatotropin-treated group attained puberty2.5 weeks(18 days) earlier than control one.Somatotropin-treatedRahmani ewe lambs had higher body weight, and body condition score than those of the control one.A similar tendency was observed in average daily gain, withers height and heart girth.Somatotropin administration had a beneficial effect on blood born metabolites as indicated by increased serum glucose, total lipids, cholesterol,IGF-1 and decreased urea ofRahmani ewes- lamb as compared to control one.Conclusion:Somatotropin administration enhanced puberty inRahmani ewe lambs.This is due to increased provision of trophic signals(represented by increasedSerumIGF-1 secretions) and/or blood-borne metabolites(glucose, cholesterol and lipid).

  4. Impact of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance of Santa Inês ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Amr S; Soltan, Yosra A; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Alencar, Severino M; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2016-06-01

    Twenty Santa Inês ewes used to evaluate effects of oral administration of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance were randomly grouped (n = 10 ewes/group) to control without propolis administration and propolis treated (3 g red propolis extract/ewe/day) 21 days before expected lambing date. Blood samples were collected weekly, and daily milk yield was recorded twice weekly until 7 weeks postpartum. Propolis administration increased (P milk, fat, protein, and lactose. Propolis supplementation increased (P milk conversion ratio but had no effect on lamb birth and weaning weights. The prepartum administration of propolis extract supported positively the transition of ewes from pregnancy to lactation with health benefits achieved for both of ewes and lambs performances.

  5. Poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia in lambs by the ingestion of milk from ewes that ingest the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Lucena, Kleber F; Rodrigues, Jussara M N; Campos, Édipo M; Dantas, Antônio F M; Pfister, James A; Cook, Daniel; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    Two experiments, each with 10 pregnant ewes (8 treated and 2 controls) were performed to determine if nursing lambs of lactating ewes become intoxicated when the ewes ingest Ipomoea asarifolia but do not show clinical signs themselves. In the first experiment the sheep grazed I. asarifolia in the field while in the second, sheep were maintained in individual bays consuming dry I. asarifolia at 10% and 20% into their ration. In both experiments the lambs remained confined, consuming only their mother's milk. Four of 8 lambs in the grazing experiment and the 4 nursing lambs from the ewes given 20% I. asarifolia showed signs of I. asarifolia poisoning. These results confirm that the tremorgenic compound of I. asarifolia or its toxic metabolites are eliminated in milk and can intoxicate nursing lambs.

  6. Effect of system of lamb rearing and season on early post-partum fertility of ewes and growth performance of lambs in Katahdin sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastle-Simpson, S; D'Souza, K; Redhead, A; Singh-Knights, D; Baptiste, Q; Knights, M

    2016-07-23

    The effect of season (S), lamb rearing system (RT) and grain supplementation (GS) on post-partum fertility in Katahdin ewes and growth in Katahdin lambs was evaluated. Katahdin ewes were bred to lamb in fall (n = 36) or spring (n = 56) and at approximately 2.5 months post-partum were randomly assigned to be permanently separated or to continue to suckle their lambs for an additional 3 months. All ewes were joined with rams following treatment to synchronize oestrus. Weaned (W, n = 84) and continuously suckled lambs (CSK, n = 88) were fed forage only (n = 84; hay and pasture for fall- and spring-born lambs respectively) or were supplemented (n = 88; 18% crude protein ration ad libitum) and all weighed biweekly. Ewes rebred in the fall had a shorter ram introduction to lambing interval (p < 0.05), higher prolificacy (p = 0.001) and higher lambing rates (p = 0.02); however, the proportion of ewes lambing was not affected by season. The first service lambing rate was lower in ewes continuously suckling lambs in the spring, but not in the fall breeding season (S × RT, p = 0.03). Lambs that continuously suckled their dams and were supplemented grew quicker and gained more (p < 0.001) than their weaned and unsupplemented counterparts. The effect of CSK on growth rate of lambs was greater in the spring (RT × S; p = 0.05), and the effect of supplementation on growth rate of lambs was greater in the fall (GS × S; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Katahdin lambs achieved higher weight gains from continuous suckling and grain supplementation. Moreover, Katahdin ewes are capable of early rebreeding post-partum while suckling their lambs, which makes them suited for use in accelerated lambing programmes.

  7. Polwarth and Texel ewe parturition duration and its association with lamb birth asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, F; Banchero, G

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that parturition duration is related to birth asphyxia in lambs and that asphyxia affects newborn lamb viability and vigor. Two sire and dam genotypes (Texel: TX; Polwarth: PW) and their crosses were represented in the study. Eighty lambs (25 PW sire × PW dam, 13 TX × TX, 25 TX × PW, and 17 PW × TX) born to 69 grazing ewes were used. At birth, the log₁₀ length of the second stage of parturition, birth weight, placental weight, and several body measurements were recorded on all lambs, and jugular blood samples were analyzed with the i-Stat Portable Clinical Analyzer (Abbott, Montevideo, Uruguay). A modified Apgar viability score at birth and lamb behavior during their first hour of life were recorded. Brain weight, muscle:bone ratio, and bone density were recorded in 20 male lambs (5 from each breed group) that were euthanized and dissected 24 h after birth. Data were analyzed by linear regression, least squares ANOVA, and ordinal and binary logistic regressions. Mean blood gas and acid-base variables were 7.21 ± 0.09 for pH, 18.4 ± 9.8 mmHg for partial pressure of oxygen, 53 ± 12.5 mmHg for partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and -4 ± 5.1 mmol/L for extracellular fluid base excess. Parturition duration increased with birth weight (P lambs (P lambs were born asphyxiated (pO₂ risk of asphyxia (P lambs presented at birth a 16-fold greater risk of asphyxia (P lambs appeared immature at birth, with less bone density (P lambs, suggesting that birth asphyxia is an important risk factor in perinatal lamb mortality.

  8. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION OF EWES ON PRODUCTION TRAITS, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND METABOLIC PROFILE OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Novoselec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary selenium supplementation (organic, inorganic of high pregnant ewes on the production traits of lambs, the concentration of selenium in the blood of ewes and their lambs, indicators of antioxidant status in the blood of ewes and their lambs, the metabolic profile of ewes and their lambs and concentrations of thyroid hormones. Ewes were in the last third of pregnancy, the average age of four years, healthy and in good condition, divided into three groups of 10 animals. The research lasted 4 months respectively, 2 months with ewes during high pregnancy, 2 months with ewes during lactation and on their lambs during suckling period. Ewes ration from control group one was composed from 300 g/day/animal feed mixture without addition of selenium and 150 g/day/animal barley and alfalfa hay that they had ad libitum. Feed mixture from second group of ewes was supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg organic form of selenium (Sel-Plex®, and feed mixture from third group with the same amount inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenite. Selenium supplementation of ewes feed mixture did not significantly influence on the production traits of their lambs postpartum. Selenium supplementation of ewes and their lambs had influence on a significant (P<0.01; P<0.05 increase in the concentration of selenium, GSH-Px and SOD in whole blood compared to control group of ewes. Organic selenium supplement had a more significant impact on the increase in concentration of selenium and GSH-Px in the blood. In the ewes and lambs blood was determined decrease of MDA with increasing concentrations of selenium in the blood. Generally, the selenium supplementation led to an increase (P<0.05 in the number of WBC and lymphocytes in the blood of ewes and lambs. Also, the increase in the number of RBC, HGB content and MCV in lambs and MCH as well as MCHC in ewes that had a selenium supplement in feed mixture were determined

  9. Nursing regimens: effects on body condition, return to postpartum ovarian cyclicity in Santa Ines ewes, and performance of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, I J; Alves, A C; Pérez, J R O; Lima, R R; Garcia, I F F; Nogueira, G P; Junqueira, F B; Castro, T R; Aziani, W L B; Alves, N G

    2013-08-01

    The effects of nursing regimens on the body condition, onset of ovarian cyclicity postpartum and weaning weight of lambs were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Thirty-two ewes were blocked according to parity, number of lambs, and body weight at lambing and within each block randomly allocated to treatments: continuous nursing (CN), controlled nursing (CN2) with two daily feedings for an hour after the 10th day postpartum, or early weaning (EW) with total separation from the lambs after the 10th day. The animals were evaluated from the 12th day postpartum until the first estrus or until 60th day. The dry matter and nutrients intake did not differ among treatments (P>0.05) but did differ over time (P0.05) among the treatments. The percentage of ovulation until 30th day was greater (PSanta Ines ewes, with the advantages of simpler management and higher lamb weaning weights.

  10. Evaluation of Slaughtered lambs Results from Varamini Ewes Crossing with Shal, Afshar, Moghani and Varamini Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza seyedsharifi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the animal breeding aims is increasing the economic efficiency. Therefore, mating among selected animals in order to enhance economic efficiency should also supply variation in population for next generations’ selection. This study was performed to estimate performance in cross breed lambs resulting from crosses of shal, moghani, afshari and varamini rams with varamini ewes, compained it to pure varamini lambs. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was the progeny evaluation from slaughter in one way crossing between Varamini ewes with Shal, Afshari, Moghani and Varamini rams and comparing their progeny efficiency. Thus, three 1.5 and 3 years rams were selected from each of Shal, Afshari, Moghani and Varamini breeds. A sample was separated from 10, 11 and 12 ribs was separated for examination of the fat, meat and bone percentage in different breed group lambs carcass. Data statistical analyze was done by GLM procedure of SAS 9.1 software. Results and Discussion Afshari crossbreed lambs had better carcass performance rather than the other breed groups although before slaughtering live weight of Shal and Moghani lambs were higher. Male lambs had better live weight and carcass quality before slaughtering than female lambs. The analyze of carcass parts percentage indicated that crossbreed lambs from Afshari rams with Varamini ewes had the highest efficiency and lowest rump percentage between genetic groups about valuable parts total percentage of thigh, roast, wristband and low price flank steak, brisket and neck. The analyze results of carcass tissue proportions combination showed Shal, Moghani and Afshar crossbreeds had more meat percentage and lower fat percentage on numbers 10, 11 and 12 of ribs than Varamini net breed. Conclusion According to our findings about cross surface and length from carcass the highest amount of them was belong to Shal and Afshari breeds, although difference amount between breeds was

  11. Analysis of the Lambing Process in Suffolk Ewes

    OpenAIRE

    ŠULCOVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The Suffolk is the most well-known of the English lowland sheep breeds. A black-faced sheep with short-stapled wool, the breed is used primarily for meat production. The Suffolk is classified as one of the breeds with the best ability to fatten and its meat yield is approximately 60%. The breed is characterised by its good adaptability to different climate and breeding conditions and overall good health. The ewes are known for their high fertility rate, shorter oestrus cycle, excellent matern...

  12. High mineral and vitamin E intake by pregnant ewes lowers colostral immunoglobulin G absorption by the lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, T M; Keane, N; Nowakowski, P; Brophy, P O; Crosby, T F

    2005-04-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 78 mature ewes was used to evaluate the effects of supplementing the pregnant ewe's diet with high levels of minerals and vitamin E on immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption by the lamb and whether any altered efficacy of IgG absorption was due to the colostrum or to the lamb. The ewes were estrus-synchronized in October and housed in wk 10 of gestation. In the final 7 wk of gestation, a grass silage-based diet, offered ad libitum, was supplemented with 500 g of a 19% CP concentrate, and from 1 wk later until lambing, half the ewes was offered 48 g of a mineral/vitamin supplement containing 6.5 g of Ca, 4.9 g of P, 5.9 g of Mg, 4.0 g of Na, 790 mg of Zn, 3.5 mg of Se, 40 mg of I, 200 mg of Mn, 20 mg of Co, and 40 IU of vitamin E. At birth, the lambs were allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, with lamb origin and colostrum origin as the two factors. The lambs born to ewes not offered the mineral supplement were fed colostrum obtained from their own dams or from ewes in the mineral-supplemented treatment, whereas lambs born to ewes given supplemental minerals were fed colostrum obtained either from their dams or from ewes in the control treatment. The ewes were milked at 1, 10, and 18 h postpartum and the lambs were fed using a stomach tube. A 5-mL blood sample was taken from each lamb at 24 h postpartum for IgG analysis. The level of fecal adhesion to the upper tail/rump area of the lamb was subjectively scored at 72 h postpartum. There was no difference in gestation length, lamb birth weight, colostrum yield, or IgG production (P = 0.16 to 0.82). When ewes were fed supplemental minerals, the serum IgG content of the progeny was lower than in their control counterparts (6.8 vs. 16.1 g/L; P colostrum from ewes with or without access to supplementary minerals. The difference in serum IgG concentrations at 24 h postpartum was a direct reflection of a compromised efficiency in IgG absorption

  13. The ability of ewes with lambs to learn a virtual fencing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, E I; Bergslid, I K; Bøe, K E; Sørheim, K M

    2017-05-11

    The Nofence technology is a GPS-based virtual fencing system designed to keep sheep within predefined borders, without using physical fences. Sheep wearing a Nofence collar receive a sound signal when crossing the virtual border and a weak electric shock if continuing to walk out from the virtual enclosure. Two experiments testing the functionality of the Nofence system and a new learning protocol is described. In Experiment 1, nine ewes with their lambs were divided into groups of three and placed in an experimental enclosure with one Nofence border. During 2 days, there was a physical fence outside the border, during Day 3 the physical fence was removed and on Day 4, the border was moved to the other end of the enclosure. The sheep received between 6 and 20 shocks with an average of 10.9±2.0 (mean±SE) per ewe during all 4 days. The number of shocks decreased from 4.38±0.63 on Day 3 (when the physical fence was removed) to 1.5±0.71 on Day 4 (when the border was moved). The ewes spent on average 3%, 6%, 46% and 9% of their time outside the border on Days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In Experiment 2, 32 ewes, with and without lambs, were divided into groups of eight and placed in an experimental enclosure. On Day 1, the enclosure was fenced with three physical fences and one virtual border, which was then increased to two virtual borders on Day 2. To continue to Day 3, when there was supposed to be three virtual borders on the enclosure, at least 50% of the ewes in a group should have received a maximum of four shocks on Day 2. None of the groups reached this learning criterion and the experiment ended after Day 2. The sheep received 4.1±0.32 shocks on Day 1 and 4.7±0.28 shocks on Day 2. In total, 71% of the ewes received the maximum number of five shocks on Day 1 and 77% on Day 2. The individual ewes spent between 0% and 69.5% of Day 1 in the exclusion zone and between 0% and 64% on Day 2. In conclusion, it is too challenging to ensure an efficient learning

  14. A pre-partum lift in ewe nutrition from a high-energy lick or maize or by grazing Lotus uliginosus pasture, increases colostrum production and lamb survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

    2009-08-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that a lift in the nutrition of ewes, before lambing, to increase colostrum production would enhance lamb survival. In all, 261 mature Corriedale ewes, each with a single fetus from a synchronised mating, grazed native pasture to day 130 after mating; at which point they were weighed, condition scored and allocated to graze either native pasture or a pasture dominant with Lotus uliginosus. Five days later (14 days before the expected start of lambing) the ewes were allocated to one of four treatments and fed: (i) native pasture alone, (ii) native pasture plus a commercial high-energy lick, (iii) L. uliginosus pasture alone or (iv) L. uliginosus pasture plus whole maize. The weight, viscosity and concentration of components and immunoglobulin G in the colostrum that had accumulated at parturition, were measured for 10 ewes in each treatment. The lambs that survived to 20 days of age from the 221 ewes that were not milked, were recorded. The ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain and those that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone accumulated two to three times more colostrum at birth than the ewes that grazed native pasture alone (396, 635 and 662 g v. 206 g; P < 0.01). The colostrum from the ewes that grazed only native pasture was more viscous (lower score) than that from the ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain or the ewes that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone (scores of 4.1 v. 6.2, 6.5 and 6.4, P < 0.001) and, not surprisingly, the concentration of lactose in the colostrum of the ewes fed only native pasture was also much lower (1.1% v. 3.0%, 2.8% and 2.6%; P < 0.001)he survival of lambs from the ewes fed only native pasture was less than that of the lambs from ewes fed native pasture plus the commercial lick (81.8% v. 95.5%; P < 0.05) or the L. uliginosus pasture alone (92.4%, P < 0.05), and also tended to be lower than that for lambs born to ewes fed L. uliginosus pasture plus maize (91.8%, P = 0

  15. Effect of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis supplementation of ewe's feed on sheep milk production and young lamb mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Govaris, A; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate under field conditions the effect of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis on young lamb mortality and sheep milk production when administered in the late pregnancy and lactation feed of ewes. In a sheep farm, two groups of milking ewes with identical genetic material, management, nutrition, health status and similar production characteristics were formed. One group (46 ewes) served as control, while the other one (48 ewes) served as a probiotic-treated group. Both groups of ewes received a similar feeding regiment, but the ewes of the second group were additionally offered a probiotic product containing B. licheniformis and B. subtilis (BioPlus 2B, Chr. Hansen, Denmark) at the approximate dose of 2.56 x 10(9) viable spores per ewe per day. Lamb mortality during the 1.5 months suckling period, and milk yield during the 2 months of milk collection for commercial purposes have been recorded. In the non-treated control group, 13.1% mortality was observed versus 7.8% in the probiotic-treated group (P = 0.33), with mortality being mainly due to diarrhoea. Microbiological examination of diarrhoeic faeces from some of the dead lambs in both groups revealed the presence of Escherichia coli. The average daily milk yield per ewe was significantly lower in the control group (0.80 l) than that in the probiotic-treated group (0.93 l) (P milk in ewes that received probiotics was significantly (P milk yields, fat and protein content.

  16. Production benefits from pre- and post-lambing anthelmintic treatment of ewes on commercial farms in the southern North Island of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C M; Ganesh, S; Garland, C B; Leathwick, D M

    2015-07-01

    To measure the magnitude and variability in production responses to anthelmintic treatments administered to adult ewes around lambing. Ewes carrying twin lambs, from sheep and beef farms (eight in Year 1 and six in Year 2) in the Wairarapa region of New Zealand, were enrolled in 14 trials (part of an experiment carried out on one farm in one year). Experiment 1 compared ewes treated 2-4 weeks pre-lambing with a controlled release capsule (CRC) containing abamectin, albendazole, Se and Co, to ewes injected pre-lambing with a long-acting Se plus vitamin B12 product, and to untreated ewes. Experiment 2 included these treatments, plus a CRC administered at pregnancy scanning. Experiment 3 included the same treatments as Experiment 1, plus administration of a CRC containing albendazole, Se and Co, injectable moxidectin or oral derquantel plus abamectin, all administered pre-lambing, or oral derquantel plus abamectin administered 4-6 weeks after lambing. Variables compared were ewe liveweight at weaning and pre-mating, lamb liveweight at weaning, total weight of lamb weaned per ewe and ewe dag score at weaning. Ewes treated with a CRC pre-lambing were heavier than untreated ewes (mean 3.2 kg) at weaning in 12/14 trials, and pre-mating (mean 2.8 kg) in 9/14 trials (p0.65). Treatment of ewes with a CRC at pregnancy scanning was neither better nor worse than a pre-lambing treatment (p=0.065). There was no difference in the response from treatment with either of the two CRC or moxidectin. Treatment with short-acting oral anthelmintics resulted in no consistent benefit. Anthelmintic treatments administered to ewes around lambing resulted in variable responses between farms and years, which in some trials were negative for some variables, and some of the variability was due to the mineral component of the CRC. The widespread perception amongst farmers and veterinarians that anthelmintic treatment of ewes around lambing will always result in positive benefits is not supported.

  17. Effect of balanced concentrate ration on the performance and hematobiochemical profile of lactating native ewes and lambs in coastal Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasanka Sekhar Beura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of balanced concentrate ration during lactation on the growth performance, blood and metabolic profiles of native ewes and lambs in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 numbers of lactating ewes of the same parity comprised the experimental animals. The selected ewes were randomly assigned to two groups of twenty each, maintaining uniformity in body weight (13.36±0.33 kg for Group 1 and 13.48±0.37 kg for Group 2. Group 1 was maintained on grazing only while Group 2 was supplemented with a balanced concentrate mixture @ 200 g/head/day during the first 2 months of lactation. The concentrate was fed individually in separate containers in the morning hours before the animals were taken out for grazing. Results: The ewes in Group 2 registered higher body weights at every fortnight. The differences were found to be highly significant (p<0.01 from 2nd to 5th fortnight and significant (p<0.05 for the remaining fortnights. The ewes in Group 2 showed significantly (p<0.01 higher daily gains than those in Group 1 at every fortnight. The hemoglobin (Hb concentration, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and total leukocyte count (TLC values were significant (p<0.05 between groups at the end of 4th fortnight after lambing and the mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC values is significantly (p<0.05 higher in Group 2 over Group 1. Conclusion: It was concluded that supplementation of a balanced concentrate mixture (crude protein 18.21% @ 200 g/ewe/day along with grazing during the first 2 months of lactation resulted in higher ewe body weight gain. It improved their hematological and metabolic profiles and also resulted in higher body weight gain in lambs born to these supplemented ewes.

  18. Active immunization against GnRH in ovine (Ovis aries: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in prepubertal ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was to assess the effects of an active immunization against GnRH on male reproductive function as an alternative to surgical sterilization evaluating testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and plasma gonadotropin levels in prepubertal ram lambs. Dorper ram lambs (age= 2 months; control group, n= 5; treatment group, n=15 were immunised by using an anti-GnRH vaccine (two administrations spaced 15d developed by linking a GnRH homologous molecule to tetanus toxoid (clostridial toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as coadjuvant. To determine the effectiveness of the vaccination protocol, testicular morphometry was evaluated (length, width, mean volume and total volume together with histopathological alterations in testicular tissue samples (seminiferous tubule diameters, spermatogonia per testis and sperm presence and endocrine responses (ELISA from blood samples (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol plasma levels. Morphometric parameters (testicular length, width and volume were significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group (p0.05. In conclusion, prepubertal active immunization against GnRH led to marked differences on testes morphometry and activity in ovine species, however, it did not affect endocrine levels nor spermatogenesis in all individuals studied showing a partial vaccination effect in some of them. Thus, taking into account the heterogeneous dysfunctional responses obtained, different vaccination assays and strategies should be tested before active immunization against GnRH is considered as a viable alternative to conventional surgical sterilization.

  19. Serum total iodine concentrations in pasture-fed pregnant ewes and newborn lambs challenged by iodine supplementation and goitrogenic kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S O; Grace, N D

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency can impair the reproductive performance of livestock and affect perinatal mortality of offspring, yet diagnosis of deficiency is complicated and guidelines for I supplementation are imprecise. We challenged pasture-grazing pregnant ewes with a long-acting I supplement and a goitrogenic forage, then monitored their I status during gestation and lactation and in their lambs from birth to weaning. Approximately 46 d into gestation, 376 ewes were assigned to 6 groups comprising 3 supplementation levels × 2 diet regimens. On d 0 the groups received an intramuscular injection of iodized oil providing 0, 300, or 400 mg of I. They grazed until d 23, then half of each supplementation group were fed brassica kale until d 85, then all groups returned to pasture for lambing (parturition approximately d 99) and remained there until weaning (d 192). Serum total I concentration (STIC) was measured repeatedly in 8 'monitor' ewes per group and in their lambs and in milk sampled postpartum. Severity of goiter was determined as the thyroid-weight:birth-weight (TW:BW) ratio in 82 newborn dead lambs. Mean ± SE STIC for all ewes was initially 42 ± 2 (range 24 to 105) µg/L. Diet did not affect I concentrations in ewe serum or milk. Responses to iodized oil were proportional to dose level; STIC increased to approximately 150 and 240 µg/L for the 300- and 400-mg I groups and remained greater than 0-mg I groups for 161 d (P kale feeding (1.27 vs. 0.51 g/kg) and lesser with I supplementation (0.35 vs. 1.44 g/kg). Results support the use of STIC as a biochemical criterion. It was sensitive to the effects of I supplementation with responses in ewes and lambs proportional to dose level and it reflected the relationship between ewe and lamb I metabolism. However STIC did not discriminate between groups of ewes fed pasture vs. goitrogenic forage during pregnancy.

  20. Performance and nematode infection of ewe lambs on intensive rotational grazing with two different cultivars of Panicum maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R L D; Bueno, M S; Veríssimo, C J; Cunha, E A; Santos, L E; Oliveira, S M; Spósito Filha, E; Otsuk, I P

    2007-05-01

    The daily live weight gain (DLWG), faecal nematode egg counts (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV) of Suffolk, Ile de France and Santa Inês ewe lambs were evaluated fortnightly for 56 days in the dry season (winter) and 64 days in the rainy season (summer) of 2001-2002. The animals were distributed in two similar groups, one located on Aruana and the other on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum), in rotational grazing system at the Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa city (SP), Brazil. In the dry season, 24 one-year-old ewe lambs were used, eight of each breed, and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between grasses for DLWG (100 g/day), although the Suffolk had higher values (p < 0.05) than the other breeds. In the rainy season, with 33 six-month-old ewe lambs, nine Suffolk, eight Ile de France and 16 Santa Inês, the DLWG was not affected by breed, but it was twice as great (71 g/day, p < 0.05) on Aruana as on Tanzânia grass (30 g/day). The Santa Inês ewe lambs had the lowest FEC (p < 0.05) and the highest PCV (p < 0.05), confirming their higher resistance to Haemonchus contortus, the prevalent nematode in the rainy season. It was concluded that the best performance of ewe lambs on Aruana pastures in the rainy season is probably explained by their lower nematode infection owing to the better protein content of this grass (mean contents 11.2% crude protein in Aruana grass and 8.7% in Tanzania grass, p < 0.05) which may have improved the immunological system with the consequence that the highest PCV (p < 0.05) observed in those animals.

  1. Study on the use of toltrazuril to eliminate Neospora caninum in congenitally infected lambs born from experimentally infected ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Hussain, S S; Howe, L; Pomroy, W E; West, D M; Hardcastle, M; Williamson, N B

    2015-06-15

    To determine if toltrazuril was effective in eliminating Neospora caninum infection from congenitally infected lambs. Twenty-eight ewes were allocated to 3 groups where animals in Groups A and B were inoculated with 1 × 10(7)N. caninum tachyzoites on Day 120 of gestation and Group C was maintained as a negative control group. Lambs born from ewes in Group A were treated with toltrazuril (20mg/kg) on Days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after birth. Lambs in Groups B and C were untreated. All lambs in Groups A and B were seropositive at 12 weeks of age. At 12 weeks of age, no differences between lambs in Group A and Group B were observed in serological results (ELISA and western blot), presence of N. caninum-related brain histopathological lesions or the number of organisms detected by qPCR. Group C remained negative for serology, detection of N. caninum DNA as well as histopathology throughout the study. Results indicate that N. caninum congenitally-infected lambs had a continuing infection with N. caninum despite being treated with toltrazuril.

  2. Administration of distillate thyme leaves into the diet of Segureña ewes: effect on lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, G; Bañón, S; Garrido, M D

    2012-12-01

    The effect of including thyme by-products from the distillation industry into the diet of pregnant ewes on the final quality of lamb meat was evaluated during meat storage in modified atmosphere. A total of 36 Segureña ewes were randomly assigned to three homogeneous groups. One group was fed a basal diet (BD) as control (C), whereas the diet of the other two groups was modified by substituting 10% (T 1) and 20% (T 2) of the BD with pellets made from 50% barley and 50% distilled thyme leaves (DTL). Meat spoilage (total viable, psychrotroph (PSY), moulds and yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), colour (CIELab coordinates, metmyoglobin) and sensory characteristics of fresh lamb meat packed in modified atmosphere packaging (70% O2 : 30% CO2) were analysed after storage at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. In general, the DTL-containing diet inhibited lipid and pigment oxidation in fresh lamb meat. Lower PSY counts and content of secondary oxidation product (TBARS) as a result of adding DTL to the ewe diet, whereas surface redness (a* values) was significantly higher on days 7 and 14. It can be concluded that thyme by-products from the distillation industry could be used as a source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial in the feed for ewes.

  3. Effects of supplementing with calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids or hydrogenated tallow on ewe milk production and twin lamb growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeddu, L A; Ely, D G; Aaron, D K; Deweese, W P; Fink, E

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Polypay ewes nursing twin lambs to evaluate the effects of supplementing fat (calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids or hydrogenated tallow) on ewe lactation. In Exp. 1, ewes were fed a 52% concentrate:48% hay-based diet (as-fed basis) consisting of alfalfa hay (n = 4), endophyte-free fescue hay (n = 4), or fescue hay with 3.7% fatty acids (n = 4) from d 4 to 56 of lactation. In Exp. 2, ewes were fed similar diets that had endophyte-free fescue hay (n = 6), fescue hay with 3.7% fatty acids (n = 5), or fescue hay with 3.1% tallow (n = 6) from d 14 before lambing until d 57 of lactation. Diet formulations with supplemental fat were more nutrient dense, and treatments were fed to meet ewe nutrient requirements; this caused diets with added fat to be offered at 10 and 17% lower rates than unsupplemented diets in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Lambs were maintained to consume only ewe milk. Ewe milk production and composition were determined using a portable milking machine following a 3-h separation from lambs. In Exp. 1, milk fat content was increased (P tallow (290 vs. 210 g/d). The proportion of synthesized milk fat 14:0 was decreased (P tallow was added. Although ewe weight measures were not changed in Exp. 2, twin lamb gain per ewe organic matter intake was most efficient (P tallow decreased nutrient availability for ewe milk fat production. A complete diet based on endophyte-free fescue hay can replace a traditional alfalfa hay diet, whereas supplementing with the calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids may be more feasible when energy is limiting during ewe lactation.

  4. The effects of anthelmintic treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes on the performance of breeding ewes and lambs on pasture in semi-arid Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ang'a, C J; Maingi, N; Kanyari, P W N; Munyua, W K

    2009-08-01

    The effects of anthelmintics treatments in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in breeding ewes in a semi-arid area of Kenya were determined. The study carried out during two breeding seasons, between June 2000 and December 2001 where albendazole was administered to groups of ewes, 2 weeks before mating, 3 weeks to lambing and mid lactation indicated significantly lower nematode egg counts in treated than untreated groups of ewes. In the first breeding season, reduced rainfall resulted in pasture scarcity and weight loss in both groups of ewes through out the gestation period, but losses were higher for the untreated group. In the second season, both groups of ewes showed a steady increase in weight gain during the gestation period and post-partum, but weight gains were higher in the treated group. In lambs, weight gains at 6 weeks were higher for treated ewes than control groups, in both breeding seasons. The results of this trial indicate that anthelmintic treatments in breeding ewes in the study area are beneficial in reducing gastrointestinal nematode infections and improving performance of the ewes and their lambs. In addition to the treatments, breeding ewes should be given feed supplementation particularly during periods of pasture scarcity.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John F; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-18

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that congenital ovine transmission of T. gondii may be more common than previously believed, but these findings are solely based on PCR data and require confirmation using other techniques to verify the findings. In the present study, during the lambing season of 2005 a toxoplasmosis abortion storm occurred in a flock of purebred Suffolk ewes on a farm in Texas. Only 14 healthy lambs were born, and 38 abortuses, mummies and weak or stillborn lambs were delivered. Another 15 fetuses identified by ultrasound were presumably resorbed or were aborted undetected. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 37 (94.8%) of the 39 ewes and 30 of them had high titers (1:3200 or higher) when tested in the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the 2006 lambing season, two (both with MAT titers of ≥ 3200 in 2005) of 26 ewes delivered T. gondii infected lambs. T. gondii tissue cysts were found histologically in lesions of encephalitis in a lamb from one ewe and viable T. gondii (designated TgShUs55) was isolated from the brain and heart of a lamb from the second ewe. TheTgShUs55 had an atypical genotype using 10 PCR-RFLP markers, and was 100% lethal for Swiss Webster mice, irrespective of the dose or the stage of the parasite inoculated. In subsequent seasons, the ewes lambed normally. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that most sheep that have aborted due to T. gondii develop protection against future toxoplasmosis induced abortion, but the protection is not absolute. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  7. Passive immunisation of neonatal lambs against infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli via colostrum of ewes immunised with crude and purified K99 pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, K; Mukkur, T K

    1983-09-01

    Lambs sucking ewes immunised four to five weeks before parturition with crude preparations of K99 and purified K99 pili of single subunit composition were protected against challenge infection with heterologous enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. In contrast, the majority of lambs sucking sham-immunised ewes suffered severe diarrhoea and dehydration, followed by death in nearly half of the affected lambs. Protection was related to the presence of antibody in the colostral whey and lamb sera. K99-specific antibody activity in the colostral whey was found to be confined to IgM and IgG (IgG1 and IgG2) but not to the IgA class.

  8. Dietary supplementation of high levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids to ewes during late gestation reduces thermogenesis in newborn lambs by depressing fatty acid oxidation in perirenal brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching Yi; Carstens, Gordon E; Gilbert, Corey D; Theis, Casey M; Archibeque, Shawn L; Kurz, Michael W; Slay, Lisa J; Smith, Stephen B

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of (n-6) plus (n-3) PUFA during late gestation would increase uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene expression and thereby increase thermogenic capacity of newborn lambs. Thirty twin-bearing ewes were fed rumen-protected fat (2, 4, or 8%) high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SMFA) or high in (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA. Lambs (n = 7-10 per ewe treatment group) were placed in a cold chamber at 0 degrees C for 2 h. Rectal temperature was higher at birth and increased more with cold exposure in lambs from ewes fed 2 or 4% supplemental fat than in lambs from ewes fed 8% SMFA (fat type x fat level interaction, P = 0.001). Cytochrome c oxidase activity was greatest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) lambs from ewes fed 2% SMFA or 4% PUFA (fat type x fat level interaction, P = 0.01). BAT of lambs from ewes fed 2 or 4% PUFA had nearly 7-fold more (P = 0.05) UCP1 mRNA than BAT of lambs from ewes fed 8% PUFA. UCP1 expression decreased by over 80% by 24 h of age. Supplementation of 8% fat tended to depress palmitate esterification into lipids (P = 0.07) and decreased palmitate oxidation (P = 0.003) in lamb BAT in vitro, especially in those lambs from ewes fed 8% SMFA. Thus, supplementing the diets of ewes with 8% SMFA depressed cold tolerance in newborn lambs, which was reflected in their decreased ability to oxidize fatty acids in vitro.

  9. Tracing the antibody mediated acquired immunity by Foot and Mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever combined vaccine in pregnant ewes and their lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mossad Gamal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to provide adequate protection to ewes and their lambs against Foot and Mouth disease (FMD and Rift Valley Fever (RVF. Materials and Methods: A combined inactivated oil vaccine was prepared successfully. Such vaccine was found to be free from foreign contaminants, safe and potent as determined by quality control tests such as challenge protection percentage for FMD and mice ED50 for RVF. Vaccination of pregnant ewes with the prepared combined vaccine and determination of the antibody level via serum neutralization test (SNT and Enzyme Linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA in the vaccinated pregnant ewes and their lambs. Results: Vaccination of pregnant ewes revealed that these ewes exhibited high levels of specific antibodies against the included vaccine antigens (Foot and Mouth disease virus type A Iran O5, O PanAsia and SAT2/EGY/2012 and RVFV-ZH501. FMD antibodies recorded their peaks by the 10th week while those of RVF recorded their peaks by the 12th week post vaccination then all antibodies began to decrease gradually to reach their lowest protective titers for FMD by the 32nd week post vaccination and those for RVF by the 34th week post vaccination. Potency test of the prepared combined vaccine expressed as protection percentage of vaccinated sheep against target virulent FMD virus serotypes reflected a protection percentage of 80% against type O and SAT2 and 100% against A while for RVF, the mice ED50 was found to be 0.009 indicating the potency of the prepared vaccine. The antibody titer in serum and colostrum of vaccinated pregnant ewes at day of parturition (10-12 week post vaccination recorded a high titer against FMD serotype (O, serotype (A, serotype (SAT2 and against RVF. It was noticed that the colostrum antibody titers were slightly higher than those in the sera of vaccinated ewes at time of parturition. The newly born lambs from vaccinated ewes, exhibited good levels of maternal immunity against the

  10. Exposure to Photoperiod-Melatonin-Induced, Sexually-Activated Rams after Weaning Advances the Resumption of Sexual Activity in Post-Partum Mediterranean Ewes Lambing in January

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Abecia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine whether the presence of sexually stimulated rams by photoperiodic and melatonin treatments can advance the resumption of post-partum sexual activity in Mediterranean ewes lambing in January and weaned at the end of the breeding season at 41°N, in March. Rams were exposed to two months of long days (16 h light/day and given three melatonin implants at the end of the long days (sexually-activated rams; SAR. Control rams (CR were exposed to the natural photoperiod. Thirty-six ewes weaned on 25 February were assigned to one of two groups. From 1 March to 30 June, one group was housed with four SAR males (SAR-treated; n = 18, and the other group (CR-treated; n = 18 was housed with four unstimulated rams. Ovulation was assessed once per week based on plasma progesterone concentrations. Estrus was monitored daily by marks left on ewes by rams’ harnesses. SAR-treated ewes had a shorter (p < 0.01 weaning–first estrus interval than CR-treated ewes (61 ± 17 days vs. 102 ± 47 days; mean date of first estrus after weaning on April 26 and June 6, respectively. The proportion of the ewes ovulating in April or May was higher (p < 0.05 in the SAR-treated group than in the CR-treated group. SAR-treated ewes resumed estrous activity sooner than CR-treated ewes such that, in April, May, and June, the proportion of females that exhibited estrus was higher (p < 0.01 in the SAR-treated group (72%, 89%, and 100%, respectively than in the CR-treated group (17%, 44%, and 61%, respectively. In conclusion, the introduction at weaning of sexually activated rams advanced the resumption of estrous activity in ewes in spring. The practical implications of this work could be important in ewes adapted for intensive production and accelerated lambing systems.

  11. Effects of different sources of fat (calcium soap of palm oil vs. extruded linseed) in lactating ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of their suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Manso, T

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing lactating ewe diets with extruded linseed on the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat depots of suckling lambs. Twenty-four pregnant Churra ewes were divided into two groups based on the milk production, age, body weight and parity, and assigned to one of two treatments. Each ewe of the Control treatment was supplemented with 70 g/day of FAs from a calcium soap of palm oil, while the other treatment group (Lin) was supplemented with 128 g/day of extruded linseed. All lambs were reared exclusively on milk and were slaughtered when they reached 11 kg live weight. FA profiles of ewe milk, lamb meat and subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined by GC. Lamb performance was not affected by the treatments. Muscle fat and adipose tissue from the Lin treatment showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentages of α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3), vaccenic (trans-11 C18:1) and rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) acids in both fat depots were higher in Lin than in Control suckling lambs. Furthermore, meat fat from Lin carcasses displayed a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than Control samples. Intramuscular depots clearly showed a greater content of PUFA, including cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than subcutaneous fat. The results from this study demonstrate that dietary extruded linseed supplementation of lactating ewes enhances the nutritional quality of suckling lamb fat depots such as intramuscular and subcutaneous fats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. BIOMETRY AND TESTICULAR GROWTH INFLUENCED BY NUTRITION ON PREPUBERTAL PELIBUEY LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. MARTINEZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth and testicular development was studied in 48 Pelibuey male lambs 76.6±3.0 days of age and 12.7±1.9 kg body weight (BW, two groups were designed (n=24. 1: Intensive rotational grassing (IRG, 2: Intensive rotational grassing plus nutritional supplement (IRGS. BW was recorded every 15 days from 75 days of age to the onset of puberty. The animals grazed on Panicum maximum. IRGS received a concentrate with 15% of protein. The testicular biometry included scrotal circumference (SC and testicular volume (TV. Blood samples were collected each 15 days from 90 to 190 days of age for evaluate the testosterone concentrations. BW, SC and TV at histological puberty was higher in IRGS than IRG; 22.5±1.5 vs. 16.06±1.5 kg, 22.0±1.0 vs. 12.2±1.5 cm, 60.5±1.7 vs. 12±3.5 cm3 respectively (P<0.05 with an average age for the two groups of 162±7.0 days. The correlation coefficient (R was higher (P<0.05 for SC vs BW than age vs BW (0.884 vs 0.816 and the TV vs. BW than TV vs. age (0.849 vs. 0.777 in the IRGS; the IRG showed lower R for the same comparisons (P<0.05. Seminiferous tubules showed lumen by day 142, spermatids and spermatozoids by day 171 for IRGS, meanwhile in the IRG only showed gonocytes and Sertoli cells. Testosterone concentrations reached a peak (2.5 ng/ml at 168 days of age for the IRGS meanwhile the IRG showed lower levels than 0.05 ng/ml. Testicular development and testosterone concentrations depends more on BW than age; and they are modified by the nutritional management in prepuberal male lambs.

  13. Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones in pregnant ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M A; Neville, T L; Reed, J J; Taylor, J B; Hallford, D M; Soto-Navarro, S A; Vonnahme, K A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2008-05-01

    The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction and Se on maternal and fetal metabolic hormones. In Exp. 1, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 32; BW = 45.6 +/- 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 4 treatments. Diets contained (DM basis) either no added Se (control), or supranutritional Se added as high-Se wheat at 3.0 mg/kg (Se-wheat), or sodium selenate at 3 (Se3) and 15 (Se15) mg/kg of Se. Diets (DM basis) were similar in CP (15.5%) and ME (2.68 Mcal/kg). Treatments were initiated at 50 +/- 5 d of gestation. The control, Se-wheat, Se3, and Se15 treatments provided 2.5, 75, 75, and 375 microg/kg of BW of Se, respectively. Ewe jugular blood samples were collected at 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, and 134 d of gestation. Fetal serum samples were collected at necropsy on d 134. In Exp. 2, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 36; BW 53.8 +/- 1.3 kg) were allotted randomly to treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were nutrition (control, 100% of requirements vs. restricted nutrition, 60% of control) and dietary Se (adequate Se, 6 microg/kg of BW vs. high Se, 80 microg/kg of BW). Selenium treatments were initiated 21 d before breeding, and nutritional treatments were initiated on d 64 of gestation. Diets were 16% CP and 2.12 Mcal/kg of ME (DM basis). Blood samples were collected from the ewes at 62, 76, 90, 104, 118, 132, and 135 d of gestation. Fetal blood was collected at necropsy on d 135. In Exp.1, dietary Se source and concentration had no effect (P > 0.17) on maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, triiodothyronine (T(3)), or thyroxine (T(4)) concentrations. Selenium supplementation increased (P = 0.06) the T(4):T(3) ratio vs. controls. In Exp. 2, dietary Se had no impact (P > 0.33) on main effect means for maternal and fetal serum IGF-I, T(3), or T(4) concentrations from d 62 to 132; however, at d 135, high-Se ewes had lower (P = 0.01) serum T(4) concentrations than adequate-Se ewes. A nutrition by Se interaction (P = 0.06) was detected for the T

  14. Punting Lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, T; Malcolm, Bill

    2011-01-01

    We present in clear, readable terms how to understand the risky aspects of a ewe purchase decision. Expected lamb prices in the future are an important driver of ewe prices now. We derive easy methods of determining the relationship between future lamb prices and current ewe prices. This lends to an evaluation of rules of thumb showing that the 'bet' and the 'odds' are keys to good investment.

  15. Effects of olive and fish oil Ca soaps in ewe diets on milk fat and muscle and subcutaneous tissue fatty-acid profiles of suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, B; Gómez-Cortés, P; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; Manso, T; de la Fuente, M A

    2014-07-01

    Enhancing healthy fatty acids (FAs) in ewe milk fat and suckling lamb tissues is an important objective in terms of improving the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding-protected lipid supplements rich in unsaturated FAs on the lipid composition of ewe milk, and subsequently in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of lambs suckling such milk. Thirty-six pregnant Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were assigned to one of three experimental diets (forage/concentrate ratio 50 : 50), each supplemented with either 3% Ca soap FAs of palm (Control), olive (OLI) or fish (FO) oil. The lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling for the whole experimental period. When the lambs reached 11 kg BW, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat depots. Although milk production was not affected by lipid supplementation, the FO diet decreased fat content (P0.05) and other trans-FAs between Control and FO treatments would indicate that FO treatment does not alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways under the assayed conditions. Changes in dam milk FA composition induced differences in the FA profiles of meat and fat depots of lambs, preferentially incorporated polyunsaturated FAs into the muscle rather than storing them in the adipose tissue. In the intramuscular fat of the FO treatment, all the n-3 FAs reached their highest concentrations: 0.97 (18:3 n-3), 2.72 (20:5 n-3), 2.21 (22:5 n-3) and 1.53% (22:6 n-3). In addition, not only did FO intramuscular fat have the most cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (1.66%) and trans-11 18:1 (3.75%), but also the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (1.80) and saturated FA content were not affected. Therefore, FO exhibited the best FA profile from a nutritional point of view.

  16. Intravenous maternal -arginine administration to twin-bearing ewes, during late pregnancy, is associated with increased fetal muscle mTOR abundance and postnatal growth in twin female lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, F; Sciascia, Q; van der Linden, D S; Wards, N J; Oliver, M H; McCoard, S A

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether parenteral Arg administered to well-fed twin-bearing ewes from 100 to 140 d of pregnancy influences fetal skeletal muscle growth, the abundance and activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein, and postnatal muscle growth of the offspring. Ewes fed 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements for twin-bearing ewes were administered an intravenous bolus of either 345 μmol Arg HCl/kg BW or saline solution (Control) 3 times per day. At 140 d of pregnancy (P140), a group of 11 Control and 9 Arg-treated ewes were euthanized and hind leg muscles and longissimus dorsi (LD) were excised and weighed. A sample of LD was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of free AA (FAA) concentration, mTOR abundance and phosphorylation, and biochemical indices (DNA, RNA, and protein content). For the remaining 25 ewes (Arg, = 13, and Control, = 12), Arg administration was continued until the initiation of parturition and ewes were allowed to lamb. Lambs were weaned at postnatal Day 82 and grazed on pasture until postnatal day 153 (PN153), when a subset of 20 lambs ( = 10 per group) was euthanized. At P140, only the psoas major was heavier in the Arg-administered group compared with the Control group. Female lambs from ewes supplemented with Arg (Arg-F) had increased abundance of total mTOR, RNA concentration, and RNA:DNA ratio in LD compared with female lambs from Control ewes (Con-F), whereas males did not differ. At PN153, Arg-F were heavier than Con-F and had heavier LD and plantaris and a trend for heavier psoas major muscles compared with Con-F. In contrast, BW and individual muscle weights did not differ in male lambs. Lambs from Arg-treated ewes had heavier semimembranosus and tended to have heavier biceps femoris compared with Control lambs. The RNA concentration in LD was greater in Arg-F compared with Con-F, and DNA concentration was greater in the Arg group compared with the Control group. In

  17. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils supplementation on digestion, colostrum production of dairy ewes and lamb mortality and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeti, Samir; Joy, Margalida; Hajji, Hadhami; Alabart, José Luis; Muñoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary essential oils (REO) and the forage nature on ewes' performances, immune response and lambs' growth and mortality. Forty-eight dairy ewes (Sicilo-Sarde) were fed oat-hay or oat-silage supplemented with 400 g of concentrate during pregnancy and 600 g during postpartum. The experimental concentrate contained the same mixture as the control (barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement) more 0.6 g/kg of REO. Two groups were obtained with each forage (Hay groups: H-C and H-REO; Silage groups: S-C and S-REO). REO increased the dry matter (DM) intake, the nitrogen intake and retention being higher with the silage groups (P < 0.05). REO increased solid non-fat (P = 0.004) and fat contents of colostrum which was higher with hay (P = 0.002). REO decreased lamb mortality (P < 0.05) which averaged 21% for control groups and 6% for H-REO, while no mortality was recorded with S-REO. REO dietary supply improved forage intake and tended to ameliorate colostrum production; it could be a natural additive to improve ewes' performances.

  18. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or long-acting progesterone in the biostimulation of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C.O. Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of prepubertal ewe lambs to exogenous administration of either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP or long-acting progesterone (LAP together with biostimulation. Two Pool Dorset adult males and 75 mixed-breed prepubertal ewe lambs (average of 179 days-old and 30.0kg were used. The females were randomly assigned to three different groups. In the first group the females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for 12 days and were then biostimulated for eight weeks. In the second group the females were submitted to a single injection of LAP (225 mg and then to biostimulation for eight weeks. In the last group, the females were only submitted to biostimulation for eight weeks. Animals were considered cyclic when plasma progesterone (P4 concentration exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in at least one of two consecutive blood samples taken within a 7-day interval in three distinct experimental moments. After treatments 93.3% of the females disregarding their group started their cyclicity and most of them (92.0%, continued to be cyclic after 63 days of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation under both male and female effect. We conclude that prepubertal ewe lambs when submitted to protocols of either MAP or LAP followed by biostimulation result in puberty at the 7 month of age. It can be deducted that some ewe lambs submitted to the administration of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation promoted a multiplier effect upon the other young females that were then stimulated to start cyclicity.

  19. Prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST on adaptation to subclinical ketosis of the ewes and performance of the lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Feijó

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum rbST injection on the metabolic profile of pregnant ewes induced to subclinical ketosis, as well as the metabolism until seven days of life and weight gain until seven weeks of life of the lambs. Twenty seven pregnant ewes of the pantaneiro genetic group were used, divided into two groups: rbST group (n = 14 and control group (n = 13. The rbST group received two applications of 1 mg/kg of rbST, at 97 and 111 days gestation, while the control group received placebo injections. There were significant differences between groups in levels of GGT in the ketosis post induction period and BHB concentrations in the postpartum period. Concentrations of glucose, urea, phosphorus, albumin, cholesterol, AST, NEFA and insulin were not different between dams from the two groups in different periods of the study (P>0.05. There was an effect of rbST on body weight observed already at fourteen days of life (P<0.0001, there was an increase in serum phosphorus levels at birth of lambs (P=0.0014, and albumin at seven days of life (P = 0.0014 of the lambs, with no difference between groups for the other metabolites. Therefore, the use of rbST was effective in increasing the weight of the lambs until the seventh week of life. In addition, rbST treatment had positive effects on the dam metabolism with reduction of liver overload, as indicated by decreased GGT after ketosis induction and decreased BHB at the postpartum period.

  20. 论英语复合词ewe lamb的合成原理%How is the compound word ewe lamb coined?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小晶

    2006-01-01

    本文从语义复合的角度分析了ewe lamb一词的合成原理,以及ewe和lamb当选构件的条件,提出了相关的语义原则(或规则).语义复制和语义渗透在ewelamb的合成中发挥了重要作用.语义复制扩大了元素的分配范围,提高了构件选择的语义标准.这就解释了为什么ewe能入选,而female、bitch、hen、girl等词则被淘汰.语义渗透原则维护了lamb的义位在其下位词ewe lamb中的状态,使得ewe 和lamb之间的矛盾彻底消解.这也解释了为什么ewe没有因为包涵[ADULT]而落选.在整个复合过程中没有发现任意性的环节,ewe lamb的逻辑性丝毫不亚于定中词组femalelamb.

  1. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T

    2015-04-01

    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the level of iodine in the diet of pregnant ewes on the concentration of immunoglobulin G in the plasma of neonatal lambs following the consumption of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael T; Wolf, Basil T; Haresign, William

    2007-02-01

    Excessive I in the diet of pregnant sheep can reduce the concentration of antibodies in the blood plasma of the lambs after they have consumed colostrum. Our aim was to determine the dose of dietary I that would avoid this effect, and to relate this to changes in the concentrations of hormones and metabolites in the lambs. Four groups of pregnant ewes received concentrate containing 5.5, 9.9, 14.8, and 21.0 mg I/kg DM, respectively. Hay and molasses (containing 0.16 and 0.29 mg I/kg DM, respectively) were available ad libitum. The lambs were prevented from suckling for the first 24 h of life and were fed a fixed quantity of artificial colostrum in four feeds. At 24 h, the average plasma concentrations of immunoglobulin G in the lambs were 6.08, 5.06, 3.18 and 3.10 g/l for the 5.5, 9.9, 14.8 and 21.0 mg/kg groups, respectively. Supplementation with I was associated with higher levels of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine in the lambs at birth. There was no effect of treatment on the plasma concentrations of insulin, cortisol, glucose or NEFA in the lambs. The concentration of dietary I that had an effect on the immunoglobulin concentration in the lambs is marginally above the levels added to commercial concentrate feeds; we tentatively identify 9.9 mg I/kg DM (approximately 9 mg I/ewe per day) as the upper safe limit of I supplementation according to the criterion of the concentration of immunoglobulin G in the plasma of lambs at 24 h after birth.

  3. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  4. Secreción pulsátil diurna y nocturna de hormona del crecimiento en ovejas prepúberes con y sin restricción alimentaria Diurnal and nocturnal pulsatile growth hormone secretion in ewe lambs with and without food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. RECABARREN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios sobre las características de la secreción pulsátil ultradiana de GH en la borrega en crecimiento son escasos, y en particular, respecto de posibles diferencias entre la secreción diurna y nocturna, y si la restricción alimentaria es capaz de modificar los patrones de secreción pulsátil. En el presente estudio se comparó la frecuencia y la amplitud de pulsos de hormona del crecimiento (GH diurnos y nocturnos durante el desarrollo prepuberal de borregas Suffolk con y sin restricción alimentaria Para ello, se realizaron estudios de pulsatilidad de GH a las 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad, en borregas sometidas a restricción alimentaria (GR por 5, 11 y 15 semanas. Borregas de la misma edad sirvieron de control (GC. El estudio de pulsatilidad de GH se repitió en las borregas GR luego de 2 semanas de realimentación. El estudio de pulsatilidad de GH consistió en la colección de muestras de sangre desde la vena yugular cada 10 min por seis horas desde las 08:00 h para la determinación de la pulsatilidad diurna y desde las 20:00 h para la pulsatilidad nocturna. La definición de las características de la secreción pulsátil de GH se obtuvo con el programa CLUSTER. La concentración promedio (ng/ml, la amplitud de pulsos (ng/ml y la frecuencia de pulsos (nº de pulsos/6h diurna fue similar a la nocturna tanto en las borregas GC como en las borregas GR, en las 3 edades estudiadas. Aunque los parámetros de secreción diurnos y nocturnos fueron iguales entre sí en cada grupo, la concentración promedio diurna y nocturna del grupo GR fue siempre mayor (p The aim of the study was to characterise and to compare diurnal (D and nocturnal (N GH secretion in normal growing and in food-restricted Suffolk ewe lambs. Pulsatile GH secretion was studied in 6, 20, 26 and 30 week-old lambs (group GC and in six other lambs of the same age, after 5, 11 and 15 weeks of food restriction (group GR. At the end of the food restriction period, GR lambs

  5. The effect of wheat straw substitution by different levels of date palm leaves on performance and health of Baluchi ewe lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Valizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A major constraint of animal production in south of Iran is the lack of cheap source of roughages. Date palm leaves (DPL is one of the most abundant agricultural by-products in south of Iran. Almost all pruned leaves are discarded in the fields, mainly for nutrients recycling and soil conservation (M. Wan Zahari, et al1999. The yearly maintenance of date palm tree produces a (around 20 kg per each tree considerable quantities of green leaves (Bahman et al (1997; Pascual et al (2000. Ruminant can utilize crop residues, with poor nutritional value. These residues are traditionally fed to animal as the main part of diet in many developing countries. However; dry matter intake of these by-products are not adequate to fulfill the nutrient requirements of livestock even at maintenance level (Dixon and Egan, 2002. DPL has a great potential for use as a roughage or bulk source in total mixed ration (TMR for ruminants in dry areas. Detailed studies on fermentation characteristics and palatability of DPL silage, as well as on animal performance, have been reported by many workers (e.g. Abu Hassan and Ishida, 1991; Ishida and Abu Hassan, 1997; Oshio et al., 1999. Some researchers such as El-din and Tag-El-Din, 1996; and Bahman et al., 1997 have reported that DPL cannot be fed to animals because of low crude protein (6-7% and high level of fibrous cell wall content low palatability and digestibility. Therefore we design one experiment that investigates possibility of using DPL without any enrichment. The objective of this trial was to study the effect of replacement DPL with wheat straw and voluntary intake, average body gain and health of Baluchi ewe lambs. Materials and Methods Twenty-four Iranian Baluchi female lambs with initial body weight (BW of 20.48±0.5 kg and age of 130±10 days were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Groups were balanced for weight and experimental trail lasted for 76 days. All lambs

  6. Sensibilidad tisular a la insulina antes, durante y después de un ayuno en ovejas prepúberes Insulin sensitivity before, during and after fasting in ewe lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. RECABARREN

    2000-01-01

    , pero disminuyó del día 1 al día 8 de ayuno con un rango de 0,21 a 0,28 y de -0,36 a 0,22 respectivamente, con una mediana de 0,23 y 0,02 respectivamente (PIt has been proposed that blood-borne metabolic signals are captured by central or peripheral sensors to inform to the GnRH pulse generator about the metabolic status of the growing animal to make proper adjustments in the GnRH pulsatile secretion. During states of food restriction or fasting, the GnRH, and consequently, the LH secretion are reduced, probably due to inhibitory influences exerted by metabolic signals. Insulin has been suggested as a potential metabolic signal. However, little is known about the insulin sensitivity in prepubertal ewes, during experimental induction of negative energy balance, such as fasting, which may explain in part the effect of insulin as a metabolic signal. The purpose of this study was to establish the insulin sensitivity during fasting in ewe lambs. Six ewe lambs were given a bolus of insulin (0.1 IU/kg BW, one day before (day 0, on day 1, on day 8 of fasting and 24 hours (day 9 after the end of the 8-days fast. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0,3,5,7,10, and 15 min after the insulin administrations to calculate the insulin sensitivity index (ISI= glucose at time 0 (G0 minus glucose at time 15, obtained from a regression curve, divided by G0. Plasma insulin concentrations were measured at-5, 0,3,5,7,10,15,20, and 60 min after insulin administration. On the other hand, plasma LH concentrations were measured at 0,10,20,40 and 60 min after insulin administrations in each day of the study to determine the effect of insulin on the acute LH secretion. Basal plasma concentrations of cortisol on day 0, day 1, 8 and 9 were also determined. The ISI did not change from day 0 to day 1, but decreased from day 1 to day 8 of fasting, range: 0.21 to 0.28 and -0.36 to 0.22 respectively with a median of 0.23 and 0.02 respectively (P<0.05. The ISI values on day 9 were not

  7. THE EWES WITHOUT LAMBS AND LAMBS COOKED IN E-UZ-GA,"THE PRIVATE HOUSE OF KINGS",IN THE DREHEM ARCHIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Heimpel(BSA Ⅶ,115-160) and Steinkeller (BSA Ⅷ,1995, 49-70)both discuss the sheep and goat terminology in Ur Ⅲ texts and we aregrateful to them for giving us a clearer picture of small cattle in AncientMesopotamia.However, as to u8-sila4-nú(ná)/nu-a Steinkeller(p.55, 4.2)and Heimpel differ in opinion: "Rejecting the long-accepted interpretation of nú/nu-a sila4/más as"pregnant(with)a lamb/kid",Heimpel now proposes the translation"infertile",taking nú/nu-a to mean "without".In my view, this interpretation is extremelyunlikely,primarily because this description is very common at Drehem.…… Ifthe former expression were to mean "infertile", we would be forced to concludethat, at Drehem, infertile animals were regularly identified (by what means and for what purpose?),whereas pregnant ones were not. … As Heimpel's objectionthat it is difficult to think of any rationale for "slaughtering" pregnant animals,it should be pointed put that,at Drehem,the term ba-ús means not only"slaughtered" ,but a

  8. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  9. Ewing sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone cancer - Ewing sarcoma; Ewing family of tumors; Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET); Bone neoplasm - Ewing sarcoma ... this tissue to help determine how aggressive the cancer is and what treatment may be best.

  10. Sex of littermate twin affects lifetime ewe productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe productivity is synonymous with annual litter-weight weaned (LWW) per ewe exposed to rams for breeding, and LWW is largely a function of number of lambs born (NLB) and weaned (NLW). Selecting for LWW should increase litter size and numbers of ewe-ram co-twins. Thus, we used historical records to...

  11. Energy and protein nutrition of ewes in late pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hallfríður Ósk Ólafsdóttir 1978

    2012-01-01

    Feeding of the pregnant ewe affects its weight and condition and subsequently the ability to supply the lambs with adequate nutrition. Supplementing is commonly used to secure adequate birth weight and growth rate but for efficient use the condition of the ewes as well as total composition of the diet has to be considered thoroughly. In the experiment described here the effect of feeding different concentrates during the last month prepartum on ewe and lambs health and performa...

  12. (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not clear. Based on recent ..... conduct the experiment. In order to confirm the .... kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovine brain. Endocrinology, 147(2): ...

  13. Comportamento ingestivo e consumo de forragem por cordeiras em pastagem de milheto recebendo ou não suplemento Feeding behavior and forage intake of ewe lambs on pearl millet pasture with or without supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jochims

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o comportamento ingestivo e o consumo de matéria seca de cordeiras recebendo diferentes tipos de suplemento em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke. Foram utilizadas 24 cordeiras com peso inicial de 30,2 ± 2,6 kg, distribuídas em três estratégias alimentares: pastagem de milheto exclusivamente; pastagem de milheto e suplementação com farinha de mandioca; e pastagem de milheto e suplementação com glúten de milho. Os suplementos foram fornecidos na quantidade de 1% do PV. Foram avaliados, em três datas, os tempos diários (min/dia de pastejo, ruminação e ócio e a taxa de bocados (boc/min das cordeiras. O consumo de matéria seca (CMS foi estimado pela relação entre a produção fecal e a indigestibilidade da matéria seca e a digestibilidade da MS, pelo método in vitro. A estimativa da excreção fecal foi realizada utilizando-se óxido de cromo como marcador externo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três estratégias alimentares, duas repetições de área e quatro animais-teste por repetição. O fornecimento de suplementos diminuiu o tempo de pastejo diário, a taxa de bocados e a massa de bocado. A ingestão de pasto foi menor entre as cordeiras que receberam glúten de milho que entre aquelas mantidas exclusivamente a pasto, todavia, a ingestão total de MS foi maior quando fornecidos os suplementos (947 g para suplementação com glúten de milho; 907 g para suplementação com farinha de mandioca; e 652 g para pastagem exclusiva. Cordeiras em pastagem de milheto sem suplementação permanecem mais tempo em pastejo.The feeding behavior and dry forage intake of ewe lambs receiving different types of supplementation on pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke pasture was evaluated. Twenty-four ewe lambs with 30.2 ± 2.6 kg mean initial body weight (BW, distributed in three feeding strategies: grazing on pearl millet pasture; grazing on pearl millet pasture

  14. Reproductıve and Growth Chacterıstıcs First Age of Bandirma-I and Bandirma-II Crossbred Ewe Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kucukkebabci

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate first age reproduction and growth characteristics of Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II crossbred lambs which have been keeping on Marmara Livestock Research Institute. Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II females were kept to gather in a single flock after 3 month of age. The oestrus detection was performed twice a day (per twelve hours by using teaser rams. The materials of the study were used 21 head female for first age reproductive traits and for growth characteristics 99 head and 89 head Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II lamb. The results of live weight first oestrus for Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II lambs were 45.30 kg and 47.30 kg, age of first oestrus 317.73 day and 321.330 day, the duration of oestrus 19.42 hour and 21.23 hour the duration of the cycle 16.12 day and 17.07 day, the duration of gestation length 145.74 day and 145.87 day, birth weight (BW 4.23 kg and 4.12 kg, weaning weight (WWLW 35.45 kg and 34.27 kg, six mount live weight (SMLW 46.03 kg and 44.17 kg, yearling live weight (YLW 47.97 kg and 46.634 kg and average daily live weight gain (ADLG, 0.394 kg and 0.381 kg respectively. The effects of genotype on BW, WW, SMLW, YLW and DLWG were not significant statistically whereas the effects of age of dam, birth type, and sex on growth characteristic were significant (P<0.001.In conclusion, Bandırma-I and Bandırma-II crossbred lambs were similar first age reproduction and growth characteristic of lambs.

  15. Studies of pituitary function in lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, B J; Kearins, R D; Starr, B G

    1977-03-01

    The release of LH from the pituitary of lactating ewes was studied. In Exp. 1, ewes were injected with 50 microng oestradiol benzoate (OB), 2-0 mg testosterone propionate (TP) or oil only (control) on days 5, 10, or 20 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples obtained 20-38 h after treatment, and the ovulations were recorded. The number of ewes in which an LH release was detected, and the amount released, declined between Day 5 and 20 after OB treatment but increased after TP treatment. The releases of LH were not always accompanied by ovulation and the incidence of ovulation was higher in ewes treated with TP. In Exp. 2, lactating ewes were injected with 1 or 5 (at 2-h intervals) doses of 50 microng Gn-RH, on Days 12 or 25 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples collected every 2 h for 10 h and every 3 h for a further 70 h. Release of LH occurred in all ewes, the amount being greater in ewes receiving multiple injections and in ewes treated on Day 25. The incidence of ovulation was higher after treatment on Day 25. Multiple injections of Gn-RH appeared to reduce the incidence of abnormal corpora lutea.

  16. Effects of exogenous progesterone on gestation length, foetal survival and colostrum yield in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, T F; O'Donnell, A; O'Doherty, J V; Quinn, P J; Evans, A C O

    2005-09-15

    Twin bearing mature ewes (n=40) were treated with exogenous progesterone (100mg daily in oil) or vehicle (oil control) from Day 143 of gestation until lambing to investigate the effects on gestation length, foetal survival and colostrum yield and composition. Compared to control ewes, progesterone treated ewes had increased (Pgestation length (150.4+/-0.6 days versus 147.8+/-0.6 days, Pgestation length and reduced lamb survival but did not lower colostrum yield.

  17. Development of mother discrimination by single and multiple newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R; Poindron, P; Putu, I G

    1989-12-01

    Most research on recognition of the ewe by her lamb has focused on lambs several days or even several weeks old, whereas newly born lambs have received little attention. The aim of this work was therefore to study the attraction of Merino lambs to postparturient ewes and their ability to discriminate between their own and alien mothers in a two-choice situation 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hr after birth. A comparison between singles and multiples was also made in 18 and 24-hr-old lambs. When released in the testing pen, approximately 90% of the lambs in each group (older than 12 hr) spent more than 3 min with the two ewes during the 5-min test. It was only from 24 hr old, however, that a high proportion of lambs spent at least two-thirds of this time close to their own mothers (correct choice). The proportion of singles spending more than 3 min with the ewes or making a correct choice was higher than that of multiples. This effect was related to litter size but not to birth weight. It is concluded that a majority of Merino lambs are clearly attracted to ewes by the time they are 18 hr old and can discriminate their own dams from alien mothers at about 24 hr of age. At this stage singles perform better than multiples.

  18. Relação materno-filial da raça Morada Nova recebendo dietas com três níveis de energia, ao final da gestação Ewe-lambs relationship in Morada Nova breed under three energy levels at the end of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobyas Maia de Albuquerque Mariz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de energia ofertados no terço final da gestação sobre o comportamento materno-filial de animais da raça Morada Nova. O experimento consistiu de três tratamentos - três grupos de oito matrizes, alimentadas com dietas isoprotéicas contendo diferentes níveis energéticos (2,0; 2,4 e 2,8 Mcal EM/kg MS, com oito repetições cada. Observou-se efeito dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis comportamentais maternas avaliadas (vocalização, ato de cheirar e lamber a cria e a posição da ovelha em - pé ou deitada, nas ovelhas, mas não foi observada diferença para os comportamentos filiais (posição da cria, tempo decorrido do nascimento à primeira vez que ficou de pé, tempo decorrido do nascimento à primeira mamada, tempo total de mamadas dos cordeiros. A mobilização de reservas ou o carreamento direto de nutrientes da dieta para o crescimento fetal normal, nos grupos alimentos com dietas contendo 2,0 e 2,4 Mcal EM/kg MS, minimizaram os possíveis efeitos sobre o comportamento filial dos cordeiros. Mesmo sob interferência no relacionamento com as crias, ovelhas Morada Nova conseguiram manter as condições dos cordeiros inalteradas em todos os tratamentos.The present work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the effects of different energy levels offered in the final third of gestation on the ewe-lambs behavior of animals from the Morada Nova breed. The experiment was divided into three treatments - three groups of eight ewes, fed isoprotein diets containing different energy levels (2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM, with eight replicates each. There was effect of the treatment on the maternal behavior evaluated variables (vocalization, act of smell and lick the lambs and the position of the ewe - stand up or lying, in the ewes, but no difference was observed for the filial behavior (position of animal, time from the birth to the first time that the animal was

  19. Lambing Interval in Jezersko-Solčava and Improved Jezersko-Solčava Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Komprej

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects on lambing interval (LI in Improved Jezersko-Solčava (IJS breed were studied. Due to the reason that IJS breed originates from Jezersko-Solčava (JS breed, both breeds were included into the analysis. The data were obtained from the Republic Data Base for Selection of Small Ruminants, between 1993 and 2008. The analysis included 66,755 lambings from 280 breeders. The statistical model included breed, parity, litter size at previous lambing, month of the previous lambing, year of the previous lambing, breed of the ram, geographical location of the flock, interaction between month of the previous lambing and breed of the ram, interaction between parity and month of the previous lambing, interaction between breed of the ewe and month of the previous lambing, and interaction between breed of the ewe and litter size at previous lambing as fixed effects. Flock and interaction between year of the previous lambing and flock were treated randomly. Month of the previous lambing affects LI, which is gradually shortening from February to August, and prolonging from August to February. The number of live born lambs significantly affected LI. LI between the first and the second parity and between the second and the third parity was longer than between higher parities. From 1993 to 1999, the LI was decreasing, and increasing thereafter. Ewes mated with JS ram had longer lambing interval than ewes mated with IJS ram. Among all observed effects, flock affected LI the most.

  20. The Effect of Body Condition Score in Karacabey Merino at Lambing on the Lamb Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Koycu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of the Body Condition Score (BCS at lambing on birth weight, weaning weightand average daily gain until weaning was investigated. At the study, 317 ewes and their 425 lambs wereused. BCS of ewes was taken just before lambing and made three BCS groups as ≤2, 3 and 4 ≥ respectively.The differences of the groups of lambs birth weight according to BCS at lambing were significant(p<0.05. Weaning weight and average daily gain from birth to weaning was similar for ≤2 and 3 BCSgroups. Although were differenced from BCS ≥4 group (p<0.05.As a result, in addition to BCS age and birth type were significantly effected the birth weight, weaningweight and average daily gain from birth to weaning (p<0.05.

  1. Concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona em borregas lanadas e deslanadas no período de abril a novembro, no Estado de São Paulo Plasma concentrations of progesterone in hair and wool ewe lambs from April to November, in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sasa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho o fornecimento de informações sobre o padrão de secreção da progesterona (P4 e as características de manifestação do ciclo estral em borregas lanadas e deslanadas, durante o período de abril a novembro, no Estado de São Paulo. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular de 12 borregas das raças Santa Inês (SI, Romney Marsh (RM e Suffolk (SU, e as concentrações foram determinadas pelo método de radioimunoensaio utilizando-se kits comerciais. O estro foi detectado por machos vasectomizados (impregnados com tinta pó xadrez + óleo comestível na região peitoral em 31 borregas (10 SI, 11 RM e 10 SU. O estro foi determinado pelo confronto da observação de fêmeas marcadas pelos machos vasectomizados e dos valores de concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona inferiores a 1 ng/mL. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos ciclos estrais foi de duração normal (14 - 19 dias para todas as raças. A duração dos ciclos de duração normal das borregas SU foi inferior aos das borregas SI e RM, as quais não diferiram entre si. Não houve diferença entre as raças na duração dos ciclos curtos (The goal of this experiment was to provide information about the pattern of progesterone secretion (P4 and on the oestrus cycle characteristics in hair and wool ewe lambs, from April to November, in São Paulo State. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from 12 ewe lambs Santa Inês (SI, Romney Marsh (RM and Suffolk (SU breeds, and the concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay method, using commercial kits. Oestrus was detected by using vasectomized rams (fitted with raddle crayons + comestible oil on pectoral area in 31 ewe lambs (10 SI, 11 RM and 10 SU. The oestrus was determined by confronting the observation of marked females by vasectomized rams and values of plasma progesterone concentrations lower than 1 ng/mL. The results showed that the majority of oestrus cycles were of

  2. Effects of Using Melatonin Implants and Syncro-Part Pessaries + PMSG on Reproduction Performance in Transylvanian Merino Breed Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Padeanu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Sinnicolau Mare, western Romania, on a number of 70 yearling ewes of 17-18 months of age from the native Transylvanian Merino breed. Ewes included into study lambed for the first time as maiden-ewes at the age of 14-15 months, with their lambs being weaned at the age of two months. First group (V1, numbering 25 ewes received during out of season breeding (30.05.2011 a dose of 18 mg subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin®, while the second group (V2 consisting out of 25 ewes were treated with subcutaneous melatonin implants + 30 mg FGA (Syncro-Part pessaries + 500 IU PMSG. Control group was represented by 20 intact females. Ewes were put to ram in July 7th 2011. Researches shown that in ewes treated with melatonin, 30 mg FGA + 500 IU PMSG (V2 the conception rate was of 80%, with a prolificacy of 140%, with a weaning rate of 1 lamb/ewe. In V1 group, the weaning rate was of 0.84 lambs/ treated ewe, with significantly lower production costs. Ewes from the control group produced a weaning rate of 0.55 lambs/ewe, significantly less (p≤0.05 comparing to V1 and V2 experimental groups. It was concluded that in Transylvanian Merino breed, although the V2 group performed best (producing 28 lambs compared to V1 group (23 lambs, the difference of 5 lambs does not cover additional production costs, therefore the use of melatonin implants alone should be recommended.

  3. Maternal influence on feeding site selection of male and female lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, R L; Cibils, A F; Black-Rubio, C M; Pollak, E R; Utsumi, S A

    2014-06-01

    We conducted an experiment to determine whether early-life social learning of feeding site selection in lambs was sex-specific. Sixteen ewes and their new born lambs were used in a controlled experiment. Eight ewe-lamb pairs included a male lamb and the remaining eight a female lamb. All pairs were individually exposed to an experimental arena containing a safe and unsafe artificial feeding site (SFS, UFS) each consisting of nine bowls which contained either ground Bermuda grass hay (SFS) or ground alfalfa hay (UFS). The bowls in UFS were surrounded by bright orange traffic cones (visual cues). Half the ewes were trained with controlled electric shock to avoid UFS. Thus, pairs were randomly assigned to: (1) shock aversion training (SAT) to mothers of male lambs (MS); (2) SAT to mothers of female lambs (FS); (3) no aversion training (NAT, control) to mothers of male lambs (MC); and (4) NAT (control) to mothers of female lambs (FC). None of the lambs were subjected to SAT. During training, testing, extinction, and retraining ewe-lamb pairs were exposed to the arena together. Ewes were then removed from the experiment and two additional extinction phases were conducted with weaned lambs alone. Fear conditioning elicited UFS avoidance of both the trained ewes (means±s.e.m. % times observed in UFS during testing phase: FC=95.3±1.70; MC=94.4±4.87; FS=1.6±1.63; MS=0 ±0; Pstanding less often than ewes with daughters (FC=7.3±2.40%; MC=2.7±0.83%; FS=39.3±9.04%; MS=18.0±5.29%; P=0.06). This study suggests that social conditioning at an early age could be a viable tool to induce learning of feeding site avoidance in female and male lambs alike.

  4. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of <10%, 13 adult female bighorn sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  5. Early neonatal lamb mortality: postmortem findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, I H; Waage, S; Granquist, E G; L'Abée-Lund, T M; Ersdal, C; Hektoen, L; Sørby, R

    2017-02-01

    An investigation of stillbirth and early neonatal lamb mortality was conducted in sheep flocks in Norway. Knowledge of actual causes of death are important to aid the interpretation of results obtained during studies assessing the risk factors for lamb mortality, and when tailoring preventive measures at the flock, ewe and individual lamb level. This paper reports on the postmortem findings in 270 liveborn lambs that died during the first 5 days after birth. The lambs were from 17 flocks in six counties. A total of 27% died within 3 h after birth, 41% within 24 h and 80% within 2 days. Most lambs (62%) were from triplet or higher order litters. In 81% of twin and larger litters, only one lamb died. The most frequently identified cause of neonatal death was infectious disease (n=97, 36%); 48% (n=47) of these died from septicaemia, 25% (n=24) from pneumonia, 22% (n=21) from gastrointestinal infections and 5% (n=5) from other infections. Escherichia coli accounted for 65% of the septicaemic cases, and were the most common causal agent obtained from all cases of infection (41%). In total, 14% of neonatal deaths resulted from infection by this bacterium. Traumatic lesions were the primary cause of death in 20% (n=53) of the lambs. A total of 46% of these died within 3 h after birth and 66% within 24 h. Severe congenital malformations were found in 10% (n=27) of the lambs, whereas starvation with no concurrent lesions was the cause of death in 6% (n=17). In 16% (n=43) of the lambs, no specific cause of death was identified, lambs from triplet and higher order litters being overrepresented among these cases. In this study, the main causes of neonatal lamb mortality were infection and traumatic lesions. Most neonatal deaths occurred shortly after birth, suggesting that events related to lambing and the immediate post-lambing period are critical for lamb survival.

  6. Utilização de carneiros de raças de corte para obtenção de cordeiros precoces para abate em plantéis produtores de lã Use of meat sheep sire breed on fine wool ewe flocks to produce fast-growing lambs for slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Sessenta e nove cordeiros filhos de ovelhas das raças Ideal ou Corriedale cobertas com machos das raças Suffolk, Ile de France, ou da mesma raça materna, foram usados para avaliar o seu desempenho e as características de carcaça. Os animais permaneceram em pastagem até o desmame (60 dias, foram confinados por 90 dias e alimentados com ração à base de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foi usado delineamento completamente casualizado em esquema fatorial. O uso de machos de corte sobre fêmeas lanígeras não causou efeito sobre o peso ao nascer e ao desmame das crias, porém aumentou o peso e a compacidade das carcaças, sem alterar as proporções de traseiro e costilhar. A espessura de gordura subcutânea não foi influenciada pelo genótipo, apresentando-se maior para fêmeas. A área de olho de lombo não apresentou diferença entre genótipos. As medidas de carcaça mostraram diferença entre genótipos, sendo as do cruzamento com Suffolk mais compridas, seguidas pelos mestiços de Ile de France.ABSTRACT - Sixty-nine lambs from the crossbreeding Corriedale or Polwarth ewes with Suffolk, Ile de France rams or from the same ewe breed were used to evaluate their performance and carcass characteristics. Lambs were maintained under grazing until weaning time (60 days, then were confined for 90 days and fed corn silage and concentrate based diet. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement was used. The use of meat type rams on fine wool ewes did not affect lamb birth and weaning weight, however increased the carcass weight and compacting, without effect on forequarter and ribs. Subcutaneous fat thickness was not affected by the genotype and it was greater for females. Loin eye area did not show difference between genotypes. Carcass measurements showed differences between genotypes, being the ones from Suffolk mating the longest, followed by the crossbred from Ile de France.

  7. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy in Yankasa ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, A A; Ate, I U; Lawal, A I; Adamu, S

    2016-03-15

    Twenty pregnant Yankasa ewes were assigned to three groups to determine the effect of Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy. Groups A and B comprising seven ewes each were infected with approximately 1.0 × 10(6) cells of T evansi per ewe through venepuncture at the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Group C comprising six ewes served as uninfected control. There was slight pyrexia in the infected groups (groups A and B) but was absent in group C. The mean body weight, glucose concentration, and packed cell volume of ewes in group A were not significantly different from those in group C throughout the study. There was also no significant difference in mean glucose concentration between groups B and C. However, in group B, mean body weight was significantly (P gestation length between ewes in the infected groups (groups A and B) compared with those in group C. However, there were significant (P < 0.05) decreases in lamb birth weights of ewes in group B compared with ewes in groups A and C. Mice inoculation with blood from infected ewes postpartum was parasitemic 18 to 25 days pi, for ewes in group B, whereas none of the mice in groups A and C were parasitemic. Lambs born from the infected groups (groups A and B) were also aparasitemic for 40 days postpartum. It was therefore concluded that the T evansi isolate used caused mild trypanosomosis when infected at third trimester, whereas ewes infected at second trimester were resistant.

  8. Hypocalcemia in ewes after a drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.A.; Constable, P.D.; Napthine, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    A marked increase in the incidence of hypocalcemia of ewes 2 to 6 weeks before lambing was observed in the Western District of Victoria, following the break of the severe 1982/3 drought. A similar observation was made after the 1968 drought. In western Victoria, hypocalcemia is usually seen annually as sporadic cases or in sporadic outbreaks associated with some predisposing stress. After the drought broke in 1983, many farms reported cases of hypocalcemia in ewes. The incidence of hypocalcemia on the 9 farms the authors studied varied from 1 to 8% of all ewes, with some mobs having an incidence of over 10%. Detailed investigation of 9 farms that affected sheep were grazing pasture of unusually low calcium (Ca) content. Near record rains fell after the drought broke in late March 1983 resulting in luxuriant pasture growth with subterranean clover Trifolium subterraneum and capeweed Arctotheca calendula the dominant species. Cases of hypocalcemia commenced in May 1983 reaching a peak in June-July corresponding with flocks' lambing times, and continued into August. Most occurred spontaneously in mature ewes. A few farms experienced many cases during prelambing crutching.

  9. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P intake was 22% less (P 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P intake and efficiency were more apparent when alfalfa was pelleted.

  10. EFFECT OF SHEARING DURING PREGNANCY ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE POST-PARTUM PERIOD OF EWES ON EXTENSIVE HUSBANDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Marques Guyoti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of shearing during pregnancy has been described as a tool for improving productivity in sheep and for minimizing perinatal mortality in lambs through the increase of fetal development. This study assessed the effect of shearing around 74 days of gestation on the productive performance of ewes and lambs during the first month of life. Forty Corriedale ewes were inseminated in autumn in Southern Brazil. All ewes were kept together at the same pasture under extensive husbandry conditions. The ewes were randomly separated into two treatment groups: twenty animals were completely sheared at 74 ± 6 days of pregnancy, and twenty were kept without sheared during pregnancy, composing the control group. Ewes and their lambs were evaluated at three different times during the experiment: at birth, between 15 and 21 days post-partum and between 22 and 45 days post-partum. Ewes had their body condition score, body weight, placental weight, milk production and serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate measured, while lambs had hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma lactate and glucose, as well as body weight at birth and until wean determined. Values of hematocrit and hemoglobin were lower and body weight at birth and at wean was higher in the group of lambs born from sheared ewes. Placenta weight was higher in sheared ewes. Body condition score and beta-hydroxybutyrate showed no differences between groups. Milk production of sheared ewes (1.26 L/day was higher than in control group (0.93 L/day. Shearing ewes at 74 days of pregnancy was efficient for the better development of lambs at post-birth, reducing perinatal mortality rates.

  11. Neonatal hormone changes and growth in lambs born to dams receiving differing nutritional intakes and selenium supplementation during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Leticia E; Meyer, Allison M; Neville, Tammi L; Hammer, Carolyn J; Redmer, Dale A; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effects of maternal selenium (Se) supplementation and nutritional intake during gestation on hormone changes, percentage body weight (BW) change, and organ mass in neonatal lambs, ewes were allocated to differing Se levels (adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW)) initiated at breeding and nutritional intake (60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (HIGH) of NRC requirements) initiated at day 40 of gestation. At parturition, all lambs were removed from dams, fed common diets, and BW and blood samples were collected until day 19. There was a Se × nutritional intake × day interaction for percentage BW change from birth. Lambs born to ASe-HIGH ewes tended to have decreased BW change compared with ASe-CON and ASe-RES groups on day 7. Lambs from HSe-HIGH ewes tended to have increased BW change compared with HSe-RES and HSe-CON groups from days 7 to 19. At birth, there was a Se × sex of offspring interaction, in which male lambs from HSe ewes had decreased cortisol concentrations compared with all other lambs. By 24 h, lambs from RES ewes had decreased cortisol compared with those from HIGH ewes, with lambs from CON ewes being intermediate. Lambs from RES- and CON-fed ewes had greater thyroxine than HIGH ewes at 24 h. Organ masses on day 19 were mainly impacted by maternal nutritional intake and sex of the offspring. Birth weight alone did not predict growth performance during neonatal life. Moreover, despite a similar postnatal diet, maternal nutritional plane and Se status did impact neonatal endocrine profiles. Exact mechanisms of how neonatal endocrine status can influence later growth and development need to be determined.

  12. Genetic Parameters of Some Economic Traits in Arabi Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F. Al-Dabbagh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data were analyzed of Arabi ewes flock (153 within productive years 1990-1999 to estimate the overall mean and genetic parameters which are heritability, repeatability, genetic and phenotypic correlations for fertility, litter size, ewes weight, lambs birth weights, milk and wool yield for this breed. The overall mean for fertility, litter size, ewes weight, lambs birth weights, daily milk yield and greasy fleece weight were 70.07%, 1.14, 50.24 kg, 4.52 kg, 0.59 kg and 1.67 kg respectively. Heritability estimates were low- moderate ranged (0.09-0.45. Repeatability estimates were low-high ranged (0.10-0.56. Genetic and phenotypic values of correlation between the traits were all highly significant (p≤ 0.01 except for the genetic and phenotypic correlation between birth weight and both daily milk yield, fertility, phenotypic correlation between greasy fleece weight and both fertility, litter size were non significant.

  13. Uterine involution and progesterone level during the postpartum period in Barbary ewes in north Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Medan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of uterine involution and ovarian activity using ultrasound examination and progesterone assay. Weekly progesterone levels were measured starting one week postpartum until two weeks after the 1st postpartum estrus in Barbary ewes lambed during winter in AL-Bayda city, north of Libya. A total of 15 Barbary ewes were used in the present study distributed in three groups according to the month of lambing as group 1 (lambed in January, group 2 (lambed in February and group 3 (lambed in March. Ewes were examined weekly by trans-rectal ultrasound to check involution of the uterus starting one week after lambing until complete uterine involution. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and stored at ˗20 ºC until measuring progesterone using ELISA. Results showed that uterine involution completed at day 35 postpartum in groups 1 and 2, while it occurred at day 28 in group 3. The mean progesterone level was basal (less than 1 ng/ml for a long period and started to increase at days 119, 99 and 77 postpartum in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One ewe did not show estrus at all during the period of study in group 2 and there were no growing follicles on their ovaries. The obtained results indicate that, uterine involution as determined by ultrasound completed earlier in ewes lambed in March than those lambed in February or January. Also, progesterone level and ultrasound examination showed that there was no ovarian activity for a longtime after parturition indicating that reproduction in Barbary ewes tends to be seasonal in AL-Bayda city, north Libya.

  14. Uterine involution and progesterone level during the postpartum period in Barbary ewes in north Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, M S; El-Daek, T

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the time of uterine involution and ovarian activity using ultrasound examination and progesterone assay. Weekly progesterone levels were measured starting one week postpartum until two weeks after the 1(st) postpartum estrus in Barbary ewes lambed during winter in AL-Bayda city, north of Libya. A total of 15 Barbary ewes were used in the present study distributed in three groups according to the month of lambing as group 1 (lambed in January), group 2 (lambed in February) and group 3 (lambed in March). Ewes were examined weekly by trans-rectal ultrasound to check involution of the uterus starting one week after lambing until complete uterine involution. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and stored at -20 °C until measuring progesterone using ELISA. Results showed that uterine involution completed at day 35 postpartum in groups 1 and 2, while it occurred at day 28 in group 3. The mean progesterone level was basal (less than 1 ng/ml) for a long period and started to increase at days 119, 99 and 77 postpartum in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One ewe did not show estrus at all during the period of study in group 2 and there were no growing follicles on their ovaries. The obtained results indicate that, uterine involution as determined by ultrasound completed earlier in ewes lambed in March than those lambed in February or January. Also, progesterone level and ultrasound examination showed that there was no ovarian activity for a longtime after parturition indicating that reproduction in Barbary ewes tends to be seasonal in AL-Bayda city, north Libya.

  15. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: I. Ewe productivity and crossbred lamb survival and preweaning growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to comprehensively evaluate Columbia, Suffolk, USMARC-Composite (Composite), and Texel breeds as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system. The objective was to estimate breed-of-ram effects on ewe fertility, prolificacy, and dystocia, and sire breed effe...

  16. Late foetal life nutrient restriction and sire genotype affect postnatal performance of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Tauson, Anne-Helen; Blache, D.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment investigates the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in late gestation on the offsprings' postnatal metabolism and performance. Forty purebred Shropshire twin lambs born to ewes fed either a high-nutrition diet (H) (according to standard) or a low-nutrition (L) diet (50% during...... the last 6 weeks of gestation) were studied from birth until 145 days of age. In each feeding group, two different sires were represented, ‘growth' (G) and ‘meat' (M), having different breeding indices for the lean : fat ratio. Post partum all ewes were fed the same diet. Lambs born to L-ewes had...... significantly lower birth weights and pre-weaning growth rates. This was especially pronounced in L-lambs born to the M-ram, which also had markedly lower pre-weaning glucose concentrations than the other three groups of lambs. L-lambs converted milk to live weight with an increased efficiency in week 3 of life...

  17. Incomplete reduction of branchial clefts in Mutton Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda Leask

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations of the branchial arches, clefts and grooves have not been previously reported in sheep. These defects may be due to infectious agents (especially viruses, toxins or genetic abnormalities. Defects were reported in two of a set of quadruplet lambs born prematurely to an eight-tooth Mutton Merino ewe. The lambs weighed between 2.0 kg and 2.5 kg; this is below the normal expected birth weight of 3.5 kg for quadruplet lambs, below which viability is compromised. The firstborn lamb was severely affected by bilateral oroauricular fistulae. The second lamb was unilaterally affected on the right, less severely than the first. The third lamb was normal and the fourth was mummified. The occurrence of another case in this small flock almost a decade earlier indicates that there could be genetic involvement.

  18. Incomplete reduction of branchial clefts in Mutton Merino lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Rhoda; Pettey, Kenneth P; Bath, Gareth F

    2014-05-19

    Congenital malformations of the branchial arches, clefts and grooves have not been previously reported in sheep. These defects may be due to infectious agents (especially viruses), toxins or genetic abnormalities. Defects were reported in two of a set of quadruplet lambs born prematurely to an eight-tooth Mutton Merino ewe. The lambs weighed between 2.0 kg and 2.5 kg; this is below the normal expected birth weight of 3.5 kg for quadruplet lambs, below which viability is compromised. The firstborn lamb was severely affected by bilateral oroauricular fistulae. The second lamb was unilaterally affected on the right, less severely than the first. The third lamb was normal and the fourth was mummified. The occurrence of another case in this small flock almost a decade earlier indicates that there could be genetic involvement.

  19. Resumption of cyclic ovarian activity in postpartum ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Júnior Ascari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reproduction rate is considered a crucial factor that affects the ability of producers to meet the growing demand for ovines meat, and optimizing this factor will maximize the production rate and increase the efficiency of livestock. A reduction in the length of the postpartum anestrus period results in a shorter interval between lambing and conception and enables more lambs to be produced throughout the life of a ewe. This review discusses the current knowledge of several factors associated with the resumption of cyclic ovarian function in postpartum ewes and how the suckling management of ewes may affect this process. Factors that influence the resumption of cyclic ovarian activity include uterine involution, follicular development, occurrence of silent ovulation and short estrous cycles, breed, reproductive seasonality, nutrition and lactation. Controlled suckling and early weaning are management practices that may be used to obtain three lambings in a 24-month period. In the majority of the studies the interval between lambing and first estrus was reduced when a controlled suckling management strategy was used, therefore the controlled suckling appears to be the best alternative because it has produced good results and is easy to implement. Currently, however, this practice is still not widely used.

  20. A field study of reproductive performance and productivity of Pelibuey ewes in Southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel; Huchin-Cab, Miguel; Ake-López, Ricardo Jesus; Segura-Correa, Jose Candelario

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate the reproductive performance and productivity of Pelibuey ewes in two flocks in Southeastern Mexico. Animals grazed on irrigated star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus). In flock 1, lambs grazed with their mothers from 7 to 70 days of age (weaning age), whereas in flock 2, they were confined and offered chopped grass, a commercial concentrated and managed under restricted suckling until weaning at 60 days of age.. The statistical model included the fixed effects of flock, year and season of lambing, parity number, litter size at weaning, first order interactions and the random effects of ewe and the error term. The means ± SD for age at first lambing, prolificacy, lambing interval (LI), weaning weight, and productivity were 477 ± 85.5 days, 1.41 ± 0.51 lambs, 255.9 ± 51.8 days, 16.5 ± 4 kg, and 18.1 ± 4.42 kg of lamb weaned, respectively. Repeatability estimates for the latter four traits were 0.09, 0.07, 0.11, and 0.13, respectively. All main effects in the models were significant (P season. Ewes with two or three lambs produced 8 and 14 kg of lamb more at weaning than single lamb ewes. In conclusion, reproductive performance and productivity could be improved, and the low repeatability estimates suggest that management should be used in a short term rather than genetic approaches.

  1. Relationship between energy intake and chewing index of diets fed to pregnant ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Vestergaard; Nadeau, E.; Markussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether a linear relationship exists between the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of pregnant ewes and a dietary chewing index (CI). The relationship was studied using five feeding trials with intake data from 108 pregnant ewes, 4 to 1 weeks before lambing, giving...... a total of 324 observations. All ewes were fed grass silage ad libitum, supplemented with concentrates either separately or in a total mixed ration (TMR). The ewes were of different breeds, were between 2 and 7 years old, had a mean body weight (BW) in the 4th week before lambing of 95.1 kg (SD = 9...... × ME02 × CIcor, where MEI is the daily metabolizable energy intake, ME0 is considered the theoretical maximum intake capacity of the animal in a theoretical situation with no physical constraint on intake, and parameter k represents the decline in MEI with the increasing CIcor of the ration. The model...

  2. The impact of lambing stress on post-parturient behaviour of sheep with consequences on neonatal homeothermy and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, R A; Ashmawy, T A M

    2011-10-01

    During lambing the expression of an appropriate behavioural response from both the ewe and the lamb are extremely important to lamb survival. The aim of this study was to show the effect of length and difficulty of the birth process on the expression of maternal and neonatal behaviour with consequences on homeothermy and survival of the neonate lamb. Data were collected from 61 Finnish Landrace × Rahmani crossbred (second generation) primiparous ewes and their single born lambs. Based on the average length of parturition, the ewes were grouped into short birth (less than 32.5 min) and long birth (equal to or higher than 32.5 min) classes. The data recorded include maternal and neonatal behaviour, lamb body temperature over the first 3 days of life and survival rate of the neonate lamb during the first week after birth. Blood samples were also collected from the lamb, pre-suckling and at 24 and 72 h after birth. The obtained sera were assayed for thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) that are associated with heat production. Ewes that had prolonged and difficult births did not show competent maternal behaviour compared to mothers with short and un-complicated deliveries, as they were slower to begin grooming their lambs after birth, spent less time licking their lambs, made less low-pitched vocalizations and nosing, were more likely to show rejection behaviour (10.34 % vs 5.4 %, P lamb sought the udder in an attempt to suck (acceptance rate, 55.5 % vs 64.79 %, P lambs from a prolonged and difficult birth were significantly less vigorous after birth, as they had taken more time to stand, reach the udder and to suck successfully. These lambs had lower serum concentrations of T(3) and T(4), and they also had a reduced ability to maintain body temperature after birth. This effect persisted over the first 3 days of life and was associated with higher neonatal mortality in the first week after birth (11.54 %), compared to lambs from short and non-stressful birth processes (2

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Eoin; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Durand, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    were taken. Lambs were killed sequentially and tissue samples taken for analysis. Using real-time RT-PCR, viral RNA levels in tissue samples and serum were measured, and a novel strand-specific real-time RT-PCR assay was used to quantify viral replication levels in tissues. Tissue sections were...... examined for histopathological lesions, and in situ hybridisation (ISH) was used to localise viral RNA within histological sections. The contact-infected lambs became infected approximately 24 h after the ewes were inoculated. Vesicular lesions developed on the feet of all lambs and on the caudo......-lateral part of the tongues of six of the eight inoculated lambs and three of the four contact-infected lambs. Although no lambs developed severe clinical signs, one of the contact-infected lambs died acutely at 5 days post-exposure. Histological examination of the heart from this lamb showed multi-focal areas...

  4. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of “gestation”. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothers’ colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented

  5. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymaster, K A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Heaton, M P

    2015-01-01

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154). The experimental objective was to estimate additive and dominance effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility of breeding ewes to infection after natural exposure to OPPV from birth to 39 mo of age. Sires and dams were heterozygous for TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3, producing ewe lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3." These lambs were raised by mature, infected dams to ensure natural, maternal exposure to OPPV. Ewe lambs (n = 108) were kept for breeding and joined an infected flock of ewes to guarantee natural, nonmaternal exposure to OPPV. Ewes were bred to lamb at 1, 2, and 3 yr of age. Serum samples were collected at breeding, 1 mo before lambing and shortly after weaning each year to monitor infection status to 39 mo of age. During the experiment, 9 of the 108 ewes died while uninfected and data collected on these ewes were not analyzed. Infection status of the remaining 99 ewes at 39 mo of age was analyzed using logistic regression procedures. Effects of ewe type of birth, ewe type of rearing, and breed type of dam were not detected (P > 0.10), and the estimated sire variance component was nil. Ewe diplotype affected infection status (P sheep that are genetically less susceptible to OPPV infection.

  6. Incomplete reduction of branchial clefts in Mutton Merino lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoda Leask; Kenneth P. Pettey; Gareth F. Bath

    2014-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the branchial arches, clefts and grooves have not been previously reported in sheep. These defects may be due to infectious agents (especially viruses), toxins or genetic abnormalities. Defects were reported in two of a set of quadruplet lambs born prematurely to an eight-tooth Mutton Merino ewe. The lambs weighed between 2.0 kg and 2.5 kg; this is below the normal expected birth weight of 3.5 kg for quadruplet lambs, below which viability is compromised. The first...

  7. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  8. LAMB PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terent'eva Elena Olegovna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.

  9. LAMB PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Terent'eva Elena Olegovna

    2013-01-01

    Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.

  10. Lamb deaths associated with administration of oral minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-22

    Deaths in preweaned lambs associated with administering oral minerals containing copperCongenital malformations in calvesIdiopathic necrotising enteritis in calvesAbomasal obstruction due to trichobezoars in suckled calvesRadial neuropathy (kangaroo gait) in a ewe These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for July 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  11. Padrões de comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras recebendo ou não suplemento em pastagem de milheto Ingestive behavior patterns of ewe lambs receiving or not supplement on Pearl millet pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento ingestivo e os padrões de deslocamento e procura de forragem de cordeiras em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. foram avaliados quando estas foram mantidas exclusivamente em pastagem ou em pastagem recebendo suplemento (ração comercial fornecida diariamente às 17h. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições de área. Os animais que receberam suplemento reduziram o tempo de pastejo e aumentaram o tempo destinado às outras atividades. Os padrões de ingestão, deslocamento e procura de forragem foram alterados pelas mudanças na estrutura do pasto ao longo dos estádios de desenvolvimento do milheto e não foram modificados pelo recebimento de suplemento.The ingestive behavior and displacement and forage searching patterns of female lambs in Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. were evaluated when lambs were kept exclusively on Pearl millet pasture and on pearl millet pasture receiving supplement. The supplement used was a commercial ration given daily at 17h. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two area replicates. The animals that received supplement reduced the grazing time and increased the idling time. The intake, displacement and forage searching patterns were influenced by changing on pasture structure along the Pearl millet stage of development and were not modified by supplement supply.

  12. Effect of Moxidectin Treatment at Peripartum on Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Ewes Raised under Tropical Andes High Altitude Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vargas-Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the impact of moxidectin at peripartum on nematode fecal egg count (FEC and clinical parameters on ewes in the high altitude tropical Andes of Colombia. FEC and clinical evaluations were performed on 9 occasions in 43 naturally infected ewes before and during gestation and after lambing. Moxidectin (Mox, 200 µg kg−1 was applied at late pregnancy (T1, n=15 or 48 hours after parturition (T2, n=14. 14 untreated ewes served as controls (C. Suckling lambs (n=58 remained untreated and underwent four clinical and parasitological evaluations until 8 weeks after birth. Mox efficacy equaled 99.3% (T1 and 96.9% (T2. Highest mean FEC value reflecting periparturient nematode egg rise (PPER was recorded in C ewes at 4–6 weeks after lambing. Significant FEC reductions were found in T1 (94.8% and T2 (96.7% ewes (p<0.05. All lambs showed a significant and ewes-group independent increase in FEC before weaning (p<0.05. Clinical parameters (anemia and diarrhea showed time- and treatment-related differences (p<0.05. Monitoring of FEC and clinical parameters linked to gastrointestinal parasite infections allowed demonstrating that postpartum or preweaning are two critical periods to nematode infection for sheep raised under tropical Andes high altitude conditions. Use of Mox as anthelmintic treatment prevented PPER.

  13. Effect of Moxidectin Treatment at Peripartum on Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Ewes Raised under Tropical Andes High Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Duarte, J. J.; Lozano-Márquez, H.; Grajales-Lombana, H. A.; Manrique-Perdomo, C.; Martínez-Bello, D. A.; Saegerman, C.; Raes, M.; Kirschvink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the impact of moxidectin at peripartum on nematode fecal egg count (FEC) and clinical parameters on ewes in the high altitude tropical Andes of Colombia. FEC and clinical evaluations were performed on 9 occasions in 43 naturally infected ewes before and during gestation and after lambing. Moxidectin (Mox, 200 µg kg−1) was applied at late pregnancy (T1, n = 15) or 48 hours after parturition (T2, n = 14). 14 untreated ewes served as controls (C). Suckling lambs (n = 58) remained untreated and underwent four clinical and parasitological evaluations until 8 weeks after birth. Mox efficacy equaled 99.3% (T1) and 96.9% (T2). Highest mean FEC value reflecting periparturient nematode egg rise (PPER) was recorded in C ewes at 4–6 weeks after lambing. Significant FEC reductions were found in T1 (94.8%) and T2 (96.7%) ewes (p < 0.05). All lambs showed a significant and ewes-group independent increase in FEC before weaning (p < 0.05). Clinical parameters (anemia and diarrhea) showed time- and treatment-related differences (p < 0.05). Monitoring of FEC and clinical parameters linked to gastrointestinal parasite infections allowed demonstrating that postpartum or preweaning are two critical periods to nematode infection for sheep raised under tropical Andes high altitude conditions. Use of Mox as anthelmintic treatment prevented PPER. PMID:26078913

  14. Efecto de melatonina sobre la secreción pulsátil de hormona luteinizante y de hormona del crecimiento en borregas con restricción alimenticia Effect of melatonin on the pulsatile luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion in ewe lambs under food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. RECABARREN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar la secreción pulsátil de LH y GH en borregas sometidas a restricción alimenticia (n=5, grupo R-MEL, a las 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad, tratadas diariamente con melatonina (3 mg/día, a las 16:00 h, desde las 10 semanas de edad. La restricción alimenticia se inició a las 16 semanas de edad. Borregas de la misma edad con restricción alimenticia sin administración de melatonina actuaron como grupo comparativo (n=6, R-SOL. El promedio transversal de LH tendió a aumentar desde 0,35± 0,04 a las 20 sem. hasta 0,61±0,15 ng/ml/6h a las 30 sem en las borregas del grupo R-MEL, mientras que en las borregas del grupo R-SOL el promedio no cambió entre ambas edades: 0,34± 0,03 a las 20 sem y 0,25±0,05 ng/ml/6h a las 30 sem. La frecuencia de pulsos de LH no cambió y no fue diferente entre los 2 grupos. La amplitud de pulsos de LH tendió a ser mayor en las borregas R-MEL a las 30 sem: 0,76± 0,28 y 0,38± 0,09 ng/ml respectivamente (PThe aim of the present work was to characterize the pulsatile LH and GH secretion in food restricted Suffolk ewe lambs (n=5, R-MEL group receiving daily oral administration of melatonin (3mg/20 mL, at 16:00 h, at 20-26- and 30 weeks of age, after 4,10 and 14 weeks of food restriction. Melatonin treatment was initiated at 10 weeks of age. Food restricted lambs of the same age, without melatonin treatment acted as comparative group (n=6, R-SOL. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein by means of an indwelling catheter at 10 min-intervals for 6 hours, from 09:00 h. LH and GH were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations of both hormones were analyzed by the Cluster program to define pulse frequency (n° pulses/6h, and pulse amplitude (ng/mL. The transversal mean of LH and GH was also calculated (ng/mL/6h. In the R-MEL group, the transversal mean of LH tended to increase from 0.35± 0.04 in 20 weeks old lambs to 0.61± 0.15 ng/mL/6h in 30 weeks old

  15. Stages of Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue . Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest , pelvis , spine , or skull . Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity , or ...

  16. Molecular detection of Chlamydophila abortus in post-abortion sheep at oestrus and subsequent lambing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Morag; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Maley, Stephen W; Longbottom, David

    2009-03-16

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE), resulting from infection with the bacterium Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus), is a major cause of lamb loss in Europe. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of the shedding of organisms in post-abortion ewes at oestrus and subsequent lambing on the epidemiology of EAE. Using a newly developed C. abortus specific real-time PCR assay, few chlamydial genomes could be detected in vaginal swabs taken from post-abortion ewes at oestrus. At subsequent parturition, all ewes lambed normally with no macroscopic or microbiological evidence of infection. Real-time PCR analysis of placental samples identified very few or no chlamydial genomes, which contrasted significantly with samples taken at the time of abortion, where an average of 2.7x10(7) chlamydial genomes per microgram of total tissue DNA was detected. Few genomes could also be detected from vaginal and cervical tissue samples and lymph nodes taken post-mortem. The results, although not discounting the possibility of a chronic low level persistent infection in post-abortion ewes, suggest that the low levels of chlamydial DNA detected during the periovulation period and at lambing do not significantly impact on the epidemiology of EAE. In terms of flock management, the products of abortion should be considered the major and principal source of infection for transmission to naïve ewes.

  17. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of ewe traits in Icelandic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, T; Jónmundsson, J V

    2008-12-01

    The prolificacy of the ewes was measured as the number of lambs born per ewe mated (NLB) when the ewes were 1-4 years of age. The ewe productivity related to the same age interval was measured by special ewe production indices (EPI). The genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by a series of bivariate REML analyses using animal models. The material used for the genetic analysis contained records on 193,213 ewes. The heritability estimates for NLB were h(2) = 0.17, 0.13, 0.11, 0.10 for the four respective age classes. Corresponding estimates for EPI were h(2) = 0.16, 0.17, 0.17, 0.15. The genetic correlations among NLB at different ages ranged from 0.63 to 0.98 and among EPI from 0.82 to 0.99. The genetic correlations between NLB and EPI were generally low. The material used for estimating the breeding values by the MT-BLUP Animal Model consisted of 1.5 million individuals in the pedigree file. In total 815,782 ewes had records for the NLB and 763,491 ewes had production index (at least 1 year). The records were registered in the years 1990-2006. All possible missing patterns were present in the data. In the iteration process expected values for missing traits were generated and solutions were obtained on canonical transformed scale. The genetic evaluations were run independently for NLB and EPI for computational convenience given the correlations between these traits were negligible.

  18. Sexual development of prepubertal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, H. de; Rademakers, J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of childhood sexuality are scarce and often focus on sexual abuse. In this review, an attempt is made to establish what is known, from empirical studies, about sexual behaviors (solitary and interpersonal) and feelings in pre-pubertal boys and girls. In addition, the research methods used wi

  19. Suspected photosensitisation in lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, K J; West, D M; Alley, M R; Waghorn, G C

    1995-06-01

    Suspected photosensitisation occurred in three groups of lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus c.v. Grasslands Goldie). In one group, sucking lambs aged about 10 weeks, grazing birdsfoot trefoil, developed skin lesions while lambs of a similar age and from the same flock grazing lucerne (Medicago sativa) or a mixed sward of both species showed no signs of photosensitisation. Affected lambs had lesions on their backs and ears. In a few animals the tips of the ears were shortened by 2-3 cm. In the affected lambs, serum liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase), bilirubin and serum Vitamin B12 levels were within the normal range. At necropsy, no significant pathological changes were detected in the liver and histological changes in the skin were consistent with primary photosensitisation. In the second group, three of 80 weaned lambs grazing the same birdsfoot trefoil at a restricted intake were affected in the same manner as the first group. In the third group, 15 animals from 28 sets of sucking twin lambs were also affected. In only two sets of twins were both lambs affected. None of the ewes grazing with the lambs in the first or third groups showed any clinical signs of photosensitisation.

  20. Colostrum composition of Santa Inês sheep and passive transfer of immunity to lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A C; Alves, N G; Ascari, I J; Junqueira, F B; Coutinho, A S; Lima, R R; Pérez, J R O; De Paula, S O; Furusho-Garcia, I F; Abreu, L R

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and the IgG concentration of the colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk of Santa Inês ewes as well as the transfer of passive immunity to lambs. Thirty-two pregnant ewes and 38 lambs were used. Ewes were milked immediately after lambing and at 12, 24, 36 h and 10 d postpartum. Colostrum was provided to the lambs at 40±15 min (mean±SE) after birth and then at 30-min intervals for obtaining the intake closest to 10% of body weight, and transitional milk was provided ad libitum. Blood from the lambs was collected 36 h after birth for measuring the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin. The production was lower in primiparous than in multiparous ewes with body condition score (BCS)colostrum was higher in ewes with BCScolostrum was not correlated with the ewe's weight or BCS at the time of lambing. Moreover, the parity, the BCS, the ewe's type of gestation, and the lamb's sex did not influence the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin in lambs. Adequate passive immune transfer (PIT) was observed in lambs for which the IgG intake was higher than 30 g. Failure in PIT was observed in 39.5% of lambs when considering a serum IgG concentration lower than 15 mg/mL and in 21% when considering a serum total protein concentration lower than 45 mg/mL. The mean apparent efficiency of absorption was 38.10%, with values between 0.02% and 98.80%. The serum IgG concentration was correlated with the total protein concentration (according to the enzymatic colorimetric method), the gamma-globulin concentration, and the absorption efficiency. The extreme variation on apparent efficiency of absorption may have an effect on the success of PIT. Lambs should consume at least 30 g of IgG in the first 24 h of life to ensure adequate PIT.

  1. Maternal behaviour and lamb survival: from neuroendocrinology to practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C M

    2014-01-01

    Parental care promotes offspring survival and, for livestock species, this care is provided solely by the mother. Maternal behaviour in the sheep has been exceptionally well-studied compared with other species and many of the underpinning biological processes leading to the expression of maternal care are known. In this review the current state of play with regard to the biology of maternal care will be reviewed, and its application to provide practical solutions to reduce lamb mortality considered. For maternal care to be elicited at birth the ewe requires elevated circulating oestradiol in late gestation, which stimulates the expression of oxytocin receptors in both peripheral and central areas (particularly the hypothalamic and limbic areas of the brain). At birth stretching of the vaginocervical canal elicits a spinal reflex which triggers the release of oxytocin primarily from neurones within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Oxytocin release causes an increase in the neurotransmitters noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the olfactory bulb, and other brain regions important for maternal behaviour. Finally, sensory cues provided by the lamb, in particular the amniotic fluids surrounding it, lead to the expression of maternal behaviours (licking, low-pitched bleats, acceptance of the lamb at the udder and suckling). This allows the expression of the two facets of maternal behaviour in the ewe: nurturance of the young and maternal selectivity, whereby a specific olfactory memory for the ewes own lamb is formed and the expression of maternal care is restricted to this lamb. Variation in the expression of maternal care has been demonstrated in primiparous ewes compared with multiparous, in different sheep genotypes, with undernutrition, stress in pregnancy, following a difficult delivery, and may occur with variation in ewe temperament. An understanding of the importance of the timing of various events in late

  2. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities......No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  3. Is Lamb Promotion Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    This objective of this study is to determine whether the advertising and promotion dollars collected and spent by the American Lamb Board on lamb promotion since the inception of the Lamb Checkoff Program have effectively increased lamb consumption in the United States. The main conclusion is that program has resulted in roughly 7.6 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $41.59 in additional lamb sales per dollar spent on advertising and ...

  4. Short-term nutritional treatments grazing legumes or feeding concentrates increase prolificacy in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñoles, C; Meikle, A; Martin, G B

    2009-07-01

    We tested whether short periods of increased nutrition will improve ovulation rate and prolificacy, irrespective of the method used to synchronise the cycles of the ewes. In Experiment 1, we used 138 Corriedale ewes to evaluate two factors: synchronization treatment (sponges versus a single injection of prostaglandin) and type of pasture (native versus improved with Lotus corniculatus). Ewes were mated at the end of the grazing period and prolificacy was evaluated at lambing. Grazing Lotus corniculatus for 12 days tended to increase the number of twin lambs born (P=0.09). The percentage of ewes showing oestrus during a 9-day period was similar among synchronization treatments. Animals in Experiments 2 (n=282) and 3 (n=288) were allocated to a control group or a group fed a supplement of corn grain and soybean meal for 7 days. Ewes received 2 prostaglandin injections and the supplement was fed from Days 11 to 17 after the second prostaglandin. Ovulation rate was measured in 65 (Experiment 2) and 61 (Experiment 3) ewes that were confirmed to have consumed the supplement and showed oestrus in a 4-day period. The supplement increased ovulation rate by 14% in both experiments (PLotus corniculatus and in ovulation rate to 7 days feeding with a supplement rich in energy and protein. Moreover, in these studies, prostaglandin was as effective as sponges for synchronising oestrus, an important factor in future decisions about hormonal management of fertility.

  5. HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SANTA INÊS EWES SUPPLEMENTED ON PASTURE AT THE LAST THIRD OF PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Rocha Bezerra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of concentrate supplementation level on hematological profile of Santa Ines ewes, at the last third of pregnancy and postpartum, and of their lambs. We used eleven ewes at the last 75 days of pregnancy and the first 75 days of lactation and eight lambs born from these ewes, allotted in a completely randomized design and split-plot arrangement in time. Blood samples were collected every fourteen days. Neither the erythrocyte nor the leukocyte profile was affected by the different levels of supplementation (P>0.05 and the blood components evaluated were within the reference range for adult sheep. The animal category affected (P0.05. For the lymphocyte count, the values found in lambs (2858.8 /µL were similar to those in pregnant ewes (2,982.0/µL; lactating ewes (4119.8/µL showed the highest values. Concentrate supplementation (0.5% BW at pre and postpartum does not alter the erythrocyte and leukocyte profile of Santa Inês sheep, with the largest differences between the two sheep categories and lambs.

  6. 饲粮能量和蛋白质水平对莱芜黑山羊泌乳母羊营养物质消化、泌乳量和血清生化指标及羔羊增重的影响%Dietary Energy and Protein Levels Affect Nutrient Digestion, Milk Yield and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Lactating Ewes and Weight Gain of Lambs of Laiwu Black Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程光民; 徐相亭; 陈凤梅; 张永翠; 刘建胜; 王建民

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮能量和蛋白质水平对莱芜黑山羊泌乳母羊(1~60泌乳日龄)营养物质消化、泌乳量和血清生化指标及其产出羔羊增重的影响。饲粮能量和蛋白质水平设计参考《肉羊饲养标准》( NY/T 816—2004)。1~30泌乳日龄:消化能12.78 MJ/kg,粗蛋白质15.00%;31~60泌乳日龄:消化能13.00 MJ/kg,粗蛋白质17.00%。高、低水平分别设计为标准推荐量的120%、100%。将40只分娩后的莱芜黑山羊母羊平均分为4组,各组分别饲喂高蛋白质、高能(A组),低蛋白质、高能(B组),高蛋白质、低能(C组),低蛋白质、低能(D组)饲粮。结果表明:1) A组的羔羊平均日增重显著高于其他3组( P<0.05),D组母羊体重呈负增长现象,但变化幅度较小。1~30日龄羔羊增重速度高于31~60日龄,羔羊平均日增重以C组在1~30日龄和A组在31~60日龄最高。2)整个泌乳期A、C组的母羊泌乳总量显著高于B、D组(P<0.05),各组泌乳量峰值均出现在30泌乳日龄,随后逐渐降低。3)饲粮蛋白质水平影响母羊的泌乳量及羔羊的平均日增重,饲粮能量水平的影响不如蛋白质明显。4)母羊粗蛋白质采食量、泌乳量及羔羊平均日增重具有相似的变化趋势,有一定相关性。总之,1~30泌乳日龄母羊饲粮消化能、粗蛋白质、干物质适宜水平分别为1.145 MJ/( kg W0.75· d)、17.67 g/( kg W0.75· d)、93.73 g/(kg W0.75·d),31~60泌乳日龄分别为1.139 MJ/(kg W0.75·d)、19.65 g/(kg W0.75·d)、90.14 g/(kg W0.75·d)。%This trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein levels on nutrient di-gestion, milk yield and serum biochemical parameters of lactating ewes ( 1 to 60 days in lactation) and weight gain of their lambs of Laiwu black goats. The levels of energy and protein in diets were formulated according to Feeding Standard of Meat-Producing Sheep and Goats ( NY/T 816—2004) . Digestive energy and crude pro-tein levels

  7. Desempenho e características das fibras musculares esqueléticas de cordeiros nascidos de ovelhas que receberam suplementação alimentar em diferentes períodos da gestação Performance and skeletal muscular fiber characteristics of lambs born from ewes supplemented at different stages of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Agostinho Mexia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento ponderal do nascimento ao desmame e o diâmetro e número de fibras musculares do músculo Semitendinosus de cordeiros filhos de ovelhas Santa Inês que receberam suplementação alimentar em diferentes períodos da gestação. Foram utilizadas 73 ovelhas Santa Inês (peso médio de 45,11 kg cobertas com três reprodutores Dorset, distribuídas entre os seguintes tratamentos durante a gestação: controle - pastagem de capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. e resíduo de mandioca durante toda a gestação; terço inicial - tratamento controle + suplementação do 1º ao 50º dia de gestação; terço médio (TM - tratamento controle + suplementação do 50º ao 100º dia de gestação; e terço final (TF - tratamento controle + suplementação do 100º dia de gestação até parição. Os nascimentos ocorreram no período de 23 de novembro de 2003 a 03 de janeiro de 2004. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o peso dos cordeiros ao nascimento (PCN, aos 30 dias de idade (PC30 e ao desmame (PC60 e o ganho médio diário do nascimento ao desmame (GMD 0-60, cujos valores médios foram de 4,02; 9,19; 16,40 e 0,21 kg/dia, respectivamente. O tipo de parto influenciou o PCN, PC30, PC60 e o GMD 0-60. Não houve diferença no diâmetro das fibras musculares ao nascimento (média de 11,61 µm e ao desmame (27,65 µm. O valor médio do número de fibras no músculo Semitendinosus foi de 1.454.185, o peso do músculo de 21,04 g e o comprimento de 8,43 cm, sendo semelhantes entre os períodos de suplementação. Não se justifica a suplementação de ovelhas nos diferentes períodos da gestação quando mantidas em pastagens de capim-tanzânia recebendo resíduo de fécula de mandioca no cocho.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the body weight change as well as the diameters and numbers of muscular fibers of the Semitendinosus muscle of lambs from birth until weaning that were born from Santa Inês ewes supplemented at

  8. Reproductive and productive performances of Santa Inês ewes submitted to breeding in different periods of the Amazonian humid tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Felipe Nogueira; Oliveira, Maria Emilia Franco; Padilha-Nakaghi, Luciana Cristina; de Oliveira, Luís Guilherme; Feliciano, Marcus Antônio Rossi; de Oliveira, Felipe Brener Bezerra; Teixeira, Pedro Paulo Maia; Vicente, Wilter Ricardo Russiano; Faturi, Cristian; Rodrigues, Luiz Fernando de Souza

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive and productive performance of Santa Inês ewes bred at different times of the year in humid tropical climate. One hundred and forty-eight Santa Inês ewes were grouped according to the time of the year of their breeding season (i.e., mating period) (dry/wet, wet, wet/dry, and dry season). The service type was natural mating and the ewes and rams were kept together every night for 45 days. Reproductive efficiency was assessed by service, pregnancy, lambing, prolificacy, twinning, pregnancy loss, weaning, and lamb mortality rates. Ewes were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the breeding season and before and after parturition, and sequential weighing of the lambs was performed (at birth, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). Reproductive efficiency index (number of lambs weaned/total of served ewes) and productive efficiency (kg of weaned lamb/kg of served or lambed ewes) were calculated. All ewes expressed estrus early in the breeding season; however, a higher percentage (53.5 and 7.1 % at 30 and 45 days, respectively) of ewes returned to estrus during the wet/dry period. The lower rates (13.9 %) of return to estrus at 30 days were during the wet season (P  0.05) effects of breeding seasons on the remaining reproductive rates. Ewes that lambed during the wet/dry transition period weighted less, before (40.5 ± 2.5 kg) and after (38.6 ± 1.6 kg) parturition, than those of other groups (P breeding season took place during the dry/wet period (P breeding seasons took place, allowing for four breeding seasons a year in the Amazon region. Variations between periods in return to estrus rates, weight of ewes close to parturition and lamb weight at weaning indicate that climate changes can also affect reproductive rates.

  9. Colostral antibody protection and interference with immunity in lambs born from sheep vaccinated with an inactivated Bluetongue serotype 8 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, C A L; Wood, J L N; Floyd, T; Sanders, A J; Bin-Tarif, A; Henstock, M; Edwards, L; Simmons, H; Batten, C A

    2010-03-24

    Widespread vaccination programmes against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), using inactivated vaccines, are being carried out across many countries in northern, western and southern Europe. This study investigates the extent and length of colostral antibody protection, as well as the degree of colostral antibody induced interference of the immune response to BTV-8, in sheep. Significantly lower titres of neutralising antibodies were transferred in colostrum to lambs born from sheep vaccinated once as opposed those vaccinated twice (single vaccine in the first year and a booster vaccine in the second year). On BTV-8 challenge, lambs born from sheep vaccinated on two occasions, with the second booster vaccine given approximately 1 month prior to lambing, were protected from clinical disease for up to 14 weeks. BTV-8 was isolated from 5 of the 22 challenged lambs, although only one of these lambs showed a transient rise in body temperature with no other clinical signs. Lambs born from ewes given a second booster vaccine 1 month prior to lambing, are likely to be protected from clinical disease for at least 14 weeks, whereas lambs born from ewes vaccinated once are likely to be protected for a shorter time. Colostral antibodies present in the 13-14-week-old lambs appeared to interfere with the humoral response to challenge virus. These results suggest that colostral antibodies may interfere with vaccination in lambs up to at least 14 weeks of age.

  10. Effect of stimulation with a gonadotropin mixture on reproductive outcome in nulliparous ewes bred during seasonal anestrus and early breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Marlon; Redhead, Adam; D'Souza, Kellie; Baptiste, Quinn

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of gonadotropic stimulation on the reproductive response of nulliparous acyclic female sheep during mid-anestrous and early breeding season, fall-born ewe lambs of mixed breeding (N=191; ∼7 months old; study 1) and yearlings (Dorset X Texel (DT), N=120, study 2) were assigned randomly during May to July to be either pre-treated with progesterone using CIDR-g (0.3g of progesterone) devices for 5 days or to also receive gonadotropins (240IU eCG and 120IU hCG, 3mL i.m. injection of P.G. 600(®)) at CIDR-g removal. Study 3 was conducted with nulliparous acyclic DT yearling ewes (N=104) in late August and was similar to study 2 except that a group of control ewes that were not treated was included. Gonadotropic stimulation increased estrous response (P=0.0002), pregnancy rate to the first service period (P=0.0007), proportion of ewes lambing (P=0.03) and the lambing rate (P=0.01) in fall-born ewe lambs (study 1), but did not modify reproductive outcome in yearling females (study 2) during mid-anestrus. During the transition into the breeding season (study 3), progesterone pre-treatment increased the pregnancy rate and the proportion of ewes lambing to first service after ram introduction (P=0.003 and P=0.02, respectively). However, gonadotropic stimulation of progesterone pre-treated yearlings did not modify reproductive performance variables. In conclusion, gonadotropic stimulation improved reproductive outcome in fall-born ewe lambs bred during the mid-anestrous period, but did not affect reproductive outcome in yearling females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Productive traits of Santa Inês and Morada Nova ewes mated with Dorper rams in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Torres Geraldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturalized Brazilian hair breeds are adapted to tropical climate, however produce lambs for slaughter with lower performance and carcass traits. One way to increase productiveness comprises the use of adapted ewes crossed with specialized meat breeds, exploiting the complementarity between breeds and heterosis for sustainable lamb production. Dorper rams can be use to produce crossbred lambs with better performance traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the weight at birth and at 30 days of Morada Nova lambs (MN and Santa Inês (SI straight breed or Dorper crossbred. The study was carried out at Instituto de Zootecnia, city of Nova Odessa, located in São Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-two adult Santa Inês (SI ewes with 51.8 ± 7.1 Kg of initial body weight, with 21 mated with SI rams and 21 mated with Dorper (DO rams and 38  Morada Nova (MN with 33.1 ± 4.98 with 19 mated with MN and  19 mated with DO rams were used. During pregnancy the ewes were reared on intensive grazing systems with rotational grazing on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. Aruana, plus corn silage ad libitum and a concentrate mixture (400 g/day with 16% crude protein and 80% of total digestible nutrient (TDN on  final third of gestation. After lambing, the ewes were kept in collective pens and kept under the same diet used in late pregnancy. The weight at birth as well as at 30 day old were recorded and calculated the percentage of lamb weight in relation of ewe weights. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software version 12. Based on data is possible to observe that the SI X DO lambs had the highest birth weight followed by the straight breed SI and MN. At 30 day, the SI lambs had greater live weight than MN lambs. No difference was found for lamb´s weights in relation to ewe’s weight. We conclude that SI crossbred or straight breed lambs are heavier than MN ones.

  12. Clinical mastitis in ewes; bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitle Bjørg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed on 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 64 ewes. Results and conclusion S. aureus was recovered from 65.3% of 547 clinically affected mammary glands, coagulase-negative staphylococci from 2.9%, enterobacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, from 7.3%, Streptococcus spp. from 4.6%, Mannheimia haemolytica from 1.8% and various other bacteria from 4.9%, while no bacteria were cultured from 13.2% of the samples. Forty percent of the ewes with unilateral clinical S. aureus mastitis also had a subclinical S. aureus infection in the other mammary gland. Twenty-four of 28 (86% pairs of S. aureus isolates obtained from clinically and subclinically affected mammary glands of the same ewe were indistinguishable by PFGE. The number of identical pairs was significantly greater than expected, based on the distribution of different S. aureus types within the flocks. One-third of the cases occurred during the first week after lambing, while a second peak was observed in the third week of lactation. Gangrene was present in 8.8% of the clinically affected glands; S. aureus was recovered from 72.9%, Clostridium perfringens from 6.3% and E. coli from 6.3% of the secretions from such glands. This study shows that S. aureus predominates as a cause of clinical ovine mastitis in Norway, also in very severe cases. Results also indicate that S. aureus is frequently spread between udder halves of infected ewes.

  13. Early weaning and concentrate supplementation strategies for lamb production on Tifton-85 pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Araújo da Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of early weaning and concentrate supplementation strategies on sward characteristics, forage chemical composition and lamb productivity were evaluated in four production systems on Tifton-85 pasture: suckling lambs not supplemented until slaughter; suckling lambs supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding until slaughter; early-weaned lambs not supplemented until slaughter; and early-weaned lambs supplemented with concentrate until slaughter. Structural, morphological and productive characteristics of pasture were measured. The forage was chemically analyzed to estimate its composition. Lambs average daily gain and productivity were calculated. Sward height, forage and morphological components mass were lower in systems without weaning. Forage production was higher in systems with supplementation. Higher levels of neutral and acid detergent fiber were observed in forage ingested by lambs in creep feeding and by weaned and unsupplemented lambs. Average daily gain was higher for lambs in creep feeding (275 g/d and lower for the weaned and unsupplemented animals (57 g/d. Productivity was higher for weaned and supplemented lambs (21 kg lamb body weight, BW gain/ha/d. Lower productivity was observed in systems without supplementation (5 kg lamb BW gain/ha/d on average. Ewes modify the sward conditions improving the pasture characteristics and the quality of forage produced. Changes in sward conditions affect the chemical composition of forage ingested by lambs. Early weaning may be an alternative to maximize pasture utilization in small areas. Concentrate supplementation may increase lamb performance and productivity in grazing systems. If the objective is to improve lamb individual performance, creep feeding should be used.

  14. Pemberian Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin Sebelum Perkawinan dan Jamu Selama Kebuntingan untuk Memperbaiki Performa Anak Domba (ADMINISTRATION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND JAMU DURING GESTATION TO IMPROVE FOR LAMB PERFOMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Administration of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG hormone prior to mating increasesquality of lamb born on one and two litter sizes, but in three litter size the motality is higher. Administrationof traditional herbal medicine “jamu” consisting of ginger,green chiretta, cinnamon, Zingiberzerumbet, andpepper during gestation increases performance of lambs. This research was conducted to explore theeffectivity of PMSG injection prior to mating and jamu administration during gestation to increase lambsperformance. Eighteen priangan fat-tail ewes with weight around 20-25 kg were injected with PGF2á at adose of 10 mg/ewe twice with 11 days interval to synchronize estrous cycle. Injection of PMSG at a dose of200 IU/ewe was conducted at the second PGF2á injection. The experimental ewes were mated naturally anddivided into a randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with three replications. The firstfactor was dose of PMSG with two levels i.e., 0 and 200 IU/ewe. The second factor was dose of jamu withthree levels i.e., 0, 15, and 30 mL/ewe. Jamu was administered orally every week during gestation. Injectionof PMSG and administration of jamu decreased prenatal mortality, increased ratio of lamb per ewe, increased total lamb born with average birth weight and total birth weight were higher in jamu at a doseof 15 and 30 mL/ewe by 30.02 and 31.76%, repectively. During the first month postnatal, lambs born toewes injected by PMSG and administered jamu had higher number of lambs survive, average weight, totalweight around 3 times as compared to control. It was concluded that injection of PMSG prior to mating andadministration of jamu during pregnancy increase lamb birth weight and improve the quality of lamb.

  15. Comparison of passively transferred antibodies in bighorn and domestic lambs reveals one factor in differential susceptibility of these species to Mannheimia haemolytica-induced pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Knowles, Donald P; Call, Douglas R; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-07-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries (domestic sheep [DS]). In BHS herds affected by pneumonia, lamb recruitment is severely impaired for years subsequent to an outbreak. We hypothesized that a lack of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) against M. haemolytica provides an immunologic basis for enhanced susceptibility of BH lambs to population-limiting pneumonia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the titers of Abs directed against M. haemolytica in the sera of BH and domestic lambs at birth through 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that BH lambs had approximately 18-fold lower titers of Ab against surface antigens of M. haemolytica and approximately 20-fold lower titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs than domestic lambs. The titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the serum and colostrum samples of BH ewes were approximately 157- and 50-fold lower than those for domestic ewes, respectively. Comparatively, the higher titers of parainfluenza 3 virus-neutralizing Abs in the BH lambs ruled out the possibility that these BHS had an impaired ability to passively transfer Abs to their lambs. These results suggest that lower levels of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the sera of BH ewes, and resultant low Ab titers in their lambs, may be a critical factor in the poor lamb recruitment in herds affected by pneumonia.

  16. Housing conditions and management practices associated with neonatal lamb mortality in sheep flocks in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Kielland, Camilla; Stubsjøen, Solveig Marie; Hektoen, Lisbeth; Waage, Steinar

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in order to obtain information about sheep farms in Norway and to identify housing and management characteristics that were risk factors for neonatal mortality of lambs 0-5 days of age. A questionnaire was submitted to sheep farmers, who provided demographic data and information on sheep housing conditions and feeding and management practices. Our description of farms is based on the questionnaire responses received from 2260 farmers. Data on lamb mortality during the preceding lambing season were available for those flocks that were enrolled in the Norwegian Sheep Recording System. Some flocks where the number of lambing ewes was less than 20 or greater than 400 were excluded. The total number of flocks included in the analysis of neonatal mortality was 1125. An increase in the mean number of live-born lambs per ewe per flock was associated with increasing neonatal mortality. Factors independently associated with increased neonatal survival were continuous monitoring of the ewes during the lambing season, active support to ensure sufficient colostrum intake of the lambs, feeding a combination of grass silage and hay compared with grass silage alone, and supplying roughage at least twice per day versus only once. Increased survival was also observed in flocks where the farmer had at least 15 years of experience in sheep farming. Flocks in which the Spæl breed predominated had lower odds for neonatal deaths compared to flocks in which the Norwegian White breed predominated. In conclusion, measures in sheep flocks targeted at feeding practices during the indoor feeding period and management practice during lambing season would be expected to reduce neonatal lamb mortality.

  17. Responses of Early Lactating Ewes to Cold Stress Exposure Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure cold stress of ewes during post lambing period. The trial was undertaken at theExperimental Farm of Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara, duringFebruary 2012. Six secundiparous Turcana breed ewes were housed in two collective pens of 3.5 m x 2 m each, withdeep straw bedding, in shed where the average temperature was of -1.2°C. Cortisol levels from milk samples weredetermined as indicators of cold stress. Samples were collected at 14 hours after lambing, and at 7, 14 and 21 daysfollowing parturition. At 14 hours after lambing, mean cortisol levels were 7.78±0.47 μg/dl, and decreased asfollows: 5.08±0.72 μg/dl in the 7th of the trial, 2.75±0.50 μg/dl in day 14 and 1.61±0.43 μg/dl in day 21 of theobservations. Differences were significant between the 7 day sampling intervals (p≤0.01 during the first 14 daysafter lambing, while non-significant differences (p≥0.05 have been found between the 14 and 21 days samplings. Ithas been concluded that cortisol levels in milk samples could prove an indicator of sheep adrenal-cortex activity thatmay be applied to measure cold stress in lactating ewes.

  18. [Immune response and reproductive consequences in experimentally infected ewes with Brucella ovis during late pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, Fernando A; Nuñez, Marta; Fiorentino, María A; Malena, Rosana C; Trangoni, Marcos; Cravero, Silvio; Estein, Silvia M

    2013-01-01

    Ovine brucellosis by Brucella ovis is a highly prevalent disease in Argentina. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of B. ovis and the serological response in ewes during late pregnancy and in their offspring. Six adult ewes were distributed in two groupsG1 (pregnant females, n = 4) and G2 (nonpregnant females, n = 2). Three pregnant ewes at 15 days prepartum and one nonpregnant eve were inoculated with B. ovis. Sera of sheep and their offspring were analyzed by different serological tests. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus, placenta and milk were studied by bacteriology. A Brucella genus-specific PCR assay was carried out in placenta and milk samples. Placenta samples were hystopathologically processed. g1 females gave birth to live lambs, but one died hours postpartum. Serological techniques employed detected antibodies in serum of inoculated pregnant animal 5 days postchallenge. sera of female controls G1 and G2 remained negative throughout the study. Cervicovaginal mucus of infected ewes in G1 and G2 yielded negative results to bacteriology, but B. ovis was isolated from milk. The PCR assay was positive for the placenta and milk from inoculated pregnant ewes. Histopathology revealed necrotic suppurative placentitis in one placenta. However, although results demonstrated that B. ovis can invade the placenta and mammary gland, this bacterium did not cause abortion when it was inoculated intravenously at 15 days prepartum. B. ovis infection induced an early humoral response in pregnant ewes, but their lambs remained seronegative, indicating that there was no transfer of antibodies in infancy. Placenta colonization and milk excretion of B. ovis involves a potential source of infection for lambs, which could play a role as latent carriers of infection.

  19. Parturition induction in ewes by a progesterone receptor blocker, aglepristone, and subsequent neonatal survival: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp, R G; Yavuz, A; Orman, A; Seker, I; Udum Küçükşen, D; Rişvanlı, A; Demiral, Ö O; Wehrend, A

    2017-01-01

    The clinical effects of aglepristone treatment to induce parturition in ewes and their newborns were reported. Three experimental groups were defined: group AG5 (n = 5), group AG10 (n = 5), and group CG (n = 5) in which ewes were injected twice with 5, 10 mg/kg of aglepristone, and saline solution of ewes, respectively. Different parameters associated with parturition in ewes and their newborns were investigated. Serum progesterone, oxytocin, and free and conjugated total estrogens were measured after treatments until parturition. No statistical difference was found from first aglepristone administration to onset of lambing between AG5 and AG10 (23.90 ± 6.20, 40.00 ± 6.71 hours). Parturition induction in two groups shortened the gestational length significantly compared with the control group (P = 0.003). Dystocia was observed in two ewes in group AG10. The placental weight showed statistically significant difference only between the AG10 and CG (P = 0.039), but no difference was observed in the placental expulsion period between the groups. Decrease in food consumption 24 to 36 hours after parturition in all ewes and skin necrosis in an ewe in group AG5 were observed. Progesterone concentration was significantly lower in AG5 than that in ewes in group AG10 and CG (P birth weight (4.29 ± 0.28 kg), which was significantly different from the induced groups. No significant difference of blood pH and blood gases values between groups was identified both at birth and 12 hours after parturition for lambs. Significant differences could clearly be observed in total protein and blood urea nitrogen and total protein findings 12 hours after parturition (P control lambing time without any side effects in either mothers or lambs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Periconceptional growth hormone treatment alters fetal growth and development in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J M; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E

    2010-05-01

    Research in the area of fetal programming has focused on intrauterine growth restriction. Few studies have attempted to examine programming mechanisms that ultimately lead to lambs with a greater potential for postnatal growth. We previously demonstrated that treatment of ewes with GH at the time of breeding led to an increase in birth weight. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a single injection of sustained-release GH given during the periconceptional period on fetal growth and development and to determine if the GH axis would be altered in these offspring. Estrus was synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2alpha); at the time of the second injection, ewes assigned to treatment were also given an injection of sustained-release GH. A maternal jugular vein sample was taken weekly to analyze IGF-I as a proxy for GH to estimate the duration of the treatment effect. In ewes treated with GH, IGF-I increased (P growth and development. Lambs born to ewes treated with GH were larger at birth and had altered organ development, which may indicate that early maternal GH treatment may lead to permanent changes in the developing fetus. The ewe lambs maintained their growth performance to at least 100 d of postnatal life and appeared to have an altered GH axis, as demonstrated by the altered response to GHRH.

  1. Fatty Acids Profile of Intramuscular Fat in Light Lambs Traditionally and Artificially Reared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan MARGETÍN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of 40 carcasses of light lambs of the synthetic population of Slovak Dairy sheep from (a artificial rearing (AR and (b traditional rearing (TR was assessed on the basis of fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat (IMF. Lambs from AR in comparison with TR were of lower quality as assessed on the basis of fatty acids (FAs profile. The content of conjugated linolic acid (CLA in the fat of TR lambs was severalfold higher (0.749 vs. 0.193 g.100g-1 FAME, P<0.001 than in AR lambs. Similarly, the content of trans-vaccenic (TVA, á-linolenic (ALA, rumenic (RA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was in TR lambs significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (0.955 vs. 0.111; 0.715 vs. 0.251; 0.672 vs. 0.148; 0.352 vs. 0.061; 0.252 vs. 0.079 g.100g-1 FAME. In contrary, the content of linoleic acid (LA, the ratio of LA/ALA and n-6/n-3 in AR lambs was higher than in TR lambs (9.07 vs. 4.81 g.100 g-1 FAME; 39.11 vs. 6.80; 14.56 vs. 3.25, P<0.001. In TR lambs the content of n-3 PUFA and BCFA was significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (2.08 vs. 0.84 and 1.95 vs. 0.45. The value of thrombogenic index was higher in AR lambs in comparison with TR lambs (1.44 vs. 1.31; P<0.05. Significant differences between FAs of IMF of ram lambs and ewe lambs were observed only in the case of arachidonic acid (P<0.05.

  2. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events.

  3. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R; Cassirer, E Frances; Cross, Paul C; Plowright, Raina K; Hudson, Peter J

    2014-12-22

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth of lambs after in vitro maturation, fertilization, and coculture with oviductal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czlonkowska, M; Eysymont, U; Guszkiewicz, A; Kossakowski, M; Dziak, J

    1991-09-01

    Control ovine oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro were transferred to intermediate recipient ewes. After 5 days, 59% of eggs were recovered. Thirty-one (38%) reached morula/blastocyst stage. Twenty-one embryos at the morula or blastocyst stage were transferred to six recipient ewes, resulting in five pregnancies, of which four were maintained. Nine lambs were born (43%). In the experiment, 72 ooctyes matured and fertilized in vitro were cocultured for 5 days with sheep oviductal epithelial cells. Thirty-one eggs (43%) developed to the noncompacted morula stage. Transfer of 26 embryos to 11 recipient ewes resulted in two pregnancies (18%). Two male lambs were born. The result indicates that the coculture of in vitro matured and fertilized ovine eggs with sheep oviductal epithelial cells throughout the preimplantation period is compatible with further development to term.

  5. Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Collins, J R; Hensley, E L; Wheaton, J E

    1999-04-01

    Hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly) were used to evaluate 3 methods of estrus synchronization for use with transcervical artificial insemination (TAI). To synchronize estrus, ewes (n = 18) were treated with PGF2alpha (15 mg, im) 10 d apart, with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices containing 300 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18), or with intravaginal sponges containing 500 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18). On the day of the second PGF2alpha injection or at CIDR or sponge removal, sterile rams were placed with the ewes. Jugular blood samples were collected from the ewes at 6-h intervals until the time of ovulation, and daily for 16 d after estrus (Day 0). Plasma was harvested and stored at -20 degrees C until LH, and progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA. There was no difference (P>0.10) in time to estrus among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. All of the ewes in the CIDR group and 94.4% of the sponge treated ewes exhibited estrus by 36 h after ram introduction, while only 72.2% of PGF2alpha-treated ewes showed signs of estrus by this time (P0.10) among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. The time to the preovulatory LH surge was similar (P>0.10) among CIDR, PGF2alpha and sponge treated ewes. Progesterone levels through Day 16 after the synchronized estrus were not different (P>0.10) among treatment groups. Hair sheep ewes (n = 23) were synchronized using PGF2alpha and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after the second injection. The conception rate to TAI was 2/23 (8.7%) and produced 3 ram lambs. In a subsequent trial, 17 ewes were synchronized with CIDR devices and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after CIDR removal, resulting in a conception rate of 52.9% (9/17). It is possible to synchronize estrus in hair sheep using either CIDRs, sponges or PGF2alpha. Even though there were no significant differences in the timing of ovulation or the LH surge among the treatment groups, a

  6. Horton and Ewing Medalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGU has announced the recipients of the 1988 Robert E. Horton and Maurice Ewing medals. The recipient of the Robert E. Horton Medal for outstanding contributions to the geophysical aspects of hydrology will be Peter S. Eagleson of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Eagleson is the immediate Past-President of AGU.The recipient of the Maurice Ewing Medal for significant original contributions to understanding physical, geophysical, and geological processes in the ocean; and/or significant original contributions to scientific ocean engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and/or outstanding service to marine sciences is Wolfgang H. Berger of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The medal is presented jointly by the U.S Navy and AGU.

  7. Genetic variation of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in young crossbred ewes and its relationship with their maintenance feed intake at maturity and production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolayan, R A; Fogarty, N M

    2008-09-01

    The genetic variation of plasma IGF-I in crossbred ewe lambs postweaning was evaluated together with its potential use as a physiological marker for selection in meat sheep. Genetic variation for IGF-I was analyzed among 1,246 young crossbred ewes that were the progeny of 30 sires from various maternal breeds and Merino dams. The estimate of heritability of IGF-I was 0.28 +/- 0.10, with sire breed not being significant. Genetic correlations were estimated between IGF-I and performance traits of the ewes, including feed intake, growth, body composition, wool, and reproduction over 3 matings. Although the genetic correlations had high standard errors because of the limited size of the data set, the correlation between IGF-I and grazing feed intake of the mature ewes at maintenance was positive (0.32 +/- 0.31). The genetic correlations of IGF-I with other traits ranged from positive and low to moderate for growth (0.05 to 0.36), positive for ultrasound eye muscle depth (0.15), and negative for ultrasound fat depth (-0.12) in the mature ewes, and close to zero for the wool traits. The genetic correlation between IGF-I and the average number of lambs born per ewe mated was negative (-0.18), whereas that for the average number of lambs weaned per ewe mated was positive (0.10). The parameters indicated that genetic variation exists for IGF-I in sheep, and selection for low IGF-I in young ewes may result in some reduction in feed intake and improvement in maintenance efficiency of mature ewes under grazing, with little impact on other production traits. However, the genetic correlations had high standard errors, and more precise estimates of these parameters are required for genetic evaluation and to predict with confidence the outcome of breeding programs.

  8. Assessing Timing and Causes of Neonatal Lamb Losses in a Bighorn Sheep Ovis canadensis canadensis Herd via Use of Vaginal Implant Transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Jamin L; Wolfe, Lisa L; Fox, Karen A; Killion, Halcyon J; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Miller, Michael W; P Dreher, Brian

    2017-02-13

    We evaluated the use of vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) as a means of detecting, capturing, and radio collaring Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis) lambs to estimate survival and to facilitate carcass recovery to assess causes of mortality. We focused on one of several bighorn herds in Colorado, USA, suffering from depressed recruitment that was not preceded by a classic all-age die-off. We captured, radio-collared, diagnosed pregnancy by ultrasound examination, and inserted VITs into 15 pregnant ewes from a herd residing near Granite, Colorado. We were subsequently able to collar a lamb from each of 13 VITs, and two additional lambs opportunistically from ewes without transmitters. As lambs died, we recovered and submitted carcasses for necropsy and laboratory assessment. All lambs captured and one additional lamb (carcass found opportunistically) were dead by about 130 d of age: 11 died of apparent pneumonia (all within 8-10 wk of age), one died from trauma after being kicked or trampled, one was killed by a mountain lion ( Puma concolor ), and three died of starvation likely caused by abandonment after capture. Pneumonic lambs had involvement of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi . The use of VITs and lamb collars enabled us to efficiently identify pneumonia as the predominant cause of depressed lamb recruitment in this herd; however, we urge care in neonatal lamb handling to minimize abandonment.

  9. Management of fetal dystocia caused by carpal flexion in ewe: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dystocia or difficulty in parturition in a ewe may need veterinary assistance for the successful parturition. An adult ewe weighing 30 kg was presented to the Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the history of difficulty in giving birth. Physical examination of the ewe revealed that the animal was weak and in recumbent position. Head of a dead fetus was observed as protruding out from the vulva region. Through physical evaluation of the ewe by per vaginal examination, the condition was diagnosed as fetal dystocia. Treatment and management plans given to the ewe were episiotomy and manipulative delivery of the dead fetus via mutation and traction method. Post-operative treatment was given with Flunixin meglumine (dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt for 3 days, and Norodine (dosed at 1 mL/16-kg bwt once intramuscularly. The case was completely cured after 2 weeks. The risk of losing the lamb as well as the ewe increases with delay in treatment of dystocia.

  10. Assessing the usefulness of prostaglandin E2 (Cervidil) for transcervical artificial insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Candappa, Ivanka B R

    2015-12-01

    The underlying theme of this study involved the evaluation of the dilatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the ovine cervix and thus the assessment of its potential applicability to transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) in ewes. A novel method of prostaglandin E2 administration (controlled slow-release vaginal inserts) was examined, and the practical implications of this approach including cervical penetrability and posttreatment pregnancy rates were evaluated. The Guelph method of TCAI was performed during the seasonal anestrus (n = 40) and the breeding season (n = 40) on multiparous Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pretreatment with Cervidil (for a duration of 12 hours or 24 hours before TCAI). Cervical penetration rates averaged 82.5% (66 of 80), and they varied neither (P > 0.05) between the two seasons nor between Cervidil-treated ewes and their respective controls. Cervidil priming significantly reduced the total time required for TCAI during the breeding season in comparison with controls (54 vs. 98 seconds), especially after the 24-hour exposure (38 vs. 108 seconds). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the breed (percentage of Rideau Arcott genotype) and lifetime lamb production in seasonally anestrous ewes. Four out of 36 (11%) successfully penetrated ewes in the breeding season (three ewes allocated to the 12-hour control group and one ewe that had received Cervidil for 12 hours) became pregnant and carried the lambs to term. Vaginal mucus impedance at TCAI was significantly and positively correlated with the total time required to complete the procedure in cyclic ewes, and the negative correlation between vaginal mucus impedance and total time values at the time of controlled intravaginal drug release device removal approached to significance in anestrous ewes. The present results indicate a moderate benefit of using Cervidil for inducing cervical dilation before

  11. Development of coagulation regulatory proteins in the fetal and neonatal lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J; Jacobson, Linda J; Hacker, Michele R; Townsend, Susan F; Murphy, James; Hay, William

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the development of coagulation regulatory proteins-protein C (PC), protein S (PS), and antithrombin (AT)-in relationship to the procoagulant protein factor X (FX), a chronically catheterized fetal ovine model was used. Infusion and sampling catheters were placed into pregnant ewes and their fetuses and maintained from mid-gestation. From a total of 110 fetuses, 17 lambs, and 63 ewes that were studied on one to 15 occasions, 212 fetal, 88 neonatal, and 157 maternal samples were obtained. Liver tissue was obtained from 31 fetuses and 15 ewes. Plasma levels of all proteins studied were higher in the ewe than in the fetus (p 0.05). This study suggests that fetal regulation of coagulation proteins follows characteristic patterns relative to the vitamin K dependence of the protein rather than its role as a procoagulant versus regulatory protein.

  12. General Information about Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue . Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest , pelvis , spine , or skull . Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity , or ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue . Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest , pelvis , spine , or skull . Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity , or ...

  14. EFFECTS OF FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON BODY WEIGHT AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BALOCHI EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MUNIR, A. W. JASRA1 AND M. A. MIRZA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the performance of Balochi ewes under three management systems i.e. T1-Extensive (grazing only, T2-Semi-extensive (grazing plus daily feed supplementation for nine months @ 0.625 kg/ewe/day and T3-Intensive (experimental ration only @ 1.5625 kg/ewe/day. Animals under T1 lost as high as 7.9 kg body weight during winter. T2 flock maintained their body weights and T3 achieved significantly higher body weight (i.e. 15.1 kg. Highest conception and lambing percentages (93.8% were attained under T3 group, followed by T2 (87.5% and T1 (75%. These results strongly recommend appropriate feed supplementation to small ruminants on Balochistan ranges for sustainable pastoral livelihood.

  15. Factors Affecting Milk Yield, Composition and Udder Health of Najdi Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Najdi milk has been historically utilized by bedouins to process traditional dairy products, no published studies have been focused on their milk productivity and quality traits. This study was planned to investigate the effects of litter size, sex of lamb and lamb’s birth weight on milk yield, compositions and udder health during suckling and milking periods. A total of 30 multiparous ewes were utilized in this study. Litter size and sex of lambs did not produce any effects (p>0.05 on milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, total solids and Somatic Cell Counts (SCC; whereas, lamb’s birth weight significantly (p0.05 to attain 1.88±0.18 L in the 9th week of lactation. Average milk yield were 2.17 and 1.71 L.d-1, for ewes that gave birth to lambs weighing >5 and 0.05 and had a mean value of 9.95×105 cells/mL. It is concluded that the indigenous Najdi ewes have a noticeable potential for milk production, but milk compositions were lower in comparison to other international dairy sheep.

  16. Slaughter value and meat quality of berrichon du cher lambs in intensive housing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Niżnikowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-year study was carried out on 39 lambs (16 ewes and 23 rams of berrichon du cher breed in Grotkowo flock belonging to the Agricultural-Breeding Farm Żydowo. Lambs came from single (n = 28 and twin (n = 11 births and were born in the period from January to the end of February each year. The lambs were fed ad libitum using TMR mix. The animals were slaughtered at a body weight of 40 kg. The slaughter and carcass value and meat (mld quality were estimated. Ewes were characterised by better muscularity and better fat consistency but worse fat colour than rams (in EUROP classification. Slaughter value, measurements and primary cuts of the carcass, as well as chemical composition of meat (mld in lambs from single and twin births were levelled, except one fatty acid C22:5n3 which value was higher in twins. The obtained results generally showed a high quality of carcasses and meat of berrichon du cher lambs and indicating the possibility of producing good quality lambs for the meat using TMR feeding system ad libitum.

  17. Collecting and Storing Biological Samples From Patients With Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    Askin Tumor; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  18. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  19. Genetic relationship between wool shedding in ewe-lambs and ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in reducing labor costs related to shearing has led to the development of breeds that naturally shed their wool annually. This goal has been achieved by introducing hair-sheep genetics. These developments are relatively recent and thus the genetic underpinnings of wool shedding (WS) are not...

  20. Colostrum and milk can transmit jaagsiekte retrovirus to lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Elena; De Meneghi, Daniele; Alvarez, Vega; Benito, Alfredo A; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ortín, Aurora; Mattoni, Mario; Moreno, Bernardino; Pérez de Villarreal, Maider; Alberti, Alberto; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Caporale, Marco; Juste, Ramón; Rosati, Sergio; De las Heras, Marcelo

    2008-08-25

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious disease caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). In the three studies performed, we have obtained data of the importance of colostrum/milk (C/M) in the transmission of JSRV. In the first study, a group of sheep from a flock with a long history of OPA, samples from colostrum and peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) were collected. Two specific PCRs (U3-LTR and env of the JSRV) were carried out. Using U3PCR 8/34 sheep were positive in colostrum whereas with envPCR 7/34 were positive. From these animals only one was positive with U3PCR in the PBLs. Evidence of the transmission of JSRV infection by C/M was obtained in two more separate studies. In the second study, PBLs from five lambs from JSRV+ ewes and two from JSRV-ewes were tested by the U3PCR. They were fed C/M by their mothers during 3 months and slaughtered 7 months after birth. Three out of five lambs from the JSRV+ sheep become PBL positive at 3-4 months old and the other two were also positive at 4-6 months of age. One lamb of the JSRV-sheep became also PBL positive at an age of 3 months. In the third study, a group of lambs from JSRV negative mothers were fed with C/M from JSRV+ sheep and housed in separate unit. For comparison, another group of the same origin and maintained in another different unit, were fed with C/M containing a JSRV virus preparation. All lambs were blood sampled monthly and JSRV infection was detected as early as 15 days and several times onwards in both groups. Control groups fed with C/M from JSRV free flock and JSRV blood test negative sheep were always negative. Together these results indicate that suckling is an important natural transmission route for JSRV.

  1. Natural Immunity of Sheep and Lambs Against the Schmallenberg Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Kukielka, D; Mouriño, M; Paradell, H; Plaja, L; Urniza, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Since the first reports of the Schmallenberg disease (SBD) outbreaks in late 2011, the disease has spread across Europe, affecting cattle and sheep farms. While Schmallenberg virus (SBV) causes a mild clinical disease in adults, infection of pregnant females may lead to the production of typical congenital malformations (CMFs) in their offspring. It is speculated that the immunity acquired after a SBV infection is effective in preventing further infections. However, this has not been proven in naturally infected sheep, especially if they are pregnant when reinfected. The aim of this study was to monitor the natural immunity in SBV-infected sheep. Twenty-four ewes from the only Spanish farm with a SBV OIE-notified outbreak were sampled. Subsequently, nine pregnant ewes were inoculated with SBV infectious plasma under controlled conditions. Six of them were euthanized before delivery, and their fetuses were inspected for lesions indicative for the SBV infection. The three remaining ewes were allowed to deliver one lamb each. Inoculation of the lambs was scheduled at approx. 3 months after birth. All samples were analyzed for viral RNA by RT-PCR, and for antibodies by an indirect ELISA and a virus neutralization test (VNT). The majority of the 24 ewes showed a serological reaction against SBV. The three ewes that were allowed to lamb down demonstrated variable degrees of seroconversion which corresponded to the levels of immune reaction observed in their lambs. Moreover, no viral RNA was detected, no lesions were observed in the fetuses, and no clinical signs were detected in the inoculated animals. These findings suggest that the immunity acquired by sheep following a natural SBV infection could be sufficient to stop SBV reinfection. However, vaccination could be a valuable tool to control SBV infections and associated economic losses as it affords a more uniform and predictable protection at the flock/herd level.

  2. The effects of time and dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on reproductive efficiency in hair sheep ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Elisea, Juan A; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Álvarez-Valenzuela, Francisco D; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; González-Reyna, Arnoldo; Lucero-Magaña, Froylan A; Soto-Navarro, Sergio A; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dose and application time of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on reproductive performance of hair sheep ewes synchronized with fluorogesterone acetate (FGA) under tropical conditions of Northeastern Mexico. Ninety-nine hair ewes (63 Blackbelly and 36 Pelibuey) were treated with intravaginal sponges during 10 days. After insertion of FGA sponges, ewes were divided into four groups, and PMSG was injected intramuscularly at doses of 100, 200, and 400 IU. Relative to FGA sponge removal, PMSG was administrated at -48 h, -24 h, and at sponge removal. PMSG was not administered to the control group. Control ewes had similar (P > 0.05) lambing rate, fertility, and fecundity than those treated with 100 IU of PMSG, but lower (P 0.05) by administration time of PMSG. Both dose and time of PMSG application did not affect (P > 0.05) pregnancy rate, percentage of single and multiple lambing, and prolificacy. In conclusion, results show that the dose of 400 IU of PMSG administered before sponge withdrawal in an estrus synchronization protocol improved reproductive efficiency of hair sheep ewes.

  3. Colostrum production in ewes: a review of regulation mechanisms and of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, G E; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R; Martin, G B; Quintans, G

    2015-05-01

    In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition

  4. Control of helminthosis in lambs by strategic treatment with closantel and broad-spectrum anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, K M

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of ewes with broad-spectrum anthelmintic in August (pre-lambing) and early November, and of lambs in early November and early February, was effective in controlling infections with Trichostrongylus spp in lambs reared on contaminated pastures under set-stocked conditions. It was ineffective in controlling infections with Haemonchus contortus; 82% of lambs had to be withdrawn from the experiment because of severe haemonchosis. Treatment with closantel (7.5 mg/kg) at the same times was very effective against H. contortus but ineffective against Trichostrongylus spp; 25% of lambs had to be withdrawn because of severe trichostrongylosis. The same schedule using broad spectrum anthelmintic and closantel administered concurrently was effective against both parasites; no lambs had to be withdrawn and the bodyweight gain of lambs was higher than in lambs treated with broad-spectrum anthelmintic or closantel alone. The results provide a basis on which to develop a preventive anthelmintic treatment program to control haemonchosis and trichostrongylosis in sheep which will allow the current high frequency of treatment with broad-spectrum anthelmintics to be reduced. Such a program may retard selection for anthelmintic resistance in Trichostrongylus spp.

  5. Lamb survival analysis from birth to weaning in Iranian Kermani sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazandeh, Arsalan; Moghbeli, Sadrollah Molaei; Vatankhah, Mahmood; Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2012-04-01

    Survival records from 1,763 Kermani lambs born between 1996 and 2004 from 294 ewes and 81 rams were used to determine genetic and non-genetic factors affecting lamb survival. Traits included were lamb survival across five periods from birth to 7, 14, 56, 70, and 90 days of age. Traits were analyzed under Weibull proportional hazard sire models. Several binary analyses were also conducted using animal models. Statistical models included the fixed class effects of sex of lamb, month and year of birth, a covariate effect of birth weight, and random genetic effects of both sire (in survival analyses) and animal (in binary analyses). The average survival to 90 days of age was 94.8%. Hazard rates ranged from 1.00 (birth to 90 days of age) to 1.73 (birth to 7 days of age) between the two sexes indicating that male lambs were at higher risk of mortality than females (P lamb survival and lamb birth weight, suggesting that viability and birth weight could be considered simultaneously in the selection programs to obtain optimal birth weight in Kermani lambs. Estimates of heritabilities from survival analyses were medium and ranged from 0.23 to 0.29. In addition, heritability estimates obtained from binary analyses were low and varied from 0.04 to 0.09. The results of this study suggest that progress in survival traits could be possible through managerial strategies and genetic selection.

  6. A longitudinal study of factors associated with acute and chronic mastitis and their impact on lamb growth rate in 10 suckler sheep flocks in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Claire; Smith, Edward Mark; Green, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    A 2-year prospective, longitudinal study of 10 suckler sheep flocks in Great Britain was run to identify factors associated with acute mastitis (AM) and chronic mastitis, and their impact on lamb growth rate. Data were collected on AM, intramammary masses (IMM; a marker for chronic mastitis), udder and teat conformation, teat lesions, body condition, ewe nutrition, litter size, lamb weight and general flock management. Each flock was visited twice each year, approximately 4 weeks before lambing and 9 weeks into lactation, for two years and all ewes present at a visit were examined. There were 7021 examinations in total. AM was reported in 2.1-3.0% of ewes/year; this ranged from 0.0% to 37.1% by flock. IMM were detected in 4.7% of ewes in pregnancy and 10.9% of ewes in lactation. Once an IMM had been detected there was an increased risk of future IMM although IMM were not consistently present. The majority of ewes had good udder conformation to suckle lambs. Factors associated with AM, IMM in pregnant and lactating ewes, udder conformation and lamb daily live weight gain were explored using mixed effect multivariable models. An increased risk of AM was associated with underfeeding protein in pregnancy (OR 4.05), forward pointing teats (OR 2.54), downward pointing teats (OR 4.68), rearing≥2 lambs (OR 2.65), non-traumatic teat lesions (OR 2.09); and marginally associated with the presence of IMM. An increased risk of IMM in lactation was associated with AM during lactation (OR 12.39), IMM in pregnancy (OR 4.79), IMM in the previous lactation (OR 4.77), underfeeding energy in pregnancy (OR 6.66) and traumatic teat lesions (OR 2.48). An increased risk of IMM in pregnancy was associated with IMM in the previous pregnancy, IMM in the previous lactation and underfeeding energy in the previous lactation (OR 2.95). Lower lamb daily live weight gain was associated with traumatic teat lesions, IMM in lactation (-0.01kg/day) and AM (-0.04kg/day). We conclude that inadequate

  7. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez V.H.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 66 Pampinta breed ewes were studied during milking to evaluate the infection and the effect of gastrointestinal nematode on milk production sheep system. Naturally infected ewes on pasture were randomly allocated to two groups: TG, suppressively treated group every four weeks with levamisole and UG, untreated group. Faecal nematode egg counts and larval differentiation were conducted monthly. Successive groups of worm free tracer lambs were grazed with ewes and then slaughtered for worm counts. Test-day milk yield of individual ewes was recorded and ewe machine-milking period length (MPL were estimated. Faecal egg counts and tracer nematode numbers increased towards midsummer and declined sharply toward the end of the study. TG (188.0 ± 60 liters produced more (p < 0.066 milk liters than UG (171.9 ± 52.2 and TG had significantly more extended (p < 0.041 MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus infection.

  8. Induction of ovulation in anestrus ewes using a dopamine receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vijay Kumar; De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Naqvi, Syed Mohammad Khursheed; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Estradiol decreases the pulse frequency of LH during the nonbreeding season through dopaminergic neurons that results in anestrus in the ewe. Long-term administration of sulpiride, a dopamine antagonist, induced ovulation in seasonally anestrus mares. Accordingly, we tested whether sulpiride would induce ovulatory estrus in seasonally anestrus Malpura ewes. A total of 12 Malpura ewes were divided into sulpiride (at 0.6 mg/kg b.i.d.) or control groups. Anestrus was defined on the basis of the absence of heat signs for 2 months through twice-a-day heat detection during the nonbreeding season (October-November) and progesterone level of less than 1 ng/mL. Rates of estrus induction, ovulation, multiple ovulations, and lambing in the sulpiride-treated ewes were 83.3%, 100%, 16.6%, and 66.7%, respectively. The mean interval from treatment to estrus was 5.25 ± 1.49 days. Progesterone levels were elevated after ovulation significantly on Days 5 and 7 after estrus as compared to Day 0 after sulpiride treatment (P sulpiride treatment and estrus induction rate as well as ovulation rate (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the result provides proof of concept that the dopamine antagonist can induce ovulation in seasonally anestrus ewes.

  9. Strategic study on energy-protein requirements for local sheep: 5. Ewes during lactation phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six Javanese thin-tail ewes in the end of late pregnancy phase were set out to study the energy and crude protein requirements during the first eight-week of lactation phase. The ewes were penned individually in doors and randomly assigned to a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three levels of energy (low, medium and high and three levels of crude protein (low, medium and high diets with four ewes per treatment. The diets were pelleted and offered four times daily in approximately equal amount. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, body weight and milk production were recorded. Results showed that, total lamb birth weights was not affected, but protein content on the ration treatments significantly altered (P0.05, while crude protein content on the ration highly significantly affected (P<0.01. Based on data recorded, the energy and protein requirements for ewes during lactation phase are highly significantly depended on ewes’ live weight, milk production and the ratio of energy metabolism and crude protein of the ration. It was concluded that in order to fulfil the crude protein and energy needs of the ewes during lactation phase, the ration given should contain crude protein and energy as much as 16% (based on dry matter and 13.4 MJ/kg dry matter respectively.

  10. Effects of weaning age on growth, nutrient digestibility and metabolism, and serum parameters in Hu lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Chai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, nutrient digestion and metabolism, and serological indicators, and to obtain an optimal weaning age in Hu lambs. Forty-eight newborn Hu lambs (birth weight, 2.53 ± 0.14 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups. The lambs in control group (ER suckled their dams. The lambs in other three experimental groups were weaned on milk replacer at 10, 20, and 30 days of age (EW10, EW20, and EW30 groups, respectively. The results were as follows: 1 lambs in EW10 and EW30 groups had a lower (P  0.05 among groups; however, the apparent digestibility and deposition of calcium in early weaned lambs were lower (P < 0.05 than those in ewe-reared lambs. 4 The albumin content in EW30 group was lower (P < 0.05 than that in ER group; the globulin content in EW30 group was higher (P < 0.05 than that in other groups; the content of serum insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ in weaned lambs tended to increase compared with lambs in ER group. Finally, the growth rate of lambs decreased within 10 days post-weaning, but early weaning boosted creep feed intake, leading to better growth and health later in life. The Hu lambs can be weaned on milk replacer and creep feed at 10 days of age.

  11. Effectiveness of a short-term treatment with progesterone injections on synchrony of lambing and fertility in tropical hair sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Marlon; Ramgattie, Reeza; Siew, Narendra; Singh-Knights, Doolarie; Bourne, Gregory

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of using a low cost system for delivering progesterone as part of an estrous synchronization protocol in sheep was evaluated. In experiment 1, Barbados Black Belly ewes (n=34) and ewe lambs (n=35; 37.5±0.9 kg) were assigned to be untreated, control animals (C), or to receive PGF(2α) on d0 (PG), or receive two injections of progesterone (200mg, i.m. each) on D -5 and on D -2.5, prior to PGF(2α), on D 0 (2PPG). Treatment with 2PPG increased the proportion of animals lambing to the first service (Psynchronized regardless of physiological state. In conclusion, the two-progesterone injection synchronization protocol may be used as a practical low cost and efficient method of synchronizing estrus to reduce the lambing interval and maximize productivity in tropical breeds of sheep.

  12. Monitoring clinical outcomes, pathological changes and shedding of Chlamydophila abortus following experimental challenge of periparturient ewes utilizing the natural route of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jorge; Williams, Erin J; O'Donovan, James; Brady, Colm; Proctor, Aisling F; Marques, Patricia X; Worrall, Sheila; Nally, Jarlath E; McElroy, M; Bassett, Hugh F; Sammin, Donal J; Markey, Bryan K

    2011-01-10

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) caused by Chlamydophila abortus is an important disease resulting in significant lamb loss in most sheep producing countries. Ewes are considered to be naturally infected with C. abortus via the oral-nasal route and may become persistent carriers, shedding during subsequent oestrous cycles and at lambing. The aim of this study was to monitor the clinical outcomes, pathological changes and shedding of C. abortus in 18 periparturient orally infected sheep for two breeding seasons. In the first season, C. abortus was detected by real-time PCR (rt-PCR) in 13/18 conjunctival swabs at oestrus. Three out of the 15 pregnant ewes gave birth to 1 live and 1 dead lamb, and 2 of them aborted. Following parturition/abortion, C. abortus was detected in 12/15 vaginal swabs and in all the collected foetal membranes. However, only those membranes containing high copy numbers of the bacterium displayed the EAE typical lesions. In the second season, none of the 13 pregnant ewes aborted, and 5 of them gave birth to dead or weak lambs. C. abortus was not detected in conjunctival or vaginal swabs at oestrus or parturition. The bacterium was detected at low levels in 36% of the foetal membranes, but with no evidence of histopathological lesions. These results indicate that C. abortus can be detected in a large proportion of animals during the first pregnancy after oral infection. However, this proportion is reduced at the subsequent breeding season, confirming the occurrence of a chronic low level persistent infection in post-abortion/lambing ewes.

  13. Some dairy traits of Istrian ewes kept in semi-intensive farming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pliško

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian sheep has the highest milk yield among indigenous Croatian sheep breeds though originally belongs to a group of sheep of combined production traits. Since milk of Istrian sheep is traditionally processed into cheese and that processing possibilities of milk, among other things, are defined by its chemical composition and hygienic quality, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of some environmental factors (year, parity, stage of lactation, season (month of lambing on daily and lactation milk yield, lactation length, milk chemical composition and the somatic cell count (SCC in the milk of Istrian ewes. A total of 83 purebred, dairy Istrian sheep, during three consecutive lactations (from 2012 to 2014, were involved in this research. Due to conditions of feeding, care and housing, all ewes were kept in identical (semi-intensive farming conditions throughout the whole study period. During milking period of lactation regular milking controls were carried out (AT method and, on these occasions, individual milk samples for chemical composition analysis and determination of somatic cell count were taken. During average lactation length of 206 days Istrian ewes produced on average 190.77 kg of milk, or 1.1 kg of milk per day. Milk of Istrian ewes on average contained 6.81% fat, 5.90% protein, 4.32% lactose, 18.08% total solids and 11.31% non-fat solids. The geometric mean of SCC was 316*103*mL-1 of milk (log 5.50±0.02. A significant (P < 0.001 effect of the year is determined on the milk yield and the lactation length, as well as the chemical composition of milk (with the exception of protein and SCC. Ewes in the fourth lactation achieved the highest average daily (P < 0.001 and lactation milk yield (P < 0.05, while the first-lambing ewes produced milk with the highest content of total solids, milk fat and proteins. Stage of lactation significantly (P < 0.001 affected the daily milk yield, milk chemical composition, as well as

  14. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  15. Identification of lamb flocks susceptible and resistant against Brachiaria poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane C. Pupin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was designed to assess the influence of genetic resistance against brachiaria poisoning in sheep. Two groups of sheep, one identified as susceptible (formed by two ewes and one ram and the other as resistant against brachiaria poisoning (formed by three ewes and one ram were selected. Sheep considered susceptible were those that presented clinical signs of brachiaria poisoning at any time of their life; resistant sheep were those that even raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures, did not developed any sign of the poisoning during their life. The offspring of the two flocks (15 lambs from the sensitive flock and 9 lambs from the resistant flock were placed into brachiaria pasture (initially Brachiaria decumbens and B. brizantha,and only B. decumbens after weaning and followed up during two years (2013-2014. The determination of protodioscin levels in B. decumbens pasture was performed only in 2014 and revealed significant amounts of the toxic principle. Eleven lambs of the susceptible group were affected to some degree of brachiaria poisoning and six died; no lamb of the resistant group was affected. Clinical signs consisted of varying degrees of subcutaneous edema of the face and, erythema and loss of hair of the ears, crusts on the skin of ears, around the eyes and on planum nasale, scar deformation of the ears, and bilateral ocular discharge; affected lambs also sought for shadowy shelters and they were poor doers. Several sheep recovered from the condition and then relapsed. Necropsy findings in six lambs included pale mucous membranes, emaciation, dermatitis, scar deformation of the ears, large yellow livers with marked lobular pattern, and moderate infestation by Haemonchus contortus. Histologically the liver lesions were similar in all necropsied lambs but with varying degrees of severity; they were consistent with brachiaria poisoning and included architectural disruption of hepatocellular trabecula, clusters of foamy

  16. Effects of gentling on behavior and meat quality of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Within few hours after parturition lambs develop a strong and selective relationship with their mothers (Poindron and Le Neindre, 1980. In order to increase the amount of milk available for transformation, lambs often are prematurely separated from the ewes, thus inducing an early disruption of the mother-young relationship. A number of authors demonstrated that the lack of the maternal bond can inhibit the welfare state of the lambs (Sevi et al., 2001 and reduced animal welfare can have detrimental effects on meat quality in many animals species (Gregory, 1998 as well as in sheep (Napolitano et al., 2002a. A possible recover from conditions of poor animal welfare may be attained through the administration of gentle contacts by humans (Boivin et al., 2000 which may supply an additional social bond with members of a different animal species. The present study aims to verify the effect of artificial rearing on lamb welfare and meat quality, and assess the possibility to increase both by means of gentling.

  17. Prepubertal testicular tumors: Our 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular tumors in the pediatric population are distinct from those of the adults. In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign. We retrospectively analyzed a series of prepubertal testicular tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all testicular tumors at our institution was done from Jan 1999 to Dec 2008. Data relating to presentation, evaluation, and management were collected. Results: A total of 22 children with prepubertal testicular tumors were identified. The mean age at presentation was 4.6 years. Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively. All surgeries were successful with respect to cancer control and testicular preservation. Conclusions: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64% of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16% being a minority. Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.

  18. Comparison of Passively Transferred Antibodies in Bighorn and Domestic Lambs Reveals One Factor in Differential Susceptibility of These Species to Mannheimia haemolytica-Induced Pneumonia ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N.; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Knowles, Donald P.; Call, Douglas R.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries (domestic sheep [DS]). In BHS herds affected by pneumonia, lamb recruitment is severely impaired for years subsequent to an outbreak. We hypothesized that a lack of maternally derived antibodies (Abs) against M. haemolytica provides an immunologic basis for enhanced susceptibility of BH lambs to population-limiting pneumonia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the titers of Abs directed against M. haemolytica in the sera of BH and domestic lambs at birth through 12 weeks of age. Results revealed that BH lambs had approximately 18-fold lower titers of Ab against surface antigens of M. haemolytica and approximately 20-fold lower titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs than domestic lambs. The titers of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the serum and colostrum samples of BH ewes were approximately 157- and 50-fold lower than those for domestic ewes, respectively. Comparatively, the higher titers of parainfluenza 3 virus-neutralizing Abs in the BH lambs ruled out the possibility that these BHS had an impaired ability to passively transfer Abs to their lambs. These results suggest that lower levels of leukotoxin-neutralizing Abs in the sera of BH ewes, and resultant low Ab titers in their lambs, may be a critical factor in the poor lamb recruitment in herds affected by pneumonia. PMID:21613459

  19. Evaluation of Environmental Effect on Baluchi Lamb Survival between Birth day and Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Aslaminejad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lamb survival is one of the major factors affecting overall sheep productivity. Lamb survival affected by environmental effect such as management, birth-type, year, season of birth, dam-age, maternal behavior, genotype of parents, and birth-weight. The data comprised 9989 records were collected from 1989 to 2009 in Iranian Baluchi sheep at Abbasabad sheep breeding station. Four binary traits created, value 0 was assigned for lambs dead and 1 for lambs alive at certain ages. Cumulative survival to day 10, 30, 60 and 90 (weaning was calculated. Birth-weight, litter-size, birth-type, dam-age and birth-year considered in analysis. Statistical analyses of cumulative lamb survival at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days after birth analyzed by application of logistic model with binary response variable. Analysis of variance for cumulative survival each trait separately were analyzed using SAS with a linear model. The fixed effects of the model included dam-age, birth-year, birth-type, herd and sex. From 9989 lambs born at Abbasabad station over the period 1989-2009, There were 5147 (51.5% lambs born as male and 4847 (48.5% female which that 5583 (56% lambs as singles 4239 (42% as twins and 167 (2% as triplet. Among the singles, 79 (1.5% were dead at 10days after birth, 229 (4.1%, 373 (6.68%, 435 (7.8% died at 30, 60 and 90 days after birth respectively. The results indicated survival of male lambs less than female at from birth to weaning, single and twin born lambs were more survival than triplet at each age. Lamb born from ewes 2 years old or in first parity had lowest survival compared with other parities. The least survival occurred in first parity as result of lack of maternal experiences of ewes at that stage. Average birth weight all lambs was 4.28 ± 0.7 Kg. male lambs had heavier birth weight than female lambs (4.4 ± 0.7 vs. 4.1 ± 0.6 also single born lambs (4.6 ± 0.6 heavier than twin or triplet born lambs 3.8 ± 0.6 , 3.3± 0.6 respectively . Linear

  20. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated.

  1. Central and peripheral oxytocin profiles during milking in ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Bochini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the possible relationship between central and peripheral oxytocin (OT release during milking in experimental ewes. Ten multiparous ewes were divided into four groups according to milk ejection stimuli: exclusive machine milking (EM, mixed-management milking and suckling, lambs separated during the night and reunited with their mother after morning milking (MMS; mixed-management with manual milking (MMM, and exclusive suckling (ES lambs also separated during the night. Simultaneous sampling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood was performed during milking. The means, standard deviations, variation coefficients, and minimum and maximum CSF and plasma OT concentrations were the following, respectively: 257.88 ± 265.90 pg/ml, 103.11%, and 11.70 and 1000.00 pg/ml. No statistically significant correlations were found between OT concentrations in the CSF and plasma samples (EM: -0.26; ES: -0.19; MMM: 0.05; MMS: 0.04. The OT concentration in CSF was not influenced by milk ejection stimuli, although plasma OT was higher in the MMM (679.80 ± 25.63 and MMS (591.82 ± 30.56 groups compared with the EM and ES groups. Additionally, plasma OT concentrations were higher in the OME group (381.04 ± 22.09 compared with the AE group (218.82 ± 27.04. In conclusion, no positive correlations were found between central and peripheral OT concentrations during milking and suckling. Plasma OT concentrations differed as a function of milking management and had consequences for both milk ejection and production. Plasma but not CSF oxytocin concentrations were influenced by different milk ejection stimuli.

  2. Climate factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination during the first months of the breeding season in Rasa Aragonesa ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, P.; Yániz, J.; Fantova, E.; Vicente-Fiel, S.; Palacín, I.

    2014-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the impact of several climate variables on the pregnancy rate after cervical artificial insemination (AI) of Rasa Aragonesa ewes. Data were derived from 8,977 inseminations in 76 well-managed flocks performed during the first month of the breeding season (July to October). The following data were recorded for each animal: farm, year, month of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, inseminating ram, AI technician, and climatic variables such as mean, maximum and minimum temperature, mean and maximum relative humidity, rainfall, and mean and maximum temperature-humidity index (THI) for each day from day 12 before AI to day 14 post-AI. Means were furthermore calculated for the following periods around AI (day 0): -12 to 0, -2 to 0, AI day, 0 to 2, and 0 to 14. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the likelihood of pregnancy decreased when maximum temperature in the 2 days prior to AI was higher than 30 °C (by a factor of 0.81). Fertility was also lower for primiparous ewes and in multiparous ewes with more than five previous parturitions. Other factors with significant impact on fertility were flock, technician, inseminating ram, and a lambing-AI interval longer than 240 days. It was concluded that the 2 days prior to AI seems to be the period when heat stress had the greatest impact on pregnancy rate in Rasa Aragonesa ewes.

  3. Effect of periconceptional nutrition on the growth, behaviour and survival of the neonatal lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, D O; Kelly, J M; Rudiger, S R; McMillen, I C; Morrison, J L; Zhang, S; MacLaughlin, S M; Smith, D H; Grimson, R J; Jaensch, K S; Brien, F D; Plush, K J; Hiendleder, S; Walker, S K

    2015-09-01

    Periconceptional nutrition (PCN) can influence foetal hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function and alter cortisol secretion with possible consequences for maturation and growth of major organs, gestation length and behaviour. We examined effects of PCN on phenotype and survival of the neonatal lamb in 466 Merino ewes allocated to treatments providing 70%, 100% and 150% respectively, of maintenance requirements for 17 days prior and 6 days after insemination. Gestation length and birth weight for lambs in PCN treatment groups was similar (P > 0.05) but low PCN decreased the size of the neonate (crown-rump-length and metacarpal length P PCN decreased the amount of peri-renal fat (P PCN increased neck thymus and ovary mass (P PCN ewes returned faster to their mothers after release (P PCN treatment and sex (P PCN treatment and ewe age (P PCN and, for the first time, links these changes with significant changes in behaviour of the neonate. The impact of these effects on lamb survival and potential reproductive capacity of female offspring remains to be determined.

  4. Análogo de GnRH disminuye la secreción de hormona folículo estimulante (FSH en ovejas prepúberes A gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue decreases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH secretion in prepubertal female sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Recabarren

    2006-01-01

    RH on the FSH secretion in prepubertal female sheep. A GnRH agonist analogue in slow release microcapsule preparation was used (Trp6-GnRH, (Decapeptyl® whose blocking effect on the LH release has been previously demonstrated. The analogue was injected intramuscularly every 4 weeks beginning at 20 weeks of age three times in five Suffolk ewe lambs. Another group of five lambs received the vehicle of Decapeptyl. Studies of FSH pulsatility were carried out at 20 (before the analogue agonist administration, 26 and 30 weeks of age. The CLUSTER program was used to identify characteristics of FSH secretion: transversal mean (ng/ml/5h, frequency of pulses (number of pulses/5h, amplitude of pulses (ng/ml and nadir (ng/ml . In the control group, FSH secretion characteristics did not change between 20 and 30 weeks of age. In the experimental group, mean FSH concentrations decreased from 3.4±0.3 ng/ml/5h at 20 weeks of age to 0.36 ±0.1 ng/mL/ 5h at 30 weeks of age (P<0,05, which was also significantly lower than in the control group of the same age. Amplitude of FSH pulses in lambs of 30 weeks of age were significantly lower than in lambs of 20 weeks of age (4.4 ± 0.5 versus 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/mL respectively, P<0.05, and lower than that exhibited by control ewe lambs of 30 weeks of age. FSH pulse frequency did not change between lambs of 20 and 30 weeks of age in either group. Results show that the GnRH analogue is able to block the FSH secretion suggesting that the FSH secretion is dependant on GnRH stimulation in prepubertal female sheep.

  5. The effect of weather on the occurrence and magnitude of periparturient rise in trichostronglyid nematode egg output in Dorper ewes in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ang'a, C J; Kanyari, P W N; Maingi, N; Munyua, W K

    2006-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the effects of weather on the occurrence and magnitude of the periparturient rise (PPR) in trichostrongylid nematode egg output in breeding Dorper ewes. The study was conducted over three breeding seasons on a ranch in the semi-arid area of Kajiado District in Kenya between June 1999 and December 2001. During each breeding season 20 ewes randomly selected from the breeding stock and 20 others selected from the unmated yearlings were monitored for faecal strongyle egg counts every 3 weeks. The lambing seasons were timed to coincide with the onset of the short rains (October-November 1999), the mid-short rains (November-December 2000) and the end of the dry season (September-October 2001). In each season higher egg outputs were recorded in the peri-parturient ewes compared to the unmated yearlings. The highest PPR occurred in September 2001, when lambing coincided with the end of the dry season, possibly as a result of maturation of hypobiotic larvae. The lowest PPR occurred in November 2000 when the onset of lambing coincided with the mid-short rains, possibly owing to low pasture infectivity associated with a long dry spell between January and October of the same year. The results of this study indicate that PPR occurred when lambing coincided with both the wet and the dry seasons. However, the magnitude was greatly influenced by the season when lambing occurred. It was also influenced by resumption of development of hypobiotic larvae and the nutritional status of the ewes. Not only should control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in this area aim at preventing the occurrence of PPR by treating ewes 2-3 weeks before they are to lamb and during lactation, but the anthelmintic used must also eliminate hypobiotic larvae. In addition, the animals must be given supplementary feeding during this period.

  6. Reproductive responses and productive characteristics in ewes supplemented with detoxified castor meal for a long period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with detoxified castor meal (DCM in the diet of ewes during pregnancy, partum, and post-partum on the weight development of their offspring and at slaughter. The study included 56 ewes with synchronized estrus that were naturally mated. At the beginning of pregnancy and in post-partum, hepatic and renal function-related parameters and progesterone levels were measured. At slaughter, the proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined in the loin of ewes. There was no effect of diet on reproductive response after estrus synchronization. At the beginning of pregnancy, albumin and creatinine levels were lower in the DCM group. Supplementation with DCM did not alter the weight or body condition of ewes at partum. However, at weaning, the DCM group showed a higher loin-eye area (LEA in relation to the group fed diets without detoxified castor meal (WDCM. At partum, as well as at weaning, the offspring of the ewes supplemented with DCM had a larger LEA than the WDCM group. In post-partum, levels of glucose, urea, protein, and cholesterol were lower in the DCM group. The return to cyclicity was similar in both groups, with an average of 47 days after partum. At slaughter, neither anatomical and carcass components nor the results of the proximate analysis were affected by the type of diet, except for an increase in heptadecanoic acid in the DCM group. Supplementation with detoxified castor meal in the diet of ewes does not affect lambing, pregnancy, prolificacy, return to cyclicity, milk production, blood biochemical parameters, or carcass characteristics.

  7. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  9. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Erika K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2% milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005. After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production.

  10. Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of Chlamydia abortus in frozen fetal and placental tissues of aborting ewes in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hireche, Sana; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Bouaziz, Omar; Boussena, Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes is one of the most serious health problems in sheep flocks worldwide. It has a significant economic impact because abortion, decrease in milk production and weak lambs. Besides, the bacteria is zoonotic. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia abortus infection in 552 ewes in Constantine using a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA kit. Chlamydial DNA was investigated in ten ovine fetuses and eight placentas using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. The study concluded that 7.2 % of ewes were seropositive and 33.3 % of sheep flocks had at least one seropositive ewe. Adjacent farmworker visits (OR = 7.667, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.307; 27.203) was defined as a risk factor. Deliveries of weak lambs (OR = 2.920, 95 % CI (OR) = 1.022; 8.342) and septicemia in lambs (OR = 9.971, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.383; 41.713) were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed positive signals to C. abortus in six fetuses and four placentas. Sequencing of the omp2 gene revealed that the Algerian strain is 96 % similar with C. abortus FAS strain. C. abortus plays a major role in abortion in northeastern Algeria. Appropriate control measures must be implemented to reduce economic losses and to avoid human contamination.

  11. Estradiol levels in prepubertal boys and girls--analytical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2004-01-01

    Increasing evidence points at an important function of low concentrations of estradiol (E2) in prepubertal boys and girls. E2 serum levels in prepubertal children are, however, often immeasurable in conventional E2 assays. This strongly hampers further investigation of the physiological relevance...... of analysis are examined and their applicability for evaluation of low E2 serum concentrations in children is estimated. Furthermore, available data on E2 levels in prepubertal boys and girls are evaluated and discussed, taking into consideration the limitations of the methods of analysis. In conclusion...

  12. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Derek V; Lipson, Natasha; Korach, Kenneth S; Bloch, Clifford A

    2007-02-01

    Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.

  13. Wastage of ova in young Merino ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blockey, M A; Parr, R A; Restall, B J

    1975-06-01

    Eight sub-flocks each of 48 to 51 Merino ewes were mated for 18 days with 1 ram to each subflock. Four of the sub-flocks were of non-parous 1.5-year-old ewes and the other 4 were of parous 2.5-year-old ewes. Fertilisation rates for the subflocks of 1.5-year-old ewes varied from 83 to 94%, and the sub-flocks of 2.5-year-old ewes ranged from 81 to 94%. By day 29 post coitum 42% and 56% of 1.5-year-old ewes in sub-flocks 1 and 2 respectively were no longer pregnant. Embryonic mortality was low in other sub-flocks of 1.5- and 2.5-year-old ewes. Virtually all embryonic death occurred after day 12 post coitum. The sporadic occurrence of high ova wastage in maiden 1.5-year-old ewes in this experiment and in others is discussed in relation to the short duration of oestrus in young ewes and the great variation in service activity of rams.

  14. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  15. Nutrient and cell wall fraction digestibility of growing WAD ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal (MSLM based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ekeocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After a previous 84-d performance phase on growing WAD ewe, Studies was conducted using sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewe-lambs weighing between 17.50 and 17.88kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The MSL replaced Wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. Ewes were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Parameters measured were voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI, which comprised concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI and grass dry matter intake (GDMI, Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, Organic matter (OM and Energy . Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA .The VDMI (g/d varied from 392.30 - 695.00, CDMI (g/d varied from 181.80 - 536.80 and GDMI (g/d varied from 130.65 - 215.95 for ewe-lambs. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of NDF, ADF, ADL, organic matter (OM and Energy were similar. Approximately 75.5 ±1.1% of the VDMI came from the supplement. Diets containing 15% MSLM was superior to others for CDMI (181.80 – 536.80 g/day, CP intake (17.72 – 32.40 g/day/kgW0.75, Digestible DMI (49.45 - 80.68 g/day/kgW0.75 and Digestible CPI (13.68 - 27.16 g/day/kgW0.75 while GDMI (130.65 – 215.95 g/day for diets containing 30% and 45% MSLM were significant (p Inclusion of up to 45% Mexican Sunflower Leaf in the diets of growing ewe to replace Wheat bran was adequate.

  16. Lactation Biology Symposium: maternal nutrition during early and mid-to-late pregnancy: Comparative effects on milk production of twin-born ewe progeny during their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, A M; Kenyon, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Peterson, S W; Jenkinson, C M C; Pain, S J; Blair, H T

    2013-02-01

    Studies using sheep models indicate that the fetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal nutrition during gestation; however, results have been inconsistent and do not identify critical feeding periods. This study aimed to clarify previous findings by partitioning the period of maternal nutritional manipulation into 2 stages: early and mid-to-late pregnancy. Sixty-six twin-born, twin-bearing ewes, born to dams that were fed either submaintenance, maintenance, or ad libitum during early pregnancy (d 21 to 50 of pregnancy; SmP21-50, MP21-50, or AdP21-50, respectively) and then either maintenance or ad libitum during mid-to-late pregnancy (d 50 to 140 of pregnancy; MP50-140 or AdP50-140, respectively) were milked once a week, starting from d 7 ± 1 postpartum, for 7 subsequent weeks to enable estimation of daily milk yield and composition. Their lambs were weighed weekly. Ewes born to dams fed MP21-50 tended to have greater accumulated milk (P = 0.10), fat (P = 0.07), and NE (P = 0.06) yields over 50 d compared with ewes born to dams fed SmP21-50 and AdP21-50. In contrast, ewes born to dams fed AdP50-140 tended to have greater accumulated milk (P = 0.10) and lactose (P = 0.09) yields compared with ewes born to dams fed MP50-140. Grandoffspring birth weights were unaffected by granddam nutrition during pregnancy. Ewes born to dams fed AdP21-50 weaned lighter lambs (P = 0.05) than ewes born to dams fed AmP21-50 and tended to wean lighter lambs (P = 0.07) than ewes born to dams fed MP21-50 whereas there were no differences between the weaning weights of lambs (P = 0.43) from ewes born to dams fed AdP50-140 and MP50-140. Maintenance nutrition of dams during early pregnancy appears to be associated with an improved lactation performance of ewe offspring. Higher levels of nutrition during mid-to-late pregnancy also appears to improve the first-lactation performance of ewe offspring. Interestingly, although grandoffspring birth weights were unaffected, weaning weight

  17. Lambing rate and prolificacy in inseminated hair sheep treated with bovine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Chávez, José Maria; Hernández-Cerón, Joel; Aréchiga-Flores, Carlos Fernando; López-Carlos, Marco Antonio; Lozano-Domínguez, Raúl Renato; Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Echavarría-Cháirez, Francisco Guadalupe

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated whether the administration of 50 and 100 mg bovine somatotropin (bST) at the start of estrous synchronization and at the time of artificial insemination improves lambing rate and prolificacy in hair sheep. Four hundred eighty adult hair ewes (Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper, Katahdin, and their crosses) were synchronized with intravaginal sponge containing 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate. On the day of sponge insertion, ewes were assigned to three treatments: the bST-100 treatment (n = 156) received 100 mg bST at the start of synchronization (d 0) and at the time of insemination (d 14), the bST-50 treatment (n = 159) received 50 mg bST in the same schedule as the previous group, and the control (n = 165) did not receive any bST. Lambing rate and percentage of multiple births were analyzed using the GENMOD procedure of SAS. Prolificacy data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The IGF-1 and insulin concentrations were analyzed with ANOVA for repeated measures. The bST application did not affect the lambing rate (P = 0.06). The proportion of ewes with multiple births (P = 0.01) and prolificacy (P = 0.04) were higher in the bST-50 (54.3% and 1.57 ± 0.1) than the bST-100 (18.2% and 1.25 ± 0.1) and control (33.3% and 1.28 ± 0.1) groups. The IGF-1 and insulin concentrations were higher (P synchronization and at the time of artificial insemination does not increase lambing rate. However, the dose of 50 mg increased the proportion of multiple births and prolificacy.

  18. Genetic parameters for ewe productivity traits in the Columbia, Suffolk and Targhee breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkhaliq, A M; Harvey, W R; Parker, C F

    1989-12-01

    Estimates of repeatability and heritability were obtained for the following productivity traits of ewes: litter weight at birth (LWB) and weaning (LWW), litter size at birth (LSB), litter size alive at birth (NBA), litter size at weaning (LSW), neonatal survival rate (SRB) and preweaning survival rate (SRW). Phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated for litter traits. The data set contained 6,394 ewe breeding records from three state stations over 10 yr on 1,731 ewes that were the progeny of 488 sires among three breeds (Columbia, Suffolk and Targhee). Pooled intra-station estimates of repeatability ranged from .11 to .22 for LWB and LWW among the three breeds. For litter size at birth, number born alive and litter size at weaning these estimates varied from .09 to .17 and for the survival traits (SRB and SRW) the variation was from .11 to .20. Intra-station estimates of heritability for the three breeds varied from .12 to .28 for LWB and LWW, and for LSB, NBA and LSW estimates varied from .05 to .35. Heritability estimates for survival traits (SRB and SRW) were low, ranging from .00 to .14. Phenotypic correlations among LWB, LWW, NBA and LSW ranged from .35 to .92 among the breed-station subclasses, with higher correlations occurring where a part-whole relationship existed. The study suggests that selection of ewes with high litter size at birth or at weaning and(or) litter weight at birth or at weaning will genetically improve total litter weight at weaning per ewe lambing.

  19. Effects of replacing grass silage with either maize silage or concentrates during late pregnancy on the performance of breeding ewes fed isonitrogenous diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, R W; Carson, A F; Gordon, A W

    2013-06-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the performance of breeding ewes fed a range of forage and concentrate-based diets in late pregnancy, balanced for supply of metabolizable protein (MP). For the final 6 weeks before lambing, 104 twin-bearing multiparous ewes were offered one of four diets: ad libitum precision-chop grass silage + 0.55 kg/day concentrates (GS); ad libitum maize silage + 0.55 kg/day concentrates (MS); a 1 : 1 mixture (on a dry matter (DM) basis) of grass silage and maize silage fed ad libitum + 0.55 kg/day (GSMS); or 1.55 kg/day concentrates + 50 g/day chopped barley straw (C). The CP content of the concentrates was varied between treatments (157 to 296 g/kg DM) with the aim of achieving a daily intake of 130 g/day MP across all treatments. Compared with ewes fed GS, forage DM intake was higher (P silage-based diets (7.5% v. 37.4% ewes), and was higher (P maize silage and all-concentrate diets can replace grass silage in pregnant ewe rations without impacting on performance, provided the supply of MP is non-limiting. The higher incidence of dystocia in ewes fed maize silage as the sole forage is a concern.

  20. Effects of zearalenone in prepubertal gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia C. Teixeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Prepubertal gilts were fed with a diet containing zearalenone (ZEA in a concentration of 0.75 mg/kg for 21 days. The effects of this mycotoxin on morphologic aspects of the reproductive tract as well as on complete blood count (CBC, serum biochemistry analysis (SBA and humoral immune response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 on the reproductive tract weight, vulvar area, height of the epithelial cells of endometrial glands and uterine mucosa. These results showed the ability of this nonsteroidal mycotoxin in mimicking actions of 17β estradiol at the concentration of 0.75mg/kg. No changes in weight gain, CBC, SBA parameters and humoral response against SRBC were observed.

  1. Iodine supplementation of the pregnant dam alters intestinal gene expression and immunoglobulin uptake in the newborn lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, F M; Magee, D A; Browne, J A; MacHugh, D E; Boland, T M

    2016-04-01

    Excess iodine intake by the pregnant dam reduces lamb serum antibody concentration, specifically immunoglobulin G (IgG). An experiment was conducted to investigate the mechanisms under pinning the reduced serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum in the progeny of iodine supplemented dams. Forty-five mature twin bearing ewes (n=15/treatment) were allocated to one of three dietary treatments as follows: basal diet (Control); basal diet plus 26.6 mg of iodine per ewe per day as calcium iodate (CaIO3); or potassium iodide (KI). Ewes were individually housed and fed from d 119 of gestation until parturition. All lambs received colostrum at 1, 10 and 18 h postpartum via stomach tube. At 1 h postpartum lambs from the control and an iodine supplemented treatment (n=10 per treatment from control and CaIO3) were euthanised before colostrum consumption and ileal segments isolated to determine the gene expression profile of a panel of genes identified as having a role in antibody transfer. Preceding euthanasia, lambs were blood sampled for determination of serum IgG, total thyroxine and free tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Progeny of CaIO3 supplemented dams had lower tri-iodothyronine concentrations (P<0.01) at 1 h postpartum and lower serum IgG concentrations (P<0.001) at 24 h postpartum when compared with the progeny of control dams. Iodine (CaIO3) supplementation of the dam increased the relative expression (P<0.05) of the B2M, PIGR and MYC genes in the ileum of the lamb, before colostrum consumption; while the expression of THRB declined when compared with the progeny of C dams (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study show that it is the actual inclusion of excess iodine in the diet of the ewe, regardless of the carrier element, that negatively affects passive transfer in the newborn lamb. This study presents novel data describing the relationship between maternal iodine nutrition and its effect on the thyroid hormone status and subsequent gene expression in

  2. Antenatal betamethasone improves postnatal transition in late preterm lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduri, Girija G.; Bakhutashvili, Ivane; Eis, Annie; Afolayan, Adeleye

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with increased oxidative stress in pulmonary arteries (PA). Betamethasone decreases the oxidative stress and improves anti-oxidant balance in PPHN. We investigated whether antenatal betamethasone improves pulmonary vasodilation and postnatal oxygenation in late preterm lambs with PPHN. Methods PPHN was induced by constriction of fetal ductus arteriosus from 128 to 136d gestation. Ewes were given 2 i.m. doses of betamethasone or saline at 24h and 12h before Cesarian-section delivery at 136d gestation, simulating late preterm birth. Newborn lambs were mechanically ventilated for 8h with monitoring of blood gas and hemodynamic variables. Lungs were harvested post mortem to determine oxidative stress markers and in vitro responses of PA. Results Postnatal arterial partial pressure of oxygen and pH were higher and the oxygenation index and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide lower in betamethasone treated lambs. PA pressure was lower and systemic pressure higher in betamethasone lambs. Betamethasone decreased the oxidative stress markers and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in ventilated PPHN lungs. Conclusion Antenatal betamethasone decreases oxidative stress and improves postnatal transition in late preterm lambs with PPHN. This study suggests a potential benefit for antenatal betamethasone in late preterm births. PMID:23370411

  3. Effect of the dam’s feeding regimen on the meat quality of light suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Molle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of the introduction of concentrates without GMO risk and at low aflatoxin risk in the diet of grazing milk ewes on the quanti-qualitative production of meat of their milk-fed light lambs, two trials were carried out - in Sicily, on 32 Comisana lambs, slaughtered at 49±4 days (trial 1; and in Sardinia, on 28 Sarda lambs, slaughtered at 31±4 days(trial 2 - comparing the following grazing dams’ feeding regimes: High stocking rate + Organic (barley – tickbean or pea Concentrate (HO; High stocking rate + Conventional (maize-soybean Concentrate (HC; Low stocking rate + Organic Concentrate (LO; Low stocking rate + Conventional Concentrate (LC. Lamb performances, carcass quality, meat colour and lipid content were not modified by dam’s feeding regimen. However, significant differences were observed in the fatty acid (FA composition of the intramuscular fat of the older suckling lambs of trial 1. The main variation concerned n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and conjugated linoleic acids.

  4. Is the Lamb Promotion Still Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This objective of this study is to update last year’s analysis of the effectiveness of the lamb advertising and promotion program of the American Lamb Board (ALB). The main conclusion is that the lamb checkoff program is still working effectively to increase lamb consumption and sales in the United States. The analysis shows that ALB lamb promotion programs have generated roughly 8 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $44.45 in addition...

  5. Is the Lamb Promotion Still Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This objective of this study is to update last year’s analysis of the effectiveness of the lamb advertising and promotion program of the American Lamb Board (ALB). The main conclusion is that the lamb checkoff program is still working effectively to increase lamb consumption and sales in the United States. The analysis shows that ALB lamb promotion programs have generated roughly 8 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $44.45 in addition...

  6. Sericea lespdeza as an aid in the control of Emeria spp. in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Orlik, S T; Acharya, M; Garza, J J; Mosjidis, J A

    2013-03-31

    The objective was to examine the effects of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal (SL) on control of coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n=76) were weaned (102.7±1.4 d of age) in May (spring) and randomly assigned in a 2×2 factorial design to receive 2% of BW/d of alfalfa pellets (control) or SL with or without amprolium added to drinking water (n=38/level or 19/treatment). Fecal oocyst counts (FOC), egg counts (FEC), and fecal score (1=solid pellets; 5=slurry) were determined every 7d between weaning and 21 d post-weaning. In Exp. 2, twin rearing ewes were randomly assigned to two groups, and their naturally infected lambs were fed a control creep supplement (16% CP; n=40) or SL pellets (14% CP; n=32) 30 d before weaning. Intake of SL was initially low (100g/lamb daily) and increased to 454 g/lamb daily after weaning. Lambs were weaned at 103.6±0.9 d of age and moved to semi-confinement. The FEC, FOC, packed cell volume (PCV), fecal score, and dag score (soiling around rear of lamb; 1=no soiling; 5=heavy soiling) were determined at d -14, 0 (weaning), 7, 14, and 21. In Exp. 3, lambs were randomly assigned to a control or SL diet (n=12/diet) fed at 1.4 kg/d for 22d and inoculated with 50,000 sporulated oocysts on d 8, 11, and 13. The FEC, FOC, and fecal score were determined every 2 to 3d between d 1 and 29 (d 0=first day of dietary treatment). Data on all experiments were analyzed using mixed models. The FOC and FEC data were log transformed. Chi squared analysis was used to determine differences in incidence of treatment (sulfadimethoxine) for coccidiosis in Exp. 1 and 2. In Exp. 1, FOC and FEC were similar between dietary groups, and FOC declined more rapidly in amprolium treated lambs following weaning (P<0.001). Fecal score was higher in the control compared with the SL fed lambs (P=0.05), suggesting more signs of coccidiosis in control lambs. In Exp. 2, FOC was similar initially but was reduced in SL fed lambs by weaning and remained

  7. The effect of post-mating hCG or progesterone administration on reproductive performance of Afshari × Booroola-Merino crossbred ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Behnam; Hajizadeh, Rahman; Shahir, Mohammad-Hossein; Aliyari, Davood

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the efficiency of hCG/CIDR after breeding to increase the reproductive performance, 35 synchronized ewes were mated with fertile rams and were assigned to three treatment groups. Ewes in hCG group (n = 12) received 400 IU hCG on day 11 post-mating, and ewes in CIDR group (n = 11) received CIDR from day 7 until day 19 post-mating. Ewes in the control group (n = 12) did not receive any treatment. Blood samples were collected on days 7, 12, 17, and 22 post-mating. Plasma P4 concentrations were higher on days 12 and 17 post-mating in hCG- and CIDR-treated groups (P hCG and control groups were higher than that in CIDR group (P hCG group produced more quadruplets (P hCG group (3.6%) was less than that in control (11.8%; P  0.05) groups. Post-mating administration of hCG or CIDR did not affect the lamb birth weight in single and quadruplet births (P > 0.05), but the birth weight of twin lambs was higher in the hCG and CIDR groups (P hCG and CIDR groups (P hCG/CIDR administration post-mating increased the maternal P4 concentrations and enhanced reproductive performance.

  8. Identification of immunologically relevant proteins of Chlamydophila abortus using sera from experimentally infected pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P X; Souda, Puneet; O'Donovan, J; Gutierrez, J; Gutierrez, E J; Worrall, S; McElroy, M; Proctor, A; Brady, C; Sammin, D; Basset, H F; Whitelegge, Julian P; Markey, B E; Nally, J E

    2010-08-01

    Chlamydophila abortus is an intracellular pathogen and the etiological agent of enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE). C. abortus has a biphasic development cycle; extracellular infectious elementary bodies (EB) attach and penetrate host cells, where they give rise to intracellular, metabolically active reticulate bodies (RB). RB divide by binary fission and subsequently mature to EB, which, on rupture of infected cells, are released to infect new host cells. Pregnant ewes were challenged with 2 x 10(6) inclusion forming units (IFU) of C. abortus cultured in yolk sac (comprising both EB and RB). Serum samples were collected at 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 30, 35, 40, and 43 days postinfection (dpi) and used to identify antigens of C. abortus expressed during disease. Additionally, sera from fetal lambs were collected at 30, 35, 40, and 43 dpi. All serum samples collected from experimentally infected pregnant ewes reacted specifically with several antigens of EB as determined by one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D gel electrophoresis; reactive antigens identified by mass spectrometry included the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), polymorphic outer membrane protein (POMP), and macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) lipoprotein.

  9. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  10. Effect of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on their fetal growth and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Feng; HOU; XianZhi; LIU; YingChun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on the ovine fetus growth and development. One hundred Mongolian ewes, synchronized for oestrus and mated, were divided into three groups and offered 0.175 MJME·kgw-0.75·d-1 (Restricted Group 1, RG1), 0.33 MJME·kgw-0.75·d-1 (Restricted Group 2, RG2) and ad libitum access to feed (Control Group, CG) during their late pregnancy respectively. The results suggested that with the supply of exogenous energy decreasing during late pregnancy, maternal body weight and net body weight loss in RG2 and RG1 were lower than those of CG (P<0.01). The insulin and IGF-1 concentrations of ewes in RG2 and RG1 tended to be lower than those of CG (P>0.05), but the GH concentrations in RG2 and RG1 were enhanced and there was significant difference between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). The glucose concentration of ewes in RG2 and RG1 was decreased throughout the feed restriction period, and the differences were observed between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). In addition, the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total amino acid (TAA) concentrations of ewes in RG2 tended to increase, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). However, the NEFA and FAA concentrations of ewes in RG1 were reduced from d 90 to d 120 of gestation, then enhanced from d 120 to d 140 of gestation. During the late pregnancy, with the supply of nutrition decreasing, the negatively physiological and biochemical maternal reactions to restriction became worse, which significantly reduced the average lamb birth weight and daily growth rate of fetus in RG2 (P<0.05) and RG1 (P<0.01).

  11. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  12. Effect of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on their fetal growth and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on the ovine fetus growth and development. One hundred Mongolian ewes, synchronized for oestrus and mated, were divided into three groups and offered 0.175 MJME·kgw-0.75·d-1 (Restricted Group 1, RG1), 0.33 MJME·kgw-0.75·d-1 (Restricted Group 2, RG2) and ad libitum access to feed (Control Group, CG) during their late pregnancy respectively. The results suggested that with the supply of exogenous energy decreasing during late pregnancy, maternal body weight and net body weight loss in RG2 and RG1 were lower than those of CG (P<0.01). The insulin and IGF-1 concentrations of ewes in RG2 and RG1 tended to be lower than those of CG (P>0.05), but the GH concentrations in RG2 and RG1 were enhanced and there was significant difference between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). The glucose concentration of ewes in RG2 and RG1 was decreased throughout the feed restriction period, and the differences were observed between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). In addition, the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total amino acid (TAA) concentrations of ewes in RG2 tended to increase, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). However, the NEFA and FAA concentrations of ewes in RG1 were reduced from d 90 to d 120 of gestation, then enhanced from d 120 to d 140 of gestation. During the late pregnancy, with the supply of nutrition decreasing, the negatively physiological and biochemical maternal reactions to restriction became worse, which significantly reduced the average lamb birth weight and daily growth rate of fetus in RG2 (P<0.05) and RG1 (P<0.01).

  13. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  14. On the Lamb shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, D. [Av. Tobalaba 3696, Puente Alto, Santiago, Metropolitana (Chile)

    2008-02-15

    The Lamb shift is calculated, in an approximate way, considering the hydrogen atom as an isolated physical system; the quantized radiation field does not play any role in the present approach. Our formalism is based on the generalization of the Dirac wave equation that incorporates the effects of the electron self-fields directly into it. Both the physical picture as well as the mathematical formalism have their roots in the classical theory of the electron. (author)

  15. Effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma metabolites in crossbred and purebred Australian Merino lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.O. Malau-Aduli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementing purebred and crossbred Merino lambs with Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina on plasma metabolite concentrations under pasture-based management system and the influences of sire breed and sex were investigated. A completely randomized experimental design balanced by 4 sire breeds (Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset and Black Suffolk, 3 Spirulina supplementation levels (0, 100 and 200 ml representing the control, low and high, respectively and 2 sexes (ewe and wether lambs was utilised. All lambs had ad libitum access to the basal diet of ryegrass pastures and barley. Lambs in the treatment groups were individually drenched daily with Spirulina prior to being released with the control group of lambs for grazing over a 6-week period following a 3-week adjustment phase. At the start and completion of the feeding trial, blood samples were centrifuged and plasma metabolites measured. Data were analysed with Spirulina supplementation level, sire breed, sex and their second-order interactions fitted as fixed effects and metabolite concentrations as dependent variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT concentrations decreased (from 79.40 to 69.25 UI and glucose increased (from 3.81 to 4.19 mmol/L as the level of Spirulina supplementation increased from 0 ml in the control to 200 ml in the high treatment groups (P < 0.05. Lambs supplemented at low Spirulina levels had the highest creatinine concentrations (61.75 μmol/L. Interactions between sex and supplementation level significantly affected glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Mg concentrations (P < 0.05, while sire breed and supplementation level interactions influenced albumin to globulin (A/G ratio, creatinine and GGT concentrations. It was demonstrated that Spirulina supplementation does not negatively impact lamb health and productivity.

  16. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  17. Reproductive performance in out-of-breeding season of fatty ewes using implant norgestomet with or without PMSG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebkhan Garoussi, Massoud; Farzaneh, Nima; Gallehdar, Ehssan; Mohri, Mehrdad

    2012-06-01

    Pregnancy in out-of-breeding season in ewes increases the economical goals. Synchronization of estrus and ovulation is essential for above program. The aims of this study using implant norgestomet with or without Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) were to evaluate the serum progesterone (P4) concentration changes: the conception rate and estimation of the lambing rate and litter size. In total, 80 non-cycling multiparous Iranian Kurdish breed fat-tailed ewes with PMSG at implant removal. The progesterone of treatment and control groups were measured on days 4, 9, and 13 after removal of the norgestomet using radioimmunoassay. Every five ewes were exposed to one ram after 24 h of norgestomet removal in treatment and control groups, simultaneously. The pregnancy was examined after 25 days of ram removal using ultrasonography. Progesterone concentration was significantly higher in treatment groups on 9 and 13 days after norgestomet removal (P PMSG, and PMSG treatments groups were 17%, 52%, and 72%, respectively. The rates of single and twin pregnancy in the non-PMSG treatment group were 69% and 31%, respectively. These rates in norgestomet and PMSG treatment group were 50% and 39%, respectively. Triplet pregnancy (11%) was observed only in the PMSG treatment group. It was concluded that using implant norgestomet especially accompanied with PMSG can increase and improve the fertilization rate of ewe in the out-of-breeding season program.

  18. REPRODUCTIVE AND METABOLIC RESPONSES IN EWES TO DIETARY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT DURING MATING PERIOD IN DRY SEASON OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of food supplements with different levels of protein on reproductive and metabolic response of ewes during the mating period. Forty-one ewes were supplemented during 43 days with amount protein to meet 1.0 (diet I; n = 14, 1.7 (diet II; n = 13 and 2.1 (diet III; n = 14 times the maintenance requirements. Dry matter (DM intake was higher (P < 0.01 in diet III when compared to diets I and II. Orts were lesser in diets II and III (P < 0.05 when compared to diet I. Intake of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE was higher in diet III (P < 0.05, but NDF and ADF intake was superior in diet I (P < 0.05. In diet III, a higher frequency of female mated was observed (P < 0.05. The prolificity and twinning rate was higher in ewes of diet II (P < 0.05. Greater birth weight of lambs (P < 0.05 was verified in diet III. The progesterone levels were affected by diets II and III (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the supplementation of ewes with intermediate level of protein improves their reproductive response.

  19. Simulation of life-cycle efficiency of lamb and wool production for genetic levels of component traits and alternative management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C T; Dickerson, G E

    1991-11-01

    A deterministic computer model was used to predict effects of genetic improvements in performance and of management options on life-cycle flock TDN input per unit of empty body weight (EBW) or carcass lean (CLN) equivalent value of market lamb, cull ewe, and wool output from a pure breeding system of sheep production for sheep fed to maintain normal weight. Relative values per kilogram for market lambs, cull ewes, and clean wool were 1 to .33 to 2.04 in lamb empty body equivalent, but 1 to .33 to 1 in lamb carcass lean equivalent. A 10% increase in lamb viability improved TDN/EBW or CLN by -15 to -20% for high to low lambing rates. Corresponding smaller gains were -7 to -11% for fertility, -3 to -13% for lambing rate, -1 to -3% for wool growth rate, -1 to -5% for milk production without creep feeding, -2 to -1% for mature size to about 70 kg, and -.6 to -.9% for precocity of fertility. Increasing leanness 10% improved TDN/CLN by -3 to -1% but increased TDN/EBW 3% because of higher maintenance requirements of leaner sheep. Higher protein requirements for increased lambing rate, milk production or leanness, or greater increases in non-feed than in feed costs, would mean only slightly less reduction of TDN/output than shown. Creep feeding was beneficial only for prolific, low-milking stock. Flushing reduced adverse effects of restricted feeding. Different values for wool vs meat or for costs of feed vs non-feed inputs would change results. These estimates for relative economic importance of traits apply to derivation of optimum criteria for selection among breeds or crosses, or within-breeds used in rotation crossbreeding, but would differ for specialized terminal-sire or maternal breed roles.

  20. Effects of photoperiod on kisspeptin neuronal populations of the ewe diencephalon in connection with reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivoix, S; Bagnolini, A; Caraty, A; Cognié, J; Malpaux, B; Dufourny, L

    2010-02-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) is a key regulator of reproductive function in both prepubertal and adult mammals. Its expression appears to vary throughout the year in seasonal species. We aimed to determine the impact of a change of photoperiod on the size of Kiss neuronal populations found in the preoptic area (POA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the ewe brain. Using immunocytochemistry, we first examined the proportion of neurones expressing Kiss, using HuC/D as a neuronal marker, at different time-points after transition from long days (LD; 16 : 8 h light/dark cycle) to short days (SD; 8 : 16 h light/dark cycle). Luteinising hormone (LH) secretion was measured in ovariectomised oestradiol replaced ewes from the month preceding the transition to SD until the sacrifice of the animals at days 0, 45 and 112 from this photoperiodic transition. High LH levels were only observed in animals killed at day 112. The number of Kiss neurones/mm(2) doubled in the caudal ARC at day 112. The percentage of neurones showing Kiss immunoreactivity increased significantly in both the POA and ARC in the day 112 group. In a second experiment, ewes kept in LD received an i.c.v. injection of colchicine 20 h before sacrifice. Colchicine treatment increased the number and the percentage of neurones with Kiss in both the POA and caudal ARC. The data obtained suggest that the increase in Kiss neurones detected in the POA and caudal ARC after transition to SD stemmed from an increase in Kiss synthesis. This up-regulation of Kiss content under the shorter day condition appears to be a late event within the cascade activated by a longer secretion of melatonin, which is a critical factor in switching gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion to a breeding season profile.

  1. Effect of genotype, sex and litter size on growth and basic traits of carcass quality of light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kuchtík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the effect of genotype (Romanov breed: n = 26, and F1 crossbreds of Suffolk-Romanov: n = 29, sex (males: n = 37 and females: n = 18 and litter size (singles: n = 6, twins: n = 16, triples: n = 21 and quadruplets: n = 12 on growth and basic carcass quality traits of light lambs was carried out at an organic sheep farm in Kuklík over the years 2007 and 2008. Throughout the experiment the lambs were reared with their mothers, indoors. The weaning of lambs was carried out just before slaughter. The daily feeding ration of the lambs consisted of the mother’s milk (ad libitum and organic mineral lick (ad libitum, whereas the lambs had free access to the feedstuff of their mothers.The daily feeding ration of the ewes consisted of haylage (2.5 kg/ewe, meadow hay (ad libitum and organic mineral lick (ad libitum. The genotype (G and the sex (S had not a significant effect on growth of lambs in the period from birth till the slaughter. On the other hand the litter size (LS had a highly significant effect on this trait, whilst the highest daily gain in above-mentioned period was found in singles (157 g. Concerning the carcass traits the G had a significant effect only on carcass dressing percentage while the S had a significant effect only on proportion of kidney. Nevertheless the LS had a significant effect on carcass dressing percentage and the proportions of skin, kidney and kidney fat. In conclusion it can be completed that the fatness scores of all individual carcasses were relatively very low which is important for good realisation of the carcasses on the market.

  2. Study of Blood Metabolites Changes of Purebred Ghezel and Crossbred Arkhar Merinos × Ghezel Ewes during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ahmadzadeh

    2016-11-01

    analysis of metabolites. Measurement of blood metabolites, including total protein, calcium, glucose, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and albumin was done by spectrophotometer set. SAS software (2003 was used for statistical analysis. Mixed procedure of SAS software was used for statistical analysis and Tukey- Kramer test was applied for comparison of means. T-test was used for comparison of blood metabolites between ewes with single and twin lambs. Results and Discussion The results showed that the blood glucose, total protein, albumin and calcium on days 90, 120 and 140 of pregnancy were less than 15 days prior to mating but blood urea nitrogen and cholesterol levels were increased. These variations could originate from fetus metabolism since fetus requirements for tissue growth, muscles and bones increases during pregnancy, which should be supplied from maternal body reserves. The comparison of blood metabolites on the both crossbred and purebred pregnant ewes showed that in the late pregnancy, twin pregnant ewes had less glucose, total protein and calcium and more blood urea nitrogen and cholesterol compared with single pregnant ewes because there is a higher fetus requirement for twin fetuses during gestation. Our results also showed that glucose, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen ‏levels of crossbred ewes were higher than purebred Ghezel ewes on 15 days prior to mating period. This may be due to different genetic potential of these breeds. During the gestation period, levels of mentioned metabolites except for blood urea nitrogen‏ were higher in both single and twin crossbred pregnant ewes than purebred Ghezel ewes significantly. It is seemed that these differences may be related to variation in the genetic potential of studying animals. Conclusion The results of present study showed that there were no signs of pregnancy toxemia in the two experimental groups; however some differences among blood metabolites of purebred and hybrid ewes were found

  3. Lamb Wave Propagation in Laminated Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Damage detection using guided Lamb waves is an important tool in Structural health Monitoring. In this paper, we outline a method of obtaining Lamb wave modes in composite structures using two dimensional Spectral Finite Elements. Using this approach, Lamb wave dispersion curves are obtained for laminated composite structures with different fibre orientation. These propagating Lamb wave modes are pictorially captured using tone burst signal.

  4. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.217 Lamb purchases....

  5. 7 CFR 1280.112 - Lamb products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb products. 1280.112 Section 1280.112 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.112 Lamb products....

  6. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  7. Procholecystokinin as marker of human Ewing sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Koefoed, Pernille; Hansen, Thomas von O

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ewing sarcoma is a rapidly growing mesenchymal tumor in young adults. Although it was shown previously to express the cholecystokinin (CCK) gene, it is unknown whether CCK gene expression is detectable at protein level in Ewing sarcoma tumor cell lines, in tumor tissue, and in plasma fro...... in human cancer; Ewing sarcomas synthesize and secrete proCCK that can be identified in plasma as circulating tumor marker....... Ewing sarcoma patients, and, if so, whether CCK peptides might play a role as tumor markers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CCK gene expression was evaluated with in situ hybridization or reverse transcription-PCR in tumor tissue. CCK precursors and bioactive CCK were measured with specific RIAs in tumor tissue...

  8. ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Dally

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la tasa de ovulación, parición, tamaño de la camada y supervivencia embrionaria, 225 borregas de siete genotipos se examinaron mediante endoscopio 7-8 días después de su cruza. Como resultado se encontró que un mayor número de ovulaciones unilaterales sencillas y dobles procedieron del ovario derecho (P0.05. Por otra parte, no se encontró diferencia en la supervivencia embrionaria (P>0.01 al comparar entre ovulaciones sencillas, dobles y triples (69.8%, 76.0% y 63.0%, respectivamente ni entre las ovulaciones unilaterales y bilaterales. La línea cuatera Targhee seleccionada (TW produjo las camadas más numerosas (media = 2.0±1.4 mientras que el rebaño Targhee comercial produjo las menos numerosas. La línea ½ Targhee, ¼ Barbados, ¼ Dorset mostró la tasa de parición mayor (94%, seguida de la Polypay (87%, sin encontrarse diferencia (P>0.05 entre estas dos líneas. Se concluye que: el ovario derecho es más activo que el izquierdo en cuanto a la producción de óvulos, de entre los genotipos estudiados; las ovulaciones dobles fueron más frecuentes que las sencillas y triples, y la línea cuatera Targhee seleccionada produjo las camadas más numerosas en comparación con el hato comercial Targhee o sus cruzas.

  9. Osteosarcoma with apparent Ewing sarcoma gene rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias, Melissa; Chou, Alexander J; Meyers, Paul; Shukla, Neerav; Hameed, Meera; Agaram, Narasimhan; Wang, Lulu; Berger, Michael F.; Walsh, Michael; Kentsis, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated round cell sarcomas present diagnostic challenges due to their variable morphology and lack of specific immunophenotypic markers. We present a case of a 15-year-old female with a tibial tumor that exhibited features of Ewing-like sarcoma, including apparent rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene. Hybridization capture-based next-generation DNA sequencing showed evidence of complex genomic rearrangements, absence of known pathogenic Ewing-like chromosome translocations, and dele...

  10. The effects of parity, litter size, physiological state, and milking frequency on the metabolic profile of Lacaune dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Tesniere, A; Camous, S; Bocquier, F; Barillet, F; Hassoun, P

    2015-01-01

    Effects of parity (primiparous, PRIM vs multiparous, MULT) and litter size (singletons, SING vs twins, TWIN) on metabolic profiles from 1 wk before lambing to the end of lactation were studied in 48 Lacaune dairy ewes reared in confinement during most of the year and grazed on improved pastures at the end of lactation (summer). Another group of 48 ewes was incorporated during the milking period (ie, from 1 wk after weaning), to measure the effects of milking frequency (1 vs 2 milkings per day) on intake, milk production and composition, and body energy usage. Thus, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, ewes (n = 96) were allocated to homogeneous groups according to body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) and were monitored from late pregnancy to late lactation as a function of parity (PRIM, n = 48; MULT, n = 48), litter size (LSi) (SING, n = 40; TWIN, n = 56) and daily milking frequency (FREQ; milked once, ONE; n = 48; or twice, TWO; n = 48). Individual BW, BCS, plasma metabolites, and metabolic hormones were measured regularly (ie, 9 consecutive sampling dates). The BW was higher in MULT but no differences because of LSi or FREQ were detected at the intra-parity group level. The BCS was higher in MULT and in ewes with SING throughout the experiment. The latter was related to the demands for body reserves mobilization, as expressed by higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in ewes with TWIN from late pregnancy to weaning (35 d postpartum) in both PRIM and MULT ewes. This was consistent with higher insulin in MULT and higher triiodothyronine, leptin and insulin-like growth factor 1 in ewes with SING during this period. Differences in energy balance because of FREQ were evident after interpretation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and leptin concentration during the milking period. At similar feed intakes, ewes in ONE were in positive balance with regard to TWO. Overall, clear effects of parity, LSi

  11. Effect of GnRH and D-Chloprostenol application on pregnancy and prolificacy rates on Pelibuey ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Martínez T.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Was to evaluate the effect of GnRH and D-Chloprostenol application on pregnancy and prolificacy rates on Pelibuey ewes. Materials and methods. Forty five ewes were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: T1(n=15, day 0: sponges with 65 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA + 200 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and sponge removal (day 12 + breeding by natural mating (days 12-15; T2 (n=15, day 0: 50 μg gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH + 7.5 mg D-Chloprostenol (day 5 + 50 μg GnRH (day 7 + insemination at fixed time (AIFT 12 to 14 h after last injection of GnRH; T3 (n=15, 100 μg GnRH (day 0 + 7.5 mg D-Chloprostenol (day 5 + 100 μg GnRH (day 7 + AIFT 12 to 14 h after last injection of GnRH. Results. The average concentration of progesterone (P4 in blood was 1.22 ± 0.74 ng/mL, which was used to verify ovarian activity at the beginning of the treatments. 100% of the T1 ewes presented estrus, beginning at 38.4±9.56 h after sponge removal. There were differences (p0.05 among the treatments where the values were 1.2, 1.4 and 1.4 lambs/ewe for T1, T2 and T3, Conclusions. The results of this study show that the use of GnRH and D-Chloprostenol did improve pregnancy rates but did not improve prolificacy in tropical ewes.

  12. FEEDING GENISTEIN TO PREPUBERTAL GILTS STIMULATES THEIR MAMMARY DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible role of dietary genistein on mammary development of prepubertal gilts was investigated. Forty-five gilts were fed one of three diets from 90 d of age until slaughter (day 183 ± 1). Diets were: without soya (CTL0, n=15); soya-based commercial (CTLS, n=15); and soya-based commercial with ...

  13. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  14. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia: a report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaren, I.A.; Schott, D.A.; Otten, B.J.; Kroese-Deutman, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is defined as the presence of excessive breast tissue in males, which can appear unilateral or bilateral. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endoc

  15. Brief neonatal nutritional supplementation has sex-specific effects on glucose tolerance and insulin regulating genes in juvenile lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquiery, Anne L; Park, Sharon S; Phua, Hui Hui; Berry, Mary J; Meijler, Daphne; Harding, Jane E; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2016-12-01

    The nutritional plane and composition during fetal life can impact upon growth and epigenetic regulation of genes affecting pancreatic β-cell development and function. However, it is not clear whether β-cell development can be altered by nutritional factors or growth rate after birth. We therefore investigated the effect of neonatal nutritional supplements on growth, glucose tolerance, and pancreatic development in lambs. Newborn lambs were randomized to daily nutritional supplements, calculated to increase macronutrient intake to a similar degree as human breast milk fortifier, or an equivalent volume of water, for 2 wk while continuing to suckle ewe milk. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed at 4 mo of age, and pancreata collected for molecular analysis. Supplemented lambs had slower weight gain than controls. In supplemented lambs, insulin response to IVGTT was increased in males but decreased in females, compared to same sex controls, and was unrelated to growth rate. mRNA expression of key genes in β-cell development showed sexually dimorphic effects. Epigenetic change occurred in the promotor region of PDX1 gene with decreased suppression and increased activation marks in supplemented lambs of both sexes. Nutritional interventions in early life have long-term, sex-specific effects on pancreatic function.

  16. Avaliação dos fatores ambientais no desenvolvimento corporal de cordeiros deslanados da raça Morada Nova Environmental effects on growth rate of Morada Nova hair lambs in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Amaury Oriá Fernandes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados registros de um rebanho de ovinos da raça Morada Nova, coletados num período de 11 anos (1981 a 1991, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de ambiente sobre as características de crescimento dos cordeiros. Os efeitos de ano de nascimento (A, sexo do cordeiro (S, tipo de nascimento (T e peso da ovelha ao parto (P foram importantes fontes de variação para explicar as diferenças nos pesos corporais ao nascimento (PN, ao desmame (PD, aos seis meses (PM6 e aos 12 meses de idade (PM12. Os cordeiros machos foram mais pesados que as fêmeas em todas as idades estudadas. Cordeiros nascidos e criados como simples (SS pesaram mais que os nascidos duplos e criados como simples (GS e os nascidos e criados como duplos (GG. A idade da ovelha (I teve efeito significativo sobre PN, PD e PM6. Concluiu-se que práticas de manejo alimentar devem ser utilizadas para reduzir os efeitos dos fatores ambientais, como ano de nascimento, tipo de nascimento e peso da matriz ao parto, no desenvolvimento corporal dos cordeiros. Fatores de ajuste para sexo do cordeiro, tipo de nascimento e idade da ovelha devem ser estimados e considerados em programas de seleção, a fim de avaliar melhor o crescimento dos cordeiros da raça Morada Nova.Records from an unselected flock of Morada Nova sheep collected over an 11-year period (1981 to 1991 were used to evaluate environmental sources of variation affecting growth traits. The effects of year of birth to yearling (A, sex of lamb (S, type of birth (T, and weigth of ewe at lambing (P were important sources of variation to explain differences in weigth at birth (PN, weaning (PD, six- months (PM6 and 12 months (PM12 of age. Males were heavier than female lambs at all ages. Single lambs born and raised as singles (SS weighed more at all ages than twins raised as singles (GS or twins raised as twins (GG. Age of ewe at lambing (I had a significant effect on PN, PD, and PM6. Results suggest that nutritional

  17. Reproductive performance of Karakul ewes following different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFDARIAN

    injection of 500 IU eCG on the day of the second prostaglandin F2α administration; ... making it possible to produce three lamb crops every two years. ... variation of forage availability, photoperiod, labour resources and market demands.

  18. Short-term maternal psychological stress in the post-conception period in ewes affects fetal growth and gestation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer; Ferguson, Drewe; Jauregui, Guillermo; Panarace, Martín; Medina, Mariano; Lehnert, Sigrid; Hill, Jonathan R

    2008-08-01

    Fetal development can be influenced by maternal environment in the peri-conceptional period. This study investigated the effect of maternal feed intake and psychological stress within the first 6 days after conception on embryo development and fetal growth. Superovulated ewes (n=40) were artificially inseminated with semen from one ram. Ewes were then divided into four groups (n=10): group 1 (control) was fed at maintenance level, group 2 (high) at 2x maintenance, and group 3 (low) at 0.5x maintenance on days 2-6 after conception. Group 4 (stress) was fed at maintenance level and then an intense physical and psychological stress challenge was applied for 1 h only on days 2 and 3 after conception. Embryos were recovered at day 6. A total of 113 transferable grade embryos were transferred singly into synchronized untreated recipients, while the remaining embryos (n=165) were fixed and stained for cell counts. Post-conception maternal stress or feed intake did not alter the cell count or grade of day 6 embryos. Fetuses from the stress group had longer crown-rump lengths at day 30 and longer femur length at day 58. Fetuses from the stressed and high feed groups had greater abdominal circumferences at day 85. Subsequent birth weights were not significantly different. Ewes carrying lambs from the stress treatment had shorter gestation lengths. These results show that short-term perturbations of the post-conception maternal environment have measurable effects on fetal development and gestation length.

  19. Biomarkers of Osteosarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, and Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evola, Francesco R.; Costarella, Luciano; Pavone, Vito; Caff, Giuseppe; Cannavò, Luca; Sessa, Andrea; Avondo, Sergio; Sessa, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant bone neoplasm, followed by chondrosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The diagnosis of bone neoplasms is generally made through histological evaluation of a biopsy. Clinical and radiological features are also important in aiding diagnosis and to complete the staging of bone cancer. In addition to these, there are several non-specific serological or specific molecular markers for bone neoplasms. In bone tumors, molecular markers increase the accuracy of the diagnosis and assist in subtyping bone tumors. Here, we review these markers and discuss their role in the diagnosis and prognosis of the three most frequent malignant bone neoplasms, namely osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma. PMID:28439237

  20. The effect of overnourishing singleton-bearing adult ewes on nutrient partitioning to the gravid uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P

    2005-10-01

    Overnourishing the singleton-bearing adolescent sheep throughout pregnancy promotes maternal tissue synthesis at the expense of the nutrient requirements of the gravid uterus. Consequently, the growth of the placenta is impaired and results in the premature delivery of low-birth-weight lambs relative to moderately fed adolescents of equivalent age. To establish if this phenomenon is unique to the growing animal, singleton pregnancies to a single sire were established by embryo transfer into primiparous adult ewes who had attained the normal mature body size for their genotype. Thereafter ewes were offered a maintenance or a high level of a complete diet throughout gestation. High maternal intakes resulted in elevated maternal insulin, no significant change in growth hormone or glucose, and attenuated progesterone and NEFA concentrations. Live weight gain during the first 93 d of gestation was 48 and 244 g/d, and adiposity score at term was 2.4 and 3.7 in the maintenance and high groups, respectively (Pcolostrum yield at parturition lower (Psheep appear to be relatively insensitive to the oversupply of nutrients during pregnancy and have the ability to meet the nutrient requirements for normal conceptus growth in spite of their increased adiposity.

  1. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes in two seasons in Semnan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narenji Sani, Reza; Mahdavi, Ali; Moezifar, Melika

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one dairy ewe flocks selected by stratified random sampling were subjected to study the prevalence and etiology of subclinical intramammary infections and to assess the influence of parity on the prevalence of intramammary infections. Also, spontaneous cure rates were determined over study period. A total of 1192 milk samples were collected at 2 weeks after lambing until tenth-week postpartum. All flocks had hand milking; those which were classified by bacterial culture and California Mastitis Test (CMT) as positive were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM). Of 1192 halves examined, 791 samples were collected during spring and 401 samples were collected during summer. Prevalence rate of SCM in spring was 14.7 %; and spontaneous cure that occurred in this season was 88.8 %; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most common isolates (66.6 %). Samples collected in spring showed higher prevalence rate of SCM than summer samples. This rate was 8.9 % in summer. Spontaneous cure rate in this season was 69.4 %, and Staphylococcus aureus (72.2 %) was the most common isolates. SCM was seen at significantly lower rates in left half than in right one (p mastitis (defined as number of clinical cases per 100 ewe-months) was 0.21 and 0.74 in spring and summer, respectively. The isolates from clinical cases in spring were fungi and, from summer, were S. aureus. Also, S. aureus SCM cases were not significantly severe than other SCM cases. In conclusion, multiparous ewes were most at risk, and severity of infection was higher in summer.

  2. Nitrogen balance of lactating West African dwarf ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ekeocha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen days prior to weaning, sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewes (Initial BW 19.13±1.53kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The mexican sunflower leaf (MSL replaced wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. The 16 ewes were previously lambed 10 weeks before the commencement of this study and tagged to their respective treatments. Parameters measured were nitrogen intake, nitrogen balance, nitrogen apparent digestibility and nitrogen retention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. Animals on treatment B had the highest N-intake (18.1g/d, N faecal (1.7 g/d, N absorbed (16.4 g/d and N balance (16.3 g/d and this was significant (P. Urinary nitrogen g/d was significantly higher (P with increasing inclusion of MSLM in the ration while protein retention increased from treatment A (0% MSLM to treatment B (15% MSLM (89.8 – 90.3% and subsequently decreased from treatment B (15%MSLM to D (45% MSLM (90.3 - 84.4%. Nitrogen balance was positively related to DM intake and N intake. The overall regression were nitrogen balance (NB =2.50+0.067 DMI; R2 = 0.9372, (P=0.3937 and NB= 0.75+0.9066 NI; R2 = 0.9957, (P=0.1401. Inclusion of up to 30% MSLM in the diets of lactating ewe appeared most beneficial to sheep as it had no negative effects on nitrogen intake.

  3. Relação entre o escore de comportamento materno e as características fisiológicas de ovelhas Relation between maternal behavior score with physiological characteristics of ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Farias Aita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar a relação do escore de comportamento materno de ovelhas com os parâmetros fisiológicos relacionados ao seu temperamento. Durante a parição, foram avaliadas 258 ovelhas Corriedale e 50 ovelhas Ideal criadas em campo natural em três fazendas na região sudoeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram analisados os efeitos propriedade, idade, tipo de parto, escore de comportamento materno e escore de condição corporal antes do parto e ao desmame em relação às frequências cardíaca e respiratória e temperatura corporal dos animais ao desmame. Nas primeiras 24 horas de vida do cordeiro, o escore de comportamento materno foi atribuído à distância de fuga da ovelha em relação ao seu cordeiro: 1 >10 m e não retorna ao cordeiro; 2 >10 m do cordeiro e retorna; 3 5 a 10 m; 4 entre 1 e 3. Ovelhas criadas em Bagé apresentaram os maiores valores de frequência cardíaca e respiratória. Ovelhas com escore de condição corporal antes do parto The objective of this study to assess the relationship between ewe maternal behavior score and physiological parameters related to their temperament. During lambing, 258 Corriedale and 50 Polwarth ewes were evaluated. They were raised on native pasture in the southwest region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The effects of farm, age, type of lambing, maternal behavior scores and body condition score before lambing and during the weaning were evaluated in relation to heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature of animals at weaning. In the first 24 hours after lambing, the maternal behavior score was assigned to the ewe as the distance from its lamb: 1 >10 meters and does not return to the lamb; 2 >10 meters from the lamb, but returns; 3 five to 10 meters; 4 between one and five meters; 5 less than one meter; 6 maintains physical contact. Ewes with maternal behavior score of 3. Sheep raised on the farm in Bagé municipality had higher heart and

  4. Evidence in sheep for pre-natal transmission of scrapie to lambs from infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James D; Goldmann, Wilfred; Hunter, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Natural scrapie transmission from infected ewes to their lambs is thought to occur by the oral route around the time of birth. However the hypothesis that scrapie transmission can also occur before birth (in utero) is not currently favoured by most researchers. As scrapie is an opportunistic infection with multiple infection routes likely to be functional in sheep, definitive evidence for or against transmission from ewe to her developing fetus has been difficult to achieve. In addition the very early literature on maternal transmission of scrapie in sheep was compromised by lack of knowledge of the role of the PRNP (prion protein) gene in control of susceptibility to scrapie. In this study we experimentally infected pregnant ewes of known PRNP genotype with a distinctive scrapie strain (SSBP/1) and looked for evidence of transmission of SSBP/1 to the offspring. The sheep were from the NPU Cheviot flock, which has endemic natural scrapie from which SSBP/1 can be differentiated on the basis of histology, genetics of disease incidence and strain typing bioassay in mice. We used embryo transfer techniques to allow sheep fetuses of scrapie-susceptible PRNP genotypes to develop in a range of scrapie-resistant and susceptible recipient mothers and challenged the recipients with SSBP/1. Scrapie clinical disease, caused by both natural scrapie and SSBP/1, occurred in the progeny but evidence (including mouse strain typing) of SSBP/1 infection was found only in lambs born to fully susceptible recipient mothers. Progeny were not protected from transmission of natural scrapie or SSBP/1 by washing of embryos to International Embryo Transfer Society standards or by caesarean derivation and complete separation from their birth mothers. Our results strongly suggest that pre-natal (in utero) transmission of scrapie may have occurred in these sheep.

  5. Familial episodic ataxia in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, I G; Jolly, R D; Burnham, D; Ridler, A I; Poff, G J; Blair, H T

    2013-03-01

    A similar episodic neurological disorder occurred in new born lambs on two unrelated properties involving disparate breeds of sheep. Because of the number of lambs born, cross-breeding and the fact it occurred in some mating groups and not others, a dominant mode of inheritance was, initially and separately, suspected in each case. The sires of affected lambs were apparently normal. Whereas one was New Zealand Romney, the other was a composite breed with East Friesian genetics, but both rams originated from the same source property. To investigate the pathogenesis of the disorder these two rams were acquired and mated with unrelated sheep, under experimental conditions in a more controlled environment. A proportion of lambs born to both sires exhibited a similar neurological disorder. Some lambs were noted to be abnormal at birth, both on home properties and in the experimental flock. They tended to adopt a head and neck extended posture and were slow to get to their feet and suckle when they then became more or less normal. When forced to move, they and other more robust lambs elicited an asymmetric gait, base-wide extensor hypertonia (hypometria) of thoracic limbs and flexor hypertonia (hypermetria) of pelvic limbs. In some there was nystagmus. After several metres of asymmetric ataxic gait they would fall to one side, sometimes adopting a sitting position. Recovery usually occurred in one to several minutes. As lambs aged, it became more difficult to elicit the episodes of dysfunction and by 6 months of age they appeared normal. The disorder was diagnosed as a dominant familial episodic cerebellovestibular ataxia inherited as a dominant trait, with incomplete penetration of observed clinical signs and variable expressivity. A proportion of affected lambs are likely to die in the neonatal period so the specific nature of the disorder may go unrecognised. Because of incomplete penetrance and varying expressivity, many of the lambs carrying this mutation will

  6. 7 CFR 1280.111 - Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb. 1280.111 Section 1280.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research,...

  7. Review of therapeutic strategies for osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing?s sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Xing; MA, Wei; He, Xijing; Jha, Rajiv Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Summary The most prevalent forms of bone cancer are osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing?s sarcoma. Although chemotherapy and radiotherapy have replaced traditional surgical treatments, survival rates have undergone only marginal improvements. Current knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in each type of cancer has led to better approaches in cancer treatment. A number of cell signaling molecules are involved in tumorigenesis, and specific targets have been identified based on these...

  8. Prediction of rectal temperature using non-invasive physiologic variable measurements in hair pregnant ewes subjected to natural conditions of heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Pérez, Ricardo; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Mejía-Vázquez, Ángel; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F Daniel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Mellado, Miguel; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Guerra-Liera, Juan E; Robinson, P H; Macías-Cruz, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Rectal temperature (RT) is the foremost physiological variable indicating if an animal is suffering hyperthermia. However, this variable is traditionally measured by invasive methods, which may compromise animal welfare. Models to predict RT have been developed for growing pigs and lactating dairy cows, but not for pregnant heat-stressed ewes. Our aim was to develop a prediction equation for RT using non-invasive physiological variables in pregnant ewes under heat stress. A total of 192 records of respiratory frequency (RF) and hair coat temperature in various body regions (i.e., head, rump, flank, shoulder, and belly) obtained from 24 Katahdin × Pelibuey pregnant multiparous ewes were collected during the last third of gestation (i.e., d 100 to lambing) with a 15 d sampling interval. Hair coat temperatures were taken using infrared thermal imaging technology. Initially, a Pearson correlation analysis examined the relationship among variables, and then multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop the prediction equations. All predictor variables were positively correlated (Pheat-stressed pregnant ewes can be predicted with an adequate accuracy using non-invasive physiologic variables, and the final equation was: RT=35.57+0.004 (RF)+0.067 (heat temperature)+0.028 (belly temperature).

  9. Follicular atresia in the prepubertal spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to determine follicular atresia in the newborn and the prepubertal spiny mouse. We analyzed the processes of follicle loss using classical markers of apoptosis (TUNEL reaction, active caspase-3) and autophagy (Lamp1). Numerous small clear vacuoles and autophagosomes as well as strong Lamp1 staining were observed in dying oocytes of all follicle types, especially of the primordial and primary ones. Active caspase 3 and the TUNEL reaction were detected only in the granulosa cells of large secondary and antral follicles. The expression of apoptosis and autophagy markers was also changing during the prepubertal period. Western blot analysis indicated that at the moment of birth, females undergo an increased rate of follicular atresia mediated by autophagy, while apoptosis is the dominant form of ovarian atresia in consecutive postnatal days. On the basis of these observations, we concluded that apoptosis and autophagy are involved in follicular atresia and these processes are cell and developmental stage-specific.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC EFFECTS ON PRODUCTION TRAITS OF EWES ORIGINALLY FROM DISTINCT ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Manzoni de Oliveira

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and reproductive performance components of similar genotypes, brought from distinct production areas, were evaluated during five years trial at similar environments, such as, joining season and stocking rate on winter improved pasture. The least squares means revealed that the origin (breed effect concentrated upon the Corriedale ewes wool production, whereas in Romney females it affected the reproductive performance. In the abscence of interaction between origin (breed and year for most variables, it was assumed that the farm management procedures and/or selection criteria applied on hoggets were determinant of the subsequent lifetime production within each genotype examined. Expecting a better reproductive performance in Romneys, mainly rate of lambs born, weaned and lambs weaning weight, comments were made on the selection criteria employed on this breed over many years. The work has demonstrated that "property of origin (breed" of sheep composing any experiment aiming at breed comparisons, should be considered as a potential factor capable of biasing information on productive aspects.

  11. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid Khemakhem; Yosra Ben Ahmed; Said Jlidi; Faouzi Nouira; Faten Fdhila; Awatef Charieg; Sofiene Ghorbel; Sihem Barsaoui; Béji Chaouachi

    2013-01-01

    Background: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Materials and Methods: Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Results: Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75%) the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases), epidermoid cyst (one case) and...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Prepubertal Girls: Update and Current Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Resetkova, Nina; Hayashi, Masanori; Lisa A. Kolp; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing rates of diagnosis of childhood cancers and the evolution of more effective treatment options resulting in prolonged life spans, fertility preservation counseling is an integral component of the discussion at the time of diagnosis of childhood cancers. The primary fertility preservation option that exists for prepubertal girls is ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Although ovarian tissue cryopreservation is still considered to be experimental in nature, live births have resulted...

  13. The neuroendocrine events during the ovine growth-promoted maturation: the developmental importance of hypophysiotrophic action of somatostatin in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wańkowska, Marta; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Polkowska, Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    The comparison of hypothalamic somatostatin (SRIH)-neuronal systems, hypophyseal somatotroph populations and growth hormone (GH) blood plasma patterns among developmental stages, from infancy until puberty, may help to describe the nature of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal mechanisms underlying the changes in GH on the systemic level leading to the somatic, that is growth and sexual maturity in sheep. The aim of this study was to elucidate (i) developmental importance of hypophysiotrophic action of SRIH, (ii) precise time of maturation of this action and (iii) photoperiodic regulation of the postnatal ontogeny in ewes. The central and peripheral activity of the SRIH-GH axis is described through a sequence of histomorphological and functional changes in Merino ewes born after the summer solstice. The actual time of puberty of these animals was delayed until the following breeding season, when the sheep were 14-month old. Histomorphometric examinations have been made in 21 infantile (preweanling, 12-week old), prepubertal (15- and 22-week old), peripubertal (30- and 52-week old) and pubertal (63-week old) ovary-intact sheep. Functional examinations of the GH plasma levels were determined every 1-2 weeks during the period from the 12th to 63rd week of age. The highest GH level was observed at the 13th week of age, on the beginning of the breeding season. The fluctuations in the GH level just after the winter and summer solstice were detected as the one and only deviation from a rule of uniformly low GH concentrations observed until puberty. The age of the fall in serum GH levels corresponded with the postweaning period and the beginning of the phase of the lower daily live-weight gains (growth rate). Thus, the development of GH secretion was finished before the 15th week of age, that is together with the ending of the transitional infantile/prepubertal period, whereas the maturational processing within the hypothalamo-hypophyseal unit prolonged after the 15th week of age

  14. Extraosseus Ewing sarcoma: An uncommon periclavicular location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Albarello, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapidly enlarging right sternoclavicular mass in a young male was labeled as a nonspecific mass. MRI played a crucial role in characterizing the lesion, helping to define the possible mesenchymal origin and the relative involvement of the surrounding structures. We also discuss the differential diagnosis of an extraosseus Ewing sarcoma (ES, with its imaging findings.

  15. The effect of maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation on muscle, bone and meat parameters in five month old lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Therkildsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    ) combined with minimal fat thickness above LD (Meat, M). The male offspring (n=23) from these ewes were studied with regard to production, fibre type, bone parameters and meat quality traits. Maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation caused a reduced birth weight of the offspring, a low growth...... rate from birth to weaning, yet compensatory growth after weaning. No relation was found between maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and meat quality in terms of proteolytic potential, myofibrillar fragmentation index or shear force measured in meat from 5 month old lambs. The data do...... not support the hypothesis of a long-term programming effect of maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation on meat ternderness. However, a long-term effect of maternal nutrient restirction was found for bone trowth. Femur weight was significantly reduced in L-lambs and cortical bone density and mean...

  16. Learning strategy is influenced by trait anxiety and early rearing conditions in prepubertal male, but not prepubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Bromley-Dulfano, Sarah S; Marino, Sarah E; Stathopoulos, Nicholas G; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-09-01

    Rodents solve dual-solution tasks that require navigation to a goal by adopting either a hippocampus-dependent place strategy or a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy. A variety of factors, including biological sex and emotional status, influence the choice of learning strategy. In these experiments, we investigated the relationship between learning strategy and anxiety level in male and female rats prior to the onset of puberty, before the activational effects of gonadal hormones influence these processes. In the first experiment, prepubertal male rats categorized as high in trait anxiety at 26days of age exhibited a bias toward stimulus-response strategy at 28days of age, whereas age-matched females exhibited no preference in strategy regardless of anxiety level. In the second experiment, male and female rats were separated from their dams for either 15 or 180min per day during the first 2weeks of life and tested on a battery of anxiety and cognitive tasks between 25 and 29days of age. Prolonged maternal separations for 180min were associated with impaired spatial memory on a Y-maze task in both prepubertal males and females. Furthermore, prolonged maternal separations were linked to elevated anxiety and a bias for stimulus-response strategy in prepubertal males but not females. Alternatively, brief separations from dams for 15min were associated with intact spatial memory, lower levels of anxiety, and no preference for either learning strategy in both sexes. These results provide evidence of sex-specific effects of trait anxiety and early maternal separation on the choice of learning strategy used by prepubertal rodents.

  17. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  18. Gentling and welfare of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muscio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional sheep production systems, lambs are suckled by their mothers and then gradually weaned at 35 days of age. However, the increased size of intensive dairy sheep flocks to obtain greater amounts of ovine milk for cheese making, is promoting the diffusion of artificial rearing programs involving early separation of lambs from their mothers. Maternal deprivation soon after birth can have detrimental effects on lamb immune functions, and lead to altered cortisol secretion and behavioural responses to isolation (Napolitano et al., 1995. Human-animal interactions have been documented to play a role in sustaining the welfare and production of domestic animals (Hemsworth, 2003. In addition, gentled animals are less difficult to be handled and less susceptible to the stress induced by management practices involving human contacts (Lensink et al., 2000. The aim of the present trial was to investigate the effects of gently handling newborn lambs on their behavioural, immune and endocrine responses, and on their growth rate when mothered or artificially reared.

  19. Cabozantinib-s-malate in Treating Patients With Relapsed Osteosarcoma or Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-04

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Stage III Osteosarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Osteosarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Osteosarcoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Osteosarcoma AJCC v7; Unresectable Ewing Sarcoma; Unresectable Osteosarcoma

  20. Effect of lactation on single-dose pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soback, S; Gips, M; Bialer, M; Bor, A

    1994-01-01

    In a three-way crossover trial, six healthy Finnish-Merino-Awassi ewes were given a single intravenous injection of norfloxacin nicotinate (in a dose equivalent to 25 mg of norfloxacin base per kg of body weight) during nursing, 1 day after weaning, and 1 month after weaning. Blood and milk samples were collected at different time intervals following dosing, and norfloxacin concentrations were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The serum drug concentration versus time data were analyzed by a noncompartmental approach which was based on the statistical-moment theory. The total body clearance values were 4.2 +/- 1.3 (injection during nursing), 1.6 +/- 0.3 (injection 1 day after weaning), and 3.1 +/- 0.8 ml/min/kg (injection 1 month after weaning). The mean residence times were 335 +/- 83, 797 +/- 129, and 481 +/- 102 min and terminal half-lives were 266 +/- 51, 603 +/- 94, and 372 +/- 68 min for the respective treatments. The estimated volumes of distribution at steady state were 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1, and 1.4 +/- 0.2 liter/kg for the respective treatments. Milk norfloxacin concentrations were up to 40 times higher than the corresponding concentrations in serum during lactation. Accordingly, in ewes with 1.5 liter of milk in the udder more than half of the drug in the animal appeared to be in the milk. Therapeutic concentrations of norfloxacin could be detected in the sera of suckling lambs, implicating that fluoroquinolone therapy should be discouraged during breast feeding. In lactating ewes and in ewes with full udders, moment analysis calculations did not show a significant difference between the system moment mean residence time and the system matrix mean residence time values. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin in the three groups could be described by the classical two-compartment open-body model with input and output occurring from the central compartment. The results did not support the existence of a distinguishable milk

  1. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  2. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run test

  3. The vitamin B12 and Se status of lambs during their transition from milk-fed monogastric to grazing herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S O; Grace, N D

    2017-05-01

    To estimate how the lamb's transition from a monogastric at birth to a grazing ruminant at weaning affects its dietary intake of trace nutrients from milk and pasture, and to determine whether its vitamin B12 and Se status changes during that period. We reviewed published reports of field trials in New Zealand where flocks were managed on mixed sward pastures without additional supplements. Information on intakes of milk and pasture was drawn from studies of suckling lambs grazing with ewes for up to 20 weeks. We calculated the quantities of vitamin B12, Co and Se ingested and absorbed by lambs between birth and weaning. Trace nutrient status was based on concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum and Se in blood. Six studies met our inclusion criteria regarding age of lambs, supplementation and sampling frequency. In each, blood had been collected at regular intervals from birth to weaning. Changes over time in concentrations of vitamin B12 and Se were analysed using regression procedures. Estimated Se intake increased from approximately 5 µg/day near birth to 25 µg/day near weaning, but Se absorbed was less variable, being approximately 10 µg/day. Estimated vitamin B12 intake near birth was approximately 8 µg/day and increased to 90 µg/day by weaning, with the amount being absorbed increasing from 0.8 to 9 µg/day. Concentrations of trace elements in unsupplemented lambs among the six studies varied from deficient to adequate. Linear regressions indicated that there was little change in concentrations of vitamin B12 and Se between birth and weaning in four studies (p>0.05), and mean concentrations measured at docking did not differ from those at weaning in four studies where this could be assessed (p>0.1). From newborn to weaned, a lamb's physiology develops from monogastric to ruminant. The change in diet from milk to pasture presents markedly different chemical forms and concentrations of some trace nutrients. Despite this, the vitamin B12 and Se

  4. Ewing Sarcoma of the Posterior Fossa in an Adolescent Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M. Stark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, and ependymoma represent the most common infratentorial tumors in childhood, while Ewing sarcomas in that localization are extremely rare. A large left infratentorial space-occupying lesion was diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl with signs of increased intracranial pressure. Following total tumor resection, histological and molecular examination revealed Ewing sarcoma with rearranged EWSR-1 gene. The patient achieved complete remission following adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy according to Euro-EWING 2008 treatment protocol. Intracranial Ewing sarcoma, although rare, should be an important differential diagnosis of intracranial tumors in childhood which requires aggressive multimodal treatment.

  5. Biomarkers of Osteosarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, and Ewing Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Evola, Francesco R.; Costarella, Luciano; Pavone, Vito; Caff, Giuseppe; Cannavò, Luca; Sessa, Andrea; Avondo, Sergio; Sessa, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant bone neoplasm, followed by chondrosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The diagnosis of bone neoplasms is generally made through histological evaluation of a biopsy. Clinical and radiological features are also important in aiding diagnosis and to complete the staging of bone cancer. In addition to these, there are several non-specific serological or specific molecular markers for bone neoplasms. In bone tumors, molecular markers increase the accuracy of the d...

  6. Produção de cordeiros da raça Suffolk em dois sistemas de manejo reprodutivos Suffolk lambs production in two mating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sanchez Roda

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 32 ovelhas Suffolk por dois anos, em dois sistemas de monta, com acasalamentos a cada oito meses (alternativo ou a cada doze meses (tradicional, visando a reduzir a estacionalidade da disponibilidade de animais para abate. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 na fertilidade e prolificidade dos animais, sendo no sistema alternativo, 66,7% e 110,4% e no tradicional 78,1%; 103,1% , obtendo-se 53 e 33 crias nascidas no período, respectivamente. Para a mortalidade das crias, observou-se, respectivamente, 28,3% e 6,1% (P0,05 e o peso da ovelha à parição foi de 68,06 e 71,05kg (P>0,05, para o sistema alternativo e tradicional, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o sistema de monta alternativo possibilita a obtenção de maior número de cordeiros, sem prejuízo no desempenho ponderal das ovelhas e dos cordeiros, bem como uma melhor distribuição na produção de cordeiros para abate durante o ano.Thirty-two Suffolk ewes were utilized for two years in two different mating systems: a traditional (mating at every twelve months and an alternative (at every eight months, aimed to reduce the seasonality of available animal to slaughter. The fertility and prolificity of ewes in the alternative system were 66.7 and 110.4% and in the traditional system 76.1 and 103.1%. It was obtained 53 and 33 lambs in the period. Lamb mortality were 28.3 and 6.1% (P0.05 and parturition ewe weight were 66.06 and 71.05kg (P>0.05 for alternative and traditional system, respectively. Alternative mating system made possible to obtain larger number of lambs, without deleteriou effect to ewes and lambs performances, as well as a better distribution in the number of lamb for slaughter during the year.

  7. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  8. [Urogenital bleeding revealing urethral prolapse in a prepubertal girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballouhey, Q; Abbo, O; Sanson, S; Cochet, T; Galinier, P; Pienkowski, C

    2013-06-01

    Urethral prolapse is a complete eversion of the distal urethral mucosa through the external meatus. It occurs primarily in prepubertal, primarly Black girls. Its pathophysiology has not been clearly identified. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who came to the Emergency Department with a 1-day history of genital pain and "vaginal bleeding". Early recognition makes differential diagnosis with sexual abuse and staging allows prompt management under general anesthesic like prolapse reduction or surgical excision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protects against lipopolysaccharide induced diaphragm weakness in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakeswary Karisnan

    Full Text Available Chorioamnionitis (inflammation of the fetal membranes is strongly associated with preterm birth and in utero exposure to inflammation significantly impairs contractile function in the preterm lamb diaphragm. The fetal inflammatory response to intra-amniotic (IA lipopolysaccharide (LPS is orchestrated via interleukin 1 (IL-1. We aimed to determine if LPS induced contractile dysfunction in the preterm diaphragm is mediated via the IL-1 pathway. Pregnant ewes received IA injections of recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra (Anakinra; 100 mg or saline (Sal 3 h prior to second IA injections of LPS (4 mg or Sal at 119d gestational age (GA. Preterm lambs were killed after delivery at 121d GA (term = 150 d. Muscle fibres dissected from the right hemi-diaphragm were mounted in an in vitro muscle test system for assessment of contractile function. The left hemi-diaphragm was snap frozen for molecular and biochemical analyses. Maximum specific force in lambs exposed to IA LPS (Sal/LPS group was 25% lower than in control lambs (Sal/Sal group; p=0.025. LPS-induced diaphragm weakness was associated with higher plasma IL-6 protein, diaphragm IL-1β mRNA and oxidised glutathione levels. Pre-treatment with rhIL-1ra (rhIL-1ra/LPS ameliorated the LPS-induced diaphragm weakness and blocked systemic and local inflammatory responses, but did not prevent the rise in oxidised glutathione. These findings indicate that LPS induced diaphragm dysfunction is mediated via IL-1 and occurs independently of oxidative stress. Therefore, the IL-1 pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in the management of impaired diaphragm function in preterm infants.

  10. At slaughtering and post mortem characteristics on Traditional market ewes and Halal market ewes in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargentini, Clara; Tocci, Roberto; Campostrini, Matteo; Pippi, Eleonora; Iaconisi, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was the comparison between the carcass and the meat ewes of the regional Traditional market and the Islamic religious (Halal) market. Thirty and 20 at the end of career traditional market and Halal market ewes were slaughtered following the EC (European Council, 2009) animal welfare guidelines. Live weight of ewes was taken and dressing percentage of carcasses was calculated. On every carcass zoometric measurement and the evaluation trough the EU grid rules were performed. On the Musculus longissimus thoracis of 12 Traditional market carcasses and 11 Halal market carcasses the physical-chemical and nutritional analysis were performed. Consumer tests for liking meat ewe were performed in order to find consumer's preference level for Traditional and Halal markets ewe meat. Considering as fixed factor the ewe meat market (Traditional and Halal), results were submitted to oneway Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The Halal market ewes have shown lower dressing percentages (42.91 ± 0.82 vs 46.42 ± 0.69) and lower conformation score (4.5 ± 0.5 vs 7.8 ± 0.4). The Halal market meat showed higher cooking loss in oven (37.83 ± 1.20 vs 32.03 ± 1.15 %), lesser Chroma value (18.63 ± 0.70 vs 21.84 ± 0.67), and lesser Hue angle value (0.26 ± 0.02 vs 0.34 ± 0.02). This product had also lower fat percentage (4.2 ± 0.4 vs 7.09 ± 0.4). The traditional market meat had higher percentage in monounsatured fatty acids (MUFA) (43.84 ± 1.05 vs 38.22 ± 1.10), while the Halal market meat had higher percentage in ω3 poliunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) (5.04 ± 0.42 vs 3.60 ± 0.40). The consumer test showed as the ewe meat was appreciate by the consumers. Both meat typologies have shown good nutritional characteristics. The traditional market meat had higher MUFA composition, and a better MUFA/satured fatty acids (SFA) ratio, while the Halal market meat had

  11. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Carlson, Carl E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We consider the two-photon exchange contribution to the 2P-2S Lamb shift in muonic deuterium in the framework of forward dispersion relations. The dispersion integrals are evaluated with minimal model dependence using experimental data on elastic deuteron form factors and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering, both in the quasielastic and hadronic range. The subtraction constant that is required to ensure convergence of the dispersion relation for the forward Compton amplitude T{sub 1} (ν,Q{sup 2}) is related to the deuteron magnetic polarizability β(Q{sup 2}) and represents the main source of uncertainty in our analysis. We obtain for the Lamb shift ΔE{sub 2P-2S} = 1.620±0.190 meV and discuss ways to further reduce this uncertainty.

  12. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, G

    1973-01-01

    The author has calculated the various contributions to 2s-2p splitting for muonic deuterium. An instantaneous potential is constructed between the muon and the nucleus. Except for the Coulomb potential, all the remaining terms are treated as a perturbation. The effects taken into account are fine structure, magnetic and electric hyperfine structure, muonic Lamb shift, vacuum polarisation, nuclear polarisation and nuclear size. (11 refs).

  13. Mammary fibroadenoma in a lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbahar, M. Yavuz; Guvenc, Tolga; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca B.; Sozgen, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    A fibroadenoma was diagnosed in the left udder of a 3-month-old female Chios lamb. No recurrence was observed after surgery. Grossly, the tumor had a whitish-gray lobular appearance, and the lobules were interlaced with thin septa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of proliferating fibroepithelial tissue, including differentiated ducts lined by whorls and interlacing bundles of abundant loose fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemistry revealed the ductal epithelium to be positive for pa...

  14. Effects of diet and Aspergillus oryzae extract or Saccharomyces cervisiae on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and steers fed to meet requirements of natural markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerby, H N; Bard, J L; Loerch, S C; Kuber, P S; Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L

    2011-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets.

  15. Prepubertal vaginal discharge: Vaginoscopy to rule out foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Saniye; Karnak, İbrahim; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Çiftçi, Arbay Özden

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of all prepubertal patients who underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated by pediatricians prior to surgical consultation. Vaginoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. During the study period, 20 girls with persistent vaginal discharge with a mean age of 6.8 years (1-13 years) underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body. Six patients had bloody vaginal discharge and 4 had recurrent vaginal bleeding lasting for more than one month. Ten patients had purulent vaginal discharge lasting for 1-7 months. None of vaginal cultures revealed pathological bacteria or candida species. Preoperative imaging techniques revealed vaginal foreign body in one patient only. Vaginoscopy demonstrated vaginal foreign bodies in four patients. Foreign bodies were grass inflorescence, safety pin and undefined brownish particles (n=2), which may be pieces of toilet paper or feces. There was no complication related to vaginoscopy and removal of foreign body. Hymen integrity was preserved in all patients. Persistent or recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls should raise the suspect of vaginal foreign body. Continuous flow vaginoscopy is mandatory to detect and remove any vaginal foreign body. Early diagnosis would prevent complications secondary to long-standing foreign bodies.

  16. Chemosensory anxiety signals prime defensive behavior in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Busch, Anne; Hoenen, Matthias; Schaal, Benoist; Pause, Bettina M

    2017-05-01

    Chemosensory anxiety signals effectively prime motor responses related to withdrawal behavior, such as the startle reflex, in adult humans. As the reproductive status strongly affects the response to social chemosignals, the current study examined whether chemosensory anxiety signals would augment the startle response in prepubertal children as it does in adults. Using cotton pads, axillary sweat was collected from 28 men while waiting for an important oral examination (anxiety condition), and during ergometer training (sport control condition). Using a constant-flow olfactometer, sweat samples and pure cotton samples (cotton control) were presented to 10 prepubertal girls aged 9-13years (M=11.25, SD=1.25) for 3000ms during inhalation. White noise bursts of 102dB(A) served as startle probes, and startle responses were recorded via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle. The girls showed larger startle amplitudes to probes presented in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals as compared to a context of sport control sweat (panxiety signals prime defensive motor behavior. This effect appears unrelated to the odorous quality of anxiety sweat, but seems to reflect a specific preparedness to respond to the underlying social alarm signal. Thus, chemosensory communication supporting individual harm protection is independent of the reproductive status in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Khemakhem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Materials and Methods: Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Results: Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75% the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases, epidermoid cyst (one case and immature teratoma (one case. Two patients (25% had a malignant tumour: yolk-sac tumour (two cases. All this children underwent surgery. Radical inguinal orchidectomy was performed in six cases and conservative surgery was performed in two cases. One patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was uneventfully three years after primary surgery. Conclusion: In prepubertal children, most testicular tumours are benign. If tumour markers were negative testis-preserving surgery can be proposed, complete excision of the tumour should be ascertained. In the case of testicular teratoma, the possibility of contralateral tumour should be considered in the follow-up.

  18. Is There a Predisposition Gene for Ewing's Sarcoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Randall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant tumor of children and young adults. The molecular mechanisms that underlie Ewing's Sarcoma development are beginning to be understood. For example, most cases of this disease harbor somatic chromosomal translocations that fuse the EWSR1 gene on chromosome 22 with members of the ETS family. While some cooperative genetic events have been identified, such as mutations in TP53 or deletions of the CDKN2A locus, these appear to be absent in the vast majority of cases. It is therefore uncertain whether EWS/ETS translocations are the only consistently present alteration in this tumor, or whether there are other recurrent abnormalities yet to be discovered. One method to discover such mutations is to identify familial cases of Ewing's sarcoma and to then map the susceptibility locus using traditional genetic mapping techniques. Although cases of sibling pairs with Ewing's sarcoma exist, familial cases of Ewing's sarcoma have not been reported. While Ewing's sarcoma has been reported as a 2nd malignancy after retinoblastoma, significant associations of Ewing's sarcoma with classic tumor susceptibility syndromes have not been identified. We will review the current evidence, or lack thereof, regarding the potential of a heritable condition predisposing to Ewing's sarcoma.

  19. Developmental potential of prepubertal mouse oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired synthesis of glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca(2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS levels increased, Ca(2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the γ-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca(2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.

  20. Exposure of lambs to atmospheric ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Lewis, J.M.; Hinds, F.C.; Simon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of chronic exposure to atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm on weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion by lambs. Lambs were weighed and then randomly allotted to four dynamic air-pollutant exposure chambers. Initial weights (mean +/- SE) of lambs were 22.1 +/- .46 kg and 27.5 +/- 1.54 kg for trials 1 and 2, respectively (n=12 in both trials). Lambs in two chambers (controls) were maintained in an atmosphere of filtered room air. Lambs in the other two chambers (NH/sub 3/ -exposed) were exposed to an atmosphere of filtered air plus atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm. Exposure period was 28 days in both trials. Feed and water were available at all times. Lamb weight gain and feed disappearance were determined weekly. Upon termination of each trial, one lamb was randomly selected from each chamber, sacrificed, and gross and histopathologic structural changes noted. Weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion data for the two trials were combined for statistical analysis. Control lambs gained on the average .09 kg/day (.28 vs .19) more (P<.01) and consumed on the average .68 kg of feed (4.53 vs 5.21) less per kilogram of weight gain (P<.10) than did NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs. Ammonia-exposed lambs in both trials showed profuse lacrimation, severe coughing and sneezing, and profuse nasal discharge, which was bloody in some instances. Gross and histopathologic findings appeared to be qualitatively similar between treatments, but more pronounced in NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs.

  1. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  2. Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) in postpartum cows, ewes, goats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugejorden, G; Waage, S; Dahl, E; Karlberg, K; Beckers, J F; Ropstad, E

    2006-11-01

    Determination of plasma concentrations of pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) has been used for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows. However, this is complicated by the presence of PAG in plasma for an extended period postpartum. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the postpartum elimination rates of pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) in sheep, goats and cows in order to gain background information applicable to the use of PAG for pregnancy diagnosis in domestic ruminants. A second objective was to investigate whether PAG are transferred to the foetus and newborn, by measuring plasma PAG concentrations in calves, lambs and goat kids before and after colostrum feeding. PAG in the blood at parturition were eliminated by a first order process in the cows and ewes, while a two-step log-linear decline occurred in the goats. Estimated postpartum half-life of plasma PAG in the cows and ewes was 9 and 4.5 days, respectively. In the goats, half-lives were 3.6 and 7.5 days in the initial fast and terminal slow phase. Basal levels were reached 80-90 days postpartum in cows. Plasma PAG concentration can be used for pregnancy diagnosis from day 28 after AI, provided that the time interval from calving to AI is >60 days. Using a heterologous antibody RIA, we found 4 ng/mL to be the appropriate cut-off. Due to the presence of PAG residues from the previous gestation, the interval from AI to pregnancy diagnosis should increase by approximately 0.5 days beyond 28 days for each day of AI closer to calving than 60. Measurements in newborn ruminants suggested that PAG enter the foetal blood in utero and that colostral PAG are transferred to the newborn. Following the peak plasma concentration observed 1 day after birth in most of the animals, PAG were rapidly eliminated in a log-linear fashion.

  3. Genetic correlations between ewe reproduction and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Greeff, J C; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Taylor, P J; van der Werf, J H J

    2008-12-01

    Genetic correlations between reproduction traits in ewes and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino rams were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The carcass data were from 5870 Merino rams slaughtered at approximately 18 months of age that were the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks over 7 years. The carcass traits included ultrasound scan fat and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) measured on live animals, dressing percentage and carcass tissue depth (at the GR site FATGR and C site FATC), eye muscle depth, width and area and the meat quality indicator traits of muscle final pH and colour (L*, a*, b*). The reproduction data consisted of 13 464 ewe joining records for number of lambs born and weaned and 9015 records for LS. The genetic correlations between reproduction and fat measurements were negative (range -0.06 +/- 0.12 to -0.37 +/- 0.12), with smaller correlations for live measurement than carcass traits. There were small favourable genetic correlations between reproduction traits and muscle depth in live rams (EMDUS, 0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.20 +/- 0.12), although those with carcass muscle traits were close to zero. The reproduction traits were independent of meat colour L* (relative brightness), but tended to be favourably correlated with meat colour a* (relative redness, 0.12 +/- 0.17 to 0.19 +/- 0.16). There was a tendency for meat final pH to have small negative favourable genetic correlations with reproduction traits (0.05 +/- 0.11 to -0.17 +/- 0.12). This study indicates that there is no antagonism between reproduction traits and carcass and meat quality indicator traits, with scope for joint improvement of reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.

  4. [EPIDIDYMO-ORCHITIS IN PREPUBERTAL CHILDREN--PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, SUGGESTED DIAGNOSIS ALGORITHM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halachmi, Sarel

    2015-12-01

    Gonadal inflammation (GI) is a common disease that may affect prepubertal boys. Neonates may suffer from bacterial infection due to congenital or aging processes affecting the urinary tract. This inflammatory process is also prevalent in prepubertal boys. However, in this group, the etiology, the needed imaging modalities and proper management have not yet been clearly defined. This manuscript will systematically review the various etiologies causing GI in pre-pubertal boys, discuss the proper imaging needed, and image interpretation and will provide treatment and follow-up recommendations.

  5. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingue, Armando Abel; Torres Filho, Robledo de Almeida; Fontes, Paulo Rogerio; Ramos, Alcinéia de Souza; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Olalquiaga Perez, Juan Ramon; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0, 30% and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, TBA reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (P < 0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (P < 0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C* and lower h°) and darker (lower L*) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (P < 0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  6. Protective ventilation of preterm lambs exposed to acute chorioamnionitis does not reduce ventilation-induced lung or brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Barton

    Full Text Available The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT in the delivery room. Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. Chorioamnionitis is a common antecedent of preterm birth, and increases the risk and severity of WM injury. We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response.Pregnant ewes (n = 18 received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS 2 days before delivery, instrumentation and ventilation at 127±1 days gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanased and used as unventilated controls (LPSUVC; n = 6, or were ventilated using an injurious high VT strategy (LPSINJ; n = 5 or a protective ventilation strategy (LPSPROT; n = 7 for a total of 90 min. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation were measured continuously. Lungs and brains underwent molecular and histological assessment of inflammation and injury.LPSINJ lambs had poorer oxygenation than LPSPROT lambs. Ventilation requirements and cardiopulmonary and systemic haemodynamics were not different between ventilation strategies. Compared to unventilated lambs, LPSINJ and LPSPROT lambs had increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression within the lungs and brain, and increased astrogliosis (p<0.02 and cell death (p<0.05 in the WM, which were equivalent in magnitude between groups.Ventilation after acute chorioamnionitis, irrespective of strategy used, increases haemodynamic instability and lung and cerebral inflammation and injury. Mechanical ventilation is a potential contributor to WM injury in infants exposed

  7. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Non-Metastatic Extracranial Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Kidney; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  8. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  9. Plane of nutrition during the rearing phase for replacement ewes of four genotypes: I - effects on growth and development, and on ovulation rate at first joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P

    2017-08-24

    Plane of nutrition (PN) offered to ewe replacements during the rearing phase (8 to 17 months) affects BW at joining and may affect reproductive performance when joined at ~19 months. The effects of PN offered to ewe replacements during their first winter (winter_1) and second summer (summer_2) were evaluated over 3 consecutive years, using 287 spring-born ewe lambs, representing four genotypes (Belclare (Bel), Charmoise×Scottish Blackface (C×SBF), Bel×SBF (Bel×SBF), Bel×SBF that were heterozygous either FecGH or FecXG mutations that increase ovulation rate (OR) (BelMG×SBF)). During extended (deferred) grazing in winter_1 (November to March) the lambs were offered herbage DM allowances (HA) of 0.75 (L) or 1.75 (H) kg/day. During summer_2 (March to August) the replacements were set stocked to maintain sward heights of 4 (L) or 6 (H) cm, thus yielding a 2×2 factorial design for the nutrition treatments (71 to 73 animals/treatment). Increasing HA during winter_1, and residual sward height during summer_2, increased (P0.05) on OR. Mean BW at joining was 53.3, 56.8, 56.6 and 61.7 (SEM 0.74) kg for ewes offered the LL, LH, HL and HH treatments, respectively. Mean OR of C×SBF and BelMG×SBF differed (Ppositive and significant (Pdeveloped using LMs at 7, 12 or 17 months, to predict BW at joining exhibited biases of -2.1, -1.5 and +0.9 kg, respectively. It is concluded that whilst altering PN during the rearing phase changed BW by 16% it had no effect on OR. There was no interaction (P>0.05) between the PN offered during winter_1 and summer_2, or PN and ewe genotype for BW at joining or OR. LMs, either at 7, 12 or 17 months of age, are useful predictors of BW at joining.

  10. Traveling Lamb wave in elastic metamaterial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haisheng; Xu, Lihuan; Shi, Xiaona; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of traveling Lamb wave in single layer of elastic metamaterial is investigated in this paper. We first categorized the traveling Lamb wave modes inside an elastic metamaterial layer according to different combinations (positive or negative) of effective medium parameters. Then the impacts of the frequency dependence of effective parameters on dispersion characteristics of traveling Lamb wave were studied. Distinct differences could be observed when comparing the traveling Lamb wave along an elastic metamaterial layer with one inside the traditional elastic layer. We further examined in detail the traveling Lamb wave mode supported in elastic metamaterial layer, when the effective P and S wave velocities were simultaneously imaginary. It was found that the effective modulus ratio is the key factor for the existence of special traveling wave mode, and the main results were verified by FEM simulations from two levels: the level of effective medium and the level of microstructure unit cell.

  11. Lamb Wave Tomography for Corrosion Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinders, Mark K.; McKeon, James C. P.

    1999-01-01

    As the world-wide civil aviation fleet continues to age, methods for accurately predicting the presence of structural flaws-such as hidden corrosion-that compromise airworthiness become increasingly necessary. Ultrasonic guided waves, Lamb waves, allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical-waveguide physics. Our work focuses on using a variety of different tomographic reconstruction techniques to graphically represent the Lamb wave data in images that can be easily interpreted by technicians. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, we can convert the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes into a thickness map of the inspection region. In this paper we show results for the identification of single or multiple back-surface corrosion areas in typical aluminum aircraft skin structures.

  12. 7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...

  13. 7 CFR 59.302 - Mandatory weekly reporting for lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for lambs. 59.302 Section... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.302 Mandatory weekly reporting for lambs. (a... domestic from imported market purchases: (1) The quantity of lambs purchased through a negotiated...

  14. Current trends in lamb production with particular reference to New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1982there were 70,3 million sheep in New Zealand and of these, 50,8 million ... ago the demand was for mutton rather than lamb. ... prices are high the type of lamb being produced in greater ..... of lambs born or reared; lamb weaning mass; hogget live mass ... pasture the whole year round or are provided with supple-.

  15. The Effect of Yerba Mate ( Supplementation on the Productive Performance of Dorper Ewes and Their Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Po

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis, a tea known for its high antioxidant content, was supplemented to 30 of 60 ewes for 13 wks to assess its effect on their productive performance. A 2.5% inclusion rate of Yerba Mate (YM in a pelleted concentrate diet decreased feed intake and live weight (LW during the first few weeks post partum (p<0.001. Overall, the YM group ate less (2,092±78 g/d pellet than the control (CTRL one (2,434±83 g/d; similarly, LW was lower in the YM group compared to the CTRL one, 64.9±1.6 kg and 67.3±1.4 kg, respectively. Lambs’ birth weight and growth rates were not affected. At birth, lambs’ LW were similar between the Yerba Mate and control groups (4.2±0.5 kg and 4.1±0.4 kg, respectively. At the end of the trial, Yerba Mate lambs weighed 15.7±0.4 kg while CTRL lambs weighed 16.1±0.4 kg. Average daily growth rate was similar between the two groups and ranged from 176±19 to 234 ±24 g/d. The inclusion of Yerba Mate in a pelleted diet increased milk fat, protein and total solids content while it decreased milk lactose content. Further work is required to investigate the mechanisms by which Yerba Mate supplementation affects feed intake and milk composition.

  16. A super-spreading ewe infects hundreds with Q fever at a farmers' market in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner-Wiening Christiane

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2003 the Soest County Health Department was informed of an unusually large number of patients hospitalized with atypical pneumonia. Methods In exploratory interviews patients mentioned having visited a farmers' market where a sheep had lambed. Serologic testing confirmed the diagnosis of Q fever. We asked local health departments in Germany to identiy notified Q fever patients who had visited the farmers market. To investigate risk factors for infection we conducted a case control study (cases were Q fever patients, controls were randomly selected Soest citizens and a cohort study among vendors at the market. The sheep exhibited at the market, the herd from which it originated as well as sheep from herds held in the vicinity of Soest were tested for Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Results A total of 299 reported Q fever cases was linked to this outbreak. The mean incubation period was 21 days, with an interquartile range of 16–24 days. The case control study identified close proximity to and stopping for at least a few seconds at the sheep's pen as significant risk factors. Vendors within approximately 6 meters of the sheep's pen were at increased risk for disease compared to those located farther away. Wind played no significant role. The clinical attack rate of adults and children was estimated as 20% and 3%, respectively, 25% of cases were hospitalized. The ewe that had lambed as well as 25% of its herd tested positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Conclusion Due to its size and point source nature this outbreak permitted assessment of fundamental, but seldom studied epidemiological parameters. As a consequence of this outbreak, it was recommended that pregnant sheep not be displayed in public during the 3rd trimester and to test animals in petting zoos regularly for C. burnetii.

  17. Growth performance and rumen microorganism differ between segregated weaning lambs and grazing lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Shou-kun; JIANG Cheng-gang; LI Rui; DIAO Qi-yu; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; SI Bing-wen

    2016-01-01

    Two feeding patterns of the segregated weaning or grazing in the pasture are carried out worldwide in animal production. To investigate the difference of growth performance and rumen microorganism population related to methane metabolism in the two feeding patterns, three groups of lambs (70 in total) were used: Weaning at 21 days old and being subjected to high-concentration diets (3WK group with 20 lambs), weaning at 35 days old and being subjected to high-concentration diets (5WK group with 20 lambs), or grazing at pasture with the nursing mother (Grazing group with 30 lambs). The growth performance, pH value of rumen content, and the rumen microbes were investigated during weaning period and fatten-ing period with approximately 3 months. Our results showed that lambs in 3WK and 5WK groups demonstrated a better growth performance than the lambs in Grazing group, but no signiifcant difference was observed in the pH value between the three groups (P>0.05). The total rumen bacterial population of the Grazing lambs was signiifcantly lower than that of 3WK lambs (P<0.05) and 5WK lambs (P<0.05); however, the population of methanogens was 4.2- and 2.7-fold lower in the 3WK (P<0.05) and 5WK (P<0.05) lambs compared with Grazing lambs, respectively; protozoa were also 3.5- and 3.4-fold lower in the 3WK (P<0.05) and 5WK (P<0.05) lambs, respectively. The results revealed that segregated weaning lambs may have better growth performance, and reduce methane-producing microbes.

  18. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...... treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature....... randomized to either 0.1 IU/kg (n = 18) or 0.2 IU/kg (n = 17) per day. GH treatment was interrupted for 12 mo after 2 y of treatment in prepubertal patients to study catch-down growth. Mean height SDS (HSDS) at start was -5.6 and -5.2 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively, and mean age 7.3 and 6...

  19. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  20. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  1. FOXM1 is an oncogenic mediator in Ewing Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christensen

    Full Text Available Ewing Family Tumors (Ewing Sarcoma and peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor are common bone and soft tissue malignancies of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Chromosomal translocation in these tumors produces fusion oncogenes of the EWS/ETS class, with EWS/FLI1 being by far the most common. EWS/ETS chimera are the only well established driver mutations in these tumors and they function as aberrant transcription factors. Understanding the downstream genes whose expression is modified has been a central approach to the study of these tumors. FOXM1 is a proliferation associated transcription factor which has increasingly been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FOXM1 is expressed in Ewing primary tumors and cell lines. Reduction in FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines results in diminished potential for anchorage independent growth. FOXM1 expression is enhanced by EWS/FLI1, though, unlike other tumor systems, it is not driven by expression of the EWS/FLI1 target GLI1. Thiostrepton is a compound known to inhibit FOXM1 by direct binding. We show that Thiostrepton diminishes FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines and this reduction reduces cell viability through an apoptotic mechanism. FOXM1 is involved in Ewing tumor pathogenesis and may prove to be a useful therapeutic target in Ewing tumors.

  2. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  3. The Pattern of Ovarian Development in the Prepubertal Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    OpenAIRE

    TETSUKA, MASAFUMI; ASADA, Masatsugu; MOGOE, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; OHSUMI, Seiji; 手塚, 雅文; 福井, 豊

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the pre...

  4. Ewing sarcoma versus osteomyelitis: differential diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B.; Glodny, B.; Rudisch, A.; Trieb, T.; Loizides, A.; Judmaier, W.; Schocke, M.F. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Putzer, D. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    To find and evaluate characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns for the differentiation between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis. We identified 28 consecutive patients referred to our department for MRI (1.5 T) of an unclear bone lesion with clinical symptoms suggestive of Ewing sarcoma or osteomyelitis. MRI scans were re-evaluated by two experienced radiologists, typical MR imaging features were documented and a diagnostic decision between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis was made. Statistical significance of the association between MRI features and the biopsy-based diagnosis was assessed using Fisher's exact test. The most clear-cut pattern for determining the correct diagnosis was the presence of a sharp and defined margin of the bone lesion, which was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, but in none of the patients with osteomyelitis (P < 0.0001). Contrast enhancing soft tissue was present in all cases with Ewing sarcoma and absent in 4 patients with osteomyelitis (P = 0.0103). Cortical destruction was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, 4 patients with osteomyelitis did not present any cortical reaction (P = 0.0103). Cystic or necrotic areas were identified in 13 patients with Ewing sarcoma and in 1 patient with osteomyelitis (P = 0.004). Interobserver reliability was very good (kappa = 1) in Ewing sarcoma and moderate (kappa = 0.6) in patients with osteomyelitis. A sharp and defined margin, optimally visualized on T1-weighted images in comparison to short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images, is the most significant feature of Ewing sarcoma in differentiating from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  5. Sacral Ewing's Sarcoma and Challenges in it's Diagnosis on MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert D'Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-yr old boy presented with low backache for 4 months associated with weakness of left lower limb. MRI of lumbosacral spine showed a sacral lesion with intraspinal and presacral soft tissue extension with neural compression. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was considered in the view of high prevalence in this part of the world, however biopsy revealed Ewing's sarcoma. Ewing's tumor of sacrum is rare, but should be suspected in low backache in children. Differential diagnosis for a sacral lesion includes tuberculosis, pyogenic osteomyelitis, lymphoma, chordoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. MRI is sensitive in detecting these lesions but is nonspecific requiring histopathological examination for confirmation.

  6. Primary Establishment of EWE Model in Caohai Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to environmental data,Ecopath with Ecosim (EWE) model can quantitatively describe the energy flow in the production and consumption of function components of system by using trophodynamics,and accurately assess the biomass and stable state of aquatic ecosystem.In the paper,the basic principle and parameters of EWE model were introduced firstly,and the relationship between Q/B (the important parameter of EWE model) and basic life indices of fish was discussed,then the current study and typical r...

  7. PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN AND EXERCISE IN HOT AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade H. Sinclair

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an influx of thermal energy from the environment increases thermal stress. When coupled with exercise, the increased thermal stress results in reduced physical performance and an increased risk of developing heat-related illness. Evidence suggesting the severity of heat-related illness is greater in pre-pubertal children than adults is inconclusive because age-related differences in thermoregulatory responses are attributed to either morphologic or functional changes. Additionally, the majority of research on pre-pubertal children exercising in the heat has been maturational or comparative studies with adults conducted in the near absence of convective cooling, complicating extrapolation to field-based environments. However, current consensus is that pre-pubertal children are disadvantaged when exercising in extreme temperatures and that care should be taken in preparing for and conducting sporting activities in hot and humid environments for pre-pubertal children

  8. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs.

  9. Effects of simulated reflux laryngitis on laryngeal chemoreflexes in newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Anne-Marie; Patural, Hugues; Samson, Nathalie; Doueik, Alexandre A; Hamon, Julie; Fortier, Pierre-Hugues; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that reflux laryngitis (RL) is involved in apneas-bradycardias of the newborn. The aim of the present study was to develop a unique RL model in newborn lambs to test the hypothesis that RL enhances the cardiorespiratory components of the laryngeal chemoreflexes (LCR) in the neonatal period. Gastric juice surrogate (2 ml of normal saline solution with HCl pH 2 + pepsin 300 U/ml) (RL group, n = 6) or normal saline (control group, n = 6) was repeatedly injected onto the posterior aspect of the larynx, 3 times a day for 6 consecutive days, via a retrograde catheter introduced into the cervical esophagus. Lambs instilled with gastric juice surrogate presented clinical signs of RL, as well as moderate laryngitis on histological observation. Laryngeal chemoreflexes were thereafter induced during sleep by injection of 0.5 ml of HCl (pH 2), ewe's milk, distilled water or saline into the laryngeal vestibule via a chronic, transcutaneous supraglottal catheter. Overall, RL led to a significantly greater respiratory inhibition compared with the control group during LCR, including longer apnea duration (P = 0.01), lower minimal respiratory rate (P = 0.002), and a more prominent decrease in arterial hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) (P = 0.03). No effects were observed on cardiac variables. In conclusion, 1) our unique neonatal ovine model presents clinical and histological characteristics of RL; and 2) the presence of RL in newborn lambs increases the respiratory inhibition observed with LCR, at times leading to severe apneas and desaturations.

  10. Metabolic profile of santa inês ewes whith low body condition score during peripartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Resende Nasciutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the variations in the metabolic profile of protein, energy enzyme and mineral of Santa Inês ewes with low body condition score (BCS during peripartum. Blood samples were collected from 12 animals by jugular venipuncture to determine the serum biochemical profiles of protein, energy, mineral and enzyme metabolisms. Samples were collected on the following days: days 28, 21, 14, and 7 before lambing, at birth and, at days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum (dpp. The samples were centrifuged and the serum analysed by Automated-Analyser. There was no alteration of the BCS during the 28 dpp, between 0.6 and 2.1 ± 2.4 ± 0.5, and was considered, as lean. The values of the total serum protein, globulin, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio were reduced effective from the period before birth until 28dpp. The values of beta-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium remained below those of reference values. The concentrations of alanin aminotransferase (ALT were decreased particularly during the weeks before delivery. It was concluded that Santa Inês sheep with low body condition score demonstrated a reduction in the metabolism of proteins, energy, mineral and enzyme during peripartum.

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydophila spp. infection in ewes in the northeast of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hireche, Sana; Bouaziz, Omar; Djenna, Djahida; Boussena, Sabrina; Aimeur, Rachida; Kabouia, Rachid; Bererhi, El Hacène

    2014-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. antibodies and to investigate risk factors associated with chlamydial infection in 552 ewes between March 2011 and January 2012 in the province of Constantine. Anti-Chlamydophila antibodies were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit in 24.5% of examined sera. Of the herds, 70.4% had at least one seropositive animal. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered in order to collect information on individual animal health and herd management practices. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors related to Chlamydophila seropositivity. Univariable analysis revealed 17 variables with p Chlamydophila spp. seropositivity. Moreover, occurrence of stillbirth problem (OR = 3.682, 95% CI (OR) = 1.825; 7.430) and 5-10% mortality rate in young lambs (OR = 2.584, 95% CI (OR) = 1.058; 6.310) were significantly associated with seropositivity to Chlamydophila spp. On the other hand, availability of veterinary service was identified as a protective factor (OR = 0.161, 95% CI (OR) = 0.051; 0.511).

  12. Surveillance and management of estrous cycle in Awassi and Lacaune ewes during out of season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Bogdan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to increase fertility in sheep by applying modern biotechnology: induction and synchronization of estrous in non- breeding season. The ewes were divided into 3 equal batches. In all batches intravaginal sponge (Veramix/Intervet containing 60 mg of MPA was left in the vagina for 14 days. Immediately after removal of the sponge an injections of prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5ml/animal was administered in batch II. Batch III received two injections: PMSG hormone (Folligon/Intervet at the dose of 500 IU/animal and prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5 ml/animal. The research focused on several directions: assessment of estrous manifestation; occurrence of estrous interval after completion of hormonal therapy; duration of estrous; appreciation of gestation after the first and second estrous clinically manifested; percentage of fecundity. From the results obtained it follows that induction and synchronization of estrous in non-breeding season showed economic advantages by shortening the time needed for the installation of gestation, the possibility of lambing distribution, preparation and organization of mating.

  13. Microbiological studies on genital infections in slaughtered ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State-Nigeria. 2. Federal Medical .... clinical parameters with reproductive history of live animals would have .... on natural and experimental endometritis in ewes.

  14. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  15. Primary extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Jorge L; Sales-Sanz, Marco; Vaz, Maria A; Barrancos, Constanza; Reguero, Maria E; Diamantopoulus, Jorge; Poveda, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with painless, progressive vision loss and mild proptosis of the OD. CT revealed a right intraconal mass with slight penetration of the optic canal not contiguous with any bony structure. Incisional biopsy through a transfrontal orbitotomy revealed a diffuse growth of homogeneous, small, round cells. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for vimentin and MIC2 (CD99), and the translocation at EWS gene (22q12) was detected. Metastatic workup and a full-body bone scan were negative, confirming primary orbital extraosseous Ewing sarcoma. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and an orbital exenteration with preservation of eyelids and conjunctiva. He also received adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiotherapy, and he has remained disease-free for almost 3 years.

  16. TEMA 2-2014: SARCOMA DE EWING

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Soto, Daniela; Soto Fallas, Javier; Garro Ortiz, Mario; Vega Ulate, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    El grupo de tumores conocido como sarcoma de Ewing consiste en neoplasias de células redondas, morfológicamente similares y por la presencia de una translocación cromosómica común. Aunque poco frecuentes, estos tumores constituyen el tercer grupo de tumores primarios de hueso, después del osteosarcoma y el condrosarcoma. Afecta con mayor frecuencia a niños y adolescentes. Algunos casos presentan metástasis, con afección sistémica. El tratamiento se da con múltiples fármacos, así como el contr...

  17. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality.

  18. The Lamb shift in de Sitter spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wenting

    2010-01-01

    We study the Lamb shift of both freely-falling and static two-level atoms in interaction with quantized conformally coupled massless scalar fields in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum. We find that the Lamb shifts of both freely-falling and static atoms are in structural similarity to that of an inertial atom immersed in a thermal bath in a Minkowski spacetime. For the freely-falling atom, the Lamb shift gets a correction as if it was immersed in a thermal bath at the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, thus revealing clearly the intrinsic thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime. For the static atom, the Lamb shift is affected by a combination of the effect of the intrinsic thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime and the Unruh effect associated with the inherent acceleration of the atom.

  19. Lamb waves increase sensitivity in nondestructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Novi, R.

    1967-01-01

    Lamb waves improve sensitivity and resolution in the detection of small defects in thin plates and small diameter, thin-walled tubing. This improvement over shear waves applies to both longitudinal and transverse flaws in the specimens.

  20. Lipid requirements in the nutrition of dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Serra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to contribute to the knowledge of lipid requirements in dairy ewes, by reviewing experi- mental papers about lipid supplementation in dairy ewe feeding. The number of trials in ewe feeding is lower than that in dairy cow feeding and, leaving calcium soap of palm oil out of consideration, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the effects of protected and unprotected lipid sources on milk yield and quality from dairy ewes. On the basis of data reported in the literature, the optimal dose of calcium soap of palm oil resulted to be 100-120 g/d. Also, milk fatty acid composition may be improved by adding calcium soap of fatty acids to ewe diets. The general effect of calcium salt sup- plementation is an increase in milk unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in saturated ones. However, more research is needed in order to explain the effect of different fat sources (protected and unprotected on milk yield and quality from dairy ewes.

  1. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  2. Looping through the Lamb Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    Sometimes in science, a small measurement can have big ramifications. For a team of Livermore scientists, such was the case when they measured a small shift in the spectrum of extremely ionized atoms of uranium. The measurement involves the Lamb shift, a subtle change in the energy of an electron orbiting an atom's nucleus. The precision of the Livermore result was 10 times greater than that of existing measurements, making it the best measurement to date of a complicated correction to the simplest quantum description of how atoms behave. The measurement introduces a new realm in the search for deviations between the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), which is an extension of quantum mechanics, and the real world. Such deviations, if discovered, would have far-reaching consequences, indicating that QED is not a fundamental theory of nature.

  3. Lamb Wave Multitouch Ultrasonic Touchscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Kamyar; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Carver, Thomas E; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus Pierre T

    2016-12-01

    Touchscreen sensors are widely used in many devices such as smart phones, tablets, and laptops with diverse applications. We present the design, analysis, and implementation of an ultrasonic touchscreen system that utilizes the interaction of transient Lamb waves with objects in contact with the screen. It attempts to improve on the existing ultrasound technologies, with the potential of addressing some of the weaknesses of the dominant technologies, such as the capacitive or resistive ones. Compared with the existing ultrasonic and acoustic modalities, among other advantages, it provides the capability of detecting several simultaneous touch points and also a more robust performance. The localization algorithm, given the hardware design, can detect several touch points with a very limited number of measurements (one or two). This in turn can significantly reduce the manufacturing cost.

  4. Mammary fibroadenoma in a lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Tolga; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca B.; Sozgen, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    A fibroadenoma was diagnosed in the left udder of a 3-month-old female Chios lamb. No recurrence was observed after surgery. Grossly, the tumor had a whitish-gray lobular appearance, and the lobules were interlaced with thin septa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of proliferating fibroepithelial tissue, including differentiated ducts lined by whorls and interlacing bundles of abundant loose fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemistry revealed the ductal epithelium to be positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and loose fibrovascular stroma was positive for vimentin and basal cells covering the ductal epithelium of alpha-smooth-muscle actin. Immunostaining for the estrogen and progesterone receptors was negative. A diagnosis of mammary fibroadenoma was made based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:17993758

  5. Temperamento e comportamento materno-filial de ovinos das raças Corriedale e Ideal e sua relação com a sobrevivência dos cordeiros Temperament and maternal behavior of Corriedale and Pollwarth sheep and its relation with lamb's survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia de Souza Rech

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental da Embrapa, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, entre março de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006. O objetivo foi avaliar o comportamento materno-filial e o temperamento de ovelhas e cordeiros e relacioná-los com a sobrevivência dos cordeiros. Foram utilizadas 47 ovelhas da raça Corriedale, com peso médio de 52,1kg, e 45 ovelhas da raça Ideal, com peso médio de 49,5kg, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. O temperamento foi avaliado por meio dos testes: escore de comportamento materno (ECM, tempo de fuga, tipo de marcha e distância de fuga. As ovelhas da raça Corriedale apresentaram maiores valores no teste tipo de marcha que as ovelhas da raça Ideal. Os cordeiros da raça Corriedale eram os mais pesados e tinham maior índice de sobrevivência, quando comparados com os da raça Ideal. A raça não afetou o escore de comportamento materno. Ovelhas reativas (ECM=1, que fogem e não retornam aos seus cordeiros, se isolaram menos do rebanho antes do parto, protegeram menos suas crias, desmamaram-nas mais cedo e tiveram menor peso em relação às não-reativas. A reatividade das ovelhas prejudicou o cuidado materno com os cordeiros e essa característica deve ser considerada pelo setor produtivo.The trial was conducted at the Experimental Station of Embrapa, Bagé, RS, from March 2005 to February 2006, and aimed to evaluate the maternal behavior and temperament of ewes and their lambs and related them with lamb's survival. Forty-seven Corriedale ewes with mean body weight of 52.1kg and 45 Pollwarth ewes with mean body weight of 49.5kg were used, according to a completely randomized design. Temperament was evaluated through maternal behaviour score (MBS, flight time test (score and quantitative and flight distance. Corriedale ewes presented larger values for flight time score than Pollwarth ewes. Corriedale lambs were heavier and a greater number survived than Pollwarth lambs. Sheep breed did not

  6. 7 CFR 59.303 - Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory reporting of lamb carcasses and boxed lamb. 59.303 Section 59.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  7. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  8. Effects of combined electromyostimulation and gymnastics training in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Carole; Fatnassi, Anaïs; Paizis, Christos; Babault, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 6-week combined electromyostimulation (EMS) and gymnastic training program on muscle strength and vertical jump performance of prepubertal gymnasts. Sixteen young women gymnasts (age 12.4 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in this study, with 8 in the EMS group and the remaining 8 as controls. EMS was conducted on knee extensor muscles for 20 minutes 3 times a week during the first 3 weeks and once a week during the last 3 weeks. Gymnasts from both groups underwent similar gymnastics training 5-6 times a week. Isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was determined at different eccentric and concentric angular velocities ranging from -60 to +240° per second. Jumping ability was evaluated using squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), reactivity test, and 3 gymnastic-specific jumps. After the first 3 weeks of EMS, maximal voluntary torque was increased (+40.0 ± 10.0%, +35.3 ± 11.8%, and +50.6 ± 7.7% for -60, +60, and +240°s⁻¹, respectively; p gymnasts, a 6-week EMS program, combined with the daily gymnastic training, induced significant increases both in knee extensor muscle strength and nonspecific and some specific jump performances.

  9. Dopamine action in prepubertal Nelore heifers growth hormone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Oliveira Santana Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of dopamine in the growth hormone secretion (GH during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. The animals were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: Sulpiride group (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 mg/kg, S.C. and control group (saline solution S.C. at 8, 12 and 16 months of age. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 10h after drug injection. Growth hormone was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.25 ng/mL and intra and inter-assay variation coefficients were 15% and 17%, respectively. GH concentration was higher in sulpiride group than control group at 8 mo (10.1 ± 0.38 ng/mL vs 4.3 ± 0.34 ng/mL; P 0.05 in total GH secretion area, total peak area and maximum peak amplitude. These results suggested an inhibitory dopamine effect on GH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers that decreases according to age.

  10. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  11. Características das carcaças e componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em pastagem ou confinamento = Carcass characteristics and live weight components in lambs finished on pasture or feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Machado Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar as características da carcaça e os não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros em quatro sistemas: cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem + concentrado em creep feeding (1% PV; cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados. Os cordeiros foram abatidos quando a média de peso vivo do tratamento alcançou entre 32-34 kg. Após o abate, foram coletados e pesados os não-componentes da carcaça. Obtiveram-se pesos, rendimentos emedidas objetivas das carcaças e por cálculos a compacidade de perna e carcaça. A metodologia para determinar o momento de abate promoveu grande variação (7 a 14 kg no peso vivo final entre os animais do mesmo tratamento. Houve correlação significativa (p This experiment had the objective to evaluate the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components of lambs on four systems: lambs weaned at 60 days of age kept on pasture; lambs + ewes kept on pasture; lambs + ewe + concentrate in creep feeding; lambs weaned at 60 days and kept on feedlot. Lambs were slaughteredwhen mean live weight from the tratament reached 32-34 kg. After slaughter, the noncarcass components were collected and weighed. The weight, yield and carcass measures were obtained, while leg and carcass compacity was calculated. The elected methodology fordetermining slaughter time resulted in large variation (7 to 14 kg in the slaughter weight of lambs from the same treatments. There was a significant (p < 0.05 positive correlation between hot (r = 0.83 and cold (r = 0.85 carcass weights, and slaughtered weight. Lambsweaned and finished on pasture showed lower (p < 0.05 hot carcass dressing (42.3%, cold carcass dressing (40.2%, carcass biological dressing (51.8% and thorax width (22.99 cm and higher (p < 0.05 gastrointestinal content (5.6 kg. The presence of dams had aninfluence in systems were there was no weaning, in regard to carcass

  12. Yeasts associated with Sardinian ewe's dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, S; Fadda, M E; Deplano, M; Mulargia, A F; Palmas, F

    2001-09-19

    In the present work, the occurrence of yeasts in different types of typical Sardinian ewe's cheeses (32 samples of pecorino, 32 of caciotta, 40 of feta, 56 of ricotta) was determined. For the strains isolated the following properties were studied: proteolytic and lipolytic activities, the ability to grow at different temperatures, different concentrations of salt, and to assimilate and/or ferment compounds like lactate, citrate, lactose, glucose, galactose, lactic acid. Of 160 samples analysed, 76.2% yielded growth of yeasts. Yeast counts showed a certain variability among the samples. The highest levels were observed in caciotta and feta cheeses. A total of 281 strains belonging to 16 genera and 25 species were identified. In general, Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species, representing 28.8% of the total isolates. Other frequently appearing species were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and K. marxianus. Other genera encountered were Pichia, Candida, Dekkera, Yarrowia and Rhodotorula. With regard to the biochemical and technological properties of the yeasts, only K. lactis, K. marxianus and Dek. anomala assimilated and fermented lactose, whereas the majority of the species assimilated lactic acid. The assimilation of citrate was a characteristic of D. hansenii, R. rubra and Y. lipolytica. On the whole, the yeasts were weakly proteolytic while lipolytic activity was present in several species. A high percentage of strains showed a certain tolerance to low temperatures while only some strains of D. hansenii and K. lactis were able to grow at a 10% NaCl concentration.

  13. Ewing's sarcoma: an approach to radiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, F; Gasparini, M; Gianni, C; Petrillo, R; Tesoro-Tess, J D; Volterrani, F; Musumeci, R

    1979-06-30

    All the pertinent radiographs of 83 patients with histologically proven Ewing's sarcoma were reviewed. Forty-nine patients were in the pediatric age group, and 34 were adults. The mean age, the symptoms and time from symptoms to diagnosis were evaluated in the 2 groups. The site of primary involvement was in 54% the long bones, 35% the flat bones, 8% the small bones and 3% extraosseous. For the primary site we considered the diagnostic results of the standard radiographic investigations and in some cases the usefulness of angiography, xeroradiography and telethermography. At presentation we also evaluated the possible diffusion of the disease with standard radiographic surveys (chest and skeletal, including limbs) and with foot lymphography in selected cases. In this way, 57 patients (69%) were considered to have localized disease. In this group, we also considered the value of the periodic radiographic follow-up, which enabled us to disclose the appearance of metastases (chest 64%, bone 54%, lymph nodes 11%) in 28 cases (49%). Finally, we made a comparison of the different radiologic and epidemiologic findings between children and adults.

  14. Perigastric extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radoje B Colovic; Nikica M Grubor; Marjan T Micev; Slavko V Matic; Henry Dushan Edward Atkinson; Stojan M Latincic

    2009-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a neoplasm of undifferentiated small round cells, which occurs in the bones and deep soft tissues of children and adolescents. We present a rare case of a 44-year-old woman with gastric ES presenting with epigastric pain and weight loss. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans indicated a solid/cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. At laparotomy, the tumor was found attached to the posterior surface of the stomach, completely free from the pancreas, with no lymphadenopathy or local metastases. The polynodal, partly pseudocystic, dark-red soft tumor was excised. Histopathology revealed an anaplastic small-round-cell tumor with strong membranous CD99 immunoexpression. Additionally, there was patchy immunostaining for S-100 protein, vimentin, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and neuron-specific enolase, and weak focal CD117 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. The patient had no adjuvant chemotherapy; her postoperative recovery was uneventful, and she remains symptom-free, and without any sign of recurrence at 20 mo. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third ever case of gastric ES.

  15. Copy Number Alterations and Methylation in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona S. Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults. The prognosis is especially poor in metastatic or relapsed disease. The cell of origin remains elusive, but the EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein is present in the majority of cases. The understanding of the molecular basis of Ewing's sarcoma continues to progress slowly. EWS-FLI1 affects gene expression, but other factors must also be at work such as mutations, gene copy number alterations, and promoter methylation. This paper explores in depth two molecular aspects of Ewing's sarcoma: copy number alterations (CNAs and methylation. While CNAs consistently have been reported in Ewing's sarcoma, their clinical significance has been variable, most likely due to small sample size and tumor heterogeneity. Methylation is thought to be important in oncogenesis and balanced karyotype cancers such as Ewing's, yet it has received only minimal attention in prior studies. Future CNA and methylation studies will help to understand the molecular basis of this disease.

  16. Stress-induced changes in immune response of dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available two groups of 16 Comisana ewes were selected from a group of 30, and divided, according to their cortisol secretion after isolation in a novel environment, into HC ewes, having a cortisol secretion >90 ng/mL, and LC ewes having a cortisol secretion <80 ng/mL. Blood samples were collected immediately before and immediately after isolation, and 60, 120, 300min and then 24h and 48h after isolation, to evaluate the percentage of lymphocyte T-helper (CD4+ and lymphocyte T-cytotoxic (CD8+ by flow cytometry analysis, and IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations by ELISA. The day before the isolation test, the ewes were milked in the afternoon at 1500h (-19h from isolation, and then milked for the three days starting from the day of the isolation test (at 0, 5, 24, 29, 48 and 53h from isolation to evaluate milk cortisol secretion, and IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations. Results suggest that the levels of cortisol secretions can influence the immune competence of dairy ewes and cytokines concentrations. Milk cytokine concentrations, and not milk cortisol concentrations, can be considered indicators of the magnitude of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

  17. A progenitor of the outer membrane LamB trimer.

    OpenAIRE

    Stader, J.; Silhavy, T J

    1988-01-01

    During its localization to the outer membrane, LamB possesses distinctive biochemical properties as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane. Because LamB entered this dynamic state with an attached signal sequence and leaves after cleavage, we call this export-related form of LamB the early-translocation form (et-LamB).

  18. 21 CFR 880.5640 - Lamb feeding nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lamb feeding nipple. 880.5640 Section 880.5640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5640 Lamb feeding nipple. (a) Identification. A lamb feeding nipple is a device intended...

  19. Effect of body position and ventilation on umbilical artery and venous blood flows during delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stuart B; Crossley, Kelly J; Zahra, Valerie A; van Vonderen, Jeroen; Moxham, Alison; Gill, Andrew W; Kluckow, Martin; Te Pas, Arjan B; Wallace, Euan M; Polglase, Graeme R

    2017-07-01

    While delayed umbilical cord clamping (UCC) is thought to facilitate placental to infant blood transfusion, the physiological factors regulating flow in the umbilical arteries and veins during delayed UCC is unknown. We investigated the effects of gravity, by changing fetal height relative to the placenta, and ventilation on umbilical blood flows and the cardiovascular transition during delayed UCC at birth. Catheters and flow probes were implanted into preterm lambs (128 days) prior to delivery to measure pulmonary, carotid, umbilical artery (UaBF) and umbilical venous (UvBF) blood flows. Lambs were placed either 10 cm below or 10 cm above the ewe. Ventilation commenced 2-3 min before UCC and continued for 30 min after UCC. Gravity reduced umbilical and cerebral flows when lambs were placed below the midline, but the reduction in UaBF and UvBF was similar. Ventilation during delayed UCC reduced UvBF and UaBF by similar amounts, irrespective of the lamb's position, such that flows into and out of the placenta remained balanced. The effects of ventilation on umbilical flows were much greater than the effects of gravity, but no net placental to lamb blood transfusion could be detected under any condition. Cardiovascular parameters, cerebral oxygen kinetics and final blood volumes were similar in both groups 5 min after UCC. Gravity caused small transient effects on umbilical and cerebral flow, but given changes were similar in umbilical arteries and veins, no net placental transfusion was detected. Ventilation during delayed UCC has a markedly greater influence on cardiovascular function in the newborn. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory response on early embryo survival in ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early pregnant ewes were used to determine the effects of endogenous (through LPS activation) and exogenous TNF-alpha tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on embryonic loss. Thirty-eight Dorset x Texel ewes were synchronized for estrus and bred to fertile rams (d0). On d5/6, ewes were assigned t...

  1. Safety and efficacy of low-dose, subacute exposure of mature ewes to sodium chlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of low-dose, subacute exposure of mature ewes to NaClO3 in the drinking water. Twenty-five ewes (BW = 62.5 ± 7.3 kg) were placed indoors in individual pens with ad libitum access to water and feed. After 7 d of adaptation, ewes were assigned ran...

  2. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  3. Feeding frequency and appetite in lean and obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Sivitz, William I

    2011-03-01

    To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6-10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness.

  4. Chordee without hypospadias: report of 79 Chinese prepubertal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yun-Man; Chen, Shao-Ji; Huang, Lu-Gang; Wang, Ming-He

    2007-01-01

    A series of Chinese prepubertal patients with congenital chordee without hypospadias is presented and the clinical data described. From July 1999 to September 2006, 79 boys with congenital chordee without hypospadias were treated in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China. The ages ranged from 21 months to 14 years, with a mean of 76.8 months (6.4 years). The patients were categorized according to structural defect into 4 groups, with the aid of intraoperative artificial erection. Group I included those with skin tethering (28 cases, 35.4%); group II, fascial chordee (22, 27.8%); group III, corporal disproportion (10, 12.7%); and group IV, urethral tethering (19, 24.1%). Chordee-related structural defect was considered the only criterion for classification, and urethral dysgenesis influenced the choice of surgical procedure. The chordee in group I patients was corrected with penile degloving; group II, release of dense fibrous tissue in addition; group III, dorsal-midline-plication-based correction; and group IV, longitudinal-island-flap-urethroplasty-based repair. At a mean follow-up of 14.8 months (range, 2 to 63), all patients had penile straightening except 1 group III patient with residual curvature that was managed upon reoperation. Glans dehiscence occurred in 1 group II patient who underwent a tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Urethrocutaneous fistula and urethral stricture were found in 2 group IV patients who underwent island flap urethroplasty. With the categorization based on structural defect, chordee without hypospadias may be managed well with minimized complications.

  5. Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Laskowska-Klita, T; Klemarczyk, W

    2004-01-01

    Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

  6. Role for endogenous estrogen in prepubertal Sertoli cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Eddy; Villalon, Rosalina; Ribeiro, Salustiano; Berger, Trish

    2012-11-01

    Reducing prepubertal endogenous estrogens led to increased numbers of Sertoli cells and the associated increased testicular size and testicular sperm production capacity in boars. The increased number of Sertoli cells might be due to a longer time for proliferation; delayed differentiation of Sertoli cells during suppressed endogenous estrogens would be consistent with this hypothesized, prolonged proliferation interval. This study used immunohistochemical detection of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of immature Sertoli cells, and of CDKN1B, a cell cycle inhibitor associated with more mature Sertoli cells, to determine if suppressing endogenous estrogens detectably delayed "differentiation" of porcine Sertoli cells. Testes were from littermate pairs of boars previously treated with Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, or vehicle, from the first week of age until tissue collection at 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 months of age. Four animals were examined at each age following Letrozole treatment and their corresponding littermates evaluated following treatment with vehicle. Amount of AMH protein in Sertoli cells decreased with age of boar and could not be detected at 6 months of age. The AMH labeling was greater in the Letrozole-treated boars compared with littermate vehicle controls at 4 months of age (P=0.03). The percentage of CDKN1B-labeled Sertoli cells apparently increased with age through 5 months of age. At 4 and 5 months of age, the mean percentage of CDKN1B-labeled Sertoli cells was less in the Letrozole-treated animals than in the vehicle control animals (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continual inhibition of aromatase (and concomitatant reduced estrogen synthesis) causes a delay in Sertoli cell maturation in boars.

  7. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  8. Mutation analysis of cathepsin C gene in a Chinese patient with pre-pubertal periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan; BAI Xiao-wen; SONG Shu-juan; GE Li-hong; CAO Cai-fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pre-pubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive form of early onset periodontitis resulting in premature tooth loss of primary and permanent dentitions. Mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC) gene have been found in patients with pre-pubertal periodontitis and Papillon-Lefevre syndrome which also characterized with severe periodontitis and palmoplantar hyperkera-tosis.1-3 To date, more than 40 mutations of CTSC gene have been identified in ethnically diverse people worldwide.4 However, there is no such genetic analysis in China. In the present study, we report the mutation analysis of a Chinese patient with PPP.

  9. Comportamiento productivo de reproductoras ovinas en un sistema silvopastoril Productive performance of ewes in a silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar el comportamiento de los indicadores productivos en ovejas Pelibuey en un sistema silvopastoril, se realizó una investigación con 44 reproductoras en la Estación Experimental «Indio Hatuey». Los animales recibieron durante todo el período forraje de guinea y leucaena, con una oferta de 1 y 2 kg/animal/día, respectivamente; en la etapa de cubrición recibieron hollejo de cítrico a razón de 0,350 kg/animal/día y durante el último tercio de la gestación y los primeros 30 días posparto se suministró concentrado (0,04 kg/animal/día. Se determinó la condición corporal y el peso vivo de las madres durante la etapa de cubrición, el parto y a los 30 días posparto. Además se analizó la influencia del tipo de parto (sencillo y doble en el peso de las crías al nacer y a los 30 días de nacidas, y en la ganancia media diaria (gmd. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (pIn order to study the performance of productive indicators of Pelibuey ewes in a silvopastoral system, a study was conducted with 44 ewes at the Experimental Station «Indio Hatuey». The animals received Guinea grass and leucaena forage throughout the period, with a supply of 1 and 2 kg/animal/day, respectively; in the mating stage they received citrus pulp at a rate of 0,350 kg/animal/day and during the last third of pregnancy and the first 30 days postpartum concentrate was supplied (0,04 kg/animal/day. The body condition and live weight of the ewes were determined during the mating stage, parturition and 30 days postpartum. In addition, the influence of parturition type (single and double on the weight of the lambs at birth and 30 days after being born, and on the mean daily gain, was analyzed. Significant differences were found (p<0,05 in live weight (31,4; 32,9 and 30,5 kg and body condition (3,7; 3,5 and 3,0; while in the indicator hematocrit no significant differences were found. The parturition type had effect on the weight at

  10. Adult Intramedullary Ewing Sarcoma of the Proximal Hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Gongidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma of bone is classically a permeative lesion in the diaphysis of long bones in children. While they occur primarily in children and adolescents, they can be seen in young adults in their 20s, but these are typically seen in flat bones. The permeative nature of the lesion can elicit new bone formation creating a partially sclerotic appearance, cortical expansion presenting as a “Codman triangle,” or have an “onion-skin” type of aggressive periosteal reaction/periostitis. Ewing sarcoma is rarely seen without an associated soft-tissue mass and is even rarer to just have benign-appearing periostitis (e.g., thick, uniform, or wavy cortex. We present such a case of Ewing sarcoma in a young adult confined to just the medullary metadiaphysis without cortical erosion or soft-tissue mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported in the radiology literature.

  11. Transarticular spread of Ewing sarcoma mimicking septic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanov, Martin I.; Block, John J. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Gonzalez, Adriana L. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Nashville, TN (United States); Green, Neil E. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Transarticular spread of tumor is rare; it has only been reported in the sacroiliac joint, intervertebral disk spaces, and facet joints. The anatomic and kinetic characteristics of the sacroiliac joint, as well as the changes the joint undergoes during a lifetime, make it particularly vulnerable to transarticular tumor invasion. Although extremely rare, Ewing sarcoma can extend through the sacroiliac joint and be virtually indistinguishable radiologically from septic arthritis. Furthermore, the clinical presentation of a child with Ewing sarcoma can be similar to that of a child with osteomyelitis. Laboratory values are quite nonspecific and are not always helpful in differentiating between the entities. Therefore, the possibility of sacroiliac joint transarticular Ewing sarcoma should be considered in a child presenting with hip pain, despite clinical, radiological and laboratory findings suggesting an infectious process. (orig.)

  12. ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION AND TWINNING RATE OF GHEZEL EWES TREATED WITH CIDR AND PMSG DURING THE BREEDING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Najafi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of used controlled internal drug release devices (CIDR and different doses of PMSG on estrus synchronization in Ghezel ewes. This investigation was conducted in 77 fat-tailed Ghezel ewes during the breeding season. All animals were divided randomly into four groups then a single intramuscular (IM injection of PMSG (group 1, 350 IU, n=20; group 2, 450 IU, n=20; group 3, 550 IU, n= 20, group 4 (n=17 was made apart from 1 ml normal saline solution which was used as control group at time of CIDR removal . Estrus responses were similar in all groups (group 1, 100%; group 2, 90%; group 3, 95%; control group, 82.35%. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 between the treatment groups and the control group regarding the onset of estrus or estrus response. Pregnancy rates were 85%, 90%, 95% and 64.7% in groups 1, 2, 3 and the control group, respectively. Pregnancy rates were higher in groups 1, 2 and 3 than in control group (P<0.05. Lambing rates were obtained as 80%, 90%, 90% and 58.8% in groups 1, 2, 3 and in control group, respectively. Differences between the treated and the control animals in the Lambing rates were significant (P<0.05. Using PMSG at CIDR withdrawal increased twinning rate from 10% in control group to 33.3% in group 3, 550 IU. There were significant differences (P<0.05 between the treatment groups and the control group regarding the gestation period and the birth weight. Differences between the treated and the control animals in the Plasma P4 levels at day estrus after PMSG treatment and 30th day of pregnancy were significant (P<0.05. Plasma P4 levels at 30th day of pregnancy was 0.94ng/ml, 1.1ng/ml, 1.24ng/ml and 0.82ng/ml in groups 1, 2, 3 and the control group, respectively.

  13. Lamb shift of Unruh detector levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITF) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-06-07

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  14. Lamb shift in the muonic deuterium atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutov, A. A.; Martynenko, A. P. [Samara State University, Pavlov street 1, 443011, Samara (Russian Federation); Samara State University, Pavlov Street 1, 443011, Samara, Russia and Samara State Aerospace University named after academician S.P. Korolyov, Moskovskoye Shosse 34, 443086, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We present an investigation of the Lamb shift (2P{sub 1/2}-2S{sub 1/2}) in the muonic deuterium ({mu}D) atom using the three-dimensional quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics. The vacuum polarization, nuclear-structure, and recoil effects are calculated with the account of contributions of orders {alpha}{sup 3}, {alpha}{sup 4}, {alpha}{sup 5}, and {alpha}{sup 6}. The results are compared with earlier performed calculations. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift at 202.4139 meV can be considered a reliable estimate for comparison with forthcoming experimental data.

  15. Lamb Shift of Unruh Detector Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, B; Garbrecht, Bjorn; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2006-01-01

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in Quantum Electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding Universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  16. Lamb shift in muonic helium ion

    CERN Document Server

    Martynenko, A P

    2006-01-01

    The Lamb shift (2P_{1/2}-2S_{1/2}) in the muonic helium ion (mu ^4_2He)^+ is calculated with the account of contributions of orders alpha^3, alpha^4, alpha^5 and alpha^6. Special attention is given to corrections of the electron vacuum polarization, the nuclear structure and recoil effects. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift 1381.716 meV can be considered as a reliable estimate for the comparison with experimental data.

  17. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium atom

    CERN Document Server

    Krutov, A A

    2011-01-01

    We present new investigation of the Lamb shift (2P_{1/2}-2S_{1/2}) in the muonic deuterium (mu d) atom using the three-dimensional quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics. The vacuum polarization, nuclear structure and recoil effects are calculated with the account of contributions of orders alpha^3, alpha^4, alpha^5 and alpha^6. The results are compared with earlier performed calculations. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift 202.3616 meV can be considered as a reliable estimate for the comparison with forthcoming experimental data.

  18. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  19. Combinatorial Drug Screening Identifies Ewing Sarcoma-specific Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Tsafou, Kalliopi P; Emdal, Kristina B.;

    2017-01-01

    including approved drugs. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC412, a multikinase inhibitor with strong...... and IGF1R inhibitors. The mechanism of the drug synergy between these inhibitors is different from the sum of the mechanisms of the single agents. The combination effectively inhibited pathway crosstalk and averted feedback loop repression, in EWS-FLI1-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 88...

  20. Ewing sarcoma in adolescents and young adults: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis LE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lara E Davis,1,2 Suman Malempati2 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Ewing sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that most often occurs in adolescents and young adults. This review discusses the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of localized and metastatic ES, with an emphasis on the care of adolescent and young adult patients. The pathobiology is reviewed. Particular attention is given to recent and current clinical trials, and an introduction to future directions for therapy of ES is provided. Keywords: Ewing, sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, PNET

  1. 幼龄母羊超数排卵及卵母细胞成熟效果分析%Study on Follicular Development of Female Lamb and Technology of Oocyte Maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴会; 张世伟; 宋先忱; 郭丹; 豆兴堂; 薛冰; 常青

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of different hormones or treatments methods on lamb's follicular oocytes development, and the difference of oocytes' maturation process in vitro between superovulated lamb and normal adult ewe was studied. Besides, the maturing rate of lamb's oocytes in vitro based on different prescription of culture solution was determined. The results suggested as following- the optimal age for early using of Liaoning Cashmere goats' lamb was 5 to 6 weeks, with the body weight between 5. 6 to 7. 5 kg, the optimal method of lamb's superovulation was injecting FSH 40 mg three times and PMSG 400 IU once in sequence with the interval of 12 hours, adding 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum) into culture solution can be replaced by 12 mg/mL BSA, which influenced nothing to the maturation of lamb's oocytes. However, the matured rate of oocytes in vitro of superovulated lamb's was significantly lower than normal adult ewe's.%本试验以辽宁绒山羊卵巢为研究对象,研究不同激素处理对羔羊卵泡发育的影响,比较了羔羊超排处理后与普通成年母羊卵巢内的卵母细胞体外成熟过程的差异,同时还对比了不同配方的培养液对羔羊卵母细胞体外成熟率的影响.结果表明,辽宁绒山羊母羔早期利用采卵的最佳时期为5~6周龄,体重在5.6~7.5 kg之间;母羔最佳的超数排卵方案是依次注射FSH 40 mg 3次、PMSG 400 IU 1次,间隔时间12 h;在成熟培养液中添加12 mg/mL的BSA可以替代血清培养液(10%FBS),不影响卵母细胞最终成熟;母羔卵母细胞体外成熟率显著低于成年母羊.

  2. Qualidade de carnes provenientes de cortes da carcaça de cordeiros e de ovinos adultos Quality of meats from cuts of lamb and adult sheep carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar as características qualitativas da carne de ovinos de diferentes categorias quanto aos músculos dos cortes da carcaça (paleta, lombo e perna, utilizaram-se 18 ovinos ½ Ile de France ½ Ideal (seis cordeiros não-castrados, seis ovelhas de descarte e seis machos adultos castrados. Os animais foram criados em pasto de capim-tifton 85 e receberam suplementação (concentrado. Os cordeiros foram abatidos aos 32 kg, com aproximadamente 5 meses de idade, e as ovelhas e os machos adultos castrados, com 55 kg e aos 60 meses de idade. Não houve diferenças nos valores de pH 45 minutos e pH 24 horas entre as categorias animais e nos músculos dos cortes da carcaça. A idade de abate influenciou a luminosidade da carne de todos os músculos. O teor de vermelho não diferiu entre os animais adultos, mas foi superior aos valores obtidos na carne dos cordeiros. A carne de animais adultos é mais escura que a de cordeiros. As perdas por cocção no músculo Triceps brachii são maiores que no Longissimus lumborum e Semimembranosus. Os valores de pH e a capacidade de retenção de água são similares entre as categorias animais.Eighteen ½ Ile de France ½ Polwarth sheep (6 no castrated lambs, 6 discarded ewes and 6 discarded wethers were used to evaluate qualitative traits of meat from different categories of sheep for muscle cuts (shoulder, loin and leg. The animals were raised in grazing system with tifton-85 pastures and supplemented with concentrate. Lambs were slaughtered at 32 kg body weight, close to 5 months of age. Ewes and wethers were slaughtered with 55 kg and 60 months of age. There were no differences in pH45mim and pH24h values among different animal categories and muscles of carcass cuts. There was difference in meat luminosity between lambs and adult animals, considering all the evaluated muscles. The red level did not differ between adult categories, but it was higher than values observed in lambs. In

  3. Lamb pulse observed in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Given, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that seismograms observed at Longmire, Washington, for four eruptions of Mt. St. Helens, those on May 18, June 13, August 7, and August 8, 1980, can be interpreted as Lamb pulses excited by a nearly vertical single force representing the counter force of the eruption. These data furnish reliable estimates of the impulse of the force K (time integral of the force), from which the total momentum and the kinetic energy, E, of the ejecta associated with the eruption can be estimated. The estimates made of K are 1.4 x 10 to the 19th, 1.4 x 10 to the 16th, 3.7 x 10 to the 15th, and 2.8 x 10 to the 15th dynes-sec for the four eruptions (given chronologically). The corresponding estimates for E range from 0.70 to 2.6 x 10 to the 23rd, 0.70 to 2.6 x 10 to the 20th, 1.9 x 10 to the 19th, and 1.4 to 5.3 x 10 to the 19th erg using values of ejecta velocity ranging from 100 to 375 m/sec. The ratio of K to the amplitude of the air wave excited by the eruption is found to be 20 to 40 times larger for the main event on May 18 than for the other events, indicating a significant difference in the eruptive mechanism. A digital seismograph in the vicinity of a volcano is shown to provide a simple means for quantifying the explosive power of a volcanic eruption.

  4. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  5. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  6. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  7. Myoepithelial cell differentiation markers in prepubertal bovine mammary gland: Effect of ovariectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported that ovariectomy alters prepubertal development of mammary myoepithelial cells (MC), but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We therefore analyzed the expression of the myoepithelial differentiation markers a-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and the common acute ly...

  8. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Dysglycaemia and dyslipidaemia are common among pre-pubertal obese children. Insulin sensitivity indices based on OGTT are superior to fasting indices in identifying at risk children. OGTT should be included in assessing obese children with BMI > 2 SDS. DXA scanning has limited value for this purpose in clinical settings.

  9. The oral rehabilitation and 5 years follow up of a patient with prepubertal periodontitis- one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelal Seyfioglu Polat

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiologic, pathogenetic and host factors definition and classifications ofperiodontal diseases are done in many studies till nowadays. To regard these studiesprepubertal periodontitis is defined as early onset periodontitis.In our study it is aimed to present the treatment results of of apatient who isdiagnosed with prepubertal periodontitis, treated and followed up for five years.

  10. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina;

    2014-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. The condition is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located c...

  11. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A fetal lamb model of temperature reduction through amniotic fluid%宫内羊水降温诱导胎羊低温动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许刚; 庄建; 周成斌; 陈寄梅; 岑坚正

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a fetal lamb model of temperature reduction through amniotic fluid and study the influence on the fetus and ewe. To search for an effective and safe method to change the body temperature of fetal lamb. Methods Six ewes at 120 to 140 days of gestation were anesthetized intramuscularly with katamine hydrochloride, incubated and ventilated with a respirator. Anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl and vecuronium. Transfusion of Lactated Ringer's solution and magnesium sulfate were made to maintain the mean blood pressure over 70 mmHg and uterine relaxation. A midline laparotomy was performed and the uterus was exposed. Fetal lamb received fentanyl and vecuronium anesthesia drugs intramuscularly via uterine. A hysterotomy was made after the disappear of fetal movement. A plastic tube was put into utero and the pipe was connected with the variable temperature unit and water tank, which could pump warm and cold normal saline into utero and change the temperature of amniotie fluid. Thus the temperature of the fetus could be regulated. The heart rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gas data of mothers and fetus were recorded. Results The average body weight of fetal lamb was (1.76±0.25) kg and that of maternal lamp was(25.00±5.90)kg. All the ewes and the fetal lambs were kept alive during the experiment.signs of ewes were stable. The heart rate and blood pressure were normal, and the data of arterial blood gas analysis were in their physiological level. The heart rate and blood pressure of fetal lambs were also stable during the experiment. The data of arterial blood gas analysis of fetal lambs were also in their physiological level. The pH value decreased significantly and PaCO2increased remarkably when the temperature decreased. When the nasopharyngeal temperature of fetal lambs reached 28℃, the pH value of arterial blood sample was 7.29±0.05, which was significantly lower than that before temperature reduction 7.41±0.03(P<0.05). The PaCO2

  13. Sarcoma de Ewing en paciente masculino Ewing's sarcoma in a male patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Millán Escalona

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El sarcoma de Ewing es un tumor óseo maligno de células redondas pequeñas. Es el segundo tumor óseo maligno más frecuente en la infancia, y se puede presentar en cualquier momento durante la niñez y comienzos de la edad adulta. El tumor puede originarse en cualquier parte del cuerpo, generalmente en los huesos largos de las extremidades, la pelvis o el tórax, al igual que en el cráneo o en los huesos planos del tronco. Se trata de un paciente masculino, mestizo, de 38 años de edad, que acude a consulta externa en el hospital de Nickerie, Suriname, por presentar aumento de volumen en la región lateral derecha del abdomen. Refiere que ha presentado pérdida de peso, decaimiento marcado y anorexia. Estos síntomas se iniciaron 3 meses antes, y se han incrementado paulatina y progresivamente. Tiene también dificultad para deambular y dolor en la pierna derecha.The Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor of round cells. The second malignant bone tumor more frequent in childhood and may to appear in any moment during this life stage and at onset of adulthood. Tumor may to originate in any place of body, generally in limbs long bones, pelvis or thorax as well as in skull or in trunk flat bones. This case is a black male patient aged 38 seen in external consultation in the hospital of Nickerie, Surinam presenting with a volume increase in the right lateral region of abdomen. He refers a weight loss, a marked weakness and anorexia. These symptoms appeared three months before increasing in a gradual and progressively way. He has difficulty to walk and pain in the right leg.

  14. Effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanne Travers

    Full Text Available Testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only potential option for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys exposed to gonadotoxic treatment. Completion of spermatogenesis after in vitro maturation is one of the future uses of harvested testicular tissue. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of fresh and frozen-thawed mouse pre-pubertal spermatogonial stem cells in an organ culture system. Pre-pubertal CD1 mouse fresh testes were cultured for 7 (D7, 9 (D9 and 11 (D11 days using an organ culture system. Basal medium was supplemented with different concentrations of retinol (Re or retinoic acid (RA alone or in combination. Seminiferous tubule morphology (tubule diameter, intra-tubular cell type, intra-tubular cell death and proliferation (PCNA antibody and testosterone level were assessed at D7, D9 and D11. Pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue were frozen after a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C and after thawing, were cultured for 9 days, using the culture medium preserving the best fresh tissue functionality. Retinoic acid at 10(-6M and retinol at 3.3.10(-7M, as well as retinol 10(-6M are favourable for seminiferous tubule growth, maintenance of intra-tubular cell proliferation and germ cell differentiation of fresh pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonia. Structural and functional integrity of frozen-thawed testicular tissue appeared to be well-preserved after soaking temperature at -8 °C, after 9 days of organotypic culture using 10(-6M retinol. RA and Re can control in vitro germ cell proliferation and differentiation. Re at a concentration of 10(-6M maintains intra-tubular cell proliferation and the ability of spermatogonia to initiate spermatogenesis in fresh and frozen pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue using a soaking temperature at -8 °C. Our data suggested a possible human application for in vitro maturation of cryopreserved pre-pubertal testicular

  15. Lamb Shift in Light Muonic Atoms - Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Borie, E

    2011-01-01

    In connection with recent and proposed experiments, and new theoretical results, my previous calculations of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen will be reviewed and compared with other work. In addition, numerical results for muonic deuterium and helium will be presented.

  16. 7 CFR 65.190 - Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb. 65.190 Section 65.190 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...

  17. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground lamb. 65.170 Section 65.170 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  18. Supplementary feeding of lambs grazing Italian ryegrass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DeVilliersJ

    supplement; 250 g of supplement/lamb/day (only the second season); 500 g of ... energy (ME)/kg DM (Dugmore, 1995), is a general complaint among sheep ... milk can sustain a high ADG during early lactation, but that the rapid decline in milk ... nutritional value, which would restrict the performance of grazing ruminants, ...

  19. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  20. Microsatellites with Macro-Influence in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Lessnick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous molecular abnormalities contribute to the genetic derangements involved in tumorigenesis. Chromosomal translocations are a frequent source of these derangements, producing unique fusion proteins with novel oncogenic properties. EWS/ETS fusions in Ewing sarcoma are a prime example of this, resulting in potent chimeric oncoproteins with novel biological properties and a unique transcriptional signature essential for oncogenesis. Recent evidence demonstrates that EWS/FLI, the most common EWS/ETS fusion in Ewing sarcoma, upregulates gene expression using a GGAA microsatellite response element dispersed throughout the human genome. These GGAA microsatellites function as enhancer elements, are sites of epigenetic regulation and are necessary for EWS/FLI DNA binding and upregulation of principal oncogenic targets. An increasing number of GGAA motifs appear to substantially enhance EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression, which has compelling biological implications as these GGAA microsatellites are highly polymorphic within and between ethnically distinct populations. Historically regarded as junk DNA, this emerging evidence clearly demonstrates that microsatellite DNA plays an instrumental role in EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional regulation and oncogenesis in Ewing sarcoma. This unprecedented role of GGAA microsatellite DNA in Ewing sarcoma provides a unique opportunity to expand our mechanistic understanding of how EWS/ETS fusions influence cancer susceptibility, prognosis and transcriptional regulation.

  1. Efficacy of ATR inhibitors as single agents in Ewing sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto-Soler, Maria; Morgado-Palacin, Isabel; Lafarga, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are pediatric bone tumors that arise from a driver translocation, most frequently EWS/FLI1. Current ES treatment involves DNA damaging agents, yet the basis for the sensitivity to these therapies remains unknown. Oncogene-induced replication stress (RS) is a known source of en...

  2. Estimation of udder cistern size in dairy ewes by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Makovick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the size of mammary cistern in ewes of 9 genotypes (purebred Improved Valachian (IV, purebred Tsigai (T, purebred Lacaune (LC and their crosses with genetic proportion of specialized dairy breeds Lacaune and East Friesian (EF - (25 %, 50 % and 75 % were evaluated. Dana were evaluated using REML methodology and MIXED procedure (SAS/STAT. The effect of genotype showed the highest influence (P<0.001 on the length and area of the left and right udder cisterns measurements. In purebred IV ewes, the average areas of the left and right udder cisterns sizes were obtained by using the side method were (1519.39±77.212 mm2 and 1558.45±74.480 mm2. In purebred T ewes, the average areas of the left and right udder cisterns were (1438.70±70.43 mm2 and 1418.68±67.952 mm2. These were significantly smaller than in purebred LC (2694.44±71.95 mm2 and 2693.48±69.340 mm2. The udder cistern areas were significantly higher in crosses with 25 %, 50 % and 75 % genetic proportion of specialized dairy breeds LC and EF, than in purebred IV and T ewes. The analyses showed that crossbreeding of IV with LC and EF and T with LC and EF considerably increases ewe‘s cistern size.

  3. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

  4. In vivo modelling of Ewing sarcoma in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ent, Wietske van der

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a disease with a high need for novel therapeutic strategies. To aid in investigating such compounds in an in vivo setting, we have developed several zebrafish model systems for EWS, which are presented in this thesis. The first is a manual xenograft model in 2-day-old

  5. Frequency of estrus in Santa Inês, Texel and Ile de France ewes in the northwest of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Vanini de Moraes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of estrus in nulliparous Santa Inês (n = 16, Texel (n = 16 and Ile de France (n = 15 ewes fed two levels of crude protein (CP, 12 or 16% was monitored from July 2005 to December 2006, and seasonality in the Santa Inês breed in the south of Brazil was characterized. The solar radiation data were recorded daily, and samples of blood were collected biweekly for determination of the plasma concentration of progesterone in Santa Inês lambs at, on average, 11±1 months of age. The female Santa Inês lambs, in the experimental period, stayed among teaser rams with a powdered-dye-ink mixture placed on their chest to mark the females that accepted to be mounted. Santa Inês ewes did not manifest estrus in the first fortnight of November and in December 2005, nor in the last fortnight of December 2006. Estrus activity was not observed on any of the three breeds in October 2006. Breeds differed at the level of 12% CP. Santa Inês and Ile de France females did not differ as for the probability estrus manifestation and both presented higher probabilities then Texel. When the effect of 12 or 16% CP on each breed was evaluated separately, it was verified that levels of 12 or 16% of crude protein did not change the probability of estrus manifestation in any of the studied breeds. The concentration of plasma progesterone in Santa Inês ewes during the spring of 2005 and 2006 indicated that there is difference between 12% CP (0.68±1.32 ng/mL and 16% CP (1.28±1.99 ng/mL and between the years 2005 (0.39±0.78 ng/mL and 2006 (1.47±2.08 ng/mL, demonstrating the anestrous seasonality of Santa Inês in South Brazil.

  6. Ewing sarcoma of the oral cavity. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagán, José; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A review is made of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and survival characteristics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) of the oral cavity. Material and Methods A systematic literature search was carried out, with restrictions referred to time (1960-2014), language (English and Spanish) and type of study (case reports, letters, datasets, reviews). The following MeSH terms and boolean operators were used: Ewing AND Sarcoma AND [tongue, jaw, maxilla, cheek, condyle OR temporomandibular, floor AND mouth, gum OR gingiva, palate OR palatal, lip, uvula, head AND neck]. Results Seventy-one cases of ES of the oral cavity were documented from 53 articles. The main differences versus ES of other locations were a younger age at manifestation, a shorter time from symptoms onset to diagnosis, and swelling as the most frequent clinical manifestation versus swelling and pain in the rest of disease locations. The way in which ES manifests in the oral cavity is varied and comprises dental displacement (19.7%), dental mobility (7%), root reabsorption (5.6%), destruction of the dental follicle (4.2%), premature exfoliation (4.2%) and paresthesia of the chin (2.8%). Metastatic neck adenopathies appear in 11.3% of the cases. Significant differences in survival are observed between patients with a complete diagnosis of ES (hematoxylin-eosin staining, PAS positivity, CD99 positivity) and those with an incomplete diagnosis. Conclusions Ewing sarcoma of the oral cavity presents a series of specific features that distinguish it from ES of other locations. Key words:Primitive neuroectodermal tumor, PNET, Ewing sarcoma, Ewing tumor, sarcoma, oral cavity. PMID:28210452

  7. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma: review of a case. Sarcoma de Ewing extraoseo: revision a proposito de un caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo Moreno, P.; Hernandez Moreno, L.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lafuente Martinez, J.L.; Arozamena Laso, M.

    1994-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is an uncommon lesion included in the group of soft tissue tumors. We present a case in a 19-year-old woman in which the diagnosis was not initially suspected because of the absence of clinical and radiological evidence. (Author)

  8. Genetic determinism for within-litter birth weight variation and its relationship with litter weight and litter size in the Ripollesa ewe breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Caja, G; Piedrafita, J

    2007-06-01

    Birth weight plays a central role in lamb survival and growth, and the knowledge of its genetic determinism has become essential in worldwide selection programmes. Within this context, within-litter birth weight variation (BWV) has been suggested as an attractive trait to homogenise litters in prolific species, although it has not been analysed in sheep. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether maternal additive genetic variance exists for BWV in Ripollesa ewes, and to study its genetic, permanent environmental and residual relationships with litter weight (LW) and litter size (LS) at birth. Data were recorded in the Ripollesa experimental flock of the Universitat Autònoma of Barcelona, between 1986 and 2005, and included 1 662 litters from 380 ewes, with 712 records of BWV and 1 530 records of LW. Traits were analysed with a multivariate animal model solved through Bayesian methodologies, and with a threshold characterisation of LS. Additionally, the effect of BWV on lamb survival was studied. Additive genetic variance was observed for BWV (h2 = 0.061), as well as for LW (h2 = 0.200) and LS (h2 = 0.141). Nevertheless, genetic correlations among those traits were not substantial (BWV and LW = 0.151; BWV and LS = - 0.219; LW and LS = - 0.320) and suffered from a high degree of uncertainly, with the null correlation included within the highest posterior interval at 95%. Within-litter birth weight variation and LS showed a negative and large permanent environmental correlation ( - 0.872), and LW and LS were negatively correlated due to residual ( - 0.762) and permanent environmental ( - 0.449) random sources of variation. Within-litter birth weight variation influenced lamb mortality during the first 7 days of life (P 0.05). The low heritability found indicates that slow genetic progress may be expected from selecting for BWV. Close to zero genetic correlations suggest that this selection will probably not affect LS and LW, although

  9. Different roles of prepubertal and postpubertal germ cells and Sertoli cells in the regulation of serum inhibin B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of germ cells in the regulation of inhibin B secretion, serum inhibin B levels in prepubertal boys and adult men whom had a concurrent testicular biopsy showing either normal or impaired testicular function were compared. In addition, by immunohistochemistry the cellular...... localization of the two subunits of inhibin B (alpha and betaB) were examined in adult testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrest, or Sertoli cell only tubules (SCO) as well as in normal testicular tissue from an infant and a prepubertal boy. Adult men with testicular biopsy showing...... SCO boys, inhibin B levels were undetectable as in the adult SCO men. Intense inhibin alpha-subunit immunostaining was evident in Sertoli cells in both prepubertal and adult testes. In the prepubertal testis, positive immunostaining for the betaB-subunit was observed in Sertoli cells. In the adult...

  10. Prepubertal vulval fibroma with a coincidental ectopic breast fibroadenoma: report of an unusual case with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Kana; Xi, Mingrong; Yang, Kaixuan; Liu, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma of the vulva are two rare tumors, and they are very difficult to distinguish from other vulval masses, both clinically and pathologically. The complication of the two diseases is extremely rare. We report the case of an extremely large and progressively enlarging mass in the vulva of an 18-year-old Chinese girl. The mass was excised completely and pathologically diagnosed as a prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma. The patient was followed up for 10 months and no evidence of recurrence was observed. Prepubertal vulval fibroma and vulval ectopic breast fibroadenoma should be considered in their preoperative differential diagnosis of a vulval mass, especially in prepubertal girls. Pathologically, immunohistochemical staining for vimentin and CD34 is valuable for diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is effective and long-term follow up is necessary.

  11. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole;

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  12. Efficacy of repeated doses of levamisole, morantel, fenbendazole, and ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembry, F G; Miller, J E; Sims, D; Rodriguez, S; Stagg, L C

    1986-08-01

    Levamisole, morantel, fenbendazole, or ivermectin was administered at 2-week intervals from May 1 through Sept 14, 1985, to breeding ewes (20 ewes/drug) infected with various gastrointestinal nematodes. All ewes had fewer gastrointestinal nematode eggs per gram of feces (epg) after 2 treatments, compared with pretreatment epg counts. Ewes administered ivermectin continued to have a low mean epg (0 to 3) throughout the study. The mean epg counts of ewes treated with levamisole increased from 3 to 483 during the study. This increase was similar to that of ewes treated with morantel (7 to 485 epg). The mean epg count of fenbendazole-treated ewes increased from 4 to 192 during the study. By the end of the study, the mean epg counts when expressed as a percentage of the pretreatment epg counts were 4% (ivermectin), 249% (fenbendazole), 627% (levamisole), and 630% (morantel). With the exception of the ivermectin-treated ewes, the epg count increased almost linearly in the ewes after the 2nd anthelmintic treatment. These data indicate that the gastrointestinal nematodes (including Haemonchus contortus) may have developed more resistance to levamisole and morantel than to fenbendazole. On the basis of the epg counts, resistance to ivermectin did not develop during the 4.5-month treatment period. The percentage of ewes shedding eggs after 2, 4, and 6 anthelmintic treatments was lowest for ewes treated with ivermectin (20%) and was similar (40%) for ewes treated with 1 of the other 3 anthelmintics. At the conclusion of the study, most of the ewes (90%) were shedding at least a small number of eggs, regardless of the anthelmintic treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Informações nutricionais de carnes ovinas em rótulos comerciais, comparativamente às obtidas em análises laboratoriais Nutritional facts of lamb on commercial labels compared to that obtained in laboratory analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar as informações nutricionais de carnes ovinas comercializadas, comparativamente às determinadas por análises laboratoriais, utilizando-se 18 ovinos Ile de France x Ideal (cordeiros não castrados, ovelhas adultas de descarte e capões adultos de descarte. Os cordeiros foram desmamados com 17 kg e abatidos aos 32 kg. As ovelhas e capões, com 55 kg. As informações nutricionais dos rótulos de carne ovina embalada foram obtidas através do contato direto com 19 empresas que comercializam carne ovina. A maioria das empresas avaliadas não utiliza a informação nutricional na rotulagem da carne ovina embalada e também não descrimina a categoria ovina dos cortes da carcaça disponibilizados para venda. Os valores das informações nutricionais, analisadas laboratorialmente, da carne ovina evidenciaram, de modo geral, diferenças entre as categorias ovinas e seus respectivos cortes da carcaça para: valor calórico, teor de carboidratos, proteínas, gorduras totais, colesterol, cálcio e ferro. As empresas estudadas, de maneira geral, desconhecem ou ignoram tais diferenças entre as categorias e os cortes da carcaça ovina quanto às informações nutricionais, sendo necessário melhorar os rótulos comerciais dos cortes da carcaça ovina, a fim de informar o consumidor, de maneira mais simples, sobre o produto que está sendo adquirido para o consumo.The aim of this work is to study the nutritional facts of commercial lamb, compared to that determined by laboratory analyses, by using 18 Ile de France x Polwarth lamb (uncastrated lambs, adult discarded ewes and adult discarded wethers. Lambs were weaned at 17 kg and slaughtered at 32 kg. Ewes and wethers were slaughtered at 55 kg. The nutritional facts of the labels of packed lamb were obtained by means of direct contact with 19 companies that commercialize lamb. Most of the companies which were evaluated do not use the nutritional facts on the label of the packed lamb and

  14. 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy and Measuring Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  15. Coloração da gordura e qualidade da carne de ovelhas de descarte abatidas em distintos estágios fisiológicos Fat coloring and meat quality of culling ewes slaughtered at distinct physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.B. Pinheiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a qualidade física do músculo Longissimus lumborum de ovelhas de descarte da raça Santa Inês, abatidas em diferentes estágios fisiológicos, a cor da gordura subcutânea desse músculo e as possíveis correlações entre as variáveis de qualidade da carne. Utilizaram-se 21 ovelhas, distribuídas nos seguintes tratamentos: T1= ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em lactação com seus respectivos cordeiros e abatidas um dia após o desmame das crias; T2= ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em lactação com seus respectivos cordeiros e mais um período aproximado de 30 dias sem os cordeiros e posteriormente abatidas; e T3= ovelhas que não pariram durante o ano. A cor da carne e da gordura subcutânea não foram influenciadas pelo estágios fisiológico dos animais no momento do abate, com exceção da luminosidade da carne (T1= 41,13; T2= 37,56 e T3= 38,12 L*. A qualidade física da carne apresentou pouca variação entre os tratamentos, porém a força de cisalhamento (T1= 4,08; T2=2,86 e T3=2,35 kgf/cm² e as perdas por cocção (T1=31,97; T2=35,70 e T3= 31,91 % da carne diferiram entre os tratamentos. Não se observou alta correlação entre a maioria das características avaliadas.The physical quality of the Longissimus lumborum muscle of Santa Inês culled ewes slaughtered at different physiological stages was evaluated as well as the color of the subcutaneous fat of the same muscle, and the correlations between meat quality traits. Twenty-one ewes were randomly allotted in the following treatments: T1= ewes which remained in lactation for 60 days with their respective lambs and slaughtered one day after weaning of the lambs; T2= ewes which remained in lactation for 60 days with their respective lambs, followed by an additional period of 30 days without the lambs and slaughtered afterwards; and T3= non pregnant ewes. The colors of meat and subcutaneous fat were not influenced by the physiological stage of the animals at

  16. BCOR-CCNB3 (Ewing-like) sarcoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 10 cases, in comparison with conventional Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela; Marland, Gillian; Gaston, Czar Louie L; Douis, Hassan; Mangham, D Chas; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar

    2014-10-01

    BCOR-CCNB3 fusion transcripts resulting from an X-chromosomal paracentric inversion were recently identified in a series of unclassifiable soft tissue and bone sarcomas with Ewing sarcoma-like morphology. The morphologic and clinical features of these sarcomas are, as yet, not well characterized. Here we describe the clinicopathologic features of 10 cases of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma and compare their clinical course with typical Ewing sarcoma. Nine of 10 patients were male, and all were 11 to 18 years of age. Seven tumors were located in the bone and 3 in the deep soft tissues. The histomorphologic spectrum was quite wide, with 7 tumors predominately showing small primitive cell morphology with angulated nuclei simulating so-called atypical Ewing sarcoma and 3 predominately showing spindle cell morphology. Recurrent and metastatic lesions showed increased cellularity and marked pleomorphism. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of CCNB3 (100%), bcl2 (90%), CD99 (60%), and CD117 (60%). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for BCOR-CCNB3 fusion transcripts was positive in all 9 cases, which yielded sufficient extracted RNA. Five- and 10-year survival rates were 75% and 56%, respectively. BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas located in axial skeleton and soft tissues showed a significantly shorter survival. The Ewing sarcoma overall survival was not statistically different, although there was a trend for longer survival of patients with BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas in the extremities. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed description of the histologic spectrum, immunohistochemical features, and clinical characteristic of BCOR-CCNB3 sarcoma justifying distinction from Ewing sarcoma with its typical EWS/FUS-ETS translocations. Ideally immunohistochemistry is used in combination with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for definitive diagnosis.

  17. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  18. Lamb Wave Response of Fatigued Composite Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, William H.; Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials are being more widely used today by aerospace, automotive, sports equipment, and a number of other commercial industries because of their advantages over conventional metals. Composites have a high strength-to-weight ratio and can be constructed to meet specific design needs. Composite structures are already in use in secondary parts of the Douglas MD-11 and are planned to be used in the new MD-12X. Plans also exist for their use in primary and secondary structures on the Boeing 777. Douglas proposed MD-XX may also incorporate composite materials into primary structures such as the wings and tail. Use of composites in these structures offers weight savings, corrosion resistance, and improved aerodynamics. Additionally, composites have been used to repair cracks in many B-1Bs where traditional repair techniques were not very effective. Plans have also been made to reinforce all of the remaining B-1s with composite materials. Verification of the structural integrity of composite components is needed to insure safe operation of these aerospace vehicles. One aspect of the use of these composites is their response to fatigue. To track this progression of fatigue in aerospace structures, a convenient method to nondestructively monitor this damage needs to be developed. Traditional NDE techniques used on metals are not easily adaptable to composites due to the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of these materials. Finding an effective means of nondestructively monitoring fatigue damage is extremely important to the safety and reliability of such structures. Lamb waves offer one method of evaluating these composite materials. As a material is fatigued, the modulus degrades. Since the Lamb wave velocity can be related to the modulus of the material, an effective tool can be developed to monitor fatigue damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. In this work, preliminary studies have been conducted which monitor fatigue damage in

  19. Respuesta humoral y consecuencias reproductivas en ovejas desafiadas con Brucella ovis al final de la gestación Immune response and reproductive consequences in experimentally infected ewes with Brucella ovis during late pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Paolicchi

    2013-03-01

    . ovis. Sera of sheep and their offspring were analyzed by different serological tests. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus, placenta and milk were studied by bacteriology. A Brucella genus-specific PCR assay was carried out in placenta and milk samples. Placenta samples were hystopathologically processed. G1 females gave birth to live lambs, but one died hours postpartum. Serological techniques employed detected antibodies in serum of inoculated pregnant animal 5 days postchallenge. Sera of female controls G1 and G2 remained negative throughout the study. Cervicovaginal mucus of infected ewes in G1 and G2 yielded negative results to bacteriology, but B. ovis was isolated from milk. The PCR assay was positive for the placenta and milk from inoculated pregnant ewes. Histopathology revealed necrotic suppurative placentitis in one placenta. However, although results demonstrated that B. ovis can invade the placenta and mammary gland, this bacterium did not cause abortion when it was inoculated intravenously at 15 days prepartum. B. ovis infection induced an early humoral response in pregnant ewes, but their lambs remained seronegative, indicating that there was no transfer of antibodies in infancy. Placenta colonization and milk excretion of B. ovis involves a potential source of infection for lambs, which could play a role as latent carriers of infection.

  20. Quantitative Estimation of Transmitted and Reflected Lamb Waves at Discontinuity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    For the application of Lamb wave to structural health monitoring(SHM), understanding its physical characteristic and interaction between Lamb wave and defect of the host structure is an important issue. In this study, reflected, transmitted and mode converted Lamb waves at discontinuity of a plate structure were simulated and the amplitude ratios are calculated theoretically using Modal decomposition method. The predicted results were verified comparing with finite element method(FEM) and experimental results simulating attached PZTs. The result shows that the theoretical prediction is close to the FEM and the experimental verification. Moreover, quantitative estimation method was suggested using amplitude ratio of Lamb wave at discontinuity

  1. A New Relation between Lamb Shift Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Hiroaki; Kanda, Naohiro; Kato, Hiroshi; Munakata, Yasunori; Oshima, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We derive a new relation between the observed Lamb shift energies of hydrogen and muonium atoms. The relation is based on the non-relativistic description of the Lamb shift, and the proper treatment of the reduced mass of electron and target particles (proton and muon) leads to the new formula which is expressed as $\\displaystyle{{\\Delta E^{(H)}_{2s_{1/2}}\\over \\Delta E^{(\\mu)}_{2s_{1/2}}} =({1+{m_e\\over m_\\mu}\\over 1+{m_e\\over M_p}})^3}$. This relation achieves an excellent agreement with experiment and presents an important QED test free from the cutoff momentum $\\Lambda$.

  2. Is the Lamb shift chemically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Schwenke, David W.; Pyykko, Pekka; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of the Lamb shift to the atomization energies of some prototype molecules, BF3, AlF3, and GaF3, is estimated by a perturbation procedure. It is found to be in the range of 3-5% of the one-electron scalar relativistic contribution to the atomization energy. The maximum absolute value is 0.2 kcal/mol for GaF3. These sample calculations indicate that the Lamb shift is probably small enough to be neglected for energetics of molecules containing light atoms if the target accuracy is 1 kcal/mol, but for higher accuracy calculations and for molecules containing heavy elements it must be considered.

  3. Thin layer Characterization by ZGV Lamb modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ces, Maximin; Clorennec, Dominique; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire, E-mail: maximin.ces@espci.fr [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI- Universite Paris 7- CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05- France (France)

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of plates can be performed with Lamb modes guided by the structure. Non contact generation and detection of the elastic waves can be achieved with optical means such as a pulsed laser source and an interferometer. With this setup, we propose a method using zero group velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes rather than propagating modes. These ZGV modes have noteworthy properties, in particular their group velocity vanishes, whereas their phase velocity remains finite. Thus, a significant part of the energy deposited by the pulsed laser can be trapped in the source area. For example, in a homogeneous isotropic plate and at the minimum frequency of the S{sub 1}-Lamb mode a very sharp resonance can be observed, the frequency of which only depends on the plate thickness, for a given material. In fact, other ZGV modes exist and the set of ZGV resonance frequencies provide a local and absolute measurement of Poisson's ratio. These non-propagating modes can also be used to characterize multi-layered structures. Experimentally, we observed that a thin (500 nm) gold layer deposited on a thick (1.5 mm) Duralumin plate induces a sensitive down-shift of the set of ZGV resonance frequencies. This shift, which is typically 5 kHz for the S{sub 1}-Lamb mode at 1.924 MHz, can be approximated by a formula providing the layer thickness. Thickness down to 100 nm can be estimated by this method. Such a sensitivity with conventional ultrasound inspection by acoustic microscopy would require an operating frequency in the GHz range.

  4. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  5. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fibroadenoma comprises about 4% of the total fibroadenomas. The incidence of giant juvenile fibroadenomas is merely 0.5% of all the fibroadenomas. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas are extremely rare. We are presenting a case of giant juvenile fibroadenomas in an 11-year-old pre-pubertal girl. The diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology which was confirmed on histopathology. As these tumors are mostly benign, breast-conserving surgery is done so that patient can lead a normal life without psychological trauma.-----------------------------------Cite this article as: Goyal S, Garg G, Narang S. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020113.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.13

  6. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  7. Klinefelter syndrome is a common cause for mental retardation of unknown etiology among prepubertal males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M M; Struthers, J L

    2002-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has not typically been associated with mental retardation (MR), however, in recent years a growing body of evidence suggested that KS boys often experience language deficits and academic difficulties. In this study, we screened DNA samples from 1205 patients originally referred for fragile X syndrome (FRAX) testing, because of MR of unknown etiology and detected 8 KS patients. A similar number of males in the same age group were found to have FRAX; 3 of them had a family history of FRAX. Based on these findings, KS might be the most common cause of MR of unknown etiology among prepubertal males. Because of the significant benefits of early recognition and treatment of KS, we emphasize the importance of cytogenetic testing of all prepubertal males with cognitive impairment even without dysmorphic features.

  8. Liquid level sensor using ultrasonic Lamb waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, V E; Kuznetsov, S A; Zaitsev, B D; Kuznetsova, I E; Joshi, S G

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes a novel, noninvasive method for measurement of liquid level in closed metal tanks that are under high pressure. It is based on the use of ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating along the tank wall. Contact with liquid substantially changes the characteristics of these waves and this can be used as an indicator of liquid presence. Theoretical analysis shows that the symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb wave modes, both fundamental and higher order, are sensitive to presence of the liquid. The optimal wave frequency depends on the thickness of the tank wall and wall material. A prototype level sensor based on this principle has been developed. It uses two pairs of wedge transducers to generate and detect Lamb waves propagating along the circumference of the gas tank. An operating frequency of 100 kHz is found to be optimal for use with tanks having a wall thickness of 30-50 mm. Prototype sensors developed under this program have been used successfully in oil fields in the far northern region of Russia.

  9. Crack Detection with Lamb Wave Wavenumber Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Rogge, Matt; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave crack detection using wavenumber analysis. The aim is to demonstrate the application of wavenumber analysis to 3D Lamb wave data to enable damage detection. The 3D wavefields (including vx, vy and vz components) in time-space domain contain a wealth of information regarding the propagating waves in a damaged plate. For crack detection, three wavenumber analysis techniques are used: (i) two dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) which can transform the time-space wavefield into frequency-wavenumber representation while losing the spatial information; (ii) short space 2D-FT which can obtain the frequency-wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space-frequency-wavenumber representation; (iii) local wavenumber analysis which can provide the distribution of the effective wavenumbers at different locations. All of these concepts are demonstrated through a numerical simulation example of an aluminum plate with a crack. The 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) was used to obtain the 3D wavefields, of which the vz (out-of-plane) wave component is compared with the experimental measurement obtained from a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for verification purposes. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The application of wavenumber analysis on 3D EFIT simulation data shows the effectiveness of the analysis for crack detection. Keywords: : Lamb wave, crack detection, wavenumber analysis, EFIT modeling

  10. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals.

  11. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  12. Myeloperoxidase Is an Early Biomarker of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk in Prepubertal Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis, Rosaura; Bueno, Gloria; Martínez-Jiménez, Maria D.; Valle, Miguel; Cañete, Ramon; Tojo, Rafael; Moreno, Luis A.; Gil, Angel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate plasma MPO levels in prepubertal obese children and to determine whether MPO could be an early biomarker of inflammation and CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter case-contr...

  13. Sex hormone binding globulin concentration as a prepubertal marker for hyperinsulinaemia in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, P; Donaldson, M.; WALLACE, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Overweight children become obese adults who are prone to develop the "metabolic syndrome" and premature coronary arterial disease (CAD).
AIMS—To assess whether sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a potential marker for hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children.
METHODS—Twenty five obese children (body mass index (BMI) >2SD) who warranted investigation on clinical grounds were enrolled. Their insulin response to an oral glucose tolera...

  14. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  15. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Shehata, Bahig; Sorensen, Poul; Bergstrom, Chris; Hubbard, G Baker

    2012-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy underwent enucleation of his left eye for an intraocular tumor. Examination showed a small, round blue cell tumor arising in the peripheral retina near the ciliary body. Immunohistochemical stain results were positive for neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 99 (CD99), Friend leukemia integration 1, and CD56. Ultrastructural findings included occasional intracytoplasmic dense core granules. Polymerase chain reaction of the tumor showed a Ewing sarcoma/Friend leukemia integration gene fusion product. The tumor was classified as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the retina and should be distinguished from retinoblastoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the retina.

  16. Ewing sarcoma mimicking a peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B D; Fox, B D; Viswanathan, A; Mitchell, A H; Powell, S Z; Cech, D A

    2010-10-01

    We describe the first patient with an extradural, extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma tumor mimicking a nerve sheath tumor with no overt evidence of metastasis. A 28-year-old woman with no past medical history presented with a progressive 3-year history of low back pain and right-sided lower extremity radiculopathy after having failed conservative therapies. MRI of the lumbar spine revealed a right-sided enhancing, dumbbell-shaped lesion at the right neural foramen appearing to originate from the L4 nerve root, suspicious for a peripheral nerve sheath tumor or schwannoma. The patient and findings are discussed in the context of the literature, including an update on the relatively recent diagnostic redesignation of the Ewing's sarcoma family tumors.

  17. Phenotypic characterization of the population of creole wool ewes in the highlands of Puebla State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-López, Samuel; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Juan de Dios; Rojas-Álvarez, Joel; Bustamante-González, Angel

    2012-12-01

    This study characterized the population of wool ewes in the highlands of the State of Puebla, Mexico, considering traits such as fleece color, weight, and body measurements. In this region, dominated by a temperate climate, sheep are a traditional animal species for farming systems. To carry out the work, 2,082 ewes were randomly selected from 14 communities and 124 flocks belonging to the six municipalities that have the largest inventory of sheep in the state. For each ewe, live weight, breed, fleece color pattern, and 18 other body measurements were recorded. Descriptive statistics were estimated for weight and body traits and the morphotype was classified by multivariate analysis. Factor analysis identified the bulk, size, and breed standard as the attributes that best describe the population of ewes. These elements varied in importance among the groups (p < 0.05). Cluster analysis helped to classify the population into small black-faced ewes (28.5 %), small white ewes (11.9 %), black-faced medium-sized ewes (24.1 %), large ewes (12.3 %), and white medium-sized ewes (23.2 %). The groups identified were similar to creole sheep present in rural communities in other environments, but have lower morphostructural values than specialized breeds.

  18. Dystocia due to schistosomus reflexus (cojoined twins in a Yankassa ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambali Hauwa Motunrayo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A two years' old, white and brown Yankassa ewe, weighing 20 kg was presented with dystocia of about 48 h duration at Mabs Veterinary Centre Ltd, Lagos. On thorough physical and vaginal examination, there were evidences of feotal parts and foul smelling discharges per vagina. A systematic and calculated traction and retropulsion revealed schistosomus reflexus cojoined twins. There was a complete recovery of the ewe 3 days post operative management. Finally, this case reported a true schistosomus reflexus cojoined twins in Yankassa ewe which was successfully relieved through traction and retropulsion despite the supposedly small birth canal which precluded the procedure in ewes except for caesarian section or fetotomy

  19. Recent advances in targeted therapy for Ewing sarcoma [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen I. Pishas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal.

  20. Short Communications The effect of shearing pregnant ewes prior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4.9c/o relatief tot nageslag van ongeskeerde kontrole-ooie verhoog (P. < 0.0-5). Daar was ook ... allocated to two shearing treatments (shorn prior to lambing and unshorn). .... tal conditions, diff'erences in pasture palatability, and factors such.

  1. Study on Early Weaning and Milk Replacer for 30 Days Old Lambs%羔羊30日龄早期断乳及代乳料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敦伟涛; 房国芳; 邢艳蕊; 孙洪新; 陈晓勇

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 提高羊只的生产性能.[方法] 根据母羊的泌乳曲线和羔羊的生长发育规律,配制标准营养水平(试验1组)和低于标准营养水平15%(试验2组)的代乳料对30日龄羔羊进行早期断乳试验,以正常断乳(90日龄)为对照,比较不同试验组羔羊的日增重和饲料转化率及母羊的发情情况.[结果] 试验1组和试验2组羔羊日增重和料重比均高于对照,30~90日龄2组羔羊的日增重分别为164.6、159.4 g,分别与对照(日增重118.7 g)达到极显著和显著差异水平;试验1组和试验2组母羊发情较早,分别为51、54 d,对照组母羊平均发情期为66 d.[结论] 羔羊早期断乳可使母羊的发情提早12~15 d.%[Objective] The aim was to increase the performance of sheep.[Method]According to the lactation curve of ewes and the growth-development law of lambs, the milk replacer at standard nutrition level (tested group 1) and 15% lower than standard nutrition level (tested group 2) for 30 days old lambs were prepared for early weaning test, with normal weaning (90 days old) as CK, the daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of lamps and estrus situation of ewes in different tested groups were compared. [Result] The daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of lamps in tested group 1 and group 2 were all higher than those of lamps in CK group, the daily weight gain of 30-90 days old lambs in tested group 1 and group 2 were 164.6, 159.4 g resp., being very significantly and significantly higher than that of lambs in CK group (daily weight gain of 118.7 g) resp.. The estrus of ewes in tested group 1 and group 2 was earlier, being 51, 54 d resp., and that of ewes in CK group was 66 d.[Conclusion]Early weaning of lambs could made the estrus of ewes advanced 12-15 d.

  2. Targeting the p53 Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Neilsen, Paul M.; Pishas, Kathleen I.; Callen, David F; Thomas, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor plays a pivotal role in the prevention of oncogenic transformation. Cancers frequently evade the potent antitumour surveillance mechanisms of p53 through mutation of the TP53 gene, with approximately 50% of all human malignancies expressing dysfunctional, mutated p53 proteins. Interestingly, genetic lesions in the TP53 gene are only observed in 10% of Ewing Sarcomas, with the majority of these sarcomas expressing a functional wild-type p53. In addition, the p53 downs...

  3. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  4. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  5. Implications of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathogenesis of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascietto, Cinzia; Giannini, Cosimo; D'Adamo, Ebe; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    There is a worsening high prevalence of global obesity. Special attention has been paid to the gut-endocrine system, represented by the regulators of appetite. In particular, it has been suggested that ghrelin ("hunger" peptide), and obestatin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) ("satiety" peptides) could play important roles in the pathogenesis of obesity. The aims of this study were to compare fasting plasma ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1 levels between obese and nonobese prepubertal children, and to assess their relations with fatness indexes and insulin resistance (IR). Fifty-two prepubertal obese children and 22 controls were enrolled. Fasting levels of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1), glucose, and insulin were evaluated. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index. Analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlation. Obese prepubertal children and normal-weight controls had similar age distribution. Obese children were more insulin resistant when compared to controls (HOMA-IR: p obese children than in controls (p obese than normal-weight children (p obesity.

  6. Pre-pubertal males practising Taekwondo exhibit favourable postural and neuromuscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlid, Mohamed Chedly; Maffulli, Nicola; Souissi, Nisar; Chelly, Mohamed Souheil; Paillard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The postural and neuromuscular performances in healthy children taekwondo (TKD) practitioners in comparison with control children were examined. Seventeen healthy pre-pubertal males undertaking only physical education at school (age: 11.88 ± 0.33 years) and 12 pre-pubertal male TKD practitioners (>3 years, 4 sessions a week) (age 11.66 ± 0.49 years) were recruited. Performances in the dynamic postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test -SEBT), vertical jump [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] and sprint running (distances: 5, 10, 20 and 30 m) tests were compared between the two groups. The performances of the TKD practitioners were better than those of the non-TKD active for the SEBT (for 14 of 16 conditions, p  0.05). TKD practice would stimulate sensory input and motor output of the postural system that would enhance its efficiency. In addition, the dynamic nature of TKD would develop the muscle power of the lower limbs. In our sample of healthy pre-pubertal males, TKD appears to improve postural and neuromuscular functions, but further research is required.

  7. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total...... focus on differential effects of dairy and meat protein on bone health during growth.......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  8. Uric acid, carotid intima-media thickness and body composition in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Díaz-Roldán, F; Osiniri, I; Riera-Pérez, E; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2016-10-01

    Increased uric acid is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents and adults. We investigated whether uric acid relates to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in prepubertal children, and whether body mass index (BMI) and preperitoneal fat modulate this association. 359 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children were stratified according to BMI categories (171 with BMI-SDS 50th centile). Uric acid levels, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), triacylglycerol (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), abdominal fat and cIMT (both by ultrasound) were assessed. Uric acid was associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, namely higher HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, BMI, waist, SBP, preperitoneal fat and cIMT (all P uric acid and cIMT (both P uric acid was preferentially related to cIMT in heavier children (β = 0.247, P uric acid is associated with cIMT in asymptomatic prepubertal children. Both higher BMI and preperitoneal fat aggravate the potential risk of atherosclerotic disease imposed by higher concentrations of uric acid. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pBMI. The agreement between the outcome detected by FMI and by %FM was high (kappa 0.701), but very low between the success detected by BMI and either FMI (kappa 0.231) or %FM (kappa 0.125). FMI achieved the best combination of ability and swiftness to identify reduction of adiposity during monitoring of weight management in prepubertal obese children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM CHANGE IN PREPUBERTAL AND AGED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitidi, K.; Frisina, R. D.; Vasilyeva, O. N.; Zhu, X.; Canlon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are important in the development, maintenance and physiology of the CNS. Several studies have shown their effects on the processing of hearing in both males and females, and these effects, in part, are thought to result from regulation of the transcription of genes via their classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes that occur with age, we have studied the expression of ERs in the central auditory pathway in prepubertal and aged CBA mice with immunohistochemistry. In prepubertal mice a clear dichotomy was noted between the expression of ERα and ERβ. ERβ-positive neurons were found in the metencephalon whereas the majority of ERα was found in mesencephalon, diencephalon or the telencephalon. In the aged animals a different pattern of ER expression was found in terms of location and overall intensity. These age-induced changes in the expression pattern were generally not uniform, suggesting that region-specific mechanisms regulate the ERs’ age-related expression. Neither the prepubertal nor the aged animals showed sex differences in any auditory structure. Our results demonstrate different age-dependent spatial and temporal changes in the pattern of expression of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that each ER type may be involved in distinct roles across the central auditory pathway in different periods of maturation. PMID:20736049

  11. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until...... 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers...... of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (Σsecondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular...

  12. Targeting the p53 Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Neilsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The p53 tumour suppressor plays a pivotal role in the prevention of oncogenic transformation. Cancers frequently evade the potent antitumour surveillance mechanisms of p53 through mutation of the TP53 gene, with approximately 50% of all human malignancies expressing dysfunctional, mutated p53 proteins. Interestingly, genetic lesions in the TP53 gene are only observed in 10% of Ewing Sarcomas, with the majority of these sarcomas expressing a functional wild-type p53. In addition, the p53 downstream signaling pathways and DNA-damage cell cycle checkpoints remain functionally intact in these sarcomas. This paper summarizes recent insights into the functional capabilities and regulation of p53 in Ewing Sarcoma, with a particular focus on the cross-talk between p53 and the EWS-FLI1 gene rearrangement frequently associated with this disease. The development of several activators of p53 is discussed, with recent evidence demonstrating the potential of small molecule p53 activators as a promising systemic therapeutic approach for the treatment of Ewing Sarcomas with wild-type p53.

  13. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between trace mineral concentrations of amniotic fluid with placenta traits in the pregnancy toxemia Ghezel ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Olfati

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Overall, determinations of these trace minerals in the AF ewes could have been used to obtain information on nutritional and reproductive status for the diagnosis of pregnancy toxemia in Ghezel ewes.

  15. Effect of protein degradability on milk production of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolayunas-Sandrock, C; Armentano, L E; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of protein degradability of dairy sheep diets on milk yield and protein utilization across 2 levels of milk production. Three diets were formulated to provide similar energy concentrations and varying concentrations of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP): 12% RDP and 4% RUP (12-4) included basal levels of RDP and RUP, 12% RDP and 6% RUP (12-6) included additional RUP, and 14% RDP and 4% RUP (14-4) included additional RDP. Diets were composed of alfalfa-timothy cubes, whole and ground corn, whole oats, dehulled soybean meal, and expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA). Estimates of RDP and RUP were based on the Small Ruminant Nutrition System model (2008) and feed and orts were analyzed for Cornell N fractions. Eighteen multiparous dairy ewes in midlactation were divided by milk yield (low and high) into 2 blocks of 9 ewes each and were randomly assigned within block (low and high) to 3 pens of 3 ewes each. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square within each block and applied to pens for 14-d periods. We hypothesized that pens consuming high-RUP diets (12-6) would produce more milk and milk protein than the basal diet (12-4) and pens consuming high-RDP diets (14-4) would not produce more milk than the basal diet (12-4). Ewes in the high-milk-yield square consumed more dry matter and produced more milk, milk fat, and milk protein than ewes in the low-milk-yield square. There was no effect of dietary treatment on dry matter intake. Across both levels of milk production, the 12-6 diet increased milk yield by 14%, increased milk fat yield by 14%, and increased milk protein yield by 13% compared with the 14-4 and 12-4 diets. Gross N efficiency (milk protein N/intake protein N) was 11 and 15% greater in the 12-6 and 12-4 diets, respectively, compared with the 14-4 diet. Milk urea N concentration was greater in the 12-6 diet and tended to be

  16. Formation and temporal evolution of the Lamb-dipole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1997-01-01

    of the evolving dipoles depend on the initial condition. However, the gross properties of their evolution are only weakly dependent on the detailed structure and can be well-described by the so-called Lamb-dipole solution. The viscous decay of the Lamb-dipole, leading to an expansion and a decreasing velocity...

  17. Hepatic Cobalt and Copper Levels in Lambs in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Plassen C; Sivertsen T

    2004-01-01

    Cobalt and copper concentrations were measured in 599 lamb livers collected at slaughter from 58 sheep flocks in 6 different parts of Norway in 1993. Information about pasture, additional feeding and mineral supplements in the flocks was obtained through a questionnaire. Average hepatic levels of cobalt in the lamb flocks varied from

  18. Major causes of lamb mortality at Ebinat woreda, Amhara National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... after catastrophies or in periods of high prices and thus off take rate can respond to price increases ... The sheep enterprise in the Ethiopian highland crop ... and investigate host risk factors to lamb mortality in Ebinat woreda of western. Amhara ... good relation with the farmers, and not already in paid employment. Lambs.

  19. Attenuation Analysis of Lamb Waves Using the Chirplet Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; Sprenger, Helge; Niethammer, Marc; Luangvilai, Kritsakorn; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    Guided Lamb waves are commonly used in nondestructive evaluation to monitor plate-like structures or to characterize properties of composite or layered materials. However, the dispersive propagation and multimode excitability of Lamb waves complicate their analysis. Advanced signal processing techni

  20. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( < 0.05) in RP-Arg-treated and NCG-treated underfed ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( < 0.05) concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and ammonia in serum of underfed ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( < 0.05) concentrations of AA (particularly arginine-family AA and branched-chain AA) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids within nutrient-restricted ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  1. Lamb Production Costs: Analyses of Composition and Elasticities Analysis of Lamb Production Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineri, C.; Stivari, T. S. S.; Gameiro, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Since lamb is a commodity, producers cannot control the price of the product they sell. Therefore, managing production costs is a necessity. We explored the study of elasticities as a tool for basing decision-making in sheep production, and aimed at investigating the composition and elasticities of lamb production costs, and their influence on the performance of the activity. A representative sheep production farm, designed in a panel meeting, was the base for calculation of lamb production cost. We then performed studies of: i) costs composition, and ii) cost elasticities for prices of inputs and for zootechnical indicators. Variable costs represented 64.15% of total cost, while 21.66% were represented by operational fixed costs, and 14.19% by the income of the factors. As for elasticities to input prices, the opportunity cost of land was the item to which production cost was more sensitive: a 1% increase in its price would cause a 0.2666% increase in lamb cost. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing any technical indicator was significantly higher than the impact of rising input prices. A 1% increase in weight at slaughter, for example, would reduce total cost in 0.91%. The greatest obstacle to economic viability of sheep production under the observed conditions is low technical efficiency. Increased production costs are more related to deficient zootechnical indexes than to high expenses. PMID:26104531

  2. A case presentation of spider lamb syndrome in a Kermanian breed lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem, Mohammad Naser; Shojaei, Bahador; Asadi, Akbar; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal abnormalities are most often used to describe defects in the arms or legs that are associated with genes or chromosomes, or that occur due to an event that happens during pregnancy. Spider lamb syndrome (SLS) is a congenital disorder in sheep breeding that is recognized by some deformities in skeletal system especially in the limbs. A dead day-old cross-breed white lamb with deformed limbs was referred to the anatomy hall of the Veterinary Faculty of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. In the external examination, the lamb was very skinny and in the facial region, superior brachygnathia with a slight Roman nose were observed. Metacarpal and metatarsal regions were more elongated than that expected. Also Metacarpal and metatarsal bones were as long as the antebrachial and crural regions, respectively. This paper, the first report of this syndrome in Iran, described the anatomic and radiographic features of the skeletal deformities in a day-old dead Kermanian breed lamb. PMID:26973772

  3. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  4. Preference structure for lamb meat consumers. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, Rodolfo; Tendero, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    There is a current tendency in the European Union member countries to cut down on meat consumption. This tendency is not due as much to the traditional income-price factor, but to other attributes whose influence is gaining relative importance. Some of them are: quality, image, health, food safety and changes in people's taste. In addition, the relative importance of different attributes valued by the consumer must be weighed in order to develop marketing strategies which increase lamb meat consumption. In order to determine these preferences, 400 consumers were asked to evaluate different attributes (price, certification, origin, and commercial type) of lamb meat. Results obtained by means of conjoint analysis techniques show that regular consumers as well as occasional ones show a preference for lamb meat type. In this sense, a market share simulation of preferred (suckling and "ternasco") types proved that regular consumers generally prefer suckling lamb to "ternasco" lamb when both are from Castilla-La Mancha.

  5. New Developments in Structural Health Monitoring Based on Diagnostic Lamb Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenfang YUAN; Yingdi XU; Ge PENG

    2004-01-01

    Structure health monitoring based on diagnostic Lamb waves has been found to be one of the most promising techniques recently. This paper has a brief review of the new developments on this method including the basic novel of the method, fundamentals and mathematics of Lamb wave propagation, narrowband and wideband Lamb wave excitation methods, optimization of excitation factors and diagnostic Lamb wave interpretation methods.

  6. Identification of amino acids associated with skeletal muscle growth in late gestation and at weaning in lambs of well-nourished sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, F A; Pacheco, D; Blair, H T; Kenyon, P R; Nicholas, G; Senna Salerno, M; McCoard, S A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between intracellular free AA (FAA) profiles in skeletal muscle with muscle growth in twin and singleton fetuses in late pregnancy and at weaning, under an ad libitum feeding regime of the dam. Plasma from singleton- (n = 9) and twin-bearing (n = 10) ewes at d 140 of pregnancy and FAA in the semitendinosus muscle (STM) from the corresponding fetuses were studied. At weaning, intracellular STM FAA concentrations were compared between twins at the same age as singletons (Twin(age); n = 17) and at the same weight as singletons (Twin(wt); n = 17) to that of singletons (n = 20). Twin fetuses were 15% lighter (P = 0.03) with a 20% lighter STM (P = 0.02) compared to singletons. Maternal plasma FAA were similar (P ≥ 0.17) between singleton- and twin-bearing ewes. Twin fetuses had greater (P muscle concentration and STM weight at weaning. Males differed from females in intracellular FAA both in late pregnancy and at weaning. Twins had reduced RNA content during pregnancy and at weaning, suggesting a lower capacity for protein accretion. These data suggest that specific FAA concentrations are associated with differences in muscle growth during late pregnancy, notably arginine and glutamine, and reduced protein synthesis capacity. However, the relevance of specific FAA varies according to stage of development and sex of the lamb.

  7. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for pymetrozine in lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from LTO Groeiservice to modify the existing MRLs for pymetrozine in lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of pymetrozine on these crops, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs from 2 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg in lamb`s lettuce and to 7 mg/kg in beans (with pods. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the residue trials on lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods were not valid because the samples were stored for a period for which integrity of the samples is not guaranteed. The proposal to compensate for the potential loss of residues during storage by applying a correction factor is not acceptable because the instability of pymetrozine residues in watery matrices is not only affected by the nature of the crop, but might depend also on other factors such as the preparation of samples and the design of the residue decline studies. EFSA therefore concludes that the available data are not sufficient to derive a MRL proposal for lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods reflecting the intended GAP notified in this application.

  8. Oral supplementation of standardized extract of Withania somnifera protects against diabetes-induced testicular oxidative impairments in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara Nagaraj; Manjunath, Mallayya Jayawanth; Muralidhara

    2014-09-01

    Male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility are the common consequences of overt diabetes. Available evidence support oxidative stress to be the underlying mechanism for the manifestation of testicular complications during diabetes. In the present study, we assessed the attenuating effects of Withania somnifera root extract (WS) on diabetes-induced testicular oxidative disturbances in prepubertal rats. Four-week-old prepubertal rats were assigned into nondiabetic control, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and STZ+WS supplemented (500 mg/kg b.w./d, oral, 15 days) groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (90 mg/kg b.w). Terminally, all animals were killed, and markers of oxidative stress were determined in the testis cytosol and mitochondrial fraction. Severe hyperglycemia and regression in testis size were apparent in diabetic rats. A decline in antioxidant defenses with subsequent elevation in the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was discernible in testis cytosol and mitochondria of diabetic prepubertal rats, which was significantly reversed by WS. However, there was partial restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in testis of diabetic prepubertal rats administered with WS. Taken together, data accrued suggest the potential of WS to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in prepubertal rats.

  9. Effects of Breed on Milk Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Ewes, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, breed has a strong effect on the FA composition of ewe milk fat, and ... Manipulation of the fatty acid profile of milk fat with the help of dietary and ... proved beneficial to human health, contributing to a better neurological function, prevention of ... Table 1 Main characteristics of the ewes used in the experiment.

  10. Impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation in twin-bearing ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation (EEgest) in twin-bearing ewes. Multiparous twin-bearing ewes were fed either adequate (A: n = 10) or restricted to 60% of energy and protein requirements (R: n = 10) during the last 6...

  11. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  12. Ewing Marion Kauffman School Evaluation Impact Report Year 4. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Demers, Alicia; Johnson, Cleo Jacobs; Gentile, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to raise the academic achievement of children from low-income families in Kansas City, Missouri, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation founded the Ewing Marion Kauffman School in fall 2011. The Kauffman School's mission is "to prepare students to excel academically, graduate from college, and apply their unique…

  13. Nonrelativistic Lamb shift for muonic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Robert; Jeziorski, Bogumil

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed formula [R. Bukowski and B. Jeziorski, Phys. Rev. A46 (1992) 5437]. has been applied to estimate the soft-photon Lamb shift contribution to the energies of the muonic molecules ppμ, ddμ, ttμ, pdμ, ptμ and dtμ. The corresponding corrections to the dissociation energies for the excited P states of ddμ and dtμ have been found to be almost identical and equal to 0.048 meV. The magnitude of this stabilizing effect is too small to affect seriously the formation rates predictions.

  14. Estimation of milk production in hair ewes by two methods of measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Peniche G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. The objective of the current study was to compare two methods to estimate daily milk production in crossbred hair ewes. Materials and methods. Eight multiparous, crossbred (Pelibuey x Katahdin lactating hair ewes were used in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements, for 56 days. Ewes were fed ad libitum with a diet based on concentrate. Milk production was estimated twice a week for each ewe by both methods, suckled-hand (SH and weigh-suckle-weigh (WSW method. Results. Milk production (p>0.05 means were 031.9±95.6 and 1119.0±95.6 g/day/ewe for SH and WSW method, respectively. Conclusions. No significant differences (p>0.05 were found between methods for milk yield.

  15. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS), me...... pore size. The proportions of particles in the B, C, D, S and O fractions were affected by cutting time of the silaage (P size in faeces from ewes fed grass silages.......The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS...

  16. Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of the penis: a report of an extraordinarily unusual site and a literature review of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng; Brimo, Fadi; Zeizafoun, Nebras

    2013-02-01

    Ewing's sarcomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNETs) arise from a multipotent progenitor cell and are considered to be of neuroectodermal derivation. Most tumors commonly arise in the skeletal system, which are the classic ES/PNET and occasionally occur in the soft tissue of extraskeletal sites, which are named extraskeletal Ewing's sarcomas (EES/PNET). This study reports a case of a 28-year-old man with primary EES/PNET of the penis.

  17. Variable expression of PIK3R3 and PTEN in Ewing Sarcoma impacts oncogenic phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Niemeyer

    Full Text Available Ewing Sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue affecting children and young adults. Ewing Sarcoma is driven by EWS/Ets fusion oncoproteins, which cause widespread alterations in gene expression in the cell. Dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, particularly involving IGF-1R, also plays an important role in Ewing Sarcoma pathogenesis. However, the basis of this dysregulation, including the relative contribution of EWS/Ets-dependent and independent mechanisms, is not well understood. In the present study, we identify variable expression of two modifiers of PI3K signaling activity, PIK3R3 and PTEN, in Ewing Sarcoma, and examine the consequences of this on PI3K pathway regulation and oncogenic phenotypes. Our findings indicate that PIK3R3 plays a growth-promotional role in Ewing Sarcoma, but suggest that this role is not strictly dependent on regulation of PI3K pathway activity. We further show that expression of PTEN, a well-established, potent tumor suppressor, is lost in a subset of Ewing Sarcomas, and that this loss strongly correlates with high baseline PI3K pathway activity in cell lines. In support of functional importance of PTEN loss in Ewing Sarcoma, we show that re-introduction of PTEN into two different PTEN-negative Ewing Sarcoma cell lines results in downregulation of PI3K pathway activity, and sensitization to the IGF-1R small molecule inhibitor OSI-906. Our findings also suggest that PTEN levels may contribute to sensitivity of Ewing Sarcoma cells to the microtubule inhibitor vincristine, a relevant chemotherapeutic agent in this cancer. Our studies thus identify PIK3R3 and PTEN as modifiers of oncogenic phenotypes in Ewing Sarcoma, with potential clinical implications.

  18. Onset of asphyxial state in nonrespiring interval between cord clamping and ventilation increases hemodynamic lability of birth transition in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolich, Joseph J; Kenna, Kelly R; Cheung, Michael M

    2015-03-15

    Experimentally, a typical ∼2-min cord clamp-to-ventilation interval in preterm lambs is accompanied by increased hemodynamic lability of the birth transition. However, whether this lability is related to development of asphyxia after cord clamping, or can be avoided with a shorter clamp-to-ventilation interval, is unknown. To address these questions, anesthetized preterm fetal lambs (gestation 127 ± 2 days) were instrumented with ductus arteriosus and left pulmonary artery flow probes to obtain right ventricular (RV) output, brachiocephalic trunk and aortic isthmus flow probes to measure left ventricular (LV) output, and aortic trunk catheters for pressure measurement and blood gas analysis. With hemodynamics recorded continuously, fetuses were delivered onto the ewe's abdomen and the cord clamped for 1.5 min before ventilation (n = 8), with aortic sampling at 15, 30, 45, and 60 s, or for 0.5 min, with sampling at 15 s (n = 4). With 1.5-min cord clamping, an asphyxial state (Po2 cord clamping, with no postventilation change in heart rate or RV output, and a lesser rise in LV output (22%, P cord clamp-to-ventilation interval increased hemodynamic lability of the birth transition, which was reduced with a shorter (∼0.5 min) cord clamp-to-ventilation interval. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Whole-Body Radiation Therapy, Systemic Chemotherapy, and High-Dose Chemotherapy Followed By Stem Cell Rescue in Treating Patients With Poor-Risk Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-07

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  20. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2017-02-01

    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.;

    2009-01-01

    . DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound...... significantly associated with TV. Family history of thyroid disease and presence of incidental abnormal ultrasound findings were also positively associated with TV (P = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of prepubertal Danish children, the GH/IGF-I-axis was positively correlated......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  2. Desempenhos reprodutivo e produtivo de ovelhas Santa Inês suplementadas em diferentes fases da gestação Reproductive and productive development of Santa Inês ewes supplemented in different stages of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Agostinho Mexia

    2004-06-01

    of pregnancy, where NS = pasture during the day and cassava bagasse during the night over the breeding season and pregnancy, S46 = NS plus supplement (soybean hulls from the 46th day after the beginning of the breeding season until the birth and S100 = NS plus supplement (soybean hulls from the 100th day after the beginning of the breeding season until the birth. Ninety-Four Santa Inês ewes were utilized, mating by five Santa Inês and five Dorset ram. The treatment did not affect ewe weight on the 84 days after the beginning of the supplementation (EW 4, weight of the ewe at the weaning (WEW, pregnancy incidence (0 or 1 at the final third part of it (PREG, birth rate (BIRTH, natality rate (NR and prolificity (PROLI, being the averages of 49.54 kg; 0.82; 0.71; 0.88 and 1.26 respectively. Ewes supplementation, sex and genetic group of the lamb did not influence the birth weight (LWB, by the age of 30 days (LW30 and by the 60 days (LW60. The averages were, respectively, 3.47 kg; 8.26 kg and 12.42 kg. The type of birth affected the LWB and the LW30. There was no difference for the total weight of the lambs at birth (TWB, total weight of the lambs after 30 days (TW30 and total weight of the lambs after 60 days (TW60 between the treatments, inside each type of birth and among the genetic groups. The supplementation stages of the ewe, the genetic group of the lamb and the type of birth did not influence the death rate, from the birth until the age of 30 and 60 days. The reproductive performance of the supplementeds ewes in the pregnancy period using 0.5% of live weight, with soybean hulls, was not modified.

  3. Perinatal Lamb Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derscheid, Rachel J.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. Many animal models are used to study RSV, but most studies investigate disease in adult animals which does not address the unique physiology and immunology that makes infants more susceptible. The perinatal (preterm and term) lamb is a useful model of infant RSV disease as lambs have similar pulmonary structure including airway branching, Clara and type II cells, submucosal glands and Duox/lactoperoxidase (LPO) oxidative system, and prenatal alveologenesis. Lambs can be born preterm (90% gestation) and survive for experimentation although both preterm and term lambs are susceptible to ovine, bovine and human strains of RSV and develop clinical symptoms including fever, tachypnea, and malaise as well as mild to moderate gross and histologic lesions including bronchiolitis with epithelial injury, neutrophil infiltration and syncytial cell formation. RSV disease in preterm lambs is more severe than in term lambs; disease is progressively less in adults and age-dependent susceptibility is a feature similar to humans. Innate and adaptive immune responses by perinatal lambs closely parallel those of infants. The model is used to test therapeutic regimens, risk factors such as maternal ethanol consumption, and formalin inactivated RSV vaccines. PMID:23202468

  4. BLOOD METABOLIC HORMONES AND LEPTIN IN GROWING LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of blood metabolic hormones and leptin levels in growing lambs. The research was carried out on Tsigai lambs in two periods (suckling and fattening during the winter feeding season. Lambs were suckling and ate a food mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum, while during the fattening period they were fed only with the above mentioned mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum. Their blood was analyzed on 35th and 75th day of age. Concentrations of minsulin, leptin and thyroid hormones were determined in the blood serum of lambs during both periods. In the blood of fattening lambs significantly higher (P0.05 insulin concentrations (1.05 and 0.54 μU/mL, were determined, compared to suckling lambs. A significant strong positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin (r = 0.85, P0.05. The concentration of thyroid hormones did not significantly differ depending on the period of measurement. These changes indicate that the measurement concentrations of metabolic hormones and leptin in blood are very important in order to understand the changes of metabolism and nutrient supply in growing lambs.

  5. Characterization of Awassi lamb fattening systems: a Syrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Birgitte Wiedemann; Iñiguez, Luis; Mueller, Joaquin; Wurzinger, Maria; Knaus, W F

    2010-10-01

    Intensive lamb fattening systems are evolving in developing Middle Eastern countries due to high demand for lambs at favorable prices; however, little is known about their characteristics and constraints. A survey was conducted in Syria involving 241 farmers to characterize the fattening production systems and main constraints, with emphasis on feeding, management, labor, and marketing. Most farmers (90%) considered the income from fattening to be from medium to high, and 57% expressed that lamb fattening along with alternative income sources compose the family's livelihood strategies. Fattening systems offer employment to family members. Market price was the main decision factor to buy and sell lambs, but this was only part of various marketing aspects. Male lambs usually bought at markets at the mean age of 4 months (mean weight of 31 kg) are sold after fattening at a 50-60 kg weight range. The average yearly fattening cycle was 2.7 batches, and the average number of lambs per batch was 232. For 65% (n = 241) of the farmers the major constraint to fattening was feeding cost, and for about a half of farmers (51%, n = 241), disease outbreaks and prices for veterinarian services constituted the second important constraint. Research on least-cost fattening diets and curbing disease problems to increase farmer's income margins is needed. It is expected that due to existing commonalities, the information emerging from this study regarding major constraints to Awassi lamb fattening systems could be useful for an across-synthesis on Awassi fattening production in the region.

  6. Lipidic characterization of Santa Inês lamb shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Albert Carvalho da Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The edible portion of the shoulder of 12 castrated and 12 non-castrated Santa Inês lambs slaughtered at different ages (84, 168, 210, 252 days were used. The shoulders were chemically analyzed to determine the quantity of total lipids, cholesterol, and fatty acids composition. Castrated and non-castrated lambs gained body weight (p = 0.0393, p = 0.0017 and half carcass weight (p = 0.0240, p = 0.0017, respectively. The shoulder weight was increased in the carcasses of non-castrated lambs (p = 0.0110. The edible portion of the shoulder of castrated lambs presented higher total lipids (16.09 g.100 g-1. The cholesterol content was influenced by castration (p = 0.0001 reducing with age. Castrated animals presented higher content of C18:1 T11, CLA, and C18:0. The shoulder weight is only increased with increasing age in the carcasses of non-castrated lambs. Castration influences the cholesterol content of the shoulder; however, both castrated and non-castrated lambs had their cholesterol contents reduced with increasing age. Castration and age interfered in the estearic acid concentration of the edible portion of lamb shoulder.

  7. Perinatal Lamb Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Ackermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. Many animal models are used to study RSV, but most studies investigate disease in adult animals which does not address the unique physiology and immunology that makes infants more susceptible. The perinatal (preterm and term lamb is a useful model of infant RSV disease as lambs have similar pulmonary structure including airway branching, Clara and type II cells, submucosal glands and Duox/lactoperoxidase (LPO oxidative system, and prenatal alveologenesis. Lambs can be born preterm (90% gestation and survive for experimentation although both preterm and term lambs are susceptible to ovine, bovine and human strains of RSV and develop clinical symptoms including fever, tachypnea, and malaise as well as mild to moderate gross and histologic lesions including bronchiolitis with epithelial injury, neutrophil infiltration and syncytial cell formation. RSV disease in preterm lambs is more severe than in term lambs; disease is progressively less in adults and age-dependent susceptibility is a feature similar to humans. Innate and adaptive immune responses by perinatal lambs closely parallel those of infants. The model is used to test therapeutic regimens, risk factors such as maternal ethanol consumption, and formalin inactivated RSV vaccines.

  8. Preoperative evaluation and monitoring chemotherapy in patients with high-grade osteogenic and Ewing`s sarcoma: review of current imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woude, H.-J. van der; Bloem, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, C2-S, P.O. Box 9600, NL-2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Hogendoorn, P.C.W. [Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    1998-02-01

    Diagnostic imaging is pivotal in the initial detection, characterization, staging and post-treatment follow-up of patients with high-grade osteogenic and Ewing`s sarcoma. In the present review article, conventional and new imaging modalities are discussed with regard to the monitoring of the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in such patients. Presurgical monitoring of response to chemotherapy may have an impact on modification of neoadjuvant treatment protocols, on patient selection for the performance and timing of limb-salvage surgery and on planning of radiation therapy (in non-operated Ewing`s sarcomas) and selection of postoperative chemotherapy regimens. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, as part of a routine MR protocol, assists in the detection of the most viable parts of the tumour and serves as an initial standard for follow-up of the metabolic activity of the tumour during and after chemotherapy, both in small intraosseous tumours and in tumours with an associated soft tissue mass. In combination with selected morphological features, dynamic imaging parameters are therefore advocated for monitoring the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with osteogenic and Ewing`s sarcoma. (orig.) With 9 figs., 2 tabs., 62 refs.

  9. Spacetime curvature induced corrections to Lamb shift

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wenting

    2012-01-01

    The Lamb shift results from the coupling of an atom with vacuum fluctuations of quantum fields, so corrections are expected to arise when the spacetime is curved since the vacuum fluctuations are modified by the presence of spacetime curvature. Here, we calculate the curvature-induced correction to the Lamb shift outside a spherically symmetric object and demonstrate that this correction can be remarkably significant outside a compact massive astrophysical body. For instance, for a neutron star or a stellar mass black hole, the correction is $\\sim$ 25% at a radial distance of $4GM/c^2$, $\\sim$ 16% at $10GM/c^2$ and as large as $\\sim$ 1.6% even at $100GM/c^2$, where $M$ is the mass of the object, $G$ the Newtonian constant, and $c$ the speed of light. In principle, we can look at the spectra from a distant compact supper-massive body to find such corrections. Therefore, our results suggest a possible way of detecting fundamental quantum effects in astronomical observations.

  10. Theory of Lamb Shift in Muonic Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karshenboim, Savely G., E-mail: savely.karshenboim@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching 85748, Germany and Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Korzinin, Evgeny Yu.; Shelyuto, Valery A. [D. I. Mendeleev Institute for Metrology, St. Petersburg 190005 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Vladimir G. [Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    There has been for a while a large discrepancy between the values of the proton charge radius measured by the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen and by other methods. It has already been clear that theory of muonic hydrogen is reliable at the level of this discrepancy and an error there cannot be a reason for the contradiction. Still the status of theory at the level of the uncertainty of the muonic-hydrogen experiment (which is two orders of magnitude below the discrepancy level) requires an additional clarification. Here, we revisit theory of the 2p − 2s Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. We summarize all the theoretical contributions in order α{sup 5}m, including pure quantum electrodynamics (QED) ones as well as those which involve the proton-structure effects. Certain enhanced higher-order effects are also discussed. We basically confirm former QED calculations of other authors, present a review of recent calculations of the proton-structure effects, and treat self-consistently higher-order proton-finite-size corrections. We also overview theory of the 2p states. Eventually, we derive a value of the root-mean-square proton charge radius. It is found to be 0.840 29(55) fm, which is slightly different from that previously published in the literature (0.840 87(39) fm [Antognini et al., Science 339, 417 (2013)])

  11. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10-11 cm-1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10-23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  12. A new value for the Lamb shift

    CERN Document Server

    Petermann, Andreas

    1972-01-01

    A recent analytic value of the alpha /sup 2/ slope of the Dirac form, factor of the free electron, from the crossed ladder diagram, is added to the contributions of the fourth order diagrams already evaluated by different workers. The sum is found to be F/sub 1/(0)/sub total/=( alpha /sup 2// pi /sup 2/)(- 4819/5184-49 pi /sup 2//432+/sup 1///sub 2/ pi /sup 2/ log 2-/sup 3///sub 4/ zeta (3))=( alpha /sup 2// pi /sup 2/)(0.4699). This contributes to the Lamb shift inH: ( alpha /sup 2// pi /sup 2/) alpha /sup 2//sub 1/2/m alpha /sup 2/ 0.4699=0.444 MHz. The total Lamb shift in H is then: S/sub H/=(2S/sub 1/2/-2P/sub 1/2/) /sub H/=1057.911+or-0.011 MHz (s.d.), and the separation Delta E/sub H /-S/sub H/: (2S/sub 3/2/-2S/sub 1/2/)/sub H/ =9911.115+or-0.031 MHz (s.d.). (15 refs).

  13. [Spina bifida aperta in a sheep lamb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, N; Hilbe, M; Kircher, P; Bleull, U

    2015-01-01

    The case report describes the symptoms and diagnostic methods of a spina bifida aperta in a new born lamb. The most relevant clinical findings were recumbency immediately after birth with normal consciousness and suckling reflexes, alterations of the skin and coat in the lumbosacral region as well as dysuria. The biochemical and haematological screening of the blood indicated no abnormalities. While the radiological examination of the spine showed no clear evidence of the cause of the clinical sings the ultrasound and computed tomography examination revealed an incomplete closure of the vertebral arch between the 4th lumbar and the 3rd sacral vertebrae. Additionally, a hernia with similar density to the spinal cord was present in the same region of the spine. Based on the findings the lamb was euthanized. The pathological examination confirmed the incomplete closure of the vertebral arch and moreover a myelomeningocele has been diagnosed. In the histopathological examination the white and grey matter were separated in the area of the macroscopic visible lesions. Due to non-specific clinical symptoms imagining diagnostics can be crucial to confirm the diagnosis of this rare syndrome.

  14. A divergent Artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat is associated with erythrocyte traits and weight of lamb weaned in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michael V; Mousel, Michelle R; Herndon, David R; Jiang, Yu; Dalrymple, Brian P; Reynolds, James O; Johnson, Wendell C; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; White, Stephen N

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, P = 6.2×10(-14)) and genome-wide suggestive association with decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, P = 2.5×10(-6)). The ovine HapMap project found the same genomic region and the same peak SNP has been under extreme historical selective pressure, demonstrating the importance of this region for survival, reproduction, and/or artificially selected traits. We observed a large (>50 kb) variant haplotype sequence containing a full-length divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat in strong linkage disequilibrium with the associated SNP. MYADM gene family members play roles in membrane organization and formation in myeloid cells. However, to our knowledge, no member of the MYADM gene family has been identified in development of morphologically variant RBCs. The specific RBC differences may be indicative of alterations in morphology. Additionally, erythrocytes with altered morphological structure often exhibit increased structural fragility, leading to increased RBC turnover and energy expenditure. The divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat was also associated with increased ewe lifetime kilograms of lamb weaned (P = 2×10(-4)). This suggests selection for normal RBCs might increase lamb weights, although further validation is required before implementation in marker-assisted selection. These results provide clues to explain the strong selection on the artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat locus in sheep, and suggest MYADM family members may be important for RBC morphology in other mammals.

  15. A divergent Artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat is associated with erythrocyte traits and weight of lamb weaned in domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V Gonzalez

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP showed genome-wide significant association with increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, P = 6.2×10(-14 and genome-wide suggestive association with decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, P = 2.5×10(-6. The ovine HapMap project found the same genomic region and the same peak SNP has been under extreme historical selective pressure, demonstrating the importance of this region for survival, reproduction, and/or artificially selected traits. We observed a large (>50 kb variant haplotype sequence containing a full-length divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat in strong linkage disequilibrium with the associated SNP. MYADM gene family members play roles in membrane organization and formation in myeloid cells. However, to our knowledge, no member of the MYADM gene family has been identified in development of morphologically variant RBCs. The specific RBC differences may be indicative of alterations in morphology. Additionally, erythrocytes with altered morphological structure often exhibit increased structural fragility, leading to increased RBC turnover and energy expenditure. The divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat was also associated with increased ewe lifetime kilograms of lamb weaned (P = 2×10(-4. This suggests selection for normal RBCs might increase lamb weights, although further validation is required before implementation in marker-assisted selection. These results provide clues to explain the strong selection on the artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat locus in sheep, and suggest MYADM family members may be important for RBC morphology in other mammals.

  16. Skull-base Ewing sarcoma with multifocal extracranial metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Thakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial occurrence of Ewing sarcoma (ES is unusual, with a skull-base location being anecdotal. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with rapidly progressive ophthalmoplegia, and was found to be harboring an infiltrative lesion involving the sphenoid sinus, sella, and clivus. He underwent trans-sphenoidal decompression of the lesion which was histologically suggestive of ES. He developed paraparesis 2 weeks after commencing adjuvant therapy. Imaging revealed two thoracic extradural lesions and florid vertebral and pulmonary metastases. This is the first report in indexed literature of a primary intracranial ES on the skull-base with disseminated extracranial disease.

  17. A Case of Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah Marks Stowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma.

  18. Synchronization of ovulation and fixed time intrauterine insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, C; Valasi, I; Rekkas, C A; Goulas, P; Theodosiadou, E; Lainas, T; Amiridis, G S

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for oestrus-ovulation synchronization in sheep followed by fixed time insemination is presented herewith. Mature dry ewes (n = 28) of Karagouniko breed being at an unknown stage of the oestrous cycle, were used during the middle of breeding season. The treatment protocol consisted of an initial administration of a GnRH analogue followed 5 days later by a prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Thirty-six hours later a second GnRH injection was administered to synchronize ovulation, and laparoscopic intrauterine insemination was performed 12-14 h later. Three days after insemination, fertile rams were introduced into the flock twice daily and oestrus-mating detection was carried out. For progesterone (P(4)) determination, blood samples were collected on alternate days, starting 2 days before the first GnRH injection and continuing for 17 days after insemination. An additional sample was taken on the day of insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Fourteen ewes (50%) conceived at insemination and maintained pregnancy; from the remainder 14 ewes 10 became pregnant at natural service, while four, although they mated at least two to three times, failed to conceive. In response to the first GnRH, P(4) concentration increased at higher levels in ewes that conceived at AI compared with those that failed to conceive (47.54 and 22.44%, respectively; p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean P(4) concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were detected 1 day before AI (0.17 +/- 0.06 and 0.26 +/- 0.14 ng/ml, respectively) on the day of AI (0.15 +/- 0.04 and 0.24 +/- 0.08 ng/ml, respectively) as well as 9 and 11 days thereafter (0.48 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12 ng/ml; 0.68 +/- 0.14 and 0.50 +/- 0.18 ng/ml, respectively). These results indicate that using the proposed protocol, an acceptable conception rate can be achieved which could be further improved by modifying the time intervals between

  19. Progressive perineal urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect in prepubertal children: The outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Chandra Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urethroplasty in pediatric patients is a challenging task. In this study, we have tried to assess the complexity and evaluate the outcome of progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty in prepubertal children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data of all the prepubertal children who underwent progressive perineal urethroplasty between March 2009 and April 2014 were analyzed. Patients were evaluated with history, examination, essential laboratory investigations, retrograde urethrogram, and voiding cystourethrogram. Before subjecting the patients for definitive surgery, antegrade and retrograde endoscopic assessment was done. The surgery was performed by the transperineal route with the help of ×2.5 magnification. Patients were followed up with uroflowmetry for every 3 months in the 1 st year and for every 6 months in the subsequent years. Results: Mean age of the patients was 7.3 (range 5-11 years. Mean urethral distraction defect was 1.7 (range 1-2.5 cm. All the patients were successfully managed by the perineal approach. Crural separation was performed in all the patients while additional inferior pubectomy was required in six patients. Mean operating time was 298 (range 180-400 min. Mean blood loss was 174 (range 100-500 ml. One patient had the left calf hematoma in the immediate postoperative period. Seven out of nine (77.7% patients had successful urethroplasty. Two patients had failed urethroplasty who were successfully managed by redo-urethroplasty. Transient incontinence was observed in one patient. Erectile function could not be assessed in these patients. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of progressive perineal urethroplasty by the perineal route in prepubertal children. An endoscopic assessment should be performed before the definitive surgery. Use of loupe helps in performing better anastomosis and hence yielding a better result.

  20. Bacterial vaginosis in the context of lichen sclerosus in a prepubertal girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feito-Rodríguez, Marta; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Casas-Rivero, José; García-Rodríguez, Julio; de Lucas-Laguna, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cause most vulvovaginal infections seen in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age but is rare in children. Data are insufficient to suggest that bacterial vaginosis is an exclusively sexually transmitted disease. We report a 10-year-old girl with no history or suspicion of sexual abuse who developed bacterial vaginosis in the context of a lichen sclerosus being treated with tacrolimus ointment. Secondary bacterial infection in lichen sclerosus is uncommon. We speculate that the immunosuppressive effect of topical tacrolimus could have triggered the infection.

  1. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  2. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  3. [Disruption of latent inhibition in adult rats after prepubertal dopamine terminals lesions in the ventral hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutova, L V; Kostiunina, N V; Red'kina, A V

    2010-05-01

    Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine on 32nd day after birth. Latent inhibition was measured in passive or active avoidance tasks when the rats received 20 and 100 pre-exposures of conditioned stimulus. Prepubertal and adult lesioned rats showed a deficit in the latent inhibition but not in the capacity to avoidance learning in presence of the conditioned stimulus novelty. Possible mechanism of the involvement of hippocampal dopaminergic terminals in attention inhibition to irrelevant information is considered.

  4. Using Ultrasonic Lamb Waves To Measure Moduli Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of broad-band ultrasonic Lamb waves in plate specimens of ceramic-matrix/fiber and metal-matrix/fiber composite materials used to determine moduli of elasticity of materials. In one class of potential applications of concept, Lamb-wave responses of specimens measured and analyzed at various stages of thermal and/or mechanical processing to determine effects of processing, without having to dissect specimens. In another class, structural components having shapes supporting propagation of Lamb waves monitored ultrasonically to identify signs of deterioration and impending failure.

  5. Effect of fenbendazole on growth promotion in Mecheri lambs

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ranganathan; S. Vasanthakumar; Muralidharan, J.; K. Karunanithi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of fenbendazole on the growth promotion in stunted mecheri lambs. Materials and methods: The study was conducted with three groups of ten mecheri lambs each. Group I served as untreated control and group II and III were treated with fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg body weight and 7.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All the lambs were subjected to haemato-biochemical observations, body weight recording and collection of faeces for egg counting...

  6. Effect of vacuum ageing on quality changes of lamb steaks from early fattening lambs during aerobic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas-Cárdenas, Aída R; Caro, Irma; Blanco, Carolina; Villalobos-Delgado, Luz H; Prieto, Nuria; Bodas, Raúl; Giráldez, Francisco J; Mateo, Javier

    2014-12-01

    The effects of vacuum ageing on the quality changes of lamb steaks during retail display were assessed. Biceps femoris and Quadriceps femoris muscles from thirty early fattening lambs fed barley straw and concentrate or alfalfa and concentrate were used. Half of the muscles were vacuum aged for three weeks (VA), and the other half were not aged (control). Control and VA muscles were sliced and aerobically displayed. Weight loss, pH, aldehyde contents, instrumental color characteristics and color acceptance were measured at display days 1, 3, 7 and 14. At day 1 redness was higher in VA lamb. However, redness of VA lamb decreases more rapidly during further storage. Redness and color acceptance decreased in VA lamb from day 3, whereas in not-aged lamb the decrease was observed from day 7 onwards. From days 7 to 14 a drop of color acceptance accompanied by an increase in pH and a decrease in lightness was observed in control and VA lamb.

  7. The effect of dietary restriction, pregnancy, and fetal type in different ewe types on fetal weight, maternal body weight, and visceral organ mass in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P

    2004-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate maternal body changes in response to dietary restriction or the increased nutrient requirement of fetal growth. In Exp. 1, 28 mature crossbred ewes (61.6 +/- 1.8 kg initial BW) were fed a pelleted forage-based diet to evaluate effects of pregnancy and nutrient restriction on visceral organ mass. Treatments were arranged in 2 x 3 factorially, with dietary restriction (60% restriction vs. 100% maintenance) and reproductive status (nonpregnant [NP], d 90 or d 130 of gestation) as main effects. Dietary treatments were begun at d 50 of gestation, and restricted ewes remained at 60% of maintenance throughout the experiment. Nonpregnant and d-90 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 40 d and slaughtered. The d-130 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 80 d and then slaughtered. In Exp. 2, four Romanov ewes were naturally mated (Romanov fetus and Romanov dam; R/ R), and two Romanov embryos were transferred to each of four Columbia recipients (Romanov embryos and Columbia recipient; R/C). Three Columbia ewes were naturally mated (Columbia fetus and Columbia recipient; C/C). In both experiments, maternal organ weights were reported as fresh weight (grams), scaled to empty body weight (EBW; grams per kilogram) and maternal body weight (MBW; grams per kilogram). In Exp. 1, ewe EBW and fetal mass were decreased (P < 0.02) with restriction compared with maintenance. Dietary restriction decreased liver mass (16.7 vs. 14.5 g/kg EBW or 18.8 vs. 16.4 g/kg MBW; P < 0.01), but dietary restriction did not affect total digestive tract mass. In Exp. 2, ewe BW was less for the R/R compared with R/C and C/C (44.8 vs. 110.4 and 98.1 +/- 7.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Fetal weight at d 130 was less for the R/R than for R/C and C/C (2.2 vs. 3.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) when measured as individual fetuses; however, when measured as total fetal mass carried in each ewe, there was no effect of ewe type. These data suggest that the

  8. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  9. Ewe welfare and ovine milk and cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Causes of welfare reduction in dairy sheep flocks are presented and their impact on ovine milk and cheese quality is discussed. Attention is focused on climatic extremes, poor housing and milking hygiene, and nutritional imbalance: mechanisms are outlined through which stress-induced reduction of immune function can result in poor milk composition, deteriorated renneting ability of milk and altered proteolysis in cheese during ripening. In particular, the impact is brought out of exposure to high ambient temperature on the nutritional properties of ewe milk, in terms of increased short-chain and saturated fatty acids, and decreased unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. As well, the relationship is highlighted between ewe welfare and udder health. Especially under poor hygiene conditions the risk of mastitis markedly increases due to reduction of the natural defense mechanisms of the teat and mammary gland and increased number and pathogenicity of the micro-organisms in contact with the entrance of the teat canal. Evidence is provided that rise in milk somatic cell count, in response to bacteria penetration into the udder, can lead to decreased milk yield and altered composition of milk and cheese, due to extensive epithelium secretory cell damage.